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Sample records for cement treated soils

  1. Physical and geotechnical properties of cement-treated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasabkolaei, N.; Janalizadeh, A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Roshan, N.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the use of nanosilica to improve geotechnical characteristics of cement-treated clayey soil from the coastal area of the eastern Caspian Sea in the Golestan province, Iran. Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed to investigate the soil plastic and strength parameters. The specimens were prepared by mixing soil with 9% cement and various contents of nanosilica. An ultrasonic bath device was used to disperse nanosilica in water. The addition of nanosilica enhanced the strength parameters of the clayey soil. Moreover, a nanosilica percentage of 1.5% by weight of cement improved the compressive strength of the cement-treated clay up to 38%, at age of 28 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate specimen morphology. SEM and AFM results confirm the experimental ones. Therefore, nanosilica can be employed for soil improvement in geotechnical engineering.

  2. pH-dependent leaching behaviour and other performance properties of cement-treated mixed contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Yi, Yaolin; Stegemann, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    Portland cement has been widely used for stabilisation/solidification (S/S) treatment of contaminated soils. However, there is a dearth of literature on pH-dependent leaching of contaminants from cement-treated soils. This study investigates the leachability of Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from a mixed contaminated soil. A sandy soil was spiked with 3000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel, and treated with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I). Four different binder dosages, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (m/m) and different water contents ranging from 13%-19% dry weight were used in order to find a safe operating envelope for the treatment process. The pH-dependent leaching behaviour of the treated soil was monitored over an 84-day period using a 3-point acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) test. The monolithic leaching test was also conducted. Geotechnical properties such as unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity and porosity were assessed over time. The treated soils recorded lower leachate concentrations of Ni and Zn compared to the untreated soil at the same pH depending on binder dosage. The binder had problems with Pb stabilisation and TPH leachability was independent of pH and binder dosage. The hydraulic conductivity of the mixes was generally of the order, 10(-8) m/sec, while the porosity ranged from 26%-44%. The results of selected performance properties are compared with regulatory limits and the range of operating variables that lead to acceptable performance described.

  3. Apparatus for treating cement kiln dust

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, R.

    1986-04-22

    An apparatus is described for treating cement kiln dust comprising an elongate reaction chamber, kiln dust entry means in the reaction chamber, atomized-spray nozzles in the reaction chamber for introducing atomized spray to kiln dust, separate conduits for liquid and gas separately connected to the atomized-spray nozzles for atomizing liquid by gas to form a fog of the liquid in an atmosphere of the gas, mixing means in the reaction chamber for mixing the kiln dust in contact with the fog and gaseous atmosphere of the reaction chamber, discharge means at one end of the reaction chamber for discharging the mixed and contacted kiln dust product from the reaction chamber. The kiln dust entry means are located in an upper region of the reaction chamber for depositing kiln dust gravitationally to a lower region of the reaction chamber. The atomized-spray nozzles are located in the upper region of the reaction chamber for depositing fog on kiln dust during mixing thereof, gas entry means on the reaction chamber for delivering gas to the reaction chamber for reaction with kiln dust and fog, gas exit means on the reaction chamber for discharging gas products from the reaction chamber. The gas entry and exit means are at opposite ends of the reaction chamber, and pre-entry liquid atomizing spray means in the gas entry means for treating gas by atomized liquid spray to effectively saturate the gas before delivery to the reaction chamber.

  4. Treating cement burns in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Use of cement is widespread in the UK and warnings about burns caused by contact with the material are usually printed on bags and delivery dockets. Nevertheless, about 2 per cent of people admitted to burns units have injuries, many serious, caused by prolonged contact with wet cement. This article explores the pathophysiology of cement burns, and outlines the best forms of treatment and prevention.

  5. Hydraulic Conductivity of Residual Soil-Cement Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, P.; Taha, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    In Malaysia, although there are several researches on engineering properties of residual soils, however study on the hydraulic conductivity properties of metasedimentary residual soils is still lacking. Construction of containment walls like slurry wall techniques can be achieved with hydraulic conductivity of approximately 5 x 10-7cm/sec. The objectives of the study were to determine the physical properties of metasedimentary residual soils and to determine the influence of 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement on hydraulic conductivity parameters. The coefficient of hydraulic conductivity of the soil naturally and soil-cement mixtures were determined by using the falling head test. According to the test, the hydraulic conductivity of the original soil was 4.16 x 10-8 m/s. The value decreases to 3.89 x 10-8 m/s, 2.78 x 10-8 m/s then 6.83 x 10-9 m/s with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of cement additives, respectively. During the hydration process, cement hydrates is formed followed by the increase in pH value and Ca(OH)2 which will alter the modification of pores size and distribution. When the quantity of cement increases, the pores size decrease. But, the addition of 10% cement gives an increased hydraulic conductivity value to 2.78 x 10-8 m/s. With 10%, the pore size increase might due to flocculation and agglomeration reaction. The generated hydraulic conductivity values will indirectly become a guide in the preliminary soil cement stabilization to modify the properties of the soil to become more like the properties of a soft rock.1. Introduction

  6. Criteria for Remote Sensing Detection of Sulfate Cemented Soils on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Christopher D.; Mustard, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Spectral measurements of loose and cemented mixtures of palagonitic soil and sulfates were made to determine whether cemented soils could be identified on Mars. Cemented MgSO4 mixtures exhibit an enhanced 9 micron sulfate fundamental compared to gypsum mixtures due to more diffuse and pervasive cementing.

  7. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Grubb, Dennis G; Reilly, Trevor L

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) and selenate (SeO(4)(2-)). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration <10mg/L. Several treatments satisfied the USEPA TCLP best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) limits (5.7 mg/L) for selenium at pozzolan doses up to 10 times less than the treatments that established the BDAT. Neither pozzolan was capable of reducing the TCLP-Se(VI) concentrations below 25mg/L. Se-soil-cement slurries aged for 30 days enabled the identification of Se precipitates by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD and SEM-EDX analyses of the Se(IV)- and Se(VI)-soil-cement slurries revealed that the key selenium bearing phases for all three soil-cement slurries were calcium selenite hydrate (CaSeO(3).H(2)O) and selenate substituted ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SeO(4))(3)(OH)(12).26H(2)O), respectively.

  8. Peach leaf responses to soil and cement dust pollution.

    PubMed

    Maletsika, Persefoni A; Nanos, George D; Stavroulakis, George G

    2015-10-01

    Dust pollution can negatively affect plant productivity in hot, dry and with high irradiance areas during summer. Soil or cement dust were applied on peach trees growing in a Mediterranean area with the above climatic characteristics. Soil and cement dust accumulation onto the leaves decreased the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available to the leaves without causing any shade effect. Soil and mainly cement dust deposition onto the leaves decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, and water use efficiency due possibly to stomatal blockage and other leaf cellular effects. In early autumn, rain events removed soil dust and leaf functions partly recovered, while cement dust created a crust partially remaining onto the leaves and causing more permanent stress. Leaf characteristics were differentially affected by the two dusts studied due to their different hydraulic properties. Leaf total chlorophyll decreased and total phenol content increased with dust accumulation late in the summer compared to control leaves due to intense oxidative stress. The two dusts did not cause serious metal imbalances to the leaves, except of lower leaf K content.

  9. Cemented Volcanic Soils, Martian Spectra and Implications for the Martian Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Schiffman, P.; Drief, A.; Southard, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Cemented soils formed via reactions with salts are studied here and provide information about the climate when they formed. Spectroscopic and microprobe studies have been performed on cemented volcanic crusts in order to learn about the composition of these materials, how they formed, and what they can tell us about climatic interactions with surface material on Mars to form cemented soils. These crusts include carbonate, sulfate and opaline components that may all be present in cemented soil units on Mars.

  10. Apatite cement containing antibiotics: efficacy in treating experimental osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Ishii, Y

    1999-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is generally treated by the systemic administration of antibiotics and continuous irrigation after curettage of the lesion, and bone graft is performed secondarily to treat any bone defect. This treatment is associated with major invasion, and also has adverse effects on other organs. If a superior bone filling material were to be developed that allowed high concentrations of antibiotics that acted only locally, and allowed bone formation at the same time, an ideal method of treating osteomyelitis would become available. We created an implant composed of calcium phosphate cement, gentamicin, and poly-L-lactic acid. The results of sustained-release testing in vivo and in vitro demonstrated the release of effective antibiotic concentrations over a 2-month period. Further, when an experimental model of osteomyelitis was produced in rabbits and the implant was inserted after bone marrow curettage, the implant proved effective in preventing the progression of osteomyelitis and in achieving local bone formation.

  11. Cemented Volcanic Soils, Martian Spectra and Implications for the Martian Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Schiffman, P.; Drief, A.; Southard, R. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cemented volcanic crusts are studied to learn about their composition, formation processes, and implications for climate interactions with the surface on Mars. Such carbonate, sulfate and opal crusts may be present in cemented soil units on Mars.

  12. A Model of Thermal Conductivity for Planetary Soils. 2; Theory for Cemented Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piqueux, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model of heat conduction through particulate media made of spherical grains cemented by various bonding agents is presented. The pore-filling gas conductivity, volume fraction, and thermal conductivity of the cementing phase are tunable parameters. Cement fractions <0.001-0.01% in volume have small effects on the soil bulk thermal conductivity. A significant conductivity increase (factor 3-8) is observed for bond fractions of 0.01 to 1% in volume. In the 1 to 15% bond fraction domain, the conductivity increases continuously but less intensely (25-100% conductivity increase compared to a 1% bond system). Beyond 15% of cements, the conductivity increases vigorously and the bulk conductivity rapidly approaches that of bedrock. The composition of the cements (i.e. conductivity) has little influence on the bulk thermal inertia of the soil, especially if the volume of bond <10%. These results indicate that temperature measurements are sufficient to detect cemented soils and quantify the amount of cementing phase, but the mineralogical nature of the bonds and the typical grain size are unlikely to be determined from orbit. On Mars, a widespread surface unit characterized by a medium albedo (0.19-0.26) and medium/high thermal inertia (200-600 J s(0.5)/sq m/K) has long been hypothesized to be associated with a duricrust. The fraction of cement required to fit the thermal data is less than approx.1-5% by volume. This small amount of material is consistent with orbital observations, confirming that soil cementation is an important factor controlling the thermal inertia of the Martian surface

  13. Iron filings cement engineered soil mix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioretention cells are used in urban stormwater management to reduce storm surge and nutrient loss. The cells are filled with mixtures of soil, sand, compost, and other materials, and are underlain by a drain. The purpose of this study was to determine if iron filings would be a suitable filter for ...

  14. Mechanism for the stabilization/solidification of arsenic-contaminated soils with Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Ho; Moon, Deok Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Keun-Young; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Min Gyu

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the mechanism for the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils with Portland cement (PC), and cement kiln dust (CKD) using 1 N HCl extraction fluid, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was investigated. The degree of As immobilization after stabilization was assessed using a 1 N HCl extraction on the basis of the Korean Standard Test (KST). After 1 day of curing with 30 wt% PC and 7 days of curing with 50 wt% CKD, the concentration of As leached from the amended soils was less than the Korean countermeasure standard (3 mg L(-1)). The As concentrations in the leachate treated with PC and CKD were significantly decreased at pH > 3, indicating that pH had a prevailing influence on As mobility. XRPD results indicated that calcium arsenite (Ca-As-O) and sodium calcium arsenate hydrate (NaCaAsO(4).7.5H(2)O) were present in the PC- and CKD-treated slurries as the key phases responsible for As(III) and As(V) immobilization, respectively. The XANES spectroscopy confirmed that the As(III) and As(V) oxidation states of the PC and CKD slurry samples were consistent with the speciated forms in the crystals identified by XRPD. EXAFS spectroscopy showed As-Ca bonding in the As(III)-PC and As(III)-CKD slurries. The main mechanism for the immobilization of As-contaminated soils with PC and CKD was strongly associated with the bonding between As(III) or As(V) and Ca.

  15. Reduction of soil pollution by usingwaste of the limestone in the cement industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. Cecilia Soto; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Blanco Fernandez, David; Diaz Gonzalez, Marcos; Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Moore Undurraga, Fernando; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    In the cement manufacturing process (wet) a residue is generated in the flotation process. This builds up causing contamination of soil, groundwater and agricultural land unusable type. In this study to reduce soil and water pollution 10% of the dose of cement was replaced by waste of origin limestone. Concretes were produced with 3 doses of cement and mechanical strengths of each type of concrete to 7, 28 and 90 days were determined. the results indicate that the characteristics of calcareous residue can replace up to 10% of the dose of cement without significant decreases in strength occurs. It is noted that use of the residue reduces the initial resistance, so that the dose of cement should not be less than 200 kg of cement per m3. The results allow recommends the use of limestone waste since it has been observed decrease in soil and water contamination without prejudice construction material Keywords: Soil contamination; Limestone residue; Adding concrete

  16. Integrated system for treating soil contaminated with wood treating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Acheson, C.M.; Brenner, R.C.; Khodadoust, A.P.

    1995-10-01

    Approximately 20% of the hazardous waste sites undergoing bioremediation are contaminated with wood treating wastes, primarily compounds such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other hydrocarbons. A process that combines soil washing with sequential anaerobic and aerobic biotreatment is being integrated to remediate soil contaminated with these wood treating wastes. By extracting the target compound from the soil, soil washing facilitates degradation by mobilizing the target compound and expanding the range of feasible remediation technologies. Additional flexibility is possible since soil washing can be conducted in an in-situ or ex-situ format. In this process, the wash solution is initially bioremediated in an anaerobic environment. Mineralization of the target compound is completed aerobically. Based on preliminary results, the integrated process could meet the target cleanup level for PCP in approximately 45% of the bioremediation sites. Process development began by independently evaluating soil washing and target compound degradation. PCP contaminated soils were the initial focus, but this work is currently being extended to include soils contaminated with both PCP and PAHs. In addition, based on promising results from the soil washing and degradation evaluations, these individual unit operations are being integrated to form a complete process to remediate soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. This complete process incorporates soil washing, soil wash solution recycling, and biodegradation of the target compounds and is outlined.

  17. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-16

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

  18. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

  19. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  20. Infected total elbow arthroplasty treated by cemented arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-03-22

    A lady had suffered from deep infection of the GSB III prosthesis of her right elbow. The infection could not be controlled by repeated debridement. Finally, cemented arthrodesis was performed and the infection was eradicated.

  1. Soil Remediation of an Arsenic-Contaminated Site With Ferrous Sulfate and Type V Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, V.; O'Day, P. A.; Rivera, N.; Root, R.; Rafferty, M. T.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2005-12-01

    High levels of arsenic are present in a site adjacent to San Francisco Bay (in East Palo Alto, CA) as a consequence of the activity of a former pesticide manufacturing plant. Most of the readily accessible arsenic at the site has been removed by remedial excavation and surface capping. In-situ fixation of residual arsenic was performed close to the source about 10 years ago where arsenic values in capped soils ranged from 500 to 5000 mg kg-1. The fixation method consisted of the addition of ferrous sulfate (3% w/w), type V Portland cement (10% w/w) and water. Both products were mixed with the contaminated soil to a treatment depth between 1.5 and 9 meters. The treated soil was then capped to prevent weathering. This long-term amended soil offers an opportunity to compare the processes that prevent microbial arsenic reduction and control the immobilization of arsenic in the treated soils versus natural soils, and to study the aging effects of arsenic sorption. Solid phase characterization of soil samples from both the field and controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to study the speciation and bioavailability of arsenic and to ascertain the mechanisms of the arsenic immobilization in the treated soil. These methods included physical description by field observations, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, total elemental concentrations, and solid phase fractionation by sequential extraction. Both synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and XRD measurements were used to determine oxidation state of arsenic and iron and host phases present in the soil. The remedial treatment was successful in immobilizing the arsenic in the contaminated soil, and decreasing its leachability. Measurements taken at short aging times (during the first month) showed that the treatment was effective in reducing leachable arsenic as evidenced by the TCLP wet test (< 5 mg l-1 leached). The field amendment influenced

  2. Mechanical and leaching behaviour of slag-cement and lime-activated slag stabilised/solidified contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2011-05-01

    Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) is an effective technique for reducing the leachability of contaminants in soils. Very few studies have investigated the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) for S/S treatment of contaminated soils, although it has been shown to be effective in ground improvement. This study sought to investigate the potential of GGBS activated by cement and lime for S/S treatment of a mixed contaminated soil. A sandy soil spiked with 3000mg/kg each of a cocktail of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) and 10,000mg/kg of diesel was treated with binder blends of one part hydrated lime to four parts GGBS (lime-slag), and one part cement to nine parts GGBS (slag-cement). Three binder dosages, 5, 10 and 20% (m/m) were used and contaminated soil-cement samples were compacted to their optimum water contents. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed using unconfined compressive strength (UCS), permeability and acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) tests with determination of contaminant leachability at the different acid additions. UCS values of up to 800kPa were recorded at 28days. The lowest coefficient of permeability recorded was 5×10(-9)m/s. With up to 20% binder dosage, the leachability of the contaminants was reduced to meet relevant environmental quality standards and landfill waste acceptance criteria. The pH-dependent leachability of the metals decreased over time. The results show that GGBS activated by cement and lime would be effective in reducing the leachability of contaminants in contaminated soils.

  3. Effect of drying-wetting cycles on leaching behavior of cement solidified lead-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Xue, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Li, Zhen-Ze; Liu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Lead contaminated soil was treated by different concentration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Solidified cylindrical samples were dried at 40°C in oven for 48 h subsequent to 24h of immersing in different solution for one drying-wetting. 10 cycles were conducted on specimens. The changes in mass loss of specimens, as well as leaching concentration and pH of filtered leachates were studied after each cycle. Results indicated that drying-wetting cycles could accelerate the leaching and deterioration of solidified specimens. The cumulative leached lead with acetic acid (pH=2.88) in this study was 109, 83 and 71 mg respectively for solidified specimens of cement-to-dry soil (C/Sd) ratios 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4, compared to 37, 30, and 25mg for a semi-dynamic leaching test. With the increase of cycle times, the cumulative mass loss of specimens increased linearly, but pH of filtered leachates decreased. The leachability and deterioration of solidified specimens increased with acidity of solution. Increases of C/Sd clearly reduced the leachability and deterioration behavior.

  4. [Histopathological studies of periodontal tissue reactions to perforations in the furcation of dogs' teeth treated with cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement)].

    PubMed

    Morinaga, K; Furusawa, M; Kitamura, M; Sato, H; Watanabe, H; Yokoya, S; Nakagawa, K; Asai, Y

    1989-06-01

    In the previous study (Shikwa Gakuho, 85: 413-451, 1985.), Morinaga reported on the histopathology of furcation perforations treated with ethyl cyanoacrylate and showed that, because of its properties, this material cannot be expected to effect a permanent blockade. It did not, however, irritate the wound. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a new cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement) when applied to furcation perforations. Subjects were 25 mandibular and maxilla premolars and molars obtained from 3 adult dogs. The method used in the study was as follows. After administration of pentobarbital-sodium general anesthesia, the pulp chamber was opened by means of a high-speed air turbine fitted with a diamond point. According to usual procedures, the pulp was removed, and the main root canal was filled. Next the floor of the pulp chamber was deliberately perforated by means of a 1mm round bur that had been previously sterilized in advance pouring a physiological sodium chloride solution at the same time. The perforated areas were then washed with a same solution, wiped, and dried with aseptic cotton pellets. They were then stuffed with cyanoacrylate cement. The cavity was lined with gutta-percha temporary stopping, and the remainder of the cavity was filled with silver amalgam. At periods of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the operation, the animals were sacrificed by means of electricity under general anesthesia. The jaw bones were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in celloidin. Longitudinal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results 1. Periodontal tissues around perforated sites were healed by means of scar tissue, though suppuration occurred in a few cases. 2. Hard tissue was appended to the teeth in a small number of cases. 3. Repair of the alveolar bone was observed in the damaged site in about half of all cases. From the result mentioned above, cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement) was seemed to did not close the site perforation for

  5. May bone cement be used to treat benign aggressive bone tumors of the feet with confidence?

    PubMed

    Özer, Devrim; Er, Turgay; Aycan, Osman Emre; Öke, Ramadan; Coşkun, Mehmet; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-03-01

    Using bone cement for the reconstruction of defects created after curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors is among acceptable methods. The study aimed to assess the effect of bone cement used in aggressive bone tumors in the feet on the function of the feet. Five patients were reviewed. They were treated between 2004 and 2010. Three cases were female and two male. Their age ranged from 16 to 55 with an average of 34.8. Follow up period ranged from 14 to 86 months with an average of 34. Two cases were giant cell tumor of bone located in calcaneus and 3 were solid variant aneurysmal bone cyst located in talus, navicular and first proximal phalanx. None had any previous treatment. A biopsy was done in all cases. Treatment was curettage, high speed burring (except phalanx case), and filling the cavity with bone cement. The case located in talus recurred and re-operated 1 year later doing the same procedure. Final evaluation included physical examination, X-ray and Maryland Foot Score. No recurrence was present in the final evaluation. No problems were detected related to bone cement. Maryland Foot Scores ranged 84-100, average of 94. Cement integrity was not disturbed. The procedure is found not to effect foot functions adversely.

  6. Comparative Study of Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for Femur Neck Fractures Treated with Cemented versus Cementless Stem

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare and analyze clinical and radiologic outcomes of cemented versus cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of femur neck fractures. Materials and Methods A total of 180 patients aged 65 years and over older who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femur neck fractures (Garden stage III, IV) from March 2009 to February 2014 were included in this study. Among the 180 patients, 115 were treated with cemented stems and 65 patients with cementless stems. Clinical outcomes assessed were: i) postoperative ambulatory status, ii) inguinal and thigh pain, and iii) complications. The radiologic outcome was femoral stem subsidence measured using postoperative simple X-ray. Results The cemented group had significantly lower occurrence of complications (postoperative infection, P=0.04) compared to the cementless group. There was no significant difference in postoperative ambulatory status, inguinal and thigh pain, and femoral stem subsidence. Conclusion For patients undergoing bipolar hemiarthroplasty, other than complications, there was no statistically significant difference in clinical or radiologic outcomes in our study. Selective use of cemented stem in bipolar hemiarthroplasty may be a desirable treatment method for patients with poor bone quality and higher risk of infections. PMID:28097110

  7. Metals distribution in soils around the cement factory in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

    2006-04-01

    Thirty one soil samples were collected from south Jordan around the cement factory in Qadissiya area. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometery for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu and Cr. Physicochemical factors believed to affect their mobility of metals in soil of the study area were examined such as; pH, TOM, CaCO3, CEC and conductivity. The relatively high concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium in the soil samples of the investigated area were related to anthropogenic sources such as cement industry, agriculture activities and traffic emissions. It was found that the lead, zinc and cadmium have the highest level in area close to the cement factory, while the concentration of chromium was low. This study indicate that all of the metals are concentrated on the surface soil, and decreased in the lower part of the soil, this due to reflects their mobility and physical properties of soil and its alkaline pH values. The use of factor analysis showed that anthropogenic activities seem to be the responsible source of pollution for metals in urban soils.

  8. In Situ Evaluation of Unsurfaced Portland Cement-Stabilized Soil Airfields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    interparticle friction within the soil mass, and reduce the moisture susceptibility of the parent material. Stabilization with Portland cement can be used...Materials underlying a bound surface layer can be tested by first drilling or coring an access hole. The typical apparatus is composed of a handle, two...methods for the determination of the modulus and damping properties of ERDC/GSL TR-09-20 15 soils using the cyclic triaxial apparatus .” In this

  9. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    contamination and to increase the TCLP mercury values. IT/NFS investigated ambient temperature amalgamation/stabilization/fixation of mercury-contaminated soils to meet these objectives. Treatment ranged in size from a few ounces to 10 pounds. The treatability study philosophy was to develop working envelops of formulations where reasonable minimum and maximum amounts of each reagent that would successfully treat the contaminated soil were determined. The dosages investigated were based on ratios of stoichiometric reactions and applications of standard sets of formulations. The approach purposely identified formulations that failed short or longer cure-time performance criteria to define the limits of the envelope. Reagent envelops successfully met the project requirements one day after treatment and after greater than 30-day cures. The use of multiple levels of spikes allowed the establishment of reagent dosages that were successful across a broad range of mercury values, e.g., 50 to 6000 mg/kg mercury. The treatment products were damp to slightly wet material. Enough drying reagent, e.g., Portland cement or lime by-product, were added to some formulations to control the leachability of uranium and other hazardous metals and to ensure the product passed the paint filter test. Cost analyzes and conceptual designs for four alternatives for full-scale treatments were prepared. The alternatives included two in-situ treatments and two ex-situ treatments. The cost estimates were based on the results from the bench-scale study. All four alternatives treatment costs were well below the baseline costs.

  10. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier.

  11. [Bone cement dry prosthetic with internal fixation treat senile osteoporotic femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Rong, X X; Chen, P; Xu, Y J; Zhu, G X

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To explore the treatment of senile osteoporotic femoral fractures after using internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic. Methods: Twelve patients aged from 74 to 94 years with mean age of (84.0±2.5) years with internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic surgery who were treated at Department of Orthopaedics in Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Wuxi Second Hospital between May 2013 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 male and 4 female, 10 cases of tumble and 2 cases of traffic injury. The fracture types with AO type included 1 case of A1 type, 5 cases of A2 type, 3 cases of A3 type, 1 case of B1 type, 2 cases of B2 type. The steel plate internal fixation with bone cement dry prosthetic method was chosen to treat senile severe femoral fracture. Postoperative observation of postoperative pain assessment, hip joint activity and walking ability were evaluated. Paired simple t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the differences of pain score and the ability to walk. Results: Twelve cases received an average of (16.0±3.6) months follow-up. The average hospitalization days are (9.0±1.4) days and average of intraoperative time was (68.0±10.6) minutes. Intraoperative blood loss compared to normal was (106.0±24.2) ml. Patients began walking load and activities in two weeks. The gait and joint activities gradually restored and there were no obvious deformity and no loose internal fixation. All of the patients didn't have fracture shift with breaking plates or screws deformation and have no bone cement reaction. The walking ability was (4.1±0.9) points, the hip joint activities were 98.5°±7.7° and pain scores were 1.22±0.58 by Holden grading standards. The differences of walking ability (Z=-3.126, P<0.05) and pain scores (t=23.047, P<0.001) between pre- and post-operative were statistically significant. One patient had contralateral hip pain, 2 patients had lateral thigh pain, 10 patients returned to

  12. Treating giant cell tumours with curettage, electrocautery, burring, phenol irrigation, and cementation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Myung-Sang; Kim, Sung-SooS S; Moon, Jeong-Lim; Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Hanlim

    2013-08-01

    PURPOSE. To report on 23 patients with giant cell tumour (GCT) of the femur or tibia treated with curettage, electrocautery, burring, phenol irrigation, and cementation. METHODS. Records of these 14 men and 9 women aged 22 to 38 (mean, 31) years were reviewed. The most common site involved was the distal femur (n=13), followed by proximal tibia (n=8), proximal femur (n=1), and distal tibia (n=1). The lesions were classified as grade I (n=3), grade II (n=18), and grade III (n=2). Based on histology, the tumour stage was classified as grade I (n=5) and grade II (n=18). Two of these patients had recurrences, which were initially treated with simple curettage and bone grafting of the distal femur and distal tibia. RESULTS. The mean follow-up period was 5.7 (range, 2.5-10.1) years. 14 of the 23 patients were followed up for over 10 years. No patient developed any local recurrence, remote metastasis, or complication related to surgery or adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSION. Combined treatment entailing curettage, electrocautery, burring, phenol irrigation, and cementation was effective in treating GCT of bone.

  13. Lithological and land-use based assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils surrounding a cement plant in SW Europe.

    PubMed

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-15

    We study the influence of phasing out a cement plant on the heavy metal (Hg, Pb and Cr) content in the surrounding soils, taking into account factors often neglected, such as contributions due to local lithology or land use. The range of total Hg was 10-144µg kg(-1), reaching up to 41 and 145mgkg(-1) for total contents of Pb and Cr, respectively. Forest soils showed higher concentration of Hg than prairie soils, indicating the importance of land use on the accumulation of volatile heavy metals in soils. In forest soils, total Hg showed a trend to decrease with soil depth, whereas in prairie soils the vertical pattern of heavy metal concentrations was quite homogeneous. In most cases, the distance to the cement plant was not a factor of influence in the soils content of the analyzed heavy metals. Total Pb and Cr contents in soils nearby the cement plant were quite similar to those found in the local lithology, resulting in enrichment factor values (EF's) below 2. This suggests that soil parent material is the main source of these heavy metals in the studied soils, while the contribution of the cement plant to Pb and Cr soil pollution was almost negligible. On the contrary, the soils surrounding the cement plant accumulate a significant amount of Hg, compared to the underlying lithology. This was especially noticeable in forest soils, where Hg EF achieved values up to 36. These results are of relevance, bearing in mind that Hg accumulation in soils may be an issue of environmental concern, particularly in prairie soils, where temporal flooding can favor Hg transformation to highly toxic methyl-Hg. In addition, the concurrence of acid soils and total-Cr concentrations in the range of those considered phytotoxic should be also stressed.

  14. The Estimation of Compaction Parameter Values Based on Soil Properties Values Stabilized with Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, A. S.; Muis, Z. A.; Pasaribu, M. I.

    2017-03-01

    The strength and durability of pavement construction is highly dependent on the properties and subgrade bearing capacity. This then led to the idea of the selection methods to estimate the density of the soil with the proper implementation of the system, fast and economical. This study aims to estimate the compaction parameter value namely the maximum dry unit weight (γd max) and optimum moisture content (wopt) of the soil properties value that stabilized with Portland Cement. Tests conducted in the laboratory of soil mechanics to determine the index properties (fines and liquid limit) and Standard Compaction Test. Soil samples that have Plasticity Index (PI) between 0-15% then mixed with Portland Cement (PC) with variations of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%, each 10 samples. The results showed that the maximum dry unit weight (γd max) and wopt has a significant relationship with percent fines, liquid limit and the percentation of cement. Equation for the estimated maximum dry unit weight (γd max) = 1.782 - 0.011*LL + 0,000*F + 0.006*PS with R2 = 0.915 and the estimated optimum moisture content (wopt) = 3.441 + 0.594*LL + 0,025*F + 0,024*PS with R2 = 0.726.

  15. Leachability of Arsenic (As) Contaminated Landfill Soil Stabilised by Cement and Bagasse Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Azim, M. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Nabila, A. T. A.

    2016-11-01

    Contaminated soil with heavy metals, especially Arsenic (As) has become a major issue worldwide. As is reported to be a metal that affects human health and is related to have caused serious diseases that interrupts the nervous system, blood vessels and kidneys. However, proper treatment techniques such as Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) method can be employed and is capable of controlling these heavy metals from contaminating the soil strata and groundwater resources. This study is to investigate the leachability of Arsenic (As) in S/S method when bagasse ash (BA) is added to remedy contaminated Landfill soil. Cement is added at a proportion of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in sample weights without BA while in another sample; the cement replaces BA at a proportion of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%. and 10%. All samples were allowed to harden and cured at room temperature for 7, 14 and 28 days. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by conducting Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). Results indicate that pH and leachability are found to have major influence on metal release. The final pH after leaching tests showed improvements especially samples containing BA. In addition, the concentration of As in the SPLP test after the curing period of 28 days were detected to be below the leachability limit as regulated by WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. As a whole, the results obtained from testing showed that sample containing 10% cement with 10% BA is the most effective and is the optimum mix since this proportion succeeded in minimising the leachability of As at total reduction by 100%, In conclusion, partial replacement of cement with BA in the binder system has been successful in reducing the leachability.

  16. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei

    2014-04-30

    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure.

  17. Assessment of cement kiln dust (CKD) for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Yoon, In-Ho; Grubb, Dennis G

    2008-11-30

    A stabilization/solidification (S/S) process for arsenic (As) contaminated soils was evaluated using cement kiln dust (CKD). Laboratory-prepared slurries, made of either kaolinite or montmorillonite, and field soils spiked with either As(3+) or As(5+) were prepared and treated with CKD ranging from 10 to 25 wt%. Sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate at 0.1 wt% were used to simulate arsenite (As(3+)) and arsenate (As(5+)) source contamination in soils, respectively. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated at curing periods of 1- and 7-days based on the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). As-CKD and As-clay-CKD slurries were also spiked at 10 wt% to evaluate As immobilization mechanism using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses. Overall, the TCLP results showed that only the As(5+) concentrations in kaolinite amended with 25 wt% CKD after 1 day of curing were less than the TCLP regulatory limit of 5mg/L. Moreover, at 7 days of curing, all As(3+) and As(5+) concentrations obtained from kaolinite soils were less than the TCLP criteria. However, none of the CKD-amended montmorillonite samples satisfied the TCLP-As criteria at 7 days. Only field soil samples amended with 20 wt% CKD complied with the TCLP criteria within 1 day of curing, where the source contamination was As(5+). XRPD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results showed that Ca-As-O and NaCaAsO(4).7.5H(2)O were the primary phases responsible for As(3+) and As(5+) immobilization in the soils, respectively.

  18. The effect of portland cement for solidification of soils contaminated by mine tailings containing heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-Jun, Chen; Zheng-Miao, Xie

    2010-05-01

    Portland cement(PC) was used to solidify the lead-zinc mine tailings contaminated soils(CS) in this work. The soils were heavily polluted by heavy metals with lead(up to 19592 mg/kg), zinc(up to 647mg/kg), Cd(up to 14.65mg.kg) and Cu(up to 287mg/kg). Solidified/stabilized(s/s)forms with a range of cement contents, 40-90 wt%, were evaluated to determine the optimal binder content. Unconfined compression strength test(UCS), Chinese solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity - Horizontal vibration method, toxicity characteristic leaching procedures(TCLP) were used for physical and chemical characterization of the s/s forms. The procedure of Tessier et al.(1979) was used to separate S/S forms Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu into different fractions. The results show that addition of 50% cement was enough for the s/s forms to satisfy the MU10 requirements (0.10 MPa). Under the 50% addition, the content of the water-exchangeable fraction of Pb reduced from 2.25% to 0.2%, the carbonate-bound fraction and organic-bound fraction reduced by about half, while the Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction was more than doubled. The residual fraction decreased 8% on the contrary. For Zn, except for the carbonate-bound fraction increased slightly, the features of other items were same as that of Pb. For Cd, the water-exchangeable fraction was reduced largely, the residual fraction and Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction increased 2-3%. For Cu, A distinct feature is the organic-bound fraction reduced with the reduction in consumption of cement, at the same time, the residual fraction increased corresponding. Leaching test results indicate that the leaching contents of Pb2+ of the six specimens are quite different at low pH value(

  19. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  20. Geochemical analysis of leachates from cement/low-level radioactive waste/soil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, L.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1988-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted as part of the Special Waste Form Lysimeters/endash/Arid Program. These experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical arid, near-surface disposal site, and to evaluate the ability of laboratory tests to predict leaching in actual field conditions. Batch leaching, soil adsorption column, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted using Portland III cement waste forms containing boiling-water reactor evaporator concentrate and ion-exchange resin waste. In order to understand the reaction chemistry of the cement waste form/soil/ground-water system, the compositions of the leachates from the laboratory experiments were studied with the aid of the MINTEQ ion speciation/solubility and mass transfer computer code. The purpose of this report is to describe the changes in leachate composition that occur during the course of the experiments, to discuss the geochemical modeling results, and to explore the factors controlling the major element chemistry of these leachates. 18 refs., 84 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Ecological evaluation of artificial soils treated with phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, A. S.; Kaniskin, M. A.; Terekhova, V. A.

    2013-06-01

    An attempt to set up ecologically acceptable concentrations of toxic components contained in phosphogypsum was made for soils of different land uses. For this purpose, an experimental ecological evaluation of a standard soil mixture (model artificial soil ISO 11268-1) treated with phosphogypsum was performed. Both positive and negative effects of the phosphogypsum components were found. Thus, a significant increase in the biomass of lawn grasses was observed in the model soil with the phosphogypsum content of less than 3.3%. In the soil containing more than 6.8% phosphogypsum, the concentrations of Sr and F exceeded the maximum permissible values and adversely affected the living organisms. According to the basic ecological norms, the allowable content of phosphogypsum should be ≤2.0% for the soils of specially protected natural areas; ≤6.8% for agricultural and urban soils; and ≤9.6% for the soils of forest, water management, and transport lands.

  2. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Roots Restored with Fiber Posts Using Different Resin Cements- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Irodi, Sujatha; Mehta, Deepak; Subramanya, Shankar; Govindaraju, Vinay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The influence of the remaining coronal tooth structure along with intra-radicular esthetic posts increases fracture resistance of fractured teeth especially in the anterior region. The advent of resin based luting cements improves the adhesion of fiber posts. Aim To evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots restored with fiber posts using different resin cements – Calibra (etch and rinse), PermaFlo® DC (self-etch primer) and SmartCem2 (self-adhesive). Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary central incisors having similar dimensions were decoronated at the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) to create 16mm long specimens and endodontically treated. A total of 45 teeth were divided into three groups with 15 teeth each for cementation of easy fiber posts (size1, 0.8mm diameter). Post spaces were prepared to a depth of 10mm. Group 1 – Caulk 34% phosphoric acid gel, dual cure adhesive Prime and Bond NT followed by luting of post with Calibra cement. Group 2 – Ultra – etch then Primer A and Primer B, and PermaFlo® DC was used to cement the post. Group 3 – SmartCem2 [1:1 ratio] was used to cement the post. The excess lengths of posts were seared and teeth were mounted on acrylic blocks and loaded under compressive force to the long axis of the tooth which increased in periodic pattern of 1mm/min. The value of the force at which each root section gets fractured was noted. The data were statistically analysed using ANOVA and Tukey’s Test. Results The mean fracture load (and SD) were as follows Group 1 – 762.400 (251.490); Group 2 – 662.933 (206.709); Group 3 – 657.800 (57.372). No statistically significant differences were seen among all three Groups, p-value (0.228). Conclusion Posts cemented using self -adhesive resin cement SmartCem2 have highest fracture resistance and bonding efficacy of self-adhesive technique showed reliably better results but was comparable to total–etch and self–etch techniques. PMID

  3. Resistance to bond degradation between dual-cure resin cements and pre-treated sintered CAD-CAM dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements when luted to glass-reinforced alumina and zirconia CAD/CAM dental ceramics. Study design: Eighteen glass-infiltrated alumina and eighteen densely sintered zirconia blocks were randomly conditioned as follows: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Sandblasting (125 µm Al2O3-particles); and Group 3: Silica-coating (50 µm silica-modified Al2O3-particles). Composite samples were randomly bonded to the pre-treated ceramic surfaces using different resin cements: Subgroup 1: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); Subgroup 2: RelyX Unicem (RXU); and Subgroup 3: Calibra (CAL). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into 1 ± 0.1 mm2 sticks. One-half of the beams were tested for microtensile bond strength (MTBS). The remaining one-half was immersed in 10 % NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOClaq) for 5 h before testing. The fracture pattern and morphology of the debonded surfaces were assessed with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). A multiple ANOVA was conducted to analyze the contributions of ceramic composition, surface treatment, resin cement type, and chemical challenging to MTBS. The Tukey test was run for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Results: After 24 h, CEC luted to pre-treated zirconia achieved the highest MTBS. Using RXU, alumina and zirconia registered comparable MTBS. CAL failed prematurely, except when luted to sandblasted zirconia. After NaOClaq storage, CEC significantly lowered MTBS when luted to zirconia or alumina. RXU decreased MTBS only when bonded to silica-coated alumina. CAL recorded 100 % of pre-testing failures. Micromorphological alterations were evident after NaOClaq immersion. Conclusions: Resin-ceramic interfacial longevity depended on cement selection rather than on surface pre-treatments. The MDP-containing and the self-adhesive resin cements were both suitable for luting CAD/CAM ceramics. Despite both cements being prone to degradation, RXU luted to zirconia or untreated or

  4. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes.

  5. Bond strength of resin cement to CO2 and Er:YAG laser-treated zirconia ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Heidari, Bijan; Vafaee, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is difficult to achieve adhesion between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using routine surface preparation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CO2 and Er:YAG laser treatment on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods In this in-vitro study 45 zirconia disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) were assigned to 3 groups (n = 15). In control group (CNT) no laser treatment was used. In groups COL and EYL, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were used for pretreatment of zirconia surface, respectively. Composite resin disks were cemented on zirconia disk using dual-curing resin cement. Shear bond strength tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min after 24 hr distilled water storage. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's HSD tests. Results The means and standard deviations of shear bond strength values in the EYL, COL and CNT groups were 8.65 ± 1.75, 12.12 ± 3.02, and 5.97 ± 1.14 MPa, respectively. Data showed that application of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers resulted in a significant higher shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics (p < 0.0001). The highest bond strength was recorded in the COL group (p < 0.0001). In the CNT group all the failures were adhesive. However, in the laser groups, 80% of the failures were of the adhesive type. Conclusions Pretreatment of zirconia ceramic via CO2 and Er:YAG laser improves the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, with higher bond strength values in the CO2 laser treated samples. PMID:25383349

  6. Sulfur cement production using by products of the perchloroethylene coal cleaning process and the FC4-1 cleaned soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bassam Masri, K.L.; Fullerton, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    An introductory set of experiments to show the feasibility of making sulfur cement were carried out at the University of Akron according to Parrett and Currett`s patent which requires the use of sulfur, a filler, a plasticizer, and a vulcanization accelerator. Small blocks of cement were made using byproducts of the perchloroethylene coal cleaning process. Extracted elemental and organic sulfur, ash and mineral matters from the float sink portion of the PCE process, and FC4-1 cleaned soil were used as substitutes for sulfur and filler needed for the production of sulfur cement. Leaching tests in different solutions and under different conditions were conducted on the sulfur blocks. Other tests such as strength, durability, resistance to high or low temperatures will be conducted in the future. Sulfur cement can be used as a sealing agent at a joint, roofing purposes, forming ornamental figures, and coating of exposed surfaces of iron or steel. When mixed with an aggregate, sulfur concrete is formed. This concrete can be used for structural members, curbings, guthers, slabs, and can be precast or cast at the job site. An advantage of sulfur cement over Portland cement is that it reaches its design strength in two to three hours after processing and it can be remelted and recast.

  7. Application of soil quality indices to assess the status of agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, A.; Arcenegui, V.; García-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.

    2012-12-01

    The supply of water is limited in some parts of the Mediterranean region, such as southeastern Spain. The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to using better-quality water, especially in semi-arid regions. On the other hand, this practice can modify some soil properties, change their relationships, the equilibrium reached and influence soil quality. In this work two soil quality indices were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater in soils. The indices were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. This study was carried out in three areas of Alicante Province (SE Spain) irrigated with wastewater, including four study sites. The results showed slight changes in some soil properties as a consequence of irrigation with wastewater, the obtained levels not being dangerous for agricultural soils, and in some cases they could be considered as positive from an agronomical point of view. In one of the study sites, and as a consequence of the low quality wastewater used, a relevant increase in soil organic matter content was observed, as well as modifications in most of the soil properties. The application of soil quality indices indicated that all the soils of study sites are in a state of disequilibrium regarding the relationships between properties independent of the type of water used. However, there were no relevant differences in the soil quality indices between soils irrigated with wastewater with respect to their control sites for all except one of the sites, which corresponds to the site where low quality wastewater was used.

  8. Pathological fracture after migration of cement used to treat distal femur physeal arrest.

    PubMed

    Shea, Kevin G; Rab, George T; Dufurrena, Magen

    2009-07-01

    Treatment of physeal arrest with bar removal and placement of interposition materials in young patients has been shown to restore physeal growth. Among the various materials that have been used to prevent early reformation of the physeal bar (fat, silastic, cartilage), Peterson recommended the use of Cranioplast, as this material can prevent bar reformation, and it is radiolucent because it does not contain barium. Peterson suggested steps be taken to prevent migration of the Cranioplast, as migration of the interposition material might allow for reformation of the physeal bar. Although Peterson had not observed cement migration leading to pathologic fracture, he felt that this was a potential concern. We describe the case of cement migration from the epiphysis into the diaphysis, leading to a pathological femur fracture. Despite migration of the Cranioplast, the physeal bridge did not reform, and the patient had nearly normal growth 7 years after the initial physeal arrest procedure.

