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Sample records for cellular oxygen uptake

  1. Photoluminescent Gold Nanoclusters in Cancer Cells: Cellular Uptake, Toxicity, and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Matulionyte, Marija; Dapkute, Dominyka; Budenaite, Laima; Jarockyte, Greta; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2017-02-10

    In recent years, photoluminescent gold nanoclusters have attracted considerable interest in both fundamental biomedical research and practical applications. Due to their ultrasmall size, unique molecule-like optical properties, and facile synthesis gold nanoclusters have been considered very promising photoluminescent agents for biosensing, bioimaging, and targeted therapy. Yet, interaction of such ultra-small nanoclusters with cells and other biological objects remains poorly understood. Therefore, the assessment of the biocompatibility and potential toxicity of gold nanoclusters is of major importance before their clinical application. In this study, the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of bovine serum albumin-encapsulated (BSA-Au NCs) and 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES)capped photoluminescent gold nanoclusters (Au-MES NCs) were investigated. The results showed that BSA-Au NCs accumulate in cells in a similar manner as BSA alone, indicating an endocytotic uptake mechanism while ultrasmall Au-MES NCs were distributed homogeneously throughout the whole cell volume including cell nucleus. The cytotoxicity of BSA-Au NCs was negligible, demonstrating good biocompatibility of such BSA-protected Au NCs. In contrast, possibly due to ultrasmall size and thin coating layer, Au-MES NCs exhibited exposure time-dependent high cytotoxicity and higher reactivity which led to highly increased generation of reactive oxygen species. The results demonstrate the importance of the coating layer to biocompatibility and toxicity of ultrasmall photoluminescent gold nanoclusters.

  2. Photoluminescent Gold Nanoclusters in Cancer Cells: Cellular Uptake, Toxicity, and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Matulionyte, Marija; Dapkute, Dominyka; Budenaite, Laima; Jarockyte, Greta; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, photoluminescent gold nanoclusters have attracted considerable interest in both fundamental biomedical research and practical applications. Due to their ultrasmall size, unique molecule-like optical properties, and facile synthesis gold nanoclusters have been considered very promising photoluminescent agents for biosensing, bioimaging, and targeted therapy. Yet, interaction of such ultra-small nanoclusters with cells and other biological objects remains poorly understood. Therefore, the assessment of the biocompatibility and potential toxicity of gold nanoclusters is of major importance before their clinical application. In this study, the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of bovine serum albumin-encapsulated (BSA-Au NCs) and 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES)-capped photoluminescent gold nanoclusters (Au-MES NCs) were investigated. The results showed that BSA-Au NCs accumulate in cells in a similar manner as BSA alone, indicating an endocytotic uptake mechanism while ultrasmall Au-MES NCs were distributed homogeneously throughout the whole cell volume including cell nucleus. The cytotoxicity of BSA-Au NCs was negligible, demonstrating good biocompatibility of such BSA-protected Au NCs. In contrast, possibly due to ultrasmall size and thin coating layer, Au-MES NCs exhibited exposure time-dependent high cytotoxicity and higher reactivity which led to highly increased generation of reactive oxygen species. The results demonstrate the importance of the coating layer to biocompatibility and toxicity of ultrasmall photoluminescent gold nanoclusters. PMID:28208642

  3. Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazawa, Masaharu; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Saotome-Nakamura, Ai

    Highlights: • Radiation increases cellular uptake of exosomes. • Radiation induces colocalization of CD29 and CD81. • Exosomes selectively bind the CD29/CD81 complex. • Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. - Abstract: Exosomes mediate intercellular communication, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or their secreted exosomes affect a number of pathophysiologic states. Clinical applications of MSC and exosomes are increasingly anticipated. Radiation therapy is the main therapeutic tool for a number of various conditions. The cellular uptake mechanisms of exosomes and the effects of radiation on exosome–cell interactions are crucial, but they are not well understood.more » Here we examined the basic mechanisms and effects of radiation on exosome uptake processes in MSC. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes. Radiation markedly enhanced the initial cellular attachment to exosomes and induced the colocalization of integrin CD29 and tetraspanin CD81 on the cell surface without affecting their expression levels. Exosomes dominantly bound to the CD29/CD81 complex. Knockdown of CD29 completely inhibited the radiation-induced uptake, and additional or single knockdown of CD81 inhibited basal uptake as well as the increase in radiation-induced uptake. We also examined possible exosome uptake processes affected by radiation. Radiation-induced changes did not involve dynamin2, reactive oxygen species, or their evoked p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent endocytic or pinocytic pathways. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. These findings provide essential basic insights for potential therapeutic applications of exosomes or MSC in combination with radiation.« less

  4. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  9. Quantification of the oxygen uptake rate in a dissolved oxygen controlled oscillating jet-driven microbioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Timothy V; Marques, Marco Pc; Radhakrishnan, Anand N Pallipurath; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Microbioreactors have emerged as a new tool for early bioprocess development. The technology has advanced rapidly in the last decade and obtaining real-time quantitative data of process variables is nowadays state of the art. In addition, control over process variables has also been achieved. The aim of this study was to build a microbioreactor capable of controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and to determine oxygen uptake rate in real time. An oscillating jet driven, membrane-aerated microbioreactor was developed without comprising any moving parts. Mixing times of ∼7 s, and k L a values of ∼170 h -1 were achieved. DO control was achieved by varying the duty cycle of a solenoid microvalve, which changed the gas mixture in the reactor incubator chamber. The microbioreactor supported Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth over 30 h and cell densities of 6.7 g dcw L -1 . Oxygen uptake rates of ∼34 mmol L -1 h -1 were achieved. The results highlight the potential of DO-controlled microbioreactors to obtain real-time information on oxygen uptake rate, and by extension on cellular metabolism for a variety of cell types over a broad range of processing conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Methylene Blue Protects Astrocytes against Glucose Oxygen Deprivation by Improving Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Gourav; Winters, Ali; Rich, Ryan M.; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism. In addition, MB has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration and brain injury. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of MB in astrocytes. Cell viability assays showed that MB treatment significantly protected primary astrocytes from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) & reoxygenation induced cell death. We also studied the effect of MB on cellular oxygen and glucose metabolism in primary astrocytes following OGD-reoxygenation injury. MB treatment significantly increased cellular oxygen consumption, glucose uptake and ATP production in primary astrocytes. In conclusion our study demonstrated that MB protects astrocytes against OGD-reoxygenation injury by improving astrocyte cellular respiration. PMID:25848957

  11. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  12. In vitro kinetic studies on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent cellular uptake of copper radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jason P; Giansiracusa, Jeffrey H; Bell, Stephen G; Wong, Luet-Lok; Dilworth, Jonathan R

    2009-04-07

    The development of hypoxia-selective radiopharmaceuticals for use as therapeutic and/or imaging agents is of vital importance for both early identification and treatment of cancer and in the design of new drugs. Radiotracers based on copper for use in positron emission tomography have received great attention due to the successful application of copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes, such as [(60/62/64)Cu(II)ATSM] and [(60/62/64)Cu(II)PTSM], as markers for tumour hypoxia and blood perfusion, respectively. Recent work has led to the proposal of a revised mechanism of hypoxia-selective cellular uptake and retention of [Cu(II)ATSM]. The work presented here describes non-steady-state kinetic simulations in which the reported pO(2)-dependent in vitro cellular uptake and retention of [(64)Cu(II)ATSM] in EMT6 murine carcinoma cells has been modelled by using the revised mechanistic scheme. Non-steady-state (NSS) kinetic analysis reveals that the model is in very good agreement with the reported experimental data with a root-mean-squared error of less than 6% between the simulated and experimental cellular uptake profiles. Estimated rate constants are derived for the cellular uptake and washout (k(1) = 9.8 +/- 0.59 x 10(-4) s(-1) and k(2) = 2.9 +/- 0.17 x 10(-3) s(-1)), intracellular reduction (k(3) = 5.2 +/- 0.31 x 10(-2) s(-1)), reoxidation (k(4) = 2.2 +/- 0.13 mol(-1) dm(3) s(-1)) and proton-mediated ligand dissociation (k(5) = 9.0 +/- 0.54 x 10(-5) s(-1)). Previous mechanisms focused on the reduction and reoxidation steps. However, the data suggest that the origins of hypoxia-selective retention may reside with the stability of the copper(I) anion with respect to protonation and ligand dissociation. In vitro kinetic studies using the nicotimamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent ferredoxin reductase enzyme PuR isolated from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have also been conducted. NADH turnover frequencies are found to be dependent on the

  13. In vitro kinetic studies on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent cellular uptake of copper radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Jason P.; Giansiracusa, Jeffrey H.; Bell, Stephen G.; Wong, Luet-Lok; Dilworth, Jonathan R.

    2009-04-01

    The development of hypoxia-selective radiopharmaceuticals for use as therapeutic and/or imaging agents is of vital importance for both early identification and treatment of cancer and in the design of new drugs. Radiotracers based on copper for use in positron emission tomography have received great attention due to the successful application of copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes, such as [60/62/64Cu(II)ATSM] and [60/62/64Cu(II)PTSM], as markers for tumour hypoxia and blood perfusion, respectively. Recent work has led to the proposal of a revised mechanism of hypoxia-selective cellular uptake and retention of [Cu(II)ATSM]. The work presented here describes non-steady-state kinetic simulations in which the reported pO2-dependent in vitro cellular uptake and retention of [64Cu(II)ATSM] in EMT6 murine carcinoma cells has been modelled by using the revised mechanistic scheme. Non-steady-state (NSS) kinetic analysis reveals that the model is in very good agreement with the reported experimental data with a root-mean-squared error of less than 6% between the simulated and experimental cellular uptake profiles. Estimated rate constants are derived for the cellular uptake and washout (k1 = 9.8 ± 0.59 × 10-4 s-1 and k2 = 2.9 ± 0.17 × 10-3 s-1), intracellular reduction (k3 = 5.2 ± 0.31 × 10-2 s-1), reoxidation (k4 = 2.2 ± 0.13 mol-1 dm3 s-1) and proton-mediated ligand dissociation (k5 = 9.0 ± 0.54 × 10-5 s-1). Previous mechanisms focused on the reduction and reoxidation steps. However, the data suggest that the origins of hypoxia-selective retention may reside with the stability of the copper(I) anion with respect to protonation and ligand dissociation. In vitro kinetic studies using the nicotimamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent ferredoxin reductase enzyme PuR isolated from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have also been conducted. NADH turnover frequencies are found to be dependent on the structure of the ligand and the results confirm

  14. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  15. In vitro cellular uptake of evodiamine and rutaecarpine using a microemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Huang, Zhe-Bin; Zhang, Su-Juan; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Ying; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cellular uptake of evodiamine and rutaecarpine in a microemulsion in comparison with aqueous suspensions and tinctures. Materials and methods A microemulsion was prepared using the dropwise addition method. Mouse skin fibroblasts were cultured in vitro to investigate the optimal conditions for evodiamine and rutaecarpine uptake with different drug concentrations and administration times. Under optimal conditions, the cellular uptake of microemulsified drugs was assayed and compared to tinctures and aqueous suspensions. Rhodamine B labeling and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to explore the distribution of fluorochrome transferred with the microemulsion in fibroblasts. Cellular morphology was also investigated, using optical microscopy to evaluate microemulsion-induced cellular toxicity. Results The maximum cellular drug uptake amounts were obtained with a 20% concentration (v/v) of microemulsion and an 8 hour administration time. Drug uptake by mouse skin fibroblasts was lowest when the drugs were loaded in microemulsion. After incubation with rhodamine B-labeled microemulsion for 8 hours, the highest fluorescence intensity was achieved, and the fluorochrome was primarily distributed in the cytochylema. No obvious cellular morphologic changes were observed with the administration of either the microemulsion or the aqueous suspension; for the tincture group, however, massive cellular necrocytosis was observed. Conclusion The lower cellular uptake with microemulsion may be due to the fact that most of the drug loaded in the microemulsion vehicle was transported via the intercellular space, while a small quantity of free drug (released from the vehicle) was ingested through transmembrane transport. Mouse skin fibroblasts rarely endocytosed evodiamine and rutaecarpine with a microemulsion as the vehicle. The microemulsion had no obvious effect on cellular morphology, suggesting there is little or no cellular toxicity

  16. In vitro cellular uptake of evodiamine and rutaecarpine using a microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Huang, Zhe-Bin; Zhang, Su-Juan; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Ying; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the cellular uptake of evodiamine and rutaecarpine in a microemulsion in comparison with aqueous suspensions and tinctures. A microemulsion was prepared using the dropwise addition method. Mouse skin fibroblasts were cultured in vitro to investigate the optimal conditions for evodiamine and rutaecarpine uptake with different drug concentrations and administration times. Under optimal conditions, the cellular uptake of microemulsified drugs was assayed and compared to tinctures and aqueous suspensions. Rhodamine B labeling and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to explore the distribution of fluorochrome transferred with the microemulsion in fibroblasts. Cellular morphology was also investigated, using optical microscopy to evaluate microemulsion-induced cellular toxicity. The maximum cellular drug uptake amounts were obtained with a 20% concentration (v/v) of microemulsion and an 8 hour administration time. Drug uptake by mouse skin fibroblasts was lowest when the drugs were loaded in microemulsion. After incubation with rhodamine B-labeled microemulsion for 8 hours, the highest fluorescence intensity was achieved, and the fluorochrome was primarily distributed in the cytochylema. No obvious cellular morphologic changes were observed with the administration of either the microemulsion or the aqueous suspension; for the tincture group, however, massive cellular necrocytosis was observed. The lower cellular uptake with microemulsion may be due to the fact that most of the drug loaded in the microemulsion vehicle was transported via the intercellular space, while a small quantity of free drug (released from the vehicle) was ingested through transmembrane transport. Mouse skin fibroblasts rarely endocytosed evodiamine and rutaecarpine with a microemulsion as the vehicle. The microemulsion had no obvious effect on cellular morphology, suggesting there is little or no cellular toxicity associated with the administration of microemulsion on

  17. Enhanced cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes via thiol-mediated transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianshu; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    With a small amount of maleimide modification on the liposome surface, enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes and drug-delivery efficiency can be obtained both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we describe the mechanisms underlying this enhanced cellular uptake. Suppression of the cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes (M-GGLG, composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate [GGLG]/cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol) – 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PEG5000-DSPE]/maleimide [M]-PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03) caused by temperature block and addition of serum was alleviated compared with that of liposomes without maleimide modification (GGLG liposomes, composed of GGLG/cholesterol/PEG5000-DSPE/PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03). When 0.01 nM N-ethylmaleimide was used to pre-block cellular thiols, the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes was decreased to approximately 70% in HeLa, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, and COS-7 cell lines. Moreover, inhibition of a thiol-related reductase such as protein disulfide isomerase resulted in a 15%–45% inhibition of the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes, whereas GGLG liposomes were not influenced. Further, single and mixed inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis did not efficiently inhibit the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes. Using confocal microscopy, we verified that M-GGLG liposomes were localized partially in lysosomes after inhibition of the mentioned conventional endocytic pathways. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes by maleimide modification was thiol-mediated membrane trafficking, including endocytosis and energy-independent transport. PMID:24940060

  18. Enhanced cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes via thiol-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianshu; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    With a small amount of maleimide modification on the liposome surface, enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes and drug-delivery efficiency can be obtained both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we describe the mechanisms underlying this enhanced cellular uptake. Suppression of the cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes (M-GGLG, composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate [GGLG]/cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol) - 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PEG₅₀₀₀-DSPE]/maleimide [M]-PEG₅₀₀₀-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03) caused by temperature block and addition of serum was alleviated compared with that of liposomes without maleimide modification (GGLG liposomes, composed of GGLG/cholesterol/PEG₅₀₀₀-DSPE/PEG₅₀₀₀-Glu2C₁₈ at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03). When 0.01 nM N-ethylmaleimide was used to pre-block cellular thiols, the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes was decreased to approximately 70% in HeLa, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, and COS-7 cell lines. Moreover, inhibition of a thiol-related reductase such as protein disulfide isomerase resulted in a 15%-45% inhibition of the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes, whereas GGLG liposomes were not influenced. Further, single and mixed inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis did not efficiently inhibit the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes. Using confocal microscopy, we verified that M-GGLG liposomes were localized partially in lysosomes after inhibition of the mentioned conventional endocytic pathways. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes by maleimide modification was thiol-mediated membrane trafficking, including endocytosis and energy-independent transport.

  19. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Zoica Dinu, Cerasela

    2016-02-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications.

  20. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate

    PubMed Central

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications. PMID:26820775

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF–EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications. PMID:28629179

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-06-19

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF-EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.

  3. Real‐time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device

    PubMed Central

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real‐time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time‐course data for bulk and peri‐cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non‐invasive and label‐free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non‐invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell−1 s−1, and 5 and 35 amol cell−1 s−1 were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non‐invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell‐based therapies. PMID:27214658

  4. The interrelationship between muscle oxygenation, muscle activation, and pulmonary oxygen uptake to incremental ramp exercise: influence of aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jan; Barstow, Thomas J; Celie, Bert; Prieur, Fabrice; Bourgois, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether muscle and ventilatory responses to incremental ramp exercise would be influenced by aerobic fitness status by means of a cross-sectional study with a large subject population. Sixty-four male students (age: 21.2 ± 3.2 years) with a heterogeneous peak oxygen uptake (51.9 ± 6.3 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1), range 39.7-66.2 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed an incremental ramp cycle test (20-35 W·min(-1)) to exhaustion. Breath-by-breath gas exchange was recorded, and muscle activation and oxygenation were measured with surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The integrated electromyography (iEMG), mean power frequency (MPF), deoxygenated [hemoglobin and myoglobin] (deoxy[Hb+Mb]), and total[Hb+Mb] responses were set out as functions of work rate and fitted with a double linear function. The respiratory compensation point (RCP) was compared and correlated with the breakpoints (BPs) (as percentage of peak oxygen uptake) in muscle activation and oxygenation. The BP in total[Hb+Mb] (83.2% ± 3.0% peak oxygen uptake) preceded (P < 0.001) the BP in iEMG (86.7% ± 4.0% peak oxygen uptake) and MPF (86.3% ± 4.1% peak oxygen uptake), which in turn preceded (P < 0.01) the BP in deoxy[Hb+Mb] (88.2% ± 4.5% peak oxygen uptake) and RCP (87.4% ± 4.5% peak oxygen uptake). Furthermore, the peak oxygen uptake was significantly (P < 0.001) positively correlated to the BPs and RCP, indicating that the BPs in total[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.66; P < 0.001), deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.76; P < 0.001), iEMG (r = 0.61; P < 0.001), MPF (r = 0.63; P < 0.001), and RCP (r = 0.75; P < 0.001) occurred at a higher percentage of peak oxygen uptake in subjects with a higher peak oxygen uptake. In this study a close relationship between muscle oxygenation, activation, and pulmonary oxygen uptake was found, occurring in a cascade of events. In subjects with a higher aerobic fitness level this cascade occurred at a higher relative intensity.

  5. Real-time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device.

    PubMed

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real-time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time-course data for bulk and peri-cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non-invasive and label-free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non-invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell(-1) s(-1) , and 5 and 35 amol cell(-1) s(-1) were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non-invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell-based therapies. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    EPA Science Inventory

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  7. Peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol vs. maximal oxygen uptake in an incremental testing protocol and their relationship with cross-country mountain biking performance.

    PubMed

    Hebisz, Rafał; Hebisz, Paulina; Zatoń, Marek; Michalik, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In the literature, the exercise capacity of cyclists is typically assessed using incremental and endurance exercise tests. The aim of the present study was to confirm whether peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak ) attained in a sprint interval testing protocol correlates with cycling performance, and whether it corresponds to maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max ) determined by an incremental testing protocol. A sample of 28 trained mountain bike cyclists executed 3 performance tests: (i) incremental testing protocol (ITP) in which the participant cycled to volitional exhaustion, (ii) sprint interval testing protocol (SITP) composed of four 30 s maximal intensity cycling bouts interspersed with 90 s recovery periods, (iii) competition in a simulated mountain biking race. Oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, work, and power output were measured during the ITP and SITP with postexercise blood lactate and hydrogen ion concentrations collected. Race times were recorded. No significant inter-individual differences were observed in regards to any of the ITP-associated variables. However, 9 individuals presented significantly increased oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, and work output in the SITP compared with the remaining cyclists. In addition, in this group of 9 cyclists, oxygen uptake in SITP was significantly higher than in ITP. After the simulated race, this group of 9 cyclists achieved significantly better competition times (99.5 ± 5.2 min) than the other cyclists (110.5 ± 6.7 min). We conclude that mountain bike cyclists who demonstrate higher peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol than maximal oxygen uptake attained in an incremental testing protocol demonstrate superior competitive performance.

  8. Temporal and mechanistic tracking of cellular uptake dynamics with novel surface fluorophore-bound nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Schrand, Amanda M; Lin, Jonathan B; Hens, Suzanne Ciftan; Hussain, Saber M

    2011-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) offer promise for a multitude of biological applications including cellular probes at the bio-interface for targeted delivery of anticancer substances, Raman and fluorescent-based imaging and directed cell growth. Nanodiamonds (NDs), in particular, have several advantages compared to other carbon-based nanomaterials - including a rich surface chemistry useful for chemical conjugation, high biocompatibility with little reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, physical and chemical stability that affords sterilization, high surface area to volume ratio, transparency and a high index of refraction. The visualization of ND internalization into cells is possible via photoluminescence, which is produced by direct dye conjugation or high energy irradiation that creates nitrogen vacancy centers. Here, we explore the kinetics and mechanisms involved in the intracellular uptake and localization of novel, highly-stable, fluorophore-conjugated NDs. Examination in a neuronal cell line (N2A) shows ND localization to early endosomes and lysosomes with eventual release into the cytoplasm. The addition of endocytosis and exocytosis inhibitors allows for diminished uptake and increased accumulation, respectively, which further corroborates cellular behavior in response to NDs. Ultimately, the ability of the NDs to travel throughout cellular compartments of varying pH without degradation of the surface-conjugated fluorophore or alteration of cell viability over extended periods of time is promising for their use in biomedical applications as stable, biocompatible, fluorescent probes.

  9. Enantioselective cellular uptake of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, I. V.; Kuznetsova, V. A.; Litvinov, I. K.; Orlova, A. O.; Maslov, V. G.; Fedorov, A. V.; Dubavik, A.; Purcell-Milton, F.; Gun'ko, Yu K.; Baranov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the chirality of semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped with L- and D-cysteine, on the efficiency of their uptake by living Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells is studied by spectral- and time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy. We report an evident enantioselective process where cellular uptake of the L-Cys QDs is almost twice as effective as that of the D-Cys QDs. This finding paves the way for the creation of novel approaches to control the biological properties and behavior of nanomaterials in living cells.

  10. Thromboxane plays a role in postprandial jejunal oxygen uptake and capillary exchange.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, A; Chou, C C

    1990-09-01

    The effects of a thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-endoperoxide receptor antagonist, SQ 29548, on jejunal blood flow, oxygen uptake, and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in anesthetized dogs under resting conditions and during the presence of predigested food in the jejunal lumen in three series of experiments. In series 1, 2.0 micrograms intra-arterial administration of SQ 29548 was found to abolish completely the vasoconstrictor action of graded doses (0.05-2.0 micrograms) of intra-arterial injection of a TxA2-endoperoxide analogue, U44069. SQ 29548 (2.0 micrograms ia) per se did not significantly alter resting jejunal blood flow, oxygen uptake, capillary pressure, or Kfc. Before SQ 29548, placement of food plus bile into the jejunal lumen increased blood flow +42 +/- 9%, oxygen uptake +28 +/- 7%, and Kfc +24 +/- 6%. After SQ 29548, the food placement increased blood flow +37 +/- 8%, oxygen uptake +52 +/- 11%, and Kfc +63 +/- 20%. The food-induced increases in oxygen uptake and Kfc after SQ 29548 were significantly greater than those induced before the blocking of TxA2-endoperoxide receptors by SQ 29548. Our study indicates that endogenous thromboxane does not play a role in regulating jejunal blood flow, capillary filtration, and oxygen uptake under resting conditions. However, it plays a role in limiting the food-induced increases in jejunal oxygen uptake and capillary exchange capacity without influencing the food-induced hyperemia.

  11. On Guanidinium and Cellular Uptake

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Guanidinium-rich scaffolds facilitate cellular translocation and delivery of bioactive cargos through biological barriers. Although impressive uptake has been demonstrated for nonoligomeric and nonpept(o)idic guanidinylated scaffolds in cell cultures and animal models, the fundamental understanding of these processes is lacking. Charge pairing and hydrogen bonding with cell surface counterparts have been proposed, but their exact role remains putative. The impact of the number and spatial relationships of the guanidinium groups on delivery and organelle/organ localization is yet to be established. PMID:25019333

  12. Simultaneous quantum yield measurements of carbon uptake and oxygen evolution in microalgal cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Pardis; Kline, David I.; DuPont, Christopher L.; Dickson, Andrew G.; Mendola, Dominick; Martz, Todd; Allen, Andrew E.; Mitchell, B. Greg

    2018-01-01

    The photosynthetic quantum yield (Φ), defined as carbon fixed or oxygen evolved per unit of light absorbed, is a fundamental but rarely determined biophysical parameter. A method to estimate Φ for both net carbon uptake and net oxygen evolution simultaneously can provide important insights into energy and mass fluxes. Here we present details for a novel system that allows quantification of carbon fluxes using pH oscillation and simultaneous oxygen fluxes by integration with a membrane inlet mass spectrometer. The pHOS system was validated using Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured with continuous illumination of 110 μmole quanta m-2 s-1 at 25°C. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements of carbon and oxygen flux using the pHOS-MIMS and photon flux based on spectral absorption were carried out to explore the kinetics of Φ in P. tricornutum during its acclimation from low to high light (110 to 750 μmole quanta m-2 s-1). Comparing results at 0 and 24 hours, we observed strong decreases in cellular chlorophyll a (0.58 to 0.21 pg cell-1), Fv/Fm (0.71 to 0.59) and maximum ΦCO2 (0.019 to 0.004) and ΦO2 (0.028 to 0.007), confirming the transition toward high light acclimation. The Φ time-series indicated a non-synchronized acclimation response between carbon uptake and oxygen evolution, which has been previously inferred based on transcriptomic changes for a similar experimental design with the same diatom that lacked physiological data. The integrated pHOS-MIMS system can provide simultaneous carbon and oxygen measurements accurately, and at the time-resolution required to resolve high-resolution carbon and oxygen physiological dynamics. PMID:29920568

  13. The Role of Hydrophobicity in the Cellular Uptake of Negatively Charged Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Abou Matar, Tamara; Karam, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    It is generally accepted that positively charged molecules are the gold standard to by-pass the negatively charged cell membrane. Here, it is shown that cellular uptake is also possible for polymers with negatively charged side chains and hydrophobic backbones. Specifically, poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], a conjugated polyelectrolyte with sulfonate, as water-soluble functional groups, is shown to accumulate in the intracellular region. When the polymer hydrophobic backbone is dissolved using polyvinylpyrrolidone, an amphiphilic macromolecule, the cellular uptake is dramatically reduced. The report sheds light on the fine balance between negatively charged side groups and the hydrophobicity of polymers to either enhance or reduce cellular uptake. As a result, these findings will have important ramifications on the future design of targeted cellular delivery nanocarriers for imaging and therapeutic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Exercise modality effect on oxygen uptake off-transient kinetics at maximal oxygen uptake intensity.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Rodríguez, Ferran A; Machado, Leandro; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2015-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do the mechanical differences between swimming, rowing, running and cycling have a potential effect on the oxygen uptake (V̇O2) off-kinetics after an exercise sustained until exhaustion at 100% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) intensity? What is the main finding and its importance? The mechanical differences between exercise modes had a potential effect and contributed to distinct amplitude of the fast component (higher in running compared with cycling) and time constant (higher in swimming compared with rowing and cycling) in the V̇O2 off-kinetic patterns at 100% of V̇O2max intensity. This suggests that swimmers, unlike rowers and cyclists, would benefit more from a longer duration of training intervals after each set of exercise performed at V̇O2max intensity. The kinetics of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) during recovery (off-transient kinetics) for different exercise modes is largely unexplored, hampering the prescription of training and recovery to enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the V̇O2 off-transient kinetics response between swimmers, rowers, runners and cyclists during their specific mode of exercise at 100% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) intensity and to examine the on-off symmetry. Groups of swimmers, rowers, runners and cyclists (n = 8 per group) performed (i) an incremental exercise protocol to assess the velocity or power associated with V̇O2max (vV̇O2max or wV̇O2max, respectively) and (ii) a square-wave exercise transition from rest to vV̇O2max/vV̇O2maxwV̇O2maxwV̇O2max until volitional exhaustion. Pulmonary exchange parameters were measured using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4b(2) ; Cosmed, Rome, Italy), and the on- and off-transient kinetics were analysed through a double-exponential approach. For all exercise modes, both transient periods were symmetrical in shape once they had both been adequately fitted by a double-exponential model. However, differences

  15. Increased cellular uptake of peptide-modified PEGylated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Yang, Dan; Qin, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yuan; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Hua; Yin, Changcheng

    2017-12-09

    Gold nanoparticles are promising drug delivery vehicles for nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins, allowing various modifications on the particle surface. However, the instability and low bioavailability of gold nanoparticles compromise their clinical application. Here, we functionalized gold nanoparticles with CPP fragments (CALNNPFVYLI, CALRRRRRRRR) through sulfhydryl PEG to increase their stability and bioavailability. The resulting gold nanoparticles were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the stability in biological solutions was evaluated. Comparing to PEGylated gold nanoparticles, CPP (CALNNPFVYLI, CALRRRRRRRR)-modified gold nanoparticles showed 46 folds increase in cellular uptake in A549 and B16 cell lines, as evidenced by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The interactions between gold nanoparticles and liposomes indicated CPP-modified gold nanoparticles bind to cell membrane more effectively than PEGylated gold nanoparticles. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to measure interactions between nanoparticles and the membrane. TEM and uptake inhibitor experiments indicated that the cellular entry of gold nanoparticles was mediated by clathrin and macropinocytosis. Other energy independent endocytosis pathways were also identified. Our work revealed a new strategy to modify gold nanoparticles with CPP and illustrated the cellular uptake pathway of CPP-modified gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood flow regulation and oxygen uptake during high-intensity forearm exercise.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, S K; Berg, O K; Helgerud, J; Wang, E

    2017-04-01

    The vascular strain is very high during heavy handgrip exercise, but the intensity and kinetics to reach peak blood flow, and peak oxygen uptake, are uncertain. We included 9 young (25 ± 2 yr) healthy males to evaluate blood flow and oxygen uptake responses during continuous dynamic handgrip exercise with increasing intensity. Blood flow was measured using Doppler-ultrasound, and venous blood was drawn from a deep forearm vein to determine arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO 2diff ) during 6-min bouts of 60, 80, and 100% of maximal work rate (WR max ), respectively. Blood flow and oxygen uptake increased ( P < 0.05) from 60%WR max [557 ± 177(SD) ml/min; 56.0 ± 21.6 ml/min] to 80%WR max (679 ± 190 ml/min; 70.6 ± 24.8 ml/min), but no change was seen from 80%WR max to 100%WR max Blood velocity (49.5 ± 11.5 to 58.1 ± 11.6 cm/s) and brachial diameter (0.49 ± 0.05 to 0.50 ± 0.06 cm) showed concomitant increases ( P < 0.05) with blood flow from 60% to 80%WR max, whereas no differences were observed in a-vO 2diff Shear rate also increased ( P < 0.05) from 60% (822 ± 196 s -1 ) to 80% (951 ± 234 s -1 ) of WR max The mean response time (MRT) was slower ( P < 0.05) for blood flow (60%WR max 50 ± 22 s; 80%WR max 51 ± 20 s; 100%WR max 51 ± 23 s) than a-vO 2diff (60%WR max 29 ± 9 s; 80%WR max 29 ± 5 s; 100%WR max 20 ± 5 s), but not different from oxygen uptake (60%WR max 44 ± 25 s; 80%WR max 43 ± 14 s; 100%WR max 41 ± 32 s). No differences were observed in MRT for blood flow or oxygen uptake with increased exercise intensity. In conclusion, when approaching maximal intensity, oxygen uptake appeared to reach a critical level at ~80% of WR max and be regulated by blood flow. This implies that high, but not maximal, exercise intensity may be an optimal stimulus for shear stress-induced small muscle mass training adaptations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study evaluated blood flow regulation and oxygen uptake during small muscle mass forearm exercise with high to

  17. Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Sweating and Tolerance to Exercise in the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.; Ruff, W. K.

    1972-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms that facilitate acute acclimation to heat have not been fully elucidated, but the result is the establishment of a more efficient cardiovascular system to increase heat dissipation via increased sweating that allows the acclimated man to function with a cooler internal environment and to extend his performance. Men in good physical condition with high maximal oxygen uptakes generally acclimate to heat more rapidly and retain it longer than men in poorer condition. Also, upon first exposure trained men tolerate exercise in the heat better than untrained men. Both resting in heat and physical training in a cool environment confer only partial acclimation when first exposed to work in the heat. These observations suggest separate additive stimuli of metabolic heat from exercise and environmental heat to increase sweating during the acclimation process. However, the necessity of utilizing physical exercise during acclimation has been questioned. Bradbury et al. (1964) have concluded exercise has no effect on the course of heat acclimation since increased sweating can be induced by merely heating resting subjects. Preliminary evidence suggests there is a direct relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and the capacity to maintain thermal regulation, particularly through the control of sweating. Since increased sweating is an important mechanism for the development of heat acclimation, and fit men have high sweat rates, it follows that upon initial exposure to exercise in the heat, men with high maximal oxygen uptakes should exhibit less strain than men with lower maximal oxygen uptakes. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if men with higher maximal oxygen uptakes exhibit greater tolerance than men with lower oxygen uptakes during early exposure to exercise in the heat, and (2) to investigate further the mechanism of the relationship between sweating and maximal work capacity.

  18. Optimum aerobic volume control based on continuous in-line oxygen uptake monitoring.

    PubMed

    Svardal, K; Lindtner, S; Winkler, S

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic adaptation of the aerated volume to changing load conditions is essential to maximise the nitrogen removal performance and to minimise energy consumption. A control strategy is presented which provides optimum aerobic volume control (OAV-control concept) based on continuous in-line oxygen uptake monitoring. For ammonium concentrations below 1 mg/l the oxygen uptake rate shows a strong and almost linear dependency on the ammonium concentration. Therefore, the oxygen uptake rate is an ideal indicator for the nitrification performance in activated sludge systems. The OAV-control concept provides dynamic variation of the minimum aerobic volume required for complete nitrification and therefore maximises the denitrification performance. In-line oxygen uptake monitoring is carried out by controlling the oxygen concentration in a continuous aerated zone of the aeration tank and measuring the total air flow to the aeration tank. The total air flow to the aeration tank is directly proportional to the current oxygen uptake rate and can therefore be used as an indicator for the required aerobic volume. The instrumentation requirements for installation of the OAV-control are relatively low, oxygen sensors in the aeration tank and an on-line air flow measurement are needed. This enables individual control of aeration tanks operated in parallel at low investment costs. The OAV-control concept is installed at the WWTP Linz-Asten (1 Mio PE) and shows very good results. Full scale results are presented.

  19. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of different sized gold nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Chitcholtan, Kenny; Sykes, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Nanomedicine has advanced the biomedical field with the availability of multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) systems that can target a disease site enabling drug delivery and helping to monitor the disease. In this paper, we synthesised the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with an average size 18, 40, 60 and 80 nm, and studied the effect of nanoparticles size, concentration and incubation time on ovarian cancer cells namely, OVCAR5, OVCAR8, and SKOV3. The size measured by transmission electron microscopy images was slightly smaller than the hydrodynamic diameter; measured size by ImageJ as 14.55, 38.13, 56.88 and 78.56 nm. The cellular uptake was significantly controlled by the AuNPs size, concentration, and the cell type. The nanoparticles uptake increased with increasing concentration, and 18 and 80 nm AuNPs showed higher uptake ranging from 1.3 to 5.4 μg depending upon the concentration and cell type. The AuNPs were associated with a temporary reduction in metabolic activity, but metabolic activity remained more than 60% for all sample types; NPs significantly affected the cell proliferation activity in first 12 h. The increase in nanoparticle size and concentration induced the production of reactive oxygen species in 24 h.

  20. OXYGEN UPTAKE BEFORE AND AFTER THE ONSET OF CLAUDICATION DURING A 6-MINUTE WALK TEST

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Stoner, Julie A.; Montgomery, Polly S.; Khurana, Aman; Blevins, Steve M.

    2011-01-01

    Purposes To compare oxygen uptake before and after the onset of claudication in subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) during a 6-minute walk test, and to identify predictors of the change in oxygen uptake following the onset of claudication pain Methods Fifty subjects with PAD were studied, in which 33 experienced claudication (Pain Group) during a 6-minute walk test, and 17 were pain-free during this test (Pain-Free Group). Oxygen uptake and ambulatory cadence were primary outcomes obtained during the 6-minute walk test. Results The Pain Group experienced onset of claudication pain at 179 ± 45 meters (mean ± standard deviation) and continued to walk to achieve a 6-minute walk distance of 393 ± 74 meters, which was similar (p = 0.74) to the Pain-Free Group (401 ± 76 meters). Oxygen uptake increased (p < 0.0001) after the onset of pain in the Pain Group, and this change was greater (p = 0.025) than the increase in oxygen uptake from the second to fifth minute of walking in the Pain-Free Group. Furthermore, ambulatory cadence decreased after the onset of pain in the Pain Group (p = 0.0003). The change in oxygen uptake was associated with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.0023), 6-minute walk distance (p = 0.0037), age, (p = 0.0041), and the oxygen uptake during the second minute of the test (p = 0.012). Conclusion Claudication increases oxygen uptake of self-paced, over-ground ambulation despite a decrease in cadence. The pain-mediated increase in oxygen uptake was blunted in subjects with metabolic syndrome, suggesting that they have an impaired ability to increase oxygen uptake during ambulation. The clinical significance is that claudication increases metabolic cost of ambulation, thereby increasing the relative intensity of exercise and reducing the tolerance to sustain ambulation. PMID:21890308

  1. Preferential tumor cellular uptake and retention of indocyanine green for in vivo tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Onda, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent agent approved for clinical applications by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. This study examined the mechanism of tumor imaging using intravenously administered ICG. The in vivo kinetics of intravenously administered ICG were determined in tumor xenografts using microscopic approaches that enabled both spatio-temporal and high-magnification analyses. The mechanism of ICG-based tumor imaging was examined at the cellular level in six phenotypically different human colon cancer cell lines exhibiting different grades of epithelioid organization. ICG fluorescence imaging detected xenograft tumors, even those < 1 mm in size, based on their preferential cellular uptake and retention of the dye following its rapid tissue-non-specific delivery, in contrast to its rapid clearance by normal tissue. Live-cell imaging revealed that cellular ICG uptake is temperature-dependent and occurs after ICG binding to the cellular membrane, a pattern suggesting endocytic uptake as the mechanism. Cellular ICG uptake correlated inversely with the formation of tight junctions. Intracellular ICG was entrapped in the membrane traffic system, resulting in its slow turnover and prolonged retention by tumor cells. Our results suggest that tumor-specific imaging by ICG involves non-specific delivery of the dye to tissues followed by preferential tumor cellular uptake and retention. The tumor cell-preference of ICG is driven by passive tumor cell-targeting, the inherent ability of ICG to bind to cell membranes, and the high endocytic activity of tumor cells in association with the disruption of their tight junctions. © 2016 UICC.

  2. Ceramic nanoparticles: Recompense, cellular uptake and toxicity concerns.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Singh, Satpal; Sahu, Jageshwari; Srivastava, Shikha; Singh, Manju Rawat

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, nanoparticles and their role in drug delivery have been the centre of attraction as new drug delivery systems. Various forms of nanosystems have been designed, such as nanoclays, scaffolds and nanotubes, having numerous applications in areas such as drug loading, target cell uptake, bioassay and imaging. The present study discusses various types of nanoparticles, with special emphasis on ceramic nanocarriers. Ceramic materials have high mechanical strength, good body response and low or non-existing biodegradability. In this article, the various aspects concerning ceramic nanoparticles, such as their advantages over other systems, their cellular uptake and toxicity concerns are discussed in detail.

  3. Cellular uptake of modified oligonucleotides: fluorescence approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočišová, Eva; Praus, Petr; Rosenberg, Ivan; Seksek, Olivier; Sureau, Franck; Štěpánek, Josef; Turpin, Pierre-Yves

    2005-06-01

    Cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of the synthetic antisense analogue of dT 15 oligonucleotide (homogenously containing 3'-O-P-CH 2-O-5' internucleotide linkages and labeled with tetramethylrhodamine dye) was studied on B16 melanoma cell line by fluorescence micro-imaging and time-resolved microspectrofluorimetry. By using amphotericin B 3-dimethylaminopropyl amide as an enhancer molecule for the uptake process, homogenous staining of the cells with rather distinct nucleoli staining was achieved after 4 h of incubation. Two spectral components of 2.7 and 1.3 ns lifetime, respectively, were resolved in the emission collected from the cell nucleus. The way of staining and the long-lived component differed from our previous experiments demonstrating complexity of the intracellular oligonucleotide distribution and in particular of the binding inside the nucleus.

  4. The effect of sedimentation and diffusion on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Chul; Zhang, Qiang; Xia, Younan

    2011-01-01

    In vitro experiments typically measure the uptake of nanoparticles by exposing cells at the bottom of a culture plate to a suspension of nanoparticles, which is assumed to be well-dispersed. However, nanoparticles can sediment and this means the concentration of particles on the cell surface and those actually taken up by the cells may be higher than the initial bulk concentration. Here we use upright and inverted cell culture configurations to show that cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles depends on the sedimentation and diffusion velocities of the nanoparticles and is independent of size, shape, density, surface coating and initial concentration of the nanoparticles. Generally more nanoparticles are taken up in the upright configuration than the inverted one and nanoparticles that sediment faster showed greater differences in uptake between the two configurations. Our results suggest that cellular uptake of nanoparticles is sensitive to the way cells are positioned and sedimentation need to be considered when performing in vitro studies for large and heavy nanoparticles. PMID:21516092

  5. Fluorescence-encoded gold nanoparticles: library design and modulation of cellular uptake into dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Laura; Fytianos, Kleanthis; Blank, Fabian; von Garnier, Christophe; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2014-04-09

    In order to harness the unique properties of nanoparticles for novel clinical applications and to modulate their uptake into specific immune cells we designed a new library of homo- and hetero-functional fluorescence-encoded gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using different poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymers for particle coating and stabilization. The encoded particles were fully characterized by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, zeta potential and dynamic light scattering. The uptake by human monocyte derived dendritic cells in vitro was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. We show how the chemical modification of particle surfaces, for instance by attaching fluorescent dyes, can conceal fundamental particle properties and modulate cellular uptake. In order to mask the influence of fluorescent dyes on cellular uptake while still exploiting its fluorescence for detection, we have created hetero-functionalized Au-NPs, which again show typical particle dependent cellular interactions. Our study clearly prove that the thorough characterization of nanoparticles at each modification step in the engineering process is absolutely essential and that it can be necessary to make substantial adjustments of the particles in order to obtain reliable cellular uptake data, which truly reflects particle properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Quantifying the cellular uptake of semiconductor quantum dot nanoparticles by analytical electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hondow, Nicole; Brown, M Rowan; Starborg, Tobias; Monteith, Alexander G; Brydson, Rik; Summers, Huw D; Rees, Paul; Brown, Andy

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor quantum dot nanoparticles are in demand as optical biomarkers yet the cellular uptake process is not fully understood; quantification of numbers and the fate of internalized particles are still to be achieved. We have focussed on the characterization of cellular uptake of quantum dots using a combination of analytical electron microscopies because of the spatial resolution available to examine uptake at the nanoparticle level, using both imaging to locate particles and spectroscopy to confirm identity. In this study, commercially available quantum dots, CdSe/ZnS core/shell particles coated in peptides to target cellular uptake by endocytosis, have been investigated in terms of the agglomeration state in typical cell culture media, the traverse of particle agglomerates across U-2 OS cell membranes during endocytosis, the merging of endosomal vesicles during incubation of cells and in the correlation of imaging flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy to measure the final nanoparticle dose internalized by the U-2 OS cells. We show that a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and serial block face scanning electron microscopy can provide a comprehensive description of the internalization of an initial exposure dose of nanoparticles by an endocytically active cell population and how the internalized, membrane bound nanoparticle load is processed by the cells. We present a stochastic model of an endosome merging process and show that this provides a data-driven modelling framework for the prediction of cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles in general. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Cellular uptake and transport of zein nanoparticles: effects of sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangchao; Teng, Zi; Wang, Thomas T Y; Wang, Qin

    2013-08-07

    Cellular evaluation of zein nanoparticles has not been studied systematically due to their poor redispersibility. Caseinate (CAS)-stabilized zein nanoparticles have been recently developed with better redispersibility in salt solutions. In this study, zein-CAS nanoparticles were prepared with different zein/CAS mass ratios. The prepared nanoparticles demonstrated good stabilities to maintain particle size (120-140 nm) in cell culture medium and HBSS buffer at 37 °C. The nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity for Caco-2 cells for 72 h. CAS not only significantly enhanced cell uptake of zein nanoparticles in a concentration- and time-dependent manner but also remarkably improved epithelial transport through Caco-2 cell monolayer. The cell uptake of zein-CAS nanoparticles indicated an energy-dependent endocytosis process as evidenced by cell uptake under blocking conditions, that is, 4 °C, sodium azide, and colchicine. Fluorescent microscopy clearly showed the internalization of zein-CAS nanoparticles. This study may shed some light on the cellular evaluations of hydrophobic protein nanoparticles.

  8. Measuring oxygen uptake in fishes with bimodal respiration.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Bayley, M; McKenzie, D J

    2016-01-01

    Respirometry is a robust method for measurement of oxygen uptake as a proxy for metabolic rate in fishes, and how species with bimodal respiration might meet their demands from water v. air has interested researchers for over a century. The challenges of measuring oxygen uptake from both water and air, preferably simultaneously, have been addressed in a variety of ways, which are briefly reviewed. These methods are not well-suited for the long-term measurements necessary to be certain of obtaining undisturbed patterns of respiratory partitioning, for example, to estimate traits such as standard metabolic rate. Such measurements require automated intermittent-closed respirometry that, for bimodal fishes, has only recently been developed. This paper describes two approaches in enough detail to be replicated by the interested researcher. These methods are for static respirometry. Measuring oxygen uptake by bimodal fishes during exercise poses specific challenges, which are described to aid the reader in designing experiments. The respiratory physiology and behaviour of air-breathing fishes is very complex and can easily be influenced by experimental conditions, and some general considerations are listed to facilitate the design of experiments. Air breathing is believed to have evolved in response to aquatic hypoxia and, probably, associated hypercapnia. The review ends by considering what realistic hypercapnia is, how hypercapnic tropical waters can become and how this might influence bimodal animals' gas exchange. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Influence of simulated weightlessness on maximal oxygen uptake of untrained rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hindlimb suspension on maximal oxygen uptake of rodents. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to head-down (HD) suspension, horizontal (HOZ) suspension, or cage (C) control for 6-9 days. Rats were tested for maximal oxygen uptake before and after surgical instrumentation (Doppler flow probes, carotid and jugular cannulae), and after suspension. Body weight was significantly decreased after suspension in both HD and HOZ groups, but was significantly increased in the C group. Absolute maximal O2 uptake (ml/min) was not different in the C group. However, because of their increased weight, relative maximal O2 uptake (ml/min per kg) was significantly reduced. In contrast, both relative and absolute maximal O2 uptake were significantly lower, following suspension, for the HD and HOZ groups. These preliminary results support the use of hindlimb suspension as an effective model to study the mechanism(s) of cardiovascular deconditioning.

  10. Mechanism for the Cellular Uptake of Targeted Gold Nanorods of Defined Aspect Ratios.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongrong; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Lei; Yung, Wing-Yin; Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Choi, Chung Hang Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Biomedical applications of non-spherical nanoparticles such as photothermal therapy and molecular imaging require their efficient intracellular delivery, yet reported details on their interactions with the cell remain inconsistent. Here, the effects of nanoparticle geometry and receptor targeting on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking are systematically explored by using C166 (mouse endothelial) cells and gold nanoparticles of four different aspect ratios (ARs) from 1 to 7. When coated with poly(ethylene glycol) strands, the cellular uptake of untargeted nanoparticles monotonically decreases with AR. Next, gold nanoparticles are functionalized with DNA oligonucleotides to target Class A scavenger receptors expressed by C166 cells. Intriguingly, cellular uptake is maximized at a particular AR: shorter nanorods (AR = 2) enter C166 cells more than nanospheres (AR = 1) and longer nanorods (AR = 4 or 7). Strikingly, long targeted nanorods align to the cell membrane in a near-parallel manner followed by rotating by ≈90° to enter the cell via a caveolae-mediated pathway. Upon cellular entry, targeted nanorods of all ARs predominantly traffic to the late endosome without progressing to the lysosome. The studies yield important materials design rules for drug delivery carriers based on targeted, anisotropic nanoparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Effects of Capillary Transit Time Heterogeneity (CTH) on the Cerebral Uptake of Glucose and Glucose Analogs: Application to FDG and Comparison to Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Angleys, Hugo; Jespersen, Sune N.; Østergaard, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Glucose is the brain's principal source of ATP, but the extent to which cerebral glucose consumption (CMRglc) is coupled with its oxygen consumption (CMRO2) remains unclear. Measurements of the brain's oxygen-glucose index OGI = CMRO2/CMRglc suggest that its oxygen uptake largely suffices for oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, during functional activation and in some disease states, brain tissue seemingly produces lactate although cerebral blood flow (CBF) delivers sufficient oxygen, so-called aerobic glycolysis. OGI measurements, in turn, are method-dependent in that estimates based on glucose analog uptake depend on the so-called lumped constant (LC) to arrive at CMRglc. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH), which is believed to change during functional activation and in some disease states, affects the extraction efficacy of oxygen from blood. We developed a three-compartment model of glucose extraction to examine whether CTH also affects glucose extraction into brain tissue. We then combined this model with our previous model of oxygen extraction to examine whether differential glucose and oxygen extraction might favor non-oxidative glucose metabolism under certain conditions. Our model predicts that glucose uptake is largely unaffected by changes in its plasma concentration, while changes in CBF and CTH affect glucose and oxygen uptake to different extents. Accordingly, functional hyperemia facilitates glucose uptake more than oxygen uptake, favoring aerobic glycolysis during enhanced energy demands. Applying our model to glucose analogs, we observe that LC depends on physiological state, with a risk of overestimating relative increases in CMRglc during functional activation by as much as 50%. PMID:27790110

  12. A quantitative model for oxygen uptake and release in a family of hemeproteins.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan P; Szretter, María E; Sued, Mariela; Martí, Marcelo A; Estrin, Darío A; Boechi, Leonardo

    2016-06-15

    Hemeproteins have many diverse functions that largely depend on the rate at which they uptake or release small ligands, like oxygen. These proteins have been extensively studied using either simulations or experiments, albeit only qualitatively and one or two proteins at a time. We present a physical-chemical model, which uses data obtained exclusively from computer simulations, to describe the uptake and release of oxygen in a family of hemeproteins, called truncated hemoglobins (trHbs). Through a rigorous statistical analysis we demonstrate that our model successfully recaptures all the reported experimental oxygen association and dissociation kinetic rate constants, thus allowing us to establish the key factors that determine the rates at which these hemeproteins uptake and release oxygen. We found that internal tunnels as well as the distal site water molecules control ligand uptake, whereas oxygen stabilization by distal site residues controls ligand release. Because these rates largely determine the functions of these hemeproteins, these approaches will also be important tools in characterizing the trHbs members with unknown functions. lboechi@ic.fcen.uba.ar Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. On the mechanism of Cr (VI)-induced carcinogenesis: dose dependence of uptake and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Husler, J; Ye, J; Leonard, S S; Cutler, D; Chen, F; Wang, S; Zhang, Z; Ding, M; Wang, L; Shi, X

    2001-06-01

    Cr (VI) compounds are widely used industrial chemicals and are recognized human carcinogens. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis associated with these compounds remain to be investigated. The present study focused on dose-dependence of Cr (VI)-induced uptake and cellular responses. The results show that Cr (VI) is able to enter the cells (human lung epithelial cell line A549) at low concentration (< 10 microM) and that the Cr (VI) uptake appears to be a combination of saturable transport and passive diffusion. Electron spin resonance (ESR) trapping measurements showed that upon stimulation with Cr (VI), A549 cells were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS generated depended on the Cr (VI) concentration. ROS generation involved NADPH-dependent flavoenzymes. Cr (VI) affected the following cellular parameters in a dose-dependent manner, (a) activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB, and p53, (b) DNA damage, (c) induction of cell apoptosis, and (d) inhibition of cell proliferation. The activation of transcription factors was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis, DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis assay, cell apoptosis by DNA fragmentation assay, and cell proliferation by a non-radioactive ELISA kit. At the concentration range used in the present study, no thresholds were found in all of these cell responses to Cr (VI). The results may guide further research to better understand and evaluate the risk of Cr (VI)-induced carcinogenesis at low levels of exposure.

  14. Point-particle method to compute diffusion-limited cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Sozza, A; Piazza, F; Cencini, M; De Lillo, F; Boffetta, G

    2018-02-01

    We present an efficient point-particle approach to simulate reaction-diffusion processes of spherical absorbing particles in the diffusion-limited regime, as simple models of cellular uptake. The exact solution for a single absorber is used to calibrate the method, linking the numerical parameters to the physical particle radius and uptake rate. We study the configurations of multiple absorbers of increasing complexity to examine the performance of the method by comparing our simulations with available exact analytical or numerical results. We demonstrate the potential of the method to resolve the complex diffusive interactions, here quantified by the Sherwood number, measuring the uptake rate in terms of that of isolated absorbers. We implement the method in a pseudospectral solver that can be generalized to include fluid motion and fluid-particle interactions. As a test case of the presence of a flow, we consider the uptake rate by a particle in a linear shear flow. Overall, our method represents a powerful and flexible computational tool that can be employed to investigate many complex situations in biology, chemistry, and related sciences.

  15. Steap4 Plays a Critical Role in Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro by Regulating Cellular Iron/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Levels and cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Ye, Shiqiao; Fujiwara, Toshifumi; Manolagas, Stavros C.; Zhao, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for osteoclast differentiation, and iron overload in a variety of hematologic diseases is associated with excessive bone resorption. Iron uptake by osteoclast precursors via the transferrin cycle increases mitochondrial biogenesis, reactive oxygen species production, and activation of cAMP response element-binding protein, a critical transcription factor downstream of receptor activator of NF-κB-ligand-induced calcium signaling. These changes are required for the differentiation of osteoclast precursors to mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular iron metabolism in osteoclasts remain largely unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that Steap4, a member of the six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate (Steap) family proteins, is an endosomal ferrireductase with a critical role in cellular iron utilization in osteoclasts. Specifically, we show that Steap4 is the only Steap family protein that is up-regulated during osteoclast differentiation. Knocking down Steap4 expression in vitro by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNAs inhibits osteoclast formation and decreases cellular ferrous iron, reactive oxygen species, and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein. These results demonstrate that Steap4 is a critical enzyme for cellular iron uptake and utilization in osteoclasts and, thus, indispensable for osteoclast development and function. PMID:23990467

  16. Effect of arginine methylation on the RNA recognition and cellular uptake of Tat-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Jhe-Hao; Chiu, Wen-Chieh; Yao, Yun-Chiao; Cheng, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    Arginine (Arg) methylation is a common post-translational modification that regulates gene expression and viral infection. The HIV-1 Tat protein is an essential regulatory protein for HIV proliferation, and is methylated in the cell. The basic region (residues 47-57) of the Tat protein contains six Arg residues, and is responsible for two biological functions: RNA recognition and cellular uptake. In this study, we explore the effect of three different methylation states at each Arg residue in Tat-derived peptides on the two biological functions. The Tat-derived peptides were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis. TAR RNA binding of the peptides was assessed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays. The cellular uptake of the peptides into Jurkat cells was determined by flow cytometry. Our results showed that RNA recognition was affected by both methylation state and position. In particular, asymmetric dimethylation at position 53 decreased TAR RNA binding affinity significantly, but unexpectedly less so upon asymmetric dimethylation at position 52. The RNA binding affinity even slightly increased upon methylation at some of the flanking Arg residues. Upon Arg methylation, the cellular uptake of Tat-derived peptides mostly decreased. Interestingly, cellular uptake of Tat-derived peptides with a single asymmetrically dimethylated Arg residue was similar to the native all Arg peptide (at 120 μM). Based on our results, TAR RNA binding apparently required both guanidinium terminal NH groups on Arg53, whereas cellular uptake apparently required guanidinium terminal NH₂ groups instead. These results should provide insight into how nature uses arginine methylation to regulate different biological functions, and should be useful for the development of functional molecules with methylated arginines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Enhanced cellular uptake of size-separated lipophilic silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusi-Appiah, Aubrey E.; Mastronardi, Melanie L.; Qian, Chenxi; Chen, Kenneth K.; Ghazanfari, Lida; Prommapan, Plengchart; Kübel, Christian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Lenhert, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Specific size, shape and surface chemistry influence the biological activity of nanoparticles. In the case of lipophilic nanoparticles, which are widely used in consumer products, there is evidence that particle size and formulation influences skin permeability and that lipophilic particles smaller than 6 nm can embed in lipid bilayers. Since most nanoparticle synthetic procedures result in mixtures of different particles, post-synthetic purification promises to provide insights into nanostructure-function relationships. Here we used size-selective precipitation to separate lipophilic allyl-benzyl-capped silicon nanoparticles into monodisperse fractions within the range of 1 nm to 5 nm. We measured liposomal encapsulation and cellular uptake of the monodisperse particles and found them to have generally low cytotoxicities in Hela cells. However, specific fractions showed reproducibly higher cytotoxicity than other fractions as well as the unseparated ensemble. Measurements indicate that the cytotoxicity mechanism involves oxidative stress and the differential cytotoxicity is due to enhanced cellular uptake by specific fractions. The results indicate that specific particles, with enhanced suitability for incorporation into lipophilic regions of liposomes and subsequent in vitro delivery to cells, are enriched in certain fractions.

  18. Dynamics and Thermochemistry of Oxygen Uptake by a Mixed Ce-Pr Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinev, M. Yu.; Fattakhova, Z. T.; Bychkov, V. Yu.; Lomonosov, V. I.; Gordienko, Yu. A.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of oxygen uptake by mixed Ce0.55Pr0.45O2-x oxide is studied in a pulsed oxygen supply mode using in situ high-temperature heat flow differential scanning calorimetry. It is stated that the oxidation proceeds in two regimes: a fast one at the beginning of the oxidation process, and a slow one, which is controlled by the diffusion of oxygen through the bulk of the solid at the later stages of the process. Analysis of the shape of calorimetric profiles reveals some processes, accompanied by heat release, that occur in the sample in the absence of oxygen in the gas phase. These could be due to both the redistribution of consumed oxygen in the oxide lattice and the lattice relaxation associated with the transformation of phases with different arrangements of oxygen vacancies in them. The heat effect (which diminishes from 60 to 40 kJ/mol in the course of oxygen uptake) associated with the oxidation of the reduced form of mixed Ce-Pr oxide, corresponds to the oxidation of praseodymium ions from (3+) to (4+).

  19. [Cellular uptake of TPS-L-carnitine synthesised as transporter-based renal targeting prodrug].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zhu, Di; Sun, Xun

    2012-11-01

    To synthesize transporter-based renal targeting prodrug TPS-L-Carnitine and to determine its cellular uptake in vitro. Triptolide (TP) was conjugated with L-carnitine using succinate as the linker to form TPS-L-Carnitine, which could be specifically recognized by OCTN2, a cationic transporter with high affinity to L-Carnitine and is highly expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells. Cellular uptake assays of the prodrug and its parent drug were performed on HK-2 cells, a human proximal tubule cell line, in different temperature, concentration and in the presence of competitive inhibitors. TPS-L-Carnitine was taken up into HK-2 cells in a saturable and temperature- and concentration-dependent manner. The uptake process could be inhibited by the competitive inhibitors. The uptake of TPS-L-Carnitine was significantly higher than that of TP at 37 degrees C in the same drug concentration. TPS-L-Carnitine was taken through endocytosis mediated by transporter. TPS-L-Carnitine provides a good renal targeting property and lays the foundation for further studies in vivo.

  20. Is the 6-minute walk test a reliable substitute for peak oxygen uptake in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Zugck, C; Krüger, C; Dürr, S; Gerber, S H; Haunstetter, A; Hornig, K; Kübler, W; Haass, M

    2000-04-01

    The 6-min walk test may serve as a more simple clinical tool to assess functional capacity in congestive heart failure than determination of peak oxygen uptake by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The purpose of the study was to prospectively examine whether the distance ambulated during a 6-min walk test (i) correlates with peak oxygen uptake, (ii) allows peak oxygen uptake to be predicted, and (iii) provides prognostic information similar to peak oxygen uptake in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 35%. In 113 patients (age: 54+/-12 years, NYHA: 2.2+/-0.8) with dilated cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction 19+/-7%) a 6-min walk test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed. The 6-min walk test and peak oxygen uptake were closely correlated at the initial visit (r=0.68, n=113), as well as after 263+/-114 (r=0.71, n=28) and 381+/-170 days (r=0.74, n=14). During serial exercise testing the 6-min walk test allowed peak oxygen uptake to be reliably predicted (r=0.76 between calculated and real peak oxygen uptake). After 528+/-234 days, 42 patients were hospitalized due to worsening heart failure and/or died from cardiovascular causes. Compared to clinically stable patients, these 42 patients walked a shorter distance (423+/-104 vs 501+/-95 m, P<0.001) and had a lower peak oxygen uptake (12.7+/-4.0 vs 17.4 + 5.6 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1), P<0.001). By univariate analysis the 6-min walk test outperformed other prognostic parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index and plasma norepinephrine concentration and conferred a prognostic power similar to peak oxygen uptake. This predictive value could be further improved in a multivariate model, by combining the 6-min walk test with independent variables, such as left ventricular ejection fraction or cardiac index. The 6-min walk test correlated with peak oxygen uptake when tested serially over the course of the disease. Although both

  1. Non-specific cellular uptake of surface-functionalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelf, T. A.; Sreenivasan, V. K. A.; Sun, J.; Kim, E. J.; Goldys, E. M.; Zvyagin, A. V.