  9. Use of treated wastewater in agriculture: effects on soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Guy J.; Lado, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Disposal of treated sewage, both from industrial and domestic origin (herein referred to as treated wastewater [TWW]), is often considered as an environmental hazard. However, in areas afflicted by water scarcity, especially in semi-arid and arid regions, where the future of irrigated agriculture (which produces approximately one third of crop yield and half the return from global crop production) is threatened by existing or expected shortage of fresh water, the use of TWW offers a highly effective and sustainable strategy to exploit a water resource. However, application of TWW to the soil is not free of risks both to organisms (e.g., crops, microbiota) and to the soil. Potential risks may include reduction in biological activity (including crop yield) due to elevated salinity and specific ion toxicity, migration of pollutants towards surface- and ground-water, and deterioration of soil structure. In recent years, new evidence about the possible negative impact of long-term irrigation with TWW on soil structure and physical and chemo-physical properties has emerged, thus putting the sustainability of irrigation with TWW in question. In this presentation, some aspects of the effects of long-term irrigation with TWW on soil properties are shown.

  10. Effect of antioxidants on push-out bond strength of hydrogen peroxide treated glass fiber posts bonded with two types of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Tarighi, Pardis; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) surface treatment of fiber posts has been reported to increase bond strength of fiber posts to resin cements. However, residual oxygen radicals might jeopardize the bonding procedure. This study examined the effect of three antioxidant agents on the bond strength of fiber posts to conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Post spaces were prepared in forty human maxillary second premolars. Posts were divided into five groups of 8 each: G1 (control), no pre-treatment; G2, 10% H2O2 pre-treatment; G3, G4 and G5. After H2O2 application, Hesperidin (HES), Sodium Ascorbate (SA) or Rosmarinic acid (RA) was applied on each group respectively. In each group four posts were cemented with Duo-Link conventional resin cement and the others with self-adhesive BisCem cement. Push-out test was performed and data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the cement type and post surface treatment on push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p < 0.001, F = 16). Also it was shown that different posts' surface treatments significantly affect the push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p = 0.001). H2O2 treated posts (G2) and control posts (G1) cemented with Duo-link showed the highest (15.96 ± 5.07MPa) and lowest bond strengths (6.79 ± 3.94) respectively. Conclusions It was concluded that H2O2 surface treatment might enhance the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with conventional resin cements. The effect of antioxidants as post's surface treatment agents depends on the characteristics of resin cements used for bonding procedure. PMID:25383350

  11. HEALING OF ROOT PERFORATIONS TREATED WITH MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE (MTA) AND PORTLAND CEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Broon, Norberto Juárez; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Assis, Gerson Francisco; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Bernardineli, Norberti; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Garcia, Roberto Brandão

    2006-01-01

    Fourteen root perforations were performed for microscopic evaluation of the repair of interradicular tissue in dogs' teeth. These perforations were accomplished at low-speed with a STP 58 bur at the cervical third of the mesial root toward the furcation under irrigation with saline solution, followed by immediate sealing with ProRoot MTA, MTA-Angelus and white Portland cement. The dogs were killed after 90 days, revealing good results. The Kruskal-Wallis test did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference. It was concluded that the three materials showed good sealing in mineralized tissue, with complete closure, and they were free of inflammation in most teeth. PMID:19089049

  12. Raw and thermally treated cement asbestos exerts different cytotoxicity effects on A549 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Armanda; Lucarini, Guendalina; Rubini, Corrado; Smorlesi, Arianna; Tomasetti, Marco; Strafella, Elisabetta; Armeni, Tatiana; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2015-01-01

    Raw cement asbestos (RCA) undergoes a complete solid state transformation when heated at high temperatures. The secondary raw material produced, high temperatures-cement asbestos (HT-CA) is composed of newly-formed crystals in place of the asbestos fibers present in RCA. Our previous study showed that HT-CA exerts lower cytotoxic cell damage compared to RCA. Nevertheless further investigations are needed to deepen our understanding of pathogenic pathways involving oxidative and nitrative damage. Our aim is to deepen the understanding of the biological effects on A549 cells of these materials regarding DNA damage related proteins (p53, its isoform p73 and TRAIL) and nitric oxide (NO) production during inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated inflammation. Increments of p53/p73 expression, iNOS positive cells and NO concentrations were found with RCA, compared to HT-CA and controls mainly at 48 h. Interestingly, ferrous iron causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage was found in RCA as a contaminant. HT-CA thermal treatment induces a global recrystallization with iron in a crystal form poorly released in media. HT-CA slightly interferes with genome expression and exerts lower inflammatory potential compared to RCA on biological systems. It could represent a safe approach for storing or recycling asbestos and an environmentally friendly alternative to asbestos waste.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  14. Fate of Soil Organic Carbon and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Vineyard Soil Treated with Biochar.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Alessandro G; Meredith, Will; Snape, Colin E; Baronti, Silvia; Genesio, Lorenzo; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Miglietta, Franco; Fabbri, Daniele

    2015-09-15

    The effect of biochar addition on the levels of black carbon (BC) and polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a vineyard soil in central Italy was investigated within a two year period. Hydropyrolysis (HyPy) was used to determine the contents of BC (BCHyPy) in the amended and control soils, while the hydrocarbon composition of the semi-labile (non-BCHyPy) fraction released by HyPy was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, together with the solvent-extractable PAHs. The concentrations of these three polycyclic aromatic carbon reservoirs changed and impacted differently the soil organic carbon over the period of the trial. The addition of biochar (33 ton dry biochar ha(-1)) gave rise to a sharp increase in soil organic carbon, which could be accounted for by an increase in BCHyPy. Over time, the concentration of BCHyPy decreased significantly from 36 to 23 mg g(-1) and as a carbon percentage from 79% to 61%. No clear time trends were observed for the non-BCHyPy PAHs varying from 39 to 34 μg g(-1) in treated soils, not significantly different from control soils. However, the concentrations of extractable PAHs increased markedly in the amended soils and decreased with time from 153 to 78 ng g(-1) remaining always higher than those in untreated soil. The extent of the BCHyPy loss was more compatible with physical rather than chemical processes.

  15. PCDD/F and metal concentrations in soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, M; Bocio, A; Agramunt, M C; Domingo, J L; de Kok, H A M

    2002-07-01

    In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Tl, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in 16 soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). Metal concentrations were also analyzed in air filters from three sampling stations placed nearthe facility. For most metals, concentrations were similar or even lower than previously reported values for other areas from Catalonia. On the other hand, the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) were also determined in four soil and 16 herbage samples. Mean values were 0.37 and 0.16 ng I-TEQ/kg for soils and herbage, respectively, values which in comparison with data from other surveys are rather low. No significant differences between metal and PCDD/F concentrations in samples collected at distances lower or greater than 3.5 km of the facility were noted. The current results show that the cement plant has a low impact on the metal and PCDD/F levels in the environment under direct influence of the facility. These results should be of interest to assess future temporal variations in the levels of metals and PCDD/Fs in this area.

  16. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil of a Natural Reserve (Isola delle Femmine) (Italy) located in front of a plant for the production of cement.

    PubMed

    Orecchio, Santino

    2010-01-15

    Isola delle Femmine Natural Reserve is a very little isle about 15 km from the centre of Palermo, in front of a plant for the production of cement and about 600 m from coast. In the present research, profiles soil PAHs were obtained for 16 sites within the reserve and for 8 stations on the rural soil taken as reference. summation Sigma PAHs, in the soil of investigated area, ranged from 35 to 545 microg/kg. With the aim to find the origin of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine, we compare the distribution of single analytes in the investigated area with those of the reference rural area (Monte Raffo Rosso), with those of atmospheric urban particulate collected at Palermo along with reported of emissions of some cement plants. The island's investigated area showed a high amount of 4- and 5-rings PAHs, whereas 3-ring PAHs are present mainly in the emission of cement plants (from literature). The percentage of 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-rings PAHs determined in samples of Isola delle Femmine are similar to those of the reference rural soils and to those of urban atmospheric particulate. Cement plant activity has a negligible weight on the presence of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine.

  17. The Adsorption and Desorption of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in Freeze-Thaw Treated Soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhui; Ma, Jincai; Xu, Meng; Li, Xu; Tao, Jiahui; Wang, Guanzhu; Yu, Jitong; Guo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption are important processes that influence the potential toxicity and bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. However, information regarding adsorption and desorption behavior of heavy metals in soils subjected to freeze-thaw cycles is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of freeze-thaw cycles with different freezing temperature (-15, -25, -35°C) on soil properties was investigated. Then the adsorption and desorption behavior of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in freeze-thaw treated soils was studied. The adsorption amounts of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in freeze-thaw treated soils were smaller than those in unfrozen soils (p < 0.05), due to the fact that pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, free iron oxide content, and CaCO3 content in freeze-thaw treated soils were smaller than those in unfrozen soils. The adsorption amounts of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in soils treated with lower freezing temperatures were higher than those in soils treated with higher freezing temperatures. Desorption percentages of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in unfrozen soils were smaller than those in freeze-thaw treated soils (p < 0.05). The desorption percentages of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) were smaller in soils treated with lower freezing temperatures than those in soils treated with higher freezing temperatures. The results obtained highlight the change of the adsorption and desorption behavior of typical heavy metals in freeze-thaw treated soils located in seasonal frozen soils zone in northeast China.

  18. The partitioning behavior of trace element and its distribution in the surrounding soil of a cement plant integrated utilization of hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yongqi; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Zuotai; Ge, Xinlei

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the trace elements partitioning behavior during cement manufacture process were systemically investigated as well as their distribution behaviors in the soil surrounding a cement plant using hazardous waste as raw materials. In addition to the experimental analysis, the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were simultaneously conducted. The results demonstrate that in the industrial-scale cement manufacture process, the trace elements can be classified into three groups according to their releasing behaviors. Hg is recognized as a highly volatile element, which almost totally partitions into the vapor phase. Co, Cu, Mn, V, and Cr are considered to be non-volatile elements, which are largely incorporated into the clinker. Meanwhile, Cd, Ba, As, Ni, Pb, and Zn can be classified into semi-volatile elements, as they are trapped into clinker to various degrees. Furthermore, the trace elements emitted into the flue gas can be adsorbed onto the fine particles, transport and deposit in the soil, and it is clarified here that the soil around the cement plant is moderately polluted by Cd, slightly polluted by As, Cr, Ba, Zn, yet rarely influenced by Co, Mn, Ni, Cu, Hg, and V elements. It was also estimated that the addition of wastes can efficiently reduce the consumption of raw materials and energy. The deciphered results can thus provide important insights for estimating the environmental impacts of the cement plant on its surroundings by utilizing wastes as raw materials.

  19. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil

  20. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be

  1. Phenanthrene removal from soil slurries with surfactant-treated oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.W.; Jaffe, P.R.

    1995-06-01

    A soil-slurry washing technique to decontaminate soils containing low-solubility nonionic organic pollutants was investigated, using phenanthrene as a model pollutant. The technique is based on first transferring the sorbed phenanthrene from the soil to anionic surfactant-coated oxide particles, and then separating these anionic surfactant-coated oxide particles with the sorbed phenanthrene from the soil slurry via a magnetic separation technique. The decontamination of two soils with different particle sizes and soil organic matter content was investigated. The proposed soil-slurry washing technique was effective in removing a strongly sorbing nonionic organic contaminant from soil slurries. Various operational scenarios of multistage soil-slurry reactors were evaluated with a mathematical model.

  2. High abundance and role of antifungal bacteria in compost-treated soils in a wildfire area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, In Sung; Moon, Eun Young; Park, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sang-Jong; Lim, Joo-Hoon; Park, Byung Tae; Lee, Eun Ju

    2011-10-01

    Compost has been widely used in order to promote vegetation growth in post-harvested and burned soils. The effects on soil microorganisms were scarcely known, so we performed the microbial analyses in a wildfire area of the Taebaek Mountains, Korea, during field surveys from May to September 2007. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we found that compost used in burned soils influenced a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria. Compost-treated soils contained higher levels of antifungal strains in the genera Bacillus and Burkholderia than non-treated soils. When the antifungal activity of Burkholderia sp. strain O1a_RA002, which had been isolated from a compost-treated soil, was tested for the growth inhibition of bacteria and fungi isolated from burned soils, the membrane-filtered culture supernatant inhibited 19/37 fungal strains including soil fungi, Eupenicillium spp. and Devriesia americana; plant pathogens, Polyschema larviformis and Massaria platani; an animal pathogen, Mortierella verticillata; and an unidentified Ascomycota. However, this organism only inhibited 11/151 bacterial strains tested. These patterns were compatible with the culture-independent DGGE results, suggesting that the compost used in burned soils had a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria through the promotion of the growth of antifungal bacteria. Our findings indicate that compost used in burned soils is effective in restoring soil conditions to a state closer to those of nearby unburned forest soils at the early stage of secondary succession.

  3. Germination of Blue Wildrye in Biochar Treated Mining Impacted Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stabilization of mine sites with vegetation is an important management strategy to reduce metal movement off-site. Plant growth, however, is often hampered by poor soil conditions. Biochar is a novel soil amendment that may improve soil health conditions and improve plant growt...

  4. Soil recycling paves the way for treating brownfields

    SciTech Connect

    Gladdys, R.

    1996-02-01

    A soil recycling and stabilization process allows once-contaminated soil to be incorporated into paving materials. Contaminated soils is more widespread than often realized, with one of the more common sources being petroleum products such as fuel oil and gasoline. Until recently, the conventional solution was to have the material excavated, separated from remining soil and trucked to a hazardous waste landfill. This article describes an alternative approach under the following topics: move the solution, not the problem; on site recycling; heavy metals stabilization; economics.

  5. Strength Development of Lime Treated Artificial Organic Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, S. W.; Ling, F. N. L.; Sulaeman, A.; Low, V. S.; Toh, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In over many years, considerable research has been carried out on organic soils which consists of various components of organic matter but the effect of particular organic matter is less reported. Thus, some of contributing factors for each organic matter are not fully understood yet. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of organic acid concentration on the strength of artificial organic soil. There are four types of artificial organic soil created by mixing kaolin (inorganic matter) and organic acid (a kind of humified organic matter) in different concentrations. Unconfined Compressive Strength test (UCT) was carried out for all soil samples after being cured for 7 and 28 days under room temperature and 50°C. Soil samples shows highest strength when cured for 28 days under 50°C compared to those cured under room temperature. However, when the organic acid concentration decrease, the strength increased for soil 2 after 7 and 28 days cured under room temperature and 50°C. Apart from this, soil 3 and soil 4 that were cured under room temperature shows decrease in strength when the organic acid concentration decreasing but different result shown for both samples when cured under 50°C.

  6. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  7. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg(-1)) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg(-1)), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg(-1) in carrot and 32 mg kg(-1) in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation.

  8. Considerations in Deciding to Treat Contaminated Unsaturated Soils In Situ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to assist the user in deciding if in situ treatment of contaminated soil is a potentially feasible remedial alternative and to assist in the process of reviewing and screening in situ technologies.

  9. REVIEW OF SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide contamination results from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, or disposal of pesticides, and from agricultural processes. Since most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds, selecting a remedy for pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process....

  10. Expansive Cements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-10-01

    either burned simultaneously with a portland ce4nt or !r;terground with portland cement clinker ; Type M - a mixture of portland cement, calcium-aluminate... clinker that is interground with portland clinker or blended with portland cement or, alternately, it may be formed simul- taneously vrith the portland ... clinker compounds during the burning process. 3. Expansive cement, Type M is either a mixture of portland cement, calcium aluminate cement, and calcium

  11. Pull-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to NaOCl-treated root dentin: effect of antioxidizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Kachuei, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three antioxidizing agents on pull-out bond strengths of dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods Root canals of 75 single-rooted human teeth were prepared. Fifteen teeth were irrigated with normal saline for a negative control group, and the remaining 60 teeth (groups 2 - 5) with 2.5% NaOCl. The teeth in group 2 served as a positive control. Prior to post cementation, the root canals in groups 3 - 5 were irrigated with three antioxidizing agents including 10% rosmarinic acid (RA, Baridge essence), 10% hesperidin (HPN, Sigma), and 10% sodium ascorbate hydrogel (SA, AppliChem). Seventy-five spreaders (#55, taper .02, Produits Dentaires S.A) were coated with silica and silanized with the Rocatec system and ceramic bond. All the prepared spreaders were cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement (Bifix SE, Voco Gmbh) in the prepared canals. After storage in distilled water (24 h/37℃), the spreaders were pulled out in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Pull-out strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). Results There were significant differences between study groups (p = 0.016). The highest pull-out strength was related to the SA group. The lowest strength was obtained in the positive control group. Conclusions Irrigation with NaOCl during canal preparation decreased bond strength of resin cement to root dentin. Amongst the antioxidants tested, SA had superior results in reversing the diminishing effect of NaOCl irrigation on the bond strength to root dentin. PMID:24790921

  12. Bioavailability of heavy metals in strongly acidic soils treated with exceptional quality biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Sloan, J.J.

    1999-03-01

    New federal regulations may increase application of exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids to acidic soils, and information on the effect of this practice on bioavailability of heavy metal is limited. The objective of this study was to compare bioavailability of heavy metal in soil treated with nonalkaline or alkaline EQ biosolids with limestone-treated soils. Three acidic soils (pH 3.7--4.3) were treated with three amounts of lime-stabilized biosolids (LS), anaerobic-digested biosolids (AN), or agricultural limestone (L), and incubated at 25 C. Soil solution Cd, Zn, and other chemical constituents were measured at 1, 30, 90, and 180 d incubation. Soil solution Cd and Zn were AN > LS {ge} L, C. Soil solution Cd and Zn increased with AN applied but decreased wit h LS applied. The high application of LS had soil solution Zn dramatically decreased at soil pH > 5.5 and >5.1, respectively. Soil solution Cd and Zn increases were AN > LS with incubation time. Biosolids treatments increased heavy metal in Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaOAc fractions. Except for Cd, most metal from biosolids were in EDTA and HNO{sub 3} fractions. Heavy metal bioavailability, measured using lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), was AN > LS {ge} L, C. Although state regulations prohibiting application of nonalkaline EQ biosolids to acidic soil is a prudent practice, application of EQ alkaline biosolids that achieves soil pH > 5 minimizes risk from soil solution Cd and Zn and plant uptake of heavy metal.

  13. Cement and concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corley, Gene; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    To produce lunar cement, high-temperature processing will be required. It may be possible to make calcium-rich silicate and aluminate for cement by solar heating of lunar pyroxene and feldspar, or chemical treatment may be required to enrich the calcium and aluminum in lunar soil. The effects of magnesium and ferrous iron present in the starting materials and products would need to be evaluated. So would the problems of grinding to produce cement, mixing, forming in vacuo and low gravity, and minimizing water loss.

  14. Soil chemistry adjacent to roads treated with dust control products at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunz, Bethany K.

    2016-01-01

    The health of soils along roadways is critical for maximizing habitat quality and minimizing negative ecological effects of roads. Adjacent to unpaved roads, soil chemistry may be altered by the deposition of dust, as well as by road treatment with dust suppressants or soil stabilizer products. If present in roadside soils, these product residues may be available to plants, terrestrial invertebrates, or small mammals. Unfortunately, very few studies have attempted to track the transport of dust suppressants after application. As part of a larger ongoing study on the environmental effects of dust suppressant products on roadside plants and animals, we sampled roadside soils at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Replicated road sections at Squaw Creek NWR had been previously treated with two road products—calcium chloride-based durablend-C™ and synthetic iso-alkane EnviroKleen®. In order to quantify the effect of dust suppressant treatment on roadside soils, we took replicated composite soil samples one year after treatment at 1m and 4m from the road’s edge, and analyzed samples for a suite of soil chemistry variables (pH, conductivity, NO3-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and S). We also assessed dust suppressant product residues in the soil. For durablend-C™, we used soil conductivity as an indicator. For EnviroKleen®, we developed a method for extraction and isolation, followed by analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to look for a specific EnviroKleen® signature. Surprisingly, soil conductivity was not elevated adjacent to road sections treated with durablend-C™, relative to other sections. EnviroKleen® was detectable at both 1m and 4m from treated sections at concentrations from 1 to 1500 mg/kg, and was non-detectable in soils adjacent to the untreated section. The most notable characteristic of soils across all treated and untreated sections at 1m was elevated calcium (up to 30,000 mg/kg), likely as a result of dust deposition from the

  15. Annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, M; Agramunt, M C; Bocio, A; Domingo, J L; de Kok, H A M

    2003-07-01

    In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). To determine the temporal variation in the concentrations of metals and PCDD/PCDFs, in May 2001 soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points and analyzed for the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs. In general terms, metal concentrations in soils did not change between May 2000 and May 2001, while significant decreases in the levels of Cr, Ni and V were found in herbage. On the other hand, no significant differences in the mean I-TEQ values of PCDD/PCDFs were found in soil and herbage samples. The results of this survey show that according to the annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs the environmental impact of the cement plant on the area under its direct influence is not relevant.

  16. Soil surface colonization by phototrophic indigenous organisms, in two contrasted soils treated by formulated maize herbicide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Joly, Pierre; Misson, Benjamin; Perrière, Fanny; Bonnemoy, Frédérique; Joly, Muriel; Donnadieu-Bernard, Florence; Aguer, Jean-Pierre; Bohatier, Jacques; Mallet, Clarisse

    2014-11-01

    Soil phototrophic microorganisms, contributors to soil health and food webs, share their particular metabolism with plants. Current agricultural practices employ mixtures of pesticides to ensure the crops yields and can potentially impair these non-target organisms. However despite this environmental reality, studies dealing the susceptibility of phototrophic microorganisms to pesticide mixtures are scarce. We designed a 3 months microcosm study to assess the ecotoxicity of realistic herbicide mixtures of formulated S-metolachlor (Dual Gold Safeneur(®)), mesotrione (Callisto(®)) and nicosulfuron (Milagro(®)) on phototrophic communities of two soils (Limagne vertisol and Versailles luvisol). The soils presented different colonizing communities, with diatoms and chlorophyceae dominating communities in Limagne soil and cyanobacteria and bryophyta communities in Versailles soil. The results highlighted the strong impairment of Dual Gold Safeneur(®) treated microcosms on the biomass and the composition of both soil phototrophic communities, with no resilience after a delay of 3 months. This study also excluded any significant mixture effect on these organisms for Callisto(®) and Milagro(®) herbicides. We strongly recommend carrying on extensive soil studies on S-metolachlor and its commercial formulations, in order to reconsider its use from an ecotoxicological point of view.

  17. Effects of incorporating differently-treated rice straw on phytoavailability of methylmercury in soil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Rui; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-02-01

    Differently-treated crops straw is being widely used to fertilize soil, while the potential impacts of straw amendment on the biogeochemistry and phytoavailability of mercury in contaminated soils are largely unknown. In the present study, differently-treated rice straw (dry straw, composted straw, straw biochar, and straw ash) was incorporated into mercury-contaminated soil at an environment relevant level (1/100, w/w), and mercury speciation, methylmercury (MeHg) phytoavailability (using ammonium thiosulfate extraction method, validated elsewhere) and bioaccumulation (in Indian mustard Brassica junceas) were quantified. Our results indicated that incorporating straw biochar or composted straw into soil would decrease phytoavailable MeHg levels, possibly due to the strong binding of MeHg with particulate organic matter in amended straw ('MeHg immobilization effect'). Consequently, MeHg accumulation in aboveground tissue of Indian mustard harvested from straw biochar-amended soil decreased by 20% compared to the control. Differently, incorporation of dry straw resulted in elevated MeHg levels in soil ('Mercury methylation effect'). Decomposition of amended dry straw in soil would evidently increase DOC levels (averagely 40%-195% higher than the control), which may subsequently mobilize MeHg in the soil ('MeHg mobilization effect'). Accordingly, incorporation of dry straw led to increased phytoavailable MeHg levels in the soil and doubled MeHg accumulation in Indian mustard. Our results provided the first evidence that incorporating differently-treated rice straw into soil could have diverse effects on mercury biogeochemistry and phytoavailability, which should be taken into account in risk assessment or soil remediation.

  18. Using Iron to Treat Chlorohydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan; Hodko, Dalibor; Kim, Heekyung; Rogers, Tom; Singh, Waheguru Pal; Giletto, Anthony; Cisar, Alan

    2004-01-01

    A method of in situ remediation of soil contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents involves injection of nanometer-size iron particles. The present method exploits a combination of prompt chemical remediation followed by longer-term enhanced bioremediation and, optionally, is practiced in conjunction with the method of bioremediation described earlier. Newly injected iron particles chemically reduce chlorinated hydrocarbons upon contact. Thereafter, in the presence of groundwater, the particles slowly corrode via chemical reactions that effect sustained release of dissolved hydrogen. The hydrogen serves as an electron donor, increasing the metabolic activity of the anaerobic bacteria and thereby sustaining bioremediation at a rate higher than the natural rate.

  19. Bioventing to treat hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, H.J. Jr.; Muniz, H.R.; Geyer, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Hart Crowser has designed or is currently operating 9 in situ and 6 ex situ bioventing systems in various locations throughout the state of Alaska. The objective of these projects was to design, install, and operate a remediation system capable of reducing the existing petroleum hydrocarbon levels to below the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation clean-up action levels. Prior to the design of the bioventing systems, Hart Crowser initiated site investigations including soil borings and installation of monitoring wells to determine site geological characteristics, and the extent of the hydrocarbon impacted soils. Laboratory biofeasibility testing or in situ respirometry testing was accomplished to determine the biological activity at the sites and provide information to optimize the remedial design. Degradation rates for the various sites ranged from 0.92 mgkg{sup -1}d{sup -1} to 17.6 mgkg{sup -1}d{sup -1}. Three in situ bioventing case studies will be presented. The results of treatability testing, considerations for the design of the bioventing systems, systems installation, and the results from two years of operation will be outlined.

  20. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  1. Biodegradability of pharmaceutical compounds in agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grossberger, Amnon; Hadar, Yitzhak; Borch, Thomas; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are introduced into agricultural soils via irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Our data show that carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil are persistent in soils when introduced via TWW. However, other PCs, namely diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and naproxen were not detected in soils when introduced via TWW. This is likely due to rapid degradation as confirmed in our microcosm studies where they exhibited half-lives (t1/2) between 0.2-9.5 days when soils were spiked at 50 ng/g soil and between 3 and 68 days when soils were spiked at 5000 ng/g soil. The degradation rate and extent of PCs observed in microcosm studies were similar in soils that had been previously irrigated with TWW or fresh water. This suggests that pre-exposure of the soils to PCs via irrigation with TWW does not enhance their biodegradation. This suggests that PCs are probably degraded in soils via co-metabolism.

  2. In vitro gastrointestinal bioavailability of arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated utility poles.

    PubMed

    Pouschat, Priscilla; Zagury, Gerald J

    2006-07-01

    Because of the potentially high arsenic concentrations found in soils immediately adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood structures and utility poles, CCA-contaminated soil ingestion may be a significant exposure route to arsenic for children. Therefore, a strong need exists to provide accurate data on oral relative bioavailability (RBA) of arsenic (in vivo or in vitro) in field-collected CCA-contaminated soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess arsenic bioaccessibility in contaminated soils collected near in-service CCA-treated utility poles, (2) to determine the influence of soil properties and arsenic fractionation on arsenic bioaccessibility, and (3) to estimate an average daily arsenic intake from incidental soil ingestion. Arsenic bioaccessibility (in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) method) was determined on surface soil samples collected immediately adjacent to 12 CCA-treated utility poles after 18 months of service. Bioaccessible arsenic was also determined in 3 certified reference materials. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (<300 microm) varied from 37 +/- 2 to 251 +/- 12 mg/kg, irrespective of soil organic matter contentwith the major soil-bound arsenic species being As(V). Arsenic bioaccessibility ranged between 25.0 +/- 2.7 and 66.3 +/- 2.3% (mean value 40.7 +/- 14.9%). The mean value was in agreement with the in vivo arsenic RBA reported by Casteel et al. (2003) in soil near CCA-treated utility poles. Bioaccessible arsenic was positively correlated with total organic carbon content (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and with water-soluble arsenic (2 = 0.51, p < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with clay content (r2 = 0.43, p < 0.05). Using conservative exposure parameters, the mean daily arsenic intake from incidental ingestion of contaminated soil near CCA-treated utility poles was 0.18 +/- 0.09 microg As kg(-1) d(-1). This arsenic intake appeared negligible compared to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic from water and food

  3. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, A.Q.; Layton, D.W.; Rutz, E.E.

    1994-06-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils.

  4. Deca-brominated diphenyl ether destruction and PBDD/F and PCDD/F emissions from coprocessing deca-BDE mixture-contaminated soils in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Xiaohua; Liu, Wenbin

    2012-12-18

    The disposal of soil contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was studied using an industrial coprocessing cement kiln. Two tests, Test 1 and Test 2, studied the destruction, removal, and emissions of PBDE in soils with PBDE concentrations of 4160 and 25,000 mg/kg, respectively. Emissions of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also quantified. The PBDE destruction and removal efficiencies for Tests 1 and 2 were 99.9997% and 99.9998%, respectively. PBDE stack gas concentrations were 39.1 and 85.9 ng/Nm³ for Tests 1 and 2, respectively. The mean PBDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations related to Tests 1 and 2 were 11.0 and 11.4 pg/Nm³, and PBDFs contributed 60.0-64.2% of the total PBDD/F concentrations. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD made the greatest contribution to the total PBDD/Fs, 40%, of all the homologues. The mean PCDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations in Tests 1 and 2 were 0.74 and 0.65 pg/Nm³. The total PBDE, PBDD/F, and PCDD/F TEQ at the kiln outlet was 0.006% and 0.001% of the feed material TEQ. Therefore, coprocessing heavily PBDE-contaminated soils in a cement kiln is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  5. Evaluation of a soil slurry reactor system for treating soil contaminated with munitions compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.; Montemagno, C.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-05-01

    Two 0.5-L semicontinuous soil slurry reactors were operated for seven months to evaluate the performance of the slurry reactor system in bioremediating soil contaminated with munitions compounds. Nitrogen and carbon were supplemented. The soil slurry was mixed continuously and aerated 10 min/day. Ten percent of the contaminated soil was replaced every week. The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentration in soil began to drop after 15 days of treatment, falling to less than 0.5 mg/kg from 7800 mg/kg. Total plate counts in both reactors indicated that the bacterial population was maintained, with an average plate count of about 10{sup 8} CFU/mL. The soil slurry was slightly acidic. In addition to TNT, the slurry reactor also removed the other munitions compounds trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), RDX, and HMX. Radiolabeling studies on the reactor biomass showed that 23% of [{sup C}14]TNT was mineralized, while 27% was used as biomass and 8% was adsorbed on to the soil. The rest of the [{sup 14}C]TNT was accounted for as TNT metabolites. Increasing the frequency of soil replacement from once to two or three times weekly did not affect the TNT removal rates. However, the slurry system showed signs of stress, with highly acidic conditions and low oxygen uptake rates.

  6. Soil organic carbon of degraded wetlands treated with freshwater in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Renqing; Yu, Yue; Mitchell, Myron J; Zhang, Lianjun

    2011-10-01

    Supplying freshwater is one of the important methods to help restore degraded wetlands. Changes in soil properties and plant community biomass were evaluated by comparing sites with freshwater treatment versus reference sites following freshwater addition to wetlands of the Yellow River Delta for 7 years. The results indicated that soil organic carbon (SOC) was significantly increased in all wetland sites that were treated with freshwater compared to the reference sites. The treatment wetlands had greater total nitrogen (TN), lower pH and electrical conductivity and higher water content in the soil compared to the reference wetlands. In general, the upper soil layer (0-20 cm) had greater SOC than the lower soil layer (20-40 cm). The increase of SOC in the freshwater reintroduction wetlands was higher in the Suaeda salsa plant community (mean ± standard error) (6.89 ± 0.63 g/kg) and Phragmites communis plant community (4.11 ± 0.12 g/kg) than in the Tamarix chinensis plant community (1.40 ± 0.31 g/kg) in the upper soil layer. The differences were especially marked between the treated and reference wetlands for SOC and TN in the P. communis plant communities. The C:N ratio of the soil was significantly greater in the treated compared to the reference wetlands for the S. salsa plant community. Although the C: N ratios increased after treatment, they were all <25 suggesting that N availability was not limiting soil organic matter decomposition. Our results indicate that freshwater addition and the concomitant increase in soil moisture content enhances the accumulation of SOC in the Yellow River Delta.

  7. Irrigation with treated wastewater: effects on soil, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop and dynamics of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Pilar; Castro, Elena; de Las Heras, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for horticultural crops, assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyse the physical, chemical and biological effects of irrigation with recycled water. Two lettuce plots watered with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a three year period. Nutrients, heavy metal and the dynamics of pathogen and indicator microorganism content in soil and foliar tissues were analysed. Wastewater irrigation had a high influence on soil parameters: organic matter, N, P, Ca, Al, Fe, Pb and Zn. Indicator and pathogenic microorganisms were detected in soil and plants grown in the wastewater-irrigated plot, and persisted in the soil for 27 days during the study under humid conditions. N, P, Pb and Al content were significantly higher in plant tissues of wastewater-irrigated plots than in the control after 3 years of irrigation. Harvest was significantly higher in the wastewater-irrigated plot. Wastewater can be a resource for agricultural irrigation. In any case, the possible heavy metal accumulation in soils and presence of pathogenic organisms require careful management of this alternative resource: use of a drip irrigation system, previous wastewater disinfection and a limited irrigation period are recommended.

  8. Immune response of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea tuberculata) following in situ soil exposure to atmospheric deposition from a cement factory.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Richard; Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Sauvé, Sébastien; Flipo, Denis; Fournier, Michel; Trottier, Bertin

    2003-10-01

    In order to reduce their energy costs, many cement plants use fuel product substitutes (old tyres and used oil). The combustion of these products generates a metal increase (e.g. Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in the atmospheric emissions. After their release, these elements are deposited into the environment and could eventually accumulate up to concentrations of concern. At the Saint-Laurent cement factory (Joliette, QC, Canada), maximum deposition of these elements occurs in the direction of prevailing winds (North-East). We evaluated the potential impact of these depositions upon the immune system of three earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea tuberculata) exposed in a natural environment. The exposure sites were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 km downwind from the cement factory, along with an upwind reference site. The immune parameters studied were the cell viability and phagocytic potential of the immune cells (coelomocytes). For both L. terrestris and E. andrei, after 7 d exposure, none of the measured parameters showed significant differences among the sites. On the other hand, for the indigenous worm A. tuberculata, in the most exposed zone (at 0.5 km), we observed an increase in cell viability and phagocytic potential. This increase could possibly be attributed to physicochemical effects such as the alkaline pH of the soil, or alternatively, it could result from beneficial effects induced by an increased calcium supply.

  9. Bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc. PMID:26403875

  10. Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

  11. Calculating carbon mass balance from unsaturated soil columns treated with CaSO₄₋minerals: test of soil carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2014-12-01

    Renewed interest in managing C balance in soils is motivated by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and consequent climate change. Here, experiments were conducted in soil columns to determine C mass balances with and without addition of CaSO4-minerals (anhydrite and gypsum), which were hypothesized to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) retention and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) precipitation as calcite under slightly alkaline conditions. Changes in C contents in three phases (gas, liquid and solid) were measured in unsaturated soil columns tested for one year and comprehensive C mass balances were determined. The tested soil columns had no C inputs, and only C utilization by microbial activity and C transformations were assumed in the C chemistry. The measurements showed that changes in C inventories occurred through two processes, SOC loss and SIC gain. However, the measured SOC losses in the treated columns were lower than their corresponding control columns, indicating that the amendments promoted SOC retention. The SOC losses resulted mostly from microbial respiration and loss of CO2 to the atmosphere rather than from chemical leaching. Microbial oxidation of SOC appears to have been suppressed by increased Ca(2+) and SO4(2)(-) from dissolution of CaSO4 minerals. For the conditions tested, SIC accumulation per m(2) soil area under CaSO4-treatment ranged from 130 to 260 g C m(-1) infiltrated water (20-120 g C m(-1) infiltrated water as net C benefit). These results demonstrate the potential for increasing C sequestration in slightly alkaline soils via CaSO4-treatment.

  12. Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

    2000-01-02

    The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

  13. Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to pressure-treated decks, fences and poles.

    PubMed

    Chirenje, Tait; Ma, L Q; Clark, C; Reeves, M

    2003-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood has been widely used in the Southeastern United States to protect wood products from microbial and fungal decay. The aims of this study were to (1). determine the distribution of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu), in soils surrounding CCA-treated wood structures such as decks, fences and poles; and (2). evaluate the impacts of these structures on As, Cr and Cu loading of the soils. Profile and lateral soil samples were collected under CCA-treated decks and adjacent to poles and fences. The results showed elevation of As, Cr and Cu concentrations close to and under the structures, with mean As concentrations as high as 23 mg x kg(-1) close to utility poles compared with less than 3 mg x kg (-1) at distances of about 1.5 m away. Concentrations of As, Cr, and Cu decreased with depth in areas close to CCA-treated poles. However, these results were only apparent in relatively new structures. A combination of weathering and leaching with time may have reduced the impact in older poles. Increased concentrations of As, Cu and Cr were also observed close to CCA-treated decks and fences, with age showing a similar impact. These results are helpful for CCA-treated wood product users to determine the safe use of these structures.

  14. Calcium carbonate precipitation by strain Bacillus licheniformis AK01, newly isolated from loamy soil: a promising alternative for sealing cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Ali; Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Vali, Hojatollah; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-01-01

    The relevant experiments were designed to determine the ability of indigenous bacterial strains isolated from limestone caves, mineral springs, and loamy soils to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Among all isolates examined in this study, an efficient carbonate-precipitating soil bacterium was selected from among the isolates and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Bacillus licheniformis AK01. The ureolytic isolate was able to grow well on alkaline carbonate-precipitation medium and precipitate calcium carbonate more than 1 g L(-1). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations were performed in order to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate in the precipitate and to determine which polymorphs were present. The selected isolate was determined to be an appropriate candidate for application in a surface treatment of cement-based material to improve the properties of the mortar. Biodeposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of cement specimens resulted in filling in pore spaces. This could be an alternative method to improve the durability of the mortar. The kind of bacterial culture and medium composition had a profound impact on the resultant CaCO(3) crystal morphology.

  15. Strategies for Treating and Dewatering Contaminated Soils and Sediments Simultaneously - 13389

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin

    2013-07-01

    MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) was asked to perform a series of treatability studies by Global Technologies, Inc. (Global) and M{sup 2} Polymer Technologies, Inc. (M{sup 2} Polymer) using Global's metal treatment agent, Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and M{sup 2} Polymer's super-absorbent polymer, Waste Lock 770 (WL-770). The primary objective of the study was to determine if the two products could be used as a one-step treatment process to reduce the leachability of metals and de-water soils and/or sediments simultaneously. Three phases of work were performed during the treatability study. The first phase consisted of generating four bench-scale samples: two treated using only MBS and two treated using only WL- 770, each at variable concentrations. The second phase consisted of generating nine bench-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 in combination with three different addition techniques. The third phase consisted of generating four intermediate-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 simultaneously. The soils used in the treatability study were collected at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. The collected soils were screened at 4 mesh (4.75 millimeters (mm)) to remove the coarse fraction of the soil and spiked with metallic contaminants of lead, cadmium, nickel, mercury, uranium, chromium, and zinc. (authors)

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE SORDIDA TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with creosote was performed at a wood-treating facility in south central Mississippi in the autumn of 1991. The effects of solid-phase bioremediation with Phanerochaete sordid...

  17. Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found

  18. The effect of glass ionomer cement or composite resin bases on restoration of cuspal stiffness of endodontically treated premolars in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, N; Just, N; Haller, B; Hugo, B; Klaiber, B

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to decide whether composite resin or conventional glass ionomer cement should be preferred as a base material in endodontically treated premolars. Twelve extracted human maxillary premolars were mounted in a universal testing machine at a 35 degrees angle. Cuspal stiffness was determined by applying a load of 75 N to the buccal cusp and recording the displacement of the cusp using inductive displacement transducers. In the same teeth, different cavity preparations and restorations were performed sequentially. Standard MOD cavities were enlarged to allow endodontic access. In addition, the cusps were undermined. Half of the teeth were restored to the level of the previous shallow cavities using conventional glass ionomer cement (Ketac Fil), in the rest of the teeth dentine bonding agent (Syntac) and composite resin (Tetric) were used instead. Finally, composite resin fillings (Tetric) were placed. All restorations were removed and the experiments were repeated twice. For each replication, the assignment of the base materials to the experimental groups was reversed, and ceramic inlays (Empress) were used as final restorations for the last replication. Improvement of cuspal stiffness achieved by conventional glass ionomer bases was very small, whereas composite resin bases increased cuspal stability by more than a factor of two. After placement of the final restorations, however, there was no longer a difference between teeth with different base materials. Nevertheless, composite resin bases might be preferred for two reasons. Firstly, deterioration of adhesive restorations will probably start at the cavosurface margins. The incidence of margin gaps, however, will not only compromise marginal seal but also the stabilizing effect of the restoration. In this situation, the resin base may still stabilize the tooth. Moreover, resin bases may reduce the risk of cusp fracture during the time between cavity preparation and the insertion

  19. Effect of liming on sulfate transformation and sulfur gas emissions in degraded vegetable soil treated by reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianzhu; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-10-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD), namely amending organic materials and mulching or flooding to create strong reductive status, has been widely applied to improve degraded soils. However, there is little information available about sulfate (SO4(2-)) transformation and sulfur (S) gas emissions during RSD treatment to degraded vegetable soils, in which S is generally accumulated. To investigate the effects of liming on SO4(2-) transformation and S gas emissions, two SO4(2-)-accumulated vegetable soils (denoted as S1 and S2) were treated by RSD, and RSD plus lime, denoted as RSD0 and RSD1, respectively. The results showed that RSD0 treatment reduced soil SO4(2-) by 51% and 61% in S1 and S2, respectively. The disappeared SO4(2-) was mainly transformed into the undissolved form. During RSD treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were detected, but the total S gas emission accounted for <0.006% of total S in both soils. Compared to RSD0, lime addition stimulated the conversion of SO4(2-) into undissolved form, reduced soil SO4(2-) by 81% in S1 and 84% in S2 and reduced total S gas emissions by 32% in S1 and 57% in S2, respectively. In addition to H2S, COS and DMS, the emissions of carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulfide were also detected in RSD1 treatment. The results indicated that RSD was an effective method to remove SO4(2-), liming stimulates the conversion of dissolved SO4(2-) into undissolved form, probably due to the precipitation with calcium.

  20. Shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cements to Er:YAG laser-treated tooth structure.

    PubMed

    de Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation of enamel and dentin on the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGIC). Twenty molars were selected and the roots removed. The crowns were bisected, embedded in polyester resin and ground to plane the enamel or expose the dentin. The bonding site was delimited, and samples were randomly assigned according to the cavity preparation device: I--Er.YAG laser (350mJ/2Hz); II--Carbide bur (control group). They were subdivided according to the restorative material employed: A) Fuji II LC (GC); B) Vitremer (3M). Samples were then fixed to a metallic device where ionomer cylinders were prepared. Sequentially, the molars were stored for 24 hours and subjected to a shear bond strength test (50Kgf at 0.5 mm/minute). Means in MPa were: Enamel--IA) 4.77 (+/- 1.12); IB) 4.36 (+/- 1.50); IIA) 7.70 (+/- 1.53); IIB) 7.34 (+/- 1.52) and Dentin--IA) 3.13 (+/- 1.15); IB) 2.67 (+/- 0.74); IIA) 6.38 (+/- 1.44); IIB) 5.58 (+/-2.09). Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA. Adhesion for enamel was more efficient than for dentin (p < 0.01). The cavities prepared with a conventional bur (control group) presented higher bond strength values than those recorded for Er:YAG laser (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed between the restorative materials. Based on these results, it was concluded that Er:YAG laser adversely affected the shear bond strength of RMGIC for both enamel and dentin.