    2010-07-01

    We report a systematic empirical study of nanoparticle internalization into cells via non-specific pathways. The nanoparticles were comprised of commercial quantum dots (QDs) that were highly visible under a fluorescence confocal microscope. Surface-modified QDs with basic biologically significant moieties, e.g. carboxyl, amino, and streptavidin, were used, in combination with surface derivatization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for a range of immortalized cell lines. Internalization rates were derived from image analysis and a detailed discussion about the effect of nanoparticle size, charge and surface groups is presented. We find that PEG derivatization dramatically suppresses the non-specific uptake while PEG-free carboxyl and amine functional groups promote QD internalization. These uptake variations displayed a remarkable consistency across different cell types. The reported results are important for experiments concerned with cellular uptake of surface-functionalized nanomaterials, both when non-specific internalization is undesirable and when it is intended for material to be internalized as efficiently as possible.

  2. Gaseous oxygen uptake in porous media at different moisture contents and airflow velocities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Kalluri, Prasad N V

    2009-06-01

    The presence and distribution of water in the pore space is a critical factor for flow and transport of gases through unsaturated porous media. The water content also affects the biological activity necessary for treatment of polluted gas streams in biofilters. In this research, microbial activity and quantity of inactive volume in a porous medium as a function of moisture content and gas flow rate were investigated. Yard waste compost was used as a test medium, and oxygen uptake rate measurements were used to quantify microbial activity and effective active compost volume using batch and column flow-through systems. Compost water contents were varied from air-dry to field capacity and gas flows ranged from 0.2 to 2 L x min(-1). The results showed that overall microbial activity and the relative fraction of active compost medium volume increased with airflow velocity for all levels of water content up to a certain flow rate above which the oxygen uptake rate assumed a constant value independent of gas flow. The actual value of the maximum oxygen uptake rate was controlled by the water content. The oxygen uptake rate also increased with increasing water content and reached a maximum between 42 and 48% volumetric water content, above which it decreased, again likely because of formation of inactive zones in the compost medium. Overall, maximum possible oxygen uptake rate as a function of gas flow rate across all water contents and gas flows could be approximated by a linear expression. The relative fraction of active volume also increased with gas flow rate and reached approximately 80% for the highest gas flows used.

  3. Novel mucus-penetrating liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system: preparation, in vitro characterization, and enhanced cellular uptake

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuying; Chen, Dan; Le, Chaoyi; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong; Hovgaard, Lars; Yang, Mingshi

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal mucus-penetrating properties and intestinal cellular uptake of two types of liposomes modified by Pluronic F127 (PF127). Methods The two types of liposomes, ie, PF127-inlaid liposomes and PF127-adsorbed liposomes, were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by extrusion, in which coumarin 6 was loaded as a fluorescence marker. A modified Franz diffusion cell mounted with the intestinal mucus of rats was used to study the diffusion characteristics of the two types of PF127 liposomes. Cell uptake studies were conducted in Caco-2 cells and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microcopy as well as flow cytometry. Results The diffusion efficiency of the two types of PF127-modified liposomes through intestinal rat mucus was 5–7-fold higher than that of unmodified liposomes. Compared with unmodified liposomes, PF127-inlaid liposomes showed significantly higher cellular uptake of courmarin 6. PF127-adsorbed liposomes showed a lower cellular uptake. Moreover, and interestingly, the two types of PF127-modified liposomes showed different cellular uptake mechanisms in Caco-2 cells. Conclusion PF127-inlaid liposomes with improved intestinal mucus-penetrating ability and enhanced cellular uptake might be a potential carrier candidate for oral drug delivery. PMID:22163166

  4. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-07-01

    Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF.

  5. The contribution of water soluble and water insoluble organic fractions to oxygen uptake rate during high rate composting.

    PubMed

    Giuliana, D'Imporzano; Fabrizio, Adani

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to establish the contribution of the water soluble and water insoluble organic fractions to total oxygen uptake rate during high rate composting process of a mixture of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic material. This mixture was composted using a 20 l self-heating pilot scale composter for 250 h. The composter was fully equipped to record both the biomass-temperature and oxygen uptake rate. Representative compost samples were taken at 0, 70, 100, 110, 160, and 250 h from starting time. Compost samples were fractionated in water soluble and water insoluble fractions. The water soluble fraction was then fractionated in hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and neutral hydrophobic fractions. Each fraction was then studied using quantitative (total organic carbon) and qualitative analysis (diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and biodegradability test). Oxygen uptake rates were high during the initial stages of the process due to rapid degradation of the soluble degradable organic fraction (hydrophilic plus hydrophobic fractions). Once this fraction was depleted, polymer hydrolysis accounted for most of the oxygen uptake rate. Finally, oxygen uptake rate could be modeled using a two term kinetic. The first term provides the oxygen uptake rate resulting from the microbial growth kinetic type on easily available, no-limiting substrate (soluble fraction), while the second term considers the oxygen uptake rate caused by the degradation of substrate produced by polymer hydrolysis.

  6. Parmitano in Columbus module during Oxygen Uptake measurement session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-02

    ISS037-E-004950 (2 Oct. 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 37 flight engineer, performs an oxygen uptake measurement session in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. He is wearing a Pulmonary Function System (PFS) face mask during the session.

  7. Cellular Uptake of Tile-Assembled DNA Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, Samet; Meinl, Hanna; MacPherson, Iain S; Cassinelli, Valentina; Manetto, Antonio; Rothenfusser, Simon; Liedl, Tim; Lichtenegger, Felix S

    2014-12-30

    DNA-based nanostructures have received great attention as molecular vehicles for cellular delivery of biomolecules and cancer drugs. Here, we report on the cellular uptake of tubule-like DNA tile-assembled nanostructures 27 nm in length and 8 nm in diameter that carry siRNA molecules, folic acid and fluorescent dyes. In our observations, the DNA structures are delivered to the endosome and do not reach the cytosol of the GFP -expressing HeLa cells that were used in the experiments. Consistent with this observation, no elevated silencing of the GFP gene could be detected. Furthermore, the presence of up to six molecules of folic acid on the carrier surface did not alter the uptake behavior and gene silencing. We further observed several challenges that have to be considered when performing in vitro and in vivo experiments with DNA structures: (i) DNA tile tubes consisting of 42 nt-long oligonucleotides and carrying single- or double-stranded extensions degrade within one hour in cell medium at 37 °C, while the same tubes without extensions are stable for up to eight hours. The degradation is caused mainly by the low concentration of divalent ions in the media. The lifetime in cell medium can be increased drastically by employing DNA tiles that are 84 nt long. (ii) Dyes may get cleaved from the oligonucleotides and then accumulate inside the cell close to the mitochondria, which can lead to misinterpretation of data generated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. (iii) Single-stranded DNA carrying fluorescent dyes are internalized at similar levels as the DNA tile-assembled tubes used here.

  8. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF. PMID:27594875

  9. Increase in Dye:Dendrimer Ratio Decreases Cellular Uptake of Neutral Dendrimers in RAW Cells.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Kaushik, Milan; Dougherty, Casey; Rattan, Rahul; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Monano, Janet; DiMaggio, Stassi

    2016-09-12

    Neutral generation 3 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were labeled with Oregon Green 488 (G3-OG n ) to obtain materials with controlled fluorophore:dendrimer ratios (n = 1-2), a mixture containing mostly 3 dyes per dendrimer, a mixture containing primarily 4 or more dyes per dendrimer ( n = 4+), and a stochastic mixture ( n = 4 avg ). The UV absorbance of the dye conjugates increased linearly as n increased and the fluorescence emission decreased linearly as n increased. Cellular uptake was studied in RAW cells and HEK 293A cells as a function of the fluorophore:dendrimer ratio (n). The cellular uptake of G3-OG n ( n = 3, 4+, 4 avg ) into RAW cells was significantly lower than G3-OG n ( n = 1, 2). The uptake of G3-OG n ( n = 3, 4+, 4 avg ) into HEK 293A cells was not significantly different from G3-OG 1 . Thus, the fluorophore:dendrimer ratio was observed to change the extent of uptake in the macrophage uptake mechanism but not in the HEK 293A cell. This difference in endocytosis indicates the presence of a pathway in the macrophage that is sensitive to hydrophobicity of the particle.

  10. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in fire fighter testing.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, G J M; Verhoogen, R A J R; Van Cauwenbergh, A F M; Godderis, L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current daily practice of aerobic capacity testing in Belgian fire fighters. The impact of personal and test-related parameters on the outcome has been evaluated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) results of 605 male fire fighters gathered between 1999 and 2010 were analysed. The maximal cardio respiratory exercise tests were performed at 22 different centres using different types of tests (tread mill or bicycle), different exercise protocols and measuring equipment. Mean VO2 max was 43.3 (SD = 9.8) ml/kg.min. Besides waist circumference and age, the type of test, the degree of performance of the test and the test centre were statistically significant determinants of maximal oxygen uptake. Test-related parameters have to be taken into account when interpreting and comparing maximal oxygen uptake tests of fire fighters. It highlights the need for standardization of aerobic capacity testing in the medical evaluation of fire fighters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity stimulates cellular iron uptake by a trivalent cation-specific transport mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attieh, Z. K.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Seshadri, V.; Tripoulas, N. A.; Fox, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    The balance required to maintain appropriate cellular and tissue iron levels has led to the evolution of multiple mechanisms to precisely regulate iron uptake from transferrin and low molecular weight iron chelates. A role for ceruloplasmin (Cp) in vertebrate iron metabolism is suggested by its potent ferroxidase activity catalyzing conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+, by identification of yeast copper oxidases homologous to Cp that facilitate high affinity iron uptake, and by studies of "aceruloplasminemic" patients who have extensive iron deposits in multiple tissues. We have recently shown that Cp increases iron uptake by cultured HepG2 cells. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which Cp stimulates cellular iron uptake. Cp stimulated the rate of non-transferrin 55Fe uptake by iron-deficient K562 cells by 2-3-fold, using a transferrin receptor-independent pathway. Induction of Cp-stimulated iron uptake by iron deficiency was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, consistent with a transcriptionally induced or regulated transporter. Cp-stimulated iron uptake was completely blocked by unlabeled Fe3+ and by other trivalent cations including Al3+, Ga3+, and Cr3+, but not by divalent cations. These results indicate that Cp utilizes a trivalent cation-specific transporter. Cp ferroxidase activity was required for iron uptake as shown by the ineffectiveness of two ferroxidase-deficient Cp preparations, copper-deficient Cp and thiomolybdate-treated Cp. We propose a model in which iron reduction and subsequent re-oxidation by Cp are essential for an iron uptake pathway with high ion specificity.

  12. Prognostic value of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope and other exercise variables in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Buys, Roselien; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Vanhees, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Peak exercise capacity is an independent predictor for mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, sometimes cardiopulmonary exercise tests are stopped prematurely. Therefore, submaximal exercise measures such as the oxygen uptake efficiency slope have been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope and other exercise parameters, in patients with coronary artery disease. Between 2000 and 2011, 1409 patients with coronary artery disease (age 60.7 ± 9.9 years; 1205 males) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise tests. A maximal effort was not reached in 161 (11.5%) patients. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope was calculated and information on mortality was obtained. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the relation of oxygen uptake efficiency slope and other gas exchange variables with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses was performed to define optimal cut-off values. During an average follow-up of 7.45 ± 3.20 years (range 0.16-13.95 years), 158 patients died, among which 68 patients for cardiovascular reasons. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope was related to all-cause (hazard ratio: 0.568, p < 0.001) and cardiovascular (hazard ratio: 0.461, p < 0.001) mortality. When significant covariates were entered in the analysis, oxygen uptake efficiency slope remained related to mortality (p < 0.05). When other submaximal exercise parameters were added to the model, oxygen uptake efficiency slope and minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope also remained significantly related to mortality. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope is an independent predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, irrespective of a truly maximal effort during cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Furthermore, the oxygen uptake efficiency slope provides prognostic information

  13. Enhanced Cellular Uptake of Short Polyarginine Peptides through Fatty Acylation and Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many of the reported arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for the enhanced delivery of drugs are linear peptides composed of more than seven arginine residues to retain the cell penetration properties. Herein, we synthesized a class of nine polyarginine peptides containing 5 and 6 arginines, namely, R5 and R6. We further explored the effect of acylation with long chain fatty acids (i.e., octanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, and hexadecanoic acid) and cyclization on the cell penetrating properties of the peptides. The fluorescence-labeled acylated cyclic peptide dodecanoyl-[R5] and linear peptide dodecanoyl-(R5) showed approximately 13.7- and 10.2-fold higher cellular uptake than that of control 5,6-carboxyfluorescein, respectively. The mechanism of the peptide internalization into cells was found to be energy-dependent endocytosis. Dodecanoyl-[R5] and dodecanoyl-[R6] enhanced the intracellular uptake of a fluorescence-labeled cell-impermeable negatively charged phosphopeptide (F′-GpYEEI) in human ovarian cancer cells (SK-OV-3) by 3.4-fold and 5.5-fold, respectively, as shown by flow cytometry. The cellular uptake of F′-GpYEEI in the presence of hexadecanoyl-[R5] was 9.3- and 6.0-fold higher than that in the presence of octanoyl-[R5] and dodecanoyl-[R5], respectively. Dodecanoyl-[R5] enhanced the cellular uptake of the phosphopeptide by 1.4–2.5-fold higher than the corresponding linear peptide dodecanoyl-(R5) and those of representative CPPs, such as hepta-arginine (CR7) and TAT peptide. These results showed that a combination of acylation by long chain fatty acids and cyclization on short arginine-containing peptides can improve their cell-penetrating property, possibly through efficient interaction of rigid positively charged R and hydrophobic dodecanoyl moiety with the corresponding residues in the cell membrane phospholipids. PMID:24978295

  14. Computer program for calculation of oxygen uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, B. L.; Castle, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operational precedures are presented for a computer program, written in Super Basic, that calculates oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and related ventilation parameters. Program features include: (1) the option of entering slope and intercept values of calibration curves for the O2 and CO2 and analyzers; (2) calculation of expired water vapor pressure; and (3) the option of entering inspured O2 and CO2 concentrations. The program is easily adaptable for programmable laboratory calculators.

  15. Cellular uptake of titanium and vanadium from addition of salts or fretting corrosion in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, A.M.; Merritt, K.; Brown, S.A.

    1994-02-01

    The use of titanium and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium alloy for dental and orthopedic implants has increased in the last decade. The implants are presumed to be compatible because oseointegration, bony apposition, and cell attachment are known. However, the cellular association of titanium and vanadium have remained unknown. This study examined the uptake of salts or fretting corrosion products. Titanium was not observed to be toxic to the cells. Vanadium was toxic at levels greater than 10[mu]g/mL. The percentage of cellular association of titanium was shown to be about 10 times that of vanadium. The percentage of cellular association of eithermore » element was greater from fretting corrosion than from the addition of salts. The presence of vanadium did not affect the cellular uptake of titanium. The presence of titanium decreased the cell association of vanadium.« less

  16. The minute virus of mice exploits different endocytic pathways for cellular uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Garcin, Pierre O.; Panté, Nelly, E-mail: pante@zoology.ubc.ca

    The minute virus of mice, prototype strain (MVMp), is a non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus of the family Parvoviridae. Unlike other parvoviruses, the mechanism of cellular uptake of MVMp has not been studied in detail. We analyzed MVMp endocytosis in mouse LA9 fibroblasts and a tumor cell line derived from epithelial–mesenchymal transition through polyomavirus middle T antigen transformation in transgenic mice. By a combination of immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we found that MVMp endocytosis occurs at the leading edge of migrating cells in proximity to focal adhesion sites. By using drug inhibitors of various endocytic pathways together with immunofluorescence microscopy andmore » flow cytometry analysis, we discovered that MVMp can use a number of endocytic pathways, depending on the host cell type. At least three different mechanisms were identified: clathrin-, caveolin-, and clathrin-independent carrier-mediated endocytosis, with the latter occurring in transformed cells but not in LA9 fibroblasts. - Highlights: • MVMp uptake takes place at the leading edge of migrating cells. • MVMp exploits a variety of endocytic pathways. • MVMp could use clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis. • MVMp could also use clathrin-independent carriers for cellular uptake.« less

  17. Maximum Oxygen Uptake Determination in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremion, Amy S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of 10 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus performing a maximum-effort cycling test indicated blood glucose levels did not change appreciably during test, while maximal oxygen uptake was substandard for their age groups. Findings suggest patients in fair to poor metabolic control can tolerate stress testing without…

  18. Dispersible oxygen microsensors map oxygen gradients in three-dimensional cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lesher-Pérez, Sasha Cai; Kim, Ge-Ah; Kuo, Chuan-Hsien; Leung, Brendan M; Mong, Sanda; Kojima, Taisuke; Moraes, Christopher; Thouless, M D; Luker, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

    2017-09-26

    Phase fluorimetry, unlike the more commonly used intensity-based measurement, is not affected by differences in light paths from culture vessels or by optical attenuation through dense 3D cell cultures and hydrogels thereby minimizing dependence on signal intensity for accurate measurements. This work describes the use of phase fluorimetry on oxygen-sensor microbeads to perform oxygen measurements in different microtissue culture environments. In one example, cell spheroids were observed to deplete oxygen from the cell-culture medium filling the bottom of conventional microwells within minutes, whereas oxygen concentrations remained close to ambient levels for several days in hanging-drop cultures. By dispersing multiple oxygen microsensors in cell-laden hydrogels, we also mapped cell-generated oxygen gradients. The spatial oxygen mapping was sufficiently precise to enable the use of computational models of oxygen diffusion and uptake to give estimates of the cellular oxygen uptake rate and the half-saturation constant. The results show the importance of integrated design and analysis of 3D cell cultures from both biomaterial and oxygen supply aspects. While this paper specifically tests spheroids and cell-laden gel cultures, the described methods should be useful for measuring pericellular oxygen concentrations in a variety of biomaterials and culture formats.

  19. Cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative damage by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Yee; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2003-03-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules. Recently, we have shown that NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against singlet oxygen-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to singlet oxygen generated from photoactivated dye, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against singlet oxygen, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative injury.

  20. Dual peptide conjugation strategy for improved cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ran; Zhang, Pengcheng; Cheetham, Andrew G; Walston, Jeremy; Abadir, Peter; Cui, Honggang

    2015-01-21

    Mitochondria are critical regulators of cellular function and survival. Delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents into mitochondria is a challenging task in modern pharmacology because the molecule to be delivered needs to first overcome the cell membrane barrier and then be able to actively target the intracellular organelle. Current strategy of conjugating either a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) or a subcellular targeting sequence to the molecule of interest only has limited success. We report here a dual peptide conjugation strategy to achieve effective delivery of a non-membrane-penetrating dye 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM) into mitochondria through the incorporation of both a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) and a CPP into one conjugated molecule. Notably, circular dichroism studies reveal that the combined use of α-helix and PPII-like secondary structures has an unexpected, synergistic contribution to the internalization of the conjugate. Our results suggest that although the use of positively charged MTS peptide allows for improved targeting of mitochondria, with MTS alone it showed poor cellular uptake. With further covalent linkage of the MTS-5-FAM conjugate to a CPP sequence (R8), the dually conjugated molecule was found to show both improved cellular uptake and effective mitochondria targeting. We believe these results offer important insight into the rational design of peptide conjugates for intracellular delivery.

  1. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Tang, Quanming; Zhong, Xueyun; Bai, Yan; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhang, Yibo; Li, Yinghua; Zheng, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS) has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 μM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G(1) cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers.

  2. Comparative analysis of nitrite uptake and hemoglobin-nitrite reactions in erythrocytes: sorting out uptake mechanisms and oxygenation dependencies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Frank B; Rohde, Sabina

    2010-04-01

    Nitrite uptake into red blood cells (RBCs) precedes its intracellular reactions with hemoglobin (Hb) that forms nitric oxide (NO) during hypoxia. We investigated the uptake of nitrite and its reactions with Hb at different oxygen saturations (So(2)), using RBCs with (carp and rabbit) and without (hagfish and lamprey) anion exchanger-1 (AE1) in the membrane, with the aim to unravel the mechanisms and oxygenation dependencies of nitrite transport. Added nitrite rapidly diffused into the RBCs until equilibrium. The distribution ratio of nitrite across the membrane agreed with that expected from HNO(2) diffusion and AE1-mediated facilitated NO(2)(-) diffusion. Participation of HNO(2) diffusion was emphasized by rapid transmembrane nitrite equilibration also in the natural AE1 knockouts. Following the equilibration, nitrite was consumed by reacting with Hb, which created a continued inward diffusion controlled by intracellular reaction rates. Changes in nitrite uptake with So(2), pH, or species were accordingly explained by corresponding changes in reaction rates. In carp, nitrite uptake rates increased linearly with decreasing So(2) over the entire So(2) range. In rabbit, nitrite uptake rates were highest at intermediate So(2), producing a bell-shaped relationship with So(2). Nitrite consumption increased approximately 10-fold with a 1 unit decrease in pH, as expected from the involvement of protons in the reactions with Hb. The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin was favored over that with oxyhemoglobin at intermediate So(2). We propose a model for RBC nitrite uptake that involves both HNO(2) diffusion and AE1-mediated transport and that explains both the present and previous (sometimes puzzling) results.

  3. Size-dependent cellular uptake mechanism and cytotoxicity toward calcium oxalate on Vero cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Urinary crystals with various sizes are present in healthy individuals and patients with kidney stone; however, the cellular uptake mechanism of calcium oxalate of various sizes has not been elucidated. This study aims to compare the internalization of nano-/micron-sized (50 nm, 100 nm, and 1 μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells. The internalization and adhesion of COM and COD crystals to Vero cells were enhanced with decreasing crystal size. Cell death rate was positively related to the amount of adhered and internalized crystals and exhibited higher correlation with internalization than that with adhesion. Vero cells mainly internalized nano-sized COM and COD crystals through clathrin-mediated pathways as well as micron-sized crystals through macropinocytosis. The internalized COM and COD crystals were distributed in the lysosomes and destroyed lysosomal integrity to some extent. The results of this study indicated that the size of crystal affected cellular uptake mechanism, and may provide an enlightenment for finding potential inhibitors of crystal uptake, thereby decreasing cell injury and the occurrence of kidney stones.

  4. Target-specific cellular uptake of PLGA nanoparticles coated with poly(L-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate conjugate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Chun, Ki Woo; Park, Tae Gwan

    2005-09-13

    Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with anionic surface charge were surface coated with cationic di-block copolymer, poly(L-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (PLL-PEG-FOL) conjugate, for enhancing their site-specific intracellular delivery against folate receptor overexpressing cancer cells. The PLGA nanoparticles coated with the conjugate were characterized in terms of size, surface charge, and change in surface composition by XPS. By employing the flow cytometry method and confocal image analysis, the extent of cellular uptake was comparatively evaluated under various conditions. PLL-PEG-FOL coated PLGA nanoparticles demonstrated far greater extent of cellular uptake to KB cells, suggesting that they were mainly taken up by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. The enhanced cellular uptake was also observed even in the presence of serum proteins, possibly due to the densely seeded PEG chains. The PLL-PEG-FOL coated PLGA nanoparticles could be potentially applied for cancer cell targeted delivery of various therapeutic agents.

  5. Modeling the relationship between fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and tumor radioresistance as a function of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeho; Deasy, Joseph O

    2014-01-01

    High fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake in tumors has often been correlated with increasing local failure and shorter overall survival, but the radiobiological mechanisms of this uptake are unclear. We explore the relationship between FDG-PET uptake and tumor radioresistance using a mechanistic model that considers cellular status as a function of microenvironmental conditions, including proliferating cells with access to oxygen and glucose, metabolically active cells with access to glucose but not oxygen, and severely hypoxic cells that are starving. However, it is unclear what the precise uptake levels of glucose should be for cells that receive oxygen and glucose versus cells that only receive glucose. Different potential FDG uptake profiles, as a function of the microenvironment, were simulated. Predicted tumor doses for 50% control (TD50) in 2 Gy fractions were estimated for each assumed uptake profile and for various possible cell mixtures. The results support the hypothesis of an increased avidity of FDG for cells in the intermediate stress state (those receiving glucose but not oxygen) compared to well-oxygenated (and proliferating) cells.

  6. Effect of molecular characteristics on cellular uptake, subcellular localization, and phototoxicity of Zn(II) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Ezzeddine, Rima; Al-Banaw, Anwar; Tovmasyan, Artak; Craik, James D; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Benov, Ludmil T

    2013-12-20

    Tetra-cationic Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-alkylpyridinium-2 (or -3 or -4)-yl)porphyrins (ZnPs) with progressively increased lipophilicity were synthesized to investigate how the tri-dimensional shape and lipophilicity of the photosensitizer (PS) affect cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and photodynamic efficacy. The effect of the tri-dimensional shape of the molecule was studied by shifting the N-alkyl substituent attached to the pyridyl nitrogen from ortho to meta and para positions. Progressive increase of lipophilicity from shorter hydrophilic (methyl) to longer amphiphilic (hexyl) alkyl chains increased the phototoxicity of the ZnP PSs. PS efficacy was also increased for all derivatives when the alkyl substituents were shifted from ortho to meta, and from meta to para positions. Both cellular uptake and subcellular distribution of the PSs were affected by the lipophilicity and the position of the alkyl chains on the periphery of the porphyrin ring. Whereas the hydrophilic ZnPs demonstrated mostly lysosomal distribution, the amphiphilic hexyl derivatives were associated with mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane. A comparison of hexyl isomers revealed that cellular uptake and partition into membranes followed the order para > meta > ortho. Varying the position and length of the alkyl substituents affects (i) the exposure of cationic charges for electrostatic interactions with anionic biomolecules and (ii) the lipophilicity of the molecule. The charge, lipophilicity, and the tri-dimensional shape of the PS are the major factors that determine cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and as a consequence, the phototoxicity of the PSs.

  7. Effect of Molecular Characteristics on Cellular Uptake, Subcellular Localization, and Phototoxicity of Zn(II) N-Alkylpyridylporphyrins*

    PubMed Central

    Ezzeddine, Rima; Al-Banaw, Anwar; Tovmasyan, Artak; Craik, James D.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Benov, Ludmil T.

    2013-01-01

    Tetra-cationic Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-alkylpyridinium-2 (or -3 or -4)-yl)porphyrins (ZnPs) with progressively increased lipophilicity were synthesized to investigate how the tri-dimensional shape and lipophilicity of the photosensitizer (PS) affect cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and photodynamic efficacy. The effect of the tri-dimensional shape of the molecule was studied by shifting the N-alkyl substituent attached to the pyridyl nitrogen from ortho to meta and para positions. Progressive increase of lipophilicity from shorter hydrophilic (methyl) to longer amphiphilic (hexyl) alkyl chains increased the phototoxicity of the ZnP PSs. PS efficacy was also increased for all derivatives when the alkyl substituents were shifted from ortho to meta, and from meta to para positions. Both cellular uptake and subcellular distribution of the PSs were affected by the lipophilicity and the position of the alkyl chains on the periphery of the porphyrin ring. Whereas the hydrophilic ZnPs demonstrated mostly lysosomal distribution, the amphiphilic hexyl derivatives were associated with mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane. A comparison of hexyl isomers revealed that cellular uptake and partition into membranes followed the order para > meta > ortho. Varying the position and length of the alkyl substituents affects (i) the exposure of cationic charges for electrostatic interactions with anionic biomolecules and (ii) the lipophilicity of the molecule. The charge, lipophilicity, and the tri-dimensional shape of the PS are the major factors that determine cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and as a consequence, the phototoxicity of the PSs. PMID:24214973

  8. The laforin-malin complex negatively regulates glycogen synthesis by modulating cellular glucose uptake via glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Sweta; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2012-02-01

    Lafora disease (LD), an inherited and fatal neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by increased cellular glycogen content and the formation of abnormally branched glycogen inclusions, called Lafora bodies, in the affected tissues, including neurons. Therefore, laforin phosphatase and malin ubiquitin E3 ligase, the two proteins that are defective in LD, are thought to regulate glycogen synthesis through an unknown mechanism, the defects in which are likely to underlie some of the symptoms of LD. We show here that laforin's subcellular localization is dependent on the cellular glycogen content and that the stability of laforin is determined by the cellular ATP level, the activity of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, and the affinity of malin toward laforin. By using cell and animal models, we further show that the laforin-malin complex regulates cellular glucose uptake by modulating the subcellular localization of glucose transporters; loss of malin or laforin resulted in an increased abundance of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and therefore excessive glucose uptake. Loss of laforin or malin, however, did not affect glycogen catabolism. Thus, the excessive cellular glucose level appears to be the primary trigger for the abnormally higher levels of cellular glycogen seen in LD.

  9. Cellular transport of l-arginine determines renal medullary blood flow in control rats, but not in diabetic rats despite enhanced cellular uptake capacity.

    PubMed

    Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability thereby affecting renal blood flow regulation. Previous reports have demonstrated that cellular uptake of l-arginine is rate limiting for nitric oxide production and that plasma l-arginine concentration is decreased in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether regional renal blood flow regulation is affected by cellular l-arginine uptake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, and the left kidney was exposed. Total, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow was investigated before and after renal artery infusion of increasing doses of either l-homoarginine to inhibit cellular uptake of l-arginine or N ω -nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase. l-Homoarginine infusion did not affect total or cortical blood flow in any of the groups, but caused a dose-dependent reduction in medullary blood flow. l-NAME decreased total, cortical and medullary blood flow in both groups. However, the reductions in medullary blood flow in response to both l-homoarginine and l-NAME were more pronounced in the control groups compared with the diabetic groups. Isolated cortical tubular cells displayed similar l-arginine uptake capacity whereas medullary tubular cells isolated from diabetic rats had increased l-arginine uptake capacity. Diabetics had reduced l-arginine concentrations in plasma and medullary tissue but increased l-arginine concentration in cortical tissue. In conclusion, the reduced l-arginine availability in plasma and medullary tissue in diabetes results in reduced nitric oxide-mediated regulation of renal medullary hemodynamics. Cortical blood flow regulation displays less dependency on extracellular l-arginine and the upregulated cortical tissue l-arginine may protect cortical hemodynamics in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Tang, Quanming; Zhong, Xueyun; Bai, Yan; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhang, Yibo; Li, Yinghua; Zheng, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS) has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 μM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G1 cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers. PMID:22359460

  11. Oxygen uptake kinetics of constant-load work - Upright vs. supine exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Supine and upright positions were used in a comparitive study of the effects of constant load exercise on oxygen uptake (VO2), O2 deficit, steady-state VO2 and VO2 following recovery from constant load work. Ten male subjects (36-40 yr.) performed one submaximal exercise test in the supine and one test in the upright position consisting of 5 min rest and 5 min cycle ergometer exercise at 700 kg/min followed by ten minutes of recovery. It is found that the significant difference in VO2 kinetics during exercise in the upright compared to supine position resulted from changes in oxygen transport and utilization mechanisms rather than changes in mechanical efficiency. To the extent that data measured in the supine position can be used to estimate physiological responses to zero gravity, it is suggested that limitation of systemic O2 consumption may be the result of slow rates of oxygen uptake during transient periods of muscular work. Significant reductions in the rate of steady-state VO2 attainment at submaximal work intensities may produce an onset of muscle fatigue and exhaustion.

  12. The oxygen uptake slow component at submaximal intensities in breaststroke swimming

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Diogo R.; Gonçalves, Lio F.; Reis, António M.; Fernandes, Ricardo J.; Garrido, Nuno D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present work proposed to study the oxygen uptake slow component (VO2 SC) of breaststroke swimmers at four different intensities of submaximal exercise, via mathematical modeling of a multi-exponential function. The slow component (SC) was also assessed with two different fixed interval methods and the three methods were compared. Twelve male swimmers performed a test comprising four submaximal 300 m bouts at different intensities where all expired gases were collected breath by breath. Multi-exponential modeling showed values above 450 ml·min−1 of the SC in the two last bouts of exercise (those with intensities above the lactate threshold). A significant effect of the method that was used to calculate the VO2 SC was revealed. Higher mean values were observed when using mathematical modeling compared with the fixed interval 3rd min method (F=7.111; p=0.012; η2=0.587); furthermore, differences were detected among the two fixed interval methods. No significant relationship was found between the SC determined by any method and the blood lactate measured at each of the four exercise intensities. In addition, no significant association between the SC and peak oxygen uptake was found. It was concluded that in trained breaststroke swimmers, the presence of the VO2 SC may be observed at intensities above that corresponding to the 3.5 mM-1 threshold. Moreover, mathematical modeling of the oxygen uptake on-kinetics tended to show a higher slow component as compared to fixed interval methods. PMID:28149379

  13. Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Plateau Best Predicts Early Death in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James E.; Stringer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The responses of oxygen uptake efficiency (ie, oxygen uptake/ventilation = V˙o2/V˙e) and its highest plateau (OUEP) during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with chronic left heart failure (HF) have not been previously reported. We planned to test the hypothesis that OUEP during CPET is the best single predictor of early death in HF. Methods: We evaluated OUEP, slope of V˙o2 to log(V˙e) (oxygen uptake efficiency slope), oscillatory breathing, and all usual resting and CPET measurements in 508 patients with low-ejection-fraction (< 35%) HF. Each had further evaluations at other sites, including cardiac catheterization. Outcomes were 6-month all-reason mortality and morbidity (death or > 24 h cardiac hospitalization). Statistical analyses included area under curve of receiver operating characteristics, ORs, univariate and multivariate Cox regression, and Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: OUEP, which requires only moderate exercise, was often reduced in patients with HF. A low % predicted OUEP was the single best predictor of mortality (P < .0001), with an OR of 13.0 (P < .001). When combined with oscillatory breathing, the OR increased to 56.3, superior to all other resting or exercise parameters or combinations of parameters. Other statistical analyses and morbidity analysis confirmed those findings. Conclusions: OUEP is often reduced in patients with HF. Low % predicted OUEP (< 65% predicted) is the single best predictor of early death, better than any other CPET or other cardiovascular measurement. Paired with oscillatory breathing, it is even more powerful. PMID:22030802

  14. Historical perspectives of cellular oxygen sensing and responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, S

    2000-04-01

    The responses to acute and chronic hypoxia begin with oxygen sensing, and this historical perspective is written in line with this concept. The earliest pertinent work started with studies on fermentation in yeast in the 17th century, before the discovery of oxygen. It required 200 yr to localize the oxygen sensing within the cells and another 100 yr to discover the cellular oxidation reactions. Today, the consensus is that the mitochondrial respiratory chain is in part the site of oxygen sensing. In addition, membrane-bound NAD(P)H oxidase possibly takes part in oxygen sensing. Oxygen-sensing mechanisms occur in a tissue-specific fashion. For example, the carotid body responds to hypoxia promptly by eliciting a ventilatory response, whereas erythropoietin production in response to hypoxia requires more time, involving new expression of genes. The mechanism has therefore moved from the cells to genes.

  15. Fluid-electrolyte shifts and maximal oxygen uptake in man at simulated altitude /2,287 m/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Adams, W. C.; Juhos, L.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on six trained distance runners (21-23 yr) subjected to an eight-day dietary control at sea level, followed by an eight-day stay in an altitude chamber (2287-m altitude) and a four-day recovery at sea level. Fluid and electrolyte shifts during exercise at altitude were evaluated to gain insight into the mechanism of reduction in working capacity. The results are discussed in terms of resting fluid volumes and blood constituents, maximal exercise variables, and maximal exercise fluid-electrolyte shifts. Since there are no significant changes in fluid balance or resting plasma volume (PV) at altitude, it is concluded that neither these nor the excessive PV shifts with exercise contribute to the reduction in maximal oxygen uptake at altitude. During altitude exposure the percent loss in PV is found to follow the percent reduction in maximal oxygen uptake; however, on the first day of recovery the percent change in PV remains depressed while maximal oxygen uptake returns to control levels.

  16. Cell Proliferation, Reactive Oxygen and Cellular Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Day, Regina M.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of cellular activities, including metabolism, growth, and death, are regulated and modulated by the redox status of the environment. A biphasic effect has been demonstrated on cellular proliferation with reactive oxygen species (ROS)—especially hydrogen peroxide and superoxide—in which low levels (usually submicromolar concentrations) induce growth but higher concentrations (usually >10–30 micromolar) induce apoptosis or necrosis. This phenomenon has been demonstrated for primary, immortalized and transformed cell types. However, the mechanism of the proliferative response to low levels of ROS is not well understood. Much of the work examining the signal transduction by ROS, including H2O2, has been performed using doses in the lethal range. Although use of higher ROS doses have allowed the identification of important signal transduction pathways, these pathways may be activated by cells only in association with ROS-induced apoptosis and necrosis, and may not utilize the same pathways activated by lower doses of ROS associated with increased cell growth. Recent data has shown that low levels of exogenous H2O2 up-regulate intracellular glutathione and activate the DNA binding activity toward antioxidant response element. The modulation of the cellular redox environment, through the regulation of cellular glutathione levels, may be a part of the hormetic effect shown by ROS on cell growth. PMID:18648617

  17. Correlation of Emulsion Structure with Cellular Uptake Behavior of Encapsulated Bioactive Nutrients: Influence of Droplet Size and Interfacial Structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Kelly, Alan L; Maguire, Pierce; Zhang, Hongzhou; Stanton, Catherine; Miao, Song

    2016-11-16

    In this study, an in vitro Caco-2 cell culture assay was employed to evaluate the correlation between emulsion structure and cellular uptake of encapsulated β-carotene. After 4 h of incubation, an emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate showed the highest intracellular accumulation of β-carotene (1.06 μg), followed by that stabilized with sodium caseinate (0.60 μg) and Tween 80 (0.20 μg), which are 13-, 7.5-, and 2.5-fold higher than that of free β-carotene (0.08 μg), respectively. Emulsions with small droplet size (239 ± 5 nm) showed a higher cellular uptake of β-carotene (1.56 μg) than emulsiond with large droplet size (489 ± 9 nm) (0.93 μg) (p < 0.01). The results suggested that delivery in an emulsion significantly improved the cellular uptake of β-carotene and thus potentially its bioavailability; uptake was closely correlated with the interfacial composition and droplet size of emulsions. The findings support the potential for achieving optimal controlled and targeted delivery of bioactive nutrients by structuring emulsions.

  18. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Alan L.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier) on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers. PMID:28930195

  19. Oxygen measurement in interstitially perfused cellularized constructs cultured in a miniaturized bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Manuela T; Giordano, Carmen; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2015-12-18

    The possibility of developing engineered tissue in vitro and maintaining the cell viability and functionality is primarily related to the possibility of controlling key culture parameters such as oxygen concentration and cell-specific oxygen consumption. We measured these parameters in a three-dimensional (3D) cellularized construct maintained under interstitially perfused culture in a miniaturized bioreactor. MG63 osteosarcoma cells were seeded at high density on a 3D polystyrene scaffold. The 3D scaffolds were sensorized with sensor foils made of a polymer, which fluoresce with intensity proportional to the local oxygen tension. Images of the sensor foil in contact with the cellularized construct were acquired with a video camera every four hours for six culture days and were elaborated with analytical imaging software to obtain oxygen concentration maps. The data collected indicate a globally decreasing oxygen concentration profile, with a total drop of 28% after six days of culture and an average drop of 10.5% between the inlet and outlet of the perfused construct. Moreover, by importing the measured oxygen concentration data and the cell counts in a model of mass transport, we calculated the cell-specific oxygen consumption over the whole culture period. The consumption increased with oxygen availability and ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 µmol/h/106 cells. The sensors used here allowed a non-invasive, contamination-free and non-destructive oxygen measurement over the whole culture period. This study is the basis for optimization of the culture parameters involved in oxygen supply, in order to guarantee maintenance of cell viability in our system.

  20. Differential polymer structure tunes mechanism of cellular uptake and transfection routes of poly(β-amino ester) polyplexes in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Sunshine, Joel C; Green, Jordan J

    2014-01-15

    Successful gene delivery with nonviral particles has several barriers, including cellular uptake, endosomal escape, and nuclear transport. Understanding the mechanisms behind these steps is critical to enhancing the effectiveness of gene delivery. Polyplexes formed with poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs) have been shown to effectively transfer DNA to various cell types, but the mechanism of their cellular uptake has not been identified. This is the first study to evaluate the uptake mechanism of PBAE polyplexes and the dependence of cellular uptake on the end group and molecular weight of the polymer. We synthesized three different analogues of PBAEs with the same base polymer poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) (B4S4) but with small changes in the end group or molecular weight. We quantified the uptake and transfection efficiencies of the pDNA polyplexes formulated from these polymers in hard-to-transfect triple negative human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB 231). All polymers formed positively charged (10-17 mV) nanoparticles of ∼200 nm in size. Cellular internalization of all three formulations was inhibited the most (60-90% decrease in cellular uptake) by blocking caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Greater inhibition was shown with polymers that had a 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end group (E7) than the others with a 2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethanol end group (E6) or higher molecular weight. However, caveolae-mediated endocytosis was generally not as efficient as clathrin-mediated endocytosis in leading to transfection. These findings indicate that PBAE polyplexes can be used to transfect triple negative human breast cancer cells and that small changes to the same base polymer can modulate their cellular uptake and transfection routes.

  1. Mechanisms of Oxygen Toxicity at the Cellular Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    exposed and measured using glucose as the sole carbon source. Addition of SH containing reducing agents (cysteine, lipoic acid or dithiothreitol) before...of a Few Seconds. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 16:1645-1657 (1974). (28) Brown, O.R. Failure of Lipoic Acid to Protect Against Cellular Oxygen...respiration, and fatty acid synthesis. The interruption of fatty acid synthesis is not the result of inactivation of the fatty acid synthetase enzyme complex

  2. Cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of PEG-b-PLA polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Wan, Jiangling; Xiao, Ling; Gan, Lu; Feng, Youmei; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2012-10-01

    Besides as an inert carrier for hydrophobic anticancer agents, polymeric micelles composed of di-block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) function as biological response modifiers including reversal of multidrug resistance in cancer. However, the uptake mechanisms and the subsequent intracellular trafficking remain to be elucidated. In this paper, we found that the uptake of PEG-b-PLA polymeric micelles incorporating nile red (M-NR) was significantly inhibited by both dynamin inhibitor dynasore and dynamin-2 dominant negative mutant (dynamin-2 K44A). Exogenously expressed caveolin-1 colocalized with M-NR and upregulated M-NR internalization in HepG2 cells expressing low level of endogenous caveolin-1, while caveolin-1 dominant negative mutant (caveolin-1 Y14F) significantly downregulated M-NR internalization in C6 cells expressing high level of endogenous caveolin-1. Exogenously expressed clathrin light chain A (clathrin LCa) did not mainly colocalize with the internalized M-NR and had no effect on M-NR uptake. These results suggested that dynamin- and caveolin-dependent but clathrin-independent endocytosis was involved in M-NR cellular uptake. We further found that M-NR colocalized with lysosome and microtubulin after internalization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combinatorics of feedback in cellular uptake and metabolism of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs; Sneppen, Kim

    2007-12-26

    We analyze the connection between structure and function for regulatory motifs associated with cellular uptake and usage of small molecules. Based on the boolean logic of the feedback we suggest four classes: the socialist, consumer, fashion, and collector motifs. We find that the socialist motif is good for homeostasis of a useful but potentially poisonous molecule, whereas the consumer motif is optimal for nutrition molecules. Accordingly, examples of these motifs are found in, respectively, the iron homeostasis system in various organisms and in the uptake of sugar molecules in bacteria. The remaining two motifs have no obvious analogs in small molecule regulation, but we illustrate their behavior using analogies to fashion and obesity. These extreme motifs could inspire construction of synthetic systems that exhibit bistable, history-dependent states, and homeostasis of flux (rather than concentration).

  4. Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

  5. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - A Pilot Study on the Influence of Cardiovascular Medication on Regulatory Processes.

    PubMed

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Baum, Klaus; Brinkmann, Christian; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether there are differences in heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients, considering their cardiovascular medication. It was hypothesized that cardiovascular medication would affect heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics and that this could be detected using a standardized exercise test. 18 subjects were tested for maximal oxygen uptake. Kinetics were measured in a single test session with standardized, randomized moderate-intensity work rate changes. Time series analysis was used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions indicate faster kinetics. 6 patients did not take any cardiovascular medication, 6 subjects took peripherally acting medication and 6 patients were treated with centrally acting medication. Maximum oxygen uptake was not significantly different between groups. Significant main effects were identified regarding differences in muscular oxygen uptake kinetics and heart rate kinetics. Muscular oxygen uptake kinetics were significantly faster than heart rate kinetics in the group with no cardiovascular medication (maximum in cross-correlation function of muscular oxygen uptake vs. heart rate; 0.32±0.08 vs. 0.25±0.06; p=0.001) and in the group taking peripherally acting medication (0.34±0.05 vs. 0.28±0.05; p=0.009) but not in the patients taking centrally acting medication (0.28±0.05 vs. 0.30±0.07; n.s.). It can be concluded that regulatory processes for the achievement of a similar maximal oxygen uptake are different between the groups. The used standardized test provided plausible results for heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in a single measurement session in this patient group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Biomechanics and Thermodynamics of Nanoparticle Interactions with Plasma and Endosomal Membrane Lipids in Cellular Uptake and Endosomal Escape

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To be effective for cytoplasmic delivery of therapeutics, nanoparticles (NPs) taken up via endocytic pathways must efficiently transport across the cell membrane and subsequently escape from the secondary endosomes. We hypothesized that the biomechanical and thermodynamic interactions of NPs with plasma and endosomal membrane lipids are involved in these processes. Using model plasma and endosomal lipid membranes, we compared the interactions of cationic NPs composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) modified with the dichain surfactant didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) or the single-chain surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) vs anionic unmodified NPs of similar size. We validated our hypothesis in doxorubicin-sensitive (MCF-7, with relatively fluid membranes) and resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR, with rigid membranes). Despite their cationic surface charges, DMAB- and CTAB-modified NPs showed different patterns of biophysical interaction: DMAB-modified NPs induced bending of the model plasma membrane, whereas CTAB-modified NPs condensed the membrane, thereby resisted bending. Unmodified NPs showed no effects on bending. DMAB-modified NPs also induced thermodynamic instability of the model endosomal membrane, whereas CTAB-modified and unmodified NPs had no effect. Since bending of the plasma membrane and destabilization of the endosomal membrane are critical biophysical processes in NP cellular uptake and endosomal escape, respectively, we tested these NPs for cellular uptake and drug efficacy. Confocal imaging showed that in both sensitive and resistant cells DMAB-modified NPs exhibited greater cellular uptake and escape from endosomes than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs. Further, paclitaxel-loaded DMAB-modified NPs induced greater cytotoxicity even in resistant cells than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs or drug in solution, demonstrating the potential of DMAB-modified NPs to overcome the transport barrier in resistant cells. In

  7. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  8. Coating barium titanate nanoparticles with polyethylenimine improves cellular uptake and allows for coupled imaging and gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Christopher; Lee, Isac; Cowan, Katie; Suh, Junghae

    2015-01-01

    Barium titanate nanoparticles (BT NP) belong to a class of second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes that have recently demonstrated promise in biological imaging. Unfortunately, BT NPs display low cellular uptake efficiencies, which may be a problem if cellular internalization is desired or required for a particular application. To overcome this issue, while concomitantly developing a particle platform that can also deliver nucleic acids into cells, we coated the BT NPs with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) – one of the most effective nonviral gene delivery agents. Coating of BT with PEI yielded complexes with positive zeta potentials and resulted in an 8-fold increase in cellular uptake of the BT NPs. Importantly, we were able to achieve high levels of gene delivery with the BT-PEI/DNA complexes, supporting further efforts to generate BT platforms for coupled imaging and gene therapy. PMID:23973999

  9. Cellular uptake and metabolism of curcuminoids in monocytes/macrophages: regulatory effects on lipid accumulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously showed that curcumin (CUR) may increase lipid accumulation in cultured THP-1 monocytes/macrophages, but tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), an in vivo metabolite of CUR, had no such effect. In the present study, we have hypothesized that different cellular uptake and/or metabolism of CUR and THC...

  10. Combined Effect of Cameo2 and CBP on the Cellular Uptake of Lutein in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Chai, Chun-Li; Pan, Cai-Xia; Tang, Hui; Chen, Yan-Hong; Dai, Fang-Yin; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Formation of yellow-red color cocoons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, occurs as the result of the selective delivery of carotenoids from the midgut to the silk gland via the hemolymph. This process of pigment transport is thought to be mediated by specific cellular carotenoids carrier proteins. Previous studies indicated that two proteins, Cameo2 and CBP, are associated with the selective transport of lutein from the midgut into the silk gland in Bombyx mori. However, the exact roles of Cameo2 and CBP during the uptake and transport of carotenoids are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the respective contributions of these two proteins to lutein and β-carotene transport in Bombyx mori as well as commercial cell-line. We found that tissues, expressed both Cameo2 and CBP, accumulate lutein. Cells, co-expressed Cameo2 and CBP, absorb 2 fold more lutein (P<0.01) than any other transfected cells, and the rate of cellular uptake of lutein was concentration-dependent and reached saturation. From immunofluorescence staining, confocal microscopy observation and western blot analysis, Cameo2 was localized at the membrane and CBP was expressed in the cytosol. What’s more, bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis showed that these two proteins directly interacted at cellular level. Therefore, Cameo2 and CBP are necessarily expressed in midguts and silk glands for lutein uptake in Bombyx mori. Cameo2 and CBP, as the membrane protein and the cytosol protein, respectively, have the combined effect to facilitate the cellular uptake of lutein. PMID:24475153

  11. Cellular Oxygen and Nutrient Sensing in Microgravity Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szmacinski, Henryk

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen and nutrient sensing is fundamental to the understanding of cell growth and metabolism. This requires identification of optical probes and suitable detection technology without complex calibration procedures. Under this project Microcosm developed an experimental technique that allows for simultaneous imaging of intra- and inter-cellular events. The technique consists of frequency-domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM), a set of identified oxygen and pH probes, and methods for fabrication of microsensors. Specifications for electronic and optical components of FLIM instrumentation are provided. Hardware and software were developed for data acquisition and analysis. Principles, procedures, and representative images are demonstrated. Suitable lifetime sensitive oxygen, pH, and glucose probes for intra- and extra-cellular measurements of analyte concentrations have been identified and tested. Lifetime sensing and imaging have been performed using PBS buffer, culture media, and yeast cells as a model systems. Spectral specifications, calibration curves, and probes availability are also provided in the report.

  12. Influence of Prolonged Spaceflight on Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Moore, A.; Drescher, U.

    2013-02-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, physical training is used to minimize cardiovascular deconditioning. Measurement of the kinetics of cardiorespiratory parameters, in particular the kinetic analysis of heart rate, respiratory and muscular oxygen uptake, provides useful information with regard to the efficiency and regulation of the cardiorespiratory system. Practically, oxygen uptake kinetics can only be measured at the lung site (V’O2 resp). The dynamics of V’O2 resp, however, is not identical with the dynamics at the site of interest: skeletal muscle. Eight Astronauts were tested pre- and post-flight using pseudo random binary workload changes between 30 and 80 W. Their kinetic responses of heart rate, respiratory as well as muscular V’O2 kinetics were estimated by using time-series analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that the kinetic responses of respiratory as well as muscular V’O2 kinetics are slowed post-flight than pre-flight. Heart rate seems not to be influenced following flight. The influence of other factors (e. g. astronauts’ exercise training) may impact these parameters and is an area for future studies.

  13. An Inexpensive Electrode and Cell for Measurement of Oxygen Uptake in Chemical and Biochemical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunet, Juan E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The continuous measurement of oxygen consumption in an enzymatic reaction is a frequent experimental fact and extremely important in the enzymatic activity of oxygenase. An electrochemical system, based on a polarographic method, has been developed to monitor the oxygen uptake. The system developed and electrode used are described. (JN)

  14. Hydrologic and geochemical effects on oxygen uptake in bottom sediments of an effluent-dominated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Tindall, J.A.; Collins, J.A.; Lull, K.J.; Nuttle, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    More than 95% of the water in the South Platte River downstream from the largest wastewater treatment plant serving the metropolitan Denver, Colorado, area consists of treated effluent during some periods of low flow. Fluctuations in effluent-discharge rates caused daily changes in river stage that promoted exchange of water between the river and bottom sediments. Groundwater discharge measurements indicated fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface as high as 18 m3 s−1 km−1. Laboratory experiments indicated that downward movement of surface water through bottom sediments at velocities comparable to those measured in the field (median rate ≈0.005 cm s−1) substantially increased dissolved oxygen uptake rates in bottom sediments (maximum rate 212 ± 10 μmol O2 L−1 h−1) compared with rates obtained when no vertical advective flux was generated (maximum rate 25 ± 8.8 μmol O2 L−1 h−1). Additions of dissolved ammonium to surface waters generally increased dissolved oxygen uptake rates relative to rates measured in experiments without ammonium. However, the magnitude of the advective flux through bottom sediments had a greater effect on dissolved oxygen uptake rates than did the availability of ammonium. Results from this study indicated that efforts to improve dissolved oxygen dynamics in effluent-dominated rivers might include stabilizing daily fluctuations in river stage.

  15. Novel theranostic zinc phthalocyanine-phospholipid complex self-assembled nanoparticles for imaging-guided targeted photodynamic treatment with controllable ROS production and shape-assisted enhanced cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinyuan; Li, Yang; Liu, Guihua; Li, Ai; Chen, Yilin; Zhou, Xinyi; Chen, Dengyue; Hou, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xuan

    2018-02-01

    The novel drug delivery system based on self-assembly of zinc phthalocyanine-soybean phosphatidylcholine (ZnPc-SPC) complex was developed by a co-solvent method followed by a nanoprecipitaion technique. DSPE-PEG-methotrexate (DSPE-PEG-MTX) was introduced on the surface of ZnPc-SPC self-assembled nanoparticles (ZS) to endow them with folate receptor-targeting property. NMR, XRD, FTIR, and UV-vis-NIR analysis demonstrated the weak molecular interaction between ZnPc and SPC. The ZS functionalized with DSPE-PEG-MTX (ZSPM) was successfully constructed with an average particle size of ∼170nm, a narrow size distribution, and could remain physiologically stable for at least 7days. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that ZSPM exhibited stronger cellular uptake efficacy and photodynamic cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cells than ZS functionalized with DSPE-mPEG (ZSP) and free ZnPc. More importantly, ZSPM showed the enhanced accumulation effect at the tumor region compared with ZSP by the active-plus-passive targeting via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, in vivo antitumor effect and histological analysis demonstrated the superior tumor growth inhibition effect of ZSPM. In addition, the needle-shape ZSP (ZSPN) exhibited better in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo tumor accumulation compared with ZSP due to the shape-assisted effect. Moreover, the interesting off-on switch effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of ZnPc-SPC complex-based nanoparticles was discovered to achieve photodynamic treatment in a controllable way. These findings suggested that the ZnPc-SPC complex-based self-assembled nanoparticles could serve as a promising and effective formulation to achieve tumor-targeting fluorescence imaging and enhanced photodynamic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Correlating two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of breast cancer cellular redox state with seahorse flux analysis of normalized cellular oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jue; Wright, Heather J.; Chan, Nicole; Tran, Richard; Razorenova, Olga V.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of the cellular cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide is widely used to measure cellular metabolism, both in normal and pathological cells and tissues. When dual-wavelength excitation is used, ratiometric TPEF imaging of the intrinsic cofactor fluorescence provides a metabolic index of cells-the "optical redox ratio" (ORR). With increased interest in understanding and controlling cellular metabolism in cancer, there is a need to evaluate the performance of ORR in malignant cells. We compare TPEF metabolic imaging with seahorse flux analysis of cellular oxygen consumption in two different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We monitor metabolic index in living cells under both normal culture conditions and, for MCF-7, in response to cell respiration inhibitors and uncouplers. We observe a significant correlation between the TPEF-derived ORR and the flux analyzer measurements (R=0.7901, p<0.001). Our results confirm that the ORR is a valid dynamic index of cell metabolism under a range of oxygen consumption conditions relevant for cancer imaging.

  17. Oxygen uptake on-kinetics during six-minute walk test predicts short-term outcomes after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Isadora Salvador; Viceconte, Marcela; Pauletti, Hayanne Osiro; Matos-Garcia, Bruna Caroline; Marcondi, Natasha Oliveira; Bublitz, Caroline; Bolzan, Douglas William; Moreira, Rita Simone Lopes; Reis, Michel Silva; Hossne, Nelson Américo; Gomes, Walter José; Arena, Ross; Guizilini, Solange

    2017-12-26

    We aimed to investigate the ability of oxygen uptake kinetics to predict short-term outcomes after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Fifty-two patients aged 60.9 ± 7.8 years waiting for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were evaluated. The 6-min walk test distance was performed pre-operatively, while simultaneously using a portable cardiopulmonary testing device. The transition of oxygen uptake kinetics from rest to exercise was recorded to calculate oxygen uptake kinetics fitting a monoexponential regression model. Oxygen uptake at steady state, constant time, and mean response time corrected by work rate were analysed. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated during the early post-operative of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Multivariate analysis showed body mass index, surgery time, and mean response time corrected by work rate as independent predictors for short-term outcomes. The optimal mean response time corrected by work rate cut-off to estimate short-term clinical outcomes was 1.51 × 10 -3  min 2 /ml. Patients with slower mean response time corrected by work rate demonstrated higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, EuroSCOREII, left ventricular dysfunction, and impaired 6-min walk test parameters. The per cent-predicted distance threshold of 66% in the pre-operative was associated with delayed oxygen uptake kinetics. Pre-operative oxygen uptake kinetics during 6-min walk test predicts short-term clinical outcomes after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. From a clinically applicable perspective, a threshold of 66% of pre-operative predicted 6-min walk test distance indicated slower kinetics, which leads to longer intensive care unit and post-surgery hospital length of stay. Implications for rehabilitation Coronary artery bypass grafting is a treatment aimed to improve expectancy of life and prevent disability due to the disease progression; The use of pre-operative submaximal functional capacity test enabled the

  18. [Effects of Triton X-100 on the oxygen uptake rate of photosystem I particles treated at 70 degrees C].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhen-Le; Li, Liang-Bi; Kuang, Ting-Yun

    2005-06-01

    The characteristics including oxygen uptake rates, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra of photosystem I particles with or without Triton-X 100 treatment before or after the incubation at 70 degrees C for 10 min were compared. The oxygen uptake rates of photosystem I particles decreased after being incubated at 70 degrees C for 10 min, which could be recovered by the addition of Triton-X 100. Singlet oxygen was formed when the light-harvesting complex I was separated from the core complex of photosystem I, which resulted in high oxygen uptake rate. There was much difference in the fluorescence spectra of photosystem I particles between photosystem I particles treated with Triton-X 100 after the incubation at 70 degrees C for 10 min or not, which implies the ability of Triton-X 100 to promote the recovery of photosystem I particles after the incubation at 70 degrees C for 10 min.

  19. Optimal villi density for maximal oxygen uptake in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Brownbill, P; Grebenkov, D S; Filoche, M

    2015-01-07

    We present a stream-tube model of oxygen exchange inside a human placenta functional unit (a placentone). The effect of villi density on oxygen transfer efficiency is assessed by numerically solving the diffusion-convection equation in a 2D+1D geometry for a wide range of villi densities. For each set of physiological parameters, we observe the existence of an optimal villi density providing a maximal oxygen uptake as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villus surface. The predicted optimal villi density 0.47±0.06 is compatible to previous experimental measurements. Several other ways to experimentally validate the model are also proposed. The proposed stream-tube model can serve as a basis for analyzing the efficiency of human placentas, detecting possible pathologies and diagnosing placental health risks for newborns by using routine histology sections collected after birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrodynamic size-dependent cellular uptake of aqueous QDs probed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chaoqing; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2012-10-11

    Aqueous quantum dots (QDs) directly synthesized with various thiol ligands have been investigated as imaging probes in living cells. However, the effect of the surface chemistry of these ligands on QDs' cellular uptakes and their intracellular fate remains poorly understood. In this work, four CdTe QDs were directly synthesized under aqueous conditions using four different thiols as stabilizers and their interactions with cells were investigated. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and zeta potential measurements on QDs primarily show that the surface structure of these QDs is highly dependent on the thiol ligands used in the preparation of QDs' precursors, including its layer thicknesses, densities, and surface charges. Subsequently, FCS integrated with the maximum-entropy-method-based FCS (MEMFCS) was used to investigate the concentration distribution and dynamics of these QDs in living A-427 cells. Our findings indicate that QDs' surface characteristics affect cell membrane adsorption and subsequent internalization. More critically, we show that the cellular uptake of aqueous QDs is dependent on their hydrodynamic diameter and might have the potential to escape trapped environments to accumulate in the cytoplasm.

  1. Oxygen regulates amino acid turnover and carbohydrate uptake during the preimplantation period of mouse embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wale, Petra L; Gardner, David K

    2012-07-01

    Oxygen is a powerful regulator of preimplantation embryo development, affecting gene expression, the proteome, and energy metabolism. Even a transient exposure to atmospheric oxygen can have a negative impact on embryo development, which is greatest prior to compaction, and subsequent postcompaction culture at low oxygen cannot alleviate this damage. In spite of this evidence, the majority of human in vitro fertilization is still performed at atmospheric oxygen. One of the physiological parameters shown to be affected by the relative oxygen concentration, carbohydrate metabolism, is linked to the ability of the mammalian embryo to develop in culture and remain viable after transfer. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of oxygen concentration on the ability of mouse embryos to utilize both amino acids and carbohydrates both before and after compaction. Metabolomic and fluorometric analysis of embryo culture media revealed that when embryos were exposed to atmospheric oxygen during the cleavage stages, they exhibited significantly greater amino acid utilization and pyruvate uptake than when cultured under 5% oxygen. In contrast, postcompaction embryos cultured in atmospheric oxygen showed significantly lower mean amino acid utilization and glucose uptake. These metabolic changes correlated with developmental compromise because embryos grown in atmospheric oxygen at all stages showed significantly lower blastocyst formation and proliferation. These findings confirm the need to consider both embryo development and metabolism in establishing optimal human embryo growth conditions and prognostic markers of viability, and further highlight the impact of oxygen on such vital parameters.

  2. FAT/CD36 expression alone is insufficient to enhance cellular uptake of oleate

    SciTech Connect

    Eyre, Nicholas S.; Cleland, Leslie G.; Mayrhofer, Graham

    2008-06-06

    Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is one of several proteins implicated in receptor-mediated uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). We have tested whether levels of FAT/CD36 correlate with cellular oleic acid import, using a Tet-Off inducible transfected CHO cell line. Consistent with our previous findings, FAT/CD36 was enriched in lipid raft-derived detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) that also contained caveolin-1, the marker protein of caveolae. Furthermore in transfected cells, plasma membrane FAT/CD36 co-localized extensively with the lipid raft-enriched ganglioside GM1, and partially with a caveolin-1-EGFP fusion protein. Nevertheless, even at high levels of expression, FAT/CD36 did not affect uptake of oleic acid. Wemore » propose that the ability of FAT/CD36 to mediate enhanced uptake of LCFAs is dependent on co-expression of other proteins or factors that are lacking in CHO cells.« less

  3. Gymnasium-based unsupervised exercise maintains benefits in oxygen uptake kinetics obtained following supervised training in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Macananey, Oscar; O'Shea, Donal; Warmington, Stuart A; Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel

    2012-08-01

    Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (V(T)), 80% V(T), and mid-point between V(T) and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly faster (p < 0.05) post-SE and post-UE compared with baseline at 50% V(T) (17.3 ± 10.7 s and 17.5 ± 5.9 s vs. 29.9 ± 10.7 s), 80% V(T) (18.9 ± 4.7 and 20.9 ± 8.4 vs. 34.3 ± 12.7s), and 50% Δ (20.4 ± 8.2 s and 20.2 ± 6.0 s vs. 27.6 ± 3.7 s). SE also induced faster heart rate kinetics at all 3 intensities and a larger increase in CO at 30 s in relation to 240 s at 80% V(T); and these responses were maintained post-UE. Unsupervised exercise maintained benefits in oxygen uptake kinetics obtained during a supervised exercise in subjects with diabetes, and these benefits were associated with a faster dynamic response of heart rate after training.

  4. Cellular uptake and retention measurements of alkylphosphocholines in the SK-BR-3 breast cancer and Molt-4 leukemia cell line using capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brochez, V; Van Heuverswyn, D; Diniz, J A; De Potter, C R; Van den Eeckhout, E G

    1999-05-01

    The determination of cellular content of octadecylphosphocholine (D-19391) and hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC, D-18506), two anticancer agents of the alkylphosphocholine group, using capillary gas chromatography is described. The compounds' cytotoxicity was first determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium] assay, being indicative for the concentration used in the uptake and retention measurements. D-19391 was added to the SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell line and HePC to the Molt-4 leukemia cell line in concentrations of, respectively, 18.6 and 15.0 microM, during a 36-h incubation period at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2. HePC uptake in the leukemia cells was followed by a 24-h reversibility test in drug-free medium. Subsequently, sample clean-up was performed on a weak cation-exchange column. For the quantitative analysis, HePC was used as internal standard for the D-19391 measurements and vice versa. Derivatization of the samples with trimethylsilylbromide was followed by capillary gas chromatographic analysis. From these data we conclude that our uptake results are quite similar with those of a previous study of HePC cellular uptake in the more resistant Caco-2T colon cancer cell line. Without having investigated the mechanism that underlies the cellular uptake results obtained, our study points to no direct correlation between the compounds' cellular uptake and their cytotoxic effects.

  5. Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake

  6. Prediction of maximal oxygen uptake by bioelectrical impedance analysis in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M D; Drinkard, B; Ranzenhofer, L M; Salaita, C G; Sebring, N G; Brady, S M; Pinchbeck, C; Hoehl, J; Yanoff, L B; Savastano, D M; Han, J C; Yanovski, J A

    2009-09-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), the gold standard for measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness, is frequently difficult to assess in overweight individuals due to physical limitations. Reactance and resistance measures obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have been suggested as easily obtainable predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness, but the accuracy with which ht(2)/Z can predict VO(2max) has not previously been examined in overweight adolescents. The impedance index was used as a predictor of VO(2max) in 87 overweight girls and 47 overweight boys ages 12 to 17 with mean BMI of 38.6 + or - 7.3 and 42.5 + or - 8.2 in girls and boys respectively. The Bland Altman procedure assessed agreement between predicted and actual VO(2max). Predicted VO(2max) was significantly correlated with measured VO(2max) (r(2)=0.48, P<0.0001). Using the Bland Altman procedure, there was significant magnitude bias (r(2)=0.10; P<0.002). The limits of agreement for predicted relative to actual VO(2max) were -589 to 574 mL O(2)/min. The impedance index was highly correlated with VO(2max) in overweight adolescents. However, using BIA data to predict maximal oxygen uptake over-predicted VO(2max) at low levels of oxygen consumption and under-predicted VO(2max) at high levels of oxygen consumption. This magnitude bias, along with the large limits of agreement of BIA-derived predicted VO(2max), limit its usefulness in the clinical setting for overweight adolescents.

  7. Faster heart rate and muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients following endurance training.

    PubMed

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Brinkmann, Christian; Baum, Klaus; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory kinetics were analyzed in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 12-week endurance exercise-training intervention. It was hypothesized that muscular oxygen uptake and heart rate (HR) kinetics would be faster after the training intervention and that this would be detectable using a standardized work rate protocol with pseudo-random binary sequences. The cardiorespiratory kinetics of 13 male sedentary, middle-aged, overweight type 2 diabetes patients (age, 60 ± 8 years; body mass index, 33 ± 4 kg·m -2 ) were tested before and after the 12-week exercise intervention. Subjects performed endurance training 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days. Pseudo-random binary sequences exercise protocols in combination with time series analysis were used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions (CCF max ) represent faster kinetics of the respective parameter. CCF max of muscular oxygen uptake (pre-training: 0.31 ± 0.03; post-training: 0.37 ± 0.1, P = 0.024) and CCF max of HR (pre-training: 0.25 ± 0.04; post-training: 0.29 ± 0.06, P = 0.007) as well as peak oxygen uptake (pre-training: 24.4 ± 4.7 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; post-training: 29.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , P = 0.004) increased significantly over the course of the exercise intervention. In conclusion, kinetic responses to changing work rates in the moderate-intensity range are similar to metabolic demands occurring in everyday habitual activities. Moderate endurance training accelerated the kinetic responses of HR and muscular oxygen uptake. Furthermore, the applicability of the used method to detect these accelerations was demonstrated.

  8. The influence of different space-related physiological variations on exercise capacity determined by oxygen uptake kinetics.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, J

    1992-07-01

    Oxygen uptake kinetics, following defined variations of work load changes allow to estimate the contribution of aerob and anaerob energy supply which is the base for determining work capacity. Under the aspect of long duration missions with application of adequate dosed countermeasures, a reliable estimate of the astronaut's work capacity is important to adjust the necessary inflight training. Since the kinetics of oxygen uptake originate in the working muscle group itself, while measurements are performed at the mouth, various influences within the oxygen transport system might disturb the determinations. There are not only detraining effects but also well-known other influences, such as blood- and fluid shifts induced by weightlessness. They might have an impact on the circulatory system. Some of these factors have been simulated by immersion, blood donation, and changing of the body position.

  9. The influence of different space-related physiological variations on exercise capacity determined by oxygen uptake kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegemann, J.

    Oxygen uptake kinetics, following defined variations of work load changes allow to estimate the contribution of aerob and anaerob energy supply which is the base for determining work capacity. Under the aspect of long duration missions with application of adequate dosed countermeasures, a reliable estimate of the astronaut's work capacity is important to adjust the necessary inflight training. Since the kinetics of oxygen uptake originate in the working muscle group itself, while measurements are performed at the mouth, various influences within the oxygen transport system might disturb the determinations. There are not only detraining effects but also well-known other influences, such as blood- and fluid shifts induced by weightlessness. They might have an impact on the circulatory system. Some of these factors have been simulated by immersion, blood donation, and changing of the body position.

  10. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  11. Deformable Hollow Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanocapsules for Significantly Improved Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Chunyan; Tang, Yuxia; Li, Wei; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Xuehua; Su, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Shouju; Zhao, Dongyuan; Lu, Guangming

    2018-01-31

    Mesoporous solids have been widely used in various biomedical areas such as drug delivery and tumor therapy. Although deformability has been recognized as a prime important characteristic influencing cellular uptake, the synthesis of deformable mesoporous solids is still a great challenge. Herein, deformable thioether-, benzene-, and ethane-bridged hollow periodic mesoporous organosilica (HPMO) nanocapsules have successfully been synthesized for the first time by a preferential etching approach. The prepared HPMO nanocapsules possess uniform diameters (240-310 nm), high surface areas (up to 878 m 2 ·g -1 ), well-defined mesopores (2.6-3.2 nm), and large pore volumes (0.33-0.75 m 3 ·g -1 ). Most importantly, the HPMO nanocapsules simultaneously have large hollow cavities (164-270 nm), thin shell thicknesses (20-38 nm), and abundant organic moiety in the shells, which endow a lower Young's modulus (E Y ) of 3.95 MPa than that of solid PMO nanoparticles (251 MPa). The HPMOs with low E Y are intrinsically flexible and deformable in the solution, which has been well-characterized by liquid cell electron microscopy. More interestingly, it is found that the deformable HPMOs can easily enter into human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a spherical-to-oval morphology change, resulting in a 26-fold enhancement in cellular uptake (43.1% cells internalized with nanocapsules versus 1.65% cells with solid counterparts). The deformable HPMO nanocapsules were further loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), which shows high killing effects for MCF-7 cells, demonstrating the promise for biomedical applications.

  12. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Uptake Using Both Exercise and Non-Exercise Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, James D.; Paul, Samantha L.; Hyde, Annette; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to develop a regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2max]) based on submaximal treadmill exercise (EX) and non-exercise (N-EX) data involving 116 participants, ages 18-65 years. The EX data included the participants' self-selected treadmill speed (at a level grade) when exercise heart rate first reached…

  13. Dispersion Behaviour of Silica Nanoparticles in Biological Media and Its Influence on Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Halamoda-Kenzaoui, Blanka; Ceridono, Mara; Colpo, Pascal; Valsesia, Andrea; Urbán, Patricia; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Gioria, Sabrina; Gilliland, Douglas; Rossi, François; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing variety of manufactured nanomaterials, suitable, robust, standardized in vitro screening methods are needed to study the mechanisms by which they can interact with biological systems. The in vitro evaluation of interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with living cells is challenging due to the complex behaviour of NPs, which may involve dissolution, aggregation, sedimentation and formation of a protein corona. These variable parameters have an influence on the surface properties and the stability of NPs in the biological environment and therefore also on the interaction of NPs with cells. We present here a study using 30 nm and 80 nm fluorescently-labelled silicon dioxide NPs (Rubipy-SiO2 NPs) to evaluate the NPs dispersion behaviour up to 48 hours in two different cellular media either supplemented with 10% of serum or in serum-free conditions. Size-dependent differences in dispersion behaviour were observed and the influence of the living cells on NPs stability and deposition was determined. Using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy techniques we studied the kinetics of the cellular uptake of Rubipy-SiO2 NPs by A549 and CaCo-2 cells and we found a correlation between the NPs characteristics in cell media and the amount of cellular uptake. Our results emphasize how relevant and important it is to evaluate and to monitor the size and agglomeration state of nanoparticles in the biological medium, in order to interpret correctly the results of the in vitro toxicological assays.

  14. Dispersion Behaviour of Silica Nanoparticles in Biological Media and Its Influence on Cellular Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Halamoda-Kenzaoui, Blanka; Ceridono, Mara; Colpo, Pascal; Valsesia, Andrea; Urbán, Patricia; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Gioria, Sabrina; Gilliland, Douglas; Rossi, François; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing variety of manufactured nanomaterials, suitable, robust, standardized in vitro screening methods are needed to study the mechanisms by which they can interact with biological systems. The in vitro evaluation of interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with living cells is challenging due to the complex behaviour of NPs, which may involve dissolution, aggregation, sedimentation and formation of a protein corona. These variable parameters have an influence on the surface properties and the stability of NPs in the biological environment and therefore also on the interaction of NPs with cells. We present here a study using 30 nm and 80 nm fluorescently-labelled silicon dioxide NPs (Rubipy-SiO2 NPs) to evaluate the NPs dispersion behaviour up to 48 hours in two different cellular media either supplemented with 10% of serum or in serum-free conditions. Size-dependent differences in dispersion behaviour were observed and the influence of the living cells on NPs stability and deposition was determined. Using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy techniques we studied the kinetics of the cellular uptake of Rubipy-SiO2 NPs by A549 and CaCo-2 cells and we found a correlation between the NPs characteristics in cell media and the amount of cellular uptake. Our results emphasize how relevant and important it is to evaluate and to monitor the size and agglomeration state of nanoparticles in the biological medium, in order to interpret correctly the results of the in vitro toxicological assays. PMID:26517371

  15. Size of submicrometric and nanometric particles affect cellular uptake and biological activity of macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, L; Rima, W; Boudard, D; Pourchez, J; Forest, V; Bin, V; Mowat, P; Perriat, P; Tillement, O; Grosseau, P; Bernache-Assollant, D; Cottier, M

    2012-08-01

    Micrometric and nanometric particles are increasingly used in different fields and may exhibit variable toxicity levels depending on their physicochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the size parameter on cellular uptake and biological activity, working with well-characterized fluorescent particles. We focused our attention on macrophages, the main target cells of the respiratory system responsible for the phagocytosis of the particles. FITC fluorescent silica particles of variable submicronic sizes (850, 500, 250 and 150 nm) but with similar surface coating (COOH) were tailored and physico-chemically characterized. These particles were then incubated with the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. After microscopic observations (SEM, TEM, confocal), a quantitative evaluation of the uptake was carried out. Fluorescence detected after a quenching with trypan blue allows us to distinguish and quantify entirely engulfed fluorescent particles from those just adhering to the cell membrane. Finally, these data were compared to the in vitro toxicity assessed in terms of cell damage, inflammation and oxidative stress (evaluated by LDH release, TNF-α and ROS production respectively). Particles were well characterized (fluorescence, size distribution, zeta potential, agglomeration and surface groups) and easily visualized after cellular uptake using confocal and electron microscopy. The number of internalized particles was precisely evaluated. Size was found to be an important parameter regarding particles uptake and in vitro toxicity but this latter strongly depends on the particles doses employed.

  16. Engineering the lipid layer of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced in vitro cellular uptake and improved stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Hoerle, Reece; Ehrich, Marion; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), consisting of a polymeric core and a lipid shell, have been intensively examined as delivery systems for cancer drugs, imaging agents, and vaccines. For applications in vaccine particularly, the hybrid NPs need to be able to protect the enclosed antigens during circulation, easily be up-taken by dendritic cells, and possess good stability for prolonged storage. However, the influence of lipid composition on the performance of hybrid NPs has not been well studied. In this study, we demonstrate that higher concentrations of cholesterol in the lipid layer enable slower and more controlled antigen release from lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (lipid-PLGA) NPs in human serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Higher concentrations of cholesterol also promoted in vitro cellular uptake of hybrid NPs, improved the stability of the lipid layer, and protected the integrity of the hybrid structure during long-term storage. However, stabilized hybrid structures of high cholesterol content tended to fuse with each other during storage, resulting in significant size increase and lowered cellular uptake. Additional experiments demonstrated that PEGylation of NPs could effectively minimize fusion-caused size increase after long term storage, leading to improved cellular uptake, although excessive PEGylation will not be beneficial and led to reduced improvement. This paper reports the engineering of the lipid layer that encloses a polymeric nanoparticle, which can be used as a carrier for drug and vaccine molecules for targeted delivery. We demonstrated that the concentration of cholesterol is critical for the stability and uptake of the hybrid nanoparticles by dendritic cells, a targeted cell for the delivery of immune effector molecules. However, we found that hybrid nanoparticles with high cholesterol concentration tend to fuse during storage resulting in larger particles with decreased cellular uptake. This problem is

  17. Membrane Microdomain Structures of Liposomes and Their Contribution to the Cellular Uptake Efficiency into HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Kawano, Kumi; Sano, Hiromu; Matsumoto, Reina; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Takayama, Kozo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a comprehensive relationship between membrane microdomain structures of liposomes and their cellular uptake efficiency. Model liposomes consisting of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/cholesterol (Ch) were prepared with various lipid compositions. To detect distinct membrane microdomains in the liposomes, fluorescence-quenching assays were performed at temperatures ranging from 25 to 60 °C using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene-labeled liposomes and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl. From the data analysis using the response surface method, we gained a better understanding of the conditions for forming distinct domains (Lo, Ld, and gel phase membranes) as a function of lipid composition. We further performed self-organizing maps (SOM) clustering to simplify the complicated behavior of the domain formation to obtain its essence. As a result, DPPC/DOPC/Ch liposomes in any lipid composition were integrated into five distinct clusters in terms of similarity of the domain structure. In addition, the findings from synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering analysis offered further insight into the domain structures. As a last phase of this study, an in vitro cellular uptake study using HeLa cells was conducted using SOM clusters' liposomes with/without PEGylation. As a consequence of this study, higher cellular uptake was observed from liposomes having Ch-rich ordered domains.

  18. CONTINUOUS, AUTOMATED AND SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN UPTAKE AND CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial respirometers are capable of continuously and automatically measuring oxygen uptake in bioreactors. A method for continuously and automatically measuring carbon dioxide evolution can be retrofitted to commercial respirometers. Continuous and automatic measurements of...

  19. Surface-anchored poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine) with enhanced chirality-selective effect on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Wu, Sai; Yao, Mengyun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is one of the ubiquitous phenomena in biological systems. The left handed (L-) amino acids and right handed (D-) sugars are normally found in proteins, and in RNAs and DNAs, respectively. The effect of chiral surfaces at the nanoscale on cellular uptake has, however, not been explored. This study reveals for the first time the molecular chirality on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functions as a direct regulator for cellular uptake. Monolayers of 2-mercaptoacetyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-MAV) and poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-PAV) chiral molecules were formed on AuNPs surface, respectively. The internalized amount of PAV-AuNPs was several times larger than that of MAV-AuNPs by A549 and HepG2 cells, regardless of the chirality difference. However, the D-PAV-AuNPs were internalized with significantly larger amount than the L-PAV-AuNPs. This chirality-dependent uptake effect is likely attributed to the preferable interaction between the L-phospholipid-based cell membrane and the D-enantiomers. PMID:27531648

  20. Surface-anchored poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine) with enhanced chirality-selective effect on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jun; Wu, Sai; Yao, Mengyun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-08-01

    Chirality is one of the ubiquitous phenomena in biological systems. The left handed (L-) amino acids and right handed (D-) sugars are normally found in proteins, and in RNAs and DNAs, respectively. The effect of chiral surfaces at the nanoscale on cellular uptake has, however, not been explored. This study reveals for the first time the molecular chirality on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functions as a direct regulator for cellular uptake. Monolayers of 2-mercaptoacetyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-MAV) and poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-PAV) chiral molecules were formed on AuNPs surface, respectively. The internalized amount of PAV-AuNPs was several times larger than that of MAV-AuNPs by A549 and HepG2 cells, regardless of the chirality difference. However, the D-PAV-AuNPs were internalized with significantly larger amount than the L-PAV-AuNPs. This chirality-dependent uptake effect is likely attributed to the preferable interaction between the L-phospholipid-based cell membrane and the D-enantiomers.

  1. Surface-anchored poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine) with enhanced chirality-selective effect on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun; Wu, Sai; Yao, Mengyun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-08-17

    Chirality is one of the ubiquitous phenomena in biological systems. The left handed (L-) amino acids and right handed (D-) sugars are normally found in proteins, and in RNAs and DNAs, respectively. The effect of chiral surfaces at the nanoscale on cellular uptake has, however, not been explored. This study reveals for the first time the molecular chirality on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functions as a direct regulator for cellular uptake. Monolayers of 2-mercaptoacetyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-MAV) and poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-PAV) chiral molecules were formed on AuNPs surface, respectively. The internalized amount of PAV-AuNPs was several times larger than that of MAV-AuNPs by A549 and HepG2 cells, regardless of the chirality difference. However, the D-PAV-AuNPs were internalized with significantly larger amount than the L-PAV-AuNPs. This chirality-dependent uptake effect is likely attributed to the preferable interaction between the L-phospholipid-based cell membrane and the D-enantiomers.

  2. Polyethyleneimine Coating Enhances the Cellular Uptake of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles and Allows Safe Delivery of siRNA and DNA Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Kovochich, Michael; Liong, Monty; Meng, Huan; Kabehie, Sanaz; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, Andre E.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP) can be used as an efficient and safe carrier for bioactive molecules. In order to make the MSNP a more efficient delivery system, we modified the surface of the particles by a functional group that enhances cellular uptake and allows nucleic acid delivery in addition to traditional drug delivery. Non-covalent attachment of polyethyleneimine (PEI) polymers to the surface not only increases MSNP cellular uptake, but also generates a cationic surface to which DNA and siRNA constructs could be attached. While efficient for intracellular delivery of these nucleic acids, the 25 KD PEI polymer unfortunately changes the safety profile of the MSNP that is otherwise very safe. By experimenting with several different polymer molecular weights, it was possible to retain high cellular uptake and transfection efficiency while reducing or even eliminating cationic MSNP cytotoxicity. The particles coated with the 10 KD PEI polymer was particularly efficient for transducing HEPA-1 cells with a siRNA construct that was capable of knocking down GFP expression. Similarly, transfection of a GFP plasmid induced effective expression of the fluorescent protein in > 70% cells in the population. These outcomes were quantitatively assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We also demonstrated that the enhanced cellular uptake of the non-toxic cationic MSNP enhance the delivery of the hydrophobic anticancer drug, paclitaxel, to pancreatic cancer cells. In summary, we demonstrate that by a careful selection of PEI size, it is possible to construct cationic MSNP that are capable of nucleotide and enhanced drug delivery with minimal or no cytotoxicity. This novel use of a cationic MSNP extends its therapeutic use potential. PMID:19739605

  3. Maximal and submaximal oxygen uptakes and blood lactate levels in elite male middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Svedenhag, J; Sjödin, B

    1984-10-01

    Physiological characteristics of elite runners from different racing events were studied. Twenty-seven middle- and long-distance runners and two 400-m runners belonging to the Swedish national team in track and field were divided, according to their distance preferences, into six groups from 400 m up to the marathon. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, ml X kg-1 X min-1) on the treadmill was higher the longer the main distance except for the marathon runners (e.g., 800-1500-m group, 72.1; 5000-10,000-m group, 78.7 ml X kg-1 X min-1). Running economy evaluated from oxygen uptake measurements at 15 km/h (VO2 15) and 20 km/h (VO2 20) did not differ significantly between the groups even though VO2 15 tended to be lower in the long-distance runners. The running velocity corresponding to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l (vHla 4.0) differed markedly between the groups with the highest value (5.61 m/s) in the 5000-10,000-m group. The oxygen uptake (VO2) at vHla 4.0 in percentage of VO2 max did not differ significantly between the groups. The blood lactate concentration after exhaustion (VO2 max test) was lower in the long-distance runners. In summary, the present study demonstrates differences in physiological characteristics of elite runners specializing in different racing events. The two single (but certainly inter-related) variables in which this was most clearly seen were the maximal oxygen uptake (ml X kg-1 X min-1) and the running velocity corresponding to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l.

  4. Smart Nanoparticles Undergo Phase Transition for Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Subsequent Intracellular Drug Release in a Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guihua; Jiang, Yajun; Yang, Xiaoying; Hu, Hongxiang; Wang, Beibei; Sun, Lu; Yang, Victor C; Sun, Duxin; Gao, Wei

    2018-01-10

    Inefficient cellular uptake and intracellular drug release at the tumor site are two major obstacles limiting the antitumor efficacy of nanoparticle delivery systems. To overcome both problems, we designed a smart nanoparticle that undergoes phase transition in a tumor microenvironment (TME). The smart nanoparticle is generated using a lipid-polypetide hybrid nanoparticle, which comprises a PEGylated lipid monolayer shell and a pH-sensitive hydrophobic poly-l-histidine core and is loaded with the antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX). The smart nanoparticle undergoes a two-step phase transition at two different pH values in the TME: (i) At the TME (pH e : 7.0-6.5), the smart nanoparticle swells, and its surface potential turns from negative to neutral, facilitating the cellular uptake; (ii) After internalization, at the acid endolysosome (pH endo : 6.5-4.5), the smart nanoparticle dissociates and induces endolysosome escape to release DOX into the cytoplasm. In addition, a tumor-penetrating peptide iNRG was modified on the surface of the smart nanoparticle as a tumor target moiety. The in vitro studies demonstrated that the iNGR-modified smart nanoparticles promoted cellular uptake in the acidic environment (pH 6.8). The in vivo studies showed that the iNGR-modified smart nanoparticles exerted more potent antitumor efficacy against late-stage aggressive breast carcinoma than free DOX. These data suggest that the smart nanoparticles may serve as a promising delivery system for sequential uptake and intracellular drug release of antitumor agents. The easy preparation of these smart nanoparticles may also have advantages in the future manufacture for clinical trials and clinical use.

  5. Fitting a single-phase model to the post-exercise changes in heart rate and oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Stupnicki, R; Gabryś, T; Szmatlan-Gabryś, U; Tomaszewski, P

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of post-exercise heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (EPOC) was studied in 10 elite cyclists subjected to four laboratory cycle ergometer maximal exercises lasting 30, 90, 180 or 360 s. Heart rate and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded over a period of 6 min after the exercise. By applying the logit transformation to the recorded variables and relating them to the decimal logarithm of the recovery time, uniform single-phase courses of changes were shown for both variables in all subjects and exercises. This enabled computing half-recovery times (t(1/2)) for both variables. Half-time for VO2 negatively correlated with square root of exercise duration (within-subject r = -0.629, p < 0.001), the total post-exercise oxygen uptake till t(1/2) was thus constant irrespectively of exercise intensity. The method is simple and enables reliable comparisons of various modes of exercise with respect to the rate of recovery.

  6. Predicting Blood Lactate Concentration and Oxygen Uptake from sEMG Data during Fatiguing Cycling Exercise.

    PubMed

    Ražanskas, Petras; Verikas, Antanas; Olsson, Charlotte; Viberg, Per-Arne

    2015-08-19

    This article presents a study of the relationship between electromyographic (EMG) signals from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, collected during fatiguing cycling exercises, and other physiological measurements, such as blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. In contrast to the usual practice of picking one particular characteristic of the signal, e.g., the median or mean frequency, multiple variables were used to obtain a thorough characterization of EMG signals in the spectral domain. Based on these variables, linear and non-linear (random forest) models were built to predict blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. The results showed that mean and median frequencies are sub-optimal choices for predicting these physiological quantities in dynamic exercises, as they did not exhibit significant changes over the course of our protocol and only weakly correlated with blood lactate concentration or oxygen uptake. Instead, the root mean square of the original signal and backward difference, as well as parameters describing the tails of the EMG power distribution were the most important variables for these models. Coefficients of determination ranging from R(2) = 0:77 to R(2) = 0:98 (for blood lactate) and from R(2) = 0:81 to R(2) = 0:97 (for oxygen uptake) were obtained when using random forest regressors.

  7. Uptake and cellular distribution, in four plant species, of fluorescently labeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dequan; Hussain, Hashmath I; Yi, Zhifeng; Siegele, Rainer; Cresswell, Tom; Kong, Lingxue; Cahill, David M

    2014-08-01

    We report the uptake of MSNs into the roots and their movement to the aerial parts of four plant species and their quantification using fluorescence, TEM and proton-induced x - ray emission (micro - PIXE) elemental analysis. Monodispersed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of optimal size and configuration were synthesized for uptake by plant organs, tissues and cells. These monodispersed nanoparticles have a size of 20 nm with interconnected pores with an approximate diameter of 2.58 nm. There were no negative effects of MSNs on seed germination or when transported to different organs of the four plant species tested in this study. Most importantly, for the first time, a combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) elemental analysis allowed the location and quantification MSNs in tissues and in cellular and sub-cellular locations. Our results show that MSNs penetrated into the roots via symplastic and apoplastic pathways and then via the conducting tissues of the xylem to the aerial parts of the plants including the stems and leaves. The translocation and widescale distribution of MSNs in plants will enable them to be used as a new delivery means for the transport of different sized biomolecules into plants.

  8. Enhancement of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by conjugation with anti-P-glycoprotein in drug resistance cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Punfa, Wanisa; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Pitchakarn, Pornsiri; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Limtrakul, Pornngarm

    2012-06-01

    To compare the anti-cancer activity and cellular uptake of curcumin (Cur) delivered by targeted and non-targeted drug delivery systems in multidrug-resistant cervical cancer cells. Cur was entrapped into poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) in the presence of modified-pluronic F127 stabilizer using nano-precipitation technique. On the surface of Cur-NPs, the carboxy-terminal of modified pluronic F127 was conjugated to the amino-terminal of anti-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (Cur-NPs-APgp). The physical properties of the Cur-NPs, including particle size, zeta potential, particle morphology and Cur release kinetics, were investigated. Cellular uptake and specificity of the Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp were detected in cervical cancer cell lines KB-V1 (higher expression of P-gp) and KB-3-1 (lower expression of P-gp) using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytotoxicity of the Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp was determined using MTT assay. The particle size of Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp was 127 and 132 nm, respectively. The entrapment efficiency and actual loading of Cur-NPs-APgp (60% and 5 μg Cur/mg NP) were lower than those of Cur-NPs (99% and 7 μg Cur/mg NP). The specific binding of Cur-NPs-APgp to KB-V1 cells was significantly higher than that to KB-3-1 cells. Cellular uptake of Cur-NPs-APgp into KB-V1 cells was higher, as compared to KB-3-1 cells. However, the cellular uptake of Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-IgG did not differ between the two types of cells. Besides, the cytotoxicity of Cur-NPs-APgp in KB-V1 cells was higher than those of Cur and Cur-NPs. The results demonstrate that Cur-NPs-APgp targeted to P-gp on the cell surface membrane of KB-V1 cells, thus enhancing the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Cur.

  9. Oxygen uptake and blood metabolic responses to a 400-m run.

    PubMed

    Hanon, Christine; Lepretre, Pierre-Marie; Bishop, David; Thomas, Claire

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the oxygen uptake and metabolic responses during a 400-m run reproducing the pacing strategy used in competition. A portable gas analyser was used to measure the oxygen uptake (VO2) of ten specifically trained runners racing on an outdoor track. The tests included (1) an incremental test to determine maximal VO2 (VO2max) and the velocity associated with VO2(max) (v - VO2max), (2) a maximal 400-m (400T) and 3) a 300-m running test (300T) reproducing the exact pacing pattern of the 400T. Blood lactate, bicarbonate concentrations [HCO3(-)], pH and arterial oxygen saturation were analysed at rest and 1, 4, 7, 10 min after the end of the 400 and 300T. The peak VO2 recorded during the 400T corresponded to 93.9 +/- 3.9% of VO2max and was reached at 24.4 +/- 3.2 s (192 +/- 22 m). A significant decrease in VO2 (P < 0.05) was observed in all subjects during the last 100 m, although the velocity did not decrease below v - VO2max. The VO2 in the last 5 s was correlated with the pH (r = 0.86, P < 0.0005) and [HCO3(-)] (r = 0.70, P < 0.05) measured at the end of 300T. Additionally, the velocity decrease observed in the last 100 m was inversely correlated with [HCO3(-)] and pH at 300T (r = -0.83, P < 0.001, r = -0.69, P < 0.05, respectively). These track running data demonstrate that acidosis at 300 m was related to both the VO2 response and the velocity decrease during the final 100 m of a 400-m run.

  10. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  11. Cellular cytotoxic response induced by highly purified multi-wall carbon nanotube in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao

    2011-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes, a promising nanomaterial with unique characteristics, have applications in a variety of fields. The cytotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes are partially due to the induction of oxidative stress; however, the detailed mechanisms of nanotube cytotoxicity and their interaction with cells remain unclear. In this study, the authors focus on the acute toxicity of vapor-grown carbon fiber, HTT2800, which is one of the most highly purified multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) by high-temperature thermal treatment. The authors exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to HTT2800 and measured the cellular uptake, mitochondrial function, cellular LDH release, apoptotic signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The HTT2800-exposed cells showed cellular uptake of the carbon nanotube, increased cell death, enhanced DNA damage, and induced cytokine release. However, the exposed cells showed no obvious intracellular ROS generation. These cellular and molecular findings suggest that HTT2800 could cause a potentially adverse inflammatory response in BEAS-2B cells.

  12. Positive Newborn Screen for Methylmalonic Aciduria Identifies the First Mutation in TCblR/CD320, the Gene for Cellular Uptake of Transcobalamin-bound Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Quadros, Edward V.; Lai, Shao-Chiang; Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M.; Hannibal, Luciana; Wang, Sihe; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Fedosov, Sergey; Wright, Erica; Gallagher, Renata C.; Anastasio, Natascia; Watkins, David; Rosenblatt, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated methylmalonic acid in five asymptomatic newborns whose fibroblasts showed decreased uptake of transcobalamin-bound cobalamin (holo-TC), suggested a defect in the cellular uptake of cobalamin. Analysis of TCblR/CD320, the gene for the receptor for cellular uptake of holo-TC, identified a homozygous single codon deletion, c.262_264GAG (p.E88del), resulting in the loss of a glutamic acid residue in the low-density lipoprotein receptor type A-like domain. Inserting the codon by site-directed mutagenesis fully restored TCblR function. PMID:20524213

  13. Oceanic Uptake of Oxygen During Deep Convection Events Through Diffusive and Bubble-Mediated Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Daoxun; Ito, Takamitsu; Bracco, Annalisa

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2) plays fundamental roles in diverse chemical and biological processes throughout the oceans. The balance between the physical supply and the biological consumption controls the O2 level of the interior ocean, and the O2 supply to the deep waters can only occur through deep convection in the polar oceans. We develop a theoretical framework describing the oceanic O2 uptake during open-ocean deep convection events and test it against a suite of numerical sensitivity experiments. Our framework allows for two predictions, confirmed by the numerical simulations. First, both the duration and the intensity of the wintertime cooling contribute to the total O2 uptake for a given buoyancy loss. Stronger cooling leads to deeper convection and the oxygenation can reach down to deeper depths. Longer duration of the cooling period increases the total amount of O2 uptake over the convective season. Second, the bubble-mediated influx of O2 tends to weaken the diffusive influx by shifting the air-sea disequilibrium of O2 toward supersaturation. The degree of compensation between the diffusive and bubble-mediated gas exchange depends on the dimensionless number measuring the relative strength of oceanic vertical mixing and the gas transfer velocity. Strong convective mixing, which may occur under strong cooling, reduces the degree of compensation so that the two components of gas exchange together drive exceptionally strong oceanic O2 uptake.

  14. Cellular Uptake and Delivery of Myeloperoxidase to Lysosomes Promote Lipofuscin Degradation and Lysosomal Stress in Retinal Cells.

    PubMed

    Yogalingam, Gouri; Lee, Amanda R; Mackenzie, Donald S; Maures, Travis J; Rafalko, Agnes; Prill, Heather; Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Hague, Chuck; Christianson, Terri; Bell, Sean M; LeBowitz, Jonathan H

    2017-03-10

    Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the H 2 O 2 -dependent oxidation of chloride anion to generate hypochlorous acid, a potent antimicrobial agent. Besides its well defined role in innate immunity, aberrant degranulation of neutrophils in several inflammatory diseases leads to redistribution of MPO to the extracellular space, where it can mediate tissue damage by promoting the oxidation of several additional substrates. Here, we demonstrate that mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated cellular uptake and delivery of MPO to lysosomes of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells acts to clear this harmful enzyme from the extracellular space, with lysosomal-delivered MPO exhibiting a half-life of 10 h. Lysosomal-targeted MPO exerts both cell-protective and cytotoxic functions. From a therapeutic standpoint, MPO catalyzes the in vitro degradation of N -retinylidene- N -retinylethanolamine, a toxic form of retinal lipofuscin that accumulates in RPE lysosomes and drives the pathogenesis of Stargardt macular degeneration. Furthermore, chronic cellular uptake and accumulation of MPO in lysosomes coincides with N -retinylidene- N -retinylethanolamine elimination in a cell-based model of macular degeneration. However, lysosomal-delivered MPO also disrupts lysosomal acidification in RPE cells, which coincides with nuclear translocation of the lysosomal stress-sensing transcription factor EB and, eventually, cell death. Based on these findings we predict that under periods of acute exposure, cellular uptake and lysosomal degradation of MPO mediates elimination of this harmful enzyme, whereas chronic exposure results in progressive accumulation of MPO in lysosomes. Lysosomal-accumulated MPO can be both cell-protective, by promoting the degradation of toxic retinal lipofuscin deposits, and cytotoxic, by triggering lysosomal stress and cell death. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Cellular Uptake and Delivery of Myeloperoxidase to Lysosomes Promote Lipofuscin Degradation and Lysosomal Stress in Retinal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yogalingam, Gouri; Lee, Amanda R.; Mackenzie, Donald S.; Maures, Travis J.; Rafalko, Agnes; Prill, Heather; Berguig, Geoffrey Y.; Hague, Chuck; Christianson, Terri; Bell, Sean M.; LeBowitz, Jonathan H.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the H2O2-dependent oxidation of chloride anion to generate hypochlorous acid, a potent antimicrobial agent. Besides its well defined role in innate immunity, aberrant degranulation of neutrophils in several inflammatory diseases leads to redistribution of MPO to the extracellular space, where it can mediate tissue damage by promoting the oxidation of several additional substrates. Here, we demonstrate that mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated cellular uptake and delivery of MPO to lysosomes of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells acts to clear this harmful enzyme from the extracellular space, with lysosomal-delivered MPO exhibiting a half-life of 10 h. Lysosomal-targeted MPO exerts both cell-protective and cytotoxic functions. From a therapeutic standpoint, MPO catalyzes the in vitro degradation of N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine, a toxic form of retinal lipofuscin that accumulates in RPE lysosomes and drives the pathogenesis of Stargardt macular degeneration. Furthermore, chronic cellular uptake and accumulation of MPO in lysosomes coincides with N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine elimination in a cell-based model of macular degeneration. However, lysosomal-delivered MPO also disrupts lysosomal acidification in RPE cells, which coincides with nuclear translocation of the lysosomal stress-sensing transcription factor EB and, eventually, cell death. Based on these findings we predict that under periods of acute exposure, cellular uptake and lysosomal degradation of MPO mediates elimination of this harmful enzyme, whereas chronic exposure results in progressive accumulation of MPO in lysosomes. Lysosomal-accumulated MPO can be both cell-protective, by promoting the degradation of toxic retinal lipofuscin deposits, and cytotoxic, by triggering lysosomal stress and cell death. PMID:28115520

  16. Silver nanoparticles: correlating nanoparticle size and cellular uptake with genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Kimberly S.; Peeler, David J.; Casey, Brendan J.; Dair, Benita J.; Elespuru, Rosalie K.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research was to develop a better understanding of the pertinent physico-chemical properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that affect genotoxicity, specifically how cellular uptake influences a genotoxic cell response. The genotoxicity of AgNPs was assessed for three potential mechanisms: mutagenicity, clastogenicity and DNA strand-break-based DNA damage. Mutagenicity (reverse mutation assay) was assessed in five bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Echerichia coli, including TA102 that is sensitive to oxidative DNA damage. AgNPs of all sizes tested (10, 20, 50 and 100nm), along with silver nitrate (AgNO3), were negative for mutagenicity in bacteria. No AgNPs could be identified within the bacteria cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating these bacteria lack the ability to actively uptake AgNPs 10nm or larger. Clastogenicity (flow cytometry-based micronucleus assay) and intermediate DNA damage (DNA strand breaks as measured in the Comet assay) were assessed in two mammalian white blood cell lines: Jurkat Clone E6-1 and THP-1. It was observed that micronucleus and Comet assay end points were inversely correlated with AgNP size, with smaller NPs inducing a more genotoxic response. TEM results indicated that AgNPs were confined within intracellular vesicles of mammalian cells and did not penetrate the nucleus. The genotoxicity test results and the effect of AgNO3 controls suggest that silver ions may be the primary, and perhaps only, cause of genotoxicity. Furthermore, since AgNO3 was not mutagenic in the gram-negative bacterial Ames strains tested, the lack of bacterial uptake of the AgNPs may not be the major reason for the lack of genotoxicity observed. PMID:25964273

  17. Effectiveness of Resistance Circuit-Based Training for Maximum Oxygen Uptake and Upper-Body One-Repetition Maximum Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco Antonio; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo Á; Ramos-Campo, Domingo Jesús; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that concurrent increases in both maximal strength and aerobic capacity are associated with improvements in sports performance as well as overall health. One of the most popular training methods used for achieving these objectives is resistance circuit-based training. The objective of the present systematic review with a meta-analysis was to evaluate published studies that have investigated the effects of resistance circuit-based training on maximum oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum of the upper-body strength (bench press exercise) in healthy adults. The following electronic databases were searched from January to June 2016: PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) examined healthy adults aged between 18 and 65 years; (2) met the characteristics of resistance circuit-based training; and (3) analysed the outcome variables of maximum oxygen uptake using a gas analyser and/or one-repetition maximum bench press. Of the 100 articles found from the database search and after all duplicates were removed, eight articles were analysed for maximum oxygen uptake. Of 118 healthy adults who performed resistance circuit-based training, maximum oxygen uptake was evaluated before and after the training programme. Additionally, from the 308 articles found for one-repetition maximum, eight articles were analysed. The bench press one-repetition maximum load, of 237 healthy adults who performed resistance circuit-based training, was evaluated before and after the training programme. Significant increases in maximum oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum bench press were observed following resistance circuit-based training. Additionally, significant differences in maximum oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum bench press were found between the resistance circuit-based training and control groups. The meta-analysis showed that resistance circuit-based training, independent of the protocol used in the

  18. Overexpression of FurA in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 reveals new targets for this regulator involved in photosynthesis, iron uptake and cellular morphology.

    PubMed

    González, Andrés; Bes, M Teresa; Barja, François; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2010-11-01

    Previous genomic analyses of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 have identified three ferric uptake regulator (Fur) homologs with low sequence identities and probably different functions in the cell. FurA is a constitutive protein that shares the highest homology with Fur from heterotrophic bacteria and appears to be essential for in vitro growth. In this study, we have analysed the effects of FurA overexpression on the Anabaena sp. phenotype and investigated which of the observed alterations were directly operated by FurA. Overexpression of the regulator led to changes in cellular morphology, resulting in shorter filaments with rounded cells of different sizes. The furA-overexpressing strain showed a slower photoautotrophic growth and a marked decrease in the oxygen evolution rate. Overexpression of the regulator also decreased both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, but did not lead to an increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. By combining phenotypic studies, reverse transcription-PCR analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified three novel direct targets of FurA, including genes encoding a siderophore outer membrane transporter (schT), bacterial actins (mreBCD) and the PSII reaction center protein D1 (psbA). The affinity of FurA for these novel targets was markedly affected by the absence of divalent metal ions, confirming previous evidence of a critical role for the metal co-repressor in the function of the regulator in vivo. The results unravel new cellular processes modulated by FurA, supporting its role as a global transcriptional regulator in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

  19. Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Doxorubicin-Valine Amide Prodrug.

    PubMed

    Park, Yohan; Park, Ju-Hwan; Park, Suryeon; Lee, Song Yi; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Kim, Dae-Duk; Shim, Won-Sik; Yoon, In-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2016-09-22

    In this study, we synthesized the valine (Val)-conjugated amide prodrug of doxorubicin (DOX) by the formation of amide bonds between DOX and Val. The synthesis of the DOX-Val prodrug was identified by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) assay. In the MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell; amino acid transporter-positive cell), the cellular accumulation efficiency of DOX-Val was higher than that of DOX according to the flow cytometry analysis data. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging, it was confirmed that DOX-Val as well as DOX was mainly distributed in the nucleus of cancer cells. DOX-Val was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 4 mg/kg, and the plasma concentrations of DOX-Val (prodrug) and DOX (formed metabolite) were quantitatively determined. Based on the systemic exposure (represented as area under the curve (AUC) values) of DOX-Val (prodrug) and DOX (formed metabolite), approximately half of DOX-Val seemed to be metabolized into DOX. However, it is expected that the remaining DOX-Val may exert improved cellular uptake efficiency in cancer cells after its delivery to the cancer region.

  20. Poly-L-arginine: Enhancing Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of Doxorubicin and Necrotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Movafegh, Bahareh; Jalal, Razieh; Mohammadi, Zobeideh; Aldaghi, Seyyede Araste

    2018-04-11

    Cell resistance to doxorubicin and its toxicity to healthy tissue reduce its efficiency. The use of cell penetrating peptides as drug delivery system along with doxorubicin is a strategy to reduce its side effects. In this study, the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, its cellular uptake and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis on human prostate cancer DU145 cells are assessed. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and poly-L-arginine, alone and in combination, in DU145 cells was evaluated at different exposure times using MTT assay. The influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin delivery into cells was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. DAPI and ethidium bromide-acridine orange stainings, flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide, western blot analysis with anti-p21 antibody and caspase-3 activity were used to examine the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin-induced cell death. Poly-L-arginine had no cytotoxicity at low concentrations and short exposure times. Poly-L-arginine increased the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in DU145 cells in a time-dependent manner. But no significant reduction was found in HFF cell viability. Poly-L-arginine seems to facilitate doxorubicin uptake and increase its intracellular concentration. 24 h combined treatment of cells with doxorubicin (0.5 μM) and poly-L-arginine (1 μg ml-1) caused a small increase in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and significant elevated necrosis in DU145 cells as compared to each agent alone. Conlusion: Our results indicate that poly-L-arginine at lowest and highest concentrations act as proliferation-inducing and antiproliferative agents, respectively. Between these concentrations, poly-L-arginine increases the cellular uptake of doxorubicin and its cytotoxicity through induction of necrosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian J.

    2016-08-30

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  2. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim [Minnetonka, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Rush, Brian [Minneapolis, MN

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  3. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Hoek, Van; Pim, Aristidou [Minnetonka, MN; Aristos, Rush [Maple Grove, MN; Brian, [Minneapolis, MN

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  4. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  5. Targeted PEG-based bioconjugates enhance the cellular uptake and transport of a HIV-1 TAT nonapeptide.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, S; Qiu, B; Pooyan, S; Zhang, G; Stein, S; Leibowitz, M J; Sinko, P J

    2001-12-13

    We previously described the enhanced cell uptake and transport of R.I-K(biotin)-Tat9, a large ( approximately 1500 Da) peptidic inhibitor of HIV-1 Tat protein, via SMVT, the intestinal biotin transporter. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting biotinylated PEG-based conjugates to SMVT in order to enhance cell uptake and transport of Tat9. The 29 kDa peptide-loaded bioconjugate (PEG:(R.I-Cys-K(biotin)-Tat9)8) used in these studies contained eight copies of R.I-K(biotin)-Tat9 appended to PEG by means of a cysteine linkage. The absorptive transport of biotin-PEG-3400 (0.6-100 microM) and the bioconjugate (0.1-30 microM) was studied using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Inhibition of biotin-PEG-3400 by positive controls (biotin, biocytin, and desthiobiotin) was also determined. Uptake of these two compounds was also determined in CHO cells transfected with human SMVT (CHO/hSMVT) and control cells (CHO/pSPORT) over the concentration ranges of 0.05-12.5 microM and 0.003-30 microM, respectively. Nonbiotinylated forms of these two compounds, PEG-3350 and PEG:(R.I-Cys-K-Tat9)8, were used in the control studies. Biotin-PEG-3400 transport was found to be concentration-dependent and saturable in Caco-2 cells (K(m)=6.61 microM) and CHO/hSMVT cells (K(m)=1.26 microM). Transport/uptake was significantly inhibited by positive control substrates of SMVT. PEG:(R.I-Cys-K(biotin)Tat9)8 also showed saturable transport kinetics in Caco-2 cells (K(m)=6.13 microM) and CHO/hSMVT cells (K(m)=8.19 microM). Maximal uptake in molar equivalents of R.I-Cys-K(biotin)Tat9 was 5.7 times greater using the conjugate versus the biotinylated peptide alone. Transport of the nonbiotinylated forms was significantly lower (P<0.001) in all cases. The present results demonstrate that biotin-PEG-3400 and PEG:(R.I-Cys-K(biotin)Tat9)8 interact with human SMVT to enhance the cellular uptake and transport of these larger molecules and that targeted bioconjugates may have potential

  6. Diffusion and cellular uptake of drugs in live cells studied with surface-enhanced Raman scattering probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bálint, Štefan; Rao, Satish; Sánchez, Mónica Marro; Huntošová, Veronika; Miškovský, Pavol; Petrov, Dmitri

    2010-03-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of drug diffusion and uptake through cellular membranes is critical for elucidating drug action and in the development of effective drug delivery systems. We study these processes for emodin, a potential anticancer drug, in live cancer cells using surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Micrometer-sized silica beads covered by nanosized silver colloids are passively embedded into the cell and used as sensors of the drug. We demonstrate that the technique offers distinct advantages: the possibility to study the kinetics of drug diffusion through the cellular membrane toward specific cell organelles, the detection of lower drug concentrations compared to fluorescence techniques, and less damage imparted on the cell.

  7. Critical evaluation of oxygen-uptake assessment in swimming.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Figueiredo, Pedro; Pendergast, David; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Vilas-Boas, João P; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2014-03-01

    Swimming has become an important area of sport science research since the 1970s, with the bioenergetic factors assuming a fundamental performance-influencing role. The purpose of this study was to conduct a critical evaluation of the literature concerning oxygen-uptake (VO2) assessment in swimming, by describing the equipment and methods used and emphasizing the recent works conducted in ecological conditions. Particularly in swimming, due to the inherent technical constraints imposed by swimming in a water environment, assessment of VO2max was not accomplished until the 1960s. Later, the development of automated portable measurement devices allowed VO2max to be assessed more easily, even in ecological swimming conditions, but few studies have been conducted in swimming-pool conditions with portable breath-by-breath telemetric systems. An inverse relationship exists between the velocity corresponding to VO2max and the time a swimmer can sustain it at this velocity. The energy cost of swimming varies according to its association with velocity variability. As, in the end, the supply of oxygen (whose limitation may be due to central-O2 delivery and transportation to the working muscles-or peripheral factors-O2 diffusion and utilization in the muscles) is one of the critical factors that determine swimming performance, VO2 kinetics and its maximal values are critical in understanding swimmers' behavior in competition and to develop efficient training programs.

  8. Proteomic analysis reveals diverse proline hydroxylation-mediated oxygen-sensing cellular pathways in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Gao, Yankun; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Proline hydroxylation is a critical cellular mechanism regulating oxygen-response pathways in tumor initiation and progression. Yet, its substrate diversity and functions remain largely unknown. Here, we report a system-wide analysis to characterize proline hydroxylation substrates in cancer cells using an immunoaffinity-purification assisted proteomics strategy. We identified 562 sites from 272 proteins in HeLa cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that proline hydroxylation substrates are significantly enriched with mRNA processing and stress-response cellular pathways with canonical and diverse flanking sequence motifs. Structural analysis indicates a significant enrichment of proline hydroxylation participating in the secondary structure of substrate proteins. Our study identified and validated Brd4, a key transcription factor, as a novel proline hydroxylation substrate. Functional analysis showed that the inhibition of proline hydroxylation pathway significantly reduced the proline hydroxylation abundance on Brd4 and affected Brd4-mediated transcriptional activity as well as cell proliferation in AML leukemia cells. Taken together, our study identified a broad regulatory role of proline hydroxylation in cellular oxygen-sensing pathways and revealed potentially new targets that dynamically respond to hypoxia microenvironment in tumor cells. PMID:27764789

  9. Cellular uptake mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor facilitates the intracellular activity of phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyu; Allen, Nickolas; Vickers, Timothy A; Revenko, Alexey S; Sun, Hong; Liang, Xue-hai; Crooke, Stanley T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with phosphorothioate (PS) linkages have been extensively studied as research and therapeutic agents. PS-ASOs can enter the cell and trigger cleavage of complementary RNA by RNase H1 even in the absence of transfection reagent. A number of cell surface proteins have been identified that bind PS-ASOs and mediate their cellular uptake; however, the mechanisms that lead to productive internalization of PS-ASOs are not well understood. Here, we characterized the interaction between PS-ASOs and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We found that PS-ASOs trafficked together with EGF and EGFR into clathrin-coated pit structures. Their co-localization was also observed at early endosomes and inside enlarged late endosomes. Reduction of EGFR decreased PS-ASO activity without affecting EGF-mediated signaling pathways and overexpression of EGFR increased PS-ASO activity in cells. Furthermore, reduction of EGFR delays PS-ASO trafficking from early to late endosomes. Thus, EGFR binds to PS-ASOs at the cell surface and mediates essential steps for active (productive) cellular uptake of PS-ASOs through its cargo-dependent trafficking processes which migrate PS-ASOs from early to late endosomes. This EGFR-mediated process can also serve as an additional model to better understand the mechanism of intracellular uptake and endosomal release of PS-ASOs. PMID:29514240

  10. Exploring the cellular and tissue uptake of nanomaterials in a range of biological samples using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Helinor J.; Mouras, Rabah; Brown, David M.; Elfick, Alistair; Stone, Vicki

    2015-12-01

    The uptake of nanomaterials (NMs) by cells is critical in determining their potential biological impact, whether beneficial or detrimental. Thus, investigation of NM internalization by cells is a common consideration in hazard and efficacy studies. There are currently a number of approaches that are routinely used to investigate NM-cell interactions, each of which have their own advantages and limitations. Ideally, imaging modalities used to investigate NM uptake by cells should not require the NM to be labelled (e.g. with fluorophores) to facilitate its detection. We present a multimodal imaging approach employing a combination of label-free microscopies that can be used to investigate NM-cell interactions. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy was used in combination with either two-photon photoluminescence or four-wave mixing (FWM) to visualize the uptake of gold or titanium dioxide NMs respectively. Live and fixed cell imaging revealed that NMs were internalized by J774 macrophage and C3A hepatocyte cell lines (15-31 μg ml-1). Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to NMs (intratracheal instillation, 62 μg) and NMs were detected in blood and lung leucocytes, lung and liver tissue, demonstrating that NMs could translocate from the exposure site. Obtained data illustrate that multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy may help overcome current challenges in the assessment of NM cellular uptake and biodistribution. It is therefore a powerful tool that can be used to investigate unlabelled NM cellular and tissue uptake in three dimensions, requires minimal sample preparation, and is applicable to live and fixed cells.

  11. Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions (VO2max) will document changes in maximum oxygen uptake for crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) on long-duration missions, greater than 90 days. This investigation will establish the characteristics of VO2max during flight and assess the validity of the current methods of tracking aerobic capacity change during and following the ISS missions.

  12. Cellular Uptake and Mode-of-Action of Clostridium difficile Toxins.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Barth, Holger; Minton, Nigel; Aktories, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Research on the human gut pathogen Clostridium difficile and its toxins has gained much attention, particularly as a consequence of the increasing threat to human health presented by emerging hypervirulent strains. Toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) are the two major virulence determinants of C. difficile. Both are single-chain proteins with a similar multidomain architecture. Certain hypervirulent C. difficile strains also produce a third toxin, namely binary toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase). As C. difficile toxins are the causative agents of C. difficile-associated diseases (CDAD), such as antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, considerable efforts have been expended to unravel their molecular mode-of-action and the cellular mechanisms responsible for their uptake. Notably, a high proportion of studies on C. difficile toxins were performed in European laboratories. In this chapter we will highlight important recent advances in C. difficile toxins research.

  13. Protein source and choice of anticoagulant decisively affect nanoparticle protein corona and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöttler, S.; Klein, Katja; Landfester, K.; Mailänder, V.

    2016-03-01

    Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance of the choice of protein source used for in vitro protein corona analysis is concisely investigated. Major and decisive differences in cellular uptake of a polystyrene nanoparticle incubated in fetal bovine serum, human serum, human citrate and heparin plasma are reported. Furthermore, the protein compositions are determined for coronas formed in the respective incubation media. A strong influence of heparin, which is used as an anticoagulant for plasma generation, on cell interaction is demonstrated. While heparin enhances the uptake into macrophages, it prevents internalization into HeLa cells. Taken together we can give the recommendation that human plasma anticoagulated with citrate seems to give the most relevant results for in vitro studies of nanoparticle uptake.Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance

  14. Cellular death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Caroline Maria Oliveira; Villar-Delfino, Pedro Henrique; Dos Anjos, Paula Martins Ferreira; Nogueira-Machado, José Augusto

    2018-01-25

    Chronic or intermittent hyperglycemia is associated with the development of diabetic complications. Several signaling pathways can be altered by having hyperglycemia in different tissues, producing oxidative stress, the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), as well as the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular death (pathological autophagy and/or apoptosis). However, the signaling pathways that are directly triggered by hyperglycemia appear to have a pivotal role in diabetic complications due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and cellular death. The present review will discuss the role of cellular death in diabetic complications, and it will suggest the cause and the consequences between the hyperglycemia-induced signaling pathways and cell death. The signaling pathways discussed in this review are to be described step-by-step, together with their respective inhibitors. They involve diacylglycerol, the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and NADPH-oxidase system, and the consequent production of ROS. This was initially entitled the "dangerous metabolic route in diabetes". The historical usages and the recent advancement of new drugs in controlling possible therapeutical targets have been highlighted, in order to evaluate the evolution of knowledge in this sensitive area. It has recently been shown that the metabolic responses to stimuli (i.e., hyperglycemia) involve an integrated network of signaling pathways, in order to define the exact responses. Certain new drugs have been experimentally tested-or suggested and proposed-for their ability to modulate the possible biochemical therapeutical targets for the downregulation of retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, heart disease, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and cellular death. The aim of this study was to critically and didactically evaluate the exact steps of these signaling pathways and hence mark the indicated sites for the actions of such

  15. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  16. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  17. An in silico analysis of oxygen uptake of a mild COPD patient during rest and exercise using a portable oxygen concentrator

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ira; Pichelin, Marine; Montesantos, Spyridon; Kang, Min-Yeong; Sapoval, Bernard; Zhu, Kaixian; Thevenin, Charles-Philippe; McCoy, Robert; Martin, Andrew R; Caillibotte, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen treatment based on intermittent-flow devices with pulse delivery modes available from portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) depends on the characteristics of the delivered pulse such as volume, pulse width (the time of the pulse to be delivered), and pulse delay (the time for the pulse to be initiated from the start of inhalation) as well as a patient’s breathing characteristics, disease state, and respiratory morphology. This article presents a physiological-based analysis of the performance, in terms of blood oxygenation, of a commercial POC at different settings using an in silico model of a COPD patient at rest and during exercise. The analysis encompasses experimental measurements of pulse volume, width, and time delay of the POC at three different settings and two breathing rates related to rest and exercise. These experimental data of device performance are inputs to a physiological-based model of oxygen uptake that takes into account the real dynamic nature of gas exchange to illustrate how device- and patient-specific factors can affect patient oxygenation. This type of physiological analysis that considers the true effectiveness of oxygen transfer to the blood, as opposed to delivery to the nose (or mouth), can be instructive in applying therapies and designing new devices. PMID:27729783

  18. Membrane-bound heat shock proteins facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyan; Fang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Weicheng; Shao, Miaomiao; Wang, Lan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally identified as stress-responsive proteins and serve as molecular chaperones in different intracellular compartments. Translocation of HSPs to the cell surface and release of HSPs into the extracellular space have been observed during the apoptotic process and in response to a variety of cellular stress. Here, we report that UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment rapidly induce the expression of membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 upstream the phosphatidylserine exposure. Membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the release of IL-6 and IL-1β as well as DC maturation by the evaluation of CD80 and CD86 expression. On the other hand, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 on cells could facilitate the uptake of dying cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), as a common receptor for Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, is response for their recognition and mediates the uptake of dying cells. Furthermore, membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the cross-presentation of OVA antigen from E.G7 cells and inhibition of the uptake of dying cells by LOX-1 decreases the cross-presentation of cellular antigen. Therefore, the rapid exposure of HSPs on dying cells at the early stage allows for the recognition by and confers an activation signal to the immune system.

  19. Increased cellular uptake of lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles due to surface modification with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Junior, Enio Lima; Rossi, Gustavo Rodrigues; da Silva Trindade, Edvaldo; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia; Sayer, Claudia; de Araújo, Pedro H Hermes

    2016-12-01

    Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization in just one step. In vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity assays on L929 (murine fibroblast), human red blood, and HeLa (uterine colon cancer) cells were performed. The effect of folic acid at the nanoparticles surface was evaluated through cellular uptake assays in HeLa cells. Results showed that the presence of folic acid did not affect substantially the polymer particle size (~120 nm), the superparamagnetic behavior, the encapsulation efficiency of lauryl gallate (~87 %), the Zeta potential (~38 mV) of the polymeric nanoparticles or the release profile of lauryl gallate. The release profile of lauryl gallate from superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles presented an initial burst effect (0-1 h) followed by a slow and sustained release, indicating a biphasic release system. Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles with folic acid did not present cytotoxicity effects on L929 and human red blood cells. However, free lauryl gallate presented significant cytotoxic effects on L929 and human red blood cells at all tested concentrations. The presence of folic acid increased the cytotoxicity of lauryl gallate loaded in nanoparticles on HeLa cells due to a higher cellular uptake when HeLa cells were incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, when the nanoparticles were incubated at low temperature (4 °C) cellular uptake was not observed, suggesting that the uptake occurred by folate receptor mediated energy-dependent endocytosis. Based on presented results our work suggests that this carrier system can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery by folate receptor.