  1. Humic acid toxicity in biologically treated soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Nieman, J K C; Sims, R C; Sorensen, D L; McLean, J E

    2005-10-01

    Contaminated soil from a land treatment unit at the Libby Groundwater Superfund Site in Libby, MT, was amended with 14C pyrene and incubated for 396 days to promote biodegradation and the formation of soil-associated bound residues. Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from the treated soil microcosms and analyzed for the presence of pyrene residues. Biologic activity promoted 14C association with the fulvic acid fraction, but humic acid-associated 14C did not increase with biologic activity. The Aboatox flash toxicity assay was used to assess the toxicity of humic and fulvic acid fractions. The fulvic acid gave no toxic response, but the humic acid showed significant toxicity. The observed toxicity was likely associated with pentachlorophenol, a known contaminant of the soil that was removed by solvent extraction of the humic acid and that correlated well with toxicity reduction.

  2. Responses of amphibian populations to water and soil factors in experimentally-treated aquatic macrocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.; Day, D.; Dolan, K.

    1995-01-01

    Survival of anuran embryos and tadpoles is reduced in acidic (pH < 5.0) waters under laboratory conditions. However, field data on the presence-absence of amphibian species and acidity are equivocal. This study attempts to reconcile some of this discrepancy by using macrocosms to examine the interaction of soil type and water acidification on free-ranging tadpole populations. Tadpoles were caught with activity traps in 24 aquatic macrocosms experimentally treated with H2SO4 and Al2(SO4)3 and lined with either comparatively high metal, Iow organic matter clay soils or lower metal, higher organic matter loams. Northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) tadpole abundance was less in acidified macrocosms than in circumneutral ones (p < 0.05) and less in those with loam soils than in macrocosms with clay soils (p < 0.04). Gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) abundance was affected by an interaction between soil and acidification (p < 0.07) in that treatment effects were only observed in macrocosms with clay soils (p < 0.01). No differences were observed among treatments for green frog (Rana clamitans) or southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles. The study shows that soil type may interact with water conditions to affect amphibian populations in acidified waters

  3. Bacterial community structure and activity in different Cd-treated forest soils.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Anna; Hartmann, Martin; Blaser, Peter; Widmer, Franco; Schulin, Rainer; Frey, Beat

    2006-11-01

    In this study we compared indicators of Cd bioavailability (water extracts, Lakanen extracts, free ions) and ecotoxicity in forest soils with contrasting physico-chemical characteristics. Soil samples were treated with CdCl(2) solutions (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mM) and incubated for 30 days. Microbial activity indexes (acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, basal respiration) and changes in bacterial community structure using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting were investigated. The Cd concentrations measured ranged from 1% to 37% of the total additions in water extracts, to higher levels in Lakanen extracts. Effects of Cd were observed at bioavailable concentrations exceeding United Nations/European Economic Commission UN/ECE guidelines for total Cd in the soil solution. Basal respiration was the most affected index, while enzymatic activities showed variable responses to the Cd treatments. We also noticed that soils with pH higher than 6.7 and clay content higher than 50% showed inhibition of basal respiration but no marked shift in bacterial community structure. Soils with lower pH (pH <5.8) with less clay content (<50%) showed in addition strong changes in the bacterial community structure. Our results provide evidence for the importance of relating the effects of Cd on the soil communities to soil properties and to bioavailability.

  4. Salmonella survival in manure-treated soils during simulated seasonal temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Holley, Richard A; Arrus, Katia M; Ominski, Kimberly H; Tenuta, Mario; Blank, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Addition of animal manure to soil can provide opportunity for Salmonella contamination of soil, water, and food. This study examined how exposure of hog manure-treated loamy sand and clay soils to different simulated seasonal temperature sequences influenced the length of Salmonella survival. A six-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Hadar, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Oranienburg, and Typhimurium) was added to yield 5 log cfu/g directly to about 5 kg of the two soils and moisture adjusted to 60 or 80% of field capacity (FC). Similarly, the Salmonella cocktail was mixed with fresh manure slurry from a hog nursery barn and the latter added to the two soils at 25 g/kg to achieve 5 log cfu/g Salmonella. Manure was mixed either throughout the soil or with the top kilogram of soil and the entire soil volume was adjusted to 60 or 80% FC. Soil treatments were stored 180 d at temperature sequences representing winter to summer (-18, 4, 10, 25 degrees C), spring to summer (4, 10, 25, 30 degrees C), or summer to winter (25, 10, 4, -18 degrees C) seasonal periods with each temperature step lasting 45 d. Samples for Salmonella recovery by direct plating or enrichment were taken at 0, 7, and 15 d post-inoculation and thereafter at 15-d intervals to 180 d. Salmonella numbers decreased during application to soil and the largest decreases occurred within the first week. Higher soil moisture, manure addition, and storage in the clay soil increased Salmonella survival. Salmonella survived longest (> or = 180 d) in both soils during summer-winter exposure but was not isolated after 160 d from loamy sand soil exposed to other seasonal treatments. For all but one treatment decimal reduction time (DRT45d) values calculated from the first 45 d after application were < or = 30 d and suggested that a 30-d delay between field application of manure in the spring or fall and use of the land would provide reasonable assurance that crop and animal contamination by Salmonella would be

  5. Priming effects and enzymatic activity in Israeli soils under treated wastewater and freshwater irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anissimova, Marina; Heinze, Stefanie; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Marschner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation of soils with treated wastewater (TWW) directly influences microbial processes of soil. TWW contains easily decomposable organic material, which can stimulate the activity of soil microorganisms and, as a result, lead to the excessive consumption of soil organic carbon pool. We investigated the effects of irrigation with TWW relative to those of irrigation with freshwater (FW) on the microbial parameters in soils with low (7%) and medium (13%) clay content in a lysimeter experiment. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine the impact of water quality on soil respiration and enzymatic activity influenced by clay content and depth, and (ii) work out the changes in the turnover of soil organic matter (PE, priming effects). Samples were taken from three soil depths (0-10, 10-20, and 40-60 cm). Soil respiration and PE were determined in a 21-days incubation experiment after addition of uniformly 14C-labeled fructose. Activity of 10 extracellular enzymes (EEA, from C-, N-, P-, and S-cycle), phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity (PO+PE), and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were assayed. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using four substrates, and microbial biomass were determined. The results showed that the clay content acted as the main determinative factor. In the soil with low clay content the water quality had a greater impact: the highest PE (56%) was observed in the upper layer (0-10cm) under FW irrigation; EEA of C-, P-, and S-cycles was significantly higher in the upper soil layer under TWW irrigation. Microbial biomass was higher in the soil under TWW irrigation and decreased with increasing of depth (50 μg/g soil in the upper layer, 15 μg/g soil in the lowest layer). This tendency was also observed for DHA. Contrary to the low clay content, in the soil with medium clay content both irrigation types caused the highest PE in the lowest layer (65% under FW irrigation, 48% under TWW irrigation); the higher substrate

  6. Effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on soil chemical properties and infiltration rate.

    PubMed

    Bedbabis, Saida; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2014-01-15

    In Tunisia, water scarcity is one of the major constraints for agricultural activities. The reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) in agriculture can be a sustainable solution to face water scarcity. The research was conducted for a period of four years in an olive orchard planted on a sandy soil and subjected to irrigation treatments: a) rain-fed conditions (RF), as control b) well water (WW) and c) treated wastewater (TWW). In WW and TWW treatments, an annual amount of 5000 m(3) ha(-1) of water was supplied to the orchard. Soil samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after four years for each treatment. The main soil properties such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soluble cations, chloride (Cl(-)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), organic matter (OM) as well as the infiltration rate were investigated. After four years, either a significant decrease of pH and infiltration rate or a significant increase of OM, SAR and EC were observed in the soil subjected to treated wastewater treatment.

  7. Fate of carbamazepine and anthracene in soils watered with UV-LED treated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chevremont, A-C; Boudenne, J-L; Coulomb, B; Farnet, A-M

    2013-11-01

    Water disinfection technologies based on ultraviolet (UV) radiations emitted by Light-Emitting Diodes (LED), as a wastewater tertiary treatment, have been shown to be promising for water reuse. Here, we assessed the fate of two ubiquitous pollutants, carbamazepine and anthracene, in soil watered with either UV-LED treated wastewaters or irrigation water. After 3 months, anthracene and carbamazepine were transformed two and three times faster respectively, in soils watered with UV-LED wastewater than in soils watered with tap water (probably because of the addition of organic matter by the effluent). Laccase activity was induced in the presence of the pollutants and anthraquinone was found as anthracene product of oxidation by laccases. Moreover, the addition of these pollutants into soil did not affect the functional diversity of autochthonous microbial communities assessed by Ecolog plates. Cellulase, protease and urease activities increased in soils watered with UV-LED treated wastewaters (UV-LED WW), showing transformation of organic matter from the effluent and lipase activity increased by anthracene addition, confirming the potential role of these enzymes as indicators of hydrocarbon contamination.

  8. Effect of temperature and water on gaseous emissions from soils treated with animal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, M.; Vinther, F.P.

    1999-08-01

    Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, N{sub 2}O production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of N{sub 2}O lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NH{sub 4}{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both N{sub 2}O production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Q{sub 10}-values for the CO{sub 2} production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, N{sub 2}O production and denitrification had Q{sub 10}-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.

  9. The performance of constructed wetlands treating primary, secondary and dairy soiled water in Ireland (a review).

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; O' Flynn, C J

    2011-10-01

    In Ireland, no database detailing the design, influent loading rates or performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) exists. On account of this, they are designed without any protocol based on empirical data. The aim of this paper was to provide the first published data on the performance of free-water surface flow (FWSF) CWs treating primary and secondary-treated municipal wastewater, and agricultural dairy soiled water (DSW) in Ireland. In total, the performance of thirty-four FWSF CWs, comprising fourteen CWs treating primary-treated municipal wastewater, thirteen CWs treating secondary-treated municipal wastewater, and seven CWs treating DSW, were examined. In most CWs, good organic, suspended solids (SS) and nutrient removal was measured. At an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 10 and 9 g biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) m(-2) d(-1), CWs treating primary and secondary wastewater removed 95 and 84% of influent BOD. Constructed wetlands treating DSW had an average BOD removal of 98%. At average SS loading rates of 6 and 14 g m(-2) d(-1), CWs treating primary and secondary wastewater had a 96 and an 82% reduction, and produced a final effluent with a concentration of 14 and 13 mg L(-1). Constructed wetlands treating DSW produced a final effluent of 34 mg L(-1) (94% reduction). Similar to other studies, all CWs examined had variable performance in ammonium-N (NH(4)(+)-N) removal, with average removals varying between 37% (for CWs treating secondary wastewater) and 88% (for CWs treating DSW). Variable ortho-phosphorus (PO(4)(3-)-P) removal was attributable to different durations of operation, media types and loading rates.

  10. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to utilizing better-quality water, especially in semiarid regions where water shortage is a very serious problem. Wastewater use in agriculture is not a new practice, all over the world this reuse has been common practice for a long time, but the concept is of greater importance currently because of the global water crisis. Replacement of freshwater by treated wastewater is seen as an important conservation strategy contributing to agricultural production, substantial benefits can derive from using this nutrient-rich waste water but there can also be a negative impact. For this reason it is necessary to know precisely the composition of water before applying it to the soil in order to guarantee minimal impact in terms of contamination and salinization. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, different parameters in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater in an agricultural Mediterranean area located at Biar (Alicante, SE Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters were used for the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated wastewater from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type during the study period. A soil sampling was carried out every four months. We show the results of the evolution of basal soil respiration (BSR), and its relationship with other parameters. We observed a similar pattern of behavior for BSR between treatments, a decrease at the first eighteen months of irrigation and an increase at the end of study. In our study case, the variations of BSR obtained for all the treatments seem to be closely related to the dose and frequency of irrigation and the related soil wetting and drying cycles. However, the results showed a negative correlation between BSR and

  11. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols for microbial communities from soil treated with biochar

    PubMed Central

    Leite, D.C.A.; Balieiro, F.C.; Pires, C.A.; Madari, B.E.; Rosado, A.S.; Coutinho, H.L.C.; Peixoto, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effects of biochar application on soil structure and plant growth. However, there are very few studies describing the effect of biochar on native soil microbial communities. Microbial analysis of environmental samples requires accurate and reproducible methods for the extraction of DNA from samples. Because of the variety among microbial species and the strong adsorption of the phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule to biochar, extracting and purifying high quality microbial DNA from biochar-amended soil is not a trivial process and can be considerably more difficult than the extraction of DNA from other environmental samples. The aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacies of three commercial DNA extraction kits, the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (FD kit), the PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (PS kit) and the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit Miniprep™ (ZR kit), for extracting microbial genomic DNA from sand treated with different types of biochar. The methods were evaluated by comparing the DNA yields and purity and by analysing the bacterial and fungal community profiles generated by PCR-DGGE. Our results showed that the PCR-DGGE profiles for bacterial and fungal communities were highly affected by the purity and yield of the different DNA extracts. Among the tested kits, the PS kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount and purity of recovered DNA and considering the complexity of the generated DGGE microbial fingerprint from the sand-biochar samples. PMID:24948928

  12. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols for microbial communities from soil treated with biochar.

    PubMed

    Leite, D C A; Balieiro, F C; Pires, C A; Madari, B E; Rosado, A S; Coutinho, H L C; Peixoto, R S

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effects of biochar application on soil structure and plant growth. However, there are very few studies describing the effect of biochar on native soil microbial communities. Microbial analysis of environmental samples requires accurate and reproducible methods for the extraction of DNA from samples. Because of the variety among microbial species and the strong adsorption of the phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule to biochar, extracting and purifying high quality microbial DNA from biochar-amended soil is not a trivial process and can be considerably more difficult than the extraction of DNA from other environmental samples. The aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacies of three commercial DNA extraction kits, the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (FD kit), the PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (PS kit) and the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit Miniprep™ (ZR kit), for extracting microbial genomic DNA from sand treated with different types of biochar. The methods were evaluated by comparing the DNA yields and purity and by analysing the bacterial and fungal community profiles generated by PCR-DGGE. Our results showed that the PCR-DGGE profiles for bacterial and fungal communities were highly affected by the purity and yield of the different DNA extracts. Among the tested kits, the PS kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount and purity of recovered DNA and considering the complexity of the generated DGGE microbial fingerprint from the sand-biochar samples.

  13. Measurement of DDT fluxes from a historically treated agricultural soil in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Bidleman, Terry F; Staebler, Ralf M; Jones, Kevin C

    2006-08-01

    Organocohlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in agricultural soils are of concern due to the uptake of these compounds by crops, accumulation in the foodchain, and reemission from soils to the atmosphere. Although it has been about three decades since DDT was banned for agricultural uses in Canada, residues persist in soils of some agricultural areas. Emission of DDT compounds to the atmosphere from a historically treated field in southern Ontario was determined in fall 2004 and spring 2005. The sigmaDDTs concentration in the high organic matter (71%) soil was 19 +/- 4 microg g(-1) dry weight. Concentration gradients in the air were measured at 5, 20, 72, and 200 cm above soil using glass fiber filter-polyurethane foam cartridges. Air concentrations of sigmaDDTs averaged 5.7 +/- 5.1 ng m(-3) at 5 cm and decreased to 1.3 +/- 0.8 ng m(-3) at 200 cm and were 60-300 times higher than levels measured at a background site 30 km away. Soil-air fugacity fractions, fs/(fs + fa), of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT ranged from 0.42 to 0.91 using air concentrations measured above the soil and > or = 0.99 using background air concentrations, indicating that the soil was a net source to the background air. Fractionation of DDT compounds during volatilization was predicted using either liquid-phase vapor pressures (PL) or octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA). Relative emissions of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were better described by PL than KOA, whereas either PL or KOA successfully accounted for the fractionation of p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT. Soil-to-air fluxes were calculated from air concentration gradients and turbulent exchange coefficients determined from micrometeorological measurements. Average fluxes of sigmaDDTs were 90 +/- 24 ng m(-2) h(-1) in fall and 660 +/- 370 ng m(-2) h(-1) in spring. Higher soil temperatures in spring accounted for the higher fluxes. A volatilization half-life of approximately 200 y was estimated for sigmaDDT in the upper 5 cm of the soil column, assuming

  14. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  15. Soil organic matter dynamics and microbial activity in a cropland and soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, B.; Fonturbel, M. T.; Vega, J. A.; Balboa, M. A.; Merino, A.

    2012-04-01

    Wood ash is generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, and can be applied to soil to improve nutritional status and crop production. The application of mixed wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, may also improve the SOM content and quality. The charcoal contained in mixed wood ash is a pyrogenic organic material, a heterogeneous mixture of thermally altered polymers with aromatic domains. This structure may favour oxidation, facilitating further microbial attack and generation of new SOM compounds. In addition, accelerated C mineralization of this material may also be due to the priming effect of the rhizosphere, which may even enhance the decomposition of more recalcitrant SOM. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last few decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %). The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash, 16 Mg mixed wood ash and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark. The changes in SOM were monitored over two years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Both 13 C-CPMAS NMR spectra and DSC curves revealed that the SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds. However, both methods also revealed increases in other labile C compounds. Microbial biomass and soil respiration increased significantly as a result of these effects and possibly also due to a priming effect. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils

  16. Temperature and moisture effects on selected properties of wood fiber-cement composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenhorn, P.R.; Silsbee, M.R.; Blankenhorn, B.D.; DiCola, M.; Kessler, K.

    1999-05-01

    The effects of moisture cycling on the dimensional stability and temperature cycling on the compressive strength of treated wood fiber-cement composites were investigated. The Kraft softwood fibers and the hardwood fibers were treated with an aqueous acrylic emulsion or alkylalkoxysilane prior to manufacturing into wood fiber-cement composites. Moisture cycling results indicated that the treated fiber-cement composites were more resistant to deterioration than the neat cement specimens. The alkylalkoxysilane-treated fiber-cement composites resisted deterioration more than the acrylic emulsion-treated fiber-cement composites. Treated hardwood fiber-cement composites were more resistant than the treated Kraft fiber-cement composites. The effects of temperature cycling on the compressive strength values produced similar results. The treated fibers were more resistant to deterioration than the neat element. The alkylalkoxysilane-treated Kraft and hardwood fiber-cement composites had higher average compressive strength values than the acrylic emulsion-treated wood fiber-cement composites.

  17. Field evaluation of the lignin-degrading fungus 'phanerochaete sordida' to treat creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.W.; Glaser, J.A.; Evans, J.W.; Lamar, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. The study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal treatments and appropriate control treatments. Soil concentrations of 14 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote were measured over time to determine treatment efficacies. Fungal treatments involved mixing fungal inocula and aspen chips into the contaminated soil and maintaining moisture by irrigation and aeration by tillage. PAHs of more than 4 rings persisted at their original concentrations during the 8 wk course of the study for all treatments and controls.

  18. Study of Mn Phytoavailability in Soil Treated with Biosolids Using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Mateus, Natalina; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2011-08-01

    This work evaluated the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus grandis that was cultivated in soil treated with biosolid. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by gamma ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the Mn content. Manganese is an important micronutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxyreduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. The results showed that the phytoavailability of Mn was reduced increasing the doses of biosolid applied.

  19. Soil temperatures and stability of ice-cemented ground in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    McKay, C; Mellon, M T; Friedmann, E I

    1998-03-01

    Year-round temperature measurements at 1600 m elevation during 1994 in the Asgard Range Antarctica, indicate that the mean annual frost point of the ice-cemented ground, 25 cm below the surface, is -21.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C and the mean annual frost point of the atmosphere is -27.5 +/- 1.0 degrees C. The corresponding mean annual temperatures are -24.9 degrees C and -23.3 degrees C. These results imply that there is a net flux of water vapour from the ice to the atmosphere resulting in a recession of the ice-cemented ground by about 0.4-0.6 mm yr-1. The level of the ice-cemented permafrost is about 12 cm below the level of dry permafrost. The summer air temperatures would have to increase about 7 degrees C for thawing temperatures to just reach the top of the subsurface ice. Either subsurface ice at this location is evaporating over time or there are sporadic processes that recharge the ice and maintain equilibrium over long timescales.

  20. Soil temperatures and stability of ice-cemented ground in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C.; Mellon, M. T.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1998-01-01

    Year-round temperature measurements at 1600 m elevation during 1994 in the Asgard Range Antarctica, indicate that the mean annual frost point of the ice-cemented ground, 25 cm below the surface, is -21.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C and the mean annual frost point of the atmosphere is -27.5 +/- 1.0 degrees C. The corresponding mean annual temperatures are -24.9 degrees C and -23.3 degrees C. These results imply that there is a net flux of water vapour from the ice to the atmosphere resulting in a recession of the ice-cemented ground by about 0.4-0.6 mm yr-1. The level of the ice-cemented permafrost is about 12 cm below the level of dry permafrost. The summer air temperatures would have to increase about 7 degrees C for thawing temperatures to just reach the top of the subsurface ice. Either subsurface ice at this location is evaporating over time or there are sporadic processes that recharge the ice and maintain equilibrium over long timescales.

  1. Chemical Speciation and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic and Chromiumin Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood and Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Ruby, Michael V.; Lowney, Yvette W.; Holm,Stewart E.

    2005-10-12

    This research compares the As and Cr chemistry ofdislodgeable residues from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-treated woodcollected by two different techniques (directly from the board surfaceeither by rubbing with a soft bristle brush or from human hands aftercontact with CCA-treated wood), and demonstrates that these materials areequivalent in terms of the chemical form and bonding of As and Cr and interms of the As leaching behavior. This finding links the extensivechemical characterization and bioavailability testing that has been donepreviously on the brush-removed residue to a material that is derivedfrom human skin contact with CCA-treated wood. Additionally, thisresearch characterizes the arsenic present in biological fluids (sweatand simulated gastric fluid) following contact with these residues. Thedata demonstrate that in biological fluids, the arsenic is presentprimarily as free arsenate ions.Arsenic-containing soils were alsoextracted into human sweat to evaluate the potential for arsenicdissolution from soils at the skin surface. For soils from field sites,only a small fraction of the total arsenic is soluble in sweat. Based oncomparisons to reference materials that have been used in in vivo dermalabsorption studies, these findings suggest that the actual relativebioavailability via dermal absorption of As from CCA-residues and soilmay be well below the current default value of 3 percent used by U.S.EPA.

  2. Soil-food chain-pesticide wildlife relationships in aldrin-treated fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  3. Exploring bacterial community structure and function associated with atrazine biodegradation in repeatedly treated soils.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Lian, Jianjun; Wang, Huifang; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yunlong

    2015-04-09

    Substantial application of the herbicide atrazine in agriculture leads to persistent contamination, which may damage the succeeding crops and pose potential threats to soil ecology and environmental health. Here, the degradation characteristics of atrazine and dynamic change of soil bacterial community structure and function as well as their relations were studied during three repeated treatments at the recommended, double, and five-fold doses. The results showed that the degradation half-life of atrazine obviously decreased with increased treatment frequency. Soil microbial functional diversity displayed a variation trend of suppression-recovery-stimulation, which was associated with increased degradation rate of atrazine. 16S amplicon sequencing was conducted to explore bacterial community structure and correlate the genus to potential atrazine degradation. A total of seven potentially atrazine-degrading bacterial genera were found including Nocardioides, Arthrobacter, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium. These bacterial genera showed almost complete atrazine degradation pathways including dechlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation, and ring cleavage. Furthermore, the relative abundance of four of them (i.e., Nocardioides, Arthrobacter, Methylobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium) increased with treatment frequency and atrazine concentration, suggesting that they may participate in atrazine degradation during repeated treatments. Our findings reveal the potential relationship between atrazine degradation and soil bacterial community structure in repeatedly treated soils.

  4. Persistence and fate of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in municipal sludge treated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, J.D.; Webber, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    Greenhouse studies using pots and microcosms were conducted to investigate the persistence and fate of nonlabeled and {sup 14}C-labeled anthracene (ANT) and benzo(a)Pyrene (B(a)P) in sludge treated soil. Results indicated that ANT degraded rapidly (t{sub {1/2}} {approx} 3 wk) from the experimental systems, but that B(a)P was persistent. Cropping did not affect the persistence of either compound. On completion of the experiments {le} 10% of the ANT added to soil was recovered intact, whereas 78% of the B(a)P added to soil was recovered intact. Most ({ge}85%) of the {sup 14}C added to soil as labeled ANT and B(a)P was accounted for. Recoveries of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} indicated significant mineralization of ANT, but not of B(a)P. Trivial amounts ({le}0.2%) of {sup 14}C were recovered as volatile organics and in plant materials, but large amounts were recovered from soil. A considerable proportion of the ANT derived {sup 14}C in soil was not extracted with acetone/hexane, which indicated that it had been converted to bound residue. a much smaller proportion of B(a)P than of ANT derived {sup 14}C in soil was converted to bound residue. No evidence was obtained for uptake of intact ANT or B(a)P by ryegrass (lolium multiflorum Lam.), soybean [Glycinemax (L.) Merr.], and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass

  6. Chlortetracycline and tylosin runoff from soils treated with antimicrobial containing manure.

    PubMed

    Hoese, A; Clay, S A; Clay, D E; Oswald, J; Trooien, T; Thaler, R; Carlson, C G

    2009-05-01

    This study assessed the runoff potential of tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) from soils treated with manure from swine fed rations containing the highest labeled rate of each chemical. Slurry manures from the swine contained either CTC at 108 microg/g or tylosin at 0.3 microg/g. These manures were surface applied to clay loam, silty clay loam, and silt loam soils at a rate of 0.22 Mg/ha. In one trial, tylosin was applied directly to the soil surface to examine runoff potential of water and chemical when manure was not present. Water was applied using a sprinkler infiltrometer 24-hr after manure application with runoff collected incrementally every 5 min for about 45 min. A biofilm crust formed on all manure-treated surfaces and infiltration was impeded with > 70% of the applied water collected as runoff. The total amount of CTC collected ranged from 0.9 to 3.5% of the amount applied whereas tylosin ranged from 8.4 to 12%. These data indicate that if surface-applied manure contains antimicrobials, runoff could lead to offsite contamination.

  7. Irrigating okra with secondary treated municipal wastewater: Observations regarding plant growth and soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin; Singh, Jogendra; Thakur, Roushan Kumar

    2017-05-04

    The present study was carried out to probe the agronomic response of hybrid cultivar of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L. var. JK 7315) grown in secondary treated municipal wastewater irrigated soil with field investigations. The concentrations of the municipal wastewater viz., 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% along with the control (groundwater) were used for the irrigation of the H. esculentus. The study revealed that the concentrations of the municipal wastewater showed significant (p < 0.05/p < 0.01) effect on the soil parameters after wastewater fertigation in comparison to groundwater in both the seasons. The maximum agronomic performance of the H. esculentus was recorded with 60% concentration of the municipal wastewater in both the seasons. The contamination factor of heavy metals varied in the H. esculentus plants and soils. In the H. esculentus plants, following fertigation with municipal wastewater, the contamination factor of manganese was the highest, while that of chromium was the lowest. Intermediate contamination factor were observed for zinc, copper, and cadmium. Therefore, secondary treated municipal wastewater can be used as an agro-fertigant after appropriate dilution (up to 60%) to achieve the maximum yield of the H. esculentus.

  8. Acute Delayed or Late Infection of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Treated with Debridement/Antibiotic-loaded Cement Beads and Retention of the Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jun-Dong; Kim, In-Sung; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The treatment of infected revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is very challenging due to retained revision prosthesis, poor bone stock and soft tissue condition derived from previous revision surgeries, and comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and short-term outcomes of aggressive debridement and use of antibiotic-loaded cement beads with retention of the prosthesis for acute delayed or late infection of revision THAs. Materials and Methods Ten consecutive patients with symptoms or signs of less than one-week evolution and well-fixed prostheses, were treated with this procedure and a postoperative course of organism-specific antibiotics for a minimum of 6 weeks. All hips presented with acute delayed or late infection of revision THAs. Patients with a mean age of 68.1 years (range, 59-78 years) underwent an average of 1.9 previous revision THAs (1-4) before the index surgery. The minimal follow-up was 2 years with a mean of 46.2 months (range, 24-64 months). Results There were 8 cures (80.0%) and 2 failures with no mortality during the study period. The 2 failures involved the same and resistant bacteria implicated in the primary infection (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Prevotella oralis, respectively). The mean Harris hip score was 65.2 (range, 26-83) and the mean visual analogue scale was 2.6 (range, 1-4) at final follow-up. Conclusion With a favorable success rate and no mortality, our procedure may be considered a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of acute delayed or late infection of revision THAs with well-fixed prostheses. PMID:28316961

  9. False-positive identification of Escherichia coli in treated municipal wastewater and wastewater-irrigated soils.

    PubMed

    McLain, Jean E T; Rock, Channah M; Lohse, Kathleen; Walworth, James

    2011-10-01

    The increasing use of treated wastewater for irrigation heightens the importance of accurate monitoring of water quality. Chromogenic media, because they are easy to use and provide rapid results, are often used for detection of Escherichia coli in environmental samples, but unique levels of organic and inorganic compounds alter the chemistry of treated wastewater, potentially hindering the accurate performance of chromogenic media. We used MI agar and molecular confirmatory methods to assess false-positive identification of E. coli in treated wastewater samples collected from municipal utilities, an irrigation holding pond, irrigated soils, and in samples collected from storm flows destined for groundwater recharge. False-positive rates in storm flows (4.0%) agreed closely with USEPA technical literature but were higher in samples from the pond, soils, and treatment facilities (33.3%, 38.0%, and 48.8%, respectively). Sequencing of false-positive isolates confirmed that most were, like E. coli, of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and many of the false-positive isolates were reported to produce the β-D-glucuronidase enzyme targeted by MI agar. False-positive identification rates were inversely related to air temperature, suggesting that seasonal variations in water quality influence E. coli identification. Knowledge of factors contributing to failure of chromogenic media will lead to manufacturer enhancements in media quality and performance and will ultimately increase the accuracy of future water quality monitoring programs.

  10. Squeeze cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Kundert, D.P.; Dahl, J.A.; Dalrymple, E.D.; Gerke, R.R.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a method for terminating the flow of fluid from a portion of a subterranean formation into a wellbore. It comprises: placing within the wellbore adjacent the portion a volume of a slurry of hydraulic cement, permitting the volume to penetrate into the portion; and maintaining the slurry in the portion for a time sufficient to enable the slurry to form a rigid mass of cement in the portion.

  11. Effect of Strength Enhancement of Soil Treated with Environment-Friendly Calcium Carbonate Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungho; Jun, Sangju; Kim, Daehyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the strength improvement of soft ground (sand) by producing calcium carbonate powder through microbial reactions. To analyze the cementation effect of calcium carbonate produced through microbial reaction for different weight ratios, four different types of specimens (untreated, calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement) with different weight ratios (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) were produced and cured for a period of 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days to test them. The uniaxial compression strength of specimens was measured, and the components in the specimen depending on the curing period were analyzed by means of XRD analysis. The result revealed that higher weight ratios and longer curing period contributed to increased strength of calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement specimens. The calcium carbonate and the calcium carbonate + cement specimens in the same condition showed the tendency of decreased strength approximately 3 times and two times in comparison with the 8% cement specimens cured for 28 days, but the tendency of increased strength was approximately 4 times and 6 times in comparison with the untreated specimen. PMID:24688401

  12. Effect of strength enhancement of soil treated with environment-friendly calcium carbonate powder.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungho; Jun, Sangju; Kim, Daehyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the strength improvement of soft ground (sand) by producing calcium carbonate powder through microbial reactions. To analyze the cementation effect of calcium carbonate produced through microbial reaction for different weight ratios, four different types of specimens (untreated, calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement) with different weight ratios (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) were produced and cured for a period of 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days to test them. The uniaxial compression strength of specimens was measured, and the components in the specimen depending on the curing period were analyzed by means of XRD analysis. The result revealed that higher weight ratios and longer curing period contributed to increased strength of calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement specimens. The calcium carbonate and the calcium carbonate + cement specimens in the same condition showed the tendency of decreased strength approximately 3 times and two times in comparison with the 8% cement specimens cured for 28 days, but the tendency of increased strength was approximately 4 times and 6 times in comparison with the untreated specimen.

  13. Impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on crop response and soil ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Dalel; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Medhioub, Mounir; Zhou, John; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    The scarcity of freshwater resources is a serious problem in arid regions, such as Tunisia, and marginal quality water is gradually being used in agriculture. This study aims to study the impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on the health of soil and food crops. The key findings are that the effluents of Sfax wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) did not meet the relevant guidelines, therefore emitting a range of organic (e.g., up to 90 mg L(-1) COD and 30 mg L(-1) BOD5) and inorganic pollutants (e.g., up to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu and 0.1 mg L(-1) Cd) in the receiving aquatic environments. Greenhouse experiments examining the effects of wastewater reuse on food plants such as tomato, lettuce, and radish showed that the treated effluent adversely affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme contents. However, the pollution burden and biological effects on plants were substantially reduced by using a 50 % dilution of treated sewage effluent, suggesting the potential of reusing treated effluent in agriculture so long as appropriate monitoring and control is in place.

  14. Copper stabilization by zeolite synthesis in polluted soils treated with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Roberto; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Medici, Luca; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Janssens, Koen; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2005-08-15

    This study deals with the process of zeolite formation in an agricultural soil artificially polluted by high amounts of Cu (15 mg of Cu/g of soil dry weight) and treated with fused coal fly ash at 30 and 60 degrees C and how this process affects the mobility and availability of the metal. As a consequence of the treatment, the amount of dissolved Cu, and thus its mobility, was strongly reduced, and the percentage of the metal stabilized in the solid phase increased over time, reaching values of 30% at 30 degrees C and 40% at 60 degrees C. The physicochemical phenomena responsible for Cu stabilization in the solid phase have been evaluated by EDTA sequential extractions and synchrotron radiation based X-ray microanalytical techniques. These techniques were used for the visualization of the spatial distribution and the speciation of Cu in and/or on the neo-formed zeolite particles. In particular, micro XRF (X-ray fluorescence) tomography showed direct evidence that Cu can be entrapped as clusters inside the porous zeolitic structures while mu-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy determinations revealed Cu to be present mainly as Cu(ll) hydroxide and Cu(ll) oxide. The reported results could be useful as a basic knowledge for planning new technologies for the on site physicochemical stabilization of heavy metals in heavily polluted soils.

  15. Copper stabilization by zeolite synthesis in polluted soils treated with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto Terzano; Matteo Spagnuolo; Luca Medici; Bart Vekemans; Laszlo Vincze; Koen Janssens; Pacifico Ruggiero

    2005-08-15

    This paper reports on the process of zeolite formation in an agricultural soil artificially polluted by high amounts of Cu (15 mg of Cu/g of soil dry weight) and treated with fused coal fly ash at 30 and 60 C and how this process affects the mobility and availability of the metal. As a consequence of the treatment, the amount of dissolved Cu, and thus its mobility, was strongly reduced, and the percentage of the metal stabilized in the solid phase increased over time, reaching values of 30% at 30{sup o}C and 40% at 60{sup o}C. The physicochemical phenomena responsible for Cu stabilization in the solid phase have been evaluated by EDTA sequential extractions and synchrotron radiation based X-ray microanalytical techniques. These techniques were used for the visualization of the spatial distribution and the speciation of Cu in and/or on the neo-formed zeolite particles. In particular, micro XRF (X-ray fluorescence) tomography showed direct evidence that Cu can be entrapped as clusters inside the porous zeolitic structures while -{mu}XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy determinations revealed Cu to be present mainly as Cu(II) hydroxide and Cu(II) oxide. The reported results could be useful as a basic knowledge for planning new technologies for the on-site physicochemical stabilization of heavy metals in heavily polluted soils. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  16. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  17. Cement Burns

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munir; Moynagh, M.; Lawlor, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cement burns account for relatively few admissions to a burn unit; however, these burns deserve separate consideration because of special features of diagnosis and management. Cement burns, even though potentially disabling, have rarely been reported in literature. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients admitted with cement burns injuries to the national burns unit at the St James's Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, over a 10-year period for the years 1996–2005. Results: A total of 46 patients with cement burns were admitted. The majority of patients were aged 16–74 years (mean age = 32 years). Eighty-seven percent of injuries occurred in an industrial and 13% in a domestic setting. The upper and lower extremities were involved in all the patients, and the mean total body surface area affected was 6.5%. The mean length of hospital stay was 21 days with a range of 1–40 days. Thirty-eight (82%) were surgically managed involving debridement and split-thickness skin graft (SSG) and four (9%) were conservatively managed. A further four did not have data available. Conclusion: Widespread inexperience in dealing with this group of cement burns patients and delays in referral to burns unit highlights the potential for greater levels of general awareness and knowledge in both prevention and treatment of these burns. As well, early debridement and split-thickness skin grafting at diagnosis constitutes the best means of reducing the high socioeconomic costs and allows for early return to work. PMID:18091981

  18. An example of treated waste water use for soil irrigation in the SAFIR project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Jovanovic, Z.; Stikic, R.; Blagojevic, S.; Kloppmann, W.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops on soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). In this context, the European FP6 SAFIR project (Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management) investigates the geochemical quality of the root zone soil, knowing it is the main transit and storage compartment for pollutants. The type of reaction (sorption, co-precipitation…) and the reactive mineral phases also determine the availability of trace elements for the plant and determine the passage towards crops and products. Reactions of the infiltrating water with the soil solid phase are important for the solute cycling, temporary fixation and remobilisation of trace pollutants. Therefore the soil water quality was directly or indirectly assessed. Direct measurements of soil water were made through porous cups. The experiments were carried out during the growing season of 2006, 2007 and 2008 in a vegetable commercial farm, located at 10 km north of Belgrade. The soil is silty clayey, and developed on alluvial deposits. It was classified as humogley according to USDA Soil Classification. The climate of the field side is a continental type with hot and dry summers and cold and rainy winters. As in the rest of Serbia, farm suffers from water deficits during the main growing season. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of first year irrigation; the soil quality was then monitored throughout three years. Soil sampling

  19. Impact of treated wastewater on growth, respiration and hydraulic conductivity of citrus root systems in light and heavy soils.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Indira; Cohen, Shabtai; Shaviv, Avi; Bar-Tal, Asher; Bernstein, Nirit; Heuer, Bruria; Ephrath, Jhonathan

    2016-06-01

    Roots interact with soil properties and irrigation water quality leading to changes in root growth, structure and function. We studied these interactions in an orchard and in lysimeters with clay and sandy loam soils. Minirhizotron imaging and manual sampling showed that root growth was three times lower in the clay relative to sandy loam soil. Treated wastewater (TWW) led to a large reduction in root growth with clay (45-55%) but not with sandy loam soil (<20%). Treated wastewater increased salt uptake, membrane leakage and proline content, and decreased root viability, carbohydrate content and osmotic potentials in the fine roots, especially in clay. These results provide evidence that TWW challenges and damages the root system. The phenology and physiology of root orders were studied in lysimeters. Soil type influenced diameter, specific root area, tissue density and cortex area similarly in all root orders, while TWW influenced these only in clay soil. Respiration rates were similar in both soils, and root hydraulic conductivity was severely reduced in clay soil. Treated wastewater increased respiration rate and reduced hydraulic conductivity of all root orders in clay but only of the lower root orders in sandy loam soil. Loss of hydraulic conductivity increased with root order in clay and clay irrigated with TWW. Respiration and hydraulic properties of all root orders were significantly affected by sodium-amended TWW in sandy loam soil. These changes in root order morphology, anatomy, physiology and hydraulic properties indicate rapid and major modifications of root systems in response to differences in soil type and water quality.

  20. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  1. Effects of treated sewage sludge levels on temporal variations of some soil properties of a Typic Xerofluvent soil in Menemen Plain, Western Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Delibacak, S; Okur, B; Ongun, A R

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effects of treated sewage sludge (TSS) levels as an organic matter (OM) resource on temporal variations of some soil properties of a Typic Xerofluvent soil. The experiment was conducted in Menemen Plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (latitudes 38 degrees 34'48.22''-38 degrees 34'49.24'' N; longitudes 27 degrees 1'23.05-27 degrees 1'24.14'' E) in the years of 2003 and 2004. Moist TSS was added to the soil at the rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 t ha(-1) on May 1, 2003. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was planted as first crop. On the other hand, mixture of green barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as second crop. During the experiment, soil samples were taken in five different periods (1st, June 18, 2003; 2nd, November 13, 2003; 3rd, April 30, 2004; 4th, October 10, 2004 and 5th, May 12, 2004). The results showed that increasing TSS application to Typic Xerofluvent soil was significantly increased total salt, OM, total porosity, micro porosity, macro porosity, field capacity, wilting point, available water content, structure stability index and aggregation percentage values of soil when compared with control. Meanwhile, particle density, dry bulk density and nonaggregated silt + clay values of soil decreased. On the other hand, soil reaction (pH), lime content and total silt + clay values of soil did not significantly change. In the course of time, depending on decomposing of TSS organic materials in soil, effect of TSS levels on soil properties decreased particularly in the last periods. For this reason, it can be recommended that 90 t ha(-1) moist TSS can be added once in 2 years for improving soil properties of Typic Xerofluvent soil, which are characterized by low OM content.

  2. Distribution and mobility of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated wood structures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hekap; Kim, Dong-Jin; Koo, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jeong-Gue; Jang, Yong-Chul

    2007-03-15

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is currently the most commonly used wood preservative in Korea. Questions, however, have been raised regarding the potential environmental impacts of metal leaching from CCA-treated wood to soil. Although a number of researchers from other countries have reported that chromium, copper, and arsenic do leach from CCA-treated wood over time, to date few field studies have been performed on those metals in soils adjacent to CCA-treated wood structures in Korea. The present study was conducted to determine the lateral and vertical distributions and accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected from CCA-treated wood structures. A total of fifty-five composite soil samples were collected from four CCA-treated wood structures of approximately one year in age. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties as well as for the total chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations. The chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations in soil samples adjacent to the structures were as high as 79.0, 98.9, and 128 mg/kg, respectively, compared to background soil samples (48.2, 26.9, and 6.27 mg/kg, respectively). Arsenic was more mobile in soil than chromium and copper. The concentration gradient of arsenic in soil was observed only to the depth of approximately 5 cm in one year of outdoor exposure, whereas chromium and copper apparently remained near the surface (approximately less than 1 cm) after their release. Future efforts should be made to observe seasonal impacts on the release of metals and incorporate metal speciation into determining more detailed mobility and distribution.

  3. Contrasting effects EDTA applications on the fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from straw-treated rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Kim, Pil Joo

    2016-03-24

    Submerged rice paddy soils are the major anthropogenic source of methane (CH4 ) emission to the atmosphere. Straw incorporation for sustaining soil organic C pool increases CH4 emission flux from rice paddy soils. Though the rate of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission is much less than CH4 , the former has 298 times higher global warming potential (GWP) than equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide. Effect of chelating agent like EDTA on N2O emission and on GWP due to CH4 and N2 O emissions was not evaluated before. The emission of CH4 gas from submerged soil may be mitigated by EDTA application; however, it also increases concentration of nitrate-N in soil, the precursor of N2 O gas formation under anaerobic condition. In this experiment, irrespective of straw application, EDTA treated soils emitted less CH4 to the atmosphere than corresponding control. Though N2 O emission was increased from soil due to EDTA applications, total GWP was at least 15% reduced in EDTA treated soils during rice cultivation. The plant growth and rice grain yield was not affected by EDTA application. Therefore, EDTA application at 5.0 ppm might be used to reduce total global warming potential during rice cultivation.

  4. Efficiency of Micro-fine Cement Grouting in Liquefiable Sand

    SciTech Connect

    Mirjalili, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2008-07-08

    In the presence of strong ground motion, liquefaction hazards are likely to occur in saturated cohesion-less soils. The risk of liquefaction and subsequent deformation can be reduced by various ground improvement methods including the cement grouting technique. The grouting method was proposed for non-disruptive mitigation of liquefaction risk at developed sites susceptible to liquefaction. In this research, a large-scale experiment was developed for assessment of micro-fine cement grouting effect on strength behavior and liquefaction potential of loose sand. Loose sand samples treated with micro-fine grout in multidirectional experimental model, were tested under cyclic and monotonic triaxial loading to investigate the influence of micro-fine grout on the deformation properties and pore pressure response. The behavior of pure sand was compared with the behavior of sand grouted with a micro-fine cement grout. The test results were shown that cement grouting with low concentrations significantly decreased the liquefaction potential of loose sand and related ground deformation.

  5. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  6. Production of micro- and nanosilica from soil inhabiting Folsomia candida fed with treated rice husk.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murguía, Barbara; Soto-Mercado, Jorge R; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Castaño, Victor M

    2015-08-01

    Rice husk was employed as a source for producing silica micro- and nanoparticles through its digestion by soil fauna. Although many physicochemical methods for producing nanostructures have been studied, the biological processes remain mostly unexplored. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide with continuous control of reaction pH allowed removal of lignin bonds while preserving most of the cell wall and the silica present in the rice husk. The accessibility of lignocellulose was achieved without removing appreciable amounts of lignin, so this agricultural byproduct can be employed as feeding material for microarthropods Folsomia candida (Collembola). When these microarthropods are placed on a substrate of treated rice husk, more than 85% of degraded material is obtained, as compared to the untreated rice husk substrate, while the silica particles obtained show a slight decrease in average size.

  7. Long-Term Exposure of Tropical Soils to Pressure Treated Lumber, Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Impacts on Soil Metal Mobility and Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marietta, M. L.; Fowle, D. A.; Roberts, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Pressure treated lumber (CCA) has been used in a variety of structures for over seven decades, but recent concerns have been raised about leaching of metals such as chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) into proximal soils and water supplies. Pressure treated lumber abundance and its continued use necessitate a thorough understanding of metal release and sequestration in the subsurface. To date, no long-term, in situ study on the migration of CCA compounds from lumber has been performed. Barro Colorado Island, Panama is the site of several previous CCA studies and provides an opportunity to investigate the long-term (>70 years) effects of pressure treated lumber in oxisols, where high rainfall and warm temperatures may represent an end-member condition for the leaching and mobility of these metals. Soil samples from CCA and control sites were measured for Cr, As, Cu, Zn, and Fe abundances, microbial biomass and community structure via phospholipid fatty acid analysis, along with basic soil properties. CCA lumber samples were also characterized for their metal abundance. Lumber treated with zinc meta-arsenite displayed advanced decay with elevated As, Cu, and Zn concentrations observed in the adjacent soil. Increased soil organic matter and microbial biomass correlate to decreases in Fe and Fe-associated metals compared to the control. High As concentrations persist to <1 m of the source. Lumber treated with potassium dichromate contained high chromium concentrations and displayed little decay, however, soil concentrations of Cr, Fe, and Cu were generally less than control soils. Over these same intervals, soil organic matter and microbial biomass increased, particularly the fraction of metal reducing bacteria (MRB). We hypothesize that organic carbon loading from lumber stimulates MRB, leading to mobilization of Fe and Fe-associated metals from these oxide-rich soils. Principal component analysis of PLFA data confirms a distinction between controls and samples with

  8. Development of a feasible method to extract somatic coliphages from sludge, soil and treated biowaste.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Carolina; Jofre, Juan; Blanch, Anicet R; Lucena, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Extraction of viruses and bacteriophages from sludge, soil and treated biowaste requires homogenization, elution, clarification and detoxification-decontamination steps. Seeding these matrixes with bacteriophages does not reproduce what happens in nature. Therefore, naturally occurring matrixes, raw sludge, digested and dewatered sludge and compost, containing high numbers of somatic coliphages, and soils contaminated with wastewater or raw sludge were used in the extraction assays. Based on eluting the bacteriophages with beef extract, a feasible method in which the different steps had been optimized has been established. The method is feasible, repeatable, robust and applicable in routine laboratories. Digested and dewatered sludge has been probed to be useful as a reference material for validation studies and for "in lab" quality control. The established method includes homogenization by magnetic stirring, elution (which is performed at the same time that homogenization) with 10% beef extract at neutral pH, clarification by centrifuging at 4000 x g and decontamination by filtration through low protein binding 0.22 microm diameter pore size membrane filters.

  9. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure

    2010-05-01

    A major objective of the EU FP6 project SAFIR was to overcome certain drawbacks of wastewater reuse through the development of a new irrigation technology combining small-scale modular water treatment plants on farm level and improved irrigation hardware, in the aim to lower the risks related to low quality water and to increase water use efficiency. This innovative technology was tested in several hydro-climatic contexts (Crete, Italy, Serbia, China) on experimental irrigated tomato and potato fields. Here we present the heavy metal variations in soil after medium-term (3 irrigation seasons from 2006-2008) use of treated municipal wastewater with a special focus on lead and lead isotope signatures. The experimental site is located in Chania, Crete. A matrix of plots were irrigated, combining different water qualities (secondary, primary treated wastewater, tap water, partially spiked with heavy metals, going through newly developed tertiary treatment systems) with different irrigation strategies (surface and subsurface drip irrigation combined with full irrigation and partial root drying). In order to assess small scale heavy metal distribution around a drip emitter, Pb isotope tracing was used, combined with selective extraction. The sampling for Pb isotope fingerprinting was performed after the 3rd season of ww-irrigation on a lateral profile from a drip irrigator (half distance between drip lines, i.e. 50cm) and three depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm). These samples were lixiviated through a 3 step selective extraction procedure giving rise to the bio-accessible, mobile and residual fraction: CaCl2/NaNO3 (bio-accessible fraction), DPTA (mobile fraction), total acid attack (residual fraction). Those samples were analysed for trace elements (including heavy metals) and major inorganic compounds by ICP-MS. The extracted fractions were then analysed by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for their lead isotope fingerprints (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb

  10. Influence of loading rate and modes on infiltration of treated wastewater in soil-based constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Bisone, Sara; Gautier, Mathieu; Masson, Matthieu; Forquet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10 years soil-based constructed wetlands for discharge of treated wastewater (TWW) are commonly presented as a valuable option to provide tertiary treatment. The uncomplete knowledge in soil modifications and a lack of clear design practices laid the foundation of this work. The aim of this study was to determine optimal hydraulic loads and to observe the main critical parameters affecting treating performances and hydraulic loads acceptance. For this purpose, a soil rich in clay and backfill was chosen to perform column infiltration tests with TWW. Two loading rates and two loading modes were compared to study the influence of an intermittent feeding. Inlet and outlet waters were periodically analysed and columns were instrumented with balances, tensiometers, O2 and temperature probes. Soil physico-chemical characteristics were also taken into account to better understand the modification of the soil. One of the main expectations of tertiary treatment is to improve phosphate removal. A particular attention was thus given to phosphorus retention. The interest of an intermittent feeding in presence of a soil with high clay content was showed. This study highlighted that an intermittent feeding could make possible the use of a clay-rich soil for water infiltration.

  11. Leaf structural traits of tropical woody species resistant to cement dust.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2016-08-01

    Cement industries located nearby limestone outcrops in Brazil have contributed to the coating of cement dust over native plant species. However, little is known about the extent of the response of tropical woody plants to such environmental pollutant particularly during the first stages of plant development and establishment. This work focused on the investigation of possible alterations in leaf structural and ultrastructural traits of 5-month-old Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), 6-month-old Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae), and 9-month-old Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) challenged superficially with cement dust during new leaf development. Leaf surface of plants, the soil or both (leaf plus soil), were treated (or not) for 60 days, under controlled conditions, with cement dust at 2.5 or 5.0 mg cm(-2). After exposure, no significant structural changes were observed in plant leaves. Also, no plant death was recorded by the end of the experiment. There was also some evidence of localized leaf necrosis in G. ulmifolia and T. hirta, leaf curling in M. urundeuva and T. hirta, and bulges formation on epidermal surface of T. hirta, after cement dust contact with plant shoots. All species studied exhibited stomata obliteration while T. hirta, in particular, presented early leaf abscission, changes in cellular relief, and organization and content of midrib cells. No significant ultrastructural alterations were detected under the experimental conditions studied. Indeed, mesophyll cells presented plastids with intact membrane systems. The high plant survival rates, together with mild morphoanatomic traits alterations in leaves, indicate that G. ulmifolia is more resistant to cement dust pollutant, followed by M. urundeuva and T. hirta. Thus, the three plant species are promising for being used to revegetate areas impacted by cement industries activities.

  12. Influence of chemical and physical characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) on their hydration behavior and potential suitability for soil stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Peethamparan, Sulapha Olek, Jan Lovell, Janet

    2008-06-15

    The interaction of CKDs with a given soil depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of the CKDs. Hence, the characterization of CKDs and their hydration products may lead to better understanding of their suitability as soil stabilizers. In the present article, four different CKD powders are characterized and their hydration products are evaluated. A detailed chemical (X-ray diffraction), thermogravimetric and morphological (scanning electron microscope) analyses of both the CKD powders and the hydrated CKD pastes are presented. In general, high free-lime content ({approx} 14-29%) CKDs, when reacted with water produced significant amounts of calcium hydroxide, ettringite and syngenite. These CKDs also developed higher unconfined compressive strength and higher temperature of hydration compared to CKDs with lower amounts of free-lime. An attempt was made to qualitatively correlate the performance of CKD pastes with the chemical and physical characteristics of the original CKD powders and to determine their potential suitability as soil stabilizers. To that effect a limited unconfined compressive strength testing of CKD-treated kaolinite clays was performed. The results of this study suggest that both the compressive strength and the temperature of hydration of the CKD paste can give early indications of the suitability of particular CKD for soil stabilization.

  13. Assessing environmental impacts of treated wastewater through monitoring of fecal indicator bacteria and salinity in irrigated soils.

    PubMed

    McLain, Jean E T; Williams, Clinton F

    2012-03-01

    To assess the potential for treated wastewater irrigation to impact levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and salinity in irrigated soils, levels of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, and environmental covariates were measured in a treated wastewater holding pond (irrigation source water), water leaving the irrigation system, and in irrigated soils over 2 years in a municipal parkland in Arizona. Higher E. coli levels were measured in the pond in winter (56 CFU 100 mL(-1)) than in summer (17 CFU 100 mL(-1)); however, in the irrigation system, levels of FIB decreased from summer (26 CFU 100 mL(-1)) to winter (4 CFU 100 mL(-1)), possibly related to low winter water use and corresponding death of residual bacteria within the system. For over 2 years, no increase in FIB was found in irrigated soils, though highest E. coli levels (700 CFU g(-1) soil) were measured in deeper (20-25 cm) soils during summer. Measurements of water inputs vs. potential evapotranspiration indicate that irrigation levels may have been sufficient to generate bacterial percolation to deeper soil layers during summer. No overall increase in soil salinity resulting from treated wastewater irrigation was detected, but distinct seasonal peaks as high as 4 ds m(-1) occurred during both summers. The peaks significantly declined in winter when surface ET abated and more favorable water balances could be maintained. Monitoring of seasonal shifts in irrigation water quality and/or factors correlated with increases and decreases in FIB will aid in identification of any public health or environmental risks that could arise from the use of treated wastewater for irrigation.

  14. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  15. Degradation of vanillin in soil-clay mixtures treated with simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bewley, R.J.F.; Stotzky, G.

    1984-06-01

    Significant vanillin degradation occurred only in soil amended with 9% montmorillonite and not in soil amended with 9% kaolinite or in soil without addition of clay minerals. Progressively decreasing amounts of vanillin were mineralized in the montmorillonite-amended soil with increasing acidification with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and complete inhibition of mineralization occurred at a soil pH of 1.6. 16 references, 1 table.

  16. Cryogenics with cement microscopy redefines cement behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, S.; Jones, R. ); Caveny, B. )

    1994-10-03

    Cement microscopy (CM), cryogenics, environmental scanning microscopy (ESM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and other technologies are leading investigators to change their views on cement gelation, hydration, and retardation. Cement samples frozen in a nitrogen slush and viewed with an SEM present a more accurate picture of the setting process. Observations made through this technique have revolutionized ARCO Exploration and Production Technology's and Halliburton Energy Services' oil field cement procurement and slurry design. Findings from this joint study are expected to lead to: optimized waiting on cement (WOC) times; reduced planning and design time; optimized slurry retarder additions; optimized gel times to fit given situations; especially applicable to squeeze operations; improved cement selection (from vendors) for peak performance; and improved cement manufacture. The paper discusses the measuring methods and the findings on the following: cement voids, cement gelation, and retardation mechanisms. It also briefly discusses the impact these discoveries have on operations.

  17. Simplified urban soil bioaccessible Pb test correlated with bioavailability of soil-Pb to humans in untreated and phosphate-treated Joplin soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban soils are commonly contaminated with Pb from multiple sources. Total Pb levels commonly exceed 500 mg/kg in center city soils, ranging to above 10,000 where paint residue was incorporated in soils. Many persons seek to grow garden crops in cities, but obtaining useful soil analyses needed to p...

  18. The dynamics of nitrogen derived from a chemical nitrogen fertilizer with treated swine slurry in paddy soil-plant systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonhee

    2017-01-01

    A well-managed chemical nitrogen (N) fertilization practice combined with treated swine slurry (TSS) is necessary to improve sustainability and N use efficiency in rice farming. However, little is known about the fate of N derived from chemical N fertilizer with and without TSS in paddy soil-plant systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the contribution of applied N fertilizer to N turnover in rice paddy soil with different N fertilization practices that were manipulated by the quantity of treated swine slurry and chemical N fertilizer (i.e., HTSS+LAS, a high amount of TSS with a low amount of ammonium sulfate; LTSS+HAS, a low amount of TSS with a high amount of ammonium sulfate; AS, ammonium sulfate with phosphorus and potassium; C, the control) and (2) to compare the rice response to applied N derived from each N fertilization practice. Rice biomass yield, 15N recovery in both rice grain and stems, soil total N (TN), soil inorganic N, and soil 15N recovery were analyzed. Similar amounts of 15N uptake by rice in the TSS+AS plots were obtained, indicating that the effects of the different quantities of TSS on chemical fertilizer N recovery in rice during the experimental period were not significant. The soil 15N recoveries of HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS, and AS in each soil layer were not significantly different. For the HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS and AS applications, total 15N recoveries were 42%, 43% and 54%, respectively. Because the effects of reducing the use of chemical N fertilizer were attributed to enhancing soil quality and cost-effectiveness, HTSS+LAS could be an appropriate N fertilization practice for improving the long-term sustainability of paddy soil-plant systems. However, N losses, especially through the coupled nitrification-denitrification process, can diminish the benefits that HTSS+LAS offers. PMID:28339491

  19. [Cd uptake in rice cultivars and Cd fractions in soil treated with organic acids and EDTA].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Han, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xie, De-Ti

    2011-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the yield, quality and cadmium (Cd) uptake in different rice cultivars, and Cd speciation in soil after exposing to Cd (0, 1 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) in the presence of organic acids and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that general increase in the yield for cultivars Xiushui63 and II you527 was observed. Yield of two rice cultivars were in order of organic acids treatment or organic acids + 1/2EDTA treatment > EDTA treatment. The exchangeable, carbonate related and ferric-manganese oxidation related Cd increased; while organic complexation Cd and residules decreased in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw and roots of both cultivars markedly reduced in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Grain Cd concentration was the lowest for plants treated with EDTA, followed by organic acids + 1/2EDTA, and the highest Cd concentration in grain was found in the treatment with organic acids. Grain Cd concentration decreased by 9.0% to 49.3% and 16.5% to 30.6% at 1 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the presence of organic acids and EDTA, and by 12.7% to 28.5% and 4.3% to 19.1% at 5 mg x kg(-1) Cd. Cadmium concentration and accumulation in plants and total Cd content in soil were higher in Xiushui63 than in that in II you527. Grain Cd concentration decreased, and yield and quality of two rice cultivars increased at the same time in the presence of organic acids + 1/2EDTA.

  20. Sculpting with Cement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    1983-01-01

    Cement offers many creative possibilities for school art programs. Instructions are given for sculpting with fiber-cement and sand-cement, as well as for finishing processes and the addition of color. Safety is stressed. (IS)

  1. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Dentrification Potential from Urine and Non-urine Treated Soil Under Different Irrigation Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle (Bos taurus), few studies have assessed how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from urine-impacted soils. In particular, irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O2) availability, one of...

  2. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    PubMed

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  3. Impact of watering with UV-LED-treated wastewater on microbial and physico-chemical parameters of soil.

    PubMed

    Chevremont, A-C; Boudenne, J-L; Coulomb, B; Farnet, A-M

    2013-04-15

    Advanced oxidation processes based on UV radiations have been shown to be a promising wastewater disinfection technology. The UV-LED system involves innovative materials and could be an advantageous alternative to mercury-vapor lamps. The use of the UV-LED system results in good water quality meeting the legislative requirements relating to wastewater reuse for irrigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of watering with UV-LED treated wastewaters (UV-LED WW) on soil parameters. Solid-state ¹³C NMR shows that watering with UV-LED WW do not change the chemical composition of soil organic matter compared to soil watered with potable water. Regarding microbiological parameters, laccase, cellulase, protease and urease activities increase in soils watered with UV-LED WW which means that organic matter brought by the effluent is actively degraded by soil microorganisms. The functional diversity of soil microorganisms is not affected by watering with UV-LED WW when it is altered by 4 and 8 months of watering with wastewater (WW). After 12 months, functional diversity is similar regardless of the water used for watering. The persistence of faecal indicator bacteria (coliform and enterococci) was also determined and watering with UV-LED WW does not increase their number nor their diversity unlike soils irrigated with activated sludge wastewater. The study of watering-soil microcosms with UV-LED WW indicates that this system seems to be a promising alternative to the UV-lamp-treated wastewaters.

  4. Disposal of metal treated Salvinia biomass in soil and its effect on growth and photosynthetic efficiency of wheat.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Bhupinder; Srivastava, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation technologies generate huge quantities of biomass, the disposal of which is a serious concern. Wastewater samples collected from electroplating industries were treated with Salvinia biomass. The effect of application of metal loaded Salvinia plant biomass in soil on growth and physiological indices of 10-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum was evaluated. Controls (A) consisted of soil supplemented with untreated plant biomass. Seed germination, seedling height, total chlorophyll, glucose and protein levels, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qn), quantum yield (Y), and electron transport rate (ETR) were not significantly affected in seedlings raised in soils supplemented with metal loaded biomass from most of the samples (B-F) in comparison to control. However, significant decline was noted in total chlorophyll, glucose, and quantum yield in plants grown in soil supplemented with biomass from sample E. Among elemental levels, C(%) remained largely unaffected, N(%) showed slight enhancement but a decrease in H(%) was noted in plants grown in soil supplemented with biomass from sample E. Our results, therefore, suggest that metal accumulated Salvinia biomass obtained after phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated wastewater can be supplemented in soil. Further studies are required to assess long-term effects of disposal of metal loaded Salvinia plant biomass in soil.

  5. Well cementing in permafrost

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    A process for cementing a string of pipe in the permafrost region of a borehole of a well wherein aqueous drilling fluid actually used in drilling the wellbore in the permafrost region of a wellbore is employed. The drilling fluid contains or is adjusted to contain from about 2 to about 16 volume percent solids. Mixing with the drilling fluid (1) an additive selected from the group consisting of ligno-sulfonate, lignite, tannin, and mixtures thereof, (2) sufficient base to raise the pH of the drilling fluid into the range of from about 9 to about 12, and (3) cementitious material which will harden in from about 30 to about 40 hours at 40/sup 0/F. The resulting mixture is pumped into the permafrost region of a wellbore to be cemented and allowed to harden in the wellbore. There is also provided a process for treating an aqueous drilling fluid after it has been used in drilling the wellbore in permafrost, and a cementitious composition for cementing in a permafrost region of a wellbore.

  6. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined.

  7. 210Po and major ions in drainage water from soil treated with various types of fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Fernando; López, Raúl; Debán, Luis; Pardo, Rafael; García-Talavera, Marta

    2007-07-01

    The levels of (210)Po, nutrients (NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3 -)) and major ions (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2 +), Ca(2 +), F(-), NO(2 -), Br(-), Cl(-), SO(4)(2 -)) were determined, by means of lysimeter experiences, in drainage waters for agricultural soils untreated and treated with different types of fertilizers (animal manure, sewage sludge and NPK synthetic fertilizer) applied at several rates. Analytical determinations were performed by using alpha -spectrometry in the case of (210)Po, or Ion Exchange liquid chromatography for the other ionic species. Statistical uni and multivariate analysis of the results shown significant differences among lixiviates according to the different fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge and manure applications resulted in similar compositions of lixiviates with low (210)Po levels, whereas synthetic fertilizers produced higher (210)Po concentrations and different concentration patterns of ionic species when applied at or above the recommended rates. All (210)Po levels were well below the limits proposed by the 2001/928/ Euratom Recommendation. The concentrations of the rest of the ionic species, exception made from NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-), were also below the limits proposed by Spanish regulations.

  8. Cementing multilateral wells with latex cement

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A multilateral well is a well with one or more branches or lateral sections extending from its main wellbore. The laterals can be openhole or cased hole. When laterals are cased hole, the cement integrity for casing support and zonal isolation is very important. When cementing the lateral sections of multilateral wells, it is important to use a cement with high strength and durability to support the liner throughout the life of the well and to support the lateral section. The cement column is subjected to various stresses when the cemented inner stub is cut. High tensile strength, flexural strength, and crack resistance are required. These properties are necessary to make a clean cut through the cement sheath that does not induce cracks in the cement column. Latex cement is commonly used for its gas-migration-control property.

  9. Runoff and interrill erosion in sodic soils treated with dry PAM and phosphogypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the soil surface during rainstorms reduces rain infiltration and leads to runoff and erosion. An increase in soil sodicity increases soil susceptibility to crusting, runoff, and erosion. Surface application of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) mixed with gypsum was found to be very ef...

  10. Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate on aluminum availability in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Edwards, D R

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that alum [Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] applications to poultry litter can greatly reduce phosphorus (P) runoff, as well as decrease ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization. However, the long-term effects of fertilizing with alum-treated litter are unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term effects of normal poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) on aluminum (Al) availability in soils, Al uptake by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and tall fescue yields. A long-term study was initiated in April of 1995. There were 13 treatments (unfertilized control, four rates of normal litter, four rates of alum-treated litter, and four rates of NH(4)NO(3)) in a randomized block design. All fertilizers were broadcast applied to 52 small plots (3.05 x 1.52 m) cropped to tall fescue annually in the spring. Litter application rates were 2.24, 4.49, 6.73, and 8.98 Mg ha(-1) (1, 2, 3, and 4 tons acre(-1)); NH(4)NO(3) rates were 65, 130, 195, and 260 kg N ha(-1) and were based on the amount of N applied with alum-treated litter. Soil pH, exchangeable Al (extracted with potassium chloride), Al uptake by fescue, and fescue yields were monitored periodically over time. Ammonium nitrate applications resulted in reductions in soil pH beginning in Year 3, causing exchangeable Al values to increase from less than 1 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 2 to over 100 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 7 for many of the NH(4)NO(3) plots. In contrast, normal and alum-treated litter resulted in an increase in soil pH, which decreased exchangeable Al when compared to unfertilized controls. Severe yield reductions were observed with NH(4)NO(3) beginning in Year 6, which were due to high levels of acidity and exchangeable Al. Aluminum uptake by forage and Al runoff from the plots were not affected by treatment. Fescue yields were highest with alum-treated litter (annual average = 7.36 Mg ha(-1)), followed by normal litter (6.93 Mg ha(-1)), NH(4)NO

  11. Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater on soil quality, soil-borne pathogens, and living organisms: case study of the vicinity of El Hajeb (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Chaker, Sana; Wali, Ahmed; Ayoub, Tarek; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Medium (i.e. 15 years) and long-term (i.e. 20 years) impact of irrigation using secondary-treated municipal wastewater (TWW) was assessed on two agricultural soil samples, denoted by E and G, respectively, in the vicinity of El Hajeb region (Southern Tunisia). Soil pH, electrical conductivity particle size grading, potential risk of salinity, water holding capacity and chemical composition, as well as organic matter content, pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metal concentrations in the TWW-irrigated (E and G) and rainwater-irrigated (T) soils at various depths, were monitored and compared during a 5-year experiment. Our study showed that bacterial abundance is higher in sandy-clayey soil, which has an enhanced ability to retain moisture and nutrients. The high level of bacterial flora in TWW-irrigated soils was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated (r = ~0.5) with the high level of OM. Avoidance assays have been used to assess toxic effects generated by hazards in soils. The earthworms gradually avoided the soils from the surface (20 cm) to the depth (60 cm) of the G transect and then the E transect, preferring the T transect. The same behaviour was observed for springtails, but they seem to be less sensitive to the living conditions in transects G and E than the earthworms. The avoidance response test of Eisenia andrei was statistically correlated with soil layers at the sampling sites. However, the avoidance response test of Folsomia candida was positively correlated with silt-clay content (+0.744*) and was negatively correlated with sand content (-0.744*).

  12. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of cadmium in the temperate and semiarid soils treated with wheat residue.

    PubMed

    Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar; Jafari Monsef, Milad

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal bioavailability depends on metal fractions in soil. The impacts of mild wheat residue (<2 mm) and incubation time on fractions of Cd were studied in two different spiked soils sampled from Hamadan and Lahijan, Iran with semiarid and temperate climates, respectively. Two factorial experiments were done in two soils polluted with 10 μg Cd g(-1) soil separately. Organic matter (0 and 5 % wheat straw) and soil incubation time (24 and 3600 h) were factors examined in three replicates. The transformation of Cd from KNO3 extractable form to less available fractions was higher in semiarid soils with lower clay and OM contents and higher pH and carbonate contents compared to temperate soils. In polluted semiarid soils after 24 h incubation, greater content of Cd was observed in residual (HNO3 extractable) (45 %), carbonates associated (EDTA extractable) (34 %), organic matter associated (NaOH extractable) (11 %), and KNO3 extractable (10 %) fractions, but in temperate soils, greater content of Cd was observed in KNO3 extractable (61 %), HNO3 extractable (14 %), EDTA extractable (13 %), and NaOH extractable (12 %) fractions. KNO3 extractable form of Cd was decreased, and NaOH extractable and HNO3 extractable forms of Cd were increased by addition of wheat residue to both soils. The initial decrease of added Cd from KNO3 extractable form to less mobile fractions in Hamadan soil was very interesting. But this change was not observed in Lahijan soil. Since contamination factor was significantly high in temperate soils compared to semiarid soils in all treatments, the risk of Cd environmental pollution in temperate region is considerably high.

  13. Effectiveness of an anaerobic granular activated carbon fluidized-bed bioreactor to treat soil wash fluids: a proposed strategy for remediating PCP/PAH contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Koran, K M; Suidan, M T; Khodadoust, A P; Sorial, G A; Brenner, R C

    2001-07-01

    An integrated system has been developed to remediate soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This system involves the coupling of two treatment technologies, soil-solvent washing and anaerobic biotreatment of the extract. Specifically, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized-bed reactor to treat a synthetic-waste stream of PCP and four PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, pyrene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene) under anaerobic conditions. This waste stream was intended to simulate the wash fluids from a soil washing process treating soils from a wood-preserving site. The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of greater than 99.8% for PCP with conversion to its dechlorination intermediates averaging 46.5%. Effluent, carbon extraction, and isotherm data also indicate that naphthalene and acenaphthene were removed from the liquid phase with efficiencies of 86 and 93%, respectively. Effluent levels of pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were extremely low due to the high-adsorptive capacity of GAC for these compounds. Experimental evidence does not suggest that the latter two compounds were biochemically transformed within the reactor.

  14. The performance of enhanced coagulation for treating slightly polluted raw water combining polyaluminum chloride with variable charge soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z L; Wu, C D; Wang, Y J; Tang, J C; Liu, Y P

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility and effectiveness of treating pollutants in slightly polluted raw water by variable charge soil and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was investigated. Removal efficiencies of turbidity, phenol, aniline, algae and heavy metals (Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to evaluate the coagulation performance. The results indicated that the addition of variable charge soil as a coagulant aid is advantageous due to the improvement of removal efficiencies. The tests also demonstrated that the presence of variable charge soil increased the removal of turbidity rather than adding residuary turbidity. The use of variable charge soil produced settleable flocs of greater density and bigger size. The main mechanism involved in the PAC coagulation was supposed to be sweep flocculation as well as charge-neutralization. Variable charge soil played a promoted aid role by adsorption in the enhanced coagulation process. It is concluded that the enhanced coagulation by PAC and variable charge soil, as coagulant and adsorbent, is more effective and efficient than traditional coagulation.

  15. Environmental applications of XANES: Speciation of {Tc} in cement after chemical treatment and Se after bacterial uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Shuh, D.K.; Kaltsoyannis, N.; Bucher, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy) has been employed to evaluate the efficacy of a process designed to encapsulate and reduce {Tc}O{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in cement matrices, thereby immobilizing {Tc}. The oxidation state of Se following.bioremediation of Se by bacteria has also been determined by XANES. The XANES measurements were performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the respective K edges of {Tc} (21.0 keV) and Se (12.7 keV). Comparison of the XANES spectra of Tc in untreated cement to Tc in slag treated cement and to the chemical shifts of reference materials, shows that the oxidation state of {Tc} is the same in both cements. Thus, the addition of a reducing agent to the cement formulation does not significantly reduce the {Tc}O{sub 4} The common soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is known to incorporate Se on or within the cell wall when exposed to a SE(IV) solution. The Se XANES spectra of B. subtilis, as well as bacillus isolated from selenium rich soil, show that the organisms reduce selenite to the red allotrope of elemental Se.

  16. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-07-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  17. Cement design based on cement mechanical response

    SciTech Connect

    Thiercelin, M.J.; Dargaud, B.; Baret, J.F.; Rodriquez, W.J.

    1998-12-01

    The disappearance of cement bond log response as a result of variations of downhole conditions has been observed in numerous wells. This observation has led to concern about the loss of proper zonal isolation. Stresses induced in the cement, through deformation of the cemented casing resulting from the variation of downhole conditions, are the cause of this damage. The authors present an analysis of the mechanical response of set cement in a cased wellbore to quantify this damage and determine the key controlling parameters. The results show that the thermo-elastic properties of the casing, cement, and formation play a significant role. The type of failure, either cement debonding or cement cracking, is a function of the nature of the downhole condition variations. This analysis allows one to propose appropriate cement mechanical properties to avoid cement failure and debonding. The authors show that the use of high compressive strength cement is not always the best solution and, in some cases, flexible cements are preferred.

  18. Two-stage soil infiltration treatment system for treating ammonium wastewaters of low COD/TN ratios.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhongfang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) is ineffective to treat ammonium wastewaters of total nitrogen (TN) > 100 mg l(-1). This study applied a novel two-stage SIT process for effective TN removal from wastewaters of TN>100 mg l(-1) and of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio of 3.2-8.6. The wastewater was first fed into the soil column (stage 1) at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.06 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) for COD removal and total phosphorus (TP) immobilization. Then the effluent from stage 1 was fed individually into four soil columns (stage 2) at 0.02 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) of HLR with different proportions of raw wastewater as additional carbon source. Over the one-year field test, balanced nitrification and denitrification in the two-stage SIT revealed excellent TN removal (>90%) from the tested wastewaters.

  19. Legacy Chlordane in Soils from Housing Areas Treated with Organochlorine Pesticides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    moisture capacity (FMC) by controlled water addition...................... 8 Figure 3. Mushroom substrate (exhibiting vigorous fungal growth...12 Figure 4. McGuire AFB soil with used mushroom substrate ...chlordane concentration in two soils as a result of incubating with used mushroom substrate

  20. ZVI-CLAY SOIL MIXING TREATS DNAPL SOURCE AREA AT 35-FOOT DEPTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DuPont Company and Colorado State University (CSU) are collaborating in development and refinement of a technology that involves in-situ admixing of contaminated soil, granular zero valent iron (ZVI), and clay using conventional soil mixing equipment. A full-scale application...

  1. Field measurement and model prediction of infiltration in treated wastewater irrigated clayey soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2016-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is a critical process in designing irrigation systems, especially if traded wastewater (TWW) is being used. In this study, the ability of seven different infiltration models (Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov, Philip, Horton, Holaton, SCS (US-Soil Conservation Service) and Huggins and Monke) were compared to estimate and assess those models' parameters, and to evaluate their prediction ability for TWW irrigated soils. The field measurements were conducted in TWW irrigated soils using a hood infiltrometer. Six comparison criteria including Mean error, Geometric mean error, Root mean square error, Coefficient of determination, F-Statistic and Akaike information criterion were used to determine the best performing model with the least number of fitting parameters. The research indicated that three-parameter models had the best description of the relationship between cumulative infiltration and time in the researched TWW irrigated soils.

  2. Comparing the reinforcing effects of a resin modified glassionomer cement, Flowable compomer, and Flowable composite in the restoration of calcium hydroxide-treated immature roots in vitro.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, Rani S

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and sixty human permanent central incisors were enlarged to a 120 file size after crown removal procedure to simulate immature teeth. The root canals were filled with calcium hydroxide and stored for 15 days (phase I), 30 days (phase II), 90 days (phase III), and 180 days (Phase IV). At the end of these selected time periods, calcium hydroxide was cleaned off the root canals of forty teeth that were randomly selected and obturated with gutta-percha points in the apical 2 mm of the root canals with a sealer. The specimens were further equally divided into four groups. Unrestored Group I served as control and the root canals of teeth in the other three group specimens were reinforced with resin modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC) (Group II), Flowable Compomer (Group III), and Flowable Composite (Group IV), respectively, using a translucent curing post. All specimens were subjected to compressive force using an Instron Testing machine, until fracture occurred. All the materials evaluated substantially reinforced the root specimens compared to the control. At the end of 180 days, Flowable composites showed maximum reinforcement compared to the other groups; however, no significant differences were found between the reinforcement capabilities of Flowable Compomer and RMGIC.

  3. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  4. Cement mixing with vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.E.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a method of cementing a casing string in a bore hole of a well. It comprises introducing water and dry cement material into a mixing vessel; mixing the water and dry cement material in the mixing vessel to form a cement slurry, the slurry including lumps of the dry cement material, the mixing including steps of: agitating the slurry; and while agitating the slurry, transmitting vibrational energy into the slurry and thereby aiding disintegration and subsequent wetting of the lumps of the dry cement material in the slurry; and pumping the slurry into an annulus between the casing string and the bore hole.

  5. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  6. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  7. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes.

  8. The survival of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and enterobacteriaceae in general in soil treated with sludge from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Estrada, I B; Aller, A; Aller, F; Gómez, X; Morán, A

    2004-06-01

    We monitored the effect of the application of treated sludge on the behaviour of enterobacteriaceae (mainly faecal coliforms and especially Escherichia coli) in the soil, and studied their evolution over time after application. Three different sludges were used: two from a municipal sewage plant, one of them had been subjected to anaerobic digestion and heat drying, and the other to anaerobic digestion and mechanical dehydration, and one from a dairy waste treatment to aerobic digestion and gravity thickening. Two types of tests were carried out: type O, in the open air, with no possibility of controlling humidity or temperature; and type L, under laboratory conditions, with controlled temperature and humidity. Sludge tests were also run on unscreened soil previously treated with chemical fertilizer. After 80 days of experimentation the populations of faecal coliforms and E. coli had decreased considerably or were undetectable in assays carried out on the soil/sludge mixtures, under both open-air and laboratory conditions, but that, over the same period, in the mixtures containing chemical fertilizer (calcium ammonium nitrate) there had been a considerable increase in the micro-organism populations studied.

  9. Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in soil treated with cadmium-contaminated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Huang, Dao-You; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Zhu, Han-Hua; Liu, Shou-Long; Luo, Zun-Chang; Cao, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ji-Yu; Rao, Zhong-Xiu; Shen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    When grown on Cd-contaminated soil, rice typically accumulates considerable Cd in straw, and which may return to the soil after harvest. This work was undertaken to assess the pollution risk of Cd associated to the Cd-contaminated rice straw after incorporating into an uncontaminated soil. With the Cd-contaminated rice straw added at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % (w/w), an incubation experiment (28 days) with non-planting and a followed pot experiment sequent with two planting (rice and Chinese cabbage, transplanted after 28-day incubation) were carried out to investigate the changes of soil Cd speciation and phytoavailability. The results indicated that the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition significantly increased soil pH and dissolved organic carbon during the 28-day incubation. For the high availability of Cd in contaminated rice straw, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Cd significantly increased, and the percentages of acetic acid extractable and reducible Cd in soil significantly enhanced after the addition of Cd-contaminated rice straw. However, the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition inhibited the rice growth and induced the decrease of Cd in rice grain and straw by 12.8 to 70.2 % and 39.3 to 57.3 %, respectively, whereas the Cd contents increased by 13.9 to 84.1 % in Chinese cabbage that planted after rice harvest. In conclusion, Cd associated with Cd-contaminated rice straw was highly available after incorporating into the soil, and thus the Cd pollution risk via the Cd-contaminated rice straw incorporation should be evaluated in the Cd-contaminated paddy region.

  10. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil.

  11. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  12. Asphalt cement poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  13. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra- lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  14. C and N accumulations in soil aggregates determine nitrous oxide emissions from cover crop treated rice paddy soils during fallow season.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-08-15

    Combination of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues are preferably applied in rice paddy soils to increase the rate of organic matter mineralization and to improve plant growth. However, organic matter addition facilitates methane (CH4) emission from rice paddy soil. Mineralization of organic nitrogen (N) increases NO3-N concentrations in soil, which are precursors for the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O). However, N2O is a minor greenhouse gas emitted from submerged rice field and hence is not often considered during calculation of total global warming potential (GWP) during rice cultivation. The hypothesis of this study was that fluxes of N2O emissions might be changed after removal of flooded water from rice field and the effect of cover crops on N2O emissions in the fallow season might be interesting. However, the effects of N-rich plant residues on N2O emission rates in the fallow season and its effect on annual GWP were not studied before. In this experiment, combination of barley (non-leguminous) and hairy vetch (leguminous) biomasses were applied at 9 Mg ha(-1) and 27 Mg ha(-1) rates in rice paddy soil. Cover crop application significantly increased CH4 emission flux while decreased N2O emissions during rice cultivation. The lowest N2O emission was observed in 27 Mg ha(-1) cover crop treated plots. Cover crop applications increased N contents in soil aggregates especially in smaller aggregates (<250 μm), and that proportionately increased the N2O emission potentials of these soil aggregates. Fluxes of N2O emissions in the fallow season were influenced by the N2O emission potentials of soil aggregates and followed opposite trends as those observed during rice cultivation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the doses of cover crop applications for rice cultivation should not be optimized considering only CH4, but N2O should also be considered especially for fallow season to calculate total GWP.

  15. DRIFT and HR MAS NMR characterization of humic substances from a soil treated with different organic and mineral fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Erika; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella; Saladini, Monica; Ferro, Nicola Dal; Morari, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    In this study, using DRIFT and HR MAS NMR, we analyzed the humic substances isolated from a soil treated, over 40 years, with different organic, mineral and organic plus mineral treatments and cultivated with maize as the main crop. As expected, the structure of humic substances was very complex but by combining both techniques (DRIFT and HR MAS NMR) additional information was obtained on aromatic and aliphatic components, the most recalcitrant parts of these macromolecules. In so doing we wanted to investigate the relationship between HS structure and long-term management practices. An elevated content of lignin, aminoacids, peptides and proteins was observed mainly for farmyard manure treatments with respect to mineral or liquid manure amendments; this supports how the different management practices have greatly influenced the humification process of cultivated soils.

  16. Behavioral Effects and Tunneling Responses of Eastern Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Exposed to Chlorantraniliprole-Treated Soils.

    PubMed

    Saran, Raj K; Ziegler, Melissa; Kudlie, Sara; Harrison, Danielle; Leva, David M; Scherer, Clay; Coffelt, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Intrinsic toxicities of chlorantraniliprole, fipronil, and imidacloprid were evaluated with topical applications on worker termites. Worker termites were exposed to substrates treated with formulated chlorantraniliprole to study contact toxicity, tunneling, and postexposure behaviors. The intrinsic toxicities (LD50, ng/termite) of chlorantraniliprole (1.25, 0.96, and 0.44) and fipronil (0.12, 0.11, and 0.13) at 11 d were similar for workers from three termite colonies. Imidacloprid toxicity (LD50) values were highly variable among the workers from three different colonies, values at 11 d ranging from 0.7 to 75 ng/termite. Termite workers exposed to sand and soils treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm exhibited delayed mortality and, for most of the exposure times, it took >5 d to observe 90-100% mortality in termite workers. Exposure to chlorantraniliprole-treated sand (50 ppm) for as little as 1 min stopped feeding and killed 90-100% of the workers. Tunneling (≈ 2 h) in different soil types treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm, even those with high organic matter (6.3%) and clay content (30%), caused immediate feeding cessation in worker termites and mortality in the next 7-14 d. Worker termites exposed for 1 and 60 min to sand treated with chlorantraniliprole (50 ppm) were able to walk normally for 4 h after exposure in most cases. Delayed toxicity, increased aggregation, and grooming were observed in exposed termites and discussed in the context of horizontal transfer effects within termite colonies.

  17. Solidification of Portland Cement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Solidification of materials is introduced, and the constitution and hydration of portland cement is reviewed. Microstructural zones are introduced...100, 171, and 384 days age. Similar micrographs for tricalcium silicate pastes and commercial portland cement pastes are shown and discussed. The...hardening of portland cement is discussed as a solidification process. The potential flaws and stress concentrators within the cement paste are identified and their effect on mechanical properties is discussed. (Author)

  18. Experimental study of the relationship between formation factor, porosity, and cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harig, M.D.; Chaney, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    Cemented granular soils are classified based on the size and distribution of the individual grains and qualitatively on the basis of cementation. To uniquely classify these types of soils, information about the fabric (pore geometry and/or level of cementation) of the specimen needs to be quantified. Electrical resistivity, or its reciprocal, conductivity, methods have been extensively used both in situ and in the laboratory to provide a means for determining a variety of soil index, structural, erosional, and cyclic properties. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between formation factor (F), porosity (n), and cementation factor (m) of remolded sand-cement specimens. This relationship is shown to provide a mechanism for estimating the level of cementation in undisturbed specimens. The formation factor is the ratio of the electrical resistivity of the sand-water-cement mixture to that of the interstitial water.

  19. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Caroline J; Hodson, Mark E; Arnold, Rebecca E; Black, Stuart

    2005-11-01

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouché (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO(3))(2) to have concentrations in the range 1,000 to 10,000 mg Pb kg(-1). After 28 days LC50(-95%confidence limit)(+95%confidence limit) values were E. andrei 5824(-361)(+898) mg Pb kg(-1), L. rubellus 2867(-193)(+145) mg Pb kg(-1) and A. caliginosa2747(-304)(+239) mg Pb kg(-1) and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841(-68)(+150) mg Pb kg(-1), L. rubellus1303(-201)(+240) mg Pb kg(-1) and A. caliginosa1208(-206)(+212) mg Pb kg(-1). At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  20. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  1. EXPERIMENTS WITH A RESIN-IN-PULP PROCESS FOR TREATING LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results of experiments to evaluate the potential for using a resin-in-pulp process to remove lead contamination from soil. These experiments examined the kinetics and equilibrium partitioning of lead, lead carbonate, lead oxide, and lead sulfate in resin-s...

  2. Infiltration and Erosion in Soils Treated with Dry PAM of Two Molecular Weights and Phosphogypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil surface application of dissolved linear polyacrylamide (PAM) of high molecular weight (MW) can mitigate seal formation, runoff and erosion, especially when added with a source of electrolytes (e.g., gypsum). Practical difficulties associated with PAM solution application prohibited commercial u...