  20. Nanocrystalline diamond protects Zr cladding surface against oxygen and hydrogen uptake: Nuclear fuel durability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Škarohlíd, Jan; Ashcheulov, Petr; Škoda, Radek; Taylor, Andrew; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Tomáštík, Jan; Fendrych, František; Kopeček, Jaromír; Cháb, Vladimír; Cichoň, Stanislav; Sajdl, Petr; Macák, Jan; Xu, Peng; Partezana, Jonna M; Lorinčík, Jan; Prehradná, Jana; Steinbrück, Martin; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2017-07-25

    In this work, we demonstrate and describe an effective method of protecting zirconium fuel cladding against oxygen and hydrogen uptake at both accident and working temperatures in water-cooled nuclear reactor environments. Zr alloy samples were coated with nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers of different thicknesses, grown in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition apparatus. In addition to showing that such an NCD layer prevents the Zr alloy from directly interacting with water, we show that carbon released from the NCD film enters the underlying Zr material and changes its properties, such that uptake of oxygen and hydrogen is significantly decreased. After 100-170 days of exposure to hot water at 360 °C, the oxidation of the NCD-coated Zr plates was typically decreased by 40%. Protective NCD layers may prolong the lifetime of nuclear cladding and consequently enhance nuclear fuel burnup. NCD may also serve as a passive element for nuclear safety. NCD-coated ZIRLO claddings have been selected as a candidate for Accident Tolerant Fuel in commercially operated reactors in 2020.

  1. Mequindox induced cellular DNA damage via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Man; Jiang, Jun; Mu, Peiqiang; Wu, Jun; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Caihui; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Huen, Michael S Y; Deng, Yiqun

    2012-01-24

    Mequindox, a quinoxaline-N-dioxide derivative that possesses antibacterial properties, has been widely used as a feed additive in the stockbreeding industry in China. While recent pharmacological studies have uncovered potential hazardous effects of mequindox, exactly how mequindox induces pathological changes and the cellular responses associated with its consumption remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the cellular responses associated with mequindox treatment. We report here that mequindox inhibits cell proliferation by arresting cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, this mequindox-associated deleterious effect on cell proliferation was observed in human, pig as well as chicken cells, suggesting that mequindox acts on evolutionarily conserved target(s). To further understand the mequindox-host interaction and the mechanism underlying mequindox-induced cell cycle arrest, we measured the cellular content of DNA damage, which is known to perturb cell proliferation and compromise cell survival. Accordingly, using γ-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DNA damage, we found that mequindox treatment induced cellular DNA damage, which paralleled the chemical-induced elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase partially alleviated these mequindox-associated effects. Taken together, our results suggest that mequindox cytotoxicity is attributable, in part, to its role as a potent inducer of DNA damage via ROS. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A cellular uptake and cytotoxicity properties study of gallic acid-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles on Caco-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Soleimani, Masoud; Atashi, Amir; Rostami, Khosrow; Gangi, Fariba; Fallahpour, Masoud; Tahouri, Mohammad Taher

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the effects of intracellular delivery of various concentrations of gallic acid (GA) as a semistable antioxidant, gallic acid-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs-GA), and cellular uptake of nanoparticles into Caco-2 cells were investigated. MSNs were synthesized and loaded with GA, then characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The cytotoxicity of MSNs and MSNs-GA at low and high concentrations were studied by means of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and flow cytometry. MSNs did not show significant toxicity in various concentrations (0-500 μg/ml) on Caco-2 cells. For MSNs-GA, cell viability was reduced as a function of incubation time and different concentrations of nanoparticles. The in vitro GA release from MSNs-GA exhibited the same antitumor properties as free GA on Caco-2 cells. Flow cytometry results confirmed those obtained using MTT assay. TEM and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the internalization of MSNs by Caco-2 cells through nonspecific cellular uptake. MSNs can easily internalize into Caco-2 cells without deleterious effects on cell viability. The cell viability of Caco-2 cells was affected during MSNs-GA uptake. MSNs could be designed as suitable nanocarriers for antioxidants delivery.

  3. Reversible uptake of molecular oxygen by heteroligand Co(II)-L-α-amino acid-imidazole systems: equilibrium models at full mass balance.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Marek; Woźniczka, Magdalena; Vogt, Andrzej; Kufelnicki, Aleksander

    2017-09-19

    The paper examines Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems (where amino acid = L-α-amino acid: alanine, asparagine, histidine) which, when in aqueous solutions, activate and reversibly take up dioxygen, while maintaining the structural scheme of the heme group (imidazole as axial ligand and O 2 uptake at the sixth, trans position) thus imitating natural respiratory pigments such as myoglobin and hemoglobin. The oxygenated reaction shows higher reversibility than for Co(II)-amac systems with analogous amino acids without imidazole. Unlike previous investigations of the heteroligand Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems, the present study accurately calculates all equilibrium forms present in solution and determines the [Formula: see text]equilibrium constants without using any simplified approximations. The equilibrium concentrations of Co(II), amino acid, imidazole and the formed complex species were calculated using constant data obtained for analogous systems under oxygen-free conditions. Pehametric and volumetric (oxygenation) studies allowed the stoichiometry of O 2 uptake reaction and coordination mode of the central ion in the forming oxygen adduct to be determined. The values of dioxygen uptake equilibrium constants [Formula: see text] were evaluated by applying the full mass balance equations. Investigations of oxygenation of the Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems indicated that dioxygen uptake proceeds along with a rise in pH to 9-10. The percentage of reversibility noted after acidification of the solution to the initial pH ranged within ca 30-60% for alanine, 40-70% for asparagine and 50-90% for histidine, with a rising tendency along with the increasing share of amino acid in the Co(II): amino acid: imidazole ratio. Calculations of the share of the free Co(II) ion as well as of the particular complex species existing in solution beside the oxygen adduct (regarding dioxygen bound both reversibly and irreversibly) indicated quite significant values for the

  4. Central Cardiovascular Responses of Quadriplegic Subjects to Arm Exercise at Varying Levels of Oxygen Uptake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figoni, Stephen F.

    The purpose of this study was to assess selected central cardiovascular functions of spinal cord injured, quadriplegic subjects at varying levels of oxygen uptake (VO sub 2). Subjects included 11 untrained, male college students with C5, C6, or C7 complete quadriplegia and 11 able-bodied reference subjects. Exercise was performed on a Monark cycle…

  5. Trojan-horse mechanism in the cellular uptake of silver nanoparticles verified by direct intra- and extracellular silver speciation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, I-Lun; Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chen, I-Chieh; Huang, Yuh-Jeen

    2015-03-17

    The so-called "Trojan-horse" mechanism, in which nanoparticles are internalized within cells and then release high levels of toxic ions, has been proposed as a behavior in the cellular uptake of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). While several reports claim to have proved this mechanism by measuring AgNPs and Ag ions (I) in cells, it cannot be fully proven without examining those two components in both intra- and extracellular media. In our study, we found that even though cells take up AgNPs similarly to (microglia (BV-2)) or more rapidly than (astrocyte (ALT)) Ag (I), the ratio of AgNPs to total Ag (AgNPs+Ag (I)) in both cells was lower than that in outside media. It could be explained that H2O2, a major intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), reacts with AgNPs to form more Ag (I). Moreover, the major speciation of Ag (I) in cells was Ag(cysteine) and Ag(cysteine)2, indicating the possible binding of monomer cysteine or vital thiol proteins/peptides to Ag ions. Evidence we found indicates that the Trojan-horse mechanism really exists.

  6. Stepwise pH-responsive nanoparticles for enhanced cellular uptake and on-demand intracellular release of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Fang; Tang, Yan; Yang, Shu-di; Li, Ji-Zhao; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-Nong

    2017-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug release behavior, affect targeting efficiency, cellular uptake, and antitumor effect of nanocarriers in a formulated drug-delivery system. In this study, a novel stepwise pH-responsive nanodrug delivery system was developed to efficiently deliver and significantly promote the therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX). The system comprised dimethylmaleic acid-chitosan-urocanic acid and elicited stepwise responses to extracellular and intracellular pH. The nanoparticles (NPs), which possessed negative surface charge under physiological conditions and an appropriate nanosize, exhibited advantageous stability during blood circulation and enhanced accumulation in tumor sites via enhanced permeability and retention effect. The tumor cellular uptake of DOX-loaded NPs was significantly promoted by the first-step pH response, wherein surface charge reversion of NPs from negative to positive was triggered by the slightly acidic tumor extracellular environment. After internalization into tumor cells, the second-step pH response in endo/lysosome acidic environment elicited the on-demand intracellular release of DOX from NPs, thereby increasing cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Furthermore, stepwise pH-responsive NPs showed enhanced antiproliferation effect and reduced systemic side effect in vivo. Hence, the stepwise pH-responsive NPs provide a promising strategy for efficient delivery of antitumor agents.

  7. Stepwise pH-responsive nanoparticles for enhanced cellular uptake and on-demand intracellular release of doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-liang; Li, Fang; Tang, Yan; Yang, Shu-di; Li, Ji-zhao; Yuan, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-nong

    2017-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug release behavior, affect targeting efficiency, cellular uptake, and antitumor effect of nanocarriers in a formulated drug-delivery system. In this study, a novel stepwise pH-responsive nanodrug delivery system was developed to efficiently deliver and significantly promote the therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX). The system comprised dimethylmaleic acid-chitosan-urocanic acid and elicited stepwise responses to extracellular and intracellular pH. The nanoparticles (NPs), which possessed negative surface charge under physiological conditions and an appropriate nanosize, exhibited advantageous stability during blood circulation and enhanced accumulation in tumor sites via enhanced permeability and retention effect. The tumor cellular uptake of DOX-loaded NPs was significantly promoted by the first-step pH response, wherein surface charge reversion of NPs from negative to positive was triggered by the slightly acidic tumor extracellular environment. After internalization into tumor cells, the second-step pH response in endo/lysosome acidic environment elicited the on-demand intracellular release of DOX from NPs, thereby increasing cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Furthermore, stepwise pH-responsive NPs showed enhanced antiproliferation effect and reduced systemic side effect in vivo. Hence, the stepwise pH-responsive NPs provide a promising strategy for efficient delivery of antitumor agents. PMID:28652730

  8. Effects of Nanoparticle Size on Cellular Uptake and Liver MRI with PVP-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Bu, Lihong; Xie, Jin; Chen, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; Li, Xingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nanoparticle size (30–120 nm) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hepatic lesions in vivo has been systematically examined using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (PVP-IOs). Such biocompatible PVP-IOs with different sizes were synthesized by a simple one-pot pyrolysis method. These PVP-IOs exhibited good crystallinity and high T2 relaxivities, and the relaxivity increased with the size of the magnetic nanoparticles. It was found that cellular uptake changed with both size and surface physiochemical properties, and that PVP-IO-37 with a core size of 37 nm and hydrodynamic particle size of 100 nm exhibited higher cellular uptake rate and greater distribution than other PVP-IOs and Feridex. We systematically investigated the effect of nanoparticle size on MRI of normal liver and hepatic lesions in vivo. The physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles influenced their pharmacokinetic behavior, which ultimately determined their ability to accumulate in the liver. The contrast enhancement of PVP-IOs within the liver was highly dependent on the overall size of the nanoparticles, and the 100 nm PVP-IO-37 nanoparticles exhibited the greatest enhancement. These results will have implications in designing engineered nanoparticles that are optimized as MR contrast agents or for use in therapeutics. PMID:21043459

  9. Simultaneous phosphorus uptake and denitrification by EBPR-r biofilm under aerobic conditions: effect of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pan Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Sutton, David C; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2015-01-01

    A biofilm process, termed enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBPR-r), was recently developed as a post-denitrification approach to facilitate phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater. Although simultaneous P uptake and denitrification was achieved despite substantial intrusion of dissolved oxygen (DO >6 mg/L), to what extent DO affects the process was unclear. Hence, in this study a series of batch experiments was conducted to assess the activity of the biofilm under various DO concentrations. The biofilm was first allowed to store acetate (as internal storage) under anaerobic conditions, and was then subjected to various conditions for P uptake (DO: 0-8 mg/L; nitrate: 10 mg-N/L; phosphate: 8 mg-P/L). The results suggest that even at a saturating DO concentration (8 mg/L), the biofilm could take up P and denitrify efficiently (0.70 mmol e(-)/g total solids*h). However, such aerobic denitrification activity was reduced when the biofilm structure was physically disturbed, suggesting that this phenomenon was a consequence of the presence of oxygen gradient across the biofilm. We conclude that when a biofilm system is used, EBPR-r can be effectively operated as a post-denitrification process, even when oxygen intrusion occurs.

  10. Surface modification of solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of curcumin: Improvement of bioavailability through enhanced cellular uptake, and lymphatic uptake.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin has been reported to exhibit potent anticancer effects. However, poor solubility, bioavailability and stability of curcumin limit its in vivo efficacy for the cancer treatment. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are a promising delivery system for the enhancement of bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. However, burst release of drug from SLN in acidic environment limits its usage as oral delivery system. Hence, we prepared N-carboxymethyl chitosan (NCC) coated curcumin-loaded SLN (NCC-SLN) to inhibit the rapid release of curcumin in acidic environment and enhance the bioavailability. The NCC-SLN exhibited suppressed burst release in simulated gastric fluid while sustained release was observed in simulated intestinal fluid. Furthermore, NCC-SLN exhibited increased cytotoxicity and cellular uptake on MCF-7 cells. The lymphatic uptake and oral bioavailability of NCC-SLN were found to be 6.3-fold and 9.5-fold higher than that of curcumin solution, respectively. These results suggest that NCC-SLN could be an efficient oral delivery system for curcumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioaccessibility, Cellular Uptake, and Transport of Astaxanthin Isomers and their Antioxidative Effects in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Ronghua; Zhu, Honghui; Zhang, Lianfu; Tsao, Rong

    2017-11-29

    The bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and antioxidative activities of three astaxanthin geometric isomers were investigated using an in vitro digestion model and human intestinal Caco-2 cells. This study demonstrated that the trans-cis isomerization of all-E-astaxanthin and the cis-trans isomerization of Z-astaxanthins could happen both during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and cellular uptake processes. 13Z-Astaxanthin showed higher bioaccessibility than 9Z- and all-E-astaxanthins during in vitro digestion, and 9Z-astaxanthin exhibited higher transport efficiency than all-E- and 13Z-astaxanthins. These might explain why 13Z- and 9Z-astaxanthins are found at higher concentrations in human plasma than all-E-astaxanthin in reported studies. All three astaxanthin isomers were effective in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis as seen in the antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD) activities ; 9Z- and 13Z- astaxanthins exhibited a higher protective effect than all-E-astaxanthin against oxidative stress as demonstrated by the lower cellular uptake of Z-astaxanthins and lower secretion and gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in Caco-2 cells treated with H 2 O 2 . We conclude, for the first time, that Z-astaxanthin isomers may play a more important role in preventing oxidative stress induced intestinal diseases.

  12. Age-related changes in oxygen and nutrient uptake by hindquarters in newborn pigs during cold-induced shivering.

    PubMed

    Lossec, G; Lebreton, Y; Hulin, J C; Fillaut, M; Herpin, P

    1998-11-01

    Newborn pigs rely essentially on shivering thermogenesis in the cold. In order to understand the rapid postnatal enhancement of thermogenic capacities in piglets, the oxygen and nutrient uptake of hindquarters was measured in vivo in 1- (n = 6) and 5-day-old (n = 6) animals at thermal neutrality and during cold exposure. The hindquarters were considered to represent a skeletal muscle compartment. Indirect calorimetry and arterio-venous techniques were used. The cold challenge (23 C at 1 day old and 15 C at 5 days old for 90 min) induced a similar increase (+90 %) in regulatory heat production at both ages. Hindquarters blood flow was higher at 5 days than 1 day old at thermal neutrality (26 +/- 3 vs. 17 +/- 1 ml min-1 (100 g hindquarters)-1) and its increase in the cold was much more marked (+65 % at 5 days old vs. +25 % at 1 day old). Oxygen extraction by the hindquarters rose from 30-35 % at thermal neutrality to 65-70 % in the cold at both ages. The calculated contribution of skeletal muscle to total oxygen consumption averaged 34-40 % at thermal neutrality and 50-64 % in the cold and skeletal muscle was the major contributor to regulatory thermogenesis. Based on hindquarters glucose uptake and lactate release, carbohydrate appeared to be an important fuel for shivering. However, net uptake of fatty acids increased progressively during cold exposure at 5 days old. The enhancement in muscular blood supply and fatty acid utilization during shivering is probably related to the postnatal improvement in the thermoregulatory response of the piglet.

  13. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Oxygen Uptake Rate of the Rabbit Cornea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    typical of a noncoherent source Optometrist, Ph.D. exposure. IV Effects on Corneal Oxygen Uptake-Lattimore 117 AvxAtl,-blity Codes 1- -il and/or , "t i...romator entrance slit by the housing optics . A 10 reciprocity (i.e., the biologic effects or endpoints cm quartz-enclosed water chamber was placed be...remove the infrared radiation. The exit optical taneous output at 350.7 and 356.4 nm (3:1 ratio), beam was focused by a quartz lens with a beam size

  14. Sevoflurane protects rat mixed cerebrocortical neuronal-glial cell cultures against transient oxygen-glucose deprivation: involvement of glutamate uptake and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Canas, Paula T; Velly, Lionel J; Labrande, Christelle N; Guillet, Benjamin A; Sautou-Miranda, Valérie; Masmejean, Frédérique M; Nieoullon, André L; Gouin, François M; Bruder, Nicolas J; Pisano, Pascale S

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of glutamate and reactive oxygen species in sevoflurane-mediated neuroprotection on an in vitro model of ischemia-reoxygenation. Mature mixed cerebrocortical neuronal-glial cell cultures, treated or not with increasing concentrations of sevoflurane, were exposed to 90 min combined oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in an anaerobic chamber followed by reoxygenation. Cell death was quantified by lactate dehydrogenase release into the media and cell viability by reduction of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Extracellular concentrations of glutamate and glutamate uptake were assessed at the end of the ischemic injury by high-performance liquid chromatography and incorporation of L-[H]glutamate into cells, respectively. Free radical generation in cells was assessed 6 h after OGD during the reoxygenation period using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, which reacts with intracellular radicals to be converted to its fluorescent product, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin, in cell cytosol. Twenty-four hours after OGD, sevoflurane, in a concentration-dependent manner, significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and increased cell viability. At the end of OGD, sevoflurane was able to reduce the OGD-induced decrease in glutamate uptake. This effect was impaired in the presence of threo-3-methyl glutamate, a specific inhibitor of the glial transporter GLT1. Sevoflurane counteracted the increase in extracellular level of glutamate during OGD and the generation of reactive oxygen species during reoxygenation. Sevoflurane had a neuroprotective effect in this in vitro model of ischemia-reoxygenation. This beneficial effect may be explained, at least in part, by sevoflurane-induced antiexcitotoxic properties during OGD, probably depending on GLT1, and by sevoflurane-induced decrease of reactive oxygen species generation during reoxygenation.

  15. Glycosaminoglycan-functionalized poly-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytocompatibility, and cellular uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Surya P; Arya, Neha; Ojha, Nirdesh; Kohler, Esther; Shastri, V Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics to the tumor via nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems remains a significant challenge. This is compounded by the fact that the tumor is highly dynamic and complex environment composed of a plurality of cell types and extracellular matrix. Since glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production is altered in many diseases (or pathologies), NPs bearing GAG moieties on the surface may confer some unique advantages in interrogating the tumor microenvironment. In order to explore this premise, in the study reported here poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) NPs in the range of 100–150 nm bearing various proteoglycans were synthesized by a single-step nanoprecipitation and characterized. The surface functionalization of the NPs with GAG moieties was verified using zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To establish these GAG-bearing NPs as carriers of therapeutics, cellular toxicity assays were undertaken in lung epithelial adenocarcinoma (A549) cells, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC), and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. In general NPs were well tolerated over a wide concentration range (100–600 μg/mL) by all cell types and were taken up to appreciable extents without any adverse cell response in A549 cells and HPMEC. Further, GAG-functionalized PLGA NPs were taken up to different extents in A459 cells and HPMEC. In both cell systems, the uptake of heparin-modified NPs was diminished by 50%–65% in comparison to that of unmodified PLGA. Interestingly, the uptake of chondroitin sulfate NPs was the highest in both cell systems with 40%–60% higher uptake when compared with that of PLGA, and this represented an almost twofold difference over heparin-modified NPs. These findings suggest that GAG modification can be explored as means of changing the uptake behavior of PLGA NPs and these NP systems have potential in cancer therapy. PMID:25632234

  16. Augmented cellular uptake of nanoparticles using tea catechins: effect of surface modification on nanoparticle-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Luo, Pei-Chun; Huang, Chun-Wan; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticles may serve as carriers in targeted therapeutics; interaction of the nanoparticles with a biological system may determine their targeting effects and therapeutic efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of tea catechins, has been conjugated with nanoparticles and tested as an anticancer agent. We investigated whether EGCG may enhance nanoparticle uptake by tumor cells. Cellular uptake of a dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was determined by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry or a potassium thiocyanate colorimetric method. We demonstrated that EGCG greatly enhanced interaction and/or internalization of MNPs (with or without polyethylene glycol) by glioma cells, but not vascular endothelial cells. The enhancing effects are both time- and concentration-dependent. Such effects may be induced by a simple mix of MNPs with EGCG at a concentration as low as 1-3 μM, which increased MNP uptake 2- to 7-fold. In addition, application of magnetic force further potentiated MNP uptake, suggesting a synergetic effect of EGCG and magnetic force. Because the effects of EGCG were preserved at 4 °C, but not when EGCG was removed from the culture medium prior to addition of MNPs, a direct interaction of EGCG and MNPs was implicated. Use of an MNP-EGCG composite produced by adsorption of EGCG and magnetic separation also led to an enhanced uptake. The results reveal a novel interaction of a food component and nanocarrier system, which may be potentially amenable to magnetofection, cell labeling/tracing, and targeted therapeutics.

  17. Platinum nanozymes recover cellular ROS homeostasis in an oxidative stress-mediated disease model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moglianetti, Mauro; de Luca, Elisa; Pedone, Deborah; Marotta, Roberto; Catelani, Tiziano; Sartori, Barbara; Amenitsch, Heinz; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes, with similar or even superior performance than natural enzymes, along with higher adaptability to the changes in environmental conditions. We then exploited their potent activity as radical scavenging materials in a cellular model of an oxidative stress-related disorder, namely human Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) disease, which is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Noteworthily, we found that Pt nanozymes can efficiently reduce ROS levels, completely restoring the cellular physiological homeostasis.In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide

  18. The influence of exercise duration at VO2 max on the off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase during high intensity running activity.

    PubMed

    Billat, V L; Hamard, L; Koralsztein, J P

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of time run at maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) on the off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase after supra-lactate threshold runs. We hypothesised: 1) that among the velocities eliciting VO2 max there is a velocity threshold from which there is a slow component in the VO2-off transient, and 2) that at this velocity the longer the duration of this time at VO2 max (associated with an accumulated oxygen kinetics since VO2 can not overlap VO2 max), the longer is the off-transient phase of oxygen uptake kinetics. Nine long-distance runners performed five maximal tests on a synthetic track (400 m) while breathing through the COSMED K4b2 portable, telemetric metabolic analyser: i) an incremental test which determined VO2 max, the minimal velocity associated with VO2 max (vVO2 max) and the velocity at the lactate threshold (vLT), ii) and in a random order, four supra-lactate threshold runs performed until exhaustion at vLT + 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the difference between vLT and vVO2 max (vdelta25, vdelta50, vdelta75, vdelta100). At vdelta25, vdelta50 (= 91.0 +/- 0.9% vVO2 max) and vdelta75, an asymmetry was found between the VO2 on (double exponential) and off-transient (mono exponential) phases. Only at vdelta75 there was at positive relationship between the time run at VO2 max (%tlimtot) and the VO2 recovery time constant (Z = 1.8, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that among the velocities eliciting VO2 max, vdelta75 is the velocity at which the longer the duration of the time at VO2 max, the longer is the off-transient phase of oxygen uptake kinetics. It may be possible that at vdelta50 there is not an accumulated oxygen deficit during the plateau of VO2 at VO2 max and that the duration of the time at VO2 max during the exhaustive runs at vdelta100, could be too short to induce an accumulating oxygen deficit affecting the oxygen recovery.

  19. A polymeric nanoparticle consisting of mPEG-PLA-Toco and PLMA-COONa as a drug carrier: improvements in cellular uptake and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yilwoong; Kim, Jae Hong; Kang, Hye-Won; Oh, Hun Seung; Kim, Sung Wan; Seo, Min Hyo

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate a new polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery formulation that consists of two components: i) an amphiphilic diblock copolymer having tocopherol moiety at the end of the hydrophobic block in which the hydrophobic tocopherol moiety increases stability of hydrophobic core of the nanoparticle in aqueous medium; and ii) a biodegradable copolyester having carboxylate end group that is capable of forming ionic complex with positively charged compounds such as doxorubicin. A doxourubicin-loaded polymeric nanoparticle (Dox-PNP) was prepared by solvent evaporation method. The entrapment efficiency, size distribution, and in vitro release profile at various pH conditions were characterized. In vitro cellular uptake was investigated by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and MTT assay using drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were evaluated in rats and tumor-bearing mice. Doxorubicin (Dox) was efficiently loaded into the PNP (higher than 95% of entrapment efficiency), and the diameter of Dox-PNP was in the range 20-25 nm with a narrow size distribution. In Vitro study showed that Dox-PNP exhibited higher cellular uptake into both human breast cancer cell (MCF-7) and human uterine cancer cell (MES-SA) than free doxorubicin solution (Free-Dox), especially into drug-resistant cells (MCF-7/ADR and MES-SA/Dx-5). In pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study, the bioavailability of Dox-PNP calculated from the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) was 69.8 times higher than that of Free-Dox in rats, and Dox-PNP exhibited 2 times higher bioavailability in tumor tissue of tumor-bearing mice. Dox-PNP exhibited enhanced cellular uptake of the drug. In the cytotoxic activity study, this improved cellular uptake was proved to be more advantageous in drug-resistant cell. Dox-PNP exhibited much higher bioavailability in blood plasma and more drug accumulation in tumor tissue than conventional doxorubicin

  20. Effects of Hemopure on maximal oxygen uptake and endurance performance in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M J; Schumacher, Y O; Sharpe, K; Varlet-Marie, E; Audran, M

    2007-05-01

    Haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) such as Hemopure are touted as a tenable substitute for red blood cells and therefore potential doping agents, although the mechanisms of oxygen transport of HBOCs are incompletely understood. We investigated whether infusion of Hemopure increased maximal oxygen uptake (V.O 2max) and endurance performance in healthy subjects. Twelve male subjects performed two 4-minute submaximal exercise bouts equivalent to 60 % and 75 % of V.O (2max) on a cycle ergometer, followed by a ramped incremental protocol to elicit V.O (2max). A crossover design tested the effect of infusing either 30 g (6 subjects) or 45 g (6 subjects) of Hemopure versus a placebo. Under our study conditions, Hemopure did not increase V.O (2max) nor endurance performance. However, the infusion of Hemopure caused a decrease in heart rate of approximately 10 bpm (p=0.009) and an average increase in mean ( approximately 7 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure ( approximately 8 mmHg) (p=0.046) at submaximal and maximal exercise intensities. Infusion of Hemopure did not bestow the same physiological advantages generally associated with infusion of red blood cells. It is conceivable that under exercise conditions, the hypertensive effects of Hemopure counter the performance-enhancing effect of improved blood oxygen carrying capacity.

  1. Human adenovirus Ad36 and its E4orf1 gene enhance cellular glucose uptake even in the presence of inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Na, Ha-Na; Dubuisson, Olga; Hegde, Vijay; Nam, Jae-Hwan; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2016-05-01

    Aging and obesity are associated with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, which are linked to insulin resistance. Anti-inflammatory agents have marginal effect in improving insulin resistance. Hence, agents are needed to improve glycemic control despite the inflammation. Ad36, a human adenovirus, increases TNFα and MCP1 mRNA in adipose tissue, yet improves glycemic control in mice. Ad36 via its E4orf1 gene, up-regulates AKT/glucose transporter (Glut)-4 signaling to enhance cellular glucose uptake. Directly test a role of Ad36, or E4orf1 in enhancing cellular glucose uptake in presence of inflammatory cytokines. Experiment 1: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0, 10 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and infected with 0 or 5 plaque forming units (PFU) of Ad36/cell. 3T3-L1 cells that stably and inducibly express E4orf1 or a null vector (pTRE-E4orf1 or pTRE-null cells), were similarly treated with LPS and then with doxycycline, to induce E4orf1. Experiment 2: 3T3L1 preadipocytes were treated with 25 nM MCP1 or 20 nM TNFα for 16 h, followed by infection with 0 or 5 PFU of Ad36/cell. Experiment 3: pTRE-E4orf1 or -null cells were similarly treated with MCP1 or TNFα followed by doxycycline to induce E4orf1. Cellular glucose uptake and cellular signaling were determined 72 h post-Ad36 infection or E4orf1-induction, in continued presence of MCP1 or TNFα. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, Ad36, but not E4orf1, increased MCP1 and TNFα mRNA, in presence of LPS stimulation. Ad36 or E4orf1 up-regulated AKT-phosphorylation and Glut4 and increased glucose uptake (P < 0.05) in the presence of MCP1 or TNFα. Unlike Ad36, E4orf1 does not appear to stimulate inflammatory response. Ad36 and E4orf1 both enhance cellular glucose uptake even in presence of inflammation. Further research is needed to harness this novel and beneficial property of E4orf1 to improve hyperglycemia despite chronic

  2. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of doxorubicin and its formamidine derivatives in HL60 sensitive and HL60/MX2 resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Kik, Krzysztof; Wasowska-Lukawska, Malgorzata; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2009-04-01

    In this work a comparison was made of the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and two of its derivatives containing a formamidino group (-N=CH-N<) at the 3' position with morpholine (DOXM) or hexamethyleneimine (DOXH) ring. All tests were performed in doxorubicin-sensitive HL60 and -resistant HL60/MX2 cells which are known for the presence of altered topoisomerase II. Cytotoxic activity of DOX toward HL60/MX2 cells was about 195 times lower when compared with the sensitive HL60 cell line. DOXM and DOXH were approximately 20 times more active in resistant cells than DOX. It was found that the uptake of DOX was lower in resistant cells by about 16%, while that of DOXM and DOXH was lower by about 36% and 19%, respectively. Thus the changes in the cellular uptake of anthracyclines are not associated with the fact that cytotoxicity of DOXM and DOXH exceed the cytotoxicity of DOX. Experiments in cell-free system containing human topoisomerase II showed that topoisomerase II is not inhibited by DOXM and DOXH. Formamidinoanthracyclines may be more useful than parent drugs in therapy against tumor cells with altered topoisomerase II activity.

  3. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the presentmore » study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.« less

  4. Effect of the nanoformulation of siRNA-lipid assemblies on their cellular uptake and immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kohei; Onishi, Kohei; Sawaki, Kazuaki; Li, Tianshu; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Sato, Takaaki; Takeoka, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Two lipid-based nanoformulations have been used to date in clinical studies: lipoplexes and lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). In this study, we prepared small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded carriers using lipid components of the same composition to form molecular assemblies of differing structures, and evaluated the impact of structure on cellular uptake and immune stimulation. Lipoplexes are electrostatic complexes formed by mixing preformed cationic lipid liposomes with anionic siRNA in an aqueous environment, whereas LNPs are nanoparticles embedding siRNA prepared by mixing an alcoholic lipid solution with an aqueous siRNA solution in one step. Although the physicochemical properties of lipoplexes and LNPs were similar except for small increases in apparent size of lipoplexes and zeta potential of LNPs, siRNA uptake efficiency of LNPs was significantly higher than that of lipoplexes. Furthermore, in the case of LNPs, both siRNA and lipid were effectively incorporated into cells in a co-assembled state; however, in the case of lipoplexes, the amount of siRNA internalized into cells was small in comparison with lipid. siRNAs in lipoplexes were thought to be more likely to localize on the particle surface and thereby undergo dissociation into the medium. Inflammatory cytokine responses also appeared to differ between lipoplexes and LNPs. For tumor necrosis factor-α, release was mainly caused by siRNA. On the other hand, the release of interleukin-1β was mainly due to the cationic nature of particles. LNPs released lower amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β than lipoplexes and were thus considered to be better tolerated with respect to cytokine release. In conclusion, siRNA-loaded nanoformulations effect their cellular uptake and immune stimulation in a manner that depends on the structure of the molecular assembly; therefore, nanoformulations should be optimized before extending studies into the in vivo environment.

  5. Effect of the nanoformulation of siRNA-lipid assemblies on their cellular uptake and immune stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kohei; Onishi, Kohei; Sawaki, Kazuaki; Li, Tianshu; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Sato, Takaaki; Takeoka, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Two lipid-based nanoformulations have been used to date in clinical studies: lipoplexes and lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). In this study, we prepared small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded carriers using lipid components of the same composition to form molecular assemblies of differing structures, and evaluated the impact of structure on cellular uptake and immune stimulation. Lipoplexes are electrostatic complexes formed by mixing preformed cationic lipid liposomes with anionic siRNA in an aqueous environment, whereas LNPs are nanoparticles embedding siRNA prepared by mixing an alcoholic lipid solution with an aqueous siRNA solution in one step. Although the physicochemical properties of lipoplexes and LNPs were similar except for small increases in apparent size of lipoplexes and zeta potential of LNPs, siRNA uptake efficiency of LNPs was significantly higher than that of lipoplexes. Furthermore, in the case of LNPs, both siRNA and lipid were effectively incorporated into cells in a co-assembled state; however, in the case of lipoplexes, the amount of siRNA internalized into cells was small in comparison with lipid. siRNAs in lipoplexes were thought to be more likely to localize on the particle surface and thereby undergo dissociation into the medium. Inflammatory cytokine responses also appeared to differ between lipoplexes and LNPs. For tumor necrosis factor-α, release was mainly caused by siRNA. On the other hand, the release of interleukin-1β was mainly due to the cationic nature of particles. LNPs released lower amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β than lipoplexes and were thus considered to be better tolerated with respect to cytokine release. In conclusion, siRNA-loaded nanoformulations effect their cellular uptake and immune stimulation in a manner that depends on the structure of the molecular assembly; therefore, nanoformulations should be optimized before extending studies into the in vivo environment. PMID:28790820

  6. Impact of oxygen status on 10B-BPA uptake into human glioblastoma cells, referring to significance in boron neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Yuki; Hirose, Katsumi; Harada, Takaomi; Sato, Mariko; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Anbai, Akira; Hashimoto, Manabu; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can potentially deliver high linear energy transfer particles to tumor cells without causing severe damage to surrounding normal tissue, and may thus be beneficial for cases with characteristics of infiltrative growth, which need a wider irradiation field, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Hypoxia is an important factor contributing to resistance to anticancer therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the impact of oxygen status on 10B uptake in glioblastoma cells in vitro in order to evaluate the potential impact of local hypoxia on BNCT. T98G and A172 glioblastoma cells were used in the present study, and we examined the influence of oxygen concentration on cell viability, mRNA expression of L-amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), and the uptake amount of 10B-BPA. T98G and A172 glioblastoma cells became quiescent after 72 h under 1% hypoxia but remained viable. Uptake of 10B-BPA, which is one of the agents for BNCT in clinical use, decreased linearly as oxygen levels were reduced from 20% through to 10%, 3% and 1%. Hypoxia with <10% O2 significantly decreased mRNA expression of LAT1 in both cell lines, indicating that reduced uptake of 10B-BPA in glioblastoma in hypoxic conditions may be due to reduced expression of this important transporter protein. Hypoxia inhibits 10B-BPA uptake in glioblastoma cells in a linear fashion, meaning that approaches to overcoming local tumor hypoxia may be an effective method of improving the success of BNCT treatment. PMID:29315429

  7. Carrier-free cellular uptake and the gene-silencing activity of the lipophilic siRNAs is strongly affected by the length of the linker between siRNA and lipophilic group.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Natalya S; Chernikov, Ivan V; Meschaninova, Mariya I; Dovydenko, Iiya S; Venyaminova, Aliya G; Zenkova, Marina A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Chernolovskaya, Elena L

    2012-03-01

    The conjugation of siRNA to molecules, which can be internalized into the cell via natural transport mechanisms, can result in the enhancement of siRNA cellular uptake. Herein, the carrier-free cellular uptake of nuclease-resistant anti-MDR1 siRNA equipped with lipophilic residues (cholesterol, lithocholic acid, oleyl alcohol and litocholic acid oleylamide) attached to the 5'-end of the sense strand via oligomethylene linker of various length was investigated. A convenient combination of H-phosphonate and phosphoramidite methods was developed for the synthesis of 5'-lipophilic conjugates of siRNAs. It was found that lipophilic siRNA are able to effectively penetrate into HEK293, HepG2 and KB-8-5 cancer cells when used in a micromolar concentration range. The efficiency of the uptake is dependent upon the type of lipophilic moiety, the length of the linker between the moiety and the siRNA and cell type. Among all the conjugates tested, the cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs with linkers containing from 6 to 10 carbon atoms demonstrate the optimal uptake and gene silencing properties: the shortening of the linker reduces the efficiency of the cellular uptake of siRNA conjugates, whereas the lengthening of the linker facilitates the uptake but retards the gene silencing effect and decreases the efficiency of the silencing.

  8. The polycystins are modulated by cellular oxygen-sensing pathways and regulate mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Padovano, Valeria; Kuo, Ivana Y.; Stavola, Lindsey K.; Aerni, Hans R.; Flaherty, Benjamin J.; Chapin, Hannah C.; Ma, Ming; Somlo, Stefan; Boletta, Alessandra; Ehrlich, Barbara E.; Rinehart, Jesse; Caplan, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), which form an ion channel complex that may mediate ciliary sensory processes and regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release. Loss of PC1 expression profoundly alters cellular energy metabolism. The mechanisms that control the trafficking of PC1 and PC2, as well as their broader physiological roles, are poorly understood. We found that O2 levels regulate the subcellular localization and channel activity of the polycystin complex through its interaction with the O2-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain containing protein EGLN3 (or PHD3), which hydroxylates PC1. Moreover, cells lacking PC1 expression use less O2 and show less mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in response to bradykinin-induced ER Ca2+ release, indicating that PC1 can modulate mitochondrial function. These data suggest a novel role for the polycystins in sensing and responding to cellular O2 levels. PMID:27881662

  9. Intracellular delivery of etoposide loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Khushwant S; Jacob, Sheeba; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Sawant, Krutika K

    2011-08-01

    The preferred delivery systems for anticancer drugs would be the one which would have selective and effective destruction of cancer cells. In the present study etoposide (ETO) loaded nanoparticles (NP) were prepared using PLGA (ETO-PLGA NP), PLGA-MPEG block copolymer (ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP) and PLGA-Pluronic copolymer (ETO-PLGA-PLU NP) and they were evaluated for cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies using two cancer cell lines, L1210 and DU145. The IC50 values for L1210 cells were 18.0, 6.2, 4.8 and 5.4 microM and for DU145 cells the IC50 values were 98.4, 75.1, 60.1 and 71.3 microM for ETO, ETO-PLGA NP, ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP and ETO-PLGA-PLU NP respectively. The increased cytotoxicities were attributed to increased uptake of the NPs by the cells. Moreover the ETO loaded PLGA-MPEG NP and PLGA-Pluronic NP showed a sustained cytotoxic effect till 5 days on both the cell lines. Results of the long term cytotoxicity study concluded that the drug loaded PLGA nanoparticulate formulations were efficient in decreasing the viability of the L1210 cells over a period of three days, whereas the pure drug exerted its maximum efficiency on the day one itself. Z-stack confocal images of NPs showed fluorescence activity in each section of DU 145 and L1210 cells indicating that the nanoparticles were internalized by the cells. The study concluded that ETO loaded PLGA NPs had higher cytotoxicity compared with that of the free drug and ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP and ETO-PLGA-PLU NP had higher cell uptake efficiency compared with that of ETO-PLGA NP. The developed PLGA based NPs shows promise to be used for cancer therapy.

  10. Oxygen uptake and local Po2 profiles in submerged larvae of phaeoxantha klugii (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae), as well as their metabolic rate in air.

    PubMed

    Zerm, M; Zinkler, D; Adis, J

    2004-01-01

    We studied whether oxygen uptake from the surrounding water might enhance survival in submerged third instar larvae of Phaeoxantha klugii, a tiger beetle from the central Amazonian floodplains. Local oxygen partial pressures (Po(2)) were measured with microcoaxial needle electrodes close to larvae submerged in initially air-saturated still water. The Po(2) profiles showed that the larvae exploit oxygen from the aquatic medium. Metabolism in the air of more or less resting larvae was determined by measuring the rate of CO(2) production (sV dot co2) with an infrared gas analyzer at 29 degrees C. The sV dot co2 was around 1.8 mu L g(-1) min(-1), equivalent to an oxygen consumption rate (sV dot o2) of 1.8-2.6 mu L g(-1) min(-1). Oxygen consumption (V dot o2) of individually submerged larvae measured in closed respiration chambers at 19-10.3 kPa Po(2) (initially air saturated, 29 degrees C) ranged between 0.05 and 0.2 mu L min(-1) and was not correlated with body mass. The sV dot o2 ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 mu L min(-1), that is, 4%-22% of the metabolic rate measured in air. Mean V dot o2 decreased with declining Po(2); however, some individuals showed contrary patterns. V dot o2 was additionally measured in dormant larvae, in larvae submerged for 1-2 d in open water or for 30-49 d within sediment, as well as in larvae exposed to anoxia before the measurements. The range of V dot o2 was similar in all groups, indicating that the larvae exploit oxygen from the water whenever available. Similar V dot o2 across the whole range of body mass investigated (0.31-0.76 g) suggests that oxygen uptake occurs by spiracular uptake. Assuming that larvae survive for some time at rates comparable to depressed metabolic rates reported for other insect species, it can be concluded that oxygen uptake from water can sustain aerobic metabolism even under quite severe hypoxia. It might therefore play an important role for survival during inundation periods.

  11. Genome-wide assessment of the carriers involved in the cellular uptake of drugs: a model system in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The uptake of drugs into cells has traditionally been considered to be predominantly via passive diffusion through the bilayer portion of the cell membrane. The recent recognition that drug uptake is mostly carrier-mediated raises the question of which drugs use which carriers. Results To answer this, we have constructed a chemical genomics platform built upon the yeast gene deletion collection, using competition experiments in batch fermenters and robotic automation of cytotoxicity screens, including protection by 'natural' substrates. Using these, we tested 26 different drugs and identified the carriers required for 18 of the drugs to gain entry into yeast cells. Conclusions As well as providing a useful platform technology, these results further substantiate the notion that the cellular uptake of pharmaceutical drugs normally occurs via carrier-mediated transport and indicates that establishing the identity and tissue distribution of such carriers should be a major consideration in the design of safe and effective drugs. PMID:22023736

  12. Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Cobalamin Uptake by Bovine Serum

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Ruberu, Kalani; Li, Hongyun; Garner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Tracking cellular 57Co-labelled cobalamin (57Co-Cbl) uptake is a well-established method for studying Cbl homeostasis. Previous studies established that bovine serum is not generally permissive for cellular Cbl uptake when used as a supplement in cell culture medium, whereas supplementation with human serum promotes cellular Cbl uptake. The underlying reasons for these differences are not fully defined. In the current study we address this question. We extend earlier observations by showing that fetal calf serum inhibits cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake by HT1080 cells (a fibrosarcoma-derived fibroblast cell line). Furthermore, we discovered that a simple heat-treatment protocol (95°C for 10 min) ameliorates this inhibitory activity for HT1080 cell 57Co-Cbl uptake. We provide evidence that the very high level of haptocorrin in bovine serum (as compared to human serum) is responsible for this inhibitory activity. We suggest that bovine haptocorrin competes with cell-derived transcobalamin for Cbl binding, and that cellular Cbl uptake may be minimised in the presence of large amounts of bovine haptocorrin that are present under routine in vitro cell culture conditions. In experiments conducted with AG01518 cells (a neonatal foreskin-derived fibroblast cell line), overall cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake was 86% lower than for HT1080 cells, cellular TC production was below levels detectable by western blotting, and heat treatment of fetal calf serum resulted in only a modest increase in cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake. We recommend a careful assessment of cell culture protocols should be conducted in order to determine the potential benefits that heat-treated bovine serum may provide for in vitro studies of mammalian cell lines. PMID:27893837

  13. Deciphering the mechanisms of cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles by accurate evaluation of internalization using imaging flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) by cells remains to be better characterized in order to understand the mechanisms of potential NP toxicity as well as for a reliable risk assessment. Real NP uptake is still difficult to evaluate because of the adsorption of NPs on the cellular surface. Results Here we used two approaches to distinguish adsorbed fluorescently labeled NPs from the internalized ones. The extracellular fluorescence was either quenched by Trypan Blue or the uptake was analyzed using imaging flow cytometry. We used this novel technique to define the inside of the cell to accurately study the uptake of fluorescently labeled (SiO2) and even non fluorescent but light diffracting NPs (TiO2). Time course, dose-dependence as well as the influence of surface charges on the uptake were shown in the pulmonary epithelial cell line NCI-H292. By setting up an integrative approach combining these flow cytometric analyses with confocal microscopy we deciphered the endocytic pathway involved in SiO2 NP uptake. Functional studies using energy depletion, pharmacological inhibitors, siRNA-clathrin heavy chain induced gene silencing and colocalization of NPs with proteins specific for different endocytic vesicles allowed us to determine macropinocytosis as the internalization pathway for SiO2 NPs in NCI-H292 cells. Conclusion The integrative approach we propose here using the innovative imaging flow cytometry combined with confocal microscopy could be used to identify the physico-chemical characteristics of NPs involved in their uptake in view to redesign safe NPs. PMID:23388071

  14. Effects of Graphene Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes on the Cellular Division, Microstructure, Uptake, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangang; Ouyang, Shaohu; Mu, Li; An, Jing; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-09-15

    Nanomaterial oxides are common formations of nanomaterials in the natural environment. Herein, the nanotoxicology of typical graphene oxide (GO) and carboxyl single-walled carbon nanotubes (C-SWCNT) was compared. The results showed that cell division of Chlorella vulgaris was promoted at 24 h and then inhibited at 96 h after nanomaterial exposure. At 96 h, GO and C-SWCNT inhibited the rates of cell division by 0.08-15% and 0.8-28.3%, respectively. Both GO and C-SWCNT covered the cell surface, but the uptake percentage of C-SWCNT was 2-fold higher than that of GO. C-SWCNT induced stronger plasmolysis and mitochondrial membrane potential loss and decreased the cell viability to a greater extent than GO. Moreover, C-SWCNT-exposed cells exhibited more starch grains and lysosome formation and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels than GO-exposed cells. Metabolomics analysis revealed significant differences in the metabolic profiles among the control, C-SWCNT and GO groups. The metabolisms of alkanes, lysine, octadecadienoic acid and valine was associated with ROS and could be considered as new biomarkers of ROS. The nanotoxicological mechanisms involved the inhibition of fatty acid, amino acid and small molecule acid metabolisms. These findings provide new insights into the effects of GO and C-SWCNT on cellular responses.

  15. The Maximal Oxygen Uptake Verification Phase: a Light at the End of the Tunnel?

    PubMed

    Schaun, Gustavo Z

    2017-12-08

    Commonly performed during an incremental test to exhaustion, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max ) assessment has become a recurring practice in clinical and experimental settings. To validate the test, several criteria were proposed. In this context, the plateau in oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ) is inconsistent in its frequency, reducing its usefulness as a robust method to determine "true" V̇O 2max . Moreover, secondary criteria previously suggested, such as expiratory exchange ratios or percentages of maximal heart rate, are highly dependent on protocol design and often are achieved at V̇O 2 percentages well below V̇O 2max . Thus, an alternative method termed verification phase was proposed. Currently, it is clear that the verification phase can be a practical and sensitive method to confirm V̇O 2max ; however, procedures to conduct it are not standardized across the literature and no previous research tried to summarize how it has been employed. Therefore, in this review the knowledge on the verification phase was updated, while suggestions on how it can be performed (e.g. intensity, duration, recovery) were provided according to population and protocol design. Future studies should focus to identify a verification protocol feasible for different populations and to compare square-wave and multistage verification phases. Additionally, studies assessing verification phases in different patient populations are still warranted.

  16. The effect of tunicamycin on the glucose uptake, growth, and cellular adhesion in the protozoan parasite Crithidia fasciculata.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Robert; Segovia, Christopher; Trombert, Annette Nicole; Santander, Javier; Manque, Patricio

    2014-10-01

    Crithidia fasciculata represents a very interesting model organism to study biochemical, cellular, and genetic processes unique to members of the family of the Trypanosomatidae. Thus, C. fasciculata parasitizes several species of insects and has been widely used to test new therapeutic strategies against parasitic infections. By using tunicamycin, a potent inhibitor of glycosylation in asparaginyl residues of glycoproteins (N-glycosylation), we demonstrate that N-glycosylation in C. fasciculata cells is involved in modulating glucose uptake, dramatically impacting growth, and cell adhesion. C. fasciculata treated with tunicamycin was severely affected in their ability to replicate and to adhere to polystyrene substrates and losing their ability to aggregate into small and large groups. Moreover, under tunicamycin treatment, the parasites were considerably shorter and rounder and displayed alterations in cytoplasmic vesicles formation. Furthermore, glucose uptake was significantly impaired in a tunicamycin dose-dependent manner; however, no cytotoxic effect was observed. Interestingly, this effect was reversible. Thus, when tunicamycin was removed from the culture media, the parasites recovered its growth rate, cell adhesion properties, and glucose uptake. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in the tunicamycin-dependent glycosylation levels can influence glucose uptake, cell growth, and adhesion in the protozoan parasite C. fasciculata.

  17. Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) Enhances Cellular Uptake of Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meiyan; Wang, Qi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Koo, Ja-Won; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/− mice, but not in Sglt2−/− mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2−/− mice compared to Sglt2+/− mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/− mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/− mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25268124

  18. The influence of cellular uptake on gold nanorods photostability and photoacoustic conversion efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Ratto, Fulvio; Tatini, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Cini, Alberto; Giovannelli, Ilaria; de Angelis, Marella; Rossi, Francesca; Centi, Sonia; Pini, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Their intense optical absorbance in the near-infrared window and chemical versatility make gold nanorods attractive for biomedical applications, such as photothermal therapies and photoacoustic imaging. However, their limited photostability remains a drawback of practical concern. In fact, when gold nanorods are irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses in resonance with their plasmon oscillations, there may occur reshaping into spherical particles or even fragmentation at higher optical fluences, which cause substantial modifications of their optical features with a loss of photoacoustic conversion efficiency. In this contribution, we focus on how the gold nanorods photostability is affected when these particles are modified for cellular uptake, by investigating their stability and photoacoustic conversion efficiency under near infrared pulsed irradiation at different laser fluences.

  19. Cellular Uptake of the Clostridium perfringens Binary Iota-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Blöcker, Dagmar; Behlke, Joachim; Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2001-01-01

    The binary iota-toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type E strains and consists of two separate proteins, the binding component iota b (98 kDa) and an actin-ADP-ribosylating enzyme component iota a (47 kDa). Iota b binds to the cell surface receptor and mediates the translocation of iota a into the cytosol. Here we studied the cellular uptake of iota-toxin into Vero cells. Bafilomycin A1, but not brefeldin A or nocodazole, inhibited the cytotoxic effects of iota-toxin, indicating that toxin is translocated from an endosomal compartment into the cytoplasm. Acidification (pH ≤ 5.0) of the extracellular medium enabled iota a to directly enter the cytosol in the presence of iota b. Activation by chymotrypsin induced oligomerization of iota b in solution. An average mass of 530 ± 28 kDa for oligomers was determined by analytical ultracentrifugation, indicating heptamer formation. The entry of iota-toxin into polarized CaCo-2 cells was studied by measuring the decrease in transepithelial resistance after toxin treatment. Iota-toxin led to a significant decrease in resistance when it was applied to the basolateral surface of the cells but not following application to the apical surface, indicating a polarized localization of the iota-toxin receptor. PMID:11292715

  20. The effect of static magnetic fields and tat peptides on cellular and nuclear uptake of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carol-Anne M; de la Fuente, Jesus; Pelaz, Beatriz; Furlani, Edward P; Mullin, Margaret; Berry, Catherine C

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are widely used in bioapplications such as imaging (MRI), targeted delivery (drugs/genes) and cell transfection (magnetofection). Historically, the impermeable nature of both the plasma and nuclear membranes hinder potential. Researchers combat this by developing techniques to enhance cellular and nuclear uptake. Two current popular methods are using external magnetic fields to remotely control particle direction or functionalising the nanoparticles with a cell penetrating peptide (e.g. tat); both of which facilitate cell entry. This paper compares the success of both methods in terms of nanoparticle uptake, analysing the type of magnetic forces the particles experience, and determines gross cell response in terms of morphology and structure and changes at the gene level via microarray analysis. Results indicated that both methods enhanced uptake via a caveolin dependent manner, with tat peptide being the more efficient and achieving nuclear uptake. On comparison to control cells, many groups of gene changes were observed in response to the particles. Importantly, the magnetic field also caused many change in gene expression, regardless of the nanoparticles, and appeared to cause F-actin alignment in the cells. Results suggest that static fields should be modelled and analysed prior to application in culture as cells clearly respond appropriately. Furthermore, the use of cell penetrating peptides may prove more beneficial in terms of enhancing uptake and maintaining cell homeostasis than a magnetic field. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimetabolic Effects of Polyphenols in Breast Cancer Cells: Focus on Glucose Uptake and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Keating, Elisa; Martel, Fátima

    2018-01-01

    In the last years, metabolic reprogramming became a new key hallmark of tumor cells. One of its components is a deviant energetic metabolism, known as Warburg effect-an aerobic lactatogenesis- characterized by elevated rates of glucose uptake and consumption with high-lactate production even in the presence of oxygen. Because many cancer cells display a greater sensitivity to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity than normal cells, inhibitors of glucose cellular uptake (facilitative glucose transporter 1 inhibitors) and oxidative metabolism (glycolysis inhibitors) are potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Polyphenols, abundantly contained in fruits and vegetables, are dietary components with an established protective role against cancer. Several molecular mechanisms are involved in the anticancer effect of polyphenols, including effects on apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways, and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, inhibition of glucose cellular uptake and metabolism in cancer cell lines has been described for several polyphenols, and this effect was shown to be associated with their anticarcinogenic effect. This work will review data showing an antimetabolic effect of polyphenols and its involvement in the chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic potential of these dietary compounds, in relation to breast cancer.

  2. Effects of reactive oxygen species on cellular wall disassembly of banana fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guiping; Duan, Xuewu; Shi, John; Lu, Wangjin; Luo, Yunbo; Jiang, Weibo; Jiang, Yueming

    2008-07-15

    Fruit softening is generally attributed to cell wall disassembly. Experiments were conducted to investigate effects of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) on in vitro cellular wall disassembly of harvested banana fruit. The alcohol-extracted insoluble residue (AEIR) was obtained from the pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages and then used to examine the disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides in the presence of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or hydroxyl radical (OH) and their scavengers. The presence of OH accelerated significantly disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides in terms of the increase in contents of total sugars released and uronic acid, and the decrease in molecular mass of soluble polysaccharides, using gel permeation chromatography. However, the treatment with H2O2 or O2(-) showed no significant effect on the disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides. Furthermore, the degradation of the de-esterified AEIR was more susceptible to OH attack than the esterified AEIR. In addition, the effect of OH could be inhibited in the presence of OH scavenger. This study suggests that disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides could be initiated by OH as the solublisation of the polysaccharides increased, which, in turn, accelerated fruit softening. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of phosphohydrolytic enzyme activity through the oxygen isotope composition of dissolved phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphohydrolytic enzymes play an important role in phosphorus remineralization. As they release phosphate (Pi) from various organophosphorus compounds, these enzymes facilitate the transfer of oxygen atoms from water to the phosphoryl moieties. Most such enzymatic reactions impart a significant isotopic fractionation to the oxygen transferred. If this reaction occurs within a cell, then the resultant oxygen isotope signal is overprinted by continued recycling of the Pi. However, if this reaction occurs extracellularly, then the isotopic signal will be preserved until the Pi is transported back into a cell. Thus, the oxygen isotope composition of Pi (δ18Op) in an aquatic ecosystem can serve as a useful indicator of the mechanisms by which P is remineralized. We develop a time-dependent model illustrating the sensitivity of the δ18O of dissolved phosphate to various modes of P remineralization. The model is informed by cell lysis experiments that reveal the relative proportions of P­i that are directly liberated from cytosol vs. regenerated from co-liberated dissolved organic phosphorus compounds via extracellular hydrolysis. By incorporating both cellular uptake and release fluxes of P, we show that the degree of isotopic disequilibrium in an aquatic ecosystem can be a strong indicator of P remineralization mode. Apparent oxygen isotope equilibrium between Pi and water arises in this model as a steady-state scenario in which fractionation upon cellular uptake of Pi counterbalances the hydrolytic source flux of disequilibrated Pi. Low and high rates of extracellular phosphohydrolase activity are shown to produce steady-state δ18Op values that are respectively above or below thermodynamic equilibrium compositions.

  4. Two-photon oxygen nanosensors based on a conjugated fluorescent polymer doped with platinum porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Peng, Hong-Shang; Cheng, Kun; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yuan-An; Yang, Wei

    2018-04-27

    Ratiometric fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) under two-photon excitation are successfully developed for sensing dissolved oxygen. The NPs comprise the oxygen probe Pt(II)-porphyrins (PtTFPP) and fluorescent organic semiconducting polymer (PFO). PFO polymer acts as both a two-photon antenna and a reference dye, while PtTFPP absorbs the photonic energy transferred by the PFO under two-photon excitation at 740 nm to sense oxygen. The red fluorescence of PtTFPP is sensitive to oxygen with a quenching response of 88% from nitrogen saturation to oxygen saturation, and PFO gives oxygen-insensitive referenced blue fluorescence. The fluorescence quenching of the NPs against oxygen at two-photon excitation follows a linear Stern-Volmer behavior. The nanosensors exhibit low cytotoxic effects as well as effortless cellular uptake. When incorporated into cells, the ratio of the signals increases up to about 500% from oxygen-saturated to oxygen-free environment.

  5. The importance of perivitelline fluid convection to oxygen uptake of Pseudophryne bibronii eggs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Casey A; Seymour, Roger S

    2011-01-01

    The ciliated epithelium of amphibian embryos produces a current within the perivitelline fluid of the egg that is important in the convective transfer of oxygen to the embryo's surface. The effects of convection on oxygen uptake and the immediate oxygen environment of the embryo were investigated in Pseudophryne bibronii. Gelatin was injected into the eggs, setting the perivitelline fluid and preventing convective flow. Oxygen consumption rate (M(.)o₂) and the oxygen partial pressure (Po₂) of the perivitelline fluid were measured in eggs with and without this treatment. M(.)o₂ decreased in eggs without convection at Gosner stages 17-19 under normoxia. The lack of convection also shifted embryos from regulators to conformers as environmental Po₂ decreased. A strong Po₂ gradient formed within the eggs when convection was absent, demonstrating that the loss of convection is equivalent to decreasing the inner radius of the capsule, an important factor in gas exchange, by 25%. M(.)o₂ also declined in stage 26-27 embryos without cilia-driven convection, although not to the extent of younger stages, because of muscular movements and a greater skin surface area in direct contact with the inner capsule wall. This study demonstrates the importance of convective flow within the perivitelline fluid to gas exchange. Convection is especially important in the middle of embryonic development, when the perivitelline space has formed, creating a barrier to gas exchange, but the embryos have yet to develop muscular movements or have a large surface area exposed directly to the jelly capsule.

  6. Skeletal muscle fatigue precedes the slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Daniel T; White, Ailish C; Andriano, Melina F; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Rossiter, Harry B

    2011-02-01

    The mechanisms determining exercise intolerance are poorly understood. A reduction in work efficiency in the form of an additional energy cost and oxygen requirement occurs during high-intensity exercise and contributes to exercise limitation. Muscle fatigue and subsequent recruitment of poorly efficient muscle fibres has been proposed to mediate this decline. These data demonstrate in humans, that muscle fatigue, generated in the initial minutes of exercise, is correlated with the increasing energy demands of high-intensity exercise. Surprisingly, however, while muscle fatigue reached a plateau, oxygen uptake continued to increase throughout 8 min of exercise. This suggests that additional recruitment of inefficient muscle fibres may not be the sole mechanism contributing to the decline in work efficiency during high-intensity exercise.

  7. Impact of food components during in vitro digestion of silver nanoparticles on cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Dajana; Ebmeyer, Johanna; Knappe, Patrick; Juling, Sabine; Böhmert, Linda; Selve, Sören; Niemann, Birgit; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    Because of the rising application of nanoparticles in food and food-related products, we investigated the influence of the digestion process on the toxicity and cellular uptake of silver nanoparticles for intestinal cells. The main food components--carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids--were implemented in an in vitro digestion process to simulate realistic conditions. Digested and undigested silver nanoparticle suspensions were used for uptake studies in the well-established Caco-2 model. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to estimate particle core size, size distribution and stability in cell culture medium. Particles proved to be stable and showed radii from 3.6 to 16.0 nm. Undigested particles and particles digested in the presence of food components were comparably taken up by Caco-2 cells, whereas the uptake of particles digested without food components was decreased by 60%. Overall, these findings suggest that in vivo ingested poly (acrylic acid)-coated silver nanoparticles may reach the intestine in a nanoscaled form even if enclosed in a food matrix. While appropriate for studies on the uptake into intestinal cells, the Caco-2 model might be less suited for translocation studies. Moreover, we show that nanoparticle digestion protocols lacking food components may lead to misinterpretation of uptake studies and inconclusive results.

  8. Enhancing the cellular uptake of siRNA duplexes following noncovalent packaging with protein transduction domain peptides.

    PubMed

    Meade, Bryan R; Dowdy, Steven F

    2008-03-01

    The major limitation in utilizing information rich macromolecules for basic science and therapeutic applications is the inability of these large molecules to readily diffuse across the cellular membrane. While this restriction represents an efficient defense system against cellular penetration of unwanted foreign molecules and thus a crucial component of cell survival, overcoming this cellular characteristic for the intracellular delivery of macromolecules has been the focus of a large number of research groups worldwide. Recently, with the discovery of RNA interference, many of these groups have redirected their attention and have applied previously characterized cell delivery methodologies to synthetic short interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA). Protein transduction domain and cell penetrating peptides have been shown to enhance the delivery of multiple types of macromolecular cargo including peptides, proteins and antisense oligonucleotides and are now being utilized to enhance the cellular uptake of siRNA molecules. The dense cationic charge of these peptides that is critical for interaction with cell membrane components prior to internalization has also been shown to readily package siRNA molecules into stable nanoparticles that are capable of traversing the cell membrane. This review discusses the recent advances in noncovalent packaging of siRNA molecules with cationic peptides and the potential for the resulting complexes to successfully induce RNA interference within both in vitro and in vivo settings.