  3. Evaluation of PAH contamination in soil treated with solid by-products from shale pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Jaqueline; Khan, Muhammad Y; Matsui, M; Côcco, Lílian C; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Lopes, Wilson A; de Andrade, Jailson B; Pillon, Clenio N; Arizaga, Gregorio G Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils to which solid shale materials (SSMs) were added as soil conditioners. The SSMs were derived from the Petrosix pyrolysis process developed by Petrobras (Brazil). An improved ultrasonic agitation method was used to extract the PAHs from the solid samples (soils amended with SSMs), and the concentrations of the compounds were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure provided satisfactory recoveries, detection limits, and quantification limits. The two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs were most prevalent, and the highest concentration was obtained for phenanthrene (978 ± 19 μg kg(-1) in a pyrolyzed shale sample). The use of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene ratios revealed that the PAHs were derived from petrogenic rather than pyrogenic sources. The measured PAH concentrations did not exceed national or international limit values, suggesting that the use of SSMs as soil conditioners should not cause environmental damage.

  4. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student's unpaired 't' test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance.

  5. Coupled effects of treated effluent irrigation and wetting-drying cycles on transport of triazines through unsaturated soil columns.

    PubMed

    Seol, Y; Lee, L S

    2001-01-01

    The physical and chemical parameters controlling the movement of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine; 98.8%) and prometryn [N,N'-bis(1-methylethyl)-6-(methylthio)-l,3,5triazine-2,4-diamine; 99.5%] were investigated in columns infiltrated with treated effluent under unsaturated transient conditions and subjected to drying events at 22 or 60 degrees C followed by rewetting. Three soils varying in soil pH and texture and three solutions were used. The infiltrating solutions consisted of either a CaCl2 matrix (CC), a swine waste-derived lagoon effluent (SW), or a simulated buffer solution (SB) representative of the element composition and pH of the SW but with no dissolved organic matter. Several parameters were monitored including leachate triazine concentrations, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic carbon, and flow rates. Compared with CC, application of SW and SB increased column leachate pH, enhanced dissolution of organic carbon and particle dispersion, and decreased average flow rates, which allowed for increased desorption time. The coupled effect of these processes enhanced movement of triazines in some cases, with SW generally having the greatest effect. The individual effect of increased pH was more pronounced for prometryn (pKa=4.05) versus atrazine (pKa=1.66), and most dramatic for the soil with the lowest initial pH. High-temperature drying, which simulated intensive evaporation, further enhanced the dissolution of soil organic matter and the reduction in leachate flow rates with SW and SB applications; however, the net effect under the experimental conditions employed varied with soil type. Relative to low-temperature drying, high-temperature drying in the silty clay loam-packed columns reduced pesticide migration.

  6. Valorization of a treated soil via amendments: fractionation and oral bioaccessibility of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Zagury, Gerald J; Rincon Bello, Jhony A; Guney, Mert

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to transform a treated soil (TS) into a more desirable resource by modifying physico-chemical properties via amendments while reducing toxic metals' mobility and oral bioaccessibility. A hydrocarbon-contaminated soil submitted to treatment (TS) but still containing elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn has been amended with compost, sand, and Al2(SO4)3 to render it usable for horticulture. Characterization and sequential extraction were performed for TS and four amended mixtures (AM1-4). P and K availability and metal bioaccessibility were investigated in TS and AM2. Amendment improved soil properties for all mixtures and yielded a usable product (AM2 20 % TS, 49 % compost, 30 % sand, 1 % Al2(SO4)3) satisfying regulatory requirements except for Pb content. In particular, AM2 had improved organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), highly increased P and K availability, and reduced total metal concentrations. Furthermore, amendment decreased metal mobile fraction likely to be plant-available (in mg kg(-1), assumed as soluble/exchangeable + carbonates fractions). For AM2, estimated Pb bioavailability decreased from 1.50 × 10(3) mg kg(-1) (TS) to 238 mg kg(-1) (52.4 % (TS) to 34.2 %). Bioaccessible concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn (mg kg(-1)) were lower in AM2 than in TS, but there was no significant decrease for Pb. The results suggest that amendment improved soil by modifying its chemistry, resulting in lower metal mobile fraction (in %, for Cu and Zn) and bioaccessibility (in %, for Cu only). Amending soils having residual metal contamination can be an efficient valorization method, indicating potential for reducing treatment cost and environmental burden by rendering disposal/additional treatment unnecessary. Further studies including plant bioavailability are recommended to confirm results.

  7. Multi-bioindicators to assess soil microbial activity in the context of an artificial groundwater recharge with treated wastewater: a large-scale pilot experiment.

    PubMed

    Michel, Caroline; Joulian, Catherine; Ollivier, Patrick; Nyteij, Audrey; Cote, Rémi; Surdyk, Nicolas; Hellal, Jennifer; Casanova, Joel; Besnard, Katia; Rampnoux, Nicolas; Garrido, Francis

    2014-06-28

    In the context of artificial groundwater recharge, a reactive soil column at pilot-scale (4.5 m depth and 3 m in diameter) fed by treated wastewater was designed to evaluate soil filtration ability. Here, as a part of this project, the impact of treated wastewater filtration on soil bacterial communities and the soil's biological ability for wastewater treatment as well as the relevance of the use of multi-bioindicators were studied as a function of depth and time. Biomass; bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity fingerprints; potential nitrifying, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing activities; and functional gene (amo, nir, nar, and dsr) detection were analyzed to highlight the real and potential microbial activity and diversity within the soil column. These bioindicators show that topsoil (0 to 20 cm depth) was the more active and the more impacted by treated wastewater filtration. Nitrification was the main activity in the pilot. No sulfate-reducing activity or dsr genes were detected during the first 6 months of wastewater application. Denitrification was also absent, but genes of denitrifying bacteria were detected, suggesting that the denitrifying process may occur rapidly if adequate chemical conditions are favored within the soil column. Results also underline that a dry period (20 days without any wastewater supply) significantly impacted soil bacterial diversity, leading to a decrease of enzyme activities and biomass. Finally, our work shows that treated wastewater filtration leads to a modification of the bacterial genetic and functional structures in topsoil.

  8. Land application of chemically treated sewage sludge. II. Effects on soil and plant heavy metal content

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Y.K.; Bates, T.E.; Moyer, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Anaerobically digested sewage sludges resulting from treatment of sewage with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, or FeCl/sub 3/ for phosphorus precipitation were applied to corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyess) grown on a soil having an initial pH of 7.3. Rates of sludge supplied 200, 400, 800, and and 1,600 kg N/ha each year for 5 years. Treatments with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ supplying 0, 100, 20, and 400 kg N/ha were included for comparison. Plant tissue was analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb. No toxicity or deficiency symptoms were noted. Soil Zn, Cd, and Ni extracted by NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were increased by continued sludge application. The NTA-extractable Zn and Cd were positively correlated with the Zn and Cd concentrations in corn stover. Soil pH was reduced by the Fe-sludge application, slightly affected by the Al-sludge, and increased by the Ca-sludge. Increases in Cu concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover were associated with increases in the N content rather than the source of N, and plant Cu concentrations remained relatively constant across years. Sewage sludge application increased Zn, Cd, and Ni concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover, and Zn and Ni concentrations in corn grain, particularly at the higher metal loadings from sludge application. Zinc and Cd concentrations, especially in corn stover, increased with continued sludge application during the 5-year period. The inclusion of soil pH as a factor, in addition to cummulative amounts of Zn or Cd added as a constituent of sludge, improved the regression equations predicting Zn or Cd uptake.

  9. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2001-04-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

  10. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound sup 14 C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with ( sup 14 C)fonofos

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.; Khan, S.U. )

    1990-03-01

    Uptake of bound {sup 14}C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing {sup 14}C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound {sup 14}C residues, as measured by {sup 14}C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants.

  11. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-04-29

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, and shear bond. Testing to determine the effect of temperature cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. In addition, the stress-strain behavior of the cement types was studied. This report discusses a software program that is being developed to help design ULHS cements and foamed cements.

  12. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that will be performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries, as well as the results of Field Tests 1 and 2.

  13. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2001-07-18

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job.

  14. Population Dynamics of Heterodera glycines and Soybean Response in Soils Treated with Selected Nematicides and Herbicides.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P; Corbin, F T; Nelson, L A

    1983-07-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two locations to determine the effects of the nematicides aldicarb, phenamiphos, and ethoprop and/or the herbicides alachlor, linuron, or metribuzin on the population dynamics of Heterodera glycines and soybean growth and yield. Population densities of H. glycines were greater, at some time during the growing season, in several treatments with alachlor alone and in combination with nematicides. Numbers of H. glycines at harvest were greater in plots treated with aldicarb than in those treated with ethoprop or phenamiphos. The numbers in aldicarb treated plots were generally reduced when plots also received a herbicide. Soybean yields were negatively correlated with numbers of H. glycines eggs and juveniles in early to mid season but positively correlated with late season population densities.

  15. Enhanced bioremediation process: A case study of effectiveness on PAH contamination in soils at a former wood-treating site

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.F.; Matens, B.L.; Buchalter, D.S.; Montgomery, D.N.

    1997-12-31

    The Enhanced Bioremediation Process (EBP) technology is an exsitu biodegradation process that utilizes bacterial and fungal inoculants to effectively oxidize and bioremediate persistent hard to degrade organics in contaminated soils. The EBP fungal inoculants produce highly reactive extracellular peroxidase enzymes that can oxidize and degrade lignin, a complex, natural polymer composed of phenylpropane units that is resistant to decay. The lignin peroxidase enzymes are highly nonspecific because of their ability to oxidize the heterogenic lignin molecule, and are capable of degrading a wide variety of complex organic compounds. Because the chemical sub-structure of lignin (1,2-aryl diethers, alkyl sidechains and connected aryl systems) resembles that of many persistent organic compounds, the EBP inoculants are very effective in biodegrading similar hazardous organic pollutants in contaminated soils. As an inadvertent by-product of these biochemical processes, the EBP organisms reduce the organic constituents to a soluble form. In a soluble form, the indigenous organisms can further degrade the contaminants. The technology is applied in such a manner as to maximize the activity of the indigenous organisms by establishing optimum growth conditions. The efficacy of the EBP technology in degrading persistent environmental pollutants has been documented at both the bench scale and pilot demonstration levels. A recently completed field pilot demonstration was conducted at a creosote contaminated site. The demonstration entailed the treatment of approximately 700 tons of soil contaminated with PAH constituents. Laboratory analyses of pre and post-treated soils indicate that total average PAH concentrations in many samples were reduced by greater than 91 percent over a two month treatment period.

  16. Assessment of soil and groundwater impacts by treated urban wastewater reuse. A case study: application in a golf course (Girona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Candela, Lucila; Fabregat, Salvador; Josa, Alejandro; Suriol, Josep; Vigués, Núria; Mas, Jordi

    2007-03-01

    Starting in July 2000, treated wastewater of urban origin has been used for the "Serres de Pals" golf course irrigation (Girona, Spain). To evaluate if the soil and the aquifer underneath are affected by the utilization of this type of water, samples have been taken along a period of several months from the wastewater treatment plant, the stabilization lagoon, groundwater and soil profiles. Analyses have been performed for total coliforms and aerobic bacteria, soil water pressure and soil water content as well as chemical analyses of the irrigation water, aquifer and water of the vadose zone. Soil profiles taken at several times during the study indicate the absence of coliforms except for a short period during summer. In the vadose zone an increase of more than 1000 mg kg(-1) of NaO(2) in the top 60 cm of soil was observed while Cl(-) concentration in the aquifer reached up to 1200 mg l(-1) ten months after starting the irrigation.

  17. Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound sup 14 C residues from soil treated with ( sup 14 C)atrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.U.; Behki, R.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The release of bound (nonextractable) {sup 14}C residues from soil previously treated with ({sup 14}C)atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound {sup 14}C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound {sup 14}C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The {sup 14}C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation.

  18. Herbicide residues in leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca plants treated with soil-applied tebuthiuron and hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Lydon, J; Darlington, L

    1998-09-01

    The herbicide residue levels in leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca Lam. plants treated with soil applications of tebuthiuron and hexazinone at 3.36 and 6.72 kg a.i. ha-1 were determined in order to estimate the potential for human exposure to these residues from consuming the leaves or cocaine produced from them. Field-grown plants were treated with a commercial formulation of tebuthiuron or hexazinone and leaves were harvested at the first indication of herbicide injury (i.e. chlorosis and/or necrosis) and at the onset of leaf abscission. Herbicide residues were detected by HPLC in leaf samples from both harvests of all plants treated with tebuthiuron or hexazinone. At 3.36 kg ha-1, herbicide residues in the leaves were less than 2 micrograms g-1 dry wt. for both harvests of both experiments. The highest residue levels detected were 5.90 micrograms g-1 dry wt. for tebuthiuron and 7.17 micrograms g-1 dry wt. for hexazinone in leaves from plants treated with the herbicide at the rate of 6.72 kg ha-1 and harvested at the onset of leaf drop. Based on published toxicity data and estimates of leaf consumption, the herbicide residues in leaves of E. coca var. coca plants treated with tebuthiuron or hexazinone at twice the recommended control rates or less would have a negligible contribution to the health risks of individuals who chew coca leaves. Furthermore, based on the most conservative estimates of cocaine yield and herbicide carry over, death by cocaine overdose would occur long before the NOEL for either herbicide was reached.

  19. Soil bacterial communities in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater using PCR-DGGE technique.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuli; Reddy, Gudigopuram B

    2010-02-01

    Marsh-pond-marsh (MPM) constructed wetlands were designed for the treatment of swine wastewater. The goal of this study was to characterize bacterial communities in these wetlands and determine the nutrient removal from influent to effluent. Surface soil samples were collected and analyzed by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. The results showed that the bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the average concentrations of total nitrogen, NH(4)(+), total phosphorous (TP) and PO(4)(3-) from the influent to the effluent decreased. The NH(4)(+) and the PO(4)(3-) concentrations showed the most dramatic changes, with decreases of 39.97% and 16.92%, respectively. Data of culture-independent samples produced by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique showed that the Shannon diversity index and richness decreased significantly (P<0.05) from influent to effluent. Bacterium species distributions strongly correlated with the concentrations of TP, NH(4)(+) and the PO(4)(3-). Sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes fragments revealed that the total bacterial community composition was dominated by Pseudomonas sp., Arthrobacter sp., Bacillus sp. and other soil bacteria. Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) stains were detected. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that some of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences had close relationships with unculturable denitrification bacteria. The activities of these bacteria might contribute to the nutrient removal in the wetlands.

  20. Well treating process and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, A.C.

    1984-09-11

    A process is disclosed for treating a subterranean zone by emplacing therein a hardenable aqueous slurry and then permitting the slurry to harden, where the slurry comprises a hydraulic cement, water, sodium bentonite, sodium metasilicate, and a hydroxyethyl cellulose. The composition and process employing same is particularly useful in the treatment of oil and gas wells where cementing of a weak formation of very long string cementing, in a single stage, is desired.

  1. Improvement of casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Part 2: Oilfield cements and cement additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, K. H.; Akstinat, M.

    1982-07-01

    Oilfield cements and cement additives were investigated in order to improve the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Characterization and evaluation of the main oil field cements commercially available were studied. The testing was carried out according to American Petroleum Institute API standards and nonstandardized test methods (dynamic modulus of elasticity, expansion/shrinkage), especially the rheology, thickening time and the influence of pressure, temperature and water-cement ratio, were considered. The main emphasis in the field of cement additives was on the evaluation of cement retarders for high temperatures, accelerators, and additives for cement expansion. Furthermore oil field cements were tested, and their properties are described.

  2. Abyssal seep site cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, A.C.; Paull, C.K.; Commeau, R.; Commeau, J.

    1988-01-01

    The deepest submarine cements known so far occur along the 3,300-m deep base of the Florida escarpment and are associated with methane-bearing brine seeps, which emanate there. These deep Holocene carbonates, which occur as surficial and buried crusts, burrow fillings, and friable horizons, were sampled via ALVIN. The carbonates form irregular halos extending up to 20 m from seeps colonized by chemosynthetic fauna. Mussels, gastropods, and clams, the carbonate components of the community, produce a shell hash that is locally cemented by coarsely crystalline low-Mg calcite. Halos of palisade calcite are reminiscent of ancient examples of marine cements. Also present are carbonate hemipelagics cemented by micrite into crusts and burrow fillings. The degree of cementation varies from pervasive to light. Slabs of cemented crust up to 30 cm thick contrast with typical shallow crusts and exhibit irregular tops and smooth bottoms indicating different chemical gradients and pathways.

  3. Cementation of indirect restorations: an overview of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Simon, James F

    2013-01-01

    The process of ensuring proper retention, marginal seal, and durability of indirect restorations depends heavily on effective cementation. Careful consideration must be made when selecting an adhesive cement for a given application. This article provides information on resin cements that can guide clinicians in determining which type of cement is best suited to their clinical needs regarding cementation of indirect restorations. Emphasis is placed on successful cementation of all-ceramic restorations.

  4. Impacts of Long-Term Irrigation of Domestic Treated Wastewater on Soil Biogeochemistry and Bacterial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wafula, Denis; White, John R.; Canion, Andy; Jagoe, Charles; Pathak, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity and regulations on wastewater disposal have necessitated the reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) for soil irrigation, which has several environmental and economic benefits. However, TWW irrigation can cause nutrient loading to the receiving environments. We assessed bacterial community structure and associated biogeochemical changes in soil plots irrigated with nitrate-rich TWW (referred to as pivots) for periods ranging from 13 to 30 years. Soil cores (0 to 40 cm) were collected in summer and winter from five irrigated pivots and three adjacently located nonirrigated plots. Total bacterial and denitrifier gene abundances were estimated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and community structure was assessed by 454 massively parallel tag sequencing (MPTS) of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes along with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of nirK, nirS, and nosZ functional genes responsible for denitrification of the TWW-associated nitrate. Soil physicochemical analyses showed that, regardless of the seasons, pH and moisture contents (MC) were higher in the irrigated (IR) pivots than in the nonirrigated (NIR) plots; organic matter (OM) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were higher as a function of season but not of irrigation treatment. MPTS analysis showed that TWW loading resulted in the following: (i) an increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria; (ii) a decrease in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria; (iii) shifts in the communities of acidobacterial groups, along with a shift in the nirK and nirS denitrifier guilds as shown by T-RFLP analysis. Additionally, bacterial biomass estimated by genus/group-specific real-time qPCR analyses revealed that higher numbers of total bacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and the nirS denitrifier guilds were present in the IR pivots than in the NIR plots. Identification of the nir

  5. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2003-01-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

  6. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils.

  7. Gelatin powders accelerate the resorption of calcium phosphate cement and improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Waka; Ikada, Yoshito; Sobajima, Satoshi; Neo, Masashi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of combining calcium phosphate cement and gelatin powders to promote bone regeneration in the canine mandible. We mixed gelatin powders with calcium phosphate cement to create a macroporous composite. In four beagle dogs, two saddle-type bone defects were created on each side of the mandible, and calcium phosphate cement alone or calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders was implanted in each of the defects. After a healing period of six months, mandibles were removed for µCT and histological analyses. The µCT and histological analyses showed that at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement alone had been placed new bone had formed only around the periphery of the residual calcium phosphate cement and that there had been little or no ingrowth into the calcium phosphate cement. On the other hand, at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders had been placed, we observed regenerated new bone in the interior of the residual calcium phosphate cement as well as around its periphery. The amount of resorption of calcium phosphate cement and bone regeneration depended on the mixing ratio of gelatin powders to calcium phosphate cement. New bone replacement was significantly better in the sites treated with calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders than in those treated with calcium phosphate cement alone.

  8. Valuation of efficacy and nonrepellency of indoxacarb and fipronil-treated soil at various concentrations and thicknesses against two subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Xing Ping

    2005-04-01

    The efficacy and nonrepellency of indoxacarb (150 SC, 150 g [AI]/liter) and fipronil (Termidor SC, 9.1% [Al]) against field-collected eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), and the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated for mortality and penetration into treated soil in laboratory glass tube bioassays. Both insecticides were tested at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 ppm) and two thicknesses (20 and 50 mm) of treated soil. Indoxacarb caused significantly greater mortality than controls at all treatment thicknesses of > or = 10 ppm, but not at 1 ppm. Concentration and treatment thickness of indoxacarb significantly affected termite mortality. Eastern subterranean termites were significantly more susceptible to indoxacarb than Formosan subterranean termites, but there were no intercolony differences in either species. Termites completely penetrated through all treatment thickness of indoxacarb-treated soil at all concentrations, except one of the six Formosan subterranean termite replicates of 50 mm at 50 ppm, when all termites were killed before tunneling through the treated soil. Fipronil resulted in significantly faster and greater termite mortality than indoxacarb at corresponding concentrations. Concentration and treatment thickness of fipronil also significantly affected termite mortality. There was no intercolony difference in susceptibility to either insecticide in either termite. Both termite species completely penetrated 20-mm treatments of all tested fipronil concentrations, as well as 50-mm soil treated with fipronil at < or = 10 ppm. At 50 and 100 ppm fipronil, termites tunneled only a mean of 87 +/- 0.21 and 47 +/- 0.18% deep into 50-mm treated soil, respectively, before death. Both insecticides demonstrated a delayed mode of activity and nonrepellency against the two termite species.

  9. [Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions in vegetable system by treating soil with dicyandiamide, a nitrification inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Shan; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Tan, Qi-Ling; Sun, Xue-Cheng; Hu, Zhen-Lan

    2011-11-01

    Undisturbed soil monolith lysimeter was used to investigate the effectiveness of DCD (dicyandiamide) in reducing N2O emissions in vegetable (Chinese cabbage and pepper) field. Results showed that DCD significantly reduced total N2O emission in vegetable field. Total N2O emissions from the urea treatment without DCD reached 0.215 kg x hm(-2) for Chinese cabbage, and it reduced to 0.109 kg x hm(-2), equivalent to a 49.3% reduction. The total N2O emissions for pepper were much higher compared with those for Chinese cabbage. The total N2O emitted from the urea treatment was 2.32 kg x hm(-2) (without DCD) and it was reduced to 1.14 kg x hm(-2) with DCD application, representing a 50.9% reduction. In the control treatments where no urea was applied, the daily N2O flux was very low and it never exceeded 9 microg x (m2 x h) (-1) for Chinese cabbage and 22 microg x (m2 x h) (-1) for pepper, respectively, but DCD also reduced N2O emissions (33.5% for Chinese cabbage and 33.4% for pepper). In addition, the urea-N emission factor (EF) was 0.15%, 0.99% for Chinese cabbage and pepper without DCD, respectively, and it was reduced to 0.07%, 0.52% when DCD was applied. These results demonstrated the potential of using nitrification inhibitors (DCD) to mitigate N2O emissions in vegetable system.

  10. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  11. Assessment of intermittently loaded woodchip and sand filters to treat dairy soiled water.

    PubMed

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Fenton, O

    2016-10-15

    Land application of dairy soiled water (DSW) is expensive relative to its nutrient replacement value. The use of aerobic filters is an effective alternative method of treatment and potentially allows the final effluent to be reused on the farm. Knowledge gaps exist concerning the optimal design and operation of filters for the treatment of DSW. To address this, 18 laboratory-scale filters, with depths of either 0.6 m or 1 m, were intermittently loaded with DSW over periods of up to 220 days to evaluate the impacts of depth (0.6 m versus 1 m), organic loading rates (OLRs) (50 versus 155 g COD m(-2) d(-1)), and media type (woodchip versus sand) on organic, nutrient and suspended solids (SS) removals. The study found that media depth was important in contaminant removal in woodchip filters. Reductions of 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 95% SS, 85% total nitrogen (TN), 82% ammonium-nitrogen (NH4N), 50% total phosphorus (TP), and 54% dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) were measured in 1 m deep woodchip filters, which was greater than the reductions in 0.6 m deep woodchip filters. Woodchip filters also performed optimally when loaded at a high OLR (155 g COD m(-2) d(-1)), although the removal mechanism was primarily physical (i.e. straining) as opposed to biological. When operated at the same OLR and when of the same depth, the sand filters had better COD removals (96%) than woodchip (74%), but there was no significant difference between them in the removal of SS and NH4N. However, the likelihood of clogging makes sand filters less desirable than woodchip filters. Using the optimal designs of both configurations, the filter area required per cow for a woodchip filter is more than four times less than for a sand filter. Therefore, this study found that woodchip filters are more economically and environmentally effective in the treatment of DSW than sand filters, and optimal performance may be achieved using woodchip filters with a depth of at least 1

  12. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-01-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

  13. Addition of microbially-treated sugar beet residue and a native bacterium increases structural stability in heavy metal-contaminated Mediterranean soils.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L; Caravaca, F; Azcón, R; Kohler, J; Roldán, A

    2009-10-15

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the addition of Aspergillus niger-treated sugar beet waste, in the presence of rock phosphate, and inoculation with a native, metal-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, on the stabilisation of soil aggregates of two mine tailings, with differing pH values, from a semiarid Mediterranean area and on the stimulation of growth of Piptatherum miliaceum. Bacterium combined with organic amendment enhanced structural stability (38% in acidic soil and 106% in neutral soil compared with their corresponding controls). Only the organic amendment increased pH, electrical conductivity, water-soluble C, water-soluble carbohydrates and plant growth, in both soils. While in neutral soil both organic amendment and bacterium increased dehydrogenase activity, only organic amendment had a significant effect in acidic soil. This study demonstrates that the use of P. miliaceum in combination with organic amendment and bacterium is a suitable tool for the stabilisation of the soil structure of degraded mine tailings, although its effectiveness is dependent on soil pH.

  14. Capillary effect in salt-cemented media of particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Hung Truong, Q.; Byun, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    Natural cementation such as salt cementation may significantly affect the geotechnical properties of soils at low confining pressures. Capillary force plays a key role in the distribution patterns of salt cementation resulting from dehydration. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of capillary force on salt cementation through cone penetration testing, electrical conductivity measurements, photographic imaging technique, and nondestructive elastic wave scanning. Granular media is modeled using glass beads which are saturated in salt water and cemented by oven drying. The cone tip resistance profiles, electrical conductivity profiles, and amplitudes of the scanned elastic waves are high at the top of the specimen with small-sized particles, in the middle of the specimen in medium-sized particles, and at the bottom of the specimen in the large-sized particles. Differences in the distribution of salt in the cemented specimens are confirmed from photographic images. The calculated capillary heights are associated with the areas of high salt concentration in the cemented specimens. The four investigation methods used in this study show that the behavior of salt-cemented granular media depends on capillary force in a shallow depth.

  15. Microbial biomass and soil carbon after 8 and 9 years of field applications of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter and inorganic nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amendment with aluminum sulfate (alum) is considered a best management practice for its benefits in poultry production and increased retention of nutrients in the litter. However, little is known about how long-term applications of alum-treated litter to soil will affect the microbial community and ...

  16. Long-term applications of untreated and alum-treated poultry litter drive soil nitrogen concentrations and associated microbial community dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum)-treatment retains ammonia in poultry litter, potentially altering nitrogen cycling after application to soil. The objective of this research was to assess if eight and nine years of annual application of untreated or alum-treated poultry litters or ammonium nitrate have resul...

  17. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHELATOR-TREATED SOIL HUMATE BY SOLUTION-STATE MULTINUCLEAR TWO-DIMENSIONAL NMR WITH FTIR AND PYROLYSIS-GCMS. (R825960)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A California forest soil used for contaminant bioavailability
    studies was extracted for humic substances (HS) and
    then treated with 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonate
    ("Tiron") to remove exchangeable metal ions. This yielded
    HS that was readily water-soluble at ...

  18. Assessment of sulfide production risk in soil during the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, L; Coudert, L; Gilbert, Y; Mercier, G; Blais, J F

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential of sulfide generation during infiltration through soil of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification process. Three types of soil with different permeability rates (K s = 0.028, 0.0013, and 0.00015 cm/s) were investigated to evaluate the potential risk of sulfur generation during the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification system. These soils were thoroughly characterized and tested to assess their capacity to be used as drainages for wastewaters. Experiments were conducted under two operating modes (saturated and unsaturated). Sulfate, sulfide, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were determined over a period of 100 days. Despite the high concentration of sulfates (200 mg/L) under anaerobic conditions (ORP = -297 mV), no significant amount of sulfide was generated in the aqueous (<0.2 mg/L) or gaseous (<0.15 ppm) phases. Furthermore, the soil permeability did not have a noticeable effect on the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification system due to low contents of organic matter (i.e., dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The autotrophic denitrification process used to treat the domestic wastewater allowed the reduction of the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) below 5 mg/L, of DOC below 7 mg/L, and of COD below 100 mg/L.

  19. A comparison of retentive strength of implant cement depending on various methods of removing provisional cement from implant abutment

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effectiveness of various methods for removing provisional cement from implant abutments, and what effect these methods have on the retention of prosthesis during the definitive cementation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty implant fixture analogues and abutments were embedded in resin blocks. Forty cast crowns were fabricated and divided into 4 groups each containing 10 implants. Group A was cemented directly with the definitive cement (Cem-Implant). The remainder were cemented with provisional cement (Temp-Bond NE), and classified according to the method for cleaning the abutments. Group B used a plastic curette and wet gauze, Group C used a rubber cup and pumice, and Group D used an airborne particle abrasion technique. The abutments were observed using a stereomicroscope after removing the provisional cement. The tensile bond strength was measured after the definitive cementation. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test (α=.05). RESULTS Group B clearly showed provisional cement remaining, whereas the other groups showed almost no cement. Groups A and B showed a relatively smooth surface. More roughness was observed in Group C, and apparent roughness was noted in Group D. The tensile bond strength tests revealed Group D to have significantly the highest tensile bond strength followed in order by Groups C, A and B. CONCLUSION A plastic curette and wet gauze alone cannot effectively remove the residual provisional cement on the abutment. The definitive retention increased when the abutments were treated with rubber cup/pumice or airborne particle abraded to remove the provisional cement. PMID:24049563

  20. Timing of syntaxial cement

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    Echinodermal fragments are commonly overgrown in ancient limestones, with large single crystals growing in optical continuity over their skeletal hosts (i.e., syntaxial overgrowths). Such syntaxial cements are usually considered to have precipitated from meteoric pore waters associated with a later stage of subaerial exposure. Although several examples have been reported from ancient carbonates where petrographic relationships may indicate an early submarine formation of syntaxial cement, no occurrences have been noted in Holocene submarine-cemented rocks. Syntaxial cements of submarine origin have been found in Bermuda beachrock where isopachous high-magnesian calcite cements merge with large optically continuous crystals growing on echinodermal debris. Examination of other Holocene sediments cemented by magnesian calcite indicates that echinodermal fragments are not always overgrown syntaxially, but may be rimmed by microcrystalline calcite. The reason for this difference is not clear, although it may be a function of the spacing of nucleation sites and rates of crystal growth. A review of syntaxial cements from several localities in ancient carbonate sequences reveals that many are best interpreted as having formed in the submarine setting, whereas it is more clear that others formed from meteoric precipitation. These occurrences suggest that care should be exercised in inferring meteoric diagenesis from syntaxial overgrowths and that the possibility of submarine formation should be considered.

  1. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2003-07-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. Laboratory testing during the eleventh quarter focused on evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction of eight different cement compositions, four of which contain ULHS. This report provides a progress summary of ASR testing. The original laboratory procedure for measuring set cement expansion resulted in unacceptable erosion of the test specimens. In subsequent tests, a different expansion procedure was implemented and an alternate curing method for cements formulated with TXI Lightweight cement was employed to prevent sample failure caused by thermal shock. The results obtained with the modified procedure showed improvement over data obtained with the original procedure, but data for some compositions were still questionable. Additional modification of test procedures for compositions containing TXI Lightweight cement were implemented and testing is ongoing.

  2. Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater on the hydraulic properties, and the water and air regime in the root zone of a clayey soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel

    2013-04-01

    With increasing water scarcity, treated wastewater (TW) appears as an attractive alternative source of water for irrigation, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where freshwater is naturally scarce. However, it seems that long-term use of TW for irrigation of orchards planted on heavy soils cause to yield reduction and crop damages. In terms of water quality, TW are characterized by higher concentrations of sodium and dissolved organic content (DOC) that affect soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) on one hand and soil wettability, on the other hand. The working hypothesis of this study is that long-term use of TW for irrigation of clayey soils causes significant changes in the soil hydraulic properties. Such changes might affect the water and air regime in the root zone, and the hydrological balance components at the field scale. High-resolution field sampling determined the spatial distribution of chloride, ESP and DOC below the dripper, revealing higher salinity and sodicity, lower hydraulic conductivity, and possible preferential flow pattern linked to wettability in WW-irrigated soils. Laboratory experiments involving infiltration, evaporation, and swelling pressure measurements provide quantitative estimates of the impact of TW for irrigation on the soil hydraulic properties. The upper soil layer of TW-irrigated plots is more affected by the impact of DOC on soil wettability, while the lower layers are more affected by the impact of the increased ESP on soil hydraulic conductivity. Continuous monitoring of oxygen concentration at 10, 20 and 30 cm depths in the root zone near the trees and at mid-distance between trees revealed that the air regime in the root zone is significantly affected by the TW use as a consequence for the effect on the water regime.

  3. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS

  4. Root-Zone Redox Dynamics - In Search for the Cause of Damage to Treated-Wastewater Irrigated Orchards in Clay Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalin, David; Shenker, Moshe; Schwartz, Amnon; Assouline, Shmuel; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Treated wastewater (TW) has become a common source of water for agriculture. However recent findings raise concern regarding its use: a marked decrease (up to 40%) in yield appeared in orchards irrigated with TW compared with fresh water (FW) irrigated orchards. These detrimental effects appeared predominantly in orchards cultivated in clay soils. The association of the damage with clay soils rather than sandy soils led us to hypothesize that the damage is linked to soil aeration problems. We suspected that in clay soils, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and high levels of organic material, both typical of TW, may jointly lead to an extreme decrease in soil oxygen levels, so as to shift soil reduction-oxidation (redox) state down to levels that are known to damage plants. Two-year continuous measurement of redox potential, pH, water tension, and oxygen were conducted in the root-zone (20-35 cm depth) of avocado trees planted in clay soil and irrigated with either TW or FW. Soil solution composition was sampled periodically in-situ and mineral composition was sampled in tree leaves and woody organs biannually. In dry periods the pe+pH values indicated oxic conditions (pe+pH>14), and the fluctuations in redox values were small in both TW and FW plots. Decreases in soil water tension following irrigation or rain were followed by drops in soil oxygen and pe+pH values. TW irrigated plots had significantly lower minimum pe+pH values compared with FW-irrigated plots, the most significant differences occurred during the irrigation season rather than the rain season. A linear correlation appeared between irrigation volume and reduction severity in TW-irrigated plots, but not in the FW plots, indicating a direct link to the irrigation regime in TW-irrigated plots. The minimum pe+pH values measured in the TW plots are indicative of suboxic conditions (9soil solution and in

  5. Using Natural Cementation Systems to Control Corrosion Dust on Un-surfaced Roads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    metallurgical slags), volcanic glass, fly ash and low-fired clays • Can use waste alkali from manufacturing operations • No Portland cement is involved Soil...Conventional Cement? • Glass can be both the aggregate and form the cementing phase • Waste glass (slag, fly ash ) can be used • More alkaline solution is...Materials: Suitable raw materials are available almost everywhere ( fly ash , slag, calcined clays) • Economical: Uses waste materials or low-fired clay

  6. Some heavy metals in soils treated with sewage sludge, their effects on yield, and their uptake by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Valdares, J.M.A.S.; Gal, M.; Mingelgrin, U.; Page, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The possible use of sludge with high heavy metal concentrations and at high rates in calcareous soil was demonstrated in this study. Mixtures of two sludges were added to soils in various proportions up to 4% sludge content. One sludge was rich in Ni and Cd, while the other was relatively poor in heavy metals. Three soils varying in pH from 7.7 to 5.5 were tested. The concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn in the DTPA and saturation extracts of the soil-sludge mixtures were determined and correlated with their uptake by plants and the yield of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L., cv. Ford Hook Giant) grown on these mixtures. The metal-poor sludge hardly affected the yield of the relatively salt-resistant Swiss chard. The metal-rich sludge reduced the yield drastically in noncalcareous soils after a critical amount of that sludge (1.5%) was added to the soils. Yet, even 4% of this metal-rich sludge increased the yield of Swiss chard, as compared with the sludge-free control in a calcareous soil. The best fit to yield was obtained by multiple regression with metal content in the soil saturation extract. The solubility in soil solution of Cd, Ni and Zn was strongly affected by the pH. The uptake of Ni and Zn by plants was significantly larger in the acid soil than in the calcareous soil. The difference in the uptake of Cd and Cu between the soils was smaller. Plant uptake of the metals was generally predicted better by the total metal addition or concentration in the DPTA extract than by metal concentration in the soil saturation extract. In noncalcaeous soils the total metal addition correlated as well as metal content in the DTPA extracts with the metal concentration in the soil solution, with the uptake by plants and with the yield.

  7. Novorossiysk agglomeration landscapes and cement production: geochemical impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, A. V.; Pashkevich, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with assessing the environmental impact of marl mining and cement production in Novorossiysk city (Krasnodar krai, Russia). The existing methods of studying the environmental effects caused by the cement industry have been reviewed. Soil and aquatic vegetation sampling has been carried out and the gross concentration of metals in the samples has been defined. The research has been conducted in the certified and accredited laboratory using emission spectral analysis. The external control has been carried out via X-ray fluorescence analysis. Based on the collected data, main chemical pollutants in soil cover and water area near the cement plant have been identified. The contaminants released by urban enterprises and motor vehicle emissions, as well as fugitive dust from dumps and the cement factory, lead to multi-element lithogeochemical anomaly at geochemical barriers in soils. Accumulation of pollutants in soil depends on the type of land use and the area relief. The most contaminated aquatic landscapes have been identified in the inner bay. According to this information, the technical proposals can be prepared for environmental safety management in strongly polluted city areas, as well as for the reclamation design in the areas currently experiencing the negative impact of cement production.

  8. Environmentally compatible spray cement

    SciTech Connect

    Loeschnig, P.

    1995-12-31

    Within the framework of a European research project, Heidelberger Zement developed a quickly setting and hardening binder for shotcrete, called Chronolith S, which avoids the application of setting accelerators. Density and strength of the shotcrete produced with this spray cement correspond to those of an unaccelerated shotcrete. An increased hazard for the heading team and for the environment, which may occur when applying setting accelerators, can be excluded here. Owing to the special setting properties of a spray cement, the process engineering for its manufacturing is of great importance. The treatment of a spray cement as a dry concrete with kiln-dried aggregates is possible without any problems. The use of a naturally damp pre-batched mixture is possible with Chronolith S but requires special process engineering; spray cement and damp aggregate are mixed with one another immediately before entering the spraying machinery.

  9. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  10. FTIR Evidence of Changes in Carbon Associated with Hydrophobicity in Wildfire Affected Soils Treated with Elevated Temperature, Acid Snow Melt, or UV-Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; van Miegroet, H.

    2009-12-01

    In a wild fire, organic volatile compounds from vegetation condense on soil particles forming a hydrophobic layer several centimeters below the soil surface. We studied the degradation of the hydrophobic layer in soils from two fire sites. One site is located in a montane woodland (Wood Camp, Logan Canyon, UT) that burned in 2006. The second site is located in an arid pinyon pine/juniper stand in Milford Flats, Beaver County, UT that burned in 2007. Both sites were sampled in 2008. In situ measurements of hydrophobicity demonstrated highly hydrophobic layers a few centimeters below the surface at both sites in contrast with unburned control sites, where hydrophobicity was observed at the surface but fell off sharply with depth. Samples of surface and subsurface soil were collected from the burned and unburned areas at both sites. Subsamples of all the soils were placed in microlysimeters, treated with acid snowmelt, elevated temperatures (30°C - 47°C), and UV light. After the treatments, the soils were air-dried and the surfaces analyzed for evidence of change in hydrophobicity using the drop test, oxidation of aromatic functional groups by cation exchange capacity (CEC), and the selective degradation of aliphatic functional groups associated with hydrophobicity by FTIR-ATR. Although results of the water drop penetration test suggest that simply wetting and air-drying the soils resulted in complete loss of hydrophobicity, the CEC results suggest that carbon oxidation occurred in the organic matter rich Wood Camp Soils. CEC results for the low carbon content Milford Flats soils were less clear. Analyses of peak heights in the range 4000 - 400 cm-1 demonstrate clear differences between the controlled and burned soils from the two sites and effects of all the treatments, particularly in the regions from 3020 to 2800 cm-1, corresponding to asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of methyl and methylene groups associated with hydrophobicity. Peak height in this

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Kamran; Najafi, Payam; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2014-05-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater for irrigation over long periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants, animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of treated wastewater on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of using a deep emitter installation on lowering the potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub treatments (0, 15 and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam soil, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m a.s.l.. A two-crop rotation of wheat [Triticum spp.] and corn [Zea mays]) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting (initial value) and after harvesting (final value) for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were also collected. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05) of soil heavy metal content between different depths of emitters. A pollution load index PLI showed that there was not substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to

  12. [Comparison of fixation effects of heavy metals between cement rotary kiln co-processing and cement solidification/stabilization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-li; Liu, Jian-guo; Li, Cheng; Jin, Yi-ying; Nie, Yong-feng

    2008-04-01

    Both cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes and cement solidification/stabilization could dispose heavy metals by fixation. Different fixation mechanisms lead to different fixation effects. The same amount of heavy metal compounds containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn were treated by the two kinds of fixation technologies. GB leaching test, TCLP tests and sequential extraction procedures were employed to compare the fixation effects of two fixation technologies. The leached concentration and chemical species distribution of heavy metals in two grounded mortar samples were analyzed and the fixation effects of two kinds of technologies to different heavy metals were compared. The results show the fixation effect of cement rotary kiln co-processing technology is better than cement solidification/stabilization technology to As, Pb, Zn. Calcinations in cement rotary kiln and then hydration help As, Pb, Zn contained in hazardous wastes transform to more steady chemical species and effectively dispose these heavy metals compounds. Cr3+ is liable to be converted to much more toxic and more mobile Cr6+ state in cement rotary kiln. And so Cr wastes are more fit for treatment by cement solidification/stabilization technology. The work could provide a basis when choosing disposal technologies for different heavy metals and be helpful to improve the application and development of cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes.

  13. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    PubMed

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system.

  14. CHEMICALLY BONDED CEMENTS FROM BOILER ASH AND SLUDGE WASTES. PHASE II REPORT, SEPT.1998-JULY 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.YAGER,K.A.BLANKENHORN,D.