  9. Effect of PEG molecular weight on stability, T₂ contrast, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs).

    PubMed

    Park, Yoonjee C; Smith, Jared B; Pham, Tuan; Whitaker, Ragnhild D; Sucato, Christopher A; Hamilton, James A; Bartolak-Suki, Elizabeth; Wong, Joyce Y

    2014-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are currently unavailable as MRI contrast agents for detecting atherosclerosis in the clinical setting because of either low signal enhancement or safety concerns. Therefore, a new generation of SPIONs with increased circulation time, enhanced image contrast, and less cytotoxicity is essential. In this study, monodisperse SPIONs were synthesized and coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of varying molecular weights. The resulting PEGylated SPIONs were characterized, and their interactions with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were examined. SPIONs were tested at different concentrations (100 and 500 ppm Fe) for stability, T2 contrast, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake to determine an optimal formulation for in vivo use. We found that at 100 ppm Fe, the PEG 2K SPIONs showed adequate stability and magnetic contrast, and exhibited the least cytotoxicity and nonspecific cellular uptake. An increase in cell viability was observed when the SPION-treated cells were washed with PBS after 1h incubation compared to 5 and 24h incubation without washing. Our investigation provides insight into the potential safe application of SPIONs in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain oxygen utilization is unchanged by hypoglycemia in normal humans: lactate, alanine, and leucine uptake are not sufficient to offset energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Lubow, Jeffrey M; Piñón, Ivan G; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio; Treeson, David M; Mandeville, Katherine A; Toffolo, Gianna; Boyle, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    During hypoglycemia, substrates other than glucose have been suggested to serve as alternate neural fuels. We evaluated brain uptake of endogenously produced lactate, alanine, and leucine at euglycemia and during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in 17 normal subjects. Cross-brain arteriovenous differences for plasma glucose, lactate, alanine, leucine, and oxygen content were quantitated. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by Fick methodology using N(2)O as the dilution indicator gas. Substrate uptake was measured as the product of CBF and the arteriovenous concentration difference. As arterial glucose concentration fell, cerebral oxygen utilization and CBF remained unchanged. Brain glucose uptake (BGU) decreased from 36.3+/-2.6 to 26.6+/-2.1 micromol.100 g of brain(-1).min(-1) (P<0.001), equivalent to a drop in ATP of 291 micromol.100 g(-1).min(-1). Arterial lactate rose (P<0.001), whereas arterial alanine and leucine fell (P<0.009 and P<0.001, respectively). Brain lactate uptake (BLU) increased from a net release of -1.8+/- 0.6 to a net uptake of 2.5+/-1.2 micromol.100 g(-1).min(-1) (P<0.001), equivalent to an increase in ATP of 74 micromol.100 g(-1).min(-1). Brain leucine uptake decreased from 7.1+/-1.2 to 2.5 +/- 0.5 micromol.100 g(-1).min(-1) (P<0.001), and brain alanine uptake trended downward (P<0.08). We conclude that the ATP generated from the physiological increase in BLU during hypoglycemia accounts for no more than 25% of the brain glucose energy deficit.

  11. Cellular Origin of [18F]FDG-PET Imaging Signals During Ceftriaxone-Stimulated Glutamate Uptake: Astrocytes and Neurons.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Behar, Kevin L; Rothman, Douglas L

    2017-12-01

    Ceftriaxone stimulates astrocytic uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and it is used to treat glutamatergic excitotoxicity that becomes manifest during many brain diseases. Ceftriaxone-stimulated glutamate transport was reported to drive signals underlying [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomographic ([ 18 F]FDG-PET) metabolic images of brain glucose utilization and interpreted as supportive of the notion of lactate shuttling from astrocytes to neurons. This study draws attention to critical roles of astrocytes in the energetics and imaging of brain activity, but the results are provocative because (1) the method does not have cellular resolution or provide information about downstream pathways of glucose metabolism, (2) neuronal and astrocytic [ 18 F]FDG uptake were not separately measured, and (3) strong evidence against lactate shuttling was not discussed. Evaluation of potential metabolic responses to ceftriaxone suggests lack of astrocytic specificity and significant contributions by pre- and postsynaptic neuronal compartments. Indeed, astrocytic glycolysis may not make a strong contribution to the [ 18 F]FDG-PET signal because partial or complete oxidation of one glutamate molecule on its uptake generates enough ATP to fuel uptake of 3 to 10 more glutamate molecules, diminishing reliance on glycolysis. The influence of ceftriaxone on energetics of glutamate-glutamine cycling must be determined in astrocytes and neurons to elucidate its roles in excitotoxicity treatment.

  12. Uptake of phytodetritus by benthic foraminifera under oxygen depletion at the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, A. J.; Witte, U.; Kucera, M.; Heinz, P.

    2014-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera in sediments on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea, where the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges on the continental slope, are exposed to particularly severe levels of oxygen depletion. Food supply for the benthic community is high but delivered in distinct pulses during upwelling and water mixing events associated with summer and winter monsoon periods. In order to investigate the response by benthic foraminifera to such pulsed food delivery under oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 mL L-1 (4.5 μmol L-1), an in situ isotope labeling experiment (13C, 15N) was performed on the western continental slope of India at 540 m water depth (OMZ core region). The assemblage of living foraminifera (>125 μm) in the uppermost centimeter at this depth is characterized by an unexpectedly high population density of 3982 individuals 10 cm-2 and a strong dominance by few calcareous species. For the experiment, we concentrated on the nine most abundant taxa, which constitute 93% of the entire foraminiferal population at 0-1 cm sediment depth. Increased concentrations of 13C and 15N in the cytoplasm indicate that all investigated taxa took up labeled phytodetritus during the 4 day experimental phase. In total, these nine species had assimilated 113.8 mg C m-2 (17.5% of the total added carbon). Uptake of nitrogen by the three most abundant taxa (Bolivina aff. B. dilatata, Cassidulina sp., Bulimina gibba) was 2.7 mg N m-2 (2% of the total added nitrogen). The response to the offered phytodetritus varied largely among foraminiferal species with Uvigerina schwageri being by far the most important species in short-term processing, whereas the most abundant taxa Bolivina aff. B. dilatata and Cassidulina sp. showed comparably low uptake of the offered food. We suggest the observed species-specific differences are related to species biomass and specific feeding preferences. In summary, the experiment in the OMZ core region shows rapid processing of fresh

  13. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have prolonged in vitro antitumour activity, cellular uptake and improved in vivo bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiabei; Bi, Chao; Chan, Hok Man; Sun, Shaoping; Zhang, Qingwen; Zheng, Ying

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to blend liquid lipids with solid lipids to encapsulate curcumin in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), thereby improving the dispersibility and chemical stability of curcumin, prolonging its antitumour activity and cellular uptake and enhancing its bioavailability. Curcumin-loaded SLNs (C-SLNs) were prepared by high-pressure homogenisation with liquid lipid Sefsol-218(®). The morphology, stability and release of curcumin in the optimised formulation were investigated. The anti-cancer activity of the formulation was evaluated in MCF-7 cells. Fluorescence spectrophotometry was used to quantify cellular uptake of the drug. The pharmacokinetic profiles of curcumin in SLNs after intravenous administration were studied in rats. Blending Sefsol-218(®) into a lipid matrix reduced the particle size without improving drug loading. An optimised formulation consisting of Dynasan 114(®), Sefsol-218(®), and Pluronic F68(®) (630:70:300, w/w) loaded with 0.8% drug was prepared. This formulation could be dispersed in water with a mean particle size of 152.8 ± 4.7 nm and a 90% entrapment efficiency. Curcumin displayed a two-phase sustained release profile from C-SLNs with improved chemical stability. Compared to the solubilised solution, C-SLNs exhibited prolonged inhibitory activity in cancer cells, as well as time-dependent increases in intracellular uptake. After intravenous administration to rats, the bioavailability of curcumin was increased by 1.25-fold. C-SLNs with improved dispersibility and chemical stability in an aqueous system have been successfully developed. C-SLNs may represent a potentially useful cancer therapeutic curcumin delivery system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal dissociation between muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics: influences of perfusion dynamics and arteriovenous oxygen concentration differences in muscles and lungs.

    PubMed

    Drescher, U; Koschate, J; Thieschäfer, L; Schneider, S; Hoffmann, U

    2018-06-22

    The aim of the study was to test whether or not the arteriovenous oxygen concentration difference (avDO 2 ) kinetics at the pulmonary (avDO 2 pulm) and muscle (avDO 2 musc) levels is significantly different during dynamic exercise. A re-analysis involving six publications dealing with kinetic analysis was utilized with an overall sample size of 69 participants. All studies comprised an identical pseudorandom binary sequence work rate (WR) protocol-WR changes between 30 and 80 W-to analyze the kinetic responses of pulmonary ([Formula: see text]) and muscle ([Formula: see text]) oxygen uptake kinetics as well as those of avDO 2 pulm and avDO 2 musc. A significant difference between [Formula: see text] (0.395 ± 0.079) and [Formula: see text] kinetics (0.330 ± 0.078) was observed (p < 0.001), where the variables showed a significant relationship (r SP  = 0.744, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between avDO 2 musc (0.446 ± 0.077) and avDO 2 pulm kinetics (0.451 ± 0.075), which are highly correlated (r = 0.929, p < 0.001). It is suggested that neither avDO 2 pulm nor avDO 2 musc kinetic responses seem to be responsible for the differences between estimated [Formula: see text] and measured [Formula: see text] kinetics. Obviously, the conflation of avDO 2 and perfusion ([Formula: see text] ) at different points in time and at different physiological levels drive potential differences in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] kinetics. Therefore, [Formula: see text] should, in general, be considered whenever oxygen uptake kinetics are analyzed or discussed.

  15. [Dynamics of oxygen uptake during a 100 m front crawl event, performed during competition ].

    PubMed

    Jalab, Chadi; Enea, Carina; Delpech, Nathalie; Bernard, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to estimate the dynamics of oxygen uptake (VO2) during a 100 m front crawl event, performed in competition conditions. Eleven trained swimmers participated in 2 separate sessions, in a 25 m swimming pool. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was determined during a 400 m maximal event. Swimmers also performed a 100 m front crawl in competition conditions, and then, 3 tests (25, 50, and 75 m) following the pacing strategy of the 100 m event. To be free of technical constraints, VO2 was not measured during the tests, but before and just at the end of each test with a 1 min breath-by-breath method. Each post-test VO2 measurement (after 25, 50, 75, and 100 m) allows us to reconstruct the VO2 kinetics of the 100 m performance. Our results differ from previous studies in that VO2 increases faster in the first half of the race (at 50 m, VO2 ≈ 94% VO2max), reaches VO2max at the 75 m mark; then a decrease in VO2 corresponding to 7% of VO2max appears during the last 25 m. These differences are supposed to be mainly the consequences of the adoption of technical elements and a pacing strategy similar to competition conditions. In the future, these observations may lead to different considerations of the bioenergetic contributions.

  16. Cellular delivery of PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pamujula, Sarala; Hazari, Sidhartha; Bolden, Gevoni; Graves, Richard A; Chinta, Dakshinamurthy Devanga; Dash, Srikanta; Kishore, Vimal; Mandal, Tarun K

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of uptake of PEGylated polylactide-co-gycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles by breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles of PLGA containing various amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 5%-15%) were prepared using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticles were loaded with coumarin-6 (C6) as a fluorescence marker. The particles were characterized for surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, and for cellular uptake by 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Irrespective of the amount of PEG, all formulations yielded smooth spherical particles. However, a comparison of the particle size of various formulations showed bimodal distribution of particles. Each formulation was later passed through a 1.2 µm filter to obtain target size particles (114-335 nm) with zeta potentials ranging from -2.8 mV to -26.2 mV. While PLGA-PEG di-block (15% PEG) formulation showed significantly higher 4T1 cellular uptake than all other formulations, there was no statistical difference in cellular uptake among PLGA, PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri-block (10% PEG), PLGA-PEG di-block (5% PEG) and PLGA-PEG di-block (10% PEG) nanoparticles. These preliminary findings indicated that the nanoparticle formulation prepared with 15% PEGylated PLGA showed maximum cellular uptake due to it having the smallest particle size and lowest zeta potential. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. The influence of tumor oxygenation on hypoxia imaging in murine squamous cell carcinoma using [64Cu]Cu-ATSM or [18F]Fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Szajek, Lawrence; Krishna, Murali C; Cook, John A; Seidel, Jurgen; Grimes, Kelly; Carson, Joann; Sowers, Anastasia L; English, Sean; Green, Michael V; Bacharach, Stephen L; Eckelman, William C; Mitchell, James B

    2007-04-01

    [64Cu]Cu(II)-ATSM (64Cu-ATSM) and [18F]-Fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMiso) tumor binding as assessed by positron emisson topography (PET) was used to determine the responsiveness of each probe to modulation in tumor oxygenation levels in the SCCVII tumor model. Animals bearing the SCCVII tumor were injected with 64Cu-ATSM or 18F-FMiso followed by dynamic small animal PET imaging. Animals were imaged with both agents using different inspired oxygen mixtures (air, 10% oxygen, carbogen) which modulated tumor hypoxia as independently assessed by the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. The extent of hypoxia in the SCCVII tumor as monitored by the pimonidazole hypoxia marker was found to be in the following order: 10% oxygen>air>carbogen. Tumor uptake of 64Cu-ATSM could not be changed if the tumor was oxygenated using carbogen inhalation 90 min post-injection suggesting irreversible cellular uptake of the 64Cu-ATSM complex. A small but significant paradoxical increase in 64Cu-ATSM tumor uptake was observed for animals breathing air or carbogen compared to 10% oxygen. There was a positive trend toward 18F-FMiso tumor uptake as a function of changing hypoxia levels in agreement with the pimonidazole data. 64Cu-ATSM tumor uptake was unable to predictably detect changes in varying amounts of hypoxia when oxygenation levels in SCCVII tumors were modulated. 18F-FMiso tumor uptake was more responsive to changing levels of hypoxia. While the mechanism of nitroimidazole binding to hypoxic cells has been extensively studied, the avid binding of Cu-ATSM to tumors may involve other mechanisms independent of hypoxia that warrant further study.

  18. Magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake of doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanoparticles for tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Indu; Pernal, Sebastian; Duproz, Alexandra; Bentley, Jeromy; Engelhard, Herbert; Linninger, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Cancer remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. In recent years, several varieties of nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized with the intent of being utilized as tumor drug delivery vehicles. We have produced superparamagnetic, gold-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@Au) NPs and loaded them with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) for magnetic drug targeting (MDT) of tumors. The synthetic strategy uses the food thickening agent gellan gum (Phytagel) as a negatively charged shell around the Fe3O4@Au NP onto which the positively charged DOX molecules are loaded via electrostatic attraction. The resulting DOX-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (DOX-MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, surface area electron diffraction, zeta potential measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of the DOX-MNPs was demonstrated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay on C6 glioma cells. Cellular uptake of DOX-MNPs was enhanced with magnetic fields, which was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry. This improved uptake also led to greater tumor cell death, which was measured using MTT assay. These MDT results are promising for a new therapy for cancer.

  19. Effect of chirality on cellular uptake, imaging and photodynamic therapy of photosensitizers derived from chlorophyll-a.

    PubMed

    Srivatsan, Avinash; Pera, Paula; Joshi, Penny; Wang, Yanfang; Missert, Joseph R; Tracy, Erin C; Tabaczynski, Walter A; Yao, Rutao; Sajjad, Munawwar; Baumann, Heinz; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that the (124)I-analog of methyl 3-(1'-m-iodobenzyloxy) ethyl-3-devinyl-pyropheophorbide-a derived as racemic mixture from chlorophyll-a can be used for PET (positron emission tomography)-imaging in animal tumor models. On the other hand, as a non-radioactive analog, it showed excellent fluorescence and photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Thus, a single agent in a mixture of radioactive ((124)I-) and non-radioactive ((127)I) material can be used for both dual-imaging and PDT of cancer. Before advancing to Phase I human clinical trials, we evaluated the activity of the individual isomers as well as the impact of a chiral center at position-3(1) in directing in vitro/in vivo cellular uptake, intracellular localization, epithelial tumor cell-specific retention, fluorescence/PET imaging, and photosensitizing ability. The results indicate that both isomers (racemates), either as methyl ester or carboxylic acid, were equally effective. However, the methyl ester analogs, due to subcellular deposition into vesicular structures, were preferentially retained. All derivatives containing carboxylic acid at the position-17(2) were noted to be substrate for the ABCG2 (a member of the ATP binding cassette transporters) protein explaining their low retention in lung tumor cells expressing this transporter. The compounds in which the chirality at position-3 has been substituted by a non-chiral functionality showed reduced cellular uptake, retention and lower PDT efficacy in mice bearing murine Colon26 tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multifunctional Micelles Dually Responsive to Hypoxia and Singlet Oxygen: Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy via Interactively Triggered Photosensitizer Delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Juanjuan; Meng, Xuan; Deng, Jian; Lu, Di; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yanrui; Zhu, Jundong; Fan, Aiping; Ding, Dan; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2018-05-23

    Nanoparticulate antitumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suffering from the limited dose accumulation in tumor. Herein, we report dually hypoxia- and singlet oxygen-responsive polymeric micelles to efficiently utilize the photosensitizer deposited in the disease site and hence facilely improve PDT's antitumor efficacy. Tailored methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-azobenzene-poly(aspartic acid) copolymer conjugate with imidazole as the side chains was synthesized. The conjugate micelles (189 ± 19 nm) obtained by self-assembly could efficiently load a model photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6) with a loading of 4.1 ± 0.5% (w/w). The facilitated cellular uptake of micelles was achieved by the triggered azobenzene collapse that provoked poly(ethylene glycol) shedding; rapid Ce6 release was enabled by imidazole oxidation that induced micelle disassembly. In addition, the singlet oxygen-mediated cargo release not only addressed the limited diffusion range and short half-life of singlet oxygen but also decreased the oxygen level, which could in turn enhance internalization and increase the intracellular Ce6 concentration. The hypoxia-induced dePEGylation and singlet oxygen-triggered Ce6 release was demonstrated both in aqueous buffer and in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. The cellular uptake study demonstrated that the dually responsive micelles could deliver significantly more Ce6 to the cells, which resulted in a substantially improved cytotoxicity. This concurred well with the superior in vivo antitumor ability of micelles in a LLC tumor-bearing mouse model. This study presented an intriguing nanoplatform to realize interactively triggered photosensitizer delivery and improved antitumor PDT efficacy.

  1. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    PubMed

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  2. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H. B.; Marcelis, Leo F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15–17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  3. Genetic variants of uncoupling proteins-2 and -3 in relation to maximal oxygen uptake in different sports.

    PubMed

    Holdys, Joanna; Gronek, Piotr; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) as mitochondrial electron transporters are involved in regulation of ATP production and energy dissipation as heat. Energy efficiency plays an important role in physical performance, especially in aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maximal oxygen uptake and genetic variants of the UCP2 and UCP3 genes. The studies were carried out in a group of 154 men and 85 women, professional athletes representing various sports and fitness levels and students of the University of Physical Education in Poznań. Physiological and molecular procedures were used, i.e. direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and analysis of an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of exon 8 of the UCP2 gene and a C>T substitution in exon 5 (Y210Y) of the UCP3 gene. No statistically significant associations were found, only certain trends. Insertion allele (I) of the I/D UCP2 and the T allele of the UCP3 gene were favourable in obtaining higher VO₂max level and might be considered as endurance-related alleles.

  4. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    PubMed

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  5. Laser irradiation of mouse spermatozoa enhances in-vitro fertilization and Ca2+ uptake via reactive oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Natalie; Lubart, Rachel; Rubinstein, Sara; Breitbart, Haim

    1996-11-01

    630 nm He-Ne laser irradiation was found to have a profound influence on Ca2+ uptake in mouse spermatozoa and the fertilizing potential of these cells. Laser irradiation affected mainly the mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of light was found to be Ca2+-dependent. We demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the cascade of biochemical events evoked by laser irradiation. A causal association between laser irradiation, ROS generation, and sperm function was indicated by studies with ROS scavengers, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and exogenous hydrogen peroxide. SOD treatment resulted in increased Ca2+ uptake and in enhanced fertilization rate. Catalase treatment impaired the light-induced stimulation in Ca2+ uptake and fertilization rate. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide was found to enhance Ca2+ uptake in mouse spermatozoa and the fertilizing capability of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the effect of 630 nm He-Ne laser irradiation is mediated through the generation of hydrogen peroxide by the spermatozoa and that this effect plays a significant role in the augmentation of the sperm cells' capability to fertilize metaphase II-arrested eggs in-vitro.

  6. Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets abrogate hypoxia dysregulation of human keratinocyte gelatinases and inhibitors: New insights for chronic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Khadjavi, Amina; Magnetto, Chiara; Panariti, Alice; Argenziano, Monica; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Rivolta, Ilaria; Cavalli, Roberta; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Guiot, Caterina; Prato, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    In chronic wounds, efficient epithelial tissue repair is hampered by hypoxia, and balances between the molecules involved in matrix turn-over such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are seriously impaired. Intriguingly, new oxygenating nanocarriers such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) might effectively target chronic wounds. To investigate hypoxia and chitosan-shelled OLN effects on MMP/TIMP production by human keratinocytes. HaCaT cells were treated for 24h with 10% v/v OLNs both in normoxia or hypoxia. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured through biochemical assays; cellular uptake by confocal microscopy; and MMP and TIMP production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or gelatin zymography. Normoxic HaCaT cells constitutively released MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Hypoxia strongly impaired MMP/TIMP balances by reducing MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, without affecting TIMP-1 release. After cellular uptake by keratinocytes, nontoxic OLNs abrogated all hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP secretion, restoring physiological balances. OLN abilities were specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion from OLN core. Chitosan-shelled OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP/TIMP balances in human keratinocytes. Therefore, topical administration of exogenous oxygen, properly encapsulated in nanodroplet formulations, might be a promising adjuvant approach to promote healing processes in hypoxic wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Facilitation of trace metal uptake in cells by inulin coating of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán-Urquiza, Esmeralda; Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan; Wu, Bing; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2017-09-01

    Trace elements such as zinc and iron are essential for the proper function of biochemical processes, and their uptake and bioavailability are dependent on their chemical form. Supplementation of trace metals through nanostructured materials is a new field, but its application raises concerns regarding their toxicity. Here, we compared the intracellular zinc uptake of different sources of zinc: zinc sulfate, and ZnO and core-shell α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles, coated or uncoated with inulin, an edible and biocompatible polysaccharide. Using mussel haemocytes, a well-known model system to assess nanomaterial toxicity, we simultaneously assessed zinc accumulation and multiple cellular response endpoints. We found that intracellular zinc uptake was strongly enhanced by inulin coating, in comparison to the uncoated nanoparticles, while no significant effects on cell death, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane integrity, production of reactive oxygen species or lysosome abundance were observed at concentrations up to 20 ppm. Since no significant increments in toxicity were observed, the coated nanomaterials may be useful to increase in vivo zinc uptake for nutritional applications.

  8. The effect of oil-water partition coefficient on the distribution and cellular uptake of liposome-encapsulated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bao, Quan-Ying; Liu, Ai-Yun; Ma, Yu; Chen, Huan; Hong, Jin; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Can; Ding, Ya

    2016-10-01

    The shape, size, and surface features of nanoparticles greatly influence the structure and properties of resulting hybrid nanosystems. In this work, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were modified via S-Au covalent bonding by glycol monomethyl ether thioctate with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether of different molecular weights (i.e., 350, 550, and 750Da). These modified GNPs (i.e., GNP350, GNP550, and GNP750) showed different oil-water partition coefficients (Kp), as detected using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The different Kp values of the gold conjugates (i.e., 13.98, 2.11, and 0.036 for GNP350, GNP550, and GNP750, respectively) resulted in different conjugate localization within liposomes, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the cellular uptake of hybrid liposomes co-encapsulating gold conjugates and Nile red was evaluated using intracellular fluorescence intensity. The results indicated that precise GNP localization in the hydrophilic or hydrophobic liposome cavity could be achieved by regulating the GNP oil-water partition coefficient via surface modification; such localization could further affect the properties and functions of hybrid liposomes, including their cellular uptake profiles. This study furthers the understanding not only of the interaction between liposomes and inorganic nanoparticles but also of adjusting liposome-gold hybrid nanostructure properties via the surface chemistry of gold materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of tripolyphosphate on cellular uptake and RNA interference efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles in Raw 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Ma, Panpan; Ma, Lijun; Chen, Qiubing; Si, Xiaoying; Walter, Lewins; Merlin, Didier

    2017-03-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that is mainly secreted by macrophages during inflammation. Here, we synthesized a series of N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chlorides (HTCCs), and then used a complex coacervation technique or tripolyphosphate (TPP)-assisted ionotropic gelation strategy to complex the HTCCs with TNF-α siRNA (siTNF) to form nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant NPs had a desirable particle size (210-279nm), a slightly positive zeta potential (14-22mV), and negligible cytotoxicity against Raw 264.7 macrophages and colon-26 cells. Subsequent cellular uptake tests demonstrated that the introduction of TPP to the NPs markedly increased their cellular uptake efficiency (to nearly 100%) compared with TPP-free NPs, and yielded a correspondingly higher intracellular concentration of siRNA. Critically, in vitro gene silencing experiments revealed that all of the TPP-containing NPs showed excellent efficiency in inhibiting the mRNA expression level of TNF-α (by approximately 85-92%, which was much higher than that obtained using Oligofectamine/siTNF complexes). Collectively, these results obviously suggest that our non-toxic TPP-containing chitosan-based NPs can be exploited as efficient siTNF carriers for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coupled elasticity–diffusion model for the effects of cytoskeleton deformation on cellular uptake of cylindrical nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jizeng; Li, Long

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations and experiments have recently demonstrated how cylindrical nanoparticles (CNPs) with large aspect ratios penetrate animal cells and inevitably deform cytoskeletons. Thus, a coupled elasticity–diffusion model was adopted to elucidate this interesting biological phenomenon by considering the effects of elastic deformations of cytoskeleton and membrane, ligand–receptor binding and receptor diffusion. The mechanism by which the binding energy drives the CNPs with different orientations to enter host cells was explored. This mechanism involved overcoming the resistance caused by cytoskeleton and membrane deformations and the change in configurational entropy of the ligand–receptor bonds and free receptors. Results showed that deformation of the cytoskeleton significantly influenced the engulfing process by effectively slowing down and even hindering the entry of the CNPs. Additionally, the engulfing depth was determined quantitatively. CNPs preferred or tended to vertically attack target cells until they were stuck in the cytoskeleton as implied by the speed of vertically oriented CNPs that showed much faster initial engulfing speeds than horizontally oriented CNPs. These results elucidated the most recent molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations on the cellular uptake of carbon nanotubes and phagocytosis of filamentous Escherichia coli bacteria. The most efficient engulfment showed the stiffness-dependent optimal radius of the CNPs. Cytoskeleton stiffness exhibited more significant influence on the optimal sizes of the vertical uptake than the horizontal uptake. PMID:25411410

  11. Methods for Detection of Mitochondrial and Cellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondrial and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes. Different ROS, such as superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite (ONOO•−), stimulate distinct cell-signaling pathways and lead to diverse outcomes depending on their amount and subcellular localization. A variety of methods have been developed for ROS detection; however, many of these methods are not specific, do not allow subcellular localization, and can produce artifacts. In this review, we will critically analyze ROS detection and present advantages and the shortcomings of several available methods. Recent Advances: In the past decade, a number of new fluorescent probes, electron-spin resonance approaches, and immunoassays have been developed. These new state-of-the-art methods provide improved selectivity and subcellular resolution for ROS detection. Critical Issues: Although new methods for HPLC superoxide detection, application of fluorescent boronate-containing probes, use of cell-targeted hydroxylamine spin probes, and immunospin trapping have been available for several years, there has been lack of translation of these into biomedical research, limiting their widespread use. Future Directions: Additional studies to translate these new technologies from the test tube to physiological applications are needed and could lead to a wider application of these approaches to study mitochondrial and cellular ROS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 372–382. PMID:22978713

  12. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope and peak oxygen consumption predict prognosis in children with tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Li, Min-Hui; Tsai, Wan-Jung; Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-07-01

    Oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) are exercise parameters that can predict cardiac morbidity in patients with numerous heart diseases. But the predictive value in patients with tetralogy of Fallot is still undetermined, especially in children. We evaluated the prognostic value of OUES and VO2peak in children with total repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Retrospective cohort study. Forty tetralogy of Fallot patients younger than 12 years old were recruited. They underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test during the follow-up period after total repair surgery. The results of the cardiopulmonary exercise test were used to predict the cardiac related hospitalization in the following two years after the test. OUES normalized by body surface area (OUES/BSA) and the percentage of predicted VO2peak appeared to be predictive for two-year cardiac related hospitalization. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the best threshold value for OUES/BSA was 1.029 (area under the curve = 0.70, p = 0.03), and for VO2peak was 74% of age prediction (area under the curve = 0.72, p = 0.02). The aforementioned findings were confirmed by Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank test. OUES/BSA and VO2peak are useful predictors of cardiac-related hospitalization in children with total repair of tetralogy of Fallot. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  13. [Monitoring the oxygen supply of skeletal muscle and total oxygen uptake in coronary surgery interventions].

    PubMed

    Boekstegers, P; Fleckenstein, W; Rosport, A; Ruschewsky, W; Braun, U

    1988-05-01

    In patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass operations, extensive monitoring is used for early recognition of complications that may decrease the oxygen supply of body organs. However, none of the parameters usually monitored during open-heart surgery yield information on the state of oxygen supply to a certain organ. Particularly during and after extracorporeal circulation (ECC), undetected organ hypoxia may occur and lead to an increase in postoperative complications. In order to study whether functionally significant changes in oxygen supply to skeletal muscle occur during extracorporeal circulation, in 14 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass operations pO2 histograms from local pO2 values in resting skeletal muscle were monitored. Intra- and postoperatively, whole-body oxygen uptake (VO2) and pO2 histograms of skeletal muscle were simultaneously measured to determine whether the observed decrease in VO2 during cooling of the patient or the increase in VO2 during rewarming was reflected in the distribution of tissue pO2 in skeletal muscle. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Fourteen patients (aged 42 to 68; 12 male, 2 female) scheduled for 2-4 aortocoronary venous bypass grafts were studied. Measuring periods of 6 min were undertaken after induction of anesthesia (1), after thoracotomy (2), during ECC (3), after ECC (2), and every hour postoperatively up to 5 h. The following data were measured during each period: pO2 histograms of the biceps brachii muscle using a pO2 histograph VO2 using open indirect calorimetry; arterial (a. radialis) and venous (v. cava superior) blood gases, acid-base balances, and blood pressures; venous lactate (v. cava superior); muscle and rectal temperatures. RESULTS. During ECC mean muscle pO2 in all 14 patients decreased from 25 to 14 mmHg. In 7 of 14 patients pO2 values between 0 and 5 mmHg had the highest incidence (left-shifted pO2 histograms). After ECC mean muscle pO2 increased to the same value observed before ECC (25 mmHg). During the

  14. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    PubMed

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (p<0.001), and the estimated aerobic contribution to the final sprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake Kinetics During Exercise in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Emerson Filipino; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti; Barral, Marselha Marques; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) have lower exercise tolerance, but the impact on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is unknown. This study evaluated VO2 kinetics during and after a constant load submaximal exercise in SCH. Methods: The study included 19 women with SCH (thyrotropin (TSH)=6.87±2.88 μIU/mL, free thyroxine (fT4)=0.97±0.15 ng/dL) and 19 controls (TSH=2.29±0.86 μIU/mL, T4=0.99±0.11 ng/dL) aged between 20 and 55 years. Ergospirometry exercise testing was performed for six minutes with a constant load of 50 W, followed by six minutes of passive recovery. The VO2 kinetics was quantified by the mean response time (MRT), which is the exponential time constant and approximates the time needed to reach 63% of change in VO2 (ΔVO2). The O2 deficit—energy supplied by anaerobic metabolism at the onset of exercise—and O2 debit—extra energy demand during the recovery period—were calculated by the formula MRT×ΔVO2. Values are mean±standard deviation. Results: In the rest-exercise transition, patients with SCH showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=47±8 sec vs. 40±6 sec, p=0.004) and a higher oxygen deficit (580±102 mL vs. 477±95 mL, p=0.003) than controls respectively. In the exercise-recovery transition, patients with SCH also showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=54±6 sec vs. 44±6 sec, p=0.001) and a higher oxygen debit (679±105 mL vs. 572±104 mL, p=0.003). The VO2 kinetics showed a significant correlation with TSH (p<0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that women with SCH have the slowest VO2 kinetics in the onset and recovery of a constant-load submaximal exercise and highlights that this impairment is already manifest in the early stage of the disease. PMID:24512502

  16. Pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Francisco Zacaron; Coelho, Emerson Filipino; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti; Barral, Marselha Marques; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima Dos Santos; Vaisman, Mário

    2014-06-01

    Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) have lower exercise tolerance, but the impact on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is unknown. This study evaluated VO2 kinetics during and after a constant load submaximal exercise in SCH. The study included 19 women with SCH (thyrotropin (TSH)=6.87±2.88 μIU/mL, free thyroxine (fT4)=0.97±0.15 ng/dL) and 19 controls (TSH=2.29±0.86 μIU/mL, T4=0.99±0.11 ng/dL) aged between 20 and 55 years. Ergospirometry exercise testing was performed for six minutes with a constant load of 50 W, followed by six minutes of passive recovery. The VO2 kinetics was quantified by the mean response time (MRT), which is the exponential time constant and approximates the time needed to reach 63% of change in VO2 (ΔVO2). The O2 deficit-energy supplied by anaerobic metabolism at the onset of exercise-and O2 debit-extra energy demand during the recovery period-were calculated by the formula MRT×ΔVO2. Values are mean±standard deviation. In the rest-exercise transition, patients with SCH showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=47±8 sec vs. 40±6 sec, p=0.004) and a higher oxygen deficit (580±102 mL vs. 477±95 mL, p=0.003) than controls respectively. In the exercise-recovery transition, patients with SCH also showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=54±6 sec vs. 44±6 sec, p=0.001) and a higher oxygen debit (679±105 mL vs. 572±104 mL, p=0.003). The VO2 kinetics showed a significant correlation with TSH (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that women with SCH have the slowest VO2 kinetics in the onset and recovery of a constant-load submaximal exercise and highlights that this impairment is already manifest in the early stage of the disease.

  17. The Effect of Size of Red Cells on the Kinetics of Their Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Holland, R. A. B.; Forster, R. E.

    1966-01-01

    Using a double-beam stopped-flow apparatus estimations were made of the velocity constant for the initial uptake of oxygen by fully reduced erythrocytes (k'c). Mammalian cells were studied with volumes varying from 20 µ3 (goat) to 90 µ3 (man), as were bullfrog cells (680 µ3). Measurements were made under physiological conditions of pH, P CO2, and temperature. In man k'c was 80 mM -1 sec-1 and in other species smaller cells generally had a greater value for k'c than did the larger cells. In the goat it was 1.8 times as great as the human value; in the bullfrog it was only one-fifth as great. These differences could not be accounted for by interspecific differences in hemoglobin kinetics. The differences probably represent a true effect of size conferring some biological advantage on the species with the smaller cells. The cell membrane offered resistance to oxygen passage. Using the usual red cell model of an infinite sheet of reduced hemoglobin, membrane permeability appeared to differ among mammals. If, as is likely, the effective cell halfthickness differs among mammals, actual membrane permeability differences may be less. A method for measurement of oxygen saturation of dilute cell suspensions is also described. PMID:5943611

  18. Muscular Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Baum, K; Eichberg, S; Schiffer, T; Latsch, J; Brixius, K; Hoffmann, U

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics and heart rate kinetics are influenced by age and fitness. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics can be estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V˙O2. In this study the applicability of a test using pseudo-random binary sequences in combination with a model to estimate muscular V˙O2 kinetics was tested. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were expected to be faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics, slowed in aged subjects and correlated with maximum V˙O2 and heart rate kinetics. 27 elderly subjects (73±3 years; 81.1±8.2 kg; 175±4.7 cm) participated. Cardiorespiratory kinetics were assessed using the maximum of cross-correlation functions, higher maxima implying faster kinetics. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics (0.31±0.1 vs. 0.29±0.1 s; p=0.004). Heart rate kinetics were not correlated with muscular or pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics or maximum V˙O2. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics correlated with maximum V˙O2 (r=0.35; p=0.033). This suggests, that muscular V˙O2 kinetics are faster than estimates from pulmonary V˙O2 and related to maximum V˙O2 in aged subjects. In the future this experimental approach may help to characterize alterations in muscular V˙O2 under various conditions independent of motivation and maximal effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. FLIM reveals alternative EV-mediated cellular up-take pathways of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Saari, H; Lisitsyna, E; Rautaniemi, K; Rojalin, T; Niemi, L; Nivaro, O; Laaksonen, T; Yliperttula, M; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, E

    2018-06-15

    In response to physiological and artificial stimuli, cells generate nano-scale extracellular vesicles (EVs) by encapsulating biomolecules in plasma membrane-derived phospholipid envelopes. These vesicles are released to bodily fluids, hence acting as powerful endogenous mediators in intercellular signaling. EVs provide a compelling alternative for biomarker discovery and targeted drug delivery, but their kinetics and dynamics while interacting with living cells are poorly understood. Here we introduce a novel method, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to investigate these interaction attributes. By FLIM, we show distinct cellular uptake mechanisms of different EV subtypes, exosomes and microvesicles, loaded with anti-cancer agent, paclitaxel. We demonstrate differences in intracellular behavior and drug release profiles of paclitaxel-containing EVs. Exosomes seem to deliver the drug mostly by endocytosis while microvesicles enter the cells by both endocytosis and fusion with cell membrane. This research offers a new real-time method to investigate EV kinetics with living cells, and it is a potential advancement to complement the existing techniques. The findings of this study improve the current knowledge in exploiting EVs as next-generation targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxygen sensing PLIM together with FLIM of intrinsic cellular fluorophores for metabolic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinina, Sviatlana; Schaefer, Patrick; Breymayer, Jasmin; Bisinger, Dominik; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Rueck, Angelika

    2018-02-01

    Otical imaging techniques based on time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) has found wide applications in medicine and biology. Non-invasive and information-rich fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is successfully used for monitoring fluorescent intrinsic metabolic coenzymes as NAD(P)H (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) and FAD+ (flavin adenine dinucleotide) in living cells and tissues. The ratio between proteinbound and free coenzymes gives an information about the balance between oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in the cells. The changes of the ratio reflects major cellular disorders. A correlation exists between metabolic activity, redox ratio and fluorescence lifetime during stem cell differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, and carcinogenesis. A multichannel FLIM detection system was designed for monitoring the redox state of NAD(P)H and FAD+ and other intrinsic fluorophores as protoporphyrin IX. In addition, the unique upgrade is useful to perform FLIM and PLIM (phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy) simultaneously. PLIM is a promising method to investigate oxygen sensing in biomedical samples. In detail, the oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence of some compounds as transition metal complexes enables measuring of oxygen partial pressure (pO2). Using a two-channel FLIM/PLIM system we monitored intrinsic pO2 by PLIM simultaneously with NAD(P)H by FLIM providing complex metabolic and redox imaging of living cells. Physico-chemical properties of oxygen sensitive probes define certain parameters including their localisation. We present results of some ruthenium based complexes including those specifically bound to mitochondria.

  1. Coupling of methylmercury uptake with respiration and water pumping in freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-09-01

    The relationships among the uptake of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) and two important fish physiological processes-respiration and water pumping--in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were explored in the present study. Coupled radiotracer and respirometric techniques were applied to measure simultaneously the uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen under various environmental conditions (temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and water flow). A higher temperature enhanced MeHg influx and the oxygen consumption rate but had no effect on the water uptake, indicating the influence of metabolism on MeHg uptake. The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation in fluctuating aquatic environments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Effect of dispersants of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on cellular uptake and biological responses

    PubMed Central

    Haniu, Hisao; Saito, Naoto; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kim, Yoong-Ahm; Park, Ki Chul; Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Usui, Yuki; Aoki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Hara, Kazuo; Takanashi, Seiji; Okamoto, Masanori; Ishigaki, Norio; Nakamura, Koichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been many reports about the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), the results are still controversial. To investigate one possible reason, the authors investigated the influence of MWCNT dispersants on cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was examined (measured by alamarBlue® assay), as well as intracellular MWCNT concentration and cytokine secretion (measured by flow cytometry) in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to a type of highly purified MWCNT vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF®, Shōwa Denkō Kabushiki-gaisha, Tokyo, Japan) in three different dispersants (gelatin, carboxylmethyl cellulose, and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). The authors also researched the relationship between the intracellular concentration of MWCNTs and cytotoxicity by using two cell lines, BEAS-2B and MESO-1 human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells. The intracellular concentration of VGCF was different for each of the three dispersants, and the levels of cytotoxicity and inflammatory response were correlated with the intracellular concentration of VGCF. A relationship between the intracellular concentration of VGCF and cytotoxic effects was observed in both cell lines. The results indicate that dispersants affect VGCF uptake into cells and that cytotoxicity depends on the intracellular concentration of VGCF, not on the exposed dosage. Thus, toxicity appears to depend on exposure time, even at low VGCF concentrations, because VGCF is biopersistent. PMID:22228997

  3. Coupled elasticity-diffusion model for the effects of cytoskeleton deformation on cellular uptake of cylindrical nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizeng; Li, Long

    2015-01-06

    Molecular dynamic simulations and experiments have recently demonstrated how cylindrical nanoparticles (CNPs) with large aspect ratios penetrate animal cells and inevitably deform cytoskeletons. Thus, a coupled elasticity-diffusion model was adopted to elucidate this interesting biological phenomenon by considering the effects of elastic deformations of cytoskeleton and membrane, ligand-receptor binding and receptor diffusion. The mechanism by which the binding energy drives the CNPs with different orientations to enter host cells was explored. This mechanism involved overcoming the resistance caused by cytoskeleton and membrane deformations and the change in configurational entropy of the ligand-receptor bonds and free receptors. Results showed that deformation of the cytoskeleton significantly influenced the engulfing process by effectively slowing down and even hindering the entry of the CNPs. Additionally, the engulfing depth was determined quantitatively. CNPs preferred or tended to vertically attack target cells until they were stuck in the cytoskeleton as implied by the speed of vertically oriented CNPs that showed much faster initial engulfing speeds than horizontally oriented CNPs. These results elucidated the most recent molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations on the cellular uptake of carbon nanotubes and phagocytosis of filamentous Escherichia coli bacteria. The most efficient engulfment showed the stiffness-dependent optimal radius of the CNPs. Cytoskeleton stiffness exhibited more significant influence on the optimal sizes of the vertical uptake than the horizontal uptake. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Stogner, S W; Payne, D K

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the biochemistry of oxygen metabolism, including the formation of free radicals and the role of endogenous antioxidants. Pathophysiologic correlates underlying the clinical manifestations of oxygen toxicity are reviewed and management strategies are outlined. References from basic science and clinical journals were selected from the authors' files and from a search of a computerized database of the biomedical literature. Articles selected for review included both historical and current literature concerning the biochemistry and pathophysiology of oxygen toxicity in animals and humans. The benefits of oxygen therapy have been known for many years; however, its potential toxicity has not been recognized until the last two decades. The lungs, the eyes, and, under certain conditions, the central nervous system are the organs most affected by prolonged exposure to hyperoxic environments. Free radical formation during cellular metabolism under hyperoxic conditions is recognized as the biochemical basis of oxygen injury to cells and organs. Endogenous antioxidants are a primary means of detoxifying reactive oxygen species and preventing hyperoxia-induced cellular damage. When this defense fails or is overwhelmed by the excessive production of hyperoxia-induced free-radical species, distinctive morphologic changes occur at the cellular level. The amount of hyperoxia required to cause cellular damage and the time course of these changes vary from species to species and from individual to individual within the same species. Age, nutritional status, presence of underlying diseases, and certain drugs may influence the development of oxygen toxicity. There is currently no reliably effective drug for preventing or delaying the development of oxygen toxicity in humans. Use of the lowest effective oxygen concentration, the avoidance of certain drugs, and attention to nutritional and metabolic factors remain the best means

  5. Using Argo-O2 data to examine the impact of deep-water formation events on oxygen uptake in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. K.; Hamme, R. C.; Gilbert, D.; Yashayaev, I.

    2016-02-01

    Deep-water formation allows the deep ocean to communicate with the atmosphere, facilitating exchanges of heat as well as important gases such as CO2 and oxygen. The Labrador Sea is the most studied location of deep convection in the North Atlantic Ocean and a strong contributor to the global thermohaline circulation. Since there are no internal sources of oxygen below the euphotic zone, deep-water formation is vital for oxygen transport to the deep ocean. Recent studies document large interannual variability in the strength and depth of convection in the Labrador Sea, from mixed layers of 100m to greater than 1000m. A weakening of this deep convection starves the deep ocean of oxygen, disrupting crucial deep sea biological processes, as well as reducing oceanic CO2 uptake and ocean circulation. We used data from the extensive Argo float network to examine these deep-water formation events in the Labrador Sea. The oxygen optodes onboard many Argo floats suffer from biases whose amplitude must be determined; therefore we investigated and applied various optode calibration methods. Using calibrated vertical profiles of oxygen, temperature, and salinity, we observed the timing, magnitude, and location of deep convection, restratification, and spring phytoplankton blooms. In addition, we used surface oxygen values along with NCEP wind speeds to calculate the air-sea oxygen flux using a range of air-sea gas exchange parameterizations. We then compared this oxygen flux to the rate of change of the measured oxygen inventory. Where the inventory and flux did not agree, we identified other oceanic processes such as biological activity or lateral advection of water masses occurring, or advection of the float itself into a new area. The large role that horizontal advection of water or the float has on oxygen uptake and cycling leads us to conclude that this data cannot be easily interpreted as a 1-D system. Oxygen exchanges with the atmosphere at a faster rate than CO2, is

  6. The cellular uptake mechanism, intracellular transportation, and exocytosis of polyamidoamine dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Mengjun; Sun, Yuqi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Guan, Guannan; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Hu, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Polyamidoamine dendrimers, which can deliver drugs and genetic materials to resistant cells, are attracting increased research attention, but their transportation behavior in resistant cells remains unclear. In this paper, we performed a systematic analysis of the cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and efflux of PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR cells) using sensitive breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) as the control. We found that the uptake rate of PAMAM-NH2 was much lower and exocytosis of PAMAM-NH2 was much greater in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells due to the elimination of PAMAM-NH2 from P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein in MCF-7/ADR cells. Macropinocytosis played a more important role in its uptake in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells. PAMAM-NH2 aggregated and became more degraded in the lysosomal vesicles of the MCF-7/ADR cells than in those of the MCF-7 cells. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex were found to participate in the exocytosis rather than endocytosis process of PAMAM-NH2 in both types of cells. Our findings clearly showed the intracellular transportation process of PAMAM-NH2 in MCF-7/ADR cells and provided a guide of using PAMAM-NH2 as a drug and gene vector in resistant cells.

  7. Protein Corona Influences Cellular Uptake of Gold Nanoparticles by Phagocytic and Nonphagocytic Cells in a Size-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaju; Tian, Xin; Wu, Anqing; Li, Jianxiang; Tian, Jian; Chong, Yu; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Ge, Cuicui

    2015-09-23

    The interaction at nanobio is a critical issue in designing safe nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Recent studies have reported that it is nanoparticle-protein corona rather than bare nanoparticle that determines the nanoparticle-cell interactions, including endocytic pathway and biological responses. Here, we demonstrate the effects of protein corona on cellular uptake of different sized gold nanoparticles in different cell lines. The experimental results show that protein corona significantly decreases the internalization of Au NPs in a particle size- and cell type-dependent manner. Protein corona exhibits much more significant inhibition on the uptake of large-sized Au NPs by phagocytic cell than that of small-sized Au NPs by nonphagocytic cell. The endocytosis experiment indicates that different endocytic pathways might be responsible for the differential roles of protein corona in the interaction of different sized Au NPs with different cell lines. Our findings can provide useful information for rational design of nanomaterials in biomedical application.

  8. Improved cellular uptake of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, A; Serafini, S; Menotta, M; Sfara, C; Pierigé, F; Giorgi, L; Ambrosi, G; Rossi, L; Magnani, M

    2010-10-22

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) due to their unique structural and physicochemical properties, have been proposed as delivery systems for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, SWNTs have proven difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, limiting their use in biological applications. In an attempt to improve SWNTs' solubility, biocompatibility, and to increase cell penetration we have thoroughly investigated the construction of carbon scaffolds coated with aliphatic carbon chains and phospholipids to obtain micelle-like structures. At first, oxidized SWNTs (2370 ± 30 nmol mg(-1) of SWNTs) were covalently coupled with an alcoholic chain (stearyl alcohol, C(18)H(37)OH; 816 nmol mg(-1) of SWNTs). Subsequently, SWNTs-COOC(18)H(37) derivatives were coated with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or -serine (PS) phospholipids obtaining micelle-like structures. We found that cellular uptake of these constructs by phagocytic cells occurs via an endocytotic mechanism for constructs larger than 400 nm while occurs via diffusion through the cell membrane for constructs up to 400 nm. The material that enters the cell by phagocytosis is actively internalized by macrophages and localizes inside endocytotic vesicles. In contrast the material that enters the cells by diffusion is found in the cell cytosol. In conclusion, we have realized new biomimetic constructs based on alkylated SWNTs coated with phospholipids that are efficiently internalized by different cell types only if their size is lower than 400 nm. These constructs are not toxic to the cells and could now be explored as delivery systems for non-permeant cargoes.

  9. Anti-glioma activity and the mechanism of cellular uptake of asiatic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garanti, Tanem; Stasik, Aneta; Burrow, Andrea Julie; Alhnan, Mohamed A; Wan, Ka-Wai

    2016-03-16

    Asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella Asiatica, has shown neuroprotective and anti-cancer activity against glioma. However, owing to its poor aqueous solubility, effective delivery and absorption across biological barriers, in particular the blood brain barrier (BBB), are challenging. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have shown a promising potential as a drug delivery system to carry lipophilic drugs across the BBB, a major obstacle in brain cancer therapy. Nevertheless, limited information is available about the cytotoxic mechanisms of nano-lipidic carriers with AA on normal and glioma cells. This study assessed the anti-cancer efficacy of AA-loaded SLNs against glioblastoma and their cellular uptake mechanism in comparison with SVG P12 (human foetal glial) cells. SLNs were systematically investigated for three different solid lipids; glyceryl monostearate (MS), glyceryl distearate (DS) and glyceryl tristearate (TS). The non-drug containing MS-SLNs (E-MS-SLNs) did not show any apparent toxicity towards normal SVG P12 cells, whilst the AA-loaded MS-SLNs (AA-MS-SLNs) displayed a more favourable drug release profile and higher cytotoxicity towards U87 MG cells. Therefore, MS-SLNs were chosen for further in vitro studies. Cytotoxicity studies of SLNs (± AA) were performed using MTT assay where AA-SLNs showed significantly higher cytotoxicity towards U87 MG cells than SVG P12 normal cells, as confirmed by flow cell cytometry. Cellular uptake of SLNs also appeared to be preferentially facilitated by energy-dependent endocytosis as evidenced by fluorescence imaging and flow cell cytometry. Using the Annexin V-PI double staining technique, it was found that these AA-MS-SLNs displayed concentration-dependent apoptotic activity on glioma cells, which further confirms the potential of exploiting these AA-loaded MS-SLNs for brain cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gill structural change in response to turbidity has no effect on the oxygen uptake of a juvenile sparid fish.

    PubMed

    Cumming, H; Herbert, N A

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O 2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O 2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species ( Pagrus auratus ) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (<10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 nephelometric turbidity units) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellar density, as well as an increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change throughout the experiment, but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, and weight loss increased with nephelometric turbidity units, confirming that long-term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth productivity. The growth of fish could be impacted in a variety of ways, but the specific hypothesis that structural alteration of the gills impairs O 2 uptake across the gills and limits growth fitness was not supported because there was no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or critical oxygen saturation limit of fish measured in clear water after 30 days of exposure. Although impaired O 2 uptake as a result of structurally adjusted gills is unlikely to be the cause of poor fish growth, the exact mechanism by which growth productivity is affected in turbid conditions remains unclear and warrants further investigation.

  11. Gill structural change in response to turbidity has no effect on the oxygen uptake of a juvenile sparid fish

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, H.; Herbert, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species (Pagrus auratus) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (<10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 nephelometric turbidity units) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellar density, as well as an increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change throughout the experiment, but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, and weight loss increased with nephelometric turbidity units, confirming that long-term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth productivity. The growth of fish could be impacted in a variety of ways, but the specific hypothesis that structural alteration of the gills impairs O2 uptake across the gills and limits growth fitness was not supported because there was no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or critical oxygen saturation limit of fish measured in clear water after 30 days of exposure. Although impaired O2 uptake as a result of structurally adjusted gills is unlikely to be the cause of poor fish growth, the exact mechanism by which growth productivity is affected in turbid conditions remains unclear and warrants further investigation. PMID:27766155

  12. Flexible Sheet-Type Sensor for Noninvasive Measurement of Cellular Oxygen Metabolism on a Culture Dish.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Mari; Takehara, Hiroaki; Akagi, Takanori; Shiono, Hirofumi; Ichiki, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    A novel flexible sensor was developed for the noninvasive oxygen metabolism measurement of cultivated cells and tissues. This device is composed of a transparent double-layered polymer sheet of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) having an array of microhole structures of 90 μm diameter and 50 μm depth on its surface. All the microhole structures were equipped with a 1-μm-thick optical chemical sensing layer of platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer on their bottom. The three-dimensional microstructures of the sensor were fabricated by a newly developed simple and low-cost production method named self-aligned hot embossing. The device was designed to be attached slightly above the cells cultivated on a dish to form a temporarily closed microspace over the target cells during measurement. Since the change in oxygen concentration is relatively fast in the microcompartmentalized culture medium, a rapid evaluation of the oxygen consumption rate is possible by measuring the phosphorescence lifetime of the platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer. The combined use of the device and an automated optical measurement system enabled the high-throughput sensing of cellular oxygen consumption (100 points/min). We monitored the oxygen metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 on a Petri dish and evaluated the oxygen consumption rate to be 0.72 ± 0.12 fmol/min/cell. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the developed sensing system, we demonstrated the mapping of the oxygen consumption rate of rat brain slices and succeeded in visualizing a clear difference among the layer structures of the hippocampus, i.e., the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG).

  13. Decreases in maximal oxygen uptake following long-duration spaceflight: Role of convective and diffusive O2 transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ade, C J; Broxterman, R M; Moore, A D; Barstow, T J

    2017-04-01

    We have previously predicted that the decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o 2max ) that accompanies time in microgravity reflects decrements in both convective and diffusive O 2 transport to the mitochondria of the contracting myocytes. The aim of this investigation was therefore to quantify the relative changes in convective O 2 transport (Q̇o 2 ) and O 2 diffusing capacity (Do 2 ) following long-duration spaceflight. In nine astronauts, resting hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), V̇o 2max , maximal cardiac output (Q̇ Tmax ), and differences in arterial and venous O 2 contents ([Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]) were obtained retrospectively for International Space Station Increments 19-33 (April 2009-November 2012). Q̇o 2 and Do 2 were calculated from these variables via integration of Fick's Principle of Mass Conservation and Fick's Law of Diffusion. V̇o 2max significantly decreased from pre- to postflight (-53.9 ± 45.5%, P = 0.008). The significant decrease in Q̇ Tmax (-7.8 ± 9.1%, P = 0.05), despite an unchanged [Hb], resulted in a significantly decreased Q̇o 2 (-11.4 ± 10.5%, P = 0.02). Do 2 significantly decreased from pre- to postflight by -27.5 ± 24.5% ( P = 0.04), as did the peak [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] (-9.2 ± 7.5%, P = 0.007). With the use of linear regression analysis, changes in V̇o 2max were significantly correlated with changes in Do 2 ( R 2  = 0.47; P = 0.04). These data suggest that spaceflight decreases both convective and diffusive O 2 transport. These results have practical implications for future long-duration space missions and highlight the need to resolve the specific mechanisms underlying these spaceflight-induced changes along the O 2 transport pathway. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Long-duration spaceflight elicited a significant decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. Given the adverse physiological adaptations to microgravity along the O 2 transport pathway that have been reported, an integrative

  14. Reduction in peak oxygen uptake after prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that the magnitude of the reduction in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) after bed rest is directly proportional to the level of pre-bed rest peak VO2 is tested. Complete pre and post-bed rest working capacity and body weight data were obtained from studies involving 24 men (19-24 years old) and 8 women (23-34 years old) who underwent bed rest for 14-20 days with no remedial treatments. Results of regression analyses of the present change in post-bed rest peak VO2 on pre-bed rest peak VO2 with 32 subjects show correlation coefficients of -0.03 (NS) for data expressed in 1/min and -0.17 for data expressed in ml/min-kg. In addition, significant correlations are found that support the hypothesis only when peak VO2 data are analyzed separately from studies that utilized the cycle ergometer, particularly with subjects in the supine position, as opposed to data obtained from treadmill peak VO2 tests. It is concluded that orthostatic factors, associated with the upright body position and relatively high levels of physical fitness from endurance training, appear to increase the variability of pre and particularly post-bed rest peak VO2 data, which would lead to rejection of the hypothesis.

  15. Monolayer to MTS: using SEM, HIM, TEM and SERS to compare morphology, nanosensor uptake and redox potential in MCF7 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, L. E.; Bell, A. P.; Harrison, D. J.; Campbell, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Cellular redox potential is important for the control and regulation of a vast number of processes occurring in cells. When the fine redox potential balance within cells is disturbed it can have serious consequences such as the initiation or progression of disease. It is thought that a redox gradient develops in cancer tumours where the peripheral regions are well oxygenated and internal regions, further from vascular blood supply, become starved of oxygen and hypoxic. This makes treatment of these areas more challenging as, for example, radiotherapy relies on the presence of oxygen. Currently techniques for quantitative analysis of redox gradients are limited. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensors (NS) have been used to detect redox potential in a quantitative manner in monolayer cultured cells with many advantages over other techniques. This technique has considerable potential for use in multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) - a three dimensional (3D) cell model which better mimics the tumour environment and gradients that develop. MTS are a more realistic model of the in vivo cellular morphology and environment and are becoming an increasingly popular in vitro model, replacing traditional monolayer culture. Imaging techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and helium ion microscopy (HIM) were used to investigate differences in morphology and NS uptake in monolayer culture compared to MTS. After confirming NS uptake, the first SERS measurements revealing quantitative information on redox potential in MTS were performed.

  16. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor efficacy of composite liposomes for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Tanja; Grunewald, Catrin; Blaickner, Matthias; Ziegner, Markus; Schütz, Christian; Iffland, Dorothee; Hampel, Gabriele; Nawroth, Thomas; Langguth, Peter

    2015-02-22

    Neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma has focused mainly on the use of (10)B as neutron capture isotope. However, (157)Gd offers several advantages over boron, such as higher cross section for thermal neutrons and the possibility to perform magnetic resonance imaging during neutron irradiation, thereby combining therapy and diagnostics. We have developed different liposomal formulations of gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist®) for application in neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma. The formulations were characterized physicochemically and tested in vitro in a glioma cell model for their effectiveness. Liposomes entrapping gadolinium-DTPA as neutron capture agent were manufactured via lipid/film-extrusion method and characterized with regard to size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. For neutron irradiation, F98 and LN229 glioma cells were incubated with the newly developed liposomes and subsequently irradiated at the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz. The dose rate derived from neutron irradiation with (157)Gd as neutron capturing agent was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations and set in relation to the respective cell survival. The liposomal Gd-DTPA reduced cell survival of F98 and LN229 cells significantly. Differences in liposomal composition of the formulations led to distinctly different outcome in cell survival. The amount of cellular Gd was not at all times proportional to cell survival, indicating that intracellular deposition of formulated Gd has a major influence on cell survival. The majority of the dose contribution arises from photon cross irradiation compared to a very small Gd-related dose. Liposomal gadolinium formulations represent a promising approach for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma cells. The liposome composition determines the uptake and the survival of cells following radiation, presumably due to different uptake pathways of liposomes and intracellular deposition of gadolinium-DTPA. Due to the small range of

  17. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-07-11

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C(3)-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C(3)-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C(3) with phospholipid was used to generate C(3)-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies.

  18. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies. PMID:27405011

  19. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-07-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies.

  20. Uptake of phytodetritus by benthic foraminifera under oxygen depletion at the Indian Margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, A. J.; Witte, U.; Kucera, M.; Heinz, P.

    2013-09-01

    Benthic foraminifera in sediments on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea where the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges on the continental slope are exposed to particularly severe levels of oxygen depletion. Food supply for the benthic community is high but delivered in distinct pulses during upwelling and water mixing events associated with summer and winter monsoon periods. In order to investigate the response by benthic foraminifera to such pulsed food delivery under oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 mL L-1 (4.5 μmol L-1), an in situ isotope labeling experiment (13C, 15N) was performed at the western continental slope of India at 540 m water depth (OMZ core region). The assemblage of living foraminifera (>125 μm) in the uppermost centimeter at this depth is characterized by an unexpectedly high population density of 3982 ind. 10 cm-2 and a strong dominance by few calcareous species. For the experiment, we concentrated on the nine most abundant taxa, which constitute 93% of the entire foraminifera population at 0-1 cm sediment depth. Increased concentrations of 13C and 15N in the cytoplasm indicate that all investigated taxa took up the labeled phytodetritus during the 4 day experimental phase. In total, these nine species had assimilated 113.8 mg C m-2 (17.5% of the total added carbon). The uptake of nitrogen by the three most abundant taxa (Bolivina aff. B. dilatata, Cassidulina sp., Bulimina gibba) was 2.7 mg N m-2 (2% of the total added nitrogen) and showed the successful application of 15N as tracer in foraminiferal studies. The short-term response to the offered phytodetritus varied largely among foraminiferal species with Uvigerina schwageri being by far the most important species in short-term processing whereas the most abundant taxa Bolivina aff. B. dilatata and Cassidulina sp. showed comparably low uptake of the offered food. We suggest that the observed species-specific differences are related to individual biomass of species and to specific

  1. Oxygen uptake during functional activities after stroke—Reliability and validity of a portable ergospirometry system

    PubMed Central

    Brurok, Berit; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Tørhaug, Tom; Askim, Torunn

    2017-01-01

    Background People with stroke have a low peak aerobic capacity and experience increased effort during performance of daily activities. The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of a portable ergospirometry system in people with stroke during performance of functional activities in a field-test. Secondary aims were to examine the proportion of oxygen consumed during the field-test in relation to the peak-test and to analyse the correlation between the oxygen uptake during the field-test and peak-test in order to support the validity of the field-test. Methods With simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption, participants performed a standardized field-test consisting of five activities; walking over ground, stair walking, stepping over obstacles, walking slalom between cones and from a standing position lifting objects from one height to another. All activities were performed in self-selected speed. Prior to the field-test, a peak aerobic capacity test was performed. The field-test was repeated minimum 2 and maximum 14 days between the tests. ICC2,1 and Bland Altman tests (Limits of Agreement, LoA) were used to analyse test-retest reliability. Results In total 31 participants (39% women, mean (SD) age 54.5 (12.7) years and 21.1 (14.3) months’ post-stroke) were included. The ICC2,1 was ≥ 0.80 for absolute V̇O2, relative V̇O2, minute ventilation, CO2, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and Borgs rating of perceived exertion. ICC2,1 for total time to complete the field-test was 0.99. Mean difference in steady state V̇O2 during Test 1 and Test 2 was -0.40 (2.12) The LoAs were -3.75 and 4.51. Participants spent 60.7% of their V̇O2peak performing functional activities. Correlation between field-test and peak-test was 0.689, p = 0.001 for absolute and 0.733, p = 0.001 for relative V̇O2. Conclusions This study presents first evidence on reliability of oxygen uptake during performance of functional activities after stroke, showing very

  2. Towards magnetic-enhanced cellular uptake, MRI and chemotherapeutics delivery by magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Jixi; Xia, Weiliang; Gu, Hongchen

    2012-10-01

    A type of nanoparticle with three functional modalities was prepared with the aim of providing a multifunctional drug delivery system. The nanoparticle was 50 nm in size, with 2.7 nm mesopores and a magnetic nanocrystal core, which was further doped with FITC to enable the tracking of cellular uptake. We demonstrated that the internalization of the nanoparticles in tumor cells could be enhanced by applying an external magnetic field and furthermore, this kind of nanoparticle could be used in magnetic targeted drug delivery. With high transverse relaxivity, the magnetic nanoparticles shortened proton relaxation time and induced high magnetic resonance imaging contrast in tumor cells. Studies on anticancer drug loading and delivery capacity of anticancer drugs also showed that this type of nanoparticles could load water-soluble doxorubicin, and produce a prominent inhibitive effect against tumor cells. Taken together, the presented nanoparticles could become a promising agent in cancer theranostics.

  3. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. It depends on the uptake of extracellular lactate by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Lactate first stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and HIF-2α then transactivates c-Myc in a pathway that mimics a response to hypoxia. Consequently, lactate-induced c-Myc activation triggers the expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and of glutaminase 1 (GLS1), resulting in improved glutamine uptake and catabolism. Elucidation of this metabolic dependence could be of therapeutic interest. First, inhibitors of lactate uptake targeting MCT1 are currently entering clinical trials. They have the potential to indirectly repress glutaminolysis. Second, in oxidative cancer cells, resistance to glutaminolysis inhibition could arise from compensation by oxidative lactate metabolism and increased lactate signaling. PMID:26636483

  4. Purification, immunotoxic effects, and cellular uptake of trichothecene mycotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were carried out to better understand how the trichothecenes alter immune function in animals and humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was purified for use in animal feeding studies. Dietary exposure to DON for 8 weeks altered the serum immunoglobulin profile in mice and decreased the splenic plaque-forming cell response to the antigen sheep red blood cells. The uptake of ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin by a murine B-cell hybridoma was studied in order to learn more about the way in which trichothecenes interact with immune cells. A simple procedure was developed for the laboratory production and purification of gram quantities of crystalline DON.more » When Fusarium graminearum R6576 was grown on rice, concentrations of 600 to 700 ppm DON accumulated after 13 to 18 days of incubation. A DON derivative, 15-acetylDON, was also found at concentrations of 100 to 300 ppm after 7 to 10 days. DON was purified from crude culture extracts by water-saturated silica gel chromatography. Alpha-({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin of 99% chemical and radiochemical purity was prepared for use in uptake studies. Both the rate of uptake of ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin by hybridomas and the time required for accumulation of ({sup 3}H)T-2 to reach equilibrium were proportional to the concentration of ({sup 3}H)T-2. ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin accumulated by hybridomas was proportional to the concentration of ({sup 3}H)T-2 between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}3} M. The rate of uptake of ({sup 3}H)jT-2 toxin by hybridomas was inhibited by the trichothecenes T-2 toxin, DON, verrucarin A, and roridin A, as well as the antibiotic anisomycin. The kinetics and concentration dependence of accumulation, along with the inhibition patterns, suggest that uptake of ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin by hybridomas is mediated by binding of toxin to ribosomes.« less

  5. Targeting dendritic cells through gold nanoparticles: A review on the cellular uptake and subsequent immunological properties.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Suhana; Zamry, Anes Ateqah; Tan, Hern-Tze Tina; Wong, Kah Keng; Lim, JitKang; Mohamud, Rohimah

    2017-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed as a highly potential tool in immunotherapies due to its advantageous properties including customizable size and shapes, surface functionality and biocompatibility. Dendritic cells (DCs), the sentinels of immune response, have been of interest to be manipulated by using gold NPs for targeted delivery of immunotherapeutic agent. Researches done especially in human DCs showed a variation of gold NPs effects on cellular uptake and internalization, DC maturation and subsequent T cells priming as well as cytotoxicity. In this review, we describe the synthesis and physiochemical properties of gold NPs as well as the importance of gold NPs in immunotherapies through their actions on human DCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Spin-labeled small unilamellar vesicles with the T1-sensitive saturation-recovery EPR display as an oxygen sensitive analyte for measurement of cellular respiration

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Laxman; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Hyde, James S.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2015-01-01

    This study validated the use of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine with 1 mol% spin label of 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-doxylstearoyl)phosphatidylcholine (16-PC) as an oxygen sensitive analyte to study cellular respiration. In the analyte the hydrocarbon environment surrounds the nitroxide moiety of 16-PC. This ensures high oxygen concentration and oxygen diffusion at the location of the nitroxide as well as isolation of the nitroxide moiety from cellular reductants and paramagnetic ions that might interfere with spin-label oximetry measurements. The saturation-recovery EPR approach was applied in the analysis since this approach is the most direct method to carry out oximetric studies. It was shown that this display (spin-lattice relaxation rate) is linear in oxygen partial pressure up to 100% air (159 mmHg). Experiments using a neuronal cell line in suspension were carried out at X-band for closed chamber geometry. Oxygen consumption rates showed a linear dependence on the number of cells. Other significant benefits of the analyte are: the fast effective rotational diffusion and slow translational diffusion of the spin-probe is favorable for the measurements, and there is no cross reactivity between oxygen and paramagnetic ions in the lipid bilayer. PMID:26441482

  7. Spin-labeled small unilamellar vesicles with the T1-sensitive saturation-recovery EPR display as an oxygen sensitive analyte for measurement of cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Laxman; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Hyde, James S; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-08-01

    This study validated the use of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine with 1 mol% spin label of 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-doxylstearoyl)phosphatidylcholine (16-PC) as an oxygen sensitive analyte to study cellular respiration. In the analyte the hydrocarbon environment surrounds the nitroxide moiety of 16-PC. This ensures high oxygen concentration and oxygen diffusion at the location of the nitroxide as well as isolation of the nitroxide moiety from cellular reductants and paramagnetic ions that might interfere with spin-label oximetry measurements. The saturation-recovery EPR approach was applied in the analysis since this approach is the most direct method to carry out oximetric studies. It was shown that this display (spin-lattice relaxation rate) is linear in oxygen partial pressure up to 100% air (159 mmHg). Experiments using a neuronal cell line in suspension were carried out at X-band for closed chamber geometry. Oxygen consumption rates showed a linear dependence on the number of cells. Other significant benefits of the analyte are: the fast effective rotational diffusion and slow translational diffusion of the spin-probe is favorable for the measurements, and there is no cross reactivity between oxygen and paramagnetic ions in the lipid bilayer.

  8. Synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro cellular uptake kinetics of nanoprecipitated poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)- b-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MPC-DPA) polymeric nanoparticle micelles for nanomedicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvage, Jonathan P.; Smith, Tia; Lu, Tao; Sanghera, Amendeep; Standen, Guy; Tang, Yiqing; Lewis, Andrew L.

    2016-10-01

    Nanoscience offers the potential for great advances in medical technology and therapies in the form of nanomedicine. As such, developing controllable, predictable, and effective, nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems remains a significant challenge. Many polymer-based nanoparticle systems have been reported to date, but few harness materials with accepted biocompatibility. Phosphorylcholine (PC) based biomimetic materials have a long history of successful translation into effective commercial medical technologies. This study investigated the synthesis, characterisation, nanoprecipitation, and in vitro cellular uptake kinetics of PC-based polymeric nanoparticle micelles (PNM) formed by the biocompatible and pH responsive block copolymer poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)- b-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MPC-DPA). Atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to synthesise and characterise the well-defined MPC100-DPA100 polymer, revealing organic GPC, using evaporative light scatter detection, to be more accurate than aqueous GPC for this application. Subsequent nanoprecipitation investigations utilising photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) revealed PNM size increased with polymer concentration, and conferred Cryo-stability. PNM diameters ranged from circa 64-69 nm, and increased upon hydrophobic compound loading, circa 65-71 nm, with loading efficiencies of circa 60 % achieved, whilst remaining monodisperse. In vitro studies demonstrated that the PNM were of low cellular toxicity, with colony formation and MTT assays, utilising V79 and 3T3 cells, yielding comparable results. Investigation of the in vitro cellular uptake kinetics revealed rapid, 1 h, cellular uptake of MPC100-DPA100 PNM delivered fluorescent probes, with fluorescence persistence for 48 h. This paper presents the first report of these novel findings, which highlight the potential of the system for nanomedicine application

  9. Measuring Steady-State Oxygen Uptake during the 6-Min Walk Test in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Feasibility and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltais, Desiree B.; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Dumas, Francine; Boucher, Normand; Richards, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of measuring steady-state oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O[subscript 2]) during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) who walk without support and whether there is construct validity for net 6MWT V[Combining Dot Above]O[subscript 2] as a measure of their walking ability.…

  10. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Prado, D M L; Rocco, E A; Silva, A G; Rocco, D F; Pacheco, M T; Silva, P F; Furlan, V

    2016-02-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercise training (n=18) and interval exercise training (n=17). All patients performed graded exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis before and 3 months after the exercise-training program to determine ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), respiratory compensation point, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2). The OUES was assessed based on data from the second minute of exercise until exhaustion by calculating the slope of the linear relation between oxygen uptake and the logarithm of total ventilation. After the interventions, both groups showed increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05). In addition, both the continuous exercise and interval exercise training groups demonstrated an increase in OUES (P<0.05). Significant associations were observed in both groups: 1) continuous exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.57; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.57); 2) interval exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.80; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.67). Continuous and interval exercise training resulted in a similar increase in OUES among patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that improvements in OUES among CAD patients after aerobic exercise training may be dependent on peripheral and central mechanisms.

  11. Degradable self-assembling dendrons for gene delivery: experimental and theoretical insights into the barriers to cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Anna; Posocco, Paola; Pricl, Sabrina; Calderon, Marcelo; Haag, Rainer; Hwang, Mark E; Shum, Victor W T; Pack, Daniel W; Smith, David K

    2011-12-21

    This paper uses a combined experimental and theoretical approach to gain unique insight into gene delivery. We report the synthesis and investigation of a new family of second-generation dendrons with four triamine surface ligands capable of binding to DNA, degradable aliphatic-ester dendritic scaffolds, and hydrophobic units at their focal points. Dendron self-assembly significantly enhances DNA binding as monitored by a range of experimental methods and confirmed by multiscale modeling. Cellular uptake studies indicate that some of these dendrons are highly effective at transporting DNA into cells (ca. 10 times better than poly(ethyleneimine), PEI). However, levels of transgene expression are relatively low (ca. 10% of PEI). This indicates that these dendrons cannot navigate all of the intracellular barriers to gene delivery. The addition of chloroquine indicates that endosomal escape is not the limiting factor in this case, and it is shown, both experimentally and theoretically, that gene delivery can be correlated with the ability of the dendron assemblies to release DNA. Mass spectrometric assays demonstrate that the dendrons, as intended, do degrade under biologically relevant conditions over a period of hours. Multiscale modeling of degraded dendron structures suggests that complete dendron degradation would be required for DNA release. Importantly, in the presence of the lower pH associated with endosomes, or when bound to DNA, complete degradation of these dendrons becomes ineffective on the transfection time scale-we propose this explains the poor transfection performance of these dendrons. As such, this paper demonstrates that taking this kind of multidisciplinary approach can yield a fundamental insight into the way in which dendrons can navigate barriers to cellular uptake. Lessons learned from this work will inform future dendron design for enhanced gene delivery. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Effects of hyperoxia on 18F-fluoro-misonidazole brain uptake and tissue oxygen tension following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents: Pilot studies

    PubMed Central

    Jensen-Kondering, Ulf; Williamson, David J.; Sitnikov, Sergey; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Hong, Young T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Mapping brain hypoxia is a major goal for stroke diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment monitoring. 18F-fluoro-misonidazole (FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) is the gold standard hypoxia imaging method. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) is a promising therapy in acute stroke. In this pilot study, we tested the straightforward hypothesis that NBO would markedly reduce FMISO uptake in ischemic brain in Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), two rat strains with distinct vulnerability to brain ischemia, mimicking clinical heterogeneity. Methods Thirteen adult male rats were randomized to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion under either 30% O2 or 100% O2. FMISO was administered intravenously and PET data acquired dynamically for 3hrs, after which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were carried out to map the ischemic lesion. Both FMISO tissue uptake at 2-3hrs and FMISO kinetic rate constants, determined based on previously published kinetic modelling, were obtained for the hypoxic area. In a separate group (n = 9), tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtO2) was measured in the ischemic tissue during both control and NBO conditions. Results As expected, the FMISO PET, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were much larger in SHRs than Wistar rats in both the control and NBO conditions. NBO did not appear to substantially reduce FMISO lesion size, nor affect the FMISO kinetic rate constants in either strain. Likewise, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were unaffected. The parallel study showed the expected increases in ischemic cortex PtO2 under NBO, although these were small in some SHRs with very low baseline PtO2. Conclusions Despite small samples, the apparent lack of marked effects of NBO on FMISO uptake suggests that in permanent ischemia the cellular mechanisms underlying FMISO trapping in hypoxic cells may be disjointed from PtO2. Better understanding of FMISO trapping processes will be important for future applications

  13. Effects of hyperoxia on 18F-fluoro-misonidazole brain uptake and tissue oxygen tension following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents: Pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Tim D; Ejaz, Sohail; Jensen-Kondering, Ulf; Williamson, David J; Sitnikov, Sergey; Sawiak, Stephen J; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Hong, Young T; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Mapping brain hypoxia is a major goal for stroke diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment monitoring. 18F-fluoro-misonidazole (FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) is the gold standard hypoxia imaging method. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) is a promising therapy in acute stroke. In this pilot study, we tested the straightforward hypothesis that NBO would markedly reduce FMISO uptake in ischemic brain in Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), two rat strains with distinct vulnerability to brain ischemia, mimicking clinical heterogeneity. Thirteen adult male rats were randomized to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion under either 30% O2 or 100% O2. FMISO was administered intravenously and PET data acquired dynamically for 3hrs, after which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were carried out to map the ischemic lesion. Both FMISO tissue uptake at 2-3hrs and FMISO kinetic rate constants, determined based on previously published kinetic modelling, were obtained for the hypoxic area. In a separate group (n = 9), tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtO2) was measured in the ischemic tissue during both control and NBO conditions. As expected, the FMISO PET, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were much larger in SHRs than Wistar rats in both the control and NBO conditions. NBO did not appear to substantially reduce FMISO lesion size, nor affect the FMISO kinetic rate constants in either strain. Likewise, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were unaffected. The parallel study showed the expected increases in ischemic cortex PtO2 under NBO, although these were small in some SHRs with very low baseline PtO2. Despite small samples, the apparent lack of marked effects of NBO on FMISO uptake suggests that in permanent ischemia the cellular mechanisms underlying FMISO trapping in hypoxic cells may be disjointed from PtO2. Better understanding of FMISO trapping processes will be important for future applications of FMISO imaging.

  14. Fish embryos on land: terrestrial embryo deposition lowers oxygen uptake without altering growth or survival in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Wells, Michael W; Turko, Andy J; Wright, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    Few teleost fishes incubate embryos out of water, but the oxygen-rich terrestrial environment could provide advantages for early growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that embryonic oxygen uptake is limited in aquatic environments relative to air using the self-fertilizing amphibious mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, which typically inhabits hypoxic, water-filled crab burrows. We found that adult mangrove rivulus released twice as many embryos in terrestrial versus aquatic environments and that air-reared embryos had accelerated developmental rates. Surprisingly, air-reared embryos consumed 44% less oxygen and possessed larger yolk reserves, but attained the same mass, length and chorion thickness. Water-reared embryos moved their opercula ∼2.5 more times per minute compared with air-reared embryos at 7 days post-release, which probably contributed to the higher rates of oxygen uptake and yolk utilization we observed. Genetically identical air- and water-reared embryos from the same parent were raised to maturity, but the embryonic environment did not affect growth, reproduction or emersion ability in adults. Therefore, although aspects of early development were plastic, these early differences were not sustained into adulthood. Kryptolebias marmoratus embryos hatched out of water when exposed to aerial hypoxia. We conclude that exposure to a terrestrial environment reduces the energetic costs of development partly by reducing the necessity of embryonic movements to dispel stagnant boundary layers. Terrestrial incubation of young would be especially beneficial to amphibious fishes that occupy aquatic habitats of poor water quality, assuming low terrestrial predation and desiccation risks. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: cellular uptake, biodistribution and applications in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zixian; de Barros, Andre Luis Branco; Soares, Daniel Cristian Ferreira; Moss, Sara Nicole; Alisaraie, Laleh

    2017-05-30

    The unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) enable them to play important roles in many fields. One of their functional roles is to transport cargo into cell. SWNTs are able to traverse amphipathic cell membranes due to their large surface area, flexible interactions with cargo, customizable dimensions, and surface chemistry. The cargoes delivered by SWNTs include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, as well as drug molecules for therapeutic purpose. The drug delivery functions of SWNTs have been explored over the past decade. Many breakthrough studies have shown the high specificity and potency of functionalized SWNT-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancers and other diseases. In this review, we discuss different aspects of drug delivery by functionalized SWNT carriers, diving into the cellular uptake mechanisms, biodistribution of the delivery system, and safety concerns on degradation of the carriers. We emphasize the delivery of several common drugs to highlight the recent achievements of SWNT-based drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxygen uptake and vertical transport during deep convection events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Ito, T.; Bracco, A.

    2016-02-01

    Dissolved oxygen (O2) is essential for the chemistry and living organisms of the oceans. O2 is consumed in the interior ocean due to the respiration of organic matter, and must be replenished by physical ventilation with the O2-rich surface waters. The O2 supply to the deep waters happens only through the subduction and deep convection during cold seasons at high latitude oceans. The Labrador Sea is one of the few regions where deep ventilation occurs. According to observational and modeling studies, the intensity, duration and timing of deep convection events have varied significantly on the interannual and decadal timescales. In this study we develop a theoretical framework to understand the air-sea transfer of O2 during open-ocean deep convection events. The theory is tested against a suite of numerical integrations using MITgcm in non-hydrostatic configuration including the parameterization of diffusive and bubble mediated gas transfer. Forced with realistic air-sea buoyancy fluxes, the model can reproduce the evolution of temperature, salinity and dissolved O2 observed by ARGO floats in the Labrador Sea. Idealized sensitivity experiments are performed changing the intensity and duration of the buoyancy forcing as well as the wind speed for the gas exchange parameterizations. The downward transport of O2 results from the combination of vertical homogenization of existing O2 and the uptake from the air-sea flux. The intensity of the buoyancy forcing controls the vertical extent of convective mixing which brings O2 to the deep ocean. Integrated O2 uptake increases with the duration of convection even when the total buoyancy loss is held constant. The air-sea fluxes are highly sensitive to the wind speed especially for the bubble injection flux, which is a major addition to the diffusive flux under strong winds. However, the bubble injection flux can be partially compensated by the diffusive outgassing in response to the elevated saturation state. Under strong

  17. Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their cellular effects in the mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Gonasageran; Naidoo, Krishnaveni

    2016-12-15

    The uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their cellular effects were investigated in the mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Seedlings were subjected to sediment oiling for three weeks. In the oiled treatment, the ƩPAHs was higher in roots (99%) than in leaves (1%). In roots, PAHs included phenanthrene (55%), acenaphthene (13%), fluorine (12%) and anthracene (8%). In leaves, PAHs possessed two to three rings and included acenaphthene (35%), naphthalene (33%), fluorine (18%) and phenanthrene (14%). In the roots, oil caused disorganization of cells in the root cap, meristem and conducting tissue. Oil contaminated cells were distorted and possessed large and irregularly shaped vacuoles. Ultrastructural changes included loss of cell contents and fragmentation of the nucleus and mitochondrion. In the leaves, oil caused dilation and distortion of chloroplasts and disintegration of grana and lamellae. Oil targets critical organelles such as nuclei, chloroplasts and mitochondria which are responsible for cell vitality and energy transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of astaxanthin-loaded DNA/chitosan nanoparticles for improved cellular uptake and antioxidation capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zhao, Yingyuan; Guan, Lei; Zhang, Yaping; Dang, Qifeng; Dong, Ping; Li, Jing; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-07-15

    DNA/chitosan co-assemblies were initially used as nanocarriers for efficient astaxanthin encapsulation and delivery. The obtained astaxanthin-loaded DNA/chitosan (ADC) colloidal system was transparent and homogenous, with astaxanthin content up to 65μg/ml. Compared to free astaxanthin, ADC nanoparticles with an astaxanthin concentration as low as 3.35nM still showed a more powerful cytoprotective effect on H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative cell damage, and improved cell viability from 49.9% to 61.9%. The ROS scavenging efficiency of ADC nanoparticles was as high as 54.3%, which was 2-fold higher than that of free astaxanthin. Besides this, ADC nanoparticles were easily engulfed by Caco-2 cells in a short time, indicating that the encapsulated astaxanthin could be absorbed through endocytosis by intestinal epithelial cells. The improved antioxidation capability and facilitated cellular uptake enabled the ADC nanoparticles to be good candidates for efficient delivery and absorption of astaxanthin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging cellular pharmacokinetics of 18F-FDG and 6-NBDG uptake by inflammatory and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Raiyan T; Tuerkcan, Silvan; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Saito, Toshinobu; Yang, Phillip C; Chin, Frederick T; McConnell, Michael V; Xing, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes, myocardial tissue damage, and impairment of myocardial function. The inability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate prevents the heart from self-regeneration. The treatment for advanced heart failure following an MI is heart transplantation despite the limited availability of the organs. Thus, stem-cell-based cardiac therapies could ultimately prevent heart failure by repairing injured myocardium that reverses cardiomyocyte loss. However, stem-cell-based therapies lack understanding of the mechanisms behind a successful therapy, including difficulty tracking stem cells to provide information on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between different types of stem and inflammatory cells and cell-targeted imaging molecules, 18F-FDG and 6-NBDG, to identify uptake patterns and pharmacokinetics in vitro. Macrophages (both M1 and M2), human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were incubated with either 18F-FDG or 6-NBDG. Excess radiotracer and fluorescence were removed and a 100 μm-thin CdWO4 scintillator plate was placed on top of the cells for radioluminescence microscopy imaging of 18F-FDG uptake, while no scintillator was needed for fluorescence imaging of 6-NBDG uptake. Light produced following beta decay was imaged with a highly sensitive inverted microscope (LV200, Olympus) and an Electron Multiplying Charge-Couple Device (EM-CCD) camera. Custom-written software was developed in MATLAB for image processing. The average cellular activity of 18F-FDG in a single cell of hAMSCs (0.670±0.028 fCi/μm2, P = 0.001) was 20% and 36% higher compared to uptake in hiPSCs (0.540±0.026 fCi/μm2, P = 0.003) and macrophages (0.430±0.023 fCi/μm2, P = 0.002), respectively. hAMSCs exhibited the slowest influx (0.210 min-1) but the fastest efflux (0.327 min-1) rate compared to the other tested

  20. The effects of temperature and salinity on 17-α-ethynylestradiol uptake and its relationship to oxygen consumption in the model euryhaline teleost (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Wood, Chris M

    2013-02-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17-α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a component of birth control and hormone replacement therapy, is discharged into the environment via wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The present study employed radiolabeled EE2 to examine impacts of temperature and salinity on EE2 uptake in male killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Fish were exposed to a nominal concentration of 100ng/L EE2 for 2h. The rate of EE2 uptake was constant over the 2h period. Oxygen consumption rates (MO(2)), whole body uptake rates, and tissue-specific EE2 distribution were determined. In killifish acclimated to 18°C at 16ppt (50% sea water), MO(2) and EE2 uptake were both lower after 24h exposure to 10°C and 4°C, and increased after 24h exposure to 26°C. Transfer to fresh water (FW) for 24h lowered EE2 uptake rate, and long-term acclimation to fresh water reduced it by 70%. Both long-term acclimation to 100% sea water (32ppt) and a 24h transfer to 100% sea water also reduced EE2 uptake rate by 50% relative to 16ppt. Tissue-specific accumulation of EE2 was highest (40-60% of the total) in the liver plus gall bladder across all exposures, and the vast majority of this was in the bile at 2h, regardless of temperature or salinity. The carcass was the next highest accumulator (30-40%), followed by the gut (10-20%) with only small amounts in gill and spleen. Killifish chronically exposed (15 days) to 100ng/L EE2 displayed no difference in EE2 uptake rate or tissue-specific distribution. Drinking rate, measured with radiolabeled polyethylene glycol-4000, was about 25 times greater in 16ppt-acclimated killifish relative to FW-acclimated animals. However, drinking accounted for less than 30% of gut accumulation, and therefore a negligible percentage of whole body EE2 uptake rates. In general, there were strong positive relationships between EE2 uptake rates and MO(2), suggesting similar uptake pathways of these lipophilic molecules across the gills. These data will be useful in

  1. Camptothecin prodrug nanomicelle based on a boronate ester-linked diblock copolymer as the carrier of doxorubicin with enhanced cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Shiyuan; Yu, Jiahui

    2018-02-01

    A novel pH-sensitive polymeric prodrug of camptothecin (CPT) by polymerizing γ-camptothecin-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (Glu (CPT)-NCA) on boronate ester-linked poly (ethyleneglycol) (PEG) directly via the amine-initiated ring open polymerization (ROP) has been developed. The resulting amphiphilic prodrug (mPEG-BC-PGluCPT) could self-assemble into nanoparticles and encapsulate doxorubicin (Dox) simultaneously in aqueous solution for dual-drug delivery. The formation of polymeric prodrug micelles (mPEG-BC@PGluCPT) was confirmed by the measurements of critical aggregation concentration (CAC), particle size, and morphology observations. The mPEG-BC@PGluCPT micelles were colloidally stable in solutions for two weeks. Polymeric prodrug micelles mPEG-BC@PGluCPT and Dox-loaded micelles mPEG-BC@PGluCPT⋅Dox showed sustained drug release profiles over 48 h. As expected, drug release was accelerated by the decreasement of pH value from 7.4 to 6.0, which demonstrated pH-dependent manner of drug release. Additionally, it was found that cellular uptake of mPEG-BC@PGluCPT⋅Dox micelles on HepG2 cells was higher than that on HL-7702 cells, especially in culture medium at pH 6.0. The enhanced cellular uptake of mPEG-BC@PGluCPT⋅Dox micelles under acidic condition on HepG2 cells resulted in the higher cytotoxicity of mPEG-BC@PGluCPT⋅Dox micelles at acidic pH than that at pH 7.4.

  2. Dynamic cellular uptake of mixed-monolayer protected nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carney, Randy P; Carney, Tamara M; Mueller, Marie; Stellacci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are gaining increasing attention for potential application in medicine; consequently, studying their interaction with cells is of central importance. We found that both ligand arrangement and composition on gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in their cellular internalization. In our previous investigation, we showed that 66-34OT nanoparticles coated with stripe-like domains of hydrophobic (octanethiol, OT, 34%) and hydrophilic (11-mercaptoundecane sulfonate, MUS, 66%) ligands permeated through the cellular lipid bilayer via passive diffusion, in addition to endo-/pino-cytosis. Here, we show an analysis of NP internalization by DC2.4, 3T3, and HeLa cells at two temperatures and multiple time points. We study four NPs that differ in their surface structures and ligand compositions and report on their cellular internalization by intracellular fluorescence quantification. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we have found that all three cell types internalize the 66-34OT NPs more than particles coated only with MUS, or particles coated with a very similar coating but lacking any detectable ligand shell structure, or 'striped' particles but with a different composition (34-66OT) at multiple data points.

  3. Chirality-dependent cellular uptake of chiral nanocarriers and intracellular delivery of different amounts of guest molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehr, Nermin Seda; Jose, Joachim

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the organic molecules loaded and chiral polymers coated periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) to generate chiral nanocarriers that we used to study chirality-dependent cellular uptake in serum and serum-free media and the subsequent delivery of different amounts of organic molecules into cells. Our results show that the amount of internalized PMO and thus the transported amount of organic molecules by nanocarrier PMO into cells was chirality dependent and controlled by hard/soft protein corona formation on the PMO surfaces. Therefore, this study demonstrate that chiral porous nanocarriers could potentially be used as advanced drug delivery systems which are able to use the specific chiral surface-protein interactions to influence/control the amount of (bio)active molecules delivered to cells in drug delivery and/or imaging applications.

  4. Direct oxygen uptake from air by novel glycogen accumulating organism dominated biofilm minimizes excess sludge production.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Paparini, Andrea; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2018-05-29

    The cost associated with treatment and disposal of excess sludge produced is one of the greatest operational expenses in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, we quantify and explain greatly reduced excess sludge production in the novel glycogen accumulating organism (GAO) dominated drained biofilm system previously shown to be capable of extremely energy efficient removal of organic carbon (biological oxygen demand or BOD) from wastewater. The average excess sludge production rate was 0.05 g VSS g -1 BOD (acetate) removed, which is about 9-times lower than that of comparative studies using the same acetate based synthetic wastewater. The substantially lower sludge yield was attributed to a number of features such as the high oxygen consumption facilitated by direct oxygen uptake from air, high biomass content (21.41 g VSS L -1 of reactor), the predominance of the GAO (Candidatus competibacter) with a low growth yield and the overwhelming presence of the predatory protozoa (Tetramitus) in the biofilm. Overall, the combination of low-energy requirement for air supply (no compressed air supply) and the low excess sludge production rate, could make this novel "GAO drained biofilm" process one of the most economical ways of biological organic carbon removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Atomic Oxygen Tailored Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Emissions for Multicolor Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Chen, Jian; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Liang; Liu, Bianhua; Liu, Renyong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-03-23

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been widely used as a fluorescence quencher, but its luminescent properties, especially tailor-made controlling emission colors, have been seldom reported due to its heterogeneous structures. Herein, we demonstrated a novel chemical oxidative strategy to tune GO emissions from brown to cyan without changing excitation wavelength. The precise tuning is simply achieved by varying reaction times of GO nanosheets in piranha solution, but there is no need for complex chromatography separation procedures. With increasing reaction times, oxygen content on the lattice of GO nanosheets increased, accompanied by the diminution of their sizes and sp(2) conjugation system, resulting in an increase of emissive carbon cluster-like states. Thereby, the luminescent colors of GO were tuned from brown to yellow, green, and cyan, and its fluorescent quantum yields were enhanced. The obtained multicolored fluorescent GO nanosheets would open plenty of novel applications in cellular imaging and multiplex encoding analysis.

  6. Scavenger receptor B1 facilitates macrophage uptake of silver nanoparticles and cellular activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldossari, Abdullah A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M.

    2015-07-01

    Due to increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial activity, concerns have risen regarding potential adverse human health effects. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), a major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is expressed by macrophages and has also been reported to play a role in recognition of negatively charged particles. We, therefore, hypothesized that SR-B1 mediates macrophage uptake of AgNPs and inflammatory activation. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (RAW) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to 20 nm citrate-suspended AgNPs. To verify the role of the SR-B1 receptor, we utilized a SR-B1 inhibitor (Blt2). In vitro studies demonstrated uptake of AgNPs and HDL-coated AgNPs by macrophages which were significantly reduced following pretreatment with Blt2. Inflammatory cytokine arrays revealed that macrophages exposed to AgNPs up-regulated expression of Tnf- α, Oncostatin m (OSM), Ccl4, Il17f, Ccl7, and Ccl2, whereas Il16 was found to be down-regulated. Macrophage activation was observed following AgNP and HDL-coated AgNP exposure as measured by OSM protein production and increased surface expression of CD86. These markers of activation were reduced with Blt2 pretreatment. The in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo through pulmonary instillation of AgNPs in mice. Pulmonary instillation of AgNPs resulted in a recruitment of inflammatory cells that were reduced in SR-B1-deficient mice or following Blt2 pretreatment. This study suggests that SR-B1 plays a major role in cellular recognition of AgNPs and the induction of cell responses that could contribute to inflammation caused by AgNP exposure.

  7. Multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets based on chitosan derivative and layered double hydroxide: cellular uptake mechanism and application for topical ocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Huibo; Gu, Yan; Xu, Tingting; Cao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    To study the cellular uptake mechanism of multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets, new chitosan–glutathione–valine–valine-layered double hydroxide (CG-VV-LDH) nanosheets with active targeting to peptide transporter-1 (PepT-1) were prepared, characterized and further compared with CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles. Both organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets showed a sustained release in vitro and prolonged precorneal retention time in vivo, but CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles showed superior permeability in the isolated cornea of rabbits than CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. Furthermore, results of cellular uptake on human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEpiC) and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells indicated that both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and active transport of PepT-1 are involved in the internalization of CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles and CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. In summary, the CG-VV-LDH nanoparticle may be a promising carrier as a topical ocular drug delivery system for the treatment of ocular diseases of mid-posterior segments, while the CG-VV-LDH nanosheet may be suitable for the treatment of ocular surface diseases. PMID:28280329

  8. Quadriceps oxygenation during isometric exercise in sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, I; Tzineris, D; Athanasopoulos, D; Georgiadou, O; Geladas, N

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate why blood lactate after prolonged quadriceps contraction during hiking is only marginally increased. Eight sailors performed five 3-min hiking bouts interspersed with 5-s recovery periods. Whole body oxygen uptake, heart rate and lactate were recorded, along with continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy measures of quadriceps oxygenation. The time for 50% re-oxygenation was also assessed as an indication of the degree of localized oxygen delivery stress. Hiking elicited a significant (p = 0.001) increase in mean (+/- SD) heart rate (124 +/- 10 beats . min (-1)) which was accompanied by a disproportionately low oxygen uptake (12 +/- 2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Lactate was significantly (p = 0.001) increased throughout hiking manoeuvres, though post-exercise it remained low (3.2 +/- 0.9 mmol.l(-1)). During the hiking bouts mean quadriceps oxygenation was significantly (p = 0.001) reduced compared to baseline (by 33 +/- 5%), indicating an imbalance between muscle oxygen accessibility and oxygen demand. During rest intervals quadriceps oxygenation was partially restored. After the end of the final bout the time for 50 % re-oxygenation was only 8 +/- 2 s, whereas recovery of quadriceps oxygenation and oxygen uptake was completed within 3 min. We conclude that the observed low lactate could be attributed to the small oxygen and energy deficits during hiking as the muscles' oxygen accessibility is presumably partially restored during the brief rest intervals.

  9. Morning-to-evening differences in oxygen uptake kinetics in short-duration cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bieuzen, François; Giacomoni, Magali; Tricot, Véronique; Falgairette, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed diurnal variations in oxygen (O(2)) uptake kinetics and efficiency during a moderate cycle ergometer exercise. Fourteen physically active diurnally active male subjects (age 23+/-5 yrs) not specifically trained at cycling first completed a test to determine their ventilatory threshold (T(vent)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)); one week later, they completed four bouts of testing in the morning and evening in a random order, each separated by at least 24 h. For each period of the day (07:00-08:30 h and 19:00-20:30 h), subjects performed two bouts. Each bout was composed of a 5 min cycling exercise at 45 W, followed after 5 min rest by a 10 min cycling exercise at 80% of the power output associated with T(vent). Gas exchanges were analyzed breath-by-breath and fitted using a mono-exponential function. During moderate exercise, the time constant and amplitude of VO(2) kinetics were significantly higher in the morning compared to the evening. The net efficiency increased from the morning to evening (17.3+/-4 vs. 20.5+/-2%; p<0.05), and the variability of cycling cadence was greater during the morning than evening (+34%; p<0.05). These findings suggest that VO(2) responses are affected by the time of day and could be related to variability in muscle activity pattern.

  10. Extraction protocol and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for determining micelle-entrapped paclitaxel at the cellular and subcellular levels: Application to a cellular uptake and distribution study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Lian, Bin; Du, Wenwen; Xu, Guobing; Ji, Jiafu

    2018-01-01

    Paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelles (PTX-PM) are commonly used as tumor-targeted nanocarriers and display outstanding antitumor features in clinic, but its accumulation and distribution in vitro are lack of investigation. It is probably due to the complex micellar system and its low concentration at the cellular or subcellular levels. In this study, we developed an improved extraction method, which was a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), to extract the total PTX from micelles in the cell lysate and subcellular compartments. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized to detect the low concentration of PTX at cellular and subcellular levels simultaneously, using docetaxel as internal standard (IS). The method was proved to release PTX totally from micelles (≥95.93%) with a consistent and reproducible extraction recovery (≥75.04%). Good linearity was obtained at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20ng/mL. The relative error (RE%) for accuracy varied from 0.68 to 7.56%, and the intra- and inter-precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%) was less than 8.64% and 13.14%, respectively. This method was fully validated and successfully applied to the cellular uptake and distribution study of PTX-loaded PLGA-PEG micelles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Commonly used reference values underestimate oxygen uptake in healthy, 50-year-old Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Genberg, M; Andrén, B; Lind, L; Hedenström, H; Malinovschi, A

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (V O 2 ) and CO 2 production. No validated Swedish reference values exist, and reference values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared V O 2 at maximal load (peakV O 2 ) and anaerobic threshold (V O 2@ AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with commonly used reference values, taking gender into account. Further, we analysed maximal workload and peakV O 2 with regard to peak RER and BR. In all, 181 healthy, 50-year-old individuals (91 women) performed CPET. PeakV O 2 was best predicted using Jones et al. (100·5%), while SHIP reference values underestimated peakV O 2 most: 112·5%. Furthermore, underestimation of peakV O 2 in women was found for all studied reference values (P<0·001) and was largest for SHIP: women had 128% of predicted peakV O 2 , while men had 104%. PeakV O 2 was similar in subjects with peak RER of 1-1·1 and RER > 1·1 (2 328·7 versus 2 176·7 ml min -1 , P = 0·11). Lower BR (≤30%) related to significantly higher peakV O 2 (P<0·001). In conclusion, peakV O 2 was best predicted by Jones. All studied reference values underestimated oxygen uptake in women. No evidence for demanding RER > 1·1 in healthy individuals was found. A lowered BR is probably a normal response to higher workloads in healthy individuals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Exercise intensity and oxygen uptake kinetics in African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Nicola; Tolentino-Silva, Fatima; Nasca, Melita M; Silva, Marco A; Gladden, L Bruce; Cabrera, Marco E

    2012-03-01

    The effect of exercise intensity on the on- and off-transient kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO(2)) was investigated in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. African American (n = 7) and Caucasian (n = 6) women of similar age, body mass index and weight, performed an incremental test and bouts of square-wave exercise at moderate, heavy and very heavy intensities on a cycle ergometer. Gas exchange threshold (LT(GE)) was lower in AA (13.6 ± 2.3 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) than C (18.6 ± 5.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The dynamic exercise and recovery VO(2) responses were characterized by mathematical models. There were no significant differences in (1) peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) between AA (28.5 ± 5 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) and C (31.1 ± 6.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) and (2) VO(2) kinetics at any exercise intensity. At moderate exercise, the on- and off- VO(2) kinetics was described by a monoexponential function with similar time constants τ (1,on) (39.4 ± 12.5; 38.8 ± 15 s) and τ (1,off) (52.7 ± 10.1; 40.7 ± 4.4 s) for AA and C, respectively. At heavy and very heavy exercise, the VO(2) kinetics was described by a double-exponential function. The parameter values for heavy and very heavy exercise in the AA group were, respectively: τ (1,on) (47.0 ± 10.8; 44.3 ± 10 s), τ (2,on) (289 ± 63; 219 ± 90 s), τ (1,off) (45.9 ± 6.2; 50.7 ± 10 s), τ (2,off) (259 ± 120; 243 ± 93 s) while in the C group were, respectively: τ (1,on) (41 ± 12; 43.2 ± 15 s); τ (2, on) (277 ± 81; 215 ± 36 s), τ (1,off) (40.2 ± 3.4; 42.3 ± 7.2 s), τ (2,off) (215 ± 133; 228 ± 64 s). The on- and off-transients were symmetrical with respect to model order and dependent on exercise intensity regardless of race. Despite similar VO(2) kinetics, LT(GE) and gain of the VO(2) on-kinetics at moderate intensity were lower in AA than C. However, generalization to the African American and Caucasian populations is constrained by the small subject numbers.

  13. Surface Chemistry Manipulation of Gold Nanorods Displays High Cellular Uptake In Vitro While Preserving Optical Properties for Bio-Imaging and Photo-Thermal Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-28

    PROPERTIES FOR BIO -IMAGING AND PHOTO-THERMAL APPLICATIONS ANTHONY B. POLITO III, Maj, USAF, BSC, PhD, MT(ASCP)SBB March 2016 Final Report for March...HIGH CELLULAR UPTAKE IN VITRO WHILE PRESERVING OPTICAL PROPERTIES FOR BIO -IMAGING AND PHOTO-THERMAL APPLICATIONS. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...These findings identify MTAB-TA GNRs as prime candidates for use in nano-based bio -imaging and photo-thermal applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  14. Effect of +Gz Acceleration on the Oxygen Uptake-Excercise Load Relationship during Lower Extremity Ergometer Excercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Long term spaceflight and habitation of a space station and/or the moon require that astronauts be provided with sufficient environmental and physiological support so that they can not only function in microgravity but be returned to earth safely. As the duration of habitation in microgravity increase the effects of the concomitant deconditioning of body systems becomes a concern for added exercise in space and for reentry to Earth gravity. Many countermeasures have been proposed to maintain proper functioning of the body, but none have proved sufficient, especially when the cost of crew time spent in these activities is considered. The issue of appropriate countermeasures remains unresolved. Spaceflight deconditioning decreases tolerance to +Gz acceleration, head to foot, the direction which is experienced during reentry; the result is that the crew member is more prone to becoming pre-syncopal or syncopal, thus exacerbating the orthostatic intolerance. All ground-based research using microgravity analogues has produced this same lowered G tolerance. When intermittent exposure to +1 to +4 Gz acceleration training was used, some alleviation of orthosatic intolerance and negative physiological effects of deconditioning occurred. Exercise alone was not as effective; but the added G force was. The physiological responses to acceleration added to exercise training have not been clearly shown. We will test the hypothesis that there will be no difference in the exercise oxygen uptake-exercise load relationship with added +Gz acceleration. We wi also compare oxygen uptake during graded exercise-acceleration loads in the human-powered short arm centrifuge with those from normal supine exercise loads. The human-powered short arm centrifuge was built by NASA engineers at Ames Research Center.

  15. Cellular uptake of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) microcapsules with different deformability and its influence on cell functions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbo; Chen, Ying; Song, Xiaoxue; Tong, Weijun; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2016-03-01

    It is important to understand the safety issue and cell interaction pattern of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with different deformability before their use in biomedical applications. In this study, SiO2, poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) doped CaCO3 and porous CaCO3 spheres, all about 4μm in diameter, were used as templates to prepare microcapsules with different inner structure and subsequent deformability. As a result, three kinds of covalently assembled poly(allylaminehydrochloride)/glutaraldehyde (PAH/GA) microcapsules with similar size but different deformability under external osmotic pressure were prepared. The impact of different microcapsules on cell viability and functions are studied using smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells (ECs) and HepG2 cells. The results demonstrated that viabilities of SMCs, ECs and HepG2 cells were not significantly influenced by either of the three kinds of microcapsules. However, the adhesion ability of SMCs and ECs as well as the mobility of SMCs, ECs and HepG2 cells were significantly impaired after treatment with microcapsules in a deformability dependent manner, especially the microcapsules with lower deformability caused higher impairment on cell functions. The cellular uptake kinetics, uptake pathways, intracellular distribution of microcapsules are further investigated in SMCs to reveal the potential mechanism. The SMCs showed faster uptake rate and exocytosis rate of microcapsules with lower deformability (Cap@CaCO3/PSS and Cap@CaCO3), leading to higher intracellular accumulation of microcapsules with lower deformability and possibly larger retardation of cell functions. The results pointed out that the deformability of microcapsules is an important factor governing the biological performance of microcapsules, which requires careful adjustment for further biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxygen uptake kinetics and exercise capacity in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Jeremy; Brantley, Lucy; Seigler, Nichole; McKie, Katie T; Davison, Gareth W; Harris, Ryan A

    2015-07-01

    Exercise capacity, an objective measure of exercise intolerance, is known to predict quality of life and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). The mechanisms for exercise intolerance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), however, have yet to be fully elucidated. Accordingly, this study sought to investigate oxygen uptake kinetics and the impact of fat-free mass (FFM) on exercise capacity in young patients with CF. 16 young patients with CF (age 13 ± 4 years; 10 female) and 15 matched controls (age 14 ± 3 years; nine female) participated. Pulmonary function and a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer using the Godfrey protocol were performed. Exercise capacity (VO2 peak), VO2 response time (VO2 RT), and functional VO2 gain (ΔVO2 /ΔWR) were all determined. Lung function was the only demographic parameter significantly lower (P < 0.05) in CF compared to controls. Exercise capacity was lower in CF (P < 0.014) only when VO2 peak was normalized for FFM (43.5 ± 7.7 vs. 50.6 ± 7.4 ml/kg-FFM/min) or expressed as % predicted (70.1 ± 14.3 vs. 85.4 ± 16.0%). The VO2 RT was slower (36.1 ± 15.1 vs. 25.0 ± 12.4 sec; P = 0.03) and the ΔVO2 /ΔWR slope was lower (8.4 ± 3 ml/min/watt vs. 10.1 ± 1.4 ml/min/watt; P = 0.02) in patients compared to controls, respectively. In conclusion, a delayed VO2 response time coupled with the lower functional VO2 gain (ΔVO2 /ΔWR) suggest that young patients with CF have impairment in oxygen transport and oxygen utilization by the muscles. These data in addition to differences in VO2 peak normalized for FFM provide some insight that muscle mass and muscle metabolism contribute to exercise intolerance in CF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Industrial grade 2D molybdenum disulphide (MoS2): an in vitro exploration of the impact on cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Caroline; Movia, Dania; Smith, Ronan J.; Hanlon, Damien; Lebre, Filipa; Lavelle, Ed C.; Byrne, Hugh J.; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Volkov, Yuri; McIntyre, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    The recent surge in graphene research, since its liquid phase monolayer isolation and characterization in 2004, has led to advancements which are accelerating the exploration of alternative 2D materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), whose unique physico-chemical properties can be exploited in applications ranging from cutting edge electronic devices to nanomedicine. However, to assess any potential impact on human health and the environment, the need to understand the bio-interaction of MoS2 at a cellular and sub-cellular level is critical. Notably, it is important to assess such potential impacts of materials which are produced by large scale production techniques, rather than research grade materials. The aim of this study was to explore cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and inflammatory responses in established cell-lines that mimic different potential exposure routes (inhalation, A549; ingestion, AGS; monocyte, THP-1) following incubation with MoS2 flakes of varying sizes (50 nm, 117 nm and 177 nm), produced by liquid phase exfoliation. Using high content screening (HCS) and Live/Dead assays, it was established that 1 µg ml-1 (for the three different MoS2 sizes) did not induce toxic effects on any of the cell-lines. Confocal microscopy images revealed a normal cellular morphology in all cases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the uptake of all MoS2 nanomaterials in all the cell-lines, the MoS2 ultimately locating in single membrane vesicles. At such sub-lethal doses, inflammatory responses are observed, however, associated, at least partially, with the presence of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in nanomaterial suspensions and surfactant samples. Therefore, the inflammatory response of the cells to the MoS2 or endotoxin contamination was interrogated using a 10-plex ELISA which illustrates cytokine production. The experiments carried out using wild-type and endotoxin hyporesponsive bone marrow derived dendritic cells confirmed that the

  18. Arsenic augments the uptake of oxidized LDL by upregulating the expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor in mouse aortic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Ota, Akinobu, E-mail: aota@aichi-med-u.ac.jp; Karnan, Sivasundaram

    Although chronic arsenic exposure is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, the molecular mechanism underlying arsenic-induced atherosclerosis remains obscure. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate this molecular mechanism. We examined changes in the mRNA level of the lectin-like oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor (LOX-1) in a mouse aortic endothelial cell line, END-D, after sodium arsenite (SA) treatment. SA treatment significantly upregulated LOX-1 mRNA expression; this finding was also verified at the protein expression level. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that the cellular uptake of fluorescence (Dil)-labeled oxLDL was significantly augmented with SA treatment. In addition, anmore » anti-LOX-1 antibody completely abrogated the augmented uptake of Dil-oxLDL. We observed that SA increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-κB)/p65. SA-induced upregulation of LOX-1 protein expression was clearly prevented by treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or an NF-κB inhibitor, caffeic acid phenethylester (CAPE). Furthermore, SA-augmented uptake of Dil-oxLDL was also prevented by treatment with NAC or CAPE. Taken together, our results indicate that arsenic upregulates LOX-1 expression through the reactive oxygen species-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, followed by augmented cellular oxLDL uptake, thus highlighting a critical role of the aberrant LOX-1 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Sodium arsenite (SA) increases LOX-1 expression in mouse aortic endothelial cells. • SA enhances cellular uptake of oxidized LDL in dose-dependent manner. • SA-induced ROS generation enhances phosphorylation of NF-κB. • SA upregulates LOX-1 expression through ROS-activated NF-κB signaling pathway.« less

  19. Relationships between oxygen uptake, dynamic body acceleration and heart rate in humans.

    PubMed

    D'silva, L A; Cardew, A; Qasem, L; Wilson, R P; Lewis, M J

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) is important in human and animal behavior analysis. Rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) reflects EE during aerobic metabolism but is not always convenient. Alternative methods include heart rate (HR) and overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA). A favorable ODBA-VO2 relationship was recently reported but the strength of association between VO2, ODBA, HR and its variability (HRV) is less clear. Fifteen young (23±4 years) healthy males of similar aerobic fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max=49.7±8.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) carried out progressive maximal exercise. ODBA, HRV and V̇O2 were recorded continuously. Relationships between ODBA, HRV and V̇O2 were explored using regression methods. VO2 was strongly related to ODBA and RR during walking (R=0.45,0.30; P<5x10(-5)) and running (R=0.60,0.38; P<5x10(-5)). HRV was related to VO2 during walking only (R=0.11-0.26; 0.005

  20. Evaluation of acute effect of light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on muscle deoxygenation and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in patients with diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Cristina de Oliveira; Beltrame, Thomas; Ferraresi, Cleber; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Borghi Silva, Audrey; Benze, Benedito Galvão; Porta, Alberto; Catai, Aparecida Maria

    2015-12-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is responsible for a significant reduction in the quality of life due to its negative impact on functional capacity. Cardiopulmonary fitness impairment in DM patients has been associated with limited tissue oxygenation. Phototherapy is widely utilized to treat several disorders due to expected light-tissue interaction. This type of therapy may help to improve muscular oxygenation, thereby increasing aerobic fitness and functional capacity. This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of São Carlos and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Four separate tests will be performed to evaluate the acute effect of phototherapy. All participants will receive both interventions in random order: light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) and placebo, with a minimum 14-day interval between sessions (washout period). Immediately after the intervention, participants will perform moderate constant workload cycling exercise corresponding to 80 % of the pulmonary oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] during the gas exchange threshold (GET). LEDT will be administered with a multidiode cluster probe (50 GaAIA LEDs, 850 ηm, 75 mW each diode, and 3 J per point) before each exercise session. Pulmonary oxygen uptake, muscle oxygenation, heart rate, and arterial pressure will be measured using a computerized metabolic cart, a near-infrared spectrometer, an electrocardiogram, and a photoplethysmography system, respectively. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the acute effects of muscular pre-conditioning using LED phototherapy on pulmonary oxygen uptake, muscle oxygenation, heart rate, and arterial pressure dynamics during dynamic moderate exercise. We hypothesize that phototherapy may be beneficial to optimize aerobic fitness in the DM population. Data will be published after the study is completed. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under trial number NCT01889784 (date

  1. Prognostic value of a new cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameter in chronic heart failure: oxygen uptake efficiency at peak exercise - comparison with oxygen uptake efficiency slope.

    PubMed

    Toste, Alexandra; Soares, Rui; Feliciano, Joana; Andreozzi, Valeska; Silva, Sofia; Abreu, Ana; Ramos, Ruben; Santos, Ninel; Ferreira, Lurdes; Ferreira, Rui Cruz

    2011-10-01

    A growing body of evidence shows the prognostic value of oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) parameter derived from the logarithmic relationship between O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and minute ventilation (VE) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). To evaluate the prognostic value of a new CPET parameter - peak oxygen uptake efficiency (POUE) - and to compare it with OUES in patients with CHF. We prospectively studied 206 consecutive patients with stable CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy - 153 male, aged 53.3±13.0 years, 35.4% of ischemic etiology, left ventricular ejection fraction 27.7±8.0%, 81.1% in sinus rhythm, 97.1% receiving ACE-Is or ARBs, 78.2% beta-blockers and 60.2% spironolactone - who performed a first maximal symptom-limited treadmill CPET, using the modified Bruce protocol. In 33% of patients an cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy device (CRT-D) was implanted during follow-up. Peak VO(2), percentage of predicted peak VO(2), VE/VCO(2) slope, OUES and POUE were analyzed. OUES was calculated using the formula VO(2) (l/min) = OUES (log(10)VE) + b. POUE was calculated as pVO(2) (l/min) / log(10)peakVE (l/min). Correlation coefficients between the studied parameters were obtained. The prognosis of each variable adjusted for age was evaluated through Cox proportional hazard models and R2 percent (R2%) and V index (V6) were used as measures of the predictive accuracy of events of each of these variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves from logistic regression models were used to determine the cut-offs for OUES and POUE. pVO(2): 20.5±5.9; percentage of predicted peak VO(2): 68.6±18.2; VE/VCO(2) slope: 30.6±8.3; OUES: 1.85±0.61; POUE: 0.88±0.27. During a mean follow-up of 33.1±14.8 months, 45 (21.8%) patients died, 10 (4.9%) underwent urgent heart transplantation and in three patients (1.5%) a left ventricular assist device was implanted. All variables proved

  2. Preparation of Deep Sea Fish Oil-Based Nanostructured Lipid Carriers with Enhanced Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiu-Yun; Guissi, Fida; Yang, Ru-Ya; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ke; Chen, Dan; Han, Zhi-Hao; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Min; Gu, Yue-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are a promising pharmaceutical delivery system with mean diameter less than 200 nm which are dispersed in an aqueous phase containing emulsifier(s), to increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability of oil compounds. Herein we prepared a promising NLC with glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the solid lipid template and deep sea fish oil as the liquid lipid template using melted-ultrasonic method. Fish oil-NLC had a mean size of 84.7 ± 2.6 nm and a zeta potential that ranged from -17.87 mV to -32.91 mV. The nanoparticles exhibited good stability for four weeks with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87.5 ± 5.2%. Afterwards, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to investigate the contribution of Fish oil-NLC in enhancing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) cellular uptake in comparison with free FITC. The results of this study indicated the possibility of this carrier to overcome the shortcomings of deep sea fish oil and to provide a novel bifunctional carrier with nutritional potential and drug delivery ability.

  3. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Oximetry as a Quantitative Method to Measure Cellular Respiration: A Consideration of Oxygen Diffusion Interference

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Tennille; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Zweier, Jay L.; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2006-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is being widely used to measure the oxygen consumption of cells, mitochondria, and submitochondrial particles. However, further improvement of this technique, in terms of data analysis, is required to use it as a quantitative tool. Here, we present a new approach for quantitative analysis of cellular respiration using EPR oximetry. The course of oxygen consumption by cells in suspension has been observed to have three distinct zones: pO2-independent respiration at higher pO2 ranges, pO2-dependent respiration at low pO2 ranges, and a static equilibrium with no change in pO2 at very low pO2 values. The approach here enables one to comprehensively analyze all of the three zones together—where the progression of O2 diffusion zones around each cell, their overlap within time, and their potential impact on the measured pO2 data are considered. The obtained results agree with previously established methods such as high-resolution respirometry measurements. Additionally, it is also demonstrated how the diffusion limitations can depend on cell density and consumption rate. In conclusion, the new approach establishes a more accurate and meaningful model to evaluate the EPR oximetry data on cellular respiration to quantify related parameters using EPR oximetry. PMID:17012319

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry as a quantitative method to measure cellular respiration: a consideration of oxygen diffusion interference.

    PubMed

    Presley, Tennille; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Zweier, Jay L; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2006-12-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is being widely used to measure the oxygen consumption of cells, mitochondria, and submitochondrial particles. However, further improvement of this technique, in terms of data analysis, is required to use it as a quantitative tool. Here, we present a new approach for quantitative analysis of cellular respiration using EPR oximetry. The course of oxygen consumption by cells in suspension has been observed to have three distinct zones: pO(2)-independent respiration at higher pO(2) ranges, pO(2)-dependent respiration at low pO(2) ranges, and a static equilibrium with no change in pO(2) at very low pO(2) values. The approach here enables one to comprehensively analyze all of the three zones together-where the progression of O(2) diffusion zones around each cell, their overlap within time, and their potential impact on the measured pO(2) data are considered. The obtained results agree with previously established methods such as high-resolution respirometry measurements. Additionally, it is also demonstrated how the diffusion limitations can depend on cell density and consumption rate. In conclusion, the new approach establishes a more accurate and meaningful model to evaluate the EPR oximetry data on cellular respiration to quantify related parameters using EPR oximetry.

  5. Design of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles formulation with enhanced cellular uptake, and increased bioactivity in vitro and superior bioavailability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Anand, Preetha; Nair, Hareesh B; Sung, Bokyung; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Yadav, Vivek R; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-02-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been linked with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, antidiabetic, antirheumatic, and antiviral effects, but its optimum potential is limited by its lack of solubility in aqueous solvents and poor oral bioavailability. We employed a polymer-based nanoparticle approach to improve bioavailability. Curcumin was encapsulated with 97.5% efficiency in biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a stabilizer polyethylene glycol (PEG)-5000. Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy indicated a particle diameter of 80.9 nm. This curcumin, renamed from hereon "as curcumin (NP)", was characterized for its biological activity. In vitro curcumin (NP) exhibited very rapid and more efficient cellular uptake than curcumin. Estrase staining revealed that curcumin (NP) was at least as potent as or more potent than curcumin in inducing apoptosis of leukemic cells and in suppressing proliferation of various tumor cell lines. When examined by electrophoretic gel shift mobility assay, curcumin (NP) was more active than curcumin in inhibiting TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation and in suppression of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins involved in cell proliferation (cyclin D1), invasion (MMP-9), and angiogenesis (VEGF). In mice, curcumin (NP) was more bioavailable and had a longer half-life than curcumin. Overall we demonstrate that curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles formulation has enhanced cellular uptake, and increased bioactivity in vitro and superior bioavailability in vivo over curcumin.

  6. Gold(I) NHC Complexes: Antiproliferative Activity, Cellular Uptake, Inhibition of Mammalian and Bacterial Thioredoxin Reductases, and Gram-Positive Directed Antibacterial Effects.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Claudia; Karge, Bianka; Misgeld, Rainer; Prokop, Aram; Franke, Raimo; Brönstrup, Mark; Ott, Ingo

    2017-02-03

    Gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands represent a promising class of metallodrugs for the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases. In this report, the synthesis and the biological evaluation of halogen-containing NHC-Au I -Cl complexes are described. The complexes 1 and 5 a-5 f displayed good cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, and cellular uptake studies suggested that an intact Au-NHC fragment is essential for the accumulation of high amounts of both the metal and the NHC ligand. However, the bioavailability was negatively affected by serum components of the cell culture media and was influenced by likely transformations of the complex. One example (5 d) efficiently induced apoptosis in vincristine- and daunorubicin-resistant P-glycoprotein overexpressing Nalm-6 leukemia cells. Cellular uptake studies with this compound showed that both the wild-type and resistant Nalm-6 cells accumulated comparable amounts of gold, indicating that the gold drug was not excreted by P-glycoprotein or other efflux transporters. The effective inhibition of mammalian and bacterial thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) was confirmed for all of the gold complexes. Antibacterial screening of the gold complexes showed a particularly high activity against Gram-positive strains, reflecting their high dependence on an intact Trx/TrxR system. This result is of particular interest as the inhibition of bacterial TrxR represents a relatively little explored mechanism of new anti-infectives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Uptake of gentamicin by separated, viable renal tubules from rabbits.