    1999-08-01

    Based upon the previous Phase I research program aimed at looking for ways of recycling the KeySpan-generated wastes, such as waste water treatment sludge (WWTS) and bottom ash (BA), into the potentially useful cementitious materials called chemically bonded cement (CBC) materials, the emphasis of this Phase II program done at Brookhaven National Laboratory, in a period of September 1998 through July 1999, was directed towards the two major subjects: One was to assess the technical feasibility of WWTS-based CBC material for use as Pb-exchange adsorbent (PEA) which remediates Pb-contaminated soils in the field; and the other was related to the establishment of the optimum-packaging storage system of dry BA-based CBC components that make it a promising matrix material for the steam-cured concrete products containing sand and coarse aggregate. To achieve the goal of the first subject, a small-scale field demonstration test was carried out. Using the PEA material consisting of 30 wt% WWTS, 13 wt% Type I cement and 57 wt% water, the PES slurry was prepared using a rotary shear concrete mixer, and then poured on the Pb-contaminated soil. The PEA-to-soil ratio by weight was a factor of 2.0. The placed PEA slurry was blended with soil using hand mixing tools such as claws and shovels. The wettability of soils with the PEA was very good, thereby facilitating the soil-PEA mix procedures. A very promising result was obtained from this field test; in fact, the mount of Pb leached out from the 25-day-aged PEA-treated soil specimen was only 0.74 mg/l, meeting the requirement for EPA safe regulation of < 5 mg/l. In contrast, a large amount (26.4 mg/l) of Pb was detected from the untreated soil of the same age. Thus, this finding demonstrated that the WWTS-based CBC has a potential for use as PEA material. Regarding the second subject, the dry-packed storage system consisting of 68.7 wt% BA, 13.0 wt% calcium aluminate cement (CAC), 13.0 wt% Type I portland cement and 5.3 wt

  15. Lower leaf gas-exchange and higher photorespiration of treated wastewater irrigated Citrus trees is modulated by soil type and climate.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Indira; Shaviv, Avi; Bernstein, Nirit; Heuer, Bruria; Shapira, Or; Lukyanov, Victor; Bar-Tal, Asher; Rotbart, Nativ; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-04-01

    Water quality, soil and climate can interact to limit photosynthesis and to increase photooxidative damage in sensitive plants. This research compared diffusive and non-diffusive limitations to photosynthesis as well as photorespiration of leaves of grapefruit trees in heavy clay and sandy soils having a previous history of treated wastewater (TWW) irrigation for >10 years, with different water qualities [fresh water (FW) vs TWW and sodium amended treated wastewater (TWW + Na)] in two arid climates (summer vs winter) and in orchard and lysimeter experiments. TWW irrigation increased salts (Na(+) and Cl(-) ), membrane leakage, proline and soluble sugar content, and decreased osmotic potentials in leaves of all experiments. Reduced leaf growth and higher stomatal and non-stomatal (i.e. mesophyll) limitations were found in summer and on clay soil for TWW and TWW + Na treatments in comparison to winter, sandy soil and FW irrigation, respectively. Stomatal closure, lower chlorophyll content and altered Rubisco activity are probable causes of higher limitations. On the other hand, non-photochemical quenching, an alternative energy dissipation pathway, was only influenced by water quality, independent of soil type and season. Furthermore, light and CO2 response curves were investigated for other possible causes of higher non-stomatal limitation. A higher proportion of non-cyclic electrons were directed to the O2 dependent pathway, and a higher proportion of electrons were diverted to photorespiration in summer than in winter. In conclusion, both diffusive and non-diffusive limitations contribute to the lower photosynthetic performance of leaves following TWW irrigation, and the response depends on soil type and environmental factors.

  16. Salinity control in a clay soil beneath an orchard irrigated with treated waste water in the presence of a high water table: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, David; Laufer, Asher; Bardhan, Gopali; Levy, Guy J.

    2015-12-01

    A citrus orchard planted on a structured, clay soil associated with a high water table, irrigated by drip irrigation system using treated waste water (TWW) and local well water (LWW) was considered here. The scope of the present study was to analyze transport of mixed-ion, interacting salts in a combined vadose zone-groundwater flow system focusing on the following issues: (i) long-term effects of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system, identifying the main factors (e.g., soil salinity, soil sodicity) that control these effects, and (ii) salinity control aiming at improving both crop productivity and groundwater quality. To pursue this two-fold goal, 3-D numerical simulations of field-scale flow and transport were performed for an extended period of time, considering realistic features of the soil, water table, crop, weather and irrigation, and the coupling between the flow and the transport through the dependence of the soil hydraulic functions, K(ψ) and θ(ψ), on soil solution concentration C, and sodium adsorption ratio, SAR. Results of the analyses suggest that in the case studied, the long-term effect of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system is attributed to the enhanced salinity of the TWW, and not to the increase in soil sodicity. The latter findings are attributed to: (i) the negative effect of soil salinity on water uptake, and the tradeoff between water uptake and drainage flux, and, concurrently, solute discharge below the root zone; and, (ii) the tradeoff between the effects of C and SAR on K(ψ) and θ(ψ). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a data-driven protocol for soil salinity control, based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water, guided by the soil solution salinity at the centroid of the soil volume active in water uptake, may lead to a substantial increase in crop yield, and to a substantial decrease in the salinity load in the groundwater.

  17. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  18. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2003-06-16

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. Laboratory testing during the tenth quarter focused on evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction of eight different cement compositions, four of which contain ULHS. The original laboratory procedure for measuring set cement expansion resulted in test specimen erosion that was unacceptable. A different expansion procedure is being evaluated. This report provides a progress summary of ASR testing. The testing program initiated in November produced questionable initial results so the procedure was modified slightly and the testing was reinitiated. The results obtained with the modified procedure showed improvement over data obtained with the original procedure, but questionable data were obtained from several of the compositions. Additional modification of test procedures for compositions containing TXI Lightweight cement are being implemented and testing is ongoing.

  19. Assessing Environmental Impacts of Treated Wastewater through Monitoring of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Salinity in Irrigated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the potential for bacterial persistence and/or growth in reclaimed water irrigation systems and in irrigated soils, and to quantify the effects of wastewater application on soil salinity, levels of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, Enterococcus) and environmental covariates were measured ...

  20. Effect of Reagents Concentration on Biocementation of Tropical Residual Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiet, K. T. P.; Kassim, K. A.; Chen, K. B.; Martula, U.; Yah, C. S.; Arefnia, A.

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the feasibility of Bacillus subtilis and optimum reagents concentration used in Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) treatment of tropical residual soil. Experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cementation reagents concentration toward MICP treatment. The performance of MICP treatment was assessed by measurement of the soil shear strength and calcite content. Based on the experimental results, it is discovered that the cementation reagent concentration has significantly affected on the performance of MICP treatment. The results suggested that the most preferable MICP treatment reagents concentration is 0.25M with the presence of Bacillus subtilis; using these treatment parameters, both UCS value and calcite content of treated soil had increased about 38% and 65.6% respectively. However, the reduction in UCS value was manifested for those samples treated at higher reagents concentration (0.35M); this phenomenon is attributed to the salinity of reagents where high salinity is not favourable to the bacteria growth and microbial activity; subsequently, this resulted in a consequential decrease in shear strength of the treated soil.

  1. Microbiological indicators for assessing ecosystem soil quality and changes in it at degraded sites treated with compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Barra Caracciolo, Anna; Grenni, Paola; Di Lenola, Martina; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Soil quality is defined as the capacity of a soil to function as a vital system, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, sustain plant and animal health and productivity, maintain or enhance air and water environment quality and support human health and habitation. Soil organisms are extremely diverse and contribute to a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential to the sustainable functioning of natural and managed ecosystems. In particular, microbial communities provide several ecosystem services, which ensure soil quality and fertility. In fact, they adapt promptly to environmental changes by varying their activity and by increasing the reproduction of populations that have favourable skills. The structure (e.g. cell abundance) and functioning (e.g. viability and activity) of natural microbial communities and changes in them under different environmental conditions can be considered useful indicators of soil quality state. In this work we studied the quality state of three different soils, located in Taranto Province (Southern Italy), affected by land degradation processes, such as organic matter depletion, desertification and contamination (PCB and metals). Moreover, compost, produced from selected organic waste, was added to the soils studied in order to improve their quality state. Soil samples were collected before and after compost addition and both microbial and chemical analyses were performed in order to evaluate the soil quality state at each site at different times. For this purpose, the microbiological indicators evaluated were bacterial abundance (DAPI counts), cell viability (Live/Dead method), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and soil respiration. At the same time, the main physico-chemical soil characteristics (organic carbon, available phosphorous, total nitrogen, carbonate and water content, texture and pH) were also measured. Moreover, in the contaminated soil samples PCB and inorganic (e.g. Pb, Se, Sn, Zn) contaminants were

  2. Determination of acute Zn toxicity in pore water from soils previously treated with sewage sludge using bioluminescence assays

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudri, A.M.; Knight, B.P.; Barbosa-Jefferson, V.L.

    1999-06-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of Zn and Cu in soil pore water from soils of a long-term sewage sludge field experiment on microbial bioluminescence were investigated. Concentrations of total soluble Zn, free Zn{sup 2+}, and soluble Cu increased sharply in soil pore water with increasing total soil metal concentrations above 140 mg of Zn kg{sup {minus}1} or 100 mg of Cu kg{sup {minus}1}. Two luminescence bioassays were tested, based on two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) with the lux genes encoding bacterial luminescence inserted into them. The bioluminescence response of the two microorganisms declined as total soil Zn, soil pore water soluble Zn, and soil pore water free Zn{sup 2+} concentrations increased. The EC{sub 25} values for E. coli and P. fluorescens were 1.3 {+-} 0.2 and 4.3 {+-} 0.5 mg L{sup {minus}1} on a free Zn{sup 2+} basis, respectively. The EC{sub 50} values were 2.5 {+-} 0.2 and 9.6 {+-} 0.9 mg of free Zn{sup 2+} L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Copper had no significant effect on bioluminescence in the two assays, even at the largest soil pore water concentration of about 620 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1}, corresponding to a total Cu concentration in bulk soil of about 350 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. Thus, the decline in bioluminescence of the two assays was ascribed to increasing soil pore water free Zn{sup 2+} and not soluble Cu.

  3. Materials Evaluated as Potential Soil Stabilizers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    21.0 168 270 +153 Lithium hydroxide 0.59 20.8 168 198 +85 Sodium sulfite 1.0 21.2 168 322 +200 Sodium carbonate 1.0 20.5 168 375 +250 Sodium bicarbonate...fluoride, sodium 1.0, and 2.0% rates fluoborate , and sodium tetraborate Mixing Material Form* Type of Soil Treated Capability Powder Silt Good Effective...used (sodiun fluosilicate, sodium fluoride, sodium fluoborate , ET-218, and sodium tetraborate) were either detrimental when added to the cement or no

  4. Small-particle-size cement

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Almond, S.W.; Blerhaus, W.M. II )

    1991-05-01

    Successful remedial cementing has historically been difficult in wells with large-interval, multizone, gravel-packed completions. The reason is the inability of conventional oilfield cements to penetrate gravel packs adequately. Small-particle-size cement (SPSC) was developed to penetrate gravel packs and to provide the zonal isolation required. This paper details the laboratory work, job design, and field implementation of this new cement.

  5. Effect of climatic conditions on the development of soil water repellency in soils treated with the wastewater of the olive oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Peikert, Benjamin; Tamimi, Nesreen; Steinmetz, Zacharias; Fischer, Jonas; Bibus, Daniel; Marei Sawalha, Amer; Dag, Arnon

    2014-05-01

    The disposal of untreated wastewater on soil can induce severe water repellency. The final degree of water repellency may strongly depend on the environmental conditions prevailing during and after disposal. Also unpolluted soil can develop severe water repellency upon exposure to extreme heat or draught events. The induced water repellency can be either persistent or of transient nature. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet completely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate how climatic conditions determine the development and persistence of water repellency following wastewater disposal. Our hypothesis was that amphiphilic organic wastewater compounds physically sorb onto surfaces, which renders them hydrophobic. Depending on temperature and moisture, those compounds are degraded, chemically incorporated into SOM, or irreversibly sorbed to soil particles during the time after the first waste water-soil contact. According to our hypothesis, biological communities favor degradation and transformation of OM of waste water into SOM under moist soil conditions. This would reduce the initial hydrophobization. In contrast, drying irreversibly renders soil hydrophobic and phytotoxic due to immobilization of OMW OM in the soil. To test these hypotheses, we investigated effects of olive mil wastewater (OMW), the effluent originating from olive oil production, directly applied to soil. In Israel and Palastine, olive oil production generates large amounts of OMW within a short period of time between November and January. As sewage facilities do not accept OMW, it is often disposed onto soil, which leads to severe soil and groundwater pollution. If the above mentioned hypotheses match, pollution and hydrophobization might be minimized if the wastewater is discharged at the right time of the year. In order to test this, we conducted field (2-3 years) and laboratory (60 days) experiments in Israel (Gilat, arid climate) and in the West Bank (Bait

  6. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  7. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  8. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  9. Reduction of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and ozone mass transfer in soil treated with ozone.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinya Jack; Westerdahl, Becky B; Pryor, Alan

    2009-09-01

    Ozone gas (O₃) is a reactive oxidizing agent with biocidal properties. Because of the current phasing out of methyl bromide, investigations on the use of ozone gas as a soil-fumigant were conducted. Ozone gas was produced at a concentration of 1% in air by a conventional electrical discharge O₃ generator. Two O₃ dosages and three gas flow rates were tested on a sandy loam soil collected from a tomato field that had a resident population of root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica. At dosages equivalent to 50 and 250 kg of O₃/ha, M. javanica were reduced by 24% and 68%, and free-living nematodes by 19% and 52%, respectively. The reduction for both M. javanica and free-living nematodes was dosage dependent and flow rate independent. The rates of O₃ mass transfer (OMT) through three soils of different texture were greater at low and high moisture levels than at intermediate ones. At any one soil moisture level, the OMT rate varied with soil texture and soil organic matter content. Results suggest that soil texture, moisture, and organic matter content should be considered in determining O₃ dosage needed for effective nematode control.

  10. Reduction of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and Ozone Mass Transfer in Soil Treated with Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jinya Jack; Pryor, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Ozone gas (O3) is a reactive oxidizing agent with biocidal properties. Because of the current phasing out of methyl bromide, investigations on the use of ozone gas as a soil-fumigant were conducted. Ozone gas was produced at a concentration of 1% in air by a conventional electrical discharge O3 generator. Two O3 dosages and three gas flow rates were tested on a sandy loam soil collected from a tomato field that had a resident population of root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica. At dosages equivalent to 50 and 250 kg of O3/ha, M. javanica were reduced by 24% and 68%, and free-living nematodes by 19% and 52%, respectively. The reduction for both M. javanica and free-living nematodes was dosage dependent and flow rate independent. The rates of O3 mass transfer (OMT) through three soils of different texture were greater at low and high moisture levels than at intermediate ones. At any one soil moisture level, the OMT rate varied with soil texture and soil organic matter content. Results suggest that soil texture, moisture, and organic matter content should be considered in determining O3 dosage needed for effective nematode control. PMID:22736821

  11. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  12. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  13. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  14. Meteoric calcite cementation: diagenetic response to relative fall in sea-level and effect on porosity and permeability, Las Negras area, southeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoqi; Goldstein, Robert H.; Franseen, Evan K.

    2017-03-01

    A dolomitized Upper Miocene carbonate system in southeast Spain contains extensive upper and lower zones of calcite cementation that cut across the stratigraphy. Cement textures including isopachous and circumgranular, which are consistent with phreatic-zone cementation. Cements in the upper cemented zone are non-luminescent, whereas those in the lower cemented zone exhibit multiple bands of luminescent and non-luminescent cements. In the upper cemented zone, isotopic data show two meteoric calcite lines (MCL) with mean δ18O at - 5.1‰ and - 5.8‰ VPDB, whereas no clear MCL is defined in the lower cemented zone where mean δ18O for calcite cement is at - 6.7‰ VPDB. δ13C values in both cement zones are predominantly negative, ranging from - 10 to + 2‰ VPDB, suggestive of carbon from soil gas or decayed organics. Measurements of Tm ice in primary fluid inclusions yield a mode of 0.0 °C in both zones, indicating calcite cementation from fresh water. These two zones define the positions of two different paleo-water tables that formed during a relative sea-level fall and erosional downcutting during the Plio-Pleistocene. The upper cemented zone pre-dated the lower cemented zone on the basis of known relative sea-level history. Meteoric calcite cementation reduced porosity and permeability, but measured values are inconsistent with simple filling of open pore space. Each texture, boundstone, grainstone, packstone, wackestone, produces a different relationship between percent calcite cement and porosity/permeability. Distribution of cements may be predictable on the basis of known sea-level history, and the effect of the cementation can be incorporated into subsurface geomodels by defining surfaces of rock boundaries that separate cemented zones from uncemented zones, and applying texture-specific relationships among cementation, porosity and permeability.

  15. Effect of some biotic factors on microbially-induced calcite precipitation in cement mortar.

    PubMed

    Al-Salloum, Yousef; Abbas, H; Sheikh, Q I; Hadi, S; Alsayed, Saleh; Almusallam, Tarek

    2017-02-01

    Sporosarcina pasteurii, a common soil bacterium has been tested for microbial treatment of cement mortar. The present study also seeks to investigate the effects of growth medium, bacterial concentration and different buffers concerning the preparation of bacterial suspensions on the compressive strength of cement mortar. Two growth media, six different suspensions and two bacterial concentrations were used in the study. The influence of growth medium on calcification efficiency of S. pasteurii was insignificant. Significant improvement in the compressive as well as the tensile strength of cement mortar was observed. Microbial mineral precipitation visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows fibrous material that increased the strength of cement mortar. Formation of thin strands of fillers observed through SEM micrographs improves the pore structure, impermeability and thus the compressive as well as the tensile strengths of the cement mortar. The type of substrate and its molarity have a significant influence on the strength of cement mortar.

  16. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in untreated and treated sewage sludge: Occurrence and environmental risk in the case of application on soil - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Verlicchi, P; Zambello, E

    2015-12-15

    This review is based on 59 papers published between 2002 and 2015, referring to about 450 treatment trains providing data regarding sludge concentrations for 169 compounds, specifically 152 pharmaceuticals and 17 personal care products, grouped into 28 different classes. The rationale of the study is to provide data to evaluate the environmental risk posed by the spreading of treated sludge in agriculture. Following discussion of the legislative scenario governing the final disposal of treated sludge in European countries and the USA, the study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of selected compounds in primary, secondary, mixed, digested, conditioned, composted and dried sludge originating in municipal wastewater treatment plants fed mainly with urban wastewater as well as in sludge-amended soil. Not only are measured values reported, but also predicted concentrations based on Kd values are reported. It emerges that in secondary sludge, the highest concentrations were found for fragrances, antiseptics and antibiotics and an attenuation in their concentrations occurs during treatment, in particular anaerobic digestion and composting. An in-depth literature survey of the (measured and predicted) Kd values for the different compounds and treated sludge are reported and an analysis of the influence of pH, redox conditions, sludge type was carried out. The data regarding measured and predicted concentrations of selected compounds in sludge-amended soil is then analyzed. Finally an environmental risk assessment posed by their occurrence in soil in the case of land application of sludge is examined, and the results obtained by different authors are compared. The most critical compounds found in the sludge-amended soil are estradiol, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, caffeine, triclosan and triclocarban. The study concludes with a focus on the main issues that should be further investigated in order to refine the environmental risk assessment.

  17. Evaluation of adhesive and compressive strength of glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Ramashanker; Singh, Raghuwar D; Chand, Pooran; Jurel, Sunit Km; Tripathi, Shuchi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, compare and evaluate the adhesive strength and compressive strength of different brands of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy. (A) Glass ionomer cements: GC Fuji II (GC Corporation, Tokyo), Chem Flex (Dentsply DeTrey, Germany), Glass ionomer FX (Shofu-11, Japan), MR dental (MR dental suppliers Pvt Ltd, England). (B) Ceramometal alloy (Ni-Cr: Wiron 99; Bego, Bremen, Germany). (C) Cold cure acrylic resin. (E) Temperature cum humidity control chamber. (F) Instron Universal Testing Machine. Four different types of Glass ionomer cements were used in the study. From each type of the Glass ionomer cements, 15 specimens for each were made to evaluate the compressive strength and adhesive strength, respectively. The 15 specimens were further divided into three subgroups of five specimens. For compressive strength, specimens were tested at 2, 4 and 12 h by using Instron Universal Testing Machine. To evaluate the adhesive strength, specimens were surface treated with diamond bur, silicone carbide bur and sandblasting and tested under Instron Universal Testing Machine. It was concluded from the study that the compressive strength as well as the adhesive bond strength of MR dental glass ionomer cement with a ceramometal alloy was found to be maximum compare to other glass ionomer cements. Sandblasting surface treatment of ceramometal alloy was found to be comparatively more effective for adhesive bond strength between alloy and glass ionomer cement.

  18. Bioconcentration factor estimates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grains of corn plants cultivated in soils treated with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Queiroz, Sônia Cláudia Nascimento; Maia, Aline de Holanda Nunes; Ferracini, Vera Lúcia

    2010-07-15

    This study presents a model to simulate the organic substance concentrations in corn grains assuming that the substances in soil solution are absorbed via the transpiration stream by plants growing in soils fertilized with sewage sludge (SS). The model was applied and validated using soil and corn grain samples from a long-term field experiment with six successive yearly applications of SS to the soil. The following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were simulated and evaluated in soil and grain samples: acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benz(a)pyrene, benz(b)fluoranthene, benz(g,h,i)perylene, benz(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene. The PAH bioconcentration factors (BCF) in corn grains ranged from 1.57 to 10.97 L kg(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with low soil distribution coefficients and high values of transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) are more likely to be absorbed by corn plants and accumulated in grains. It was possible to estimate and observe that highly lipophilic PAH molecules (heavy PAHs) show lower accumulative potential in corn grains than the less lipophilic ones (light PAHs). Sewage sludges containing significant concentrations of light PAHs with two, three or four benzene rings should be avoided as fertilizers in alimentary field crops.

  19. Arsenic extractability and uptake by velvetgrass Holcus lanatus and ryegrass Lolium perenne in variously treated soils polluted by tailing spills.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, Anna; Lewińska, Karolina; Gałka, Bernard

    2013-11-15

    Phytostabilization should be considered as an appropriate phytoremediation technique to restore the area affected by tailing spills in Zloty Stok, where arsenic ores were mined and processed for several centuries. The study aimed to compare the suitability of velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for development of plant cover in that area. Various treatments commonly applied to support phytostabilization were examined. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the effects of soil amendment with phosphate (P), sewage sludge (SS) and iron salts (Fe) on arsenic extractability and its uptake by grass. Four kinds of soil material, containing 356-5350 mg kg(-1) As, were examined. Velvetgrass proved to be more resistant than ryegrass to the toxicity of soil arsenic. Ammonium sulphate extractability of As in soils correlated well with As concentrations in the biomass of both grass species. In three of four tested soils, application of Fe failed to decrease As extractability and to reduce its concentrations in the aboveground parts of grasses. Application of P and SS resulted in increased As solubility in soils, but their effects on plant biomass and As uptake were ambiguous. SS had a strong beneficial influence on the growth of velvetgrass, while such an effect was not observed for ryegrass.

  20. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Kamran; Cornelis, Wim M

    2015-07-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation over prolonged periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants and animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of TWW on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of deep emitters on limiting potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub-treatments (0, 15, and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam Calcic Argigypsids, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m above sea level. A two-crop rotation of wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were collected at harvest. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in heavy metal content in soil between different depths of emitters was found. A pollution load index (PLI) showed that there was no substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils

  1. Cross-Contamination of Residual Emerging Contaminants and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Lettuce Crops and Soil Irrigated with Wastewater Treated by Sunlight/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Giovanna; Polo-López, María I; Martínez-Piernas, Ana B; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Agüera, Ana; Rizzo, Luigi

    2015-09-15

    The sunlight/H2O2 process has recently been considered as a sustainable alternative option compared to other solar driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in advanced treatment of municipal wastewater (WW) to be reused for crop irrigation. Accordingly, in this study sunlight/H2O2 was used as disinfection/oxidation treatment for urban WW treatment plant effluent in a compound parabolic collector photoreactor to assess subsequent cross-contamination of lettuce and soil by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) (determined by QuEChERS extraction and LC-QqLIT-MS/MS analysis) and antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria after irrigation with treated WW. Three CECs (carbamazepine (CBZ), flumequine (FLU), and thiabendazole (TBZ) at 100 μg L(-1)) and two AR bacterial strains (E. coli and E. faecalis, at 10(5) CFU mL(-1)) were spiked in real WW. A detection limit (DL) of 2 CFU mL(-1) was reached after 120 min of solar exposure for AR E. coli, while AR E. faecalis was more resistant to the disinfection process (240 min to reach DL). CBZ and TBZ were poorly removed after 90 min (12% and 50%, respectively) compared to FLU (94%). Lettuce was irrigated with treated WW for 5 weeks. CBZ and TBZ were accumulated in soil up to 472 ng g(-1) and 256 ng g(-1) and up-taken by lettuce up to 109 and 18 ng g(-1), respectively, when 90 min treated WW was used for irrigation; whereas no bacteria contamination was observed when the bacterial density in treated WW was below the DL. A proper treatment time (>90 min) should be guaranteed in order to avoid the transfer of pathogens from disinfected WW to irrigated crops and soil.

  2. Escherichia coli contamination and health aspects of soil and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) subsurface drip irrigated with on-site treated domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Forslund, A; Ensink, J H J; Markussen, B; Battilani, A; Psarras, G; Gola, S; Sandei, L; Fletcher, T; Dalsgaard, A

    2012-11-15

    Faecal contamination of soil and tomatoes irrigated by sprinkler as well as surface and subsurface drip irrigation with treated domestic wastewater were compared in 2007 and 2008 at experimental sites in Crete and Italy. Wastewater was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology, gravel filtration or UV-treatment before used for irrigation. Irrigation water, soil and tomato samples were collected during two cropping seasons and enumerated for the faecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli and helminth eggs. The study found elevated levels of E. coli in irrigation water (mean: Italy 1753 cell forming unit (cfu) per 100 ml and Crete 488 cfu per 100 ml) and low concentrations of E. coli in soil (mean: Italy 95 cfu g(-1) and Crete 33 cfu g(-1)). Only two out of 84 tomato samples in Crete contained E. coli (mean: 2700 cfu g(-1)) while tomatoes from Italy were free of E. coli. No helminth eggs were found in the irrigation water or on the tomatoes from Crete. Two tomato samples out of 36 from Italy were contaminated by helminth eggs (mean: 0.18 eggs g(-1)) and had been irrigated with treated wastewater and tap water, respectively. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis DNA fingerprints of E. coli collected during 2008 showed no identical pattern between water and soil isolates which indicates contribution from other environmental sources with E. coli, e.g. wildlife. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model with Monte Carlo simulations adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) found the use of tap water and treated wastewater to be associated with risks that exceed permissible limits as proposed by the WHO (1.0 × 10(-3) disease risk per person per year) for the accidental ingestion of irrigated soil by farmers (Crete: 0.67 pppy and Italy: 1.0 pppy). The QMRA found that the consumption of tomatoes in Italy was deemed to be safe while permissible limits were exceeded in Crete (1.0 pppy). Overall the quality of tomatoes was safe for human

  3. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya; Zayed, Abla . E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  4. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK.

  5. Speciation and bioaccessibility of lead and cadmium in soil treated with metal-enriched Indian mustard leaves.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanshan; Fu, Jin; Chen, Xiaochen

    2011-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) has shown good potential for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there is little information about the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil during the decomposition of metal-rich Indian mustard leaves. Incubation experiments (1-, 3-, and 6-month) were carried out in Beijing and Hunan soil with metal-rich Indian mustard leaves addition (1% and 3%) and the effects of mustard leaves addition on the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals were studied. The results showed that the addition of mustard leaves led to significant increases in pH and DOC in the Hunan soil. Both 1% and 3% of mustard leaf amendment caused the percentage of the exchangeable (F1), precipitated with carbonates (F2), bound to Fe/Mn oxides (F3) and bound to organic matter (F4) fractions of Pb and Cd to increase dramatically, while the percentage of the residual fraction (F5) of Cd and Pb significantly dropped in both Beijing and Hunan soils. Mustard leaf addition caused the bioaccessibility of Pb to decrease in the gastric phase, whereas the values increased in the small intestinal phase. The Cd bioaccessibility increased with mustard leaf addition in both the gastric and small intestinal phases. In conclusion, the metal-enriched mustard leaves addition induces Pb and Cd concentrations and their mobility increasing in the Beijing and Hunan soils. Therefore, heavy metal risk in metal-enriched plant leaves should be considered in phytoremediation system in which heavy metal might be brought back to soil and changed over time.

  6. Recovery of MSWI and soil washing residues as concrete aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Abbà, Alessandro; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues and aggregates derived from contaminated soil washing could be used as alternative aggregates for concrete production. Initially, chemical, physical and geometric characteristics (according to UNI EN 12620) of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes and some contaminated soils were evaluated; moreover, the pollutants release was evaluated by means of leaching tests. The results showed that the reuse of pre-treated MSWI bottom ash and washed soil is possible, either from technical or environmental point of view, while it is not possible for the raw wastes. Then, the natural aggregate was partially and totally replaced with these recycled aggregates for the production of concrete mixtures that were characterized by conventional mechanical and leaching tests. Good results were obtained using the same dosage of a high resistance cement (42.5R calcareous Portland cement instead of 32.5R); the concrete mixture containing 400 kg/m(3) of washed bottom ash and high resistance cement was classified as structural concrete (C25/30 class). Regarding the pollutants leaching, all concrete mixtures respected the limit values according to the Italian regulation.

  7. Arsenic Accumulation by Pteris vittata L. in Two Chemically Variant Soils Treated with Arsenical Pesticides - Greenhouse Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therapong, C.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic elements present in the environment. Over the years, arsenic has found its way to the environment due to its extensive use in agriculture and in industrial practices as pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes and coal combustion ash, all of which are of great environmental concern. Arsenic contamination affects biological activities because it is a carcinogen and a mutagen, which has detrimental effects on the immune system of animals. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils has become a major environmental issue in the recent years. Several physical and chemical treatment methods, such as soil washing, co-precipitation, and excavation, have used to remediate As, but all of these methods are rather expensive and can disturb soil physiology and ecology. Phytoremediation, a plant based technology for the removal of toxic contaminants from soil and water is an attractive approach. Of late, this technology has received a high degree of attention from the scientific community because it is environment-friendly and also because of its tremendous cost efficiency compared to the conventional methods. Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) is a known arsenic hyperaccumulator that is being used extensively at present to remove As from soils. However, the degree of efficiency of this plant in accumulating As is likely to be a function of the soil properties. The objective of the reported study was to investigate arsenic uptake by Chinese Brake Fern in As-contaminated soils from the Immokalee (acid sand with minimal As-retention potential) and Millhopper series (sandy loam with high Fe/Al content, hence, high As-retention potential). A greenhouse experiment was designed to evaluate the effects on As uptake by Chinese Brake Fern at two pesticide application rates: 225 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg As in two chemical forms, namely sodium arsenate (AsV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Each treatment was replicated three times in

  8. New cement formulation helps solve deep cementing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, L.E.; DeBlanc, F.X.

    1989-06-01

    Invert-emulsion muds are used in most deep, hot wells. The internal aqueous phase of these muds frequently contains high concentrations of salts. It is desirable to complete these wells with a cement slurry containing salt concentrations up to and including saturation to minimize compatibility problems between cement slurry and mud. Above their effective temperature range, however, saturated salt cements - though still considered desirable for their other properties - pose design difficulties regarding thickening time, fluid loss, and rheology. High salt concentrations tend to decrease the effectiveness of most common cement additives - e.g., retarders, fluid-loss additives, and dispersants. At high temperatures, concentrations of these additives can become unacceptably large, while the additives themselves are not as effective under these conditions. Development of and field experience with a new cementing formulation for deep, high-temperature, saturated-salt applications have helped resolve the cement design problems encountered in south Texas and southern and offshore Louisiana. A single synthetic-polymer additive provides cement retardation, fluid-loss control, and dispersant properties with normal design considerations as opposed to the lengthy design requirements of other cement systems. A particular benefit derived from use of the new cement system involves cementing of long liners. Such liners frequently require squeeze cementing at the liner top because the cement is designed for conditions at the bottom of the liner and is thus frequently over-retarded for the cooler temperatures encountered at the top of the liner. This over-retardation tendency is alleviated greatly by use of the new saturated-salt cement additive.

  9. Temporal changes in chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb in four midwestern soils and bioefficacy against the eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Spomer, Neil A; Kamble, Shripat T

    2011-06-01

    Temporal changes in indoxacarb and chlorantraniliprole were determined in four midwestern soils by simulating commercial field applications of termiticides. Indoxacarb (0.0625 and 0.125%) and chlorantraniliprole (0.05 and 0.10%) were applied to each soil type in a rotating cement mixer to ensure uniform distribution of active ingredient (AI). Temporal and spatial changes in termiticide concentrations were determined by sampling soil cores subdivided at different depths (0-20, 20-40, and 40-61 cm) at various intervals up to 705 d after application. Percentage loss of indoxacarb was initially greater (0-180 d) than losses after 180 d. The lowest indoxacarb extractable concentrations were detected in soils closest to the surface. Chlorantraniliprole losses with time from all soils were slower than indoxacarb, with no differences observed with soil type or depth. Bioefficacy was evaluated in laboratory glass tube bioassays that monitored the distance of termite penetration into treated soils and resulting eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), worker mortality. Bioassay data revealed that R. flavipes termites were unable to completely penetrate 50 mm of indoxacarb- and chlorantraniliprole treated soils at 0 d after treatment; however, termites were not deterred from foraging in these soils indicating no repellency to these termiticides. Termites completely penetrated (50 mm) soils treated with indoxacarb (0.0625%) by 360 d and complete penetration occurred in all soils treated with indoxacarb (0.0625 and 0.125%) by 705 d. Termites were unable to completely penetrate chlorantraniliprole-treated soils at 705 d. Mortality of termite workers was high in all chlorantraniliprole-treated soils at all sampling intervals. These data confirm that vertical differences in termiticide persistence occur in various soils.

  10. SUBGRADE STABILIZATION WITH PORTLAND CEMENT AND HYDRATED LIME UNDER MODIFIED T11 LANDING MAT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Sections of a low-strength subgrade (4 to 7 CBR) were treated with portland cement and hydrated lime to assist in maintaining the strength of the...It was determined that both portland cement and hydrated lime, applied as 3 percent admixtures, were effective in improving the resistance of the

  11. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  12. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  13. Foamed well cementing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bour, D.L.; Childs, J.D.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a method of cementing a well penetrating a salt containing subterranean formation. It comprises: forming a foamed cement composition; placing the foamed cement composition in contact with the salt containing formation; and permitting the foamed cement composition to set in contact with the salt containing formation to form a hardened mass of cement.

  14. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TO TREAT 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER AND 200-PW-1 SOIL VAPOR

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME, KALMAR JA

    2007-11-26

    This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.

  15. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  16. Hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattonjai, Piyachat

    2016-06-01

    The developed hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content was proposed in this paper. By using unique equation, the model is able to predict the relationship between void ratio and vertical effective stress of different water and cement content of soil cement. For practically convenient utilization and understanding, the parameters of Q1 which represented to initial cement bonding of soil (the initial value of structure tensor at time = 0) and C2 which effected to the model stiffness on isotropic consolidation direction, at 45° for loading and 225° for unloading of stress response envelope, were proposed as the function of cement and water content by comparing with dry weight of soil. By numerical integration that satisfied one-dimensional settlement, the simulation results were directly compared with fifteen experimental results to verify the accuracy of the proposed model.

  17. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  18. Cement evaluation tool: a new approach to cement evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, B.; Dumont, A.; Pittman, D.; Seeman, B.

    1982-08-01

    Cement bond logging achieves its greatest utility when it provides the production engineer with precise indications of cement strength and distribution around the casing. Zone isolation is of critical importance in production. Previous logging systems have yielded measures of cement bond that were circumferential averages of cement quality. These were difficult to interpret. Additionally, they were sensitive to the degree of shear coupling between pipe, cement, and formation and thus were affected by microannulus. The cement evaluation tool (CET) described here overcomes these difficulties. It provides a measurement of cement presence and strength, which is largely insensitive to microannulus. Its log output is interpreted easily. Tool design allows examination of the casing circumferentially at each depth. Impedance behind casing is measured. Laboratory calibration measurements allow this to be presented in terms of cement compressive strength. Cement channels are distinguished easily, and a zone isolation indicator can be presented. Additionally, casing internal diameter and distortion are displayed. European and North American field tests have been completed, and performance for a variety of well conditions is discussed. The ability of the tool to identify channels is confirmed. Sequential runs with and without excess pressure demonstrate immunity to microannulus in cases where CBL is affected but where microannulus is small enough to prohibit hydraulic communication. Geometrical measurements have been good indicators of casing deformation and have identified casing corrosion and wear.

  19. US cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Comparison of the fixation effects of heavy metals by cement rotary kiln co-processing and cement based solidification/stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junli; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Cheng; Jin, Yiying; Nie, Yongfeng; Li, Jinhui

    2009-06-15

    Cement rotary kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes and cement based solidification/stabilization could both immobilize heavy metals. The different retention mechanisms of the two technologies lead to different fixation effects of heavy metals. The same amount of heavy metal compounds were treated by the two types of fixation technologies. Long-term leaching test (160 days), the maximum availability leaching test (NEN 7341) and a modified three-step sequential extraction procedure, proposed by the Commission of the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) were employed to compare the fixation effects of the two fixation technologies. The leaching concentrations in NEN 7341 and long-term leaching tests were compared with identification standard for hazardous wastes (GB5085.3-1996) and drinking water standard (GB5749-2005). The results indicate that the leaching concentrations of the long-term leaching test and NEN 7341 test were lower than the regulatory limits and the leached ratios were small. Both cement based solidification/stabilization and cement rotary kiln co-processing could effectively fix heavy metals. Calcination in a cement rotary kiln and the following hydration that follows during cement application could fix As, Cd, Pb and Zn more effectively and decrease the release to the environment. Cement solidification/stabilization technology has better effect in immobilizing Cr and Ni. Cr wastes are more fitful to be treated by cement solidification/stabilization.

  2. Mineral of the month: cement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic cement is a virtually ubiquitous construction material that, when mixed with water, serves as the binder in concrete and most mortars. Only about 13 percent of concrete by weight is cement (the rest being water and aggregates), but the cement contributes all of the concrete’s compressional strength. The term “hydraulic” refers to the cement’s ability to set and harden underwater through the hydration of the cement’s components.

  3. Inspection program improves bulk cement system delivery

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bannion, T. ); Guidroz, B.; Morris, G. )

    1993-12-20

    A recently implemented survey of pneumatically operated bulk cement-handling equipment offshore has improved bulk cement deliverability on several Gulf of Mexico rigs. The 30-point survey helps ensure an adequate rate of bulk cement delivery throughout the cement job. The inspection survey was developed because the source of many cement job failures was a lack of adequate, steady delivery of bulk cement to the cementing unit during the job. The job failures caused by flow interruptions, plugging of tools by chunks of set cement, and erratic flow resulted in poor primary cement jobs, many of which required remedial cementing jobs. A better-controlled flow of cement may help prevent these types of failure, thereby reducing the number of remedial cement operations. The paper describes the inspection procedures.

  4. Human pulp cells response to Portland cement in vitro.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-San; Kim, Hyun-Il; Park, Hyo-Jin; Pi, Sung-Hee; Hong, Chan-Ui; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects of Portland cement on cultured human pulp cells. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, no cytotoxicity was observed in the Portland cement group in comparison with the negative control group, whereas the glass ionomer cement, intermediate restorative material, and Dycal groups showed a survival rate of less than 40% at 12 hours. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that human pulp cells attached to the Portland cement were flat and had numerous cytoplasmic extensions. In the groups in which other materials were used, a few rounded cells were observed on the material but no living cells were observed. The expression of both osteonectin and dentin sialophosphoprotein mRNAs was induced in the Portland cement-treated group. These results suggest that Portland cement is biocompatible, allows the expression of mineralization-related genes on cultured human pulp cells, and has the potential to be used as a proper pulp-capping material.

  5. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant.

  6. Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (∼ 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil.

  7. Prediction of zeolite-cement-sand unconfined compressive strength using polynomial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MolaAbasi, H.; Shooshpasha, I.

    2016-04-01

    The improvement of local soils with cement and zeolite can provide great benefits, including strengthening slopes in slope stability problems, stabilizing problematic soils and preventing soil liquefaction. Recently, dosage methodologies are being developed for improved soils based on a rational criterion as it exists in concrete technology. There are numerous earlier studies showing the possibility of relating Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Cemented sand (CS) parameters (voids/cement ratio) as a power function fits. Taking into account the fact that the existing equations are incapable of estimating UCS for zeolite cemented sand mixture (ZCS) well, artificial intelligence methods are used for forecasting them. Polynomial-type neural network is applied to estimate the UCS from more simply determined index properties such as zeolite and cement content, porosity as well as curing time. In order to assess the merits of the proposed approach, a total number of 216 unconfined compressive tests have been done. A comparison is carried out between the experimentally measured UCS with the predictions in order to evaluate the performance of the current method. The results demonstrate that generalized polynomial-type neural network has a great ability for prediction of the UCS. At the end sensitivity analysis of the polynomial model is applied to study the influence of input parameters on model output. The sensitivity analysis reveals that cement and zeolite content have significant influence on predicting UCS.

  8. [Association between allergy to benzoyl peroxide, vitiligo and implantation of a cemented total knee joint prosthesis: Is there a connection?].

    PubMed

    Gothner, M; Ozokyay, L; Godau, P; Kälicke, T; Muhr, G; Schildhauer, T A; Dudda, M

    2011-09-01

    Allergies against bone cement or bone cement components have been well-described. We report on a 63-year-old patient who presented with progressive vitiligo all over the body after implantation of a cemented total knee replacement. A dermatological examination was performed and an allergy to benzoyl peroxide was found. A low-grade infection was diagnosed 5 months after implantation of the total knee replacement and the prosthesis was replaced with a cement spacer. After treating the infection of the knee replacement non-cemented arthrodesis of the knee was performed. In cases of new, unknown skin efflorescence, urticaria and periprosthetic loosening of cemented joint replacement, the differential diagnosis should include not only infections but also possible allergies against bone-cement and components such as benzoyl peroxide or metal components.

  9. Phosphate based oil well cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Ramkumar

    The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

  10. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  11. Arsenic leachability and speciation in cement immobilized water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chuanyong; Liu, Suqin; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2005-06-01

    Arsenic leachability and speciation in cement immobilized water treatment sludge were investigated with leaching tests and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The As leachability in the sludge determined with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the waste extraction test (WET) was 283 and 7490 microgl(-1), respectively. Extractions with a lower liquid to solid ratio, under anaerobic conditions, and using citric acid buffer solution dramatically increased the leachate As concentration. XANES results showed that the As(III) composition was reduced from 51.1% of the total As content in the sludge to 16.3% in the cement treated sample with 28 days of cure. When the cement treated sample was cured for two years, the As(III) composition was decreased to 7.4%. The cement treatment reduced the As leachability. The leachate As(III) and total As concentrations were of the same order of magnitude in the samples cured for 28 days as for 2yr. However, consistently lower concentrations were detected in samples with longer cure time. The results of this study improve our understanding of arsenic speciation and leachability in the cement matrix after long cure times.

  12. An Ice Block: A Novel Technique of Successful Prevention of Cement Leakage Using an Ice Ball

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, Ishaq Fahmi; Garnon, Julien Tsoumakidou, Georgia Gangi, Afshin

    2015-04-15

    We report three cases of painful bone metastases with extraosseous invasion treated with cementoplasty and cryoablation. Due to significant cortical loss in all cases, the ice ball was used simultaneously during cementoplasty to deter potential cement leakage. This was achieved by direct application of the ice ball against the cortical surface, resulting in adequate consolidation and successful containment of the cement within the treated bones. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report to describe such a combined technique.

  13. Solidification and stabilization of asbestos waste from an automobile brake manufacturing facility using cement.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y M; Agamuthu, P; Mahalingam, R

    2000-10-02

    Currently, the generated brake lining waste dust, which contains asbestos as its major component, is disposed of into a secure landfill without any additional treatment. As an alternative to this, solidification/stabilization (S/S) disposal of the dust was investigated using Portland cement alone and Portland cement mixed with activated carbon (AC), as the binders. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on the solidified matrix showed that cement was able to immobilize the heavy metals, Ba, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Fe, to within the limits set by the US EPA for TCLP. Addition of AC to the cement reduced the leaching of heavy metals by an additional 4-24% compared to cement alone. The pH of the TCLP leachate extracted from virgin cement, and from dust treated with cement with or without AC was found to increase to 10.9-12.5 as opposed to an initial value of 4.93 for the TCLP extract for the untreated dust. Results of ANS 16.1 (modified) leach protocol revealed that Ba in cement-treated samples showed the highest leach rate, followed by Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu and Fe. The leach rate of heavy metals decreased with progress in time. Cement mixed with AC exhibited similar leach characteristics, however, the leach rate was lower. The linear relationship between the cumulative fraction leached (CFL) and the square root of leaching time in all cement-based samples indicate that a diffusional process is the controlling transport mechanism for the leaching of the heavy metals. The obtained Leachability Indices (L(i)) of 7.6-9.1 and 8.3-9.5 for cement and cement with AC, respectively, were low but exceeded the guidance value of 6, which clearly indicates that all the heavy metals studied are retained well within solid matrices. Cement-based S/S hardening times increased from 30 to 96 h as the dust content increased from 40 to 70 wt.%. The resulting solid matrices exhibited a compressive strength ranging from 1 to 12 MPa, which was well above the specified limit of 414 k

  14. Effects of composition and exposure on the solar reflectance of Portland Cement Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-06-01

    Increasing the solar reflectance (albedo) of a paved surface keeps it cooler in the sun, reducing convection of heat from pavement to air and thereby decreasing the ambient air temperature. Lower air temperatures decrease demand for cooling energy and slow the formation of urban smog. Variations with composition and environmental exposure of the albedos of portland cement concrete pavements were investigated through laboratory fabrication and exposure of 32 mixes of concrete. Concrete albedo generally correlated with cement albedo and sand albedo and, after abrasion, with rock albedo. Cement albedo had a disproportionately strong influence on the reflectance of concrete. Simulated weathering, soiling, and abrasion each reduced average concrete albedo, though some samples became slightly more reflective through weathering or soiling. Concrete albedo grew as the cement hydration reaction progressed, but stabilized within six weeks of casting.