    PubMed

    Barza, M; Murray, T; Hamburger, R J

    1980-04-01

    The proximal renal tubules have a marked affinity for gentamicin; they also are the major site of nephrotoxicity caused by this drug. The uptake of radiolabeled gentamicin in separated, viable renal tubules prepared by enzymatic digestion of rabbit kidneys was studied. The preparations showed rapid initial uptake of gentamicin followed by continued slower uptake. Accumulation was not affected by pH, but was significantly inhibited by ouabain, dinitrophenol, anoxia, and hypothermia in the absence of evident cellular damage. At gentamicin concentrations of greater than 50 microgram/ml in the medium, there was competition for drug uptake. Gentamicin efflux in tubules that were taken from a medium containing antibiotic and placed into antibiotic-free fluid was slow and incomplete. From these data it appears that gentamicin uptake by separated renal tubules occurs by a process that requires metabolic energy; thereafter, the drug resides in a poorly exchangeable cellular pool.

  8. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution, fate and reactive oxygen species generation of polymer brush engineered CeO2-x NPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuan; Rojas, Elena; Murray, Richard A.; Irigoyen, Joseba; Gregurec, Danijela; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Fledderman, Jana; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Donath, Edwin; Moya, Sergio E.

    2015-04-01

    Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell endosomes and lysosomes after 24 h of incubation. They also show higher co-localisation with lipid bodies when compared to unmodified CeO2-x NPs. The brush coating does not prevent CeO2-x NPs from displaying antioxidant properties.Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell

  9. Time Trials Versus Time-to-Exhaustion Tests: Effects on Critical Power, W', and Oxygen-Uptake Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Bettina; Baker, Jonathan; Naclerio, Fernando; Klose, Andreas; Bianco, Antonino; Nimmerichter, Alfred

    2018-02-01

    To investigate single-day time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and time-trial (TT) -based laboratory tests values of critical power (CP), W prime (W'), and respective oxygen-uptake-kinetic responses. Twelve cyclists performed a maximal ramp test followed by 3 TTE and 3 TT efforts interspersed by 60 min recovery between efforts. Oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) was measured during all trials. The mean response time was calculated as a description of the overall [Formula: see text]-kinetic response from the onset to 2 min of exercise. TTE-determined CP was 279 ± 52 W, and TT-determined CP was 276 ± 50 W (P = .237). Values of W' were 14.3 ± 3.4 kJ (TTE W') and 16.5 ± 4.2 kJ (TT W') (P = .028). While a high level of agreement (-12 to 17 W) and a low prediction error of 2.7% were established for CP, for W' limits of agreements were markedly lower (-8 to 3.7 kJ), with a prediction error of 18.8%. The mean standard error for TTE CP values was significantly higher than that for TT CP values (2.4% ± 1.9% vs 1.2% ± 0.7% W). The standard errors for TTE W' and TT W' were 11.2% ± 8.1% and 5.6% ± 3.6%, respectively. The [Formula: see text] response was significantly faster during TT (~22 s) than TTE (~28 s). The TT protocol with a 60-min recovery period offers a valid, time-saving, and less error-filled alternative to conventional and more recent testing methods. Results, however, cannot be transferred to W'.

  10. Prescribing 6-weeks of running training using parameters from a self-paced maximal oxygen uptake protocol.

    PubMed

    Hogg, James S; Hopker, James G; Coakley, Sarah L; Mauger, Alexis R

    2018-05-01

    The self-paced maximal oxygen uptake test (SPV) may offer effective training prescription metrics for athletes. This study aimed to examine whether SPV-derived data could be used for training prescription. Twenty-four recreationally active male and female runners were randomly assigned between two training groups: (1) Standardised (STND) and (2) Self-Paced (S-P). Participants completed 4 running sessions a week using a global positioning system-enabled (GPS) watch: 2 × interval sessions; 1 × recovery run; and 1 × tempo run. STND had training prescribed via graded exercise test (GXT) data, whereas S-P had training prescribed via SPV data. In STND, intervals were prescribed as 6 × 60% of the time that velocity at [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) could be maintained (T max ). In S-P, intervals were prescribed as 7 × 120 s at the mean velocity of rating of perceived exertion 20 ( v RPE20). Both groups used 1:2 work:recovery ratio. Maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), [Formula: see text], T max, v RPE20, critical speed (CS), and lactate threshold (LT) were determined before and after the 6-week training. STND and S-P training significantly improved [Formula: see text] by 4 ± 8 and 6 ± 6%, CS by 7 ± 7 and 3 ± 3%; LT by 5 ± 4% and 7 ± 8%, respectively (all P < .05), with no differences observed between groups. Novel metrics obtained from the SPV can offer similar training prescription and improvement in [Formula: see text], CS and LT compared to training derived from a traditional GXT.

  11. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during a decompression procedure involving eight hours of oxygen prebreathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 8 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate space-flight extravehicular activity (EVA) for 6 h. Several statistically significant changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure: increases in calcium, magnesium, osmolality, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, monocytes, and prothrombin time, and decreases in chloride, creatine phosphokinase and eosinophils. The changes, however, were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression profile used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during EVA.

  12. Construction and cellular uptake behavior of redox-sensitive docetaxel prodrug-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guolian; Jiang, Mengjuan; Guo, Weiling; Sun, Bingjun; Lian, He; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2018-01-01

    A redox-responsive docetaxel (DTX) prodrug consisting of a disulfide linkage between DTX and vitamin E (DTX-SS-VE) was synthesized in our laboratory and was successfully formulated into liposomes. The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation and investigate the cellular uptake of DTX prodrug-loaded liposomes (DPLs). The content of DTX-SS-VE was determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The formulation and process were optimized using entrapment efficiency (EE), drug-loading (DL), particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) as the evaluation indices. The optimal formulation was as follows: drug/lipid ratio of 1:12, cholesterol/lipid ratio of 1:10, hydration temperature of 40 °C, sonication power and time of 400 W and 5 min. The EE, DL and particle size of the optimized DPLs were 97.60 ± 0.03%, 7.09 ± 0.22% and 93.06 ± 0.72 nm, respectively. DPLs had good dilution stability under the physiological conditions over 24 h. In addition, DPLs were found to enter tumor cells via different pathways and released DTX from the prodrug to induce apoptosis. Taken together, the optimized formulation and process were found to be a simple, stable and applicable method for the preparation of DPLs that could successfully escape from lysosomes.

  13. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics.

  14. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Stahn, Alexander; Terblanche, Elmarie; Grunert, Sven; Strobel, Günther

    2006-02-01

    Previous non-exercise models for the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake VO(2max) have failed to accurately discriminate cardiorespiratory fitness within large cohorts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a completely indirect method for predicting VO(2max) that was based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in 66 young, healthy fit men and women. Multiple, stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the usefulness of BIA and additional covariates to estimate VO(2max) (ml min(-1)). BIA was highly correlated to VO(2max) (r = 0.914; P < 0.001) and entered the regression equation first. The inclusion of gender and a physical activity rating further improved the model which accounted for 88% of the variance in VO(2max) and resulted in a relative standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 7.2%. Substantial agreement between the methods was confirmed by the fact that nearly all the differences were within +/-2 SD. Furthermore, in contrast to previously published non-exercise models, no trend of a reduction in prediction accuracy with increasing VO(2max) values was apparent. It was concluded that a non-exercise model based on BIA might be a rapid and useful technique to estimate VO(2max), when a direct test does not seem feasible. However, though the present results are useful to determine the viability of the method, further refinement of the BIA approach and its validation in a large, diverse population is needed before it can be applied to the clinical and epidemiological settings.

  15. Oxygen and indocyanine green loaded phase-transition nanoparticle-mediated photo-sonodynamic cytotoxic effects on rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Cui, Jianyu; Tian, Zhonghua; Sun, Jiangchuan; Wang, Zhigang; Chang, Shufang; Zhu, Shenyin

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy and sonodynamic therapy are developing, minimally invasive, and site-specific modalities for cancer therapy. A combined strategy PSDT (photodynamic therapy followed by sonodynamic therapy) has been proposed in this study. Here, we aimed to develop novel biodegradable poly(DL-lactide- co -glycolic acid) phase-transition nanoparticles simultaneously loaded with oxygen and indocyanine green (OI-NPs) and to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the potential mechanisms of OI-NP-mediated PSDT on MH7A synoviocytes. The OI-NPs were prepared using a modified double emulsion method and the physicochemical properties were determined. The cellular uptake of OI-NPs was detected by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double staining were used to determine the cytotoxic effect of OI-NP-mediated PSDT on MH7A cells. Fluorescence microscope and fluorescence microplate reader were used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The OI-NPs were a stable and efficient carrier to deliver oxygen and indocyanine green, and enhanced cellular uptake was observed in MH7A cells with the nanoparticles. OI-NP-mediated PSDT caused more serious cell damage and more evident cell apoptosis, compared with other groups. Furthermore, increased generation of intracellular ROS was detected in MH7A cells treated with PSDT. Interestingly, the OI-NP-mediated PSDT-induced cell viability loss was effectively rescued by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger N -acetylcysteine. Multifunctional OI-NPs were successfully developed and characterized for the combined delivery of oxygen and indocyanine green, and OI-NP-mediated PSDT would be a potential cytotoxic treatment for MH7A cells. This study may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of RA and develop a model of theranostic application through phase-transition nanoparticle-mediated PSDT in the future.

  16. Oxygen and indocyanine green loaded phase-transition nanoparticle-mediated photo-sonodynamic cytotoxic effects on rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qin; Cui, Jianyu; Tian, Zhonghua; Sun, Jiangchuan; Wang, Zhigang; Chang, Shufang; Zhu, Shenyin

    2017-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy and sonodynamic therapy are developing, minimally invasive, and site-specific modalities for cancer therapy. A combined strategy PSDT (photodynamic therapy followed by sonodynamic therapy) has been proposed in this study. Here, we aimed to develop novel biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolic acid) phase-transition nanoparticles simultaneously loaded with oxygen and indocyanine green (OI-NPs) and to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the potential mechanisms of OI-NP–mediated PSDT on MH7A synoviocytes. Methods The OI-NPs were prepared using a modified double emulsion method and the physicochemical properties were determined. The cellular uptake of OI-NPs was detected by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double staining were used to determine the cytotoxic effect of OI-NP–mediated PSDT on MH7A cells. Fluorescence microscope and fluorescence microplate reader were used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Results The OI-NPs were a stable and efficient carrier to deliver oxygen and indocyanine green, and enhanced cellular uptake was observed in MH7A cells with the nanoparticles. OI-NP–mediated PSDT caused more serious cell damage and more evident cell apoptosis, compared with other groups. Furthermore, increased generation of intracellular ROS was detected in MH7A cells treated with PSDT. Interestingly, the OI-NP–mediated PSDT-induced cell viability loss was effectively rescued by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion Multifunctional OI-NPs were successfully developed and characterized for the combined delivery of oxygen and indocyanine green, and OI-NP–mediated PSDT would be a potential cytotoxic treatment for MH7A cells. This study may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of RA and develop a model of theranostic application through phase

  17. Cellular uptake mechanisms of functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes by 3D electron tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Nerl, Hannah; Müller, Karin H.; Ali-Boucetta, Hanene; Li, Shouping; Haynes, Peter D.; Jinschek, Joerg R.; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Kostarelos, Kostas; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2011-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated for a variety of biomedical applications. Despite numerous studies, the pathways by which carbon nanotubes enter cells and their subsequent intracellular trafficking and distribution remain poorly determined. Here, we use 3-D electron tomography techniques that offer optimum enhancement of contrast between carbon nanotubes and the plasma membrane to investigate the mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake of shortened, functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-NH3+). Both human lung epithelial (A549) cells, that are almost incapable of phagocytosis and primary macrophages, capable of extremely efficient phagocytosis, were used. We observed that MWNT-NH3+ were internalised in both phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells by any one of three mechanisms: (a) individually via membrane wrapping; (b) individually by direct membrane translocation; and (c) in clusters within vesicular compartments. At early time points following intracellular translocation, we noticed accumulation of nanotube material within various intracellular compartments, while a long-term (14-day) study using primary human macrophages revealed that MWNT-NH3+ were able to escape vesicular (phagosome) entrapment by translocating directly into the cytoplasm.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated for a variety of biomedical applications. Despite numerous studies, the pathways by which carbon nanotubes enter cells and their subsequent intracellular trafficking and distribution remain poorly determined. Here, we use 3-D electron tomography techniques that offer optimum enhancement of contrast between carbon nanotubes and the plasma membrane to investigate the mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake of shortened, functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-NH3+). Both human lung epithelial (A549) cells, that are almost incapable of phagocytosis and primary macrophages, capable of extremely efficient phagocytosis, were used. We observed

  18. Fluorous Peptide Nucleic Acids: PNA Analogues with Fluorine in Backbone (γ-CF2-apg-PNA) Enhance Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Ellipilli, Satheesh; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2015-09-18

    Fluorous PNA analogues possessing fluorine as inherent part of aminopropylglycine (apg) backbone (γ-CF2-apg PNA) have been synthesized and evaluated for biophysical and cell penetrating properties. These form duplexes of higher thermal stability with cRNA than cDNA, although destabilized compared to duplexes of standard aeg-PNA. Cellular uptake of the fluorinated γ-CF2-apg PNAs in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells was 2-3-fold higher compared to that of nonfluorinated apg PNA, with NIH 3T3 cells showing better permeability compared to HeLa cells. The backbone fluorinated PNAs, which are first in this class, when combined with other chemical modifications may have potential for future PNA-based antisense agents.

  19. [Effects of sub-micro emulsion composition on cellular disposition of incorporated lipophilic drug].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Yi; Xiang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Shuo; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Liang, Wen-Quan

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of sub-micro emulsion composition on cellular uptake and disposition of incorporated lipophilic drug. Sub-micro emulsions containing 10 % oil, 1.2 % lecithin and 2.25 % glycerol were prepared, and the fluorescent agent coumarin 6 was used as a model drug. The effects of oil types, co-surfactants and cationic lipid on uptake and elimination kinetics of 6-coumarin in HeLa cells were studied. The uptake mechanism of sub-micro emulsions was further investigated. Oil type and Tweens had no influence on the cellular uptake. Modifications of surfactants with Span series increased the cellular influx, among which Span 20 with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of 8.6 was the best enhancer. The intracellular drug level reached up to (46.09 ± 1.98)ng/μg protein which had significant difference with control group [(38.54 ± 0.34)ng/μg protein]. The positively charged emulsions significantly increased the uptake rate constant and elimination rate constant which were 4 times and 1.5 times of those in anionic groups, respectively. The uptake enhancement was also observed in cationic emulsions, cellular concentrations at plateau were (42.73 ± 0.84)ng/μg protein, which was about 3 times of that in anionic emulsions [(15.71 ± 0.74)ng/μg protein], when extracellular drug concentration kept at 100 ng/ml. Cationic emulsions delivered the payload mainly by direct drug transfer to contacted cells, while the negative ones depended on both drug passive diffusion and clathrin-mediated endocytosis of drug containing oil droplets which accounted for 20% of the intracellular drug. Interfacial characteristic of sub-micro emulsions such as co-surfactants HLB as well as zeta potentials can influence lipophilic drug both in cellular uptake and elimination.

  20. Enhanced cellular uptake of LHRH-conjugated PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles for specific targeting of triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Obayemi, J D; Malatesta, K; Košmrlj, A; Soboyejo, W O

    2018-07-01

    Targeted therapy is an emerging technique in cancer detection and treatment. This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of the specific targeting and entry of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)-conjugated PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles into triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and normal breast cells. The conjugated nanoparticles structures, cellular uptake of PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and LHRH-conjugated PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles (LHRH-MNPs) into breast cancer cells and normal breast cells were investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscope, optical and confocal fluorescence microscopy techniques. The results show that the presence of LHRH enhances the uptake of LHRH-MNPs into TNBC cells. Nanoparticle entry into breast cancer cells is also studied using a combination of thermodynamics and kinetics models. The trends in the predicted nanoparticle entry times (into TNBC cells) and the size ranges of the engulfed nanoparticles (within the TNBC cells) are shown to be consistent with experimental observations. The implications of the results are then discussed for the specific targeting of TNBCs with LHRH-conjugated PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles for the early detection and treatment of TNBC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Diurnal Variations in Maximal Oxygen Uptake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Powell D.

    A study attempted to determine if diurnal (daily cyclical) variations were present during maximal exercise. The subjects' (30 female undergraduate physical education majors) oxygen consumption and heart rates were monitored while they walked on a treadmill on which the grade was raised every minute. Each subject was tested for maximal oxygen…

  2. Design of Curcumin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Formulation with Enhanced Cellular Uptake, and Increased Bioactivity in vitro and Superior Bioavailability in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Preeta; Nair, Harish B.; Sung, Bokyung; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Yadav, Vivek R.; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been linked with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anticancer, antidiabetic, antirheumatic, and antiviral effects, but its optimum potential is limited by its lack of solubility in aqueous solvents and poor oral bioavailability. We employed a polymer-based nanoparticle approach to improve bioavailability. Curcumin was encapsulated with 97.5% efficiency in biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a stabilizer polyethylene glycol (PEG)-5000. Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy indicated a particle diameter of 80.9 nm. This curcumin, renamed from hereon “as curcumin (NP)”, was characterized for its biological activity. In vitro curcumin (NP) exhibited very rapid (2 h vs > 72 h) and more efficient cellular uptake then curcumin. Estrase staining revealed that curcumin (NP) was at least as potent as or more potent than curcumin in inducing apoptosis of leukemic cells and in suppressing proliferation of various tumor cell lines. When examined by electrophoretic gel shift mobility assay, curcumin (NP) was more active than curcumin in inhibiting TNF-induced NF-κB activation and in suppression of NF-κB-regulated proteins involved in cell proliferation (cyclin D1), invasion (MMP-9), and angiogenesis (VEGF). In mice, curcumin (NP) was more bioavailable and had a longer half-life than curcumin. Overall we demonstrate that curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles formulation has enhanced cellular uptake, and increased bioactivity in vitro and superior bioavailability in vivo over curcumin. PMID:19735646

  3. Selenium uptake through cystine transporter mediated by glutathione conjugation.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Takao; Ueda, Koji; Aoki, Akira; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Kojima, Nakao; Jinno, Hideto

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element and is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. In particular, antioxidant effects of selenoenzymes contribute to cancer prevention. Se can also produce reactive oxygen species and, thereby, exert cancer-selective cytotoxicity. Selenodiglutathione (SDG) is a primary Se metabolite conjugated to two glutathione (GSH) moieties. SDG increases intracellular Se accumulation and is more toxic than selenous acid (H 2 SeO 3 ), but the mechanisms for importing Se compounds into cells are not fully understood. Here, we propose a novel mechanism for importing Se, in the form of SDG. Cellular intake of Se compounds was assessed based on Se accumulation, as detected by ICP-MS. SDG incorporation was decreased in the presence of thiols (GSH, cysteine or their oxidized forms, GSSG and cystine), whereas H 2 SeO 3 uptake was increased by addition of GSH or cysteine. Cellular SDG uptake was decreased by pretreatment with specific inhibitors against gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x c - ). Furthermore, siRNA against xCT, which is the light chain component of system x c - , significantly decreased SDG incorporation. These data suggest an involvement of SDG in Se incorporation, with SDG processed at the cell surface by GGT, leading to formation of selenodicysteine which, in turn, is likely to be imported via xCT. Because GGT and xCT are highly expressed in cancer cells, these mechanisms mediated by the cystine transporter might underlie the cancer-selective toxicity of Se. In addition, the system described in our study appears to represent a physiological transport mechanism for the essential element Se.

  4. Sex differences in the oxygen delivery, extraction, and uptake during moderate-walking exercise transition.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Thomas; Villar, Rodrigo; Hughson, Richard L

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies in children and older adults demonstrated faster oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ) kinetics in males compared with females, but young healthy adults have not been studied. We hypothesized that young men would have faster aerobic system dynamics in response to the onset of exercise than women. Interactions between oxygen supply and utilization were characterized by the dynamics of V̇O 2 , deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), tissue saturation index (TSI), cardiac output (Q̇), and calculated arteriovenous O 2 difference (a-vO 2 diff ) in women and men. Eighteen healthy active young women and men (9 of each sex) with similar aerobic fitness levels volunteered for this study. Participants performed an incremental cardiopulmonary treadmill exercise test and 3 moderate-intensity treadmill exercise tests (at 80% V̇O 2 of gas exchange threshold). Data related to the moderate exercise were submitted to exponential data modelling to obtain parameters related to the aerobic system dynamics. The time constants of V̇O 2 , a-vO 2 diff , HHb, and TSI (30 ± 6, 29 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 15 ± 2 s, respectively) in women were statistically (p < 0.05) faster than the time constants in men (42 ± 10, 49 ± 21, 19 ± 3, and 20 ± 4 s, respectively). Although Q̇ dynamics were not statistically different (p = 0.06) between groups, there was a trend to slower Q̇ dynamics in men corresponding with the slower V̇O 2 kinetics. These results indicated that the peripheral and pulmonary oxygen extraction dynamics were remarkably faster in women. Thus, contrary to the hypothesis, V̇O 2 dynamics measured at the mouth at the onset of submaximal treadmill walking were faster in women compared with men.

  5. Molecular and cellular characterisation of the zinc uptake (Znu) system of Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Hudek, Lee; Pearson, Leanne A; Michalczyk, Agnes; Neilan, Brett A; Ackland, M Leigh

    2013-11-01

    Metal homoeostasis in cyanobacteria is based on uptake and export systems that are controlled by their own regulators. This study characterises the zinc uptake (Znu) system in Nostoc punctiforme. The system was found to comprise of three subunits in an ACB operon: a Zn(2+)-binding protein (ZnuA18), a transmembrane domain (ZnuB) and an ATPase (ZnuC). These proteins are encoded within the znu operon regulated by a zinc uptake transcription repressor (Zur). Interestingly, a second Zn(2+)-binding protein (ZnuA08) was also identified at a distal genomic location. Interactions between components of the ZnuACB system were investigated using knockouts of the individual genes. The znuA08(-), znuA18(-), znuB(-) and znuC(-) mutants displayed overall reduced znuACB transcript levels, suggesting that all system components are required for normal expression of znu genes. Zinc uptake assays in the Zn(2+)-binding protein mutant strains showed that the disruption of znuA18 had a greater negative effect on zinc uptake than disruption of znuA08. Complementation studies in Escherichia coli indicated that both znuA08 and znuA18 were able to restore zinc uptake in a znuA(-) mutant, with znuA18 permitting the highest zinc uptake rate. The N. punctiforme zur was also able to complement the E. coli zur(-) mutant. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of oxygen tension on human articular chondrocyte matrix synthesis: Integration of experimental and computational approaches

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Oreffo, ROC; Sengers, BG; Tare, RS

    2014-01-01

    Significant oxygen gradients occur within tissue engineered cartilaginous constructs. Although oxygen tension is an important limiting parameter in the development of new cartilage matrix, its precise role in matrix formation by chondrocytes remains controversial, primarily due to discrepancies in the experimental setup applied in different studies. In this study, the specific effects of oxygen tension on the synthesis of cartilaginous matrix by human articular chondrocytes were studied using a combined experimental-computational approach in a “scaffold-free” 3D pellet culture model. Key parameters including cellular oxygen uptake rate were determined experimentally and used in conjunction with a mathematical model to estimate oxygen tension profiles in 21-day cartilaginous pellets. A threshold oxygen tension (pO2 ≈ 8% atmospheric pressure) for human articular chondrocytes was estimated from these inferred oxygen profiles and histological analysis of pellet sections. Human articular chondrocytes that experienced oxygen tension below this threshold demonstrated enhanced proteoglycan deposition. Conversely, oxygen tension higher than the threshold favored collagen synthesis. This study has demonstrated a close relationship between oxygen tension and matrix synthesis by human articular chondrocytes in a “scaffold-free” 3D pellet culture model, providing valuable insight into the understanding and optimization of cartilage bioengineering approaches. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1876–1885. PMID:24668194

  7. Delivery Rate Affects Uptake of a Fluorescent Glucose Analog in Murine Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Frees, Amy E.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Zhong, Jim; Hansen, Katherine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical strategy using intravital microscopy of dorsal skin flap window chamber models to image glucose uptake and vascular oxygenation in vivo. Glucose uptake was imaged using a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diaxol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG). SO2 was imaged using the differential absorption properties of oxygenated [HbO2] and deoxygenated hemoglobin [dHb]. This study was carried out on two sibling murine mammary adenocarcinoma lines, 4T1 and 4T07. 2-NBDG uptake in the 4T1 tumors was lowest when rates of delivery and clearance were lowest, indicating perfusion-limited uptake in poorly oxygenated tumor regions. For increasing rates of delivery that were still lower than the glucose consumption rate (as measured in vitro), both 2-NBDG uptake and the clearance rate from the tumor increased. When the rate of delivery of 2-NBDG exceeded the glucose consumption rate, 2-NBDG uptake decreased with any further increase in rate of delivery, but the clearance rate continued to increase. This inflection point was not observed in the 4T07 tumors due to an absence of low delivery rates close to the glucose consumption rate. In the 4T07 tumors, 2-NBDG uptake increased with increasing rates of delivery at low rates of clearance. Our results demonstrate that 2-NBDG uptake in tumors is influenced by the rates of delivery and clearance of the tracer. The rates of delivery and clearance are, in turn, dependent on vascular oxygenation of the tumors. Knowledge of the kinetics of tracer uptake as well as vascular oxygenation is essential to make an informed assessment of glucose demand of a tumor. PMID:24204635

  8. Intra-dialytic training accelerates oxygen uptake kinetics in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Reboredo, Maycon M; Neder, J Alberto; Pinheiro, Bruno V; Henrique, Diane Mn; Lovisi, Julio Cm; Paula, Rogério B

    2015-07-01

    End-stage renal disease is associated with several hemodynamic and peripheral muscle abnormalities that could slow the rate of change in oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) at the onset and at the end of exercise. This study was performed to determine whether an intra-dialytic aerobic training program would speed [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics at the transition to and from moderate and high-intensity exercise. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four patients with end-stage renal disease (14 females; 47.0 ± 11.9 years) were randomly assigned to either 12-week cycle ergometer-based training at moderate exertion or a similar control period. At initial and final evaluations, patients underwent 6 min moderate and high-intensity tests to exercise intolerance (Tlim). Training improved Tlim by ∼90% (median (inter-quartile range) = 232 (59) s to 445 (451) s, p < 0.05); in contrast, Tlim decreased by ∼30% in controls (291 (134) s to 202 (131) s). [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise were significantly accelerated with training leading to lower oxygen (O2) deficit (mean ± standard deviation (SD) = 3.2 ± 1.3 l vs 2.3 ± 1.2 l). Similar positive effects were found at the high-intensity test either at the onset of, or recovery from, exercise (p < 0.05). "Excess" [Formula: see text]O2 at the high-intensity test was also lessened with training. Changes in Tlim correlated with faster [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics and lower "excess" [Formula: see text]O2 (Spearman's ρ = -0.56 and -0.75, respectively; p < 0.01). A symptom-targeted intra-dialytic training program improved sub-maximal aerobic metabolism and endurance exercise capacity. [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics are valuable in providing relatively effort-independent information on the efficacy of exercise interventions in this patient population. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions

  9. Lognormal Distribution of Cellular Uptake of Radioactivity: Statistical Analysis of α-Particle Track Autoradiography

    PubMed Central

    Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the distribution of radioactivity among a population of cells labeled with 210Po was shown to be well described by a log-normal (LN) distribution function (J Nucl Med. 2006;47:1049–1058) with the aid of autoradiography. To ascertain the influence of Poisson statistics on the interpretation of the autoradiographic data, the present work reports on a detailed statistical analysis of these earlier data. Methods The measured distributions of α-particle tracks per cell were subjected to statistical tests with Poisson, LN, and Poisson-lognormal (P-LN) models. Results The LN distribution function best describes the distribution of radioactivity among cell populations exposed to 0.52 and 3.8 kBq/mL of 210Po-citrate. When cells were exposed to 67 kBq/mL, the P-LN distribution function gave a better fit; however, the underlying activity distribution remained log-normal. Conclusion The present analysis generally provides further support for the use of LN distributions to describe the cellular uptake of radioactivity. Care should be exercised when analyzing autoradiographic data on activity distributions to ensure that Poisson processes do not distort the underlying LN distribution. PMID:18483086

  10. Hypoxia decreases creatine uptake in cardiomyocytes, while creatine supplementation enhances HIF activation.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Lucia; Arciniegas, Antonio Jose Luis; Darrabie, Marcus; Mantilla, Jose G; Baron, Rebecca M; Bowles, Dawn E; Mishra, Rajashree; Jacobs, Danny O

    2017-08-01

    Creatine (Cr), phosphocreatine (PCr), and creatine kinases (CK) comprise an energy shuttle linking ATP production in mitochondria with cellular consumption sites. Myocytes cannot synthesize Cr: these cells depend on uptake across the cell membrane by a specialized creatine transporter (CrT) to maintain intracellular Cr levels. Hypoxia interferes with energy metabolism, including the activity of the creatine energy shuttle, and therefore affects intracellular ATP and PCr levels. Here, we report that exposing cultured cardiomyocytes to low oxygen levels rapidly diminishes Cr transport by decreasing V max and K m Pharmacological activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) abrogated the reduction in Cr transport caused by hypoxia. Cr supplementation increases ATP and PCr content in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia, while also significantly augmenting the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia mediated by HIF-1 activation. Our results indicate that: (1) hypoxia reduces Cr transport in cardiomyocytes in culture, (2) the cytoprotective effects of Cr supplementation are related to enhanced adaptive physiological responses to hypoxia mediated by HIF-1, and (3) Cr supplementation increases the cellular ATP and PCr content in RNCMs exposed to hypoxia. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Excess Iodide Induces an Acute Inhibition of the Sodium/Iodide Symporter in Thyroid Male Rat Cells by Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, Alejandro A.; Albornoz, Eduardo; Opazo, Ma. Cecilia; Becerra, Alvaro; Vidal, Gonzalo; Fardella, Carlos; Michea, Luis; Carrasco, Nancy; Simon, Felipe; Elorza, Alvaro A.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

    2015-01-01

    Na+/I− symporter (NIS) mediates iodide (I−) uptake in the thyroid gland, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones. The expression and function of NIS in thyroid cells is mainly regulated by TSH and by the intracellular concentration of I−. High doses of I− for 1 or 2 days inhibit the synthesis of thyroid hormones, a process known as the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. The cellular mechanisms responsible for this physiological response are mediated in part by the inhibition of I− uptake through a reduction of NIS expression. Here we show that inhibition of I− uptake occurs as early as 2 hours or 5 hours after exposure to excess I− in FRTL-5 cells and the rat thyroid gland, respectively. Inhibition of I− uptake was not due to reduced NIS expression or altered localization in thyroid cells. We observed that incubation of FRTL-5 cells with excess I− for 2 hours increased H2O2 generation. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of excess I− on NIS-mediated I− transport could be recapitulated by H2O2 and reverted by reactive derived oxygen species scavengers. The data shown here support the notion that excess I− inhibits NIS at the cell surface at early times by means of a posttranslational mechanism that involves reactive derived oxygen species. PMID:25594695

  12. Reconciling the Krogh and Ussing interpretations of epithelial chloride transport - presenting a novel hypothesis for the physiological significance of the passive cellular chloride uptake.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2011-07-01

    In 1937, August Krogh discovered a powerful active Cl(-) uptake mechanism in frog skin. After WWII, Hans Ussing continued the studies on the isolated skin and discovered the passive nature of the chloride uptake. The review concludes that the two modes of transport are associated with a minority cell type denoted as the γ-type mitochondria-rich (MR) cell, which is highly specialized for epithelial Cl(-) uptake whether the frog is in the pond of low [NaCl] or the skin is isolated and studied by Ussing chamber technique. One type of apical Cl(-) channels of the γ-MR cell is activated by binding of Cl(-) to an external binding site and by membrane depolarization. This results in a tight coupling of the uptake of Na(+) by principal cells and Cl(-) by MR cells. Another type of Cl(-) channels (probably CFTR) is involved in isotonic fluid uptake. It is suggested that the Cl(-) channels serve passive uptake of Cl(-) from the thin epidermal film of fluid produced by mucosal glands. The hypothesis is evaluated by discussing the turnover of water and ions of the epidermal surface fluid under terrestrial conditions. The apical Cl(-) channels close when the electrodiffusion force is outwardly directed as it is when the animal is in the pond. With the passive fluxes eliminated, the Cl(-) flux is governed by active transport and evidence is discussed that this is brought about by an exchange of cellular HCO(3) (-) with Cl(-) of the outside bath driven by an apical H(+) V-ATPase. © 2011 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  13. Tracking Electron Uptake from a Cathode into Shewanella Cells: Implications for Energy Acquisition from Solid-Substrate Electron Donors

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Pournami; Jain, Abhiney; Pirbadian, Sahand; Okamoto, Akihiro; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT While typically investigated as a microorganism capable of extracellular electron transfer to minerals or anodes, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can also facilitate electron flow from a cathode to terminal electron acceptors, such as fumarate or oxygen, thereby providing a model system for a process that has significant environmental and technological implications. This work demonstrates that cathodic electrons enter the electron transport chain of S. oneidensis when oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor. The effect of electron transport chain inhibitors suggested that a proton gradient is generated during cathode oxidation, consistent with the higher cellular ATP levels measured in cathode-respiring cells than in controls. Cathode oxidation also correlated with an increase in the cellular redox (NADH/FMNH2) pool determined with a bioluminescence assay, a proton uncoupler, and a mutant of proton-pumping NADH oxidase complex I. This work suggested that the generation of NADH/FMNH2 under cathodic conditions was linked to reverse electron flow mediated by complex I. A decrease in cathodic electron uptake was observed in various mutant strains, including those lacking the extracellular electron transfer components necessary for anodic-current generation. While no cell growth was observed under these conditions, here we show that cathode oxidation is linked to cellular energy acquisition, resulting in a quantifiable reduction in the cellular decay rate. This work highlights a potential mechanism for cell survival and/or persistence on cathodes, which might extend to environments where growth and division are severely limited. PMID:29487241

  14. Surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles determines the biocorona composition impacting cellular uptake, toxicity and gene expression profiles in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Parwathy; Riviere, Jim E; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the role of nanoparticle size and surface chemistry on biocorona composition and its effect on uptake, toxicity and cellular responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), employing 40 and 80 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI), lipoic acid (LA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings. Proteomic analysis identified 59 hard corona proteins among the various AuNP, revealing largely surface chemistry-dependent signature adsorbomes exhibiting human serum albumin (HSA) abundance. Size distribution analysis revealed the relative instability and aggregation inducing potential of bare and corona-bound BPEI-AuNP, over LA- and PEG-AuNP. Circular dichroism analysis showed surface chemistry-dependent conformational changes of proteins binding to AuNP. Time-dependent uptake of bare, plasma corona (PC) and HSA corona-bound AuNP (HSA-AuNP) showed significant reduction in uptake with PC formation. Cell viability studies demonstrated dose-dependent toxicity of BPEI-AuNP. Transcriptional profiling studies revealed 126 genes, from 13 biological pathways, to be differentially regulated by 40 nm bare and PC-bound BPEI-AuNP (PC-BPEI-AuNP). Furthermore, PC formation relieved the toxicity of cationic BPEI-AuNP by modulating expression of genes involved in DNA damage and repair, heat shock response, mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative stress and antioxidant response, and ER stress and unfolded protein response cascades, which were aberrantly expressed in bare BPEI-AuNP-treated cells. NP surface chemistry is shown to play the dominant role over size in determining the biocorona composition, which in turn modulates cell uptake, and biological responses, consequently defining the potential safety and efficacy of nanoformulations.

  15. Curcumin Encapsulated into Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Nanoparticles Increases Cellular Uptake and Neuroprotective Effect in Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Marslin, Gregory; Sarmento, Bruno Filipe Carmelino Cardoso; Franklin, Gregory; Martins, José Alberto Ribeiro; Silva, Carlos Jorge Ribeiro; Gomes, Andreia Ferreira Castro; Sárria, Marisa Passos; Coutinho, Olga Maria Fernandes Pereira; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound isolated from turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) with well-demonstrated neuroprotective and anticancer activities. Although curcumin is safe even at high doses in humans, it exhibits poor bioavailability, mainly due to poor absorption, fast metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To overcome these issues, several approaches, such as nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery, have been undertaken with different degrees of success. The present study was conducted to compare the neuroprotective effect of curcumin encapsulated in poly( ε -caprolactone) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles in U251 glioblastoma cells. Prepared nanoparticles were physically characterized by laser doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results from laser doppler anemometry confirmed that the size of poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles ranged between 200-240 nm for poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles and 30-70 nm for poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles, and transmission electron microscopy images revealed their spherical shape. Treatment of U251 glioma cells and zebrafish embryos with poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles loaded with curcumin revealed efficient cellular uptake. The cellular uptake of poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles was higher in comparison to poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles. Moreover, poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer-loaded curcumin nanoparticles were able to protect the glioma cells against tBHP induced-oxidative damage better than free curcumin. Together, our results show that curcumin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer nanoparticles possess significantly stronger neuroprotective effect in U251 human glioma cells compared to

  16. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accelerate gastric cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Masato; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tomita, Tsutomu; Sadakata, Hisato; Indo, Hiroko P.; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Tumor invasion is the most important factor to decide patient’s prognosis. The relation between reactive oxygen species and tumor invasion is mainly reported that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the cell membrane is a reactive oxygen species producer for formulating an invadopodia. On the other hand, mitochondrion was known as one of the most important reactive oxygen species-producer in the cell via an energy transfer system. However, the relation between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the tumor invasion was not well clarified. In this study, we evaluated the relation between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and tumor invasion using a normal gastric mucosal cell-line (RGM-1) and a cancerous mutant RGM-1 cell-line (RGK-1). Manganese superoxide dismutase-expressing RGK-1 cell-lines were used for a scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. The cells have been evaluated their movement ability as follows; cellular ruffling frequencies, wound healing assay to evaluate horizontal cellular migration, and invasion assay using matrigel to analyze vertical cellular migration. All cellular movement abilities were inhibited by scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species with manganese superoxide dismutase. Therefore mitochondrial reactive oxygen species was one of factors enhancing the tumor invasion in gastric cancer. PMID:24426185

  17. Prognostic value of the post-training oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Buys, Roselien; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Vanhees, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Peak oxygen uptake is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, patients with CAD are not always capable of reaching peak effort, and therefore submaximal gas exchange variables such as the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) have been introduced. Baseline exercise capacity as expressed by OUES provides prognostic information and this parameter responds to training. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of post-training OUES in patients with CAD. We included 960 patients with CAD (age 60.6 ± 9.5 years; 853 males) who completed a cardiac rehabilitation program between 2000 and 2011. The OUES was calculated before and after cardiac rehabilitation and information on mortality was obtained. The relationships of post-training OUES with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed in order to obtain the optimal cut-off value. During 7.37 ± 3.20 years of follow-up (range: 0.45-13.75 years), 108 patients died, among whom 47 died due to CV reasons. The post-training OUES was related to all-cause (hazard ratio: 0.50, p < 0.001) and CV (hazard ratio: 0.40, p < 0.001) mortality. When significant covariates, including baseline OUES, were entered into the Cox regression analysis, post-training OUES remained related to all-cause and CV mortality (hazard ratio: 0.40, p < 0.01 and 0.26, p < 0.01, respectively). In addition, the change in OUES due to exercise training was positively related to mortality (hazard ratio: 0.49, p < 0.01). Post-training OUES has stronger prognostic value compared to baseline OUES. The lack of improvement in exercise capacity expressed by OUES after an exercise training program relates to a worse prognosis and can help distinguish patients with favorable and unfavorable prognoses. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  18. Cellular Metabolic Activity and the Oxygen and Hydrogen Stable Isotope Composition of Intracellular Water and Metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer-Martin, H. W.; Hegg, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Intracellular water is an important pool of oxygen and hydrogen atoms for biosynthesis. Intracellular water is usually assumed to be isotopically identical to extracellular water, but an unexpected experimental result caused us to question this assumption. Heme O isolated from Escherichia coli cells grown in 95% H218O contained only a fraction of the theoretical value of labeled oxygen at a position where the O atom was known to be derived from water. In fact, fewer than half of the oxygen atoms were labeled. In an effort to explain this surprising result, we developed a method to determine the isotope ratios of intracellular water in cultured cells. The results of our experiments showed that during active growth, up to 70% of the oxygen atoms and 50% of the hydrogen atoms in the intracellular water of E. coli are generated during metabolism and can be isotopically distinct from extracellular water. The fraction of isotopically distinct atoms was substantially less in stationary phase and chilled cells, consistent with our hypothesis that less metabolically-generated water would be present in cells with lower metabolic activity. Our results were consistent with and explained the result of the heme O labeling experiment. Only about 40% of the O atoms on the heme O molecule were labeled because, presumably, only about 40% of the water inside the cells was 18O water that had diffused in from the culture medium. The rest of the intracellular water contained 16O atoms derived from either nutrients or atmospheric oxygen. To test whether we could also detect metabolically-derived hydrogen atoms in cellular constituents, we isolated fatty acids from log-phase and stationary phase E. coli and determined the H isotope ratios of individual fatty acids. The results of these experiments showed that environmental water contributed more H atoms to fatty acids isolated in stationary phase than to the same fatty acids isolated from log-phase cells. Stable isotope analyses of

  19. Mechanisms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation of CIGB-300, a Tat-conjugated peptide, in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Benavent Acero, Fernando R; Perera Negrin, Yasser; Alonso, Daniel F; Perea, Silvio E; Gomez, Daniel E; Farina, Hernán G

    2014-06-02

    CIGB-300 is a cyclic synthetic peptide that induces apoptosis in malignant cells, elicits antitumor activity in cancer animal models, and shows tumor reduction signs when assayed in first-in-human phase I trial in patients with cervical tumors. CIGB-300 impairs phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 through targeting the substrate's phosphoacceptor domain. CIGB-300 was linked to the cell penetrating peptide Tat to facilitate the delivery into cells. Previously, we showed that CIGB-300 had a differential antiproliferative behavior in different tumor cell lines. In this work, we studied differential antiproliferative behavior in terms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation in tumor cell lines with dissimilar sensitivity to CIGB-300. The internalization of CIGB-300 was studied in different malignant cell lines. We found that the cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as main receptors for extracellular CIGB-300 uptake. The most sensitive tumor cell lines showed higher intracellular incorporation of CIGB-300 in comparison to less sensitive cell lines. Furthermore, CIGB-300 uptake is time- and concentration-dependent in all studied cell lines. It was shown that CIGB-300 has the ability to penetrate cells mainly by direct membrane translocation. However, a minor proportion of the peptide uses an energy-dependent endocytic pathway mechanism to gain access into cells. CIGB-300 is internalized and transported into cells preferentially by caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Lysosomes are involved in CIGB-300 degradation; highly sensitive cell lines showed degradation at earlier times compared to low sensitive cells. Altogether, our data suggests a mechanism of internalization, vesicular transportation, and degradation for CIGB-300 in tumor cells.

  20. Sex and Exercise Intensity Do Not Influence Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Submaximal Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Joana F.; Millet, Gregoire P.; Bruno, Paula M.; Vleck, Veronica; Alves, Francisco B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics in front crawl between male and female swimmers at moderate and heavy intensity. We hypothesized that the time constant for the primary phase V˙O2 kinetics was faster in men than in women, for both intensities. Nineteen well trained swimmers (8 females mean ± SD; age 17.9 ± 3.5 years; mass 55.2 ± 3.6 kg; height 1.66 ± 0.05 m and 11 male 21.9 ± 2.8 years; 78.2 ± 11.1 kg; 1.81 ± 0.08 m) performed a discontinuous maximal incremental test and two 600-m square wave transitions for both moderate and heavy intensities to determine the V˙O2 kinetics parameters using mono- and bi-exponential models, respectively. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of front crawl swimming using a swimming snorkel. The maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) was higher in men than in women [4,492 ± 585 ml·min−1 and 57.7 ± 4.4 ml·kg−1·min−1 vs. 2,752.4 ± 187.9 ml·min−1 (p ≤ 0.001) and 50.0 ± 5.7 ml·kg−1·min−1(p = 0.007), respectively]. Similarly, the absolute amplitude of the primary component was higher in men for both intensities (moderate: 1,736 ± 164 vs. 1,121 ± 149 ml·min−1; heavy: 2,948 ± 227 vs. 1,927 ± 243 ml·min−1, p ≤ 0.001, for males and females, respectively). However, the time constant of the primary component (τp) was not influenced by sex (p = 0.527) or swimming intensity (p = 0.804) (moderate: 15.1 ± 5.6 vs. 14.4 ± 5.1 s; heavy: 13.5 ± 3.3 vs. 16.0 ± 4.5 s, for females and males, respectively). The slow component in the heavy domain was not significantly different between female and male swimmers (3.2 ± 2.4 vs. 3.8 ± 1.0 ml·kg−1·min−1, p = 0.476). Overall, only the absolute amplitude of the primary component was higher in men, while the other V˙O2 kinetics parameters were similar between female and male swimmers at both moderate and heavy intensities. The mechanisms underlying these similarities remain unclear. PMID:28239356

  1. Effect of salinity on oxygen consumption in fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Ern, R; Huong, D T T; Cong, N V; Bayley, M; Wang, T

    2014-04-01

    The effect of salinity on resting oxygen uptake was measured in the perch Perca fluviatilis and available information on oxygen uptake in teleost species at a variety of salinities was reviewed. Trans-epithelial ion transport against a concentration gradient requires energy and exposure to salinities osmotically different from the body fluids therefore imposes an energetic demand that is expected to be lowest in brackish water compared to fresh and sea water. Across species, there is no clear trend between oxygen uptake and salinity, and estimates of cost of osmotic and ionic regulation vary from a few per cent to >30% of standard metabolism. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Oxygen Uptake Responses to Submaximal Exercise Loads Do Not Change During Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Evetts, Simon N.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lee, S. M. C.; McCleary, Frank A.; Platts, Steven H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2011-01-01

    In previous publications we have reported that the heart rate (HR) responses to graded submaximal exercise tests are elevated during long-duration International Space Station (ISS) flights. Furthermore, the elevation in HR appears greater earlier, rather than later, during the missions. A potential confounder in the interpretation of HR results from graded exercise tests on ISS is that the cycle ergometer used (CEVIS) is vibration-isolated from the station structure. This feature causes the CEVIS assembly to sway slightly during its use and debriefing comments by some crewmembers indicate that there is a "learning curve" associated with CEVIS use. Therefore, one could not exclude the possibility that the elevated HRs experienced in the early stages of ISS missions were related to a lowered metabolic efficiency of CEVIS exercise that would raise the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) associated with graded exercise testing work rates.

  3. Noscapinoids bearing silver nanocrystals augmented drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1, mouse melanoma skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Soni, Naina; Jyoti, Kiran; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katyal, Anju; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2017-06-01

    Noscapine (Nos) and reduced brominated analogue of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos) prevent cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs. However, owing to poor physicochemical properties, Nos and Red-Br-Nos have demonstrated their anticancer activity at higher and multiple doses. Therefore, in present investigation, silver nanocrystals of noscapinoids (Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals) were customized to augment drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1 mouse melanoma cancer cells. Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals were prepared separately by precipitation method. The mean particle size of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was measured to be 25.33±3.52nm, insignificantly (P>0.05) different from 27.43±4.51nm of Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals. Furthermore, zeta-potential of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was determined to be -25.3±3.11mV significantly (P<0.05) different from -15.2±3.33mV of Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals. The shape of tailored nanocrystals was slightly spherical and or irregular in shape. The architecture of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was crystalline in nature. FT-IR spectroscopy evinced the successful interaction of Ag 2+ nanocrystals with Nos and Red-Br-Nos, respectively. The superior therapeutic efficacy of tailored nanocrystals was measured in terms of enhanced cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake. The Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals exhibited an IC 50 of 16.6μM and 6.5μM, significantly (P<0.05) lower than 38.5μM of Nos and 10.3μM of Red-Br-Nos, respectively. Finally, cellular morphological alterations in B16F1 cells upon internalization of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals provided the evidences for accumulation within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles and in enlarged lysosomes and thus triggered mitochondria mediated apoptosis via

  4. Cellular uptake of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin: membrane translocation of a fusion toxin requires unfolding of its dihydrofolate reductase domain.

    PubMed

    Haug, Gerd; Wilde, Christian; Leemhuis, Jost; Meyer, Dieter K; Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2003-12-30

    The Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is the prototype of the family of binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins. C2 toxin is composed of two separated nonlinked proteins. The enzyme component C2I ADP-ribosylates actin in the cytosol of target cells. The binding/translocation component C2II mediates cell binding of the enzyme component and its translocation from acidic endosomes into the cytosol. After proteolytic activation, C2II forms heptameric pores in endosomal membranes, and most likely, C2I translocates through these pores into the cytosol. For this step, the cellular heat shock protein Hsp90 is essential. We analyzed the effect of methotrexate on the cellular uptake of a fusion toxin in which the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was fused to the C-terminus of C2I. Here, we report that unfolding of C2I-DHFR is required for cellular uptake of the toxin via the C2IIa component. The C2I-DHFR fusion toxin catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of actin in vitro and was able to intoxicate cultured cells when applied together with C2IIa. Binding of the folate analogue methotrexate favors a stable three-dimensional structure of the dihydrofolate reductase domain. Pretreatment of C2I-DHFR with methotrexate prevented cleavage of C2I-DHFR by trypsin. In the presence of methotrexate, intoxication of cells with C2I-DHFR/C2II was inhibited. The presence of methotrexate diminished the translocation of the C2I-DHFR fusion toxin from endosomal compartments into the cytosol and the direct C2IIa-mediated translocation of C2I-DHFR across cell membranes. Methotrexate had no influence on the intoxication of cells with C2I/C2IIa and did not alter the C2IIa-mediated binding of C2I-DHFR to cells. The data indicate that methotrexate prevented unfolding of the C2I-DHFR fusion toxin, and thereby the translocation of methotrexate-bound C2I-DHFR from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells is inhibited.

  5. Preparation of large porous deslorelin-PLGA microparticles with reduced residual solvent and cellular uptake using a supercritical carbon dioxide process.

    PubMed

    Koushik, Kavitha; Kompella, Uday B

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare large-porous peptide-encapsulating polymeric particles with low residual solvent that retain deslorelin integrity, sustain drug release, and exhibit reduced epithelial and macrophage uptake. We hypothesized that supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) pressure-quench treatment of microparticles prepared using conventional approach expands these particles and extracts the residual organic solvent. Initial studies with crystalline L-lactide (L-PLA) and amorphous copolymers of lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) 50:50, 65:35, and 75:25 indicated that PLGA 50:50 was the most amenable to morphological changes upon SC CO2 treatment. Therefore, we prepared deslorelin-PLGA (50:50) microparticles using the conventional emulsion-solvent evaporation method, and in a second step equilibrated with SC CO2 at various temperatures (33-37 degrees C) and pressures (1200-2000 psi) for discrete intervals followed by rapid isothermal depressurization. The particles were then characterized for morphology, polymer thermal properties, particle size, porosity, bulk density, and residual solvent content. Also, deslorelin integrity, conformation, release, and cellular uptake before and after SC CO2 treatment was determined. Upon SC CO2 treatment (1200 psi, 33 degrees C for 30 min), the mean particle size of the deslorelin PLGA microparticles increased from 2.2 to 13.8 microm, the mean porosity increased from 39 to 92.38% the mean pore diameter increased from 90 to 190 nm, the mean bulk density reduced from 0.7 to 0.082 g/cc, mass spectrometry indicated structural integrity of released deslorelin, the circular dichroism spectrum indicated stabilization of beta-turn conformation, and the scanning electron microscopy confirmed increased particle size and pore formation. The deslorelin release was sustained during the 7-day study period. Also, the peak Tg of PLGA decreased from 51 to 45 degrees C, and the residual solvent content was reduced from 4500 ppm to below

  6. Methane excess production in oxygen-rich polar water and a model of cellular conditions for this paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Kattner, G.

    2015-09-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on an excess of methane in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79°N oceanographic transect, in the western part of the Fram Strait and in Northeast Water Polynya region off Greenland. Between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitations occurred and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences between both water masses and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. We show that in this region methane is in situ produced while DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for the methane formation. The methane production occured despite high oxygen concentrations in this water masses. As the metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  7. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide.

    PubMed

    Vila, M; Portolés, M T; Marques, P A A P; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M

    2012-11-23

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml(-1) pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent's uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy.

  8. Oxygen and Oxygen Toxicity: The Birth of Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong; Traore, Kassim; Santo, Arben; Trush, Michael A.; Li, Y. Robert

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dioxygen (O2) is an essential element of aerobic life, yet incomplete reduction or excitation of O2 during aerobic metabolisms generates diverse oxygen-containing reactive species, commonly known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the one hand, ROS pose a serious threat to aerobic organisms via inducing oxidative damage to cellular constituents. On the other hand, these reactive species, when their generation is under homeostatic control, also play important physiological roles (e.g., constituting an important component of immunity and participating in redox signaling). This article defines oxygen and the key facts about oxygen, and discusses the relationship between oxygen and the emergence of early animals on Earth. The article then describes the discovery of oxygen by three historical figures and examines the birth of the concepts of oxygen toxicity and the underlying free radical mechanisms. The article ends with a brief introduction to the emerging field of ROS-mediated redox signaling and physiological responses. PMID:29707642

  9. Cellular Uptake and Tissue Biodistribution of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Francos, María A; Cepas, Vanesa; González-Menédez, Pedro; Badía-Laíño, Rosana; Díaz-García, Marta E; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C; Hevia, David

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the in vitro uptake by fibroblasts and in vivo biodistribution of 15 nm 11-mercaptoundecanoicacid-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-MUA) and 3 nm glutathione- and 3 nm bovine serum albumin-protected gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@GSH and AuNCs@BSA, respectively) were evaluated. In vitro cell viability was examined after gold nanoparticle treatment for 48 h, based on MTT assays and analyses of morphological structure, the cycle cell, cellular doubling time, and the gold concentration in cells. No potential toxicity was observed at any studied concentration (up to 10 ppm) for AuNCs@GSH and AuNCs@BSA, whereas lower cell viability was observed for AuNPs-MUA at 10 ppm than for other treatments. Neither morphological damage nor modifications to the cell cycle and doubling time were detected after contact with nanoparticles. Associations between cells and AuNPs and AuNCs were demonstrated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). AuNCs@GSH exhibited fluorescence emission at 611 nm, whereas AuNCs@BSA showed a band at 640 nm. These properties were employed to confirm their associations with cells by fluorescence confocal microscopy; both clusters were observed in cells and maintained their original fluorescence. In vivo assays were performed using 9 male mice treated with 1.70 μg Au/g body weight gold nanoparticles for 24 h. ICP-MS measurements showed a different biodistribution for each type of nanoparticle; AuNPs-MUA mainly accumulated in the brain, AuNCs@GSH in the kidney, and AuNCs@BSA in the liver and spleen. Spleen indexes were not affected by nanoparticle treatment; however, AuNCs@BSA increased the thymus index significantly from 1.28 to 1.79, indicating an immune response. These nanoparticles have great potential as organ-specific drug carriers and for diagnosis, photothermal therapy, and imaging.

  10. Log Normal Distribution of Cellular Uptake of Radioactivity: Statistical Analysis of Alpha Particle Track Autoradiography

    PubMed Central

    Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the distribution of radioactivity among a population of cells labeled with 210Po was shown to be well described by a log normal distribution function (J Nucl Med 47, 6 (2006) 1049-1058) with the aid of an autoradiographic approach. To ascertain the influence of Poisson statistics on the interpretation of the autoradiographic data, the present work reports on a detailed statistical analyses of these data. Methods The measured distributions of alpha particle tracks per cell were subjected to statistical tests with Poisson (P), log normal (LN), and Poisson – log normal (P – LN) models. Results The LN distribution function best describes the distribution of radioactivity among cell populations exposed to 0.52 and 3.8 kBq/mL 210Po-citrate. When cells were exposed to 67 kBq/mL, the P – LN distribution function gave a better fit, however, the underlying activity distribution remained log normal. Conclusions The present analysis generally provides further support for the use of LN distributions to describe the cellular uptake of radioactivity. Care should be exercised when analyzing autoradiographic data on activity distributions to ensure that Poisson processes do not distort the underlying LN distribution. PMID:16741316

  11. Characterization of cadmium uptake and cytotoxicity in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Martine; Martineau, Corine; Jumarie, Catherine

    Since bone mass is maintained constant by the balance between osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, alterations in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation may disturb the equilibrium of bone remodeling. Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has been associated with the alteration of bone metabolism and the development of osteoporosis. Because little information is available about the direct effects of Cd on osteoblastic cells, we have characterized in vitro the cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of Cd in human osteoblastic cells. Incubation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells with increasing concentrations of Cd in serum-free culture medium reduced cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependentmore » manner, suggesting that Cd accumulates in osteoblasts. Consequently, an uptake time-course could be characterized for the cellular accumulation of {sup 109}Cd in serum-free culture medium. In order to characterize the mechanisms of Cd uptake, experiments have been conducted under well-defined metal speciation conditions in chloride and nitrate transport media. The results revealed a preferential uptake of Cd{sup 2+} species. The cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of Cd increased in the absence of extracellular calcium (Ca), suggesting that Cd may enter the cells in part through Ca channels. However, neither the cellular accumulation nor the cytotoxicity of Cd was modified by voltage-dependent Ca channel (VDCC) modulators or potassium-induced depolarization. Moreover, exposure conditions activating or inhibiting capacitative Ca entry (CCE) failed to modify the cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of Cd, which excludes the involvement of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. The cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of Cd were reduced by 2-APB, a known inhibitor of the Mg and Ca channel TRPM7 and were increased in the absence of extracellular magnesium (Mg). The inhibition of Cd uptake by Mg and Ca was not additive

  12. Polycation-induced Cell Membrane Permeability Does Not Enhance Cellular Uptake or Expression Efficiency of Delivered DNA

    PubMed Central

    Prevette, Lisa E.; Mullen, Douglas G.; Banaszak Holl, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Polycationic materials commonly used to delivery DNA to cells are known to induce cell membrane porosity in a charge-density dependent manner. It has been suggested that these pores may provide a mode of entry of the polymer-DNA complexes (polyplexes) into cells. To examine the correlation between membrane permeability and biological activity, we used two-color flow cytometry on two mammalian cell lines to simultaneously measure gene expression of a plasmid DNA delivered with four common nonviral vectors and cellular uptake of normally excluded fluorescent dye molecules of two different sizes, 668 Da and 2 MDa. We also followed gene expression in cells sorted based on the retention of endogenous fluorescein. We have found that cell membrane porosity caused by polycationic vectors does not enhance internalization or gene expression. Based on this single-cell study, membrane permeability is found to be an unwanted side effect that limits transfection efficiency, possibly through leakage of the delivered nucleic acid through the pores prior to transcription and translation and/or activation of cell defense mechanisms that restrict transgene expression. PMID:20349965

  13. The effect of the oxygen uptake-power output relationship on the prediction of supramaximal oxygen demands.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Pedlar, Charles; Godfrey, Richard; Glaister, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and power output at intensities below and above the lactate threshold (LT) in cyclists; and to determine the reliability of supramaximal power outputs linearly projected from these relationships. Nine male cyclists (mean±standard deviation age: 41±8 years; mass: 77±6 kg, height: 1.79±0.05 m and V̇O2max: 54±7 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed two cycling trials each consisting of a step test (10×3 min stages at submaximal incremental intensities) followed by a maximal test to exhaustion. The lines of best fit for V̇O2 and power output were determined for: the entire step test; stages below and above the LT, and from rolling clusters of five consecutive stages. Lines were projected to determine a power output predicted to elicit 110% peak V̇O2. There were strong linear correlations (r≥0.953; P<0.01) between V̇O2 and power output using the three approaches; with the slope, intercept, and projected values of these lines unaffected (P≥0.05) by intensity. The coefficient of variation of the predicted power output at 110% V̇O2max was 6.7% when using all ten submaximal stages. Cyclists exhibit a linear V̇O2 and power output relationship when determined using 3 min stages, which allows for prediction of a supramaximal intensity with acceptable reliability.

  14. Prior exercise speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and increases critical power during supine but not upright cycling.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Richie P; Roche, Denise M; Marwood, Simon

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Critical power (CP) represents the highest work rate for which a metabolic steady state is attainable. The physiological determinants of CP are unclear, but research suggests that CP might be related to the time constant of phase II oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). What is the main finding and its importance? We provide the first evidence that τV̇O2 is mechanistically related to CP. A reduction of τV̇O2 in the supine position was observed alongside a concomitant increase in CP. This effect may be contingent on measures of oxygen availability derived from near-infrared spectroscopy. Critical power (CP) is a fundamental parameter defining high-intensity exercise tolerance and is related to the time constant of phase II pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). To test the hypothesis that this relationship is causal, we determined the impact of prior exercise ('priming') on CP and τV̇O2 in the upright and supine positions. Seventeen healthy men were assigned to either upright or supine exercise groups, whereby CP, τV̇O2 and muscle deoxyhaemoglobin kinetics (τ [HHb] ) were determined via constant-power tests to exhaustion at four work rates with (primed) and without (control) priming exercise at ∼31%Δ. During supine exercise, priming reduced τV̇O2 (control 54 ± 18 s versus primed 39 ± 11 s; P < 0.001), increased τ [HHb] (control 8 ± 4 s versus primed 12 ± 4 s; P = 0.003) and increased CP (control 177 ± 31 W versus primed 185 ± 30 W, P = 0.006) compared with control conditions. However, priming exercise had no effect on τV̇O2 (control 37 ± 12 s versus primed 35 ± 8 s; P = 0.82), τ [HHb] (control 10 ± 5 s versus primed 14 ± 10 s; P = 0.10) or CP (control 235 ± 42 W versus primed 232 ± 35 W; P = 0.57) during upright exercise. The concomitant reduction of τV̇O2 and increased CP following priming in the supine group, effects that were absent in

  15. Case-Based Learning of Blood Oxygen Transport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2006-01-01

    A case study about carbon monoxide poisoning was used help students gain a greater understanding of the physiology of oxygen transport by the blood. A review of student answers to the case questions showed that students can use the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to make meaningful determinations of oxygen uptake and delivery. However, the…

  16. Dietary uptake of Cu sorbed to hydrous iron oxide is linked to cellular toxicity and feeding inhibition in a benthic grazer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Ringwood, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas feeding inhibition caused by exposure to contaminants has been extensively documented, the underlying mechanism(s) are less well understood. For this study, the behavior of several key feeding processes, including ingestion rate and assimilation efficiency, that affect the dietary uptake of Cu were evaluated in the benthic grazer Lymnaea stagnalis following 4–5 h exposures to Cu adsorbed to synthetic hydrous ferric oxide (Cu–HFO). The particles were mixed with a cultured alga to create algal mats with Cu exposures spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude at variable or constant Fe concentrations, thereby allowing first order and interactive effects of Cu and Fe to be evaluated. Results showed that Cu influx rates and ingestion rates decreased as Cu exposures of the algal mat mixture exceeded 104 nmol/g. Ingestion rate appeared to exert primary control on the Cu influx rate. Lysosomal destabilization rates increased directly with Cu influx rates. At the highest Cu exposure where the incidence of lysosomal membrane damage was greatest (51%), the ingestion rate was suppressed 80%. The findings suggested that feeding inhibition was a stress response emanating from excessive uptake of dietary Cu and cellular toxicity.