  15. Mild acid and alkali treated clay minerals enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soil: A (14)C-tracer study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils requires a higher microbial viability and an increased PAH bioavailability. The clay/modified clay-modulated bacterial degradation could deliver a more efficient removal of PAHs in soils depending on the bioavailability of the compounds. In this study, we modified clay minerals (smectite and palygorskite) with mild acid (HCl) and alkali (NaOH) treatments (0.5-3 M), which increased the surface area and pore volume of the products, and removed the impurities without collapsing the crystalline structure of clay minerals. In soil incubation studies, supplements with the clay products increased bacterial growth in the order: 0.5 M HCl ≥ unmodified ≥ 0.5 M NaOH ≥ 3 M NaOH ≥ 3 M HCl for smectite, and 0.5 M HCl ≥ 3 M NaOH ≥ 0.5 M NaOH ≥ 3 M HCl ≥ unmodified for palygorskite. A(14)C-tracing study showed that the mild acid/alkali-treated clay products increased the PAH biodegradation (5-8%) in the order of 0.5 M HCl ≥ unmodified > 3 M NaOH ≥ 0.5 M NaOH for smectite, and 0.5 M HCl > 0.5 M NaOH ≥ unmodified ≥ 3 M NaOH for palygorskite. The biodegradation was correlated (r = 0.81) with the bioavailable fraction of PAHs and microbial growth as affected particularly by the 0.5 M HCl and 0.5 M NaOH-treated clay minerals. These results could be pivotal in developing a clay-modulated bioremediation technology for cleaning up PAH-contaminated soils and sediments in the field.

  16. Development of the Use of Alternative Cements for the Treatment of Intermediate Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.; Godfrey, I.H.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes initial development studies undertaken to investigate the potential use of alternative, non ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based encapsulation matrices to treat historic legacy wastes within the UK's Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) inventory. Currently these wastes are encapsulated in composite OPC cement systems based on high replacement with blast furnace slag of pulverised fuel ash. However, the high alkalinity of these cements can lead to high corrosion rates with reactive metals found in some wastes releasing hydrogen and forming expansive corrosion products. This paper therefore details preliminary results from studies on two commercial products, calcium sulfo-aluminate (CSA) and magnesium phosphate (MP) cement which react with a different hydration chemistry, and which may allow wastes containing these metals to be encapsulated with lower reactivity. The results indicate that grouts can be formulated from both cements over a range of water contents and reactant ratios that have significantly improved fluidity in comparison to typical OPC cements. All designed mixes set in 24 hours with zero bleed and the pH values in the plastic state were in the range 10-11 for CSA and 5-7 for MP cements. In addition, a marked reduction in aluminium corrosion rate has been observed in both types of cements compared to a composite OPC system. These results therefore provide encouragement that both cement types can provide a possible alternative to OPC in the immobilisation of reactive wastes, however further investigation is needed. (authors)

  17. Radioactive bone cement for the treatment of spinal metastases: a dosimetric analysis of simulated clinical scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T. S.; Sehgal, V.; Skinner, H. B.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Marquez Miranda, M.; Keyak, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertebral metastases are a common manifestation of many cancers, potentially leading to vertebral collapse and neurological complications. Conventional treatment often involves percutaneous vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty followed by external beam radiation therapy. As a more convenient alternative, we have introduced radioactive bone cement, i.e. bone cement incorporating a radionuclide. In this study, we used a previously developed Monte Carlo radiation transport modeling method to evaluate dose distributions from phosphorus-32 radioactive cement in simulated clinical scenarios. Isodose curves were generally concentric about the surface of bone cement injected into cadaveric vertebrae, indicating that dose distributions are relatively predictable, thus facilitating treatment planning (cement formulation and dosimetry method are patent pending). Model results indicated that a therapeutic dose could be delivered to tumor/bone within ∼4 mm of the cement surface while maintaining a safe dose to radiosensitive tissue beyond this distance. This therapeutic range should be sufficient to treat target volumes within the vertebral body when tumor ablation or other techniques are used to create a cavity into which the radioactive cement can be injected. With further development, treating spinal metastases with radioactive bone cement may become a clinically useful and convenient alternative to the conventional two-step approach of percutaneous strength restoration followed by radiotherapy.

  18. Furcal perforation repair using calcium enriched mixture cement

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    This case describes a furcal perforation in a mandibular first molar accompanied by furcal lesion which has been managed after one month. Root canal treatment was performed; subsequently, the defect was repaired with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. The endodontically treated tooth was restored with amalgam. A 24-month recall showed no evidence of periodontal breakdown, no symptoms, in addition to completes healing of furcal lesion. According to physical and biological properties of the newly introduced CEM cement, this novel material may be suitable for sealing and repairing the perforations. The present case report supports this hypothesis. PMID:21116393

  19. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  20. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  1. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  2. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  3. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  4. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  5. Studies on affecting factors and mechanism of treating decentralized domestic sewage by a novel anti-clogging soil infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haiping; Nie, Junying; Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-12-01

    The effects of bore diameter and particle size of polyurethane (PU) foam on soil wastewater infiltration system as well as its anti-clogging mechanism were investigated in this study. Different types of PU were used to determine the effect of bore diameter and particle size on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The results revealed that bore diameter showed little effects and the optimal size of PU should be not less than 10 mm. The formation of strong hydrophilic group on the outer layer of hydrophobic PU foam was fixed with active ingredient Al2O3, leading to good anti-clogging effect. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprint profiles and cluster analysis showed that the microbial community in the bottom was different from that in other places of the normal column, while it in the top has obvious differences from that in other places of the clogging column. Furthermore, the dominant microbial species of the normal column was Betaproteobacteria while Alphaproteobacteria in the clogging column.

  6. Resin cementation of zirconia ceramics with different bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akay, Canan; Karakış, Duygu

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different chemical bonding agents on shear bond strength of zirconia and conventional resin cement. In this study, 35 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: control; Group II: sandblasting; Group III: sandblasting + Monobond S; Group IV: sandblasting + Monobond Plus; Group V: sandblasting + Z-Prime Plus. The specimens in each group were bonded with conventional composite resin cement Variolink II. After cementation, specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 °C) for 24 h and shear test was performed. The highest shear bond strength values were observed in Groups IV and V. The lowest shear bond strength values were observed in Group I. Using 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogenphosphate monomer-containing priming agents, e.g. Monobond Plus and Z-PRIME Plus, combined with sandblasting can be an effective method for resin bonding of zirconia restorations.

  7. Resin cementation of zirconia ceramics with different bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akay, Canan; Karakış, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different chemical bonding agents on shear bond strength of zirconia and conventional resin cement. In this study, 35 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: control; Group II: sandblasting; Group III: sandblasting + Monobond S; Group IV: sandblasting + Monobond Plus; Group V: sandblasting + Z-Prime Plus. The specimens in each group were bonded with conventional composite resin cement Variolink II. After cementation, specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 °C) for 24 h and shear test was performed. The highest shear bond strength values were observed in Groups IV and V. The lowest shear bond strength values were observed in Group I. Using 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogenphosphate monomer-containing priming agents, e.g. Monobond Plus and Z-PRIME Plus, combined with sandblasting can be an effective method for resin bonding of zirconia restorations. PMID:26019653

  8. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  9. Effect of radiant heat on the surface hardness of glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cement.

    PubMed

    Woolford, M J

    1994-12-01

    The use of heat to improve mechanical properties of materials is a widely accepted phenomenon. It has been studied in dentistry with a view to improving the properties of resin composite. Dental cements may benefit by the application of heat, in particular with regard to their early surface properties. This study was carried out to examine the effect of the application of radiant heat to the surface hardness of one type of glass polyalkenoate cement. It was found that raising the temperature of the surface of the cement to a maximum of 60 degrees C significantly improved the early surface hardness of the material. The application of a high level of heat also improved the surface hardness of the cement after 24 h compared to cement which had not been heat treated. The use of heat would appear to accelerate the matrix-forming reaction of the material and although further work is necessary this technique may have clinical application.

  10. Intramedullary bone cementing for the treatment of Colles fracture in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Osamura, Naoki; Hagiwara, Norio; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tomita, Katsuro

    2004-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Colles fractures, mean age 70 years (range 55-91), were treated by intramedullary bone cementing. The best indication for this technique was an unstable extra-articular Colles fracture with osteoporosis. Bone cement was packed into the canal that was made by curettage of intramedullary cancellous bone from the dorsal fracture site. Intramedullary cementing caused little bleeding from the medullary canal and no irritation of the extensor tendons. Because of rigid fixation, patients could use the affected hand for light activities without any external orthosis the day after surgery. Cortical healing was seen in all cases within three months and there was no cement loosening or other complications during the mean 28 month (range 6-43) follow up period. Intramedullary bone cementing is one of the optimal treatments for Colles fractures in elderly patients.

  11. Performance study and influence of radiation emission energy and soil contamination level on γ-radiation shielding of stabilised/solidified radionuclide-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Pietro P; Puccio, Valentina; Romano, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses on the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of radionuclide-polluted soils at different (232)Th levels using Portland cement alone and with barite aggregates. The potential of S/S was assessed applying a full testing protocol and calculating γ-radiation shielding (γRS) index, that included the measurement of soil radioactivity before and after the S/S as a function of the emission energy and soil contamination level. The results indicate that setting processes are strongly dependent on the contaminant concentration, and for contamination level higher than 5%, setting time values longer than 72 h. The addition of barite aggregates to the cement gout leads to a slight improvement of the S/S performance in terms of durability and contaminant leaching but reduces the mechanical resistance of the treated soils samples. Barite addition also causes an increase in the γ-rays shielding properties of the S/S treatment up to about 20%. Gamma-ray measurements show that γRS strongly depends on the energy, and that the radioactivity with the contamination level was governed by a linear trend, while, γRS index does not depend on the radionuclide concentration. Results allow the calculated γRS values and those available from other experiments to be applied to hazard radioactive soil contaminations.

  12. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  13. Epigeal fauna of a degraded soil treated with mineral fertilizer and compound cellulose cultivated of tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giácomo, R. G.; de Arruda, O. G.; Souto Filho, S. N.; Alves, M. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Frigério, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the epigeal fauna in a degraded soil in the recovery process after one year of cultivated with tree species. The experiment was established in February 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with five treatments and four replications. In the main plots, pure cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis (exotic species - hybrids) and Mabea fistulifera Mart. (native species) and the subplot treatments: Control; D0 - without fertilization; DM - mineral fertilizer according to crop need; DC - with compost manure according to crop need (10 t ha-1); D15 - 15 t ha-1 and D20 - 20 t ha-1 of the compound. In February of the years 2010 and 2011 were installed in the central region of each treatment two traps "pitt fall" which remained for seven days in the field. We calculated Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and richness of wildlife activity groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scott Knott test at 5% significance level. In 2010, the area with M. fistulifera, was captured a total of 2697 organisms distributed mainly in: Hymenoptera with 45.83% of the total collected, Collembola (36.93%), Hemiptera Heteroptera (6.56%). In the area with E. urograndis, 1938 organisms were captured, being 50.67% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 26.83%, 7.59% Hemiptera Heteroptera. It was found that there was no significant difference between treatments and between species for all variables. Collected in 2011 were 4970 organisms in 56.22% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 18.49% and 7.12% beetle in the area of M. fistulifera. In the area of E. urograndis were 4200 organisms, 55.29% (Hymenoptera), 23.79% (Collembola) and 5.86% (Coleoptera). It appears that the activity values and richness of the fauna groups were significantly higher in treatments with organic fertilization in both cultive. It is concluded that after one year there was a variation of the dominant

  14. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  15. Graphite-reinforced bone cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    Chopped graphite fibers added to surgical bone cement form bonding agent with mechanical properties closely matched to those of bone. Curing reaction produces less heat, resulting in reduced traumatization of body tissues. Stiffness is increased without affecting flexural strength.

  16. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, L. H.

    1985-12-03

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight monoor copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  17. PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE FOR ANTARCTICA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    formulation of recommended procedures for batching, mixing, placing, and curing of portland cement concrete in Antarctica. The pertinent features of the mix and design and related procedures are given. (Author)

  18. Durability of Cement Composites Reinforced with Sisal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianqiang

    understanding of degradation mechanisms, two approaches are proposed to mitigate the degradation of sisal fiber in the cement matrix. In order to relieve the aggressive environment of hydrated cement, cement substitution by a combination of metakaolin and nanoclay, and a combination of rice husk ash and limestone are studied. Both metakaolin and nanoclay significantly optimize the cement hydration, while the combination of these two supplementary cementitious materials validates their complementary and synergistic effect at different stages of aging. The presented approaches effectively reduce the calcium hydroxide content and the alkalinity of the pore solution, thereby mitigating the fiber degradation and improving both the initial mechanical properties and durability of the fiber-cement composites. The role of rice husk ash in cement modification is mainly as the active cementitious supplementary material. In order to improve the degradation resistance of sisal fiber itself, two novel, simple, and economical pretreatments of the fibers (thermal and sodium carbonate treatment) are investigated. Both thermal treatment and Na 2CO3 treatment effectively improve the durability of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete. The thermal treatment achieves improvement of cellulose's crystallization, which ensures the initial strength and improved durability of sisal fiber. A layer consisting of calcium carbonate sediments, which protects the internals of a fiber from the strong alkali pore solution, is formed and filled in pits and cavities on the Na2CO3 treated sisal fiber's surface.

  19. Development of Multiple Cement Mixture and Its Applied Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Qiaoling; Liu, Feng; Liu, Shipeng

    Currently, materials used to backfill grooves in municipal pipeline projects are pure soil and lime earth generally. Besides, punning or rolling compaction is used. Thus, it is difficult to compact or tamp haunches under pipes. Because of immersion of surface water and activities of underground water and as water inside pipes or underground structures leaks outward, fine-grained soil in backfill move with activities of underground water and collapse is caused for ground. This thesis mainly introduces multiple cement mixture and its performance.

  20. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J.

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  1. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up.

  2. Arsenic encapsulation using Portland cement with ferrous sulfate/lime and Terra-Bond™ technologies - Microcharacterization and leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M

    2012-03-15

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-Bond™, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials included: chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood materials; scorodite-rich mine tailings from the La Trinidad Mine in California; and a soil/smelter dust mixture from the Anaconda Superfund site spiked with monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) to simulate an organoarsenic soil material. SEM/EDS and XRD spectra of PFL treated samples showed similarity across all three waste materials while Terra-Bond treated samples showed predominance of elemental sulfur. SEM/EDS of PFL treated samples showed that calcium was imbedded in the structure while micrographs of Terra-Bond treated samples showed the appearance of an epoxy material on the surface. The epoxy material appears to be responsible for encapsulating and reducing the leachability of arsenic. XANES spectra for the PFL treatment of CCA-containing samples showed that arsenic has a predominant pentavalent form (As +5), and the PFL treatment process did not alter the arsenic oxidation state. But, distinct differences were observed for XANES spectra of untreated and PFL treated scorodite-rich mine tailing which changed the arsenic coordination structure from a mixture of As (+3/+5) to exclusively As (+5). Both S/S techniques reduced the amount of arsenic released in the leaching tests. Most cases show lower amounts of arsenic released from wastes treated by the Terra-Bond™ technique when compared to the PFL technique. The pH of the solution significantly affected the leachability, with the amount of arsenic released increasing with pH. Sequential extraction results indicate that sodium hydroxide was favorable in releasing arsenic in the mine tailings. This is due to ligand displacement reactions of hydroxyl ions with arsenic species and high pH conditions that

  3. Influence of Thermal Treatment Conditions on the Properties of Dental Silicate Cements.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Georgeta; Popa, Alexandru Mihai; Badanoiu, Alina Ioana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-02-18

    In this study the sol-gel process was used to synthesize a precursor mixture for the preparation of silicate cement, also called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. This mixture was thermally treated under two different conditions (1400 °C/2 h and 1450 °C/3 h) followed by rapid cooling in air. The resulted material (clinker) was ground for one hour in a laboratory planetary mill (v = 150 rot/min), in order to obtain the MTA cements. The setting time and mechanical properties, in vitro induction of apatite formation by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cytocompatibility of the MTA cements were assessed in this study. The hardening processes, nature of the reaction products and the microstructural characteristics were also investigated. The anhydrous and hydrated cements were characterized by different techniques e.g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal analysis (DTA-DTG-TG). The setting time of the MTA cement obtained by thermal treatment at 1400 °C/2 h (MTA1) was 55 min and 15 min for the MTA cement obtained at 1450 °C/3 h (MTA2). The compressive strength values were 18.5 MPa (MTA1) and 22.9 MPa (MTA2). Both MTA cements showed good bioactivity (assessed by an in vitro test), good cytocompatibility and stimulatory effect on the proliferation of cells.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiee, S. M.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Solati-Hashjin, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study deals with synthesizing hydroxyapatite bone cement as a bone substitute for clinical applications. The powder part of the cement is using β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains NaH 2PO 4·2H 2O solution with different concentrations. The effects of liquid concentration on the setting times of the cement have been investigated. XRD analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to study the phase composition of calcium phosphate cement. Morphology and chemical analysis of the synthesized cement was performed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser. In addition, the effect of soaking time of synthesized bone cement in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the final phase and strength has been studied. Soaking prepared cement in SBF solution for appropriate time resulted in transformation of the composition of the cement into hydroxyapatite and hence the strength of the cement has been increased.

  5. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malata-Chirwa, Charles David

    This research work aimed at characterising composition, hydration and physical properties of fluoride cement, by studying samples of the cement obtained from Malawi, and comparing them to ordinary Portland cement. By confirming the suitable characteristics of fluoride cement through this work, the results of the research work provide a good basis for the wider adoption of fluoride cement as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, especially in developing economies. Numerous accounts have been cited regarding the production and use of fluoride cement. Since there have not been conclusive agreement as to its properties, this study was limited to the theories of successful incorporation of fluoride compounds in the manufacture of fluoride cement. Hence, the properties and characteristics reported in this study relate to the cement currently manufactured in Malawi, and, on a comparative basis only, to that manufactured in other parts of the world. Samples of the fluoride cement used in the study were obtained by synthetic manufacture of the cement using common raw materials for the manufacture of fluoride cement that is limestone, silica sand, and fluorspar. These samples were subjected to several comparative tests used to characterise cements including examination under x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tests for setting time and compressive strength. Under similar laboratory conditions, it was possible to prove that fluoride cement hardens more rapidly than ordinary Portland cement. Also observed during the experimental work is that fluoride cement develops higher compressive strengths than ordinary Portland cement. The hardening and setting times are significantly different between the two cements. Also the nature of the hydration products, that is the microstructural development is significantly different in the two cements. The differences brought about between the two cements are because of the presence of fluorine during the clinkering

  6. Cement evaluation; Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkington, P.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Cement evaluation began with the calculation of cement tops. This calculation assumed gauge holes and no channeling of the cement through the mud. Calipers were not available at that time. In the mid-1930's, the use of temperature surveys to determine the top of cement (TOC) was documented in technical journals. Properly run temperature surveys can identify the TOC, but distribution of cement-e.g., vertical isolation through zones of interest-is difficult to ascertain. Radioactive tracer surveys were run in the late 1930's to determine cement tops. Carnotite was mixed in the lead slurry and cement tops were determined with a gamma ray log. Tracer surveys had the same limitations as temperature logs but were not time-sensitive. This paper reports on methods that have been and are currently being used for cement evaluation including temperature logs, radioactive traces, and cement bond tools.

  7. 21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device...: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Bone Cement.”...

  8. Stabilization of fly ash using cementing bacteria. Assessment of cementation and trace element mobilization.

    PubMed

    González, Isabel; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Romero-Baena, Antonio J; Barba-Brioso, Cinta

    2017-01-05

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was treated with microorganisms (Sporosarcina pasteurii and Myxococcus xanthus) to assess their capacity for cementing this waste material. Leaching tests on the samples treated with bacteria were also performed to assess the possibility of recovering and recycling trace elements from the fly ash. Sequential extractions combined with mineralogical studies demonstrated that Pb is mobile in water when associated with portlandite. Also, Cd, Pb, and Zn are primarily associated with carbonates and are mobile in acidic environments (up to 4.8, 13.9 and 248mg/l of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, extracted with acetic acid). Microbial treatment of the fly ash, especially with Sporosarcina pasteurii, led to its cementation and stabilization, preventing its dispersion into the environment. But samples treated with bacteria exhibited a higher capacity for trace element leaching than did untreated fly ash. The ability of these bacteria to mobilize metals can be applied to recover those of economic interest. The use of low cost biotechnologies can be an alternative to chemical treatments currently utilized for the recovery and reuse of these wastes.

  9. {sup 29}Si solid state NMR investigation of pozzolanic reaction occurring in lime-treated Ca-bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Pomakhina, Elena; Deneele, Dimitri; Gaillot, Anne-Claire; Paris, Michael; Ouvrard, Guy

    2012-04-15

    Lime is widely used as additive to improve the mechanical properties of natural soil used in earthworks. However, the physico-chemical mechanisms involved are yet not well understood. In order to develop and optimize this treatment method, a better understanding of the interaction between lime and the minerals of the soils, in particular clay minerals, is required. In this study, Ca-bentonite was treated with 2, 5 and 10 wt.% of lime during 1 to 98 days. Modifications in the Si local environment were then monitored by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the pozzolanic reaction. All the soil mineral phases contribute to the release of Si and to the pozzolanic reaction, with a rapid and total consumption of Si-polymorph and an exacerbated dissolution of montmorillonite. Mechanism of C-S-H formation, function of the Ca content in the system, was found to match the sorosilicate-tobermorite model described in cement systems.

  10. Inflammatory Cytokines and Cell Death in BEAS-2B Lung Cells Treated with Soil Dust, Lipopolysaccharide, and Surface-Modified Particles

    PubMed Central

    Veranth, John M.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Veranth, Martha M.; Moss, Tyler A.; Langelier, Charles R.; Lanza, Diane L.; Yost, Garold S.

    2008-01-01

    Cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were treated in vitro with PM2.5-enriched particles of soil-derived mineral dust from nine sites in the western United States. The particle samples simulate windblown dust and vehicle-generated emissions from unpaved roads. Five of the sites yielded relatively benign dust. Particles from three sites caused IL-6 release when cells were treated for 24 h at doses from 20 to 80 μg/cm2, and particles from one site were highly cytotoxic. The particle components or characteristics that caused the IL-6 release were stable at temperatures below 150°C, but were inactivated by treatment at 300–550°C. The active factors were also associated predominantly with the insoluble fraction, and were partially attenuated by leaching with aqueous and organic solvents. The IL-6 release caused by the particles was much greater than the cytokine response to either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or to surrogate particles of titanium dioxide mixed with LPS, suggesting that endotoxin was not a major factor in the inflammatory response. The release of IL-8 in response to particle treatment was qualitatively similar to the IL-6 response, but release of TNF-α was not detected at the 24-h time point. The combined results support the hypothesis that some ambient dusts from geological sources can cause cell death and cytokine release in a lung cell line that is widely used as an in vitro model to study mechanisms of environmental respiratory injury. PMID:15310859

  11. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  12. Isolation and characterization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS)-degrading bacteria from soil and biofilter treating waste gas containing DMS from the laboratory and pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Giri, Balendu Shekher; Juwarkar, Asha A; Satpute, D B; Mudliar, S N; Pandey, R A

    2012-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the sulfurous pollutants present in the waste gas generated from the pulp and paper industry. DMS has environmental health implications; therefore, it is necessary to treat the waste gas containing DMS prior to discharge into the environment. A bench-scale biofilter was operated in the laboratory as well as in a pulp and paper industry for the treatment of DMS. Both the biofilters were packed with pre-sterilized wood chips and cow dung/compost of the same origin seeded with biomass developed from garden soil enriched with DMS. The biofilters were operated for the generation of process parameters, and the potential microorganisms isolated from both the biofilters have been purified and characterized for degradation of DMS. Further, these cultures were purified on a basal medium using DMS as a sole carbon source for the growth. Further, the purified cultures were characterized through standard fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)-gas chromatography method, and the isolates were found to be mesophilic, aerobic microbes. These microbes were identified as Bacillus sphaericus-GC subgroup F, Paenibacillus polymyxa, B. sphaericus-GC subgroup F, B. sphaericus-GC subgroup F, and Bacillus megaterium-GC subgroup A, respectively. The potential culture for degradation of DMS was identified as B. sphaericus by 16s rRNA molecular analysis.

  13. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO{sub 2} to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO{sub 2} to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms.

  14. Method for treating materials for solidification

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Martin, Hollis L.

    1995-01-01

    A method for treating materials such as wastes for solidification to form a solid, substantially nonleachable product. Addition of reactive silica rather than ordinary silica to the material when bringing the initial molar ratio of its silica constituent to a desired ratio within a preselected range increases the solubility and retention of the materials in the solidified matrix. Materials include hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and heavy metal species. Amounts of other constituents of the material, in addition to its silica content are also added so that the molar ratio of each of these constituents is within the preselected ranges for the final solidified product. The mixture is then solidified by cement solidification or vitrification. The method can be used to treat a variety of wastes, including but not limited to spent filter aids from waste water treatment, waste sludges, combinations of spent filter aids and waste sludges, combinations of supernate and waste sludges, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, combinations of incinerator ash and offgas blowdown, cementitious wastes and contaminated soils.

  15. Clay-cement suspensions - rheological and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, L.; Izak, P.; Mastalska-Poplawska, J.; Gajek, M.

    2017-01-01

    The piping erosion in soil is highly unexpected in civil engineering. Elimination of such damages is difficult, expensive and time-consuming. One of the possibility is the grouting method. This method is still developed into direction of process automation as well as other useful properties of suspensions. Main way of modernization of the grouting method is connected it with rheology of injection and eventuality of fitting them to specific problems conditions. Very popular and useful became binders based on modified clays (clay-cement suspensions). Important principle of efficiency of the grouting method is using of time-dependent pseudothixotropic properties of the clay-cement suspensions. The pseudo-rheounstability aspect of the suspensions properties should be dedicated and fitted to dynamic changes of soil conditions destructions. Whole process of the modification of the suspension rheology is stimulated by the specific agents. This article contains a description of practical aspects of the rheological parameters managing of the clay-cement suspensions, dedicated to the building damages, hydrotechnic constructions etc.

  16. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M

    2014-04-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time.

  17. Biodeterioration of the Cement Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luptáková, Alena; Eštoková, Adriana; Mačingová, Eva; Kovalčíková, Martina; Jenčárová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The destruction of natural and synthetic materials is the spontaneous and irreversible process of the elements cycling in nature. It can by accelerated or decelerated by physical, chemical and biological influences. Biological influences are represented by the influence of the vegetation and microorganisms (MO). The destruction of cement composites by different MO through the diverse mechanisms is entitled as the concrete biodeterioration. Several sulphur compounds and species of MO are involved in this complex process. Heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic bacteria together with fungi have all been found in samples of corroding cement composites. The MO involved in the process metabolise the presented sulphur compounds (hydrogen sulphide, elemental sulphur etc.) to sulphuric acid reacting with concrete. When sulphuric acid reacts with a concrete matrix, the first step involves a reaction between the acid and the calcium hydroxide forming calcium sulphate. This is subsequently hydrated to form gypsum, the appearance of which on the surface of concrete pipes takes the form of a white, mushy substance which has no cohesive properties. In the continuing attack, the gypsum would react with the calcium aluminate hydrate to form ettringite, an expansive product. The use supplementary cementing composite materials have been reported to improve the resistance of concrete to biodeterioration. The aim of this work was the study of the cement composites biodeterioration by the bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Experimental works were focused on the comparison of special cement composites and its resistance affected by the activities of used sulphur-oxidising

  18. Experimental Calcium Silicate-Based Cement with and without Zirconium Oxide Modulates Fibroblasts Viability.

    PubMed

    Slompo, Camila; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the use of zirconium oxide as a radiopacifier of an experimental calcium silicate-based cement (WPCZO) leads to cytotoxicity. Fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations (10 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL) of the cements diluted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for periods of 12, 24, and 48 h. Groups tested were white Portland cement (WPC), white Portland cement with zirconium oxide (WPCZO), and white mineral trioxide aggregate Angelus (MTA). Control group cells were not treated. The cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial-activity (MTT) and cell-density (crystal violet) assays. All cements showed low cytotoxicity. In general, at the concentration of 10 mg/mL there was an increase in viability of those groups treated with WPC and WPCZO when compared to the control group (p<0.05). A similar profile for the absorbance values was noted among the groups: 10 mg/mL presented an increase in viability compared to the control group. On the other hand, smaller concentrations presented a similar or lower viability compared to the control group, in general. A new dental material composed of calcium silicate-based cement with 20% zirconium oxide as the radiopacifier showed low cytotoxicity as a promising material to be exploited for root-end filling.

  19. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4281 (December 2011), entitled Gray Portland...

  20. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of Zirconia (Y-TZP) posts with various dental cements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeongsoon; Ko, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endodontically treated teeth with insufficient tooth structure are often restored with esthetic restorations. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biological effects of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) blocks in combination with several dental cements. Materials and Methods Pairs of zirconia cylinders with medium alone or cemented with three types of dental cement including RelyX U200 (3M ESPE), FujiCEM 2 (GC), and Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) were incubated in medium for 14 days. The cytotoxicity of each supernatant was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays on L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and IL-6 protein was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The MTT assays showed that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were more susceptible to dental cements than L929 fibroblasts. The resin based dental cements increased IL-6 expression in L929 cells, but reduced IL-6 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions Zirconia alone or blocks cemented with dental cement showed acceptable biocompatibilities. The results showed resin-modified glass-ionomer based cement less produced inflammatory cytokines than other self-adhesive resin-based cements. Furthermore, osteoblasts were more susceptible than fibroblasts to the biological effects of dental cement. PMID:27508157

  1. Effects of Silicon on Osteoclast Cell Mediated Degradation, In Vivo Osteogenesis and Vasculogenesis of Brushite Cement

    PubMed Central

    Vahabzadeh, Sahar; Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are being widely used for treating small scale bone defects. Among the various CPCs, brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) cement is widely used due to its superior solubility and ability to form new bone. In the present study, we have studied the physical, mechanical, osteoclast-like-cells differentiation and in vivo osteogenic and vasculogenic properties of silicon (Si) doped brushite cements. Addition of Si did not alter the phase composition of final product and regardless of Si level, all samples included β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and DCPD. 1.1 wt. % Si addition increased the compressive strength of undoped brushite cement from 4.78±0.21 MPa to 5.53±0.53 MPa, significantly. Cellular activity was studied using receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) supplemented osteoclast-like-cells precursor RAW 264.7 cell. Phenotypic expressions of the cells confirmed successful differentiation of RAW264.7 monocytes to osteoclast-like-cells on undoped and doped brushite cements. An increased activity of osteoclast-like cells was noticed due to Si doping in the brushite cement. An excellent new bone formation was found in all cement compositions, with significant increase in Si doped brushite samples as early as 4 weeks post implantation in rat femoral model. After 4 weeks of implantation, no significant difference was found in blood vessel formation between the undoped and doped cements, however, a significant increase in vasculgenesis was found in 0.8 and 1.1 wt. % Si doped brushite cements after 8 weeks. These results show the influence of Si dopant on physical, mechanical, in vitro osteoclastogenesis and in vivo osteogenic and vasculogenic properties of brushite cements. PMID:26855779

  2. Freezing resistance of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. X.; Lu, L. C.; Wang, S. D.; Zhao, P. Q.; Gong, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of freeze-thaw cycle on the mechanical properties of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement was investigated in the present study. The visual examination was conducted to evaluate the surface damage. The deterioration considering the weight loss, modulus loss of relative dynamic elastic and strength loss of mortar were also investigated. The morphology of hydration products were analysed by SEM. Compared with ordinary Portland cement and sulphoaluminate cement, the frost resistance of high iron phosphoraluminate cement is better. Hydration products of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement contain sheet crystals, and a lot of gel form a dense three-dimensional network structure, which results in a lower porosity. Different from ordinary Portland cement, the hydration product of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement does not contain Ca(OH)2, and low alkalinity reduces its osmotic pressure. The lower porosity and osmotic pressure are the two main reasons which causes in the higher frost resistance of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement.

  3. 76 FR 24519 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and cement clinker...

  4. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United... cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. High temperature well bore cement slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.; Karanikas, J.M.; Wyant, R.E.

    1993-07-13

    A low density well bore cement slurry composition is described suitable for cementing well bores with high reservoir temperatures comprising: (a) a high alumina cement in an amount of about 40 pounds per barrel of slurry or greater: (b) graphite in an amount greater than about one quarter, by volume, of the solids in the cement slurry; and (c) and a carrier fluid comprising drilling mud.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  11. Formation, release and control of dioxins in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge

    2008-01-01

    /precalciner kilns generally seems to have lower emissions than older wet-process cement kilns. It seems that the main factors stimulating formation of PCDD/PCDFs is the availability of organics in the raw material and the temperature of the air pollution control device. Feeding of materials containing elevated concentrations of organics as part of raw-material-mix should therefore be avoided and the exhaust gases should be cooled down quickly in long wet and long dry cement kilns without preheating. PCDD/PCDFs could be detected in all types of solid samples analysed: raw meal, pellets and slurry; alternative raw materials as sand, chalk and different ashes; cement kiln dust, clinker and cement. The concentrations are however generally low, similar to soil and sediment.

  12. Development of strength in cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkovic, B.

    1981-04-01

    The production of doped belite (dicalcium silicate) clinkers as a prospective means for saving energy in Portland cement production is described. This is accomplished by small additions of either barium sulfate (BaSO4), calcium tribasic phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3OH), or vanadium oxide (V2O5) to belite (Ca2SiO4) clinker. In addition to conserving energy, doping the belite with barium sulfate imparts greater strength to the resulting modified belite. Reactants, additives, and factors contributing to the fabrication of Sorel cement are described.

  13. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further

  14. Skin ulceration due to cement.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, S M; Tachakra, S S

    1992-01-01

    Despite legislation that requires manufacturers to inform the public about the dangers of contact with cement, severe ulceration from cement contact still occurs. We present a retrospective study of seven patients presenting to this department over a 2-year period. All were male and employed in the building trade, their injuries being sustained whilst at work. The injuries were to the lower limb, often multiple and required a median of seven visits before healing was complete. One required hospital admission and skin grafting. PMID:1449582

  15. High piezoelectric properties of cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huang Hsing; Yang, Ruei-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    To obtain high piezoelectric properties, PZT/cement composites with kaolin were fabricated and polarized by 1.5kV/mm electric field for 40 min, where lead zirconate titanate (PZT) inclusion with 50% by volume was used. After the polarization, piezoelectric properties of the composite were measured daily till 100 days. Results indicated that relative dielectric constant (ɛr) and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) increase with aging day, and approach to asymptotic values after 70 days. Temperature treatment to the composite is a dominate factor to enhance piezoelectric properties. The d33 and ɛr values of PZT/cement composites treated at the ambient temperature (23℃) were 57pC/N and 275 at the 70th aging day respectively, and then reached 106pC/N and 455 in turn with 150℃ treatment. The composite contains 4% kaolin having the highest value of d33=111pC/N and ɛr=500 at 90 days because the porosity is the less than the others. Cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin own the higher d33 and ɛr value, compared with the other reported composites with 50% PZT. The porosity, the electromechanical coupling factor and impedance-frequency spectra of the cement piezoelectric composites were also discussed.

  16. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement and periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antonia F; Parvizi, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is commonly used for antibiotic delivery during total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for prevention or treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). ALBC is commonly used in two-stage exchange arthroplasty with static and dynamic spacers, beads, rods, and other custom spacers. The use of commercially available or hand-made ALBC for primary and revision TJA to prevent infection has also been studied. Commonly used antibiotics include gentamicin, tobramycin, and vancomycin powder, and these antibiotics can be used alone or in combination, depending on the organism present. ALBC can be prepared by hand mixing to increase porosity and improve antibiotic elution or by vacuum-mixing to improve tensile fatigue strength. Vacuum-mixed cement is predominantly used in primary TJA, whereas hand-mixed cement is often used in two-stage exchange arthroplasty for shaping spacers and beads. Inadequate strength of ALBC spacers can result in mechanical failure, including fracture or dislocation of spacers. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that the use of antibiotics in cement, especially aminoglycosides like gentamicin and tobramycin that can elute into the bloodstream, may result in acute renal failure. Using antibiotics in ALBC can also theoretically increase antibiotic resistance and the likelihood of obtaining a negative culture if subsequent aspirations are performed. Overall, ALBC is an effective medical implant tool that can be used for treating and preventing PJI.

  17. Effects of composition and exposure on the solar reflectance of Portland cement concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-12-21

    Increasing the solar reflectance (albedo) of a paved surface keeps it cooler in the sun, reducing convection of heat from pavement to air and thereby decreasing the ambient air temperature. Simulations of the influence of pavement albedo on air temperature in Los Angeles predict that increasing the albedo of 1,250 km2 of pavement by 0.25 would save cooling energy worth $15M yr-1, and reduce smog-related medical and lost-work expenses by $76M yr-1. Most sidewalks and a small fraction of roads and parking areas are paved with portland cement concrete, which can be made quite reflective through suitable choice of cement and aggregate. Variations with composition and environmental exposure of the albedos of portland cement concrete pavements were investigated through laboratory fabrication and exposure of 32 mixes of concrete. Twenty-four mixes yielded substandard, ''rough'' concretes due to high, unmet aggregate water demand. The albedos of the remaining eight ''smooth'' concrete mixes ranged from 0.41 to 0.77 (mean 0.59). Simulated weathering, soiling, and abrasion each reduced average concrete albedo (mean decreases 0.06, 0.05, and 0.19, respectively), though some samples became slightly more reflective through weathering or soiling. Simulated rain (wetting) strongly depressed the albedos of concretes (mean decrease 0.23) until their surfaces were dried. Concrete albedo grew as the cement hydration reaction progressed (mean increase 0.08), but stabilized within six weeks of casting. White-cement concretes were on average significantly more reflective than gray-cement concretes. The albedo of the most-reflective white-cement concrete was 0.18 to 0.39 higher than that of the most-reflective gray-cement concrete, depending on state of exposure. Concrete albedo generally correlated with cement albedo and sand albedo, and, after abrasion, with rock albedo. Cement albedo had a disproportionately strong influence on the reflectance of concrete. Efflorescence and surface

  18. Injectable acrylic bone cements for vertebroplasty based on a radiopaque hydroxyapatite. Bioactivity and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Lidia; Parra, Juan; Vázquez, Blanca; Bravo, Antonio López; Collía, Francisco; Goñi, Isabel; Gurruchaga, Marilo; San Román, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Radiopaque bone cements have been formulated to provide injectable pastes with improved bioactivity to be applied in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty techniques. The bioactive compound was strontium containing hydroxyapatite salt, which was introduced as obtained (SrHA) or after treatment with MMA monomer (SrHA-t). The in vitro bioactivity of the cements was tested in cement films or in cement pastes introduced directly in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at 37 degrees C to mimic the in vivo conditions. Precipitation of an apatite-like layer was observed for the 20 wt %-SrHA-t containing cement in the first experiments, and in all formulations in the second ones. The deposited particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and by EDAX analysis. Radiopacity of cements after immersion in SBF was confirmed. The biocompatibility exhibited by the SrHA containing cements was, in some cases, superior to that shown by a formulation with 10 wt % of BaSO(4). The new formulations prepared with the treated filler exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular proliferation. The in vivo biocompatibility tested by an intramuscular model in rats indicated the formation of a membrane formed by collagen fibers containing fibroblasts with no inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, giant cells or lymphocytes in all formulations.

  19. Evaluation of amendments to decrease high strength in southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy multi-attributive comparison of alternatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils is reduced by cemented subsurface layers that restrict root growth. Though tillage is the usual way to reduce cementation, if soil amendments can develop aggregation, they offer a more permanent solution. To improve soil physical properties a...

  20. Considerations for proper selection of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Simon, James F; Darnell, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper cement for sufficient bond strength has become progressively complicated as the number of different materials for indirect restorations has increased. The success of any restoration is highly dependent on the proper cement being chosen and used. The function of the cement is not only to seal the restoration on the tooth but also, in some cases, to support the retention of the restoration. This ability to strengthen retention varies by the cement chosen by the clinician; therefore, careful consideration must precede cement selection.

  1. Leachability, availability and bioaccessibility of Cu and Cd in a contaminated soil treated with apatite, lime and charcoal: A five-year field experiment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Fang, Guodong; Zhang, Houxi; Su, Binbin; Zhou, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of apatite, lime and charcoal in regulating Cu and Cd leachability (toxicity characteristic leaching and synthetic precipitation leaching procedures), availability (CaCl2 and MgCl2) and bioaccessibility (simplified bioaccessibility extraction test) in a heavy metal-contaminated soil. Both soil pH and soil organic carbon content were investigated during the five-year field study. The results showed that soil pH and soil organic carbon content increased with application of amendments, but decreased with time in both the control and amended plots. Moreover, the leachability, availability and bioaccessibility of Cu and Cd in amended soils all significantly decreased compared with the control, but increased over time. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that soil pH was significantly negatively correlated with the concentrations of available, leachable and bioaccessible Cu and Cd. Bioaccessible Cu and Cd were positively correlated with the concentrations of available and leachable Cu and Cd, but they were not significantly correlated with soil total Cu and total Cd. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the variability in bioaccessible Cu and Cd was well explained by MgCl2-extractable Cu, CaCl2-extractable Cd and pH, respectively. Although the longevity of amendments decreased with time, apatite was the most effective in decreasing the availability of Cu, compared with lime and charcoal. These findings provide valuable insights for risk management during long-term in situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils.

  2. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  3. Automation design of cemented doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Galina; Ivanova, Tatiana; Korotkova, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Algorithm and software for cemented doublet synthesis by Slusarev's methodology are presented. Slusarev's methodology is based on lookup tables that allow calculating doublet radii by given value of third-order coma, spherical aberration and chromatic aberration by specific algorithm. This calculation is automated in this work. The input parameters for algorithm are desired values of third-order coma, spherical aberration and chromatic aberration of cemented doublet. The software looks up few pairs of optical glasses corresponding to specified value of chromatic aberration and then calculates radii of surfaces for each pair of glasses corresponding to specified third-order coma and spherical aberration. The resulted third-order aberrations and real aberrations on the edge of the pupil are calculated for obtained radiuses. Several doublets can be analyzed in result table and the chosen one can be imported into Zemax. The calculated cemented doublet parameters can be analyzed and optimized in optical system design software. The software allows to make the first step of optical system design fast and simple. It allows to design not only the system which is free of the third-order spherical aberration, coma and axial color, but obtain necessary value of aberration for compensation of aberrations in another part of optical system. Possibility to look up optical glasses automatically, what affects the chromatic aberration correction and aberration correction in general, is especially important. Examples of automatic calculation of cemented doublet and compensation of aberrations in another part of optical system are presented in the paper.