  17. Cellular uptake and anticancer activity of carboxylated gallium corroles.

    PubMed

    Pribisko, Melanie; Palmer, Joshua; Grubbs, Robert H; Gray, Harry B; Termini, John; Lim, Punnajit

    2016-04-19

    We report derivatives of gallium(III) tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole, 1 [Ga(tpfc)], with either sulfonic (2) or carboxylic acids (3, 4) as macrocyclic ring substituents: the aminocaproate derivative, 3 [Ga(ACtpfc)], demonstrated high cytotoxic activity against all NCI60 cell lines derived from nine tumor types and confirmed very high toxicity against melanoma cells, specifically the LOX IMVI and SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The toxicities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 [Ga(3-ctpfc)] toward prostate (DU-145), melanoma (SK-MEL-28), breast (MDA-MB-231), and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cancer cells revealed a dependence on the ring substituent: IC50values ranged from 4.8 to >200 µM; and they correlated with the rates of uptake, extent of intracellular accumulation, and lipophilicity. Carboxylated corroles 3 and 4, which exhibited about 10-fold lower IC50values (<20 µM) relative to previous analogs against all four cancer cell lines, displayed high efficacy (Emax= 0). Confocal fluorescence imaging revealed facile uptake of functionalized gallium corroles by all human cancer cells that followed the order: 4 > 3 > 2 > 1 (intracellular accumulation of gallium corroles was fastest in melanoma cells). We conclude that carboxylated gallium corroles are promising chemotherapeutics with the advantage that they also can be used for tumor imaging.

  18. Cellular uptake and anticancer activity of carboxylated gallium corroles

    PubMed Central

    Pribisko, Melanie; Palmer, Joshua; Grubbs, Robert H.; Gray, Harry B.; Termini, John; Lim, Punnajit

    2016-01-01

    We report derivatives of gallium(III) tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole, 1 [Ga(tpfc)], with either sulfonic (2) or carboxylic acids (3, 4) as macrocyclic ring substituents: the aminocaproate derivative, 3 [Ga(ACtpfc)], demonstrated high cytotoxic activity against all NCI60 cell lines derived from nine tumor types and confirmed very high toxicity against melanoma cells, specifically the LOX IMVI and SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The toxicities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 [Ga(3-ctpfc)] toward prostate (DU-145), melanoma (SK-MEL-28), breast (MDA-MB-231), and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cancer cells revealed a dependence on the ring substituent: IC50 values ranged from 4.8 to >200 µM; and they correlated with the rates of uptake, extent of intracellular accumulation, and lipophilicity. Carboxylated corroles 3 and 4, which exhibited about 10-fold lower IC50 values (<20 µM) relative to previous analogs against all four cancer cell lines, displayed high efficacy (Emax = 0). Confocal fluorescence imaging revealed facile uptake of functionalized gallium corroles by all human cancer cells that followed the order: 4 >> 3 > 2 >> 1 (intracellular accumulation of gallium corroles was fastest in melanoma cells). We conclude that carboxylated gallium corroles are promising chemotherapeutics with the advantage that they also can be used for tumor imaging. PMID:27044076

  19. Mechanisms of cell uptake, inflammatory potential and protein corona effects with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2016-12-01

    To assess inflammation, cellular uptake and endocytic mechanisms of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in human epidermal keratinocytes with and without a protein corona. Human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed to 40 and 80 nm AuNP with lipoic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) coatings with and without a protein corona up to 48 h. Inhibitors were selected to characterize endocytosis. BPEI-AuNP showed the greatest uptake, while PEG-AuNP had the least. Protein coronas decreased uptake and affected their mechanism. AuNP uptake was energy-dependent, except for 40 nm lipoic-AuNP. Most AuNP were internalized by clathrin and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis, except for 40 nm PEG was by raft/noncaveolae mediated endocytosis. Coronas inhibited caveolae-mediated-endocytosis with lipoic acid and BPEI-AuNP and altered 40 nm PEG-AuNP from raft/noncaveolae to clathrin. Inflammatory responses decreased with a plasma corona. Results suggest protein coronas significantly affect cellular uptake and inflammatory responses of AuNP.

  20. The Role of Extracellular Binding Proteins in the Cellular Uptake of Drugs: Impact on Quantitative In Vitro-to-In Vivo Extrapolations of Toxicity and Efficacy in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Research.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Burczynski, Frank J; Haddad, Sami

    2016-02-01

    A critical component in the development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models for estimating target organ dosimetry in pharmacology and toxicology studies is the understanding of the uptake kinetics and accumulation of drugs and chemicals at the cellular level. Therefore, predicting free drug concentrations in intracellular fluid will contribute to our understanding of concentrations at the site of action in cells in PBPK/PD research. Some investigators believe that uptake of drugs in cells is solely driven by the unbound fraction; conversely, others argue that the protein-bound fraction contributes a significant portion of the total amount delivered to cells. Accordingly, the current literature suggests the existence of a so-called albumin-mediated uptake mechanism(s) for the protein-bound fraction (i.e., extracellular protein-facilitated uptake mechanisms) at least in hepatocytes and cardiac myocytes; however, such mechanism(s) and cells from other organs deserve further exploration. Therefore, the main objective of this present study was to discuss further the implication of potential protein-facilitated uptake mechanism(s) on drug distribution in cells under in vivo conditions. The interplay between the protein-facilitated uptake mechanism(s) and the effects of a pH gradient, metabolism, transport, and permeation limitation potentially occurring in cells was also discussed, as this should violate the basic assumption on similar free drug concentration in cells and plasma. This was made because the published equations used to calculate drug concentrations in cells in a PBPK/PD model did not consider potential protein-facilitated uptake mechanism(s). Consequently, we corrected some published equations for calculating the free drug concentrations in cells compared with plasma in PBPK/PD modeling studies, and we proposed a refined strategy for potentially performing more accurate quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolations

  1. Effect of Molecular Structure of Cationic Surfactants on Biophysical Interactions of the Surfactant-modified Nanoparticles with a Model Membrane and Cellular Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the molecular structure of cationic surfactants at the nanoparticle (NP)-interface influences the biophysical interactions of NPs with a model membrane and cellular uptake of NPs. Polystyrene NPs (surfactant free, 130 nm) were modified with cationic surfactants. These surfactants were of either dichained (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide [DMAB]) or single chained (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB] and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide [DTAB]) forms, the latter two with different hydrophobic chain lengths. Biophysical interactions of these surfactant-modified NPs with an endothelial cell model membrane (EMM) were studied using a Langmuir film balance. Changes in surface pressure (SP) of EMM as a function of time following interaction with NPs and in the compression isotherm (π - A) of the lipid mixture of EMM in the presence of NPs were analyzed. Langmuir-Schaeffer (LS) films, which are EMMs that have been transferred onto a suitable substrate, were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the images were analyzed to determine the mechanisms of the NP-EMM interaction. DMAB-modified NPs showed a greater increase in SP and a shift towards higher mean molecular area (mmA) than CTAB- and DTAB-modified NPs, indicating stronger interactions of DMAB-modified NPs with the EMM. However, analysis of the AFM phase and height images of the LS films revealed that both DMAB- and CTAB-modified NPs interacted with the EMM but via different mechanisms: DMAB-modified NPs penetrated the EMM, thus explaining the increase in SP, whereas CTAB-modified NPs anchored onto the EMM's condensed lipid domains, and hence did not cause any significant change in SP. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed greater uptake of DMAB- and CTAB-modified NPs than of DTAB-modified or unmodified NPs. We conclude that (i) the dichained and single-chained cationic surfactants on NPs have different mechanisms of interaction with the model

  2. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabera, Marco E.

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bio-energetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study; we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement - sensitivity analysis - permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  3. Uptake of cerium oxide nanoparticles and its influence on functions of mouse leukemic monocyte macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiangyan; Wang, Bing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Yiqi; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) causes a public concern on their potential health risk due to their wide applications in the fields of fuel additive, commodities, pharmaceutical, and other industries. In this study, the interactions between two commercial CeO2 NPs (D-CeO2 from Degussa and PC-CeO2 from PlasmaChem) and mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage Raw264.7 cells were investigated to provide a fast and in-depth understanding of the biological influences of the NPs. Both types of the CeO2 NPs had a negative surface charge around -12 mV and showed a tendency to form aggregates with sizes of 191 ± 5.9 and 60.9 ± 2.8 nm in cell culture environment, respectively. The cellular uptake of the CeO2 NPs increased along with the increase of feeding dosage and prolongation of the culture time. The PC-CeO2 NPs had a faster uptake rate and reached higher cellular loading amount at the highest feeding concentration (200 µg/mL). In general, both types of the CeO2 NPs had rather small cytotoxicity even with a dosage as high as 200 µg/mL. The D-CeO2 NPs showed a relative stronger cytotoxicity especially at higher concentrations and longer incubation time. The NPs were dispersed in vacuoles (most likely endosomes and lysosomes) and cytoplasm. Although both types of the CeO2 NPs could suppress the production of reactive oxygen species, they impaired the mitochondria membrane potential to some extent. The cytoskeleton organization was altered and consequently the cell adhesion ability decreased after uptake of both types of the CeO2 NPs.

  4. Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube-sensitized europium nanoprobes for cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Avti, Pramod K; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanoid-based optical probes with excitation wavelengths in the ultra-violet (UV) range (300–325 nm) have been widely developed as imaging probes. Efficient cellular imaging requires that lanthanoid optical probes be excited at visible wavelengths, to avoid UV damage to cells. The efficacy of europium-catalyzed single-walled carbon nanotubes (Eu-SWCNTs), as visible nanoprobes for cellular imaging, is reported in this study. Confocal fluorescence microscopy images of breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3 and MCF-7) and normal cells (NIH 3T3), treated with Eu-SWCNT at 0.2 μg/mL concentration, showed bright red luminescence after excitation at 365 nm and 458 nm wavelengths. Cell viability analysis showed no cytotoxic effects after the incubation of cells with Eu-SWCNTs at this concentration. Eu-SWCNT uptake is via the endocytosis mechanism. Labeling efficiency, defined as the percentage of incubated cells that uptake Eu-SWCNT, was 95%–100% for all cell types. The average cellular uptake concentration was 6.68 ng Eu per cell. Intracellular localization was further corroborated by transmission electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. The results indicate that Eu-SWCNT shows potential as a novel cellular imaging probe, wherein SWCNT sensitizes Eu3+ ions to allow excitation at visible wavelengths, and stable time-resolved red emission. The ability to functionalize biomolecules on the exterior surface of Eu-SWCNT makes it an excellent candidate for targeted cellular imaging. PMID:22619533

  5. Interplay of drug metabolizing enzymes with cellular transporters.

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Riha, Juliane; Brenner, Stefan; Höferl, Martina; Jäger, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Many endogenous and xenobiotic substances and their metabolites are substrates for drug metabolizing enzymes and cellular transporters. These proteins may not only contribute to bioavailability of molecules but also to uptake into organs and, consequently, to overall elimination. The coordinated action of uptake transporters, metabolizing enzymes, and efflux pumps, therefore, is a precondition for detoxification and elimination of drugs. As the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to predict alterations in drug disposal, adverse drug reactions and, finally, drug-drug interactions, this review illustrates the interplay between selected uptake/efflux transporters and phase I/II metabolizing enzymes.

  6. Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    K S, Joshy; Sharma, Chandra P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Sandeep, K; Thomas, Sabu; Pothen, Laly A

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that, the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66±12.22nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61±80.44nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of antiviral drug by brain cells and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Process optimization involving critical evaluation of oxygen transfer, oxygen uptake and nitrogen limitation for enhanced biomass and lipid production by oleaginous yeast for biofuel application.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Jayita; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2018-04-20

    Lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeast is generally induced by nitrogen starvation, while oxygen saturation can influence biomass growth. Systematic shake flask studies that help in identifying the right nitrogen source and relate its uptake kinetics to lipid biosynthesis under varying oxygen saturation conditions are very essential for addressing the bioprocessing-related issues, which are envisaged to occur in the fermenter scale production. In the present study, lipid bioaccumulation by P. guilliermondii at varying C:N ratios and oxygen transfer conditions (assessed in terms of k L a) was investigated in shake flasks using a pre-optimized N-source and a two-stage inoculum formulated in a hybrid medium. A maximum lipid concentration of 10.8 ± 0.5 g L -1 was obtained in shake flask study at the optimal condition with an initial C:N and k L a of 60:1 and 0.6 min -1 , respectively, at a biomass specific growth rate of 0.11 h -1 . Translating these optimal shake flask conditions to a 3.7 L stirred tank reactor resulted in biomass and lipid concentrations of 16.74 ± 0.8 and 8 ± 0.4 g L -1 . The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile of lipids obtained by gas chromatography was found to be suitable for biodiesel application. We strongly believe that the rationalistic approach-based design of experiments adopted in the study would help in achieving high cell density with improved lipid accumulation and also minimize the efforts towards process optimization during bioreactor level operations, consequently reducing the research and development-associated costs.

  8. Cellular uptake: lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Giulio; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Montenegro, Javier; Matile, Stefan

    2015-07-04

    The objective of this Feature Article is to reflect on the importance of established and emerging principles of supramolecular organic chemistry to address one of the most persistent problems in life sciences. The main topic is dynamic covalent chemistry on cell surfaces, particularly disulfide exchange for thiol-mediated uptake. Examples of boronate and hydrazone exchange are added for contrast, comparison and completion. Of equal importance are the discussions of proximity effects in polyions and counterion hopping, and more recent highlights on ring tension and ion pair-π interactions. These lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry apply to cell-penetrating peptides, particularly the origin of "arginine magic" and the "pyrenebutyrate trick," and the currently emerging complementary "disulfide magic" with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s. They further extend to the voltage gating of neuronal potassium channels, gene transfection, and the delivery of siRNA. The collected examples illustrate that the input from conceptually innovative chemistry is essential to address the true challenges in biology beyond incremental progress and random screening.

  9. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application

    PubMed Central

    Alwani, Saniya; Kaur, Randeep; Michel, Deborah; Chitanda, Jackson M; Verrall, Ronald E; Karunakaran, Chithra; Badea, Ildiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND) in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. Methods lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA) was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed good stability, remaining under 100 nm throughout the testing period. A positive zeta potential of >+20 mV indicated a preservation of surface charges. Size distribution and zeta potential changed for lys-NDs after incubation with blood serum, suggesting an interaction with biomolecules, mainly proteins, and a possible formation of a protein corona. Cellular internalization

  10. Cellular prion protein promotes glucose uptake through the Fyn-HIF-2α-Glut1 pathway to support colorectal cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Quan; Sun, Yan-Ping; Ruan, Can-Ping; Xu, Xin-Yun; Ge, Jun-Hui; He, Jin; Xu, Zu-De; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Wen-Chao

    2011-02-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that has various physical functions, including protection against apoptotic and oxidative stress, cellular uptake of copper ions, transmembrane signaling, and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In this study, we show that PrPc is highly expressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Transcriptome profiling of PrPc-depleted DLD-1 cells revealed downregulation of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1). PrPc is shown to be involved in regulating Glut1 expression through the Fyn-HIF-2α pathway. As Glut1 is the natural transporter of glucose and is required for the high glycolytic rate seen in colorectal tumors, silencing of PrPc reduced the proliferation and survival rate of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, knockdown of PrPc by hydrodynamic injection with a cocktail of PrPc-shRNA-encoding plasmids also inhibited tumorigenicity in a xenograft model in nude mice. In summary, our data characterize a novel molecular mechanism that links PrPc expression to the regulation of glycolysis. Targeting PrPc will therefore be a promising strategy to overcome the growth and survival advantage in colorectal tumors. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Shock wave-induced ATP release from osteosarcoma U2OS cells promotes cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baochang; Yu, Tiecheng; Wang, Chengxue; Wang, Tiejun; Yao, Jihang; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Deng, Pengfei; Xia, Yongning; Junger, Wolfgang G; Sun, Dahui

    2016-10-03

    Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary malignant bone tumor, but treatment is difficult and prognosis remains poor. Recently, large-dose chemotherapy has been shown to improve outcome but this approach can cause many side effects. Minimizing the dose of chemotherapeutic drugs and optimizing their curative effects is a current goal in the management of osteosarcoma patients. In our study, trypan blue dye exclusion assay was performed to investigate the optimal conditions for the sensitization of osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Cellular uptake of the fluorophores Lucifer Yellow CH dilithium salt and Calcein was measured by qualitative and quantitative methods. Human MTX ELISA Kit and MTT assay were used to assess the outcome for osteosarcoma U2OS cells in the present of shock wave and methotrexate. To explore the mechanism, P2X7 receptor in U2OS cells was detected by immunofluorescence and the extracellular ATP levels was detected by ATP assay kit. All data were analyzed using SPSS17.0 statistical software. Comparisons were made with t test between two groups. Treatment of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells with up to 450 shock wave pulses at 7 kV or up to 200 shock wave pulses at 14 kV had little effect on cell viability. However, this shock wave treatment significantly promoted the uptake of Calcein and Lucifer Yellow CH by osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Importantly, shock wave treatment also significantly enhanced the uptake of the chemotherapy drug methotrexate and increased the rate of methotrexate-induced apoptosis. We found that shock wave treatment increased the extracellular concentration of ATP and that KN62, an inhibitor of P2X7 receptor reduced the capacity methotrexate-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that shock wave treatment promotes methotrexate-induced apoptosis by altering cell membrane permeability in a P2X7 receptor-dependent manner. Shock wave treatment may thus represent a possible adjuvant therapy for osteosarcoma.

  12. Influence of protein ingestion on human splanchnic and whole-body oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood temperature.

    PubMed

    Brundin, T; Wahren, J

    1994-05-01

    Splanchnic and whole-body oxygen uptake, blood flow, and blood temperature were studied in 10 healthy subjects before and during 2 hours after oral ingestion of 900 kJ of fish protein. Indirect calorimetry and catheter techniques were used, including blood thermometry in arterial, pulmonary arterial, and hepatic venous blood. After the meal, pulmonary oxygen uptake increased from a basal value of 272 +/- 11 to 332 +/- 23 mL/min. During the first postprandial hour, splanchnic oxygen uptake increased from 62 +/- 5 to 93 +/- 9 mL/min (+50%, P < .05), thereby accounting for 62% +/- 17% of the simultaneous increase in whole-body oxygen consumption. During the second postprandial hour, splanchnic oxygen uptake increased no further, whereas in the extrasplanchnic tissues the oxygen consumption increased, now accounting for the entire simultaneous increase in pulmonary oxygen uptake. Cardiac output increased from basal 6.4 +/- 0.4 to 7.5 +/- 0.5 L/min. Splanchnic blood flow changed little while the arteriohepatic venous oxygen difference increased from 46 +/- 3 to 54 +/- 4 mL/L. Arterial and hepatic venous blood temperatures increased by almost 0.3 degrees C, reflecting a considerable accumulation of heat, indicating a conversion into a positive thermal balance. It is concluded that after protein ingestion, (1) oxygen uptake increases mainly in the splanchnic organs during the first hour, and thereafter exclusively in the extrasplanchnic tissues; (2) the blood flow increases mainly in extrasplanchnic tissues; and (3) the blood temperature increases almost linearly, indicating an upward adjustment of the temperature setpoint in the central thermosensors.

  13. CUL4B impedes stress-induced cellular senescence by dampening a p53-reactive oxygen species positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhao; Guo, Haiyang; Liu, Zhaojian; Zhang, Xiyu; Liu, Qiao; Qian, Yanyan; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-02-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is known to regulate the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can either alleviate oxidative stress under physiological and mildly stressed conditions or exacerbate oxidative stress under highly stressed conditions. We here report that a p53-ROS positive feedback loop drives a senescence program in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) and this senescence-driving loop is negatively regulated by CUL4B. CUL4B, which can assemble various ubiquitin E3 ligases, was found to be downregulated in stress-induced senescent cells, but not in replicative senescent cells. We observed that p53-dependent ROS production was significantly augmented and stress-induced senescence was greatly enhanced when CUL4B was absent or depleted. Ectopic expression of CUL4B, on the other hand, blunted p53 activation, reduced ROS production, and attenuated cellular senescence in cells treated with H2O2. CUL4B was shown to promote p53 ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation in NHFs exposed to oxidative stress, thus dampening the p53-dependent cellular senescence. Together, our results established a critical role of CUL4B in negatively regulating the p53-ROS positive feedback loop that drives cellular senescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of ocean phytoplankton diversity on phosphate uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, Michael W.; Bonachela, Juan A.; Levin, Simon A.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the consequences of variations in microbial biodiversity on ocean ecosystem functioning and global biogeochemical cycles. A core process is macronutrient uptake by microorganisms, as the uptake of nutrients controls ocean CO2 fixation rates in many regions. Here, we ask whether variations in ocean phytoplankton biodiversity lead to novel functional relationships between environmental variability and phosphate (Pi) uptake. We analyzed Pi uptake capabilities and cellular allocations among phytoplankton groups and the whole community throughout the extremely Pi-depleted western North Atlantic Ocean. Pi uptake capabilities of individual populations were well described by a classic uptake function but displayed adaptive differences in uptake capabilities that depend on cell size and nutrient availability. Using an eco-evolutionary model as well as observations of in situ uptake across the region, we confirmed that differences among populations lead to previously uncharacterized relationships between ambient Pi concentrations and uptake. Supported by novel theory, this work provides a robust empirical basis for describing and understanding assimilation of limiting nutrients in the oceans. Thus, it demonstrates that microbial biodiversity, beyond cell size, is important for understanding the global cycling of nutrients. PMID:25422472

  15. Deceptive meaning of oxygen uptake measured at the anaerobic threshold in patients with systolic heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Magrì, Damiano; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Corrà, Ugo; Passino, Claudio; Scrutinio, Domenico; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Correale, Michele; Cattadori, Gaia; Metra, Marco; Girola, Davide; Piepoli, Massimo F; Iorio, AnnaMaria; Emdin, Michele; Raimondo, Rosa; Re, Federica; Cicoira, Mariantonietta; Belardinelli, Romualdo; Guazzi, Marco; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Clemenza, Francesco; Parati, Gianfranco; Frigerio, Maria; Casenghi, Matteo; Scardovi, Angela B; Ferraironi, Alessandro; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Bussotti, Maurizio; Apostolo, Anna; Paolillo, Stefania; La Gioia, Rocco; Gargiulo, Paola; Palermo, Pietro; Minà, Chiara; Farina, Stefania; Battaia, Elisa; Maruotti, Antonello; Pacileo, Giuseppe; Contini, Mauro; Oliva, Fabrizio; Ricci, Roberto; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT), a submaximal exercise-derived variable, independent of patients' motivation, is a marker of outcome in heart failure (HF). However, previous evidence of VO2AT values paradoxically higher in HF patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) than in those with sinus rhythm (SR) raised uncertainties. We tested the prognostic role of VO2AT in a large cohort of systolic HF patients, focusing on possible differences between SR and AF. Altogether 2976 HF patients (2578 with SR and 398 with AF) were prospectively followed. Besides a clinical examination, each patient underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). The follow-up was analysed for up to 1500 days. Cardiovascular death or urgent cardiac transplantation occurred in 303 patients (250 (9.6%) patients with SR and 53 (13.3%) patients with AF, p = 0.023). In the entire population, multivariate analysis including peak oxygen uptake (VO2) showed a prognostic capacity (C-index) similar to that obtained including VO2AT (0.76 vs 0.72). Also, left ventricular ejection fraction, ventilation vs carbon dioxide production slope, β-blocker and digoxin therapy proved to be significant prognostic indexes. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis showed that the best predictive VO2AT cut-off for the SR group was 11.7 ml/kg/min, while it was 12.8 ml/kg/min for the AF group. VO2AT, a submaximal CPET-derived parameter, is reliable for long-term cardiovascular mortality prognostication in stable systolic HF. However, different VO2AT cut-off values between SR and AF HF patients should be adopted. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  16. New Generalized Equation for Predicting Maximal Oxygen Uptake (from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database).

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Peter; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross; Zhang, Jiajia; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-08-15

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is closely linked to chronic illness and associated with adverse events. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regression equations (ACSM equations) developed to estimate oxygen uptake have known limitations leading to well-documented overestimation of CRF, especially at higher work rates. Thus, there is a need to explore alternative equations to more accurately predict CRF. We assessed maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) obtained directly by open-circuit spirometry in 7,983 apparently healthy subjects who participated in the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND). We randomly sampled 70% of the participants from each of the following age categories: <40, 40 to 50, 50 to 70, and ≥70 and used the remaining 30% for validation. Multivariable linear regression analysis was applied to identify the most relevant variables and construct the best prediction model for VO 2 max. Treadmill speed and treadmill speed × grade were considered in the final model as predictors of measured VO 2 max and the following equation was generated: VO 2 max in ml O 2 /kg/min = speed (m/min) × (0.17 + fractional grade × 0.79) + 3.5. The FRIEND equation predicted VO 2 max with an overall error >4 times lower than the error associated with the traditional ACSM equations (5.1 ± 18.3% vs 21.4 ± 24.9%, respectively). Overestimation associated with the ACSM equation was accentuated when different protocols were considered separately. In conclusion, The FRIEND equation predicts VO 2 max more precisely than the traditional ACSM equations with an overall error >4 times lower than that associated with the ACSM equations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Relevance of biophysical interactions of nanoparticles with a model membrane in predicting cellular uptake: study with TAT peptide-conjugated nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Rao, Kavitha S.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the biophysical interactions of the trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) with a model cell membrane could predict the cellular uptake of the encapsulated therapeutic agent. To test the above hypothesis, the biophysical interactions of ritonavir-loaded poly (L-lactide) nanoparticles (RNPs), either conjugated to a TAT peptide (TAT-RNPs) or scrambled TAT peptide (sc-TAT-RNPs), were studied with an endothelial cell model membrane (EMM) using a Langmuir film balance, and the corresponding human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the uptake of the encapsulated therapeutic. Biophysical interactions were determined from the changes in surface pressure (SP) of the EMM as a function of time following interaction with NPs, and the compression isotherm (π–A) of the EMM lipid mixture in the presence of NPs. In addition, the EMMs were transferred onto a silicon substrate following interactions with NPs using the Langmuir–Schaeffer (LS) technique. The transferred LS films were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the changes in lipid morphology and to characterize the NP–membrane interactions. TAT-RNPs showed an increase in SP of the EMM, which was dependent upon the amount of the peptide bound to NPs and the concentration of NPs, whereas sc-TAT-RNPs and RNPs did not show any significant change in SP. The isotherm experiment showed a shift towards higher mean molecular area (mmA) in the presence of TAT-RNPs, indicating their interactions with the lipids of the EMM, whereas sc-TAT-RNPs and RNPs did not show any significant change. The AFM images showed condensation of the lipids following interaction with TAT-RNPs, indicating their penetration into the EMM, whereas RNPs did not cause any change. Surface analysis and 3-D AFM images of the EMM further confirmed penetration of TAT-RNPs into the EMM whereas RNPs were seen anchored loosely to the

  18. Maximal oxygen uptake is proportional to muscle fiber oxidative capacity, from chronic heart failure patients to professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; de Ruiter, C Jo; Noordhof, Dionne A; Sterrenburg, Renske; Bloemers, Frank W; de Koning, Jos J; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J

    2016-09-01

    V̇o2 max during whole body exercise is presumably constrained by oxygen delivery to mitochondria rather than by mitochondria's ability to consume oxygen. Humans and animals have been reported to exploit only 60-80% of their mitochondrial oxidative capacity at maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max). However, ex vivo quantification of mitochondrial overcapacity is complicated by isolation or permeabilization procedures. An alternative method for estimating mitochondrial oxidative capacity is via enzyme histochemical quantification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. We determined to what extent V̇o2 max attained during cycling exercise differs from mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity of vastus lateralis muscle in chronic heart failure patients, healthy controls, and cyclists. V̇o2 max was assessed in 20 healthy subjects and 28 cyclists, and SDH activity was determined from biopsy cryosections of vastus lateralis using quantitative histochemistry. Similar data from our laboratory of 14 chronic heart failure patients and 6 controls were included. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was predicted from SDH activity using estimated skeletal muscle mass and the relationship between ex vivo fiber V̇o2 max and SDH activity of isolated single muscle fibers and myocardial trabecula under hyperoxic conditions. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity was related (r(2) = 0.89, P < 0.001) to V̇o2 max measured during cycling in subjects with V̇o2 max ranging from 9.8 to 79.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) V̇o2 max measured during cycling was on average 90 ± 14% of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. We conclude that human V̇o2 max is related to mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from skeletal muscle SDH activity. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity is likely marginally limited by oxygen supply to mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Optical Oxygen Micro- and Nanosensors for Plant Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ast, Cindy; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; van Dongen, Joost T.

    2012-01-01

    Pioneered by Clark's microelectrode more than half a century ago, there has been substantial interest in developing new, miniaturized optical methods to detect molecular oxygen inside cells. While extensively used for animal tissue measurements, applications of intracellular optical oxygen biosensors are still scarce in plant science. A critical aspect is the strong autofluorescence of the green plant tissue that interferes with optical signals of commonly used oxygen probes. A recently developed dual-frequency phase modulation technique can overcome this limitation, offering new perspectives for plant research. This review gives an overview on the latest optical sensing techniques and methods based on phosphorescence quenching in diverse tissues and discusses the potential pitfalls for applications in plants. The most promising oxygen sensitive probes are reviewed plus different oxygen sensing structures ranging from micro-optodes to soluble nanoparticles. Moreover, the applicability of using heterologously expressed oxygen binding proteins and fluorescent proteins to determine changes in the cellular oxygen concentration are discussed as potential non-invasive cellular oxygen reporters. PMID:22969334

  20. Docetaxel-Loaded Self-Assembly Stearic Acid-Modified Bletilla striata Polysaccharide Micelles and Their Anticancer Effect: Preparation, Characterization, Cellular Uptake and In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Sun, Dandan; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Miao; Ji, Danyang; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-02

    Poorly soluble drugs have low bioavailability after oral administration, thereby hindering effective drug delivery. A novel drug-delivery system of docetaxel (DTX)-based stearic acid (SA)-modified Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSPs) copolymers was successfully developed. Particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and loading capacity (LC) were determined. The DTX release percentage in vitro was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The hemolysis and in vitro anticancer activity were studied. Cellular uptake and apoptotic rate were measured using flow cytometry assay. Particle size, zeta potential, EE and LC were 125.30 ± 1.89 nm, -26.92 ± 0.18 mV, 86.6% ± 0.17%, and 14.8% ± 0.13%, respectively. The anticancer activities of DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles against HepG2, HeLa, SW480, and MCF-7 (83.7% ± 1.0%, 54.5% ± 4.2%, 48.5% ± 4.2%, and 59.8% ± 1.4%, respectively) were superior to that of docetaxel injection (39.2% ± 1.1%, 44.5% ± 5.3%, 38.5% ± 5.4%, and 49.8% ± 2.9%, respectively) at 0.5 μg/mL drug concentration. The DTX release percentage of DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles and docetaxel injection were 66.93% ± 1.79% and 97.06% ± 1.56% in two days, respectively. Cellular uptake of DTX-FITC-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles in cells had a time-dependent relation. Apoptotic rate of DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles and docetaxel injection were 73.48% and 69.64%, respectively. The SA-BSPs copolymer showed good hemocompatibility. Therefore, SA-BSPs copolymer can be used as a carrier for delivering hydrophobic drugs.

  1. Characterization of iron uptake from transferrin by murine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, R; Savigni, D L; Morgan, E H; Baker, E

    2000-01-01

    Iron is required by the brain for normal function, however, the mechanisms by which it crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are poorly understood. The uptake and efflux of transferrin (Tf) and Fe by murine brain-derived (bEND3) and lymph node-derived (m1END1) endothelial cell lines was compared. The effects of iron chelators, metabolic inhibitors and the cellular activators, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), on Tf and Fe uptake were investigated. Cells were incubated with 59Fe-125I-Tf; Fe uptake was shown to increase linearly over time for both cell lines, while Tf uptake reached a plateau within 2 h. Both Tf and Fe uptake were saturable. bEND3 cells were shown to have half as many Tf receptors as m1END1 cells, but the mean cycling times of a Tf molecule were the same. Tf and Fe efflux from the cells were measured over time, revealing that after 2 h only 25% of the Tf but 80% of the Fe remained associated with the cells. Of 7 iron chelators, only deferriprone (L1) markedly decreased Tf uptake. However, Fe uptake was reduced by more than 50% by L1, pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and desferrithiocin (DFT). The cellular activators TNF-alpha or LPS had little effect on Tf turnover, but they accelerated Fe uptake in both endothelial cell types. Phenylarsenoxide (PhAsO) and N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), inhibitors of Tf endocytosis, reduced both Tf and Fe uptake in both cell lines, while bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, reduced Fe uptake but did not affect Tf uptake. The results suggest that Tf and Fe uptake by both bEND3 and m1END1 is via receptor-mediated endocytosis with release of Fe from Tf within the cell and recycling of apo-Tf. On the basis of Tf- and Fe-metabolism both cell lines are similar and therefore well suited for use in in vitro models for Fe transport across the BBB.

  2. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope as a useful measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in morbidly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Felismino, Amanda; Corte, Renata Cristina; Silva, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary assessment through oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) data has shown encouraging results, revealing that we can obtain important clinical information about functional status. Until now, the use of OUES has not been established as a measure of cardiorespiratory capacity in an obese adult population, only in cardiac and pulmonary diseases or pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to characterize submaximal and maximal levels of OUES in a sample of morbidly obese women and analyze its relationship with traditional measures of cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometry and pulmonary function. Thirty-three morbidly obese women (age 39.1 ± 9.2 years) performed Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPX) on a treadmill using the ramp protocol. In addition, anthropometric measurements and pulmonary function were also evaluated. Maximal and submaximal OUES were measured, being calculated from data obtained in the first 50% (OUES50%) and 75% (OUES75%) of total CPX duration. In one-way ANOVA analysis, OUES did not significantly differ between the three different exercise intensities, as observed through a Bland-Altman concordance of 58.9 mL/min/log(L/min) between OUES75% and OUES100%, and 0.49 mL/kg/min/log(l/min) between OUES/kg75% and OUES/kg100%. A strong positive correlation between the maximal (r = 0.79) and submaximal (r = 0.81) OUES/kg with oxygen consumption at peak exercise (VO2peak) and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VO2VAT) was observed, and a moderate negative correlation with hip circumference (r = -0.46) and body adiposity index (r = -0.50) was also verified. There was no significant difference between maximal and submaximal OUES, showing strong correlations with each other and oxygen consumption (peak and VAT). These results indicate that OUES can be a useful parameter which could be used as a cardiopulmonary fitness index in subjects with severe limitations to perform CPX, as for morbidly obese women. PMID:28384329

  3. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope as a useful measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Onofre, Tatiana; Oliver, Nicole; Carlos, Renata; Felismino, Amanda; Corte, Renata Cristina; Silva, Eliane; Bruno, Selma

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary assessment through oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) data has shown encouraging results, revealing that we can obtain important clinical information about functional status. Until now, the use of OUES has not been established as a measure of cardiorespiratory capacity in an obese adult population, only in cardiac and pulmonary diseases or pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to characterize submaximal and maximal levels of OUES in a sample of morbidly obese women and analyze its relationship with traditional measures of cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometry and pulmonary function. Thirty-three morbidly obese women (age 39.1 ± 9.2 years) performed Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPX) on a treadmill using the ramp protocol. In addition, anthropometric measurements and pulmonary function were also evaluated. Maximal and submaximal OUES were measured, being calculated from data obtained in the first 50% (OUES50%) and 75% (OUES75%) of total CPX duration. In one-way ANOVA analysis, OUES did not significantly differ between the three different exercise intensities, as observed through a Bland-Altman concordance of 58.9 mL/min/log(L/min) between OUES75% and OUES100%, and 0.49 mL/kg/min/log(l/min) between OUES/kg75% and OUES/kg100%. A strong positive correlation between the maximal (r = 0.79) and submaximal (r = 0.81) OUES/kg with oxygen consumption at peak exercise (VO2peak) and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VO2VAT) was observed, and a moderate negative correlation with hip circumference (r = -0.46) and body adiposity index (r = -0.50) was also verified. There was no significant difference between maximal and submaximal OUES, showing strong correlations with each other and oxygen consumption (peak and VAT). These results indicate that OUES can be a useful parameter which could be used as a cardiopulmonary fitness index in subjects with severe limitations to perform CPX, as for morbidly obese women.

  4. Nanovesicular carrier-based formulation for skin cancer targeting: evaluation of cytotoxicity, intracellular uptake, and preclinical anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Subheet Kumar; Puri, Richa; Mahajan, Mohit; Yadav, Subodh; Pathak, C M; Ganesh, N

    2015-04-01

    Skin cancer has turned into global epidemic leading to higher incidences among cancer stricken population. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the anticancer potential and intracellular uptake of a novel nanovesicular formulation of 5-FU. Detailed intracellular uptake study in conjunction with estimation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was done using skin melanoma cell lines (A375) along with cytotoxicity studies. To further obtain the mechanistic insights into inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest studies were conducted. The preclinical anticancer activity was carried out employing in vivo DMBA-croton oil-induced skin cancer model in mice. Significant reduction in the number of papillomas was observed in skin cancer-bearing mice on treatment with nanovesicular formulation (51.4 ± 3.2%) in comparison with marketed formulation (21.3 ± 2.1%) of 5-FU. Tumor volume was found to be reduced to 46.3 ± 3.5% with prepared formulation, whereas the marketed formulation-treated group showed the reduction of 18.6 ± 1.8% in comparison with the control (untreated) group. The results of present study demonstrated that nanovesicular formulation of 5-FU possessed the enhanced anticancer activity which could be attributed to better intracellular uptake, cellular retention, and sustained release of drug.

  5. Cellular uptake and ex vivo urothelial penetration by oligodeoxynucleotides for optimizing treatment of transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bolenz, Christian; Trojan, Lutz; Gabriel, Ute; Honeck, Patrick; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Schaaf, Axel; Alken, Peter; Michel, Maurice Stephan

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate cellular uptake and urothelial penetration of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines and in a porcine ex vivo model, respectively. A panel of human TCC cell lines (RT 112, HT 1197 and UM-UC3) were exposed tofluorescein-labeled ODNs. Transfection rates were assessed byfluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Intravesical treatment with ODNs was performed in a porcine ex vivo model. Urothelial penetration was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy of cryosections. Treatment with ODNs provided transfection rates of at least 96.8% of TCC cells, irrespective of use of a transfection agent. Effective urothelial penetration by ODNs was detected when compared with controls (p = 0.0325). The addition of a liposomal transfection agent significantly increased the penetration depth, allowing affection of deep urothelial cell layers (p = 0.0082). High transfection rates of ODNs can be achieved in TCC cells. Urothelial penetration of ODNs was observed down to the deepest cell layers when a transfection agent is added, suggesting a high potential for complementing the chemoresection effects on residual tumor areas during intravesical therapy of non-muscle-invasive TCC.

  6. An apolipoprotein-enriched biomolecular corona switches the cellular uptake mechanism and trafficking pathway of lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, L; Cardarelli, F; Pozzi, D; Palchetti, S; Digman, M A; Gratton, E; Capriotti, A L; Mahmoudi, M; Caracciolo, G

    2017-11-16

    Following exposure to biological milieus (e.g. after systemic administration), nanoparticles (NPs) get covered by an outer biomolecular corona (BC) that defines many of their biological outcomes, such as the elicited immune response, biodistribution, and targeting abilities. In spite of this, the role of BC in regulating the cellular uptake and the subcellular trafficking properties of NPs has remained elusive. Here, we tackle this issue by employing multicomponent (MC) lipid NPs, human plasma (HP) and HeLa cells as models for nanoformulations, biological fluids, and target cells, respectively. By conducting confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments and image correlation analyses, we quantitatively demonstrate that the BC promotes a neat switch of the cell entry mechanism and subsequent intracellular trafficking, from macropinocytosis to clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identifies apolipoproteins as the most abundant components of the BC tested here. Interestingly, this class of proteins target the LDL receptors, which are overexpressed in clathrin-enriched membrane domains. Our results highlight the crucial role of BC as an intrinsic trigger of specific NP-cell interactions and biological responses and set the basis for a rational exploitation of the BC for targeted delivery.

  7. Quantitative assessment of cellular uptake and cytosolic access of antibody in living cells by an enhanced split GFP complementation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-sun; Choi, Dong-Ki; Park, Seong-wook

    Considering the number of cytosolic proteins associated with many diseases, development of cytosol-penetrating molecules from outside of living cells is highly in demand. To gain access to the cytosol after cellular uptake, cell-penetrating molecules should be released from intermediate endosomes prior to the lysosomal degradation. However, it is very challenging to distinguish the pool of cytosolic-released molecules from those trapped in the endocytic vesicles. Here we describe a method to directly demonstrate the cytosolic localization and quantification of cytosolic amount of a cytosol-penetrating IgG antibody, TMab4, based on enhanced split GFP complementation system. We generated TMab4 genetically fused with onemore » GFP fragment and separately established HeLa cells expressing the other GFP fragment in the cytosol such that the complemented GFP fluorescence is observed only when extracellular-treated TMab4 reaches the cytosol after cellular internalization. The high affinity interactions between streptavidin-binding peptide 2 and streptavidin was employed as respective fusion partners of GFP fragments to enhance the sensitivity of GFP complementation. With this method, cytosolic concentration of TMab4 was estimated to be about 170 nM after extracellular treatment of HeLa cells with 1 μM TMab4 for 6 h. We also found that after cellular internalization into living cells, nearly 1.3–4.3% of the internalized TMab4 molecules escaped into the cytosol from the endocytic vesicles. Our enhanced split GFP complementation assay provides a useful tool to directly quantify cytosolic amount of cytosol-penetrating agents and allows cell-based high-throughput screening for cytosol-penetrating agents with increased endosomal-escaping activity.« less

  8. Quantitative assessment of cellular uptake and cytosolic access of antibody in living cells by an enhanced split GFP complementation assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-sun; Choi, Dong-Ki; Park, Seong-wook; Shin, Seung-Min; Bae, Jeomil; Kim, Dong-Myung; Yoo, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2015-11-27

    Considering the number of cytosolic proteins associated with many diseases, development of cytosol-penetrating molecules from outside of living cells is highly in demand. To gain access to the cytosol after cellular uptake, cell-penetrating molecules should be released from intermediate endosomes prior to the lysosomal degradation. However, it is very challenging to distinguish the pool of cytosolic-released molecules from those trapped in the endocytic vesicles. Here we describe a method to directly demonstrate the cytosolic localization and quantification of cytosolic amount of a cytosol-penetrating IgG antibody, TMab4, based on enhanced split GFP complementation system. We generated TMab4 genetically fused with one GFP fragment and separately established HeLa cells expressing the other GFP fragment in the cytosol such that the complemented GFP fluorescence is observed only when extracellular-treated TMab4 reaches the cytosol after cellular internalization. The high affinity interactions between streptavidin-binding peptide 2 and streptavidin was employed as respective fusion partners of GFP fragments to enhance the sensitivity of GFP complementation. With this method, cytosolic concentration of TMab4 was estimated to be about 170 nM after extracellular treatment of HeLa cells with 1 μM TMab4 for 6 h. We also found that after cellular internalization into living cells, nearly 1.3-4.3% of the internalized TMab4 molecules escaped into the cytosol from the endocytic vesicles. Our enhanced split GFP complementation assay provides a useful tool to directly quantify cytosolic amount of cytosol-penetrating agents and allows cell-based high-throughput screening for cytosol-penetrating agents with increased endosomal-escaping activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation of oxygen uptake to work rate in prepubertal healthy children - reference for VO2/W-slope and effect on cardiorespiratory fitness assessment.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-09

    Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) and workload (W), and VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO 2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK . A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis. VO 2 /W-slopes were computed using linear regression. Agreement analysis by Bland and Altman for estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK was carried out including limits of agreement (LA). Determinants for VO 2 /W-slopes and estimation bias were defined. VO2/W-slope was in both girls and boys ≥9·4 and did not change with exercise level, but the oxygen cost of exercise was higher among physically more active children. Estimated VO 2 PEAK had 6·4% coefficient of variation, and LA varied from 13% underestimation to 13% overestimation. Bias had a trend towards underestimation along lean mass proportional VO 2 PEAK . The primary determinant for estimation bias was VO2/W-slope (β = -0·65; P<0·001). The reference values for VO 2 /W-slope among healthy prepubertal children were similar to those published for adults and among adolescents. Estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK should not be considered to be interchangeable because of the variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W. On other hand, variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W enables that VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of oxygen transfer parameters and oxygen demands in bioreactors operated at low and high dissolved oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Mines, Richard O; Callier, Matthew C; Drabek, Benjamin J; Butler, André J

    2017-03-21

    The proper design of aeration systems for bioreactors is critical since it can represent up to 50% of the operational and capital cost at water reclamation facilities. Transferring the actual amount of oxygen needed to meet the oxygen demand of the wastewater requires α- and β-factors, which are used for calculating the actual oxygen transfer rate (AOTR) under process conditions based on the standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR). The SOTR is measured in tap water at 20°C, 1 atmospheric pressure, and 0 mg L -1 of dissolved oxygen (DO). In this investigation, two 11.4-L bench-scale completely mixed activated process (CMAS) reactors were operated at various solid retention times (SRTs) to ascertain the relationship between the α-factor and SRT, and between the β-factor and SRT. The second goal was to determine if actual oxygen uptake rates (AOURs) are equal to calculated oxygen uptake rates (COURs) based on mass balances. Each reactor was supplied with 0.84 L m -1 of air resulting in SOTRs of 14.3 and 11.5 g O 2 d -1 for Reactor 1 (R-1) and Reactor 2 (R-2), respectively. The estimated theoretical oxygen demands of the synthetic feed to R-1 and R-2 were 6.3 and 21.9 g O 2 d -1 , respectively. R-2 was primarily operated under a dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and high nitrogen loading to determine if nitrification would be inhibited from a nitrite buildup and if this would impact the α-factor. Nitrite accumulated in R-2 at DO concentrations ranging from 0.50 to 7.35 mg L -1 and at free ammonia (FA) concentrations ranging from 1.34 to 7.19 mg L -1 . Nonsteady-state reaeration tests performed on the effluent from each reactor and on tap water indicated that the α-factor increased as SRT increased. A simple statistical analysis (paired t-test) between AOURs and COURs indicated that there was a statistically significant difference at 0.05 level of significance for both reactors. The ex situ BOD bottle method for estimating AOUR appears to be invalid in

  11. A novel method for measuring cellular antibody uptake using imaging flow cytometry reveals distinct uptake rates for two different monoclonal antibodies targeting L1.

    PubMed

    Hazin, John; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Altevogt, Peter; Brady, Nathan R

    2015-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have emerged as a promising tool for cancer therapy. Differing approaches utilize mAbs to either deliver a drug to the tumor cells or to modulate the host's immune system to mediate tumor kill. The rate by which a therapeutic antibody is being internalized by tumor cells is a decisive feature for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. We herein present a novel method to effectively quantitate antibody uptake of tumor cells by using image-based flow cytometry, which combines image analysis with high throughput of sample numbers and sample size. The use of this method is established by determining uptake rate of an anti-EpCAM antibody (HEA125), from single cell measurements of plasma membrane versus internalized antibody, in conjunction with inhibitors of endocytosis. The method is then applied to two mAbs (L1-9.3, L1-OV52.24) targeting the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) at two different epitopes. Based on median cell population responses, we find that mAb L1-OV52.24 is rapidly internalized by the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3ip while L1 mAb 9.3 is mainly retained at the cell surface. These findings suggest the L1 mAb OV52.24 as a candidate to be further developed for drug-delivery to cancer cells, while L1-9.3 may be optimized to tag the tumor cells and stimulate immunogenic cancer cell killing. Furthermore, when analyzing cell-to-cell variability, we observed L1 mAb OV52.24 rapidly transition into a subpopulation with high-internalization capacity. In summary, this novel high-content method for measuring antibody internalization rate provides a high level of accuracy and sensitivity for cell population measurements and reveals further biologically relevant information when taking into account cellular heterogeneity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential contribution of key metabolic substrates and cellular oxygen in HIF signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhdanov, Alexander V., E-mail: a.zhdanov@ucc.ie; Waters, Alicia H.C.; Golubeva, Anna V.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in availability and utilisation of O{sub 2} and metabolic substrates are common in ischemia and cancer. We examined effects of substrate deprivation on HIF signalling in PC12 cells exposed to different atmospheric O{sub 2}. Upon 2–4 h moderate hypoxia, HIF-α protein levels were dictated by the availability of glutamine and glucose, essential for deep cell deoxygenation and glycolytic ATP flux. Nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α dramatically decreased upon inhibition of glutaminolysis or glutamine deprivation. Elevation of HIF-2α levels was transcription-independent and associated with the activation of Akt and Erk1/2. Upon 2 h anoxia, HIF-2α levels strongly correlated with cellular ATP,more » produced exclusively via glycolysis. Without glucose, HIF signalling was suppressed, giving way to other regulators of cell adaptation to energy crisis, e.g. AMPK. Consequently, viability of cells deprived of O{sub 2} and glucose decreased upon inhibition of AMPK with dorsomorphin. The capacity of cells to accumulate HIF-2α decreased after 24 h glucose deprivation. This effect, associated with increased AMPKα phosphorylation, was sensitive to dorsomorphin. In chronically hypoxic cells, glutamine played no major role in HIF-2α accumulation, which became mainly glucose-dependent. Overall, the availability of O{sub 2} and metabolic substrates intricately regulates HIF signalling by affecting cell oxygenation, ATP levels and pathways involved in production of HIF-α. - Highlights: • Gln and Glc regulate HIF levels in hypoxic cells by maintaining low O{sub 2} and high ATP. • HIF-α levels under anoxia correlate with cellular ATP and critically depend on Glc. • Gln and Glc modulate activity of Akt, Erk and AMPK, regulating HIF production. • HIF signalling is differentially inhibited by prolonged Glc and Gln deprivation. • Unlike Glc, Gln plays no major role in HIF signalling in chronically hypoxic cells.« less

  13. Dietary Factors Modulate Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells from an Iron Ingot Used as a Home Fortificant to Prevent Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Perfecto, Antonio; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF) (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada) and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM) at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA) maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron) at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen. PMID:28895913

  14. Reflectance spectroscopy can quantify cutaneous haemoglobin oxygenation by oxygen uptake from the atmosphere after epidermal barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Heise, H M; Lampen, P; Stücker, M

    2003-11-01

    The supply of oxygen to the viable skin tissue within the upper layers is not only secured by the cutaneous blood vascular system, but to a significant part also by oxygen diffusion from the atmosphere through the horny layer. The aim of this study was to examine whether changes in haemoglobin oxygenation can be observed within the isolated perfused bovine udder skin used as a skin model by removing the upper horny layer by adhesive tape stripping. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible spectral range was used for non-invasive characterisation of haemoglobin oxygenation in skin under in vitro conditions. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy was employed for analysing the surface layer of the stratum corneum with respect to keratin, water and lipid components. Skin barrier disruption was achieved by repeated stripping of superficial corneocyte layers by adhesive tape. Significant changes in skin haemoglobin oxygenation were observed for skin areas with reduced lipid concentration and a reduced stratum corneum layer, as determined from the quantitative evaluation of the diffuse reflectance skin spectra. The result can be interpreted as an increase of oxygen diffusion after the removal of the upper horny layer.

  15. Celllular Uptake and Clearance of TIO2 Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential rates of cellular uptake and clearance of engineered nanomaterials may influence the propensity for tissue accumulation under chronic exposure conditions. A retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was used to investigate 1) if Ti02 (Degussa, P25) nanoparticles...

  16. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake () during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants’ (age 19–48 years) were recruited and their steady-state was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of . Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg−1 min−1) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. PMID:26371230

  17. The impact of firefighter personal protective equipment and treadmill protocol on maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO(2max) between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO(2max) was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO(2) in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO(2) but not VO(2max). These results suggest that firefighters' maximal performance determined from a typical VO(2max) test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE.

  18. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  19. A missense mutation in TCN2 is associated with decreased risk for congenital heart defects and may increase cellular uptake of vitamin B12 via Megalin.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqiang; Huang, Lijuan; Zheng, Yufang; Pan, Xuedong; Peng, Rui; Jiang, Yueming; Finnell, Richard H; Li, Haijie; Qiao, Bin; Wang, Hong-Yan

    2017-08-15

    Deregulation of folate and vitamin B12 (VB12) metabolism contributes to the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Transcobalamin (TCN2) is essential for transporting VB12 from blood to cells as TCN2-bound VB12 (holo-TC) is the only form for somatic cellular uptake. In this study, we performed an association study between common polymorphisms in 46 one carbon metabolism genes and CHD in 412 CHDs and 213 controls. Only two significant association signals in coding regions were identified: FTCD c.1470C>T & TCN2 c.230A>T. The only missense mutation, TCN2 c.230A>T, was further validated in 412 CHDs and 1177 controls. TCN2 c.230T is significantly associated with reduced CHD risk in North Chinese (odds ratio = 0.67, P = 4.62e-05), compared with the 230A allele. Interestingly, the mean level of plasma holo-TC in women with the TA genotype was 1.77-fold higher than that in women with the AA genotype. Further analysis suggested that c.230A>T enhanced the cellular uptake of holo-TC via the LRP2 receptor. Our results determined that a functional polymorphism in TCN2 contributes to the prevalence of CHDs. TCN2 c.230A>T is significantly associated with a reduced CHD risk, likely due to TCN2 c.230T improving the interaction between holo-TC and its LRP2 receptor.

  20. A missense mutation in TCN2 is associated with decreased risk for congenital heart defects and may increase cellular uptake of vitamin B12 via Megalin

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yufang; Pan, Xuedong; Peng, Rui; Jiang, Yueming; Finnell, Richard H.; Li, Haijie; Qiao, Bin; Wang, Hong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Deregulation of folate and vitamin B12 (VB12) metabolism contributes to the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Transcobalamin (TCN2) is essential for transporting VB12 from blood to cells as TCN2-bound VB12 (holo-TC) is the only form for somatic cellular uptake. In this study, we performed an association study between common polymorphisms in 46 one carbon metabolism genes and CHD in 412 CHDs and 213 controls. Only two significant association signals in coding regions were identified: FTCD c.1470C>T & TCN2 c.230A>T. The only missense mutation, TCN2 c.230A>T, was further validated in 412 CHDs and 1177 controls. TCN2 c.230T is significantly associated with reduced CHD risk in North Chinese (odds ratio = 0.67, P = 4.62e-05), compared with the 230A allele. Interestingly, the mean level of plasma holo-TC in women with the TA genotype was 1.77-fold higher than that in women with the AA genotype. Further analysis suggested that c.230A>T enhanced the cellular uptake of holo-TC via the LRP2 receptor. Our results determined that a functional polymorphism in TCN2 contributes to the prevalence of CHDs. TCN2 c.230A>T is significantly associated with a reduced CHD risk, likely due to TCN2 c.230T improving the interaction between holo-TC and its LRP2 receptor. PMID:28903415

  1. Effects of the Particulate Matter₂.₅ (PM₂.₅) on Lipoprotein Metabolism, Uptake and Degradation, and Embryo Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Eun-Young; Choi, Inho; Kim, Jihoe; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Particulate matter2.5 (PM2.5) is notorious for its strong toxic effects on the cardiovascular, skin, nervous, and reproduction systems. However, the molecular mechanism by which PM2.5 aggravates disease progression is poorly understood, especially in a water-soluble state. In the current study, we investigated the putative physiological effects of aqueous PM2.5 solution on lipoprotein metabolism. Collected PM2.5 from Seoul, Korea was dissolved in water, and the water extract (final 3 and 30 ppm) was treated to human serum lipoproteins, macrophages, and dermal cells. PM2.5 extract resulted in degradation and aggregation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL); apoA-I in HDL aggregated and apo-B in LDL disappeared. PM2.5 treatment (final 30 ppm) also induced cellular uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) into macrophages, especially in the presence of fructose (final 50 mM). Uptake of oxLDL along with production of reactive oxygen species was accelerated by PM2.5 solution in a dose-dependent manner. Further, PM2.5 solution caused cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblast cells. Microinjection of PM2.5 solution into zebrafish embryos induced severe mortality accompanied by impairment of skeletal development. In conclusion, water extract of PM2.5 induced oxidative stress as a precursor to cardiovascular toxicity, skin cell senescence, and embryonic toxicity via aggregation and proteolytic degradation of serum lipoproteins.

  2. Luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine indole complexes--synthesis, photophysics, electrochemistry, protein-binding properties, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jason Shing-Yip; Lee, Pui-Kei; Tsang, Keith Hing-Kit; Ng, Cyrus Ho-Cheong; Lam, Yun-Wah; Cheng, Shuk-Han; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2009-01-19

    A series of luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine indole complexes, [Ir(N--C)(2)(N--N)](PF(6)) (HN--C = 2-phenylpyridine (Hppy), N--N = 4-((2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl)aminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine (bpy-ind) (1a), N--N = 4-((5-((2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl)aminocarbonyl)pentyl)aminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine (bpy-C6-ind) (1b); HN--C = 7,8-benzoquinoline (Hbzq), N--N = bpy-ind (2a), N--N = bpy-C6-ind (2b); and HN--C = 2-phenylquinoline (Hpq), N--N = bpy-ind (3a), N--N = bpy-C6-ind (3b)), have been synthesized, characterized, and their photophysical and electrochemical properties and lipophilicity investigated. Photoexcitation of the complexes in fluid solutions at 298 K and in alcohol glass at 77 K resulted in intense and long-lived luminescence (lambda(em) = 540-616 nm, tau(o) = 0.13-5.15 mus). The emission of the complexes has been assigned to a triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) (dpi(Ir) --> pi*(N--N)) excited state, probably with some mixing of triplet intraligand ((3)IL) (pi --> pi*) (pq) character for complexes 3a,b. Electrochemical measurements revealed that all the complexes showed an irreversible indole oxidation wave at ca. +1.1 V versus SCE, a quasi-reversible iridium(IV/III) couple at ca. +1.3 V, and a reversible diimine reduction couple at ca. -1.3 V. The interactions of these complexes with an indole-binding protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been studied by emission titrations, and the K(a) values are on the order of 10(4) M(-1). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the complexes toward human cervix epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cells has been examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC(50) values of the complexes ranged from 1.1 to 6.3 microM, which are significantly smaller than that of cisplatin (30.7 microM) under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, the cellular uptake of the complexes has been investigated by flow cytometry and laser

  3. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-08-11

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBCs). Although the oxygen affinity of blood is well-understood and routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of RBC volume and Hb concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers, and they are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume, and Hb concentration for individual RBCs in high throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.9%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with Hb concentration but independent of osmolarity, which suggests variation in the Hb to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2-3 DPG) ratio on a cellular level. By quantifying the functional behavior of a cellular population, our system adds a dimension to blood cell analysis and other measurements of single-cell variability.

  4. Estimating the effect of burrowing shrimp on deep-sea sediment community oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel; Pilditch, Conrad A

    2017-01-01

    Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) is a proxy for organic matter processing and thus provides a useful proxy of benthic ecosystem function. Oxygen uptake in deep-sea sediments is mainly driven by bacteria, and the direct contribution of benthic macro- and mega-infauna respiration is thought to be relatively modest. However, the main contribution of infaunal organisms to benthic respiration, particularly large burrowing organisms, is likely to be indirect and mainly driven by processes such as feeding and bioturbation that stimulate bacterial metabolism and promote the chemical oxidation of reduced solutes. Here, we estimate the direct and indirect contributions of burrowing shrimp ( Eucalastacus cf. torbeni ) to sediment community oxygen consumption based on incubations of sediment cores from 490 m depth on the continental slope of New Zealand. Results indicate that the presence of one shrimp in the sediment is responsible for an oxygen uptake rate of about 40 µmol d -1 , only 1% of which is estimated to be due to shrimp respiration. We estimate that the presence of ten burrowing shrimp m -2 of seabed would lead to an oxygen uptake comparable to current estimates of macro-infaunal community respiration on Chatham Rise based on allometric equations, and would increase total sediment community oxygen uptake by 14% compared to sediment without shrimp. Our findings suggest that oxygen consumption mediated by burrowing shrimp may be substantial in continental slope ecosystems.

  5. Ventilation and oxygen uptake during escape from a civil aircraft.

    PubMed

    Ross, J A; Watt, S J; Henderson, G D; Vant, J H

    1990-01-01

    To help develop a specification for equipment providing personal respiratory protection in the event of aircraft fire a study was carried out to quantify ventilation and oxygen consumption during escape from a Trident aircraft. Data were gathered using the P.K. Morgan 'Oxylog' apparatus after its response time to rapid changes in inspired to expired oxygen concentration difference was assessed using a bench test. The 'Oxylog' had a lag time of 30-32 s and a 5-95% response typified by a half time of 20 s. The data gathered were corrected in the light of these findings. Fourteen male subjects aged 17-38 years were studied under two conditions. Four mass evacuations each involving 40 people; a total of nine subjects escaping from the front rank over eight seats being monitored. Six evacuations each involving only two people escaping from the rear of the cabin; a total of 11 subjects escaping over 14 seats being monitored. Escape was made over the seat backs, down an escape chute to a position 12 m from the base of the chute. Resting minute ventilation (mean 16.7 1 STPD) and oxygen</