  4. Proposal of a sequential treatment methodology for the safe reuse of oil sludge-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mater, L; Sperb, R M; Madureira, L A S; Rosin, A P; Correa, A X R; Radetski, C M

    2006-08-25

    In this study sequential steps were used to treat and immobilize oil constituents of an oil sludge-contaminated soil. Initially, the contaminated soil was oxidized by a Fenton type reaction (13 wt% for H(2)O(2); 10mM for Fe(2+)). The oxidative treatment period of 80 h was carried out under three different pH conditions: 20 h at pH 6.5, 20 h at pH 4.5, and 40 h at pH 3.0. The oxidized contaminated sample (3 kg) was stabilized and solidified for 2h with clay (1 kg) and lime (2 kg). Finally, this mixture was solidified by sand (2 kg) and Portland cement (4 kg). In order to evaluate the efficiency of different processes to treat and immobilize oil contaminants of the oil sludge-contaminated soil, leachability and solubility tests were performed and extracts were analyzed according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed that the Fenton oxidative process was partially efficient in degrading the oil contaminants in the soil, since residual concentrations were found for the PAH and BTEX compounds. Leachability tests showed that clay-lime stabilization/solidification followed by Portland cement stabilization/solidification was efficient in immobilizing the recalcitrant and hazardous constituents of the contaminated soil. These two steps stabilization/solidification processes are necessary to enhance environmental protection (minimal leachability) and to render final product economically profitable. The treated waste is safe enough to be used on environmental applications, like roadbeds blocks.

  5. Lightweight Cement Slurries based on vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, K.; Gorbenko, V.; Ulyanova, O.

    2014-08-01

    The main purpose of the research is to study the lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite and its parameters in accordance with GOST 1581-96 requirements as well as improvement of its formulation by polymer additives. Analysis of vermiculite-containing mixture providing the lowest density while maintaining other required parameters was conducted. As a cement base, cement PTscT-I-G-CC-1, cement PTscT - 100 and vermiculite M200 and M150 were used. Vermiculite content varied from 10 to 15 %; and water-to-cement-ratio ranged from 0.65 to 0.8. To sum up, despite the fact that lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite satisfies GOST 1581-96 requirements under laboratory conditions, field studies are necessary in order to make a conclusion about applicability of this slurry for well cementing.

  6. Development of cement solidification process for sodium borate waste generated from PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hirofumi Okabe; Tatsuaki Sato; Yuichi Shoji; Yoshiko Haruguchi; Masaaki Kaneko; Michitaka Saso; Masumitsu Toyohara

    2013-07-01

    A cement solidification process for treating sodium borate waste produced in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants was studied. To obtain high volume reduction and high mechanical strength of the waste, simulated concentrated borate liquid waste with a sodium / boron (Na/B) mole ratio of 0.27 was dehydrated and powdered by using a wiped film evaporator. To investigate the effect of the Na/B mole ratio on the solidification process, a sodium tetraborate decahydrate reagent with a Na/B mole ratio of 0.5 was also used. Ordinary portland cement (OPC) and some additives were used for the solidification. Solidified cement prepared from powdered waste with a Na/B mole ratio 0.24 and having a high silica sand content (silica sand/cement>2) showed to improved uniaxial compressive strength. (authors)

  7. The 3Rs and cement kiln dust: Opportunities for reduction, reuse and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a by-product of the cement manufacturing process. This material which is captured in cement kiln dust control equipment consists primarily of raw and partly calcined kiln feed. Factors which contribute to the generation of CKD are described. Cases of successful reduction of CKD generation are presented. Technologies for treating CKD so that it can be reused as a raw material for cement production are discussed. Applications where CKD can be used alone or with other by-products are also presented. Opportunities for developing new uses for CKD are identified and discussed in terms of the drivers behind such applications as well as the economic, technical and regulatory barriers to their development.

  8. Strength and Stiffness Development in Soft Soils: A FESEM aided Soil Microstructure Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ho, M. H.; Bai, X.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    This paper opens with an overview of the debatable definition of soft soil that goes beyond a (CH) organic / inorganic clay and OH peat to include weakly cemented periglacial deposits of loess and alike. It then outlines the findings obtained from stiffness test on cement-stabilised soft clay. The findings are complemented with a microstructure viewpoint obtained using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Research also comprised of making cylindrical stabilised clay samples, prepared in the laboratory with various rubber chips contents and cement, and then aged for 28 days. The samples were then subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and observations were also made of its microstructure using the FESEM. The impact of the soil microstructure on the stiffness result was studied both with the stabilized soil and also of some of the natural undisturbed loess soils. Sustainability aspect and the potential of the use of rubber chips and sand as additives to cement stabilisation are also discussed. The overall test results indicated that rubber chips and sand contributed to the improvement in unconfined compressive strength (qu). The derogatory influence of moisture on the stiffness of the stabilised clay was studied simultaneously. SEM micrographs are presented that show bonding of cement, rubber chips/ sand and soft clay, granular units and aggregated / agglomerated units in loess. The paper concludes with observations on the dependence of soil microstructure on the soil strength and deformability and even collapsibility of the loess. Current practices adopted as engineering solutions to these challenging soils are outlined.

  9. Mesoscale texture of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Bauchy, Mathieu; Hoover, Christian G.; Masoero, Enrico; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Strength and other mechanical properties of cement and concrete rely upon the formation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) during cement hydration. Controlling structure and properties of the C–S–H phase is a challenge, due to the complexity of this hydration product and of the mechanisms that drive its precipitation from the ionic solution upon dissolution of cement grains in water. Departing from traditional models mostly focused on length scales above the micrometer, recent research addressed the molecular structure of C–S–H. However, small-angle neutron scattering, electron-microscopy imaging, and nanoindentation experiments suggest that its mesoscale organization, extending over hundreds of nanometers, may be more important. Here we unveil the C–S–H mesoscale texture, a crucial step to connect the fundamental scales to the macroscale of engineering properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nanoscale building units of C–S–H and their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles. We compute small-angle scattering intensities, pore size distributions, specific surface area, local densities, indentation modulus, and hardness of the material, providing quantitative understanding of different experimental investigations. Our results provide insight into how the heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C–S–H and impact the mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. Unraveling such links in cement hydrates can be groundbreaking and controlling them can be the key to smarter mix designs of cementitious materials. PMID:26858450

  10. Importance of microscopy in durability studies of solidified and stabilized contaminated soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klich, I.; Wilding, L.P.; Drees, L.R.; Landa, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is recognized by the U.S. EPA as a best demonstrated available technology for the containment of contaminated soils and other hazardous wastes that cannot be destroyed by chemical, thermal, or biological means. Despite the increased use of S/S technologies, little research has been conducted on the weathering and degradation of solidified and stabilized wastes once the treated materials have been buried. Published data to verify the performance and durability of landfilled treated wastes over time are rare. In this preliminary study, optical and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy [SEM], transmission electron microscopy [TEM] and electron probe microanalyses [EPMA]) were used to evaluate weathering features associated with metal-bearing contaminated soil that had been solidified and stabilized with Portland cement and subsequently buried on site, stored outdoors aboveground, or achieved in a laboratory warehouse for up to 6 yr. Physical and chemical alteration processes identified include: freeze-thaw cracking, cracking caused by the formation of expansive minerals such as ettringite, carbonation, and the movement of metals from waste aggregates into the cement micromass. Although the extent of degradation after 6 yr is considered slight to moderate, results of this study show that the same environmental concerns that affect the durability of concrete must be considered when evaluating the durability and permanence of the solidification and stabilization of contaminated soils with cement. In addition, such evaluations cannot be based on leaching and chemical analyses alone. The use of all levels of microscopic analyses must be incorporated into studies of the long-term performance of S/S technologies.Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is recognized by the U.S. EPA as a best demonstrated available technology for the containment of contaminated soils and other hazardous wastes that cannot be destroyed by chemical

  11. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  12. Mechanism of Hg(II) Immobilization in Sediments by Sulfate-Cement Amendment.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Susana; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri; O'Day, Peggy A

    2016-04-01

    Reactive amendments such as Portland and super-sulfate cements offer a promising technology for immobilizing metalloid contaminants such as mercury (Hg) in soils and sediments through sequestration in less bioavailable solid forms. Tidal marsh sediments were reacted with dissolved Hg(II) in synthetic seawater and fresh water solutions, treated with Portland cement and FeSO4 amendment, and aged for up to 90 days. Reacted solids were analyzed with bulk sequential extraction methods and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Hg LIII- and S K-edge. In amended sediments, XRD, SEM and sulfur K-edge XANES indicated formation of gypsum in seawater experiments or ettringite-type (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12(.)26H2O) phases in fresh water experiments, depending on the final solution pH (seawater ∼8.5; freshwater ∼10.5). Analysis of Hg EXAFS spectra showed Cl and Hg ligands in the first- and second-coordination shells at distances characteristic of a polynuclear chloromercury(II) salt, perhaps as a nanoparticulate phase, in both seawater and fresh water experiments. In addition to the chloromercury species, a smaller fraction (∼20-25%) of Hg was bonded to O atoms in fresh water sample spectra, suggesting the presence of a minor sorbed Hg fraction. In the absence of amendment treatment, Hg sorption and resistance to extraction can be accounted for by relatively strong binding by reduced S species present in the marsh sediment detected by S XANES. Thermodynamic calculations predict stable aqueous Hg-Cl species at seawater final pH, but higher final pH in fresh water favors aqueous Hg-hydroxide species. The difference in Hg coordination between aqueous and solid phases suggests that the initial Hg-Cl coordination was stabilized in the cement hydration products and did not re-equilibrate with the bulk solution with aging. Collectively, results suggest physical encapsulation of Hg as a polynuclear

  13. Pullout strength of fixation screws from polymethylmethacrylate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Flahiff, C M; Gober, G A; Nicholas, R W

    1995-05-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement is often used to fill voids and increase the strength of osteoporotic and pathological bone. However, it is unclear as to which method of cement augmentation provides optimal screw fixation. This study was conducted to determine which of the current cement augmentation techniques provides the strongest construct when used in association with orthopaedic fixation screws. Pullout strength was determined for screws placed in sawbones with no cement, soft cement, doughy cement and hard cement after drilling and tapping. All cement-screw constructs were significantly stronger than the no cement group. Screws placed in doughy cement had a significantly higher pullout force than those placed in hard cement. Pullout strength of screws placed in soft cement was intermediate between the other cement techniques but not significantly different from either group.

  14. Performance of volcanic ash and pumice based blended cement concrete in mixed sulfate environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, K.M.A. . E-mail: ahossain@ryerson.ca; Lachemi, M.

    2006-06-15

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to the presence of mixed sulfate in soils, groundwater and marine environments is a well-known phenomenon. The use of blended cements incorporating supplementary cementing materials and cements with low C{sub 3}A content is becoming common in such aggressive environments. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the performance of 12 volcanic ash (VA) and finely ground volcanic pumice (VP) based ASTM Type I and Type V (low C{sub 3}A) blended cement concrete mixtures with varying immersion period of up to 48 months in environments characterized by the presence of mixed magnesium-sodium sulfates. The concrete mixtures comprise a combination of two Portland cements (Type I and Type V) and four VA/VP based blended cements with two water-to-binder ratio of 0.35 and 0.45. Background experiments (in addition to strength and fresh properties) including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and rapid chloride permeability (RCP) were conducted on all concrete mixtures to determine phase composition, pozzolanic activity, porosity and chloride ion resistance. Deterioration of concrete due to mixed sulfate attack and corrosion of reinforcing steel were evaluated by assessing concrete weight loss and measuring corrosion potentials and polarization resistance at periodic intervals throughout the immersion period of 48 months. Plain (Type I/V) cement concretes, irrespective of their C{sub 3}A content performed better in terms of deterioration and corrosion resistance compared to Type I/V VA/VP based blended cement concrete mixtures in mixed sulfate environment.

  15. The effect of sodium hypochlorite and resin cement systems on push-out bond strength of cemented fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad I.; Bin-Shuwaish, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effect of different endodontic irrigant solutions and resin cement systems on the bond strength of cemented fiber posts. Methods: Sixty human single-rooted anterior teeth were sectioned transversely at 2 mm incisal to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The roots were treated endodontically, and teeth were distributed into six groups: group A, includes 5.25%NaOCl irrigant with MultiCore Flow Core Build-Up material; group B, includes 5.25%NaOCl irrigant with RelyX-Unicem Self-Adhesive Universal Resin Cement; group C, includes 2.5% NaOCl irrigant with MultiCore Flow; group D, includes 2.5%NaOCl irrigant with RelyX-Unicem; group E, includes NaCl, irrigant with MultiCore Flow; and group F, includes NaCl irrigant with RelyX-Unicem. Universal tapered fiber posts (No. 3 RelyX Fiber Post) were cemented, and roots were sectioned into cervical and apical segments. Samples were then subjected to a push-out bond strength test and failure modes were examined. Results: The mean push-out bond strength for group D showed the highest mean value (20.07 MPa), while the lowest value was found in group A. There was a significant difference between groups with regard to the irrigants used (p<0.001), however, no significant difference was found between groups with regard to resin systems (p>0.05). The total mean push-out bond strength of the cervical segments was found to be significantly higher than the apical segments (p<0.001). Conclusion: The irrigant solution have a clear influence on the push-out bond strength of the fiber posts regardless of the cement used. Both adhesive resin systems showed similar bonding strength. PMID:27648037

  16. Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhu

    Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product

  17. The use of a "rim cutter" device and a flanged cup for improving the mantle of the acetabular component of a cemented Exeter total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Valencia, Jenaro Ángel; Gallart, Xavier; Bori, Guillem; Rodríguez-Roiz, Juan Miguel; Combalia, Andreu

    2016-12-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the cement mantle in two groups of patients treated with the acetabular components of cemented Exeter total hip arthroplasties (THAs). Two groups of 20 patients were compared: Group 1 received non-flanged acetabular cemented cups (Contemporary, Stryker) and Group 2 received flanged acetabular cemented cups (X3 Rim Fit, Stryker). Cups in Group 2 were implanted after using a rim cutter device. Group 2 showed better penetration of cement in zone 1 (10.76 mm compared with 2.93 mm; p = 0.008) and a thicker cement mantle in zone 1 (3.57 mm compared with 2.89 mm; p = 0.04). More cups in Group 2 had a cement mantle thickness less than 3 mm (30 % in Group 1 compared with 70 % in Group 2; p = 0.0039). No other radiological differences were observed. These results favor the use of a rim cutter device and flanged cup to improve the cement mantle for the acetabular components of cemented Exeter THAs. However, the improvements were less than expected. In view of the results of previous studies, further research is therefore needed to assess the value of this approach in improving the acetabular cement mantle.

  18. Immunotoxicological response of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris following exposure to cement kiln dusts.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, R; Robidoux, P-Y; Sauvé, S; Flipo, D; Mathiot, A; Fournier, M; Trottier, B

    2004-09-01

    Cement kiln dusts are made of a complex mixture of elements. We have evaluated the potential negative impact of those dusts on the immune system of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. We specifically studied cell viability and phagocytic activity of coelomocytes extruded during electrical stimulation. We used two modes of exposures: in vitro, and soil incubation using OECD artificial soil media. Extruded coelomocytes were exposed 18 h in vitro to 10, 100, and 500 mg L(-1) of cement kiln dust particles. The phagocytosis and the cell viability were determined using a double-laser-flow acquisition cytometry system. Using the double laser allows us to use a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) marker to discriminate the biological cells from the cement kiln dusts. Dead cells are marked using propidium iodide (PI). All three exposure levels showed highly significant impacts on cell viability and phagocytic activity. The in vivo soil incubation was performed using 10, 100, and 1000 mg kg(-1) of cement kiln dusts incorporated into the OECD media. Here, to discriminate the biological cells from the mineral dusts we only needed to use PI. The day-to-day variability of the in vivo assay was high and although we can observe an overall reduction in cell viability at the highest concentration tested, no statistically significant effects could be observed on either cell viability or phagocytosis.

  19. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Cement Composites Observed with XRD and SEM Methods in the Range of Radiation Dose 0-1409 MGy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łowińska-Kluge, A.; Piszora, P.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of gamma radiation in the range of 0-1409 MGy on the structure of a new mineral additive to cement based composites was investigated in the perspective of employing them as radioactive waste protection material. According to the authors knowledge, it is the first paper dealing with observations of the cement matrix, both pure and modified, treated with so giant radiation dose. The absorption of gamma radiation modifies the morphology of the additive grains, causes decomposition of cement hydrates and clinker relicts in cement paste containing the additive at twice higher radiation dose than that inducing the decomposition of the reference pure cement paste and the cement paste containing pozzolane additives.

  20. A Twofold Comparison between Dual Cure Resin Modified Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement for Orthodontic Band Cementation

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Hanaa El; Elhiny, Omnia; Salem, Ghada; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Attia, Mazen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To test the solubility of dual cure resin modified resin cement in a food simulating solution and the shear bond strength compared to conventional Glass ionomer cement. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The materials tested were self-adhesive dual cure resin modified cement and Glass Ionomer (GIC). Twenty Teflon moulds were divided into two groups of tens. The first group was injected and packed with the modified resin cement, the second group was packed with GIC. To test the solubility, each mould was weighed before and after being placed in an analytical reagent for 30 days. The solubility was measured as the difference between the initial and final drying mass. To measure the Shear bond strength, 20 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were equally divided into two groups and embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Four mm sections of stainless steel bands were cemented to the exposed buccal surfaces of teeth under a constant load of 500 g. Shear bond strength was measured using a computer controlled materials testing machine and the load required to deband the samples was recorded in Newtons. RESULTS: GIC showed significantly higher mean weight loss and an insignificant lower Shear bond strength, compared to dual cure resin Cement. CONCLUSION: It was found that dual cure resin modified cement was less soluble than glass ionomer cement and of comparable bond strength rendering it more useful clinically for orthodontic band cementation. PMID:28028417

  1. Natural cement as the precursor of Portland cement: Methodology for its identification

    SciTech Connect

    Varas, M.J. . E-mail: mjvaras@geo.ucm.es; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2005-11-15

    When cements appeared in the 19th century, they took the place of traditional binding materials (lime, gypsum, and hydraulic lime) which had been used until that time. Early cements can be divided into two groups, natural and artificial (Portland) cements. Natural cements were introduced first, but their widespread usage was short-lived as they were quickly replaced by artificial cements (Portland), still the most important and predominant today. The main differences between natural and artificial cements arise during the manufacturing process. The final properties of the cements are greatly influenced by differences in the raw materials and burning temperatures employed. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of traditional analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) used to differentiate natural and artificial cements.

  2. New radiopaque acrylic bone cement. II. Acrylic bone cement with bromine-containing monomer.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Ichim, I C; Popa, M; Rusu, M

    2008-07-01

    Bromine-containing methacrylate, 2-(2-bromopropionyloxy) ethyl methacrylate (BPEM), had been used in the formulation of acrylic radiopaque cements. The effect of this monomer incorporated into the liquid phase of acrylic bone cement, on the curing parameters, thermal properties, water absorption, density, compression tests and radiopacity was studied. A decrease of maximum temperature and an increase of the setting time were observed with the addition of the bromine-containing monomer in the radiolucent cement composition. Adding BPEM in radiolucent acrylic bone cements composition results in the decrease of glass transition temperature and increase of its thermal stability. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer are characterized by polymerization shrinkage lower than the radiolucent cement. Addition of bromine-containing comonomer in radiolucent acrylic bone cement composition determines the increase of compressive strength. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer proved to be radiopaque.

  3. Cement bond log evaluation of foam- and synthetic-cemented casings

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckdorfer, R.A.; Jacobs, W.R.; Masson, J.P.

    1984-11-01

    Cement bond log (CBL /SUP TM/ ) studies on foam- and synthetic-cemented wells were initiated to determine the feasibility of, as well as to develop technologies for, evaluating these novel cementing services. Early CBL's on these cementing systems showed little effect on the log amplitude curve. Hence, CBL evaluations were difficult to obtain and interpret. A special sonde with a 1.3-ft (0.4-m) transmitter-toreceiver spacing was developed for this study. Sonic signal amplitudes were determined by using cemented shortcasing test sections. Sonic attenuation rates were correlated to compressive strengths for a range of cement densities. Experimental details of the cementing operation and logging studies are discussed. Data relating attenuation rates to compressive strengths and cement densities also are presented. Field results are discussed.

  4. Expansive Cements and Their Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-10-01

    made available from the Office, Chief of Research and Development, Army, f- operation of the Concrete Technology Inxormation Aalysis Center (CTIAC...Ths is CTIAC Report No. 8. This report was prepared by Mr. George C. Hoff, Chief Materials Properties V Section of the Concrete iabcraLory, U. S. Army...compensating expansive cement concrete is to minimize cracking in concrete pavements and structures caused by drying shrinkage. The paper reviews the

  5. Center for Cement Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    pastes have shown that the matrix is microporous; mesopores are absent unless the material is allowed to dry out. This results in water adsorption at low...only to water. When subsequently dried a portion of3 the porosity is converted to larger mesopores . • Only about one third of the cement reacts in a...Frictional sliding, in this case was characterized by a decreasing slope in the loading curve followed by hysteresis in the unload/reloading curves

  6. Sustainable cement production-present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.; Romer, M.; Tschudin, M.; Bolio, H.

    2011-07-15

    Cement will remain the key material to satisfy global housing and modern infrastructure needs. As a consequence, the cement industry worldwide is facing growing challenges in conserving material and energy resources, as well as reducing its CO{sub 2} emissions. According to the International Energy Agency, the main levers for cement producers are the increase in energy efficiency and the use of alternative materials, be it as fuel or raw materials. Accordingly, the use of alternative fuels has already increased significantly in recent years, but potential for further increases still exists. In cement, the reduction of the clinker factor remains a key priority: tremendous progress has already been made. Nevertheless, appropriate materials are limited in their regional availability. New materials might be able to play a role as cement constituents in the future. It remains to be seen to what extent they could substitute Portland cement clinker to a significant degree.

  7. Cements for use in esthetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Thiago A; da Silva, Nelson R F A; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2007-04-01

    Dental cements are designed to retain restorations, appliances, and post and cores in a stable and, presumably, long-lasting position in the oral environment. Conventional glass ionomer and zinc phosphate cements are among the most popular materials for luting metallic restorations and posts, whereas resin-based cements are preferred for esthetic applications. Successful cementation of esthetic restorations is largely dependent on the appropriate treatment and silane application to the internal surface of the restoration. Clinicians are frequently advised to use three-step total-etch or two-step self-etch adhesive for luting purposes to avoid problems of incompatibility between adhesives and chemical- or dual-cure cements. A reliable cementation procedure can only be achieved if the operator is aware of the mechanisms involved and the material limitations.

  8. How to obtain good primary cement jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Kundert, D.P. ); Vacca, H.L. ); Smink, D.E

    1990-04-01

    A review of 23 primary cementing jobs performed over an 11-year period in four states has shown improved success with attention having been directed to low- cost means of improving displacement of drilling muds by cement slurries. The most important factors appear to be placement of centralizers and scratchers, conditioning of the drilling mud and pipe movement (reciprocation) while conditioning mud and while placing cement. Confidence gained in the use of these methods has resulted in a job technique wherein the top cementing plug is pumped down with 10% acetic acid or other desired perforating fluid followed by 2% KCI water. This technique permits lower-cost completions. The theory and application of cement bond logging is reviewed with five example CBL-VDL logs presented and discussed. Several examples are shown under applied surface pressure conditions. An example of a CBL-VDL log for an offset well where the principles of primary cementing were not observed is shown for comparison.

  9. Long-term impact of municipal sewage irrigation on treated soil and black locust trees in a semi-arid suburban area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Masoud; Salehi, Azadeh

    2009-01-01

    The effects of municipal sewage irrigation on the soil and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) tree were studied. For this purpose, two artificial black locust stands under irrigation of municipal sewage and well water were selected in south of Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using technique of systematic random sampling with 4 replicates in each stand. It was found that the growth of black locust tree, as indicated by diameter at breast height, total height, crown length, average crown diameter, basal area and volume, in sewage irrigation stand was much higher than that of well water irrigation stand (P < 0.01). Plant analysis indicated that concentrations of leaf nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) were greater in sewage-irrigated trees, without toxicity to the minerals of tree leaf, than those of well waterirrigated trees, and positively correlated with their respective value in soil. Ni, Cr and Pb were not detected in leaf samples. Application of sewage resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of soil nutrients, Ni, Cr and Pb. Among these minerals only Pb and Ni in some soil samples exceeded the toxicity limit. The increase in pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and organic carbon of soil was also observed in sewage irrigation. Results confirm that besides the use as irrigation water, municipal sewages are also a potential source of plant nutrients. However, significant accumulation of heavy metals such as Pb and Ni in soil needs to be monitored.

  10. Chemical stabilization of subgrade soil for the strategic expeditionary landing field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, M. H.

    1983-06-01

    The Strategic Expeditionary Landing Field (SELF) is a military expeditionary-type airfield with an aluminum matted surface that is designed for sustained tactical and cargo airlift operations in an amphibious objective area. Because of the operational traffic parameters such as loads of the various types of aircraft, tire pressures and volume of traffic, a base layer must be constructed over subgrade soil support conditions which may be only marginal. The base layer could be constructed with conventional soil construction techniques (compaction) and yield the required strength. It would be difficult, however, to maintain this strength for the required one-year service life under many climatic conditions due to the degrading effects of water on the support capacity of many soils. Chemical soil stabilization with lime, portland cement and asphalt stabilizing agents could be used to treat the soil. These additives, when properly mixed with certain types of soils, initiate reactions which will increase soil support strength and enhance durability (resistance to the degrading effects of water). Technically, this procedure is quite viable but logistically, it may not be feasible.

  11. Influence of temporary cement remnant and surface cleaning method on bond strength to dentin of a composite luting system.

    PubMed

    Kanakuri, Katsuhito; Kawamoto, Yoshikazu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of polycarboxylate temporary cement remaining on the dentin surface on the bond strength of a composite luting system. An acrylic resin plate was luted to bovine dentin with a polycarboxylate temporary cement (HY-Bond Temporary Cement Hard, HYB). The temporary cement was not used for the control groups. After removing the temporary cement with an excavator, dentin specimens were divided into five groups; 1) no subsequent treatment, 2) cleaning with a rotational brush (RTB), 3) cleaning with a rotational brush and non-fluoridated flour of pumice, 4) sweeping with an air scaler, and 5) treated with a sonic toothbrush. A silane-treated ceramic disk (IPS Empress) was bonded to each dentin specimen with a composite luting system (Panavia F). Shear testing results showed that the RTB groups exhibited the highest bond strength regardless of the use of temporary cement (P < 0.05). The use of a rotational brush with water coolant is recommended to achieve ideal bond strength between the Panavia F luting system and dentin to which HYB temporary cement was primarily applied.

  12. Pulp tissue response to Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulpotomy of human primary molars.

    PubMed

    Marques, N; Lourenço Neto, N; Fernandes, A P; Rodini, C; Hungaro Duarte, M; Rios, D; Machado, M A; Oliveira, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulp treatment of human primary teeth by clinical and radiographic exams and microscopic analysis. Thirty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I - Portland cement; Group II - Portland cement with iodoform (Portland cement + CHI3 ); Group III - Portland cement with zirconium oxide (Portland cement + ZrO2 ); and treated by pulpotomy technique (removal of a portion of the pulp aiming to maintain the vitally of the remaining radicular pulp tissue using a therapeutic dressing). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Data were tested using statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. The microscopic findings were descriptively analysed. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically successful at follow-up appointments. The microscopic analysis revealed positive response to pulp repair with hard tissue barrier formation and pulp calcification in the remaining roots of all available teeth. The findings of this study suggest that primary teeth pulp tissue exhibited satisfactory biological response to Portland cement associated with radio pacifying agents. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the safe clinical indication of this alternative material for pulp therapy of primary teeth.

  13. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1980-06-01

    Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

  14. Zirconia: cementation of prosthetic restorations. Literature review

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; GLORIA, F.; NAPOLI, E.; PUJIA, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim of the work Aim of the work was to execute a review of the international literature about the cementation of zirconia restorations, analyzing the properties of the cements most commonly used in clinical activities. Materials and methods It was performed, through PubMed, a bibliographic search on the international literature of the last 10 years using the following limits: studies in English, in vitro studies, randomized clinical trial, reviews, meta-analysis, guide-lines. Were excluded from the search: descriptive studies, case reports, discussion articles, opinion’s leader. Results From studies results that common surface treatments (silanization, acid etching) are ineffective on zirconia because it has an inert surface without glassy component (on which this surface treatments act primarily), instead the sandblasting at 1atm with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) results significantly effective for the resulting roughening that increase the surface energy and the wettability of the material. Furthermore it has been shown that zinc phosphate-based cements, Bis-GMA-based and glass-ionomer cements can’t guarantee a stable long-term adhesion, instead resin cements containing phosphate monomer 10-methacryloyloxyidecyl-dihyidrogenphosphate (MDP) have shown higher adhesion and stability values than the other cements. In particular, it has seen that bond strength of zirconia copings on dentin, using MDP-based cement, is about 6,9MPa; this value is comparable to that obtained with gold copings cementation. Conclusions Analyzed studies have led to the following conclusions: sandblasting with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is the best surface treatment to improve adhesion between resin cements and zirconia; resin cements containing phosphate ester monomers 10-methacryloyloxyidecyl-dihyidrogenphosphate (MDP) have shown in the studies an higher bond strength and stability after ageing treatment; the best procedure for cementing zirconia restorations results the combination of

  15. Water dynamics in glass ionomer cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, M. C.; Jacobsen, J.; Momsen, N. C. R.; Benetti, A. R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Seydel, T.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2016-07-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are an alternative for preventive dentistry. However, these dental cements are complex systems where important motions related to the different states of the hydrogen atoms evolve in a confined porous structure. In this paper, we studied the water dynamics of two different liquids used to prepare either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. By combining thermal analysis with neutron scattering data we were able to relate the water structure in the liquids to the materials properties.

  16. Try-in Pastes Versus Resin Cements: A Color Comparison.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Edenize Cristina; Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Rodrigues Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz; Takano, Alfa Emília; de Carvalho Cardoso, Paula; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the color of ceramic veneer restorations using different shades of try-in pastes and resin cement. Researchers found no differences between try-in pastes and resin cements after cementation.

  17. Acoustic evaluation of cementing quality using obliquely incident ultrasonic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wen-Xing; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Che, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonic cement bond logging is a widely used method for evaluating cementing quality. Conventional ultrasonic cement bond logging uses vertical incidence and cannot accurately evaluate lightweight cement bonding. Oblique incidence is a new technology for evaluating cement quality with improved accuracy for lightweight cements. In this study, we simulated models of acoustic impedance of cement and cementing quality using ultrasonic oblique incidence, and we obtained the relation between cementing quality, acoustic impedance of cement, and the acoustic attenuation coefficient of the A0-mode and S0-mode Lamb waves. Then, we simulated models of different cement thickness and we obtained the relation between cement thickness and the time difference of the arrival between the A0 and A0' modes.

  18. United States Air Force Soil Stabilization Index System - A Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Tests Results of Strength Tests Results of Freeze-Ihaw Test Results of Wet- Dry Test Long-Term Immersion Test Effect of Sulface on Cement... Dry Test Results of Soil-Cement Mixtures 120 12 Summary of Immersion Test Results of Soil-Cement Mixtures 131 13 Seven-Day St engths and Durabilities...much higher than the strengths after 12 freeze-thaw cycles. The high temperature (160oF) during the drying phase of the wet- dry test may have

  19. Squeeze cement method using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Underdown, D.R.; Ashford, J.D.; Harrison, T.W.; Eastlack, J.K.; Blount, C.G.; Herring, G.D.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of squeeze cementing a well wherein the well has a casing throughout the wellbore, casing cement between the casing and the wellbore of the well, perforations through the casing and the casing cement to establish fluid communication between the interior of the casing and a formation adjacent the perforations, channels in the casing cement in fluid communication with at least some of the perforations, a well tubing string in the casing extending from the surface to the proximity of the perforations, and a packer means for sealing between the tubing and the casing above the perforations. The method consists of: isolating the casing adjacent the perforations; lowering a coiled tubing down the well tubing string to a point adjacent the perforations; flowing uncontaminated squeeze cement through the coiled tubing and through the perforations into the channels; flowing a cement contaminating liquid down the coiled tubing to mix with the squeeze cement remaining in the casing; allowing the uncontaminated squeeze cement in the channels to harden; and removing the contaminated squeeze cement from the casing through the coiled tubing.

  20. Proper selection of contemporary dental cements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Ming; Chen, Run; Cheng, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Today proper selection of dental cements is a key factor to achieve a successful restoration and will greatly increase the chances of long-term success of the restoration. In recent years, many newly formulated dental cements have been developed with the claim of better performance compared to the traditional materials. Unfortunately, selection of suitable dental cement for a specific clinical application has become increasingly complicated, even for the most experienced dentists. The purpose of this article is to review the currently existing dental cements and to help the dentists choose the most suitable materials for clinical applications.

  1. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  2. Antibiotic-eluting hydrophilized PMMA bone cement with prolonged bactericidal effect for the treatment of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun Jo; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, In Soo; Kwon, Oh Soo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-05-01

    Osteomyelitis is still considered to be one of the major challenges for orthopedic surgeons despite advanced antiseptic surgical procedures and pharmaceutical therapeutics. In this study, hydrophilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cements containing Pluronic F68 (EG79PG28EG79) as a hydrophilic additive and vancomycin (F68-VAcements) were prepared to allow the sustained release of the antibiotic for adequate periods of time without any significant loss of mechanical properties. The compressive strengths of the bone cements with Pluronic F68 compositions less than 7 wt% were not significantly different compared with the control vancomycin-loaded bone cement (VAcement). TheF68 (7 wt%)-VAcement showed sustained release of the antibiotic for up to 11 weeks and almost 100% release from the bone cement. It also prohibited the growth ofS. aureus(zone of inhibition) over six weeks (the required period to treat osteomyelitis), and it did not show any notable cytotoxicity. From an animal study using a femoral osteomyelitis rat model, it was observed that theF68 (7 wt%)-VAcement was effective for the treatment of osteomyelitis, probably as a result of the prolonged release of antibiotic from the PMMA bone cement. On the basis of these findings, it can be suggested that the use of Pluronic F68 as a hydrophilic additive for antibiotic-eluting PMMA bone cement can be a promising strategy for the treatment of osteomyelitis.

  3. New tetrasilicate cements as retrograde filling material: an in vitro study on fluid penetration.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria G; Sauro, Salvatore; Mannocci, Francesco; Watson, Timothy F; Zanna, Silvano; Capoferri, Michela; Prati, Carlo; Mongiorgi, Romano

    2007-06-01

    We aimed to compare the apical sealing ability of two experimental retrograde root-filling cements and mineral trioxide aggregate using a fluid filtration method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) were used to evaluate structural and qualitative characteristics. Thirty single-rooted extracted teeth were treated, root-end prepared, and obturated using MTA and two experimental cements. Fluid filtration was measured during a 5-minute period after 4, 24, and 48 hours and 1, 2, and 12 weeks. The results were statistically compared by using a two-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The marginal adaptation was evaluated by using a SEM replica technique. XRD analyses showed similar patterns. XRF showed lower amounts of SiO(2) and FeO(3) in the experimental cements. All cements showed a reduced fluid flow rate over time. No significant differences were found between the cements. The SEM replica indicated a good marginal adaptation to dentinal walls. Both experimental cements showed suitable properties as retrograde root-filling materials.

  4. Evaluation of Antibiotic-loaded Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement in a Cranium-infected Experimental Model

    PubMed Central

    SAKAMOTO, Yoshiaki; OCHIAI, Hiroko; OHSUGI, Ikuko; INOUE, Yoshikazu; YOSHIMURA, Yoko; KISHI, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of calvarial defects has remained a challenge in reconstruction surgery, especially because of infection at these sites. We produced a bactericidal biomaterial for treating infected bone defects by using calcium phosphate bone cement mixed with antibiotics. We evaluated the usefulness of this material mixed with the antibiotic vancomycin in a cranium-infected rat model. The concentration of vancomycin used was 5.0 wt%, as reported in our previous study. In order to establish the rat model, a cranium defect (diameter, 5 mm) was made that was infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Thirty-six rats were divided into 6 groups depending on whether an autologous graft or bone cement with or without antibiotic was used for the defect. After 1 and 4 weeks, abscess formation was checked, tissue bacterial counts were determined, and pathological examination was performed. At both 1 and 4 weeks, no MRSA was detected on tissue bacterial culture or pathological examination in groups that received bone cement with antibiotics. In groups that received bone cement without antibiotic, MRSA was detected, and the bone cement had compromised and disintegrated into several slices. In conclusion, bone cement that contains antibiotics appears to be effective not only for reconstruction in cases of cranial defect, but also in terms of preventing infection. PMID:24670313

  5. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Amoretti, Nicolas Huwart, Laurent

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  6. Physical characterization and osteogenic activity of the quaternized chitosan-loaded PMMA bone cement.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Guo, Shengrong; Yang, Shengbing; Xu, Xiaofen; Tang, Tingting

    2012-07-01

    Gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), widely used for primary cemented arthroplasty and revision surgery for preventing or treating infections, may lead to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and dysfunction of osteogenic cells, which further influence the osteointegration of bone cement. In a previous study, we reported that a new quaternized chitosan derivative (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC) that was loaded into PMMA significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus strains. In the present study, we further investigated the surface morphology, hydrophilicity, apatite formation ability and osteogenic activity of HACC-loaded PMMA. Chitosan-loaded PMMA, gentamicin-loaded PMMA and PMMA without antibiotic were also investigated and compared. The results showed that, compared to other PMMA-based cements, HACC-loaded PMMA had improved properties such as a lower polymerization temperature, prolonged setting time, porous structures after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline, higher hydrophilicity, more apatite formation on the surface after immersion in simulated body fluid, and better attachment and spreading of the human-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We also found better stem cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and osteogenesis-associated genes expression on the surface of the HACC-loaded PMMA compared to the gentamicin-loaded PMMA. Therefore, this new anti-infective bone cement had improved physical properties and osteogenic activity, which may lead to better osteointegration of the bone cement in cemented arthroplasty.

  7. Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production.

    PubMed

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Süngün, H

    2008-11-30

    Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. This study reports the potential use of flotation waste of a copper slag (FWCS) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker. The FWCS appears a suitable raw material as iron source containing >59% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The clinker products obtained using the FWCS from the industrial scale trial operations over a 4-month period were characterised for the conformity of its chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products was evaluated. The data collected for the clinker products produced using an iron ore, which is currently used as the cement raw material were also included for comparison. The results have shown that the chemical compositions of all the clinker products including those of FWCS are typical of a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the standard mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers were found to be similar to those from the iron ore clinkers with the desired specifications for the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. Furthermore, the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) have revealed that the mortar samples obtained from the FWCS clinkers present no environmental problems while the FWCS could act as the potential source of heavy metal contamination. These findings suggest that flotation wastes of copper slag (FWCS) can be readily utilised as cement raw material due to its availability in large quantities at low cost with the further significant benefits for waste management/environmental practices of the FWCS and the reduced production and processing costs for cement raw materials.

  8. Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Leone, Anna; Iovieno, Paola; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of some trace elements in two different types of Mediterranean soils were studied in order to evaluate the possible long-term contamination following compost amendments. Total and available (DTPA-extractable) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined. The study was carried out on two agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), a Sandy Loam Calcaric Cambisol (SG) and a Clay Gleyc Luvisol (CO), during 3 years of organic amendment with compost. The compost, produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and urban yard trimmings, in accordance with the Italian law for agricultural use, was applied at annually rates of 15, 30, and 45 t ha(-1) (on dry weight basis). Wide variations in total and available Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were observed over time, but appeared to be in many cases unrelated to the treatments, occurring also in control plots. After 3 years of compost application the amended SG soil showed the highest and significant increase in total Cd and Zn concentrations; in addition, the available Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations increased in accordance with the compost rates. The CO soil, characterized by a higher clay content, lower organic matter content and lower cation exchange capacity, exhibited a lower increase in available metal fractions. Our findings show that compost amendment affects more the available than the total metal concentrations in the two types of soils studied and thus it is important into legislation that metal "bioavailability" may be considered in defining threshold metal values.

  9. Quantitative determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol, alkylphenol ethoxylates and alcohol ethoxylates by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in soils treated with sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Vicente; Ferrer, Emilia; Rubio, José Luís; Font, Guillermina; Picó, Yolanda

    2007-05-25

    Surfactants have one of the highest production rates of all organic chemicals. Non-ionic surfactants, especially alkylphenol ethoxylates, received most attention as precursors of estrogenic metabolic products generated during wastewater treatment. Alkylphenols (octyl and nonylphenol), alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs), and alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) have been determined in a Mediterranean forest soil (Mediterranean Rendzic Leptosol) amended with sludges from six waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) located in the Valencian Community. These compounds were isolated from soil by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a mixture acetone-hexane (50:50 v/v), the extracts were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C(18), and determined by liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) using analytical standards for quantification. The method enabled high-reliable identification by monitoring the corresponding ammonium adduct [M+NH(3)](+) for AEOs and APEOs, and the deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) for octyl and nonylphenol. Recoveries, determined spiking soil samples at different concentrations, ranged from 89 to 94%, with limits of quantification from 1 to 100 microg kg(-1). Data obtained from a soil sample mixed with biosolids in the laboratory showed that these compounds are present at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 5 mg kg(-1). According to these concentrations, levels of possible risk can be concluded for the presence of non-ionic surfactants in soil. However, further assessment will be necessary to establish the relationship between exposure and effect findings.

  10. A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

    2014-03-01

    Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure.

  11. Experimental studies on a new bioactive material: HAIonomer cements.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U J; Pek, Y S; Kumar, R A; Cheang, P; Khor, K A

    2002-02-01

    The lack of exotherm during setting, absence of monomer and improved release of incorporated therapeutic agents has resulted in the development of glass ionomer cements (GICs) for biomedical applications. In order to improve biocompatibility and biomechanically match GICs to bone, hydroxyapatite-ionomer (HAIonomer) hybrid cements were developed. Ultra-fine hydroxyapatite (HA) powders were produced using a new induction spraying technique that utilizes a radio-frequency source to spheriodize an atomized suspension containing HA crystallites. The spheriodized particulates were then held at 800 degrees C for 4 h in a carbolite furnace using a heating and cooling rate of 25 degrees C/min to obtain almost fully crystalline HA powders. The heat-treated particles were characterized and introduced into a commercial glass ionomer cement. 4 (H4), 12 (H12) and 28 (H28) vol% of fluoroalumino silicate were substituted by crystalline HA particles that were dispersed using a high-speed dispersion technique. The HAIonomer cements were subjected to hardness, compressive and diametral tensile strength testing based upon BS6039:1981. The storage time were extended to one week to investigate the effects of cement maturation on mechanical properties. Commercially available capsulated GIC (GC) and GIC at maximum powder:liquid ratio (GM) served as comparisons. Results were analyzed using factorial ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc tests and independent samples t-test at significance level 0.05. The effect of time on hardness was material dependent. With the exception of H12, a significant increase in hardness was observed for all materials at one week. A significant increase in compressive strength was, however, observed for H12 over time. At 1 day and 1 week, the hardness of H28 was significantly lower than for GM, H4, and H12. No significant difference in compression and diametral tensile strengths were observed between materials at both time intervals. Results show that HAIonomers is a

  12. Effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with Rely X U200 self-adhesive cement

    PubMed Central

    Lawaf, Shirin; Jalalian, Ezatallah; Roshan, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Considering the importance of retention in the success and long-term clinical service of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) as well as the existing controversy regarding the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement, this study aimed to assess the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented using RelyX U200. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this experimental study, 20 sound human premolars were prepared; a 0.5 mm chamfer finish line was prepared above the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were randomly assigned to two groups: a desensitizer group (n = 10, treated with GLUMA desensitizer) and a control (n = 10, no surface treatment). Full metal crowns were fabricated of base metal alloy and had a ring. All crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 and subjected to retention test by using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and independent t-test. RESULTS The mean tensile bond strength was significantly higher in the GLUMA desensitizer group (230.63 ± 63.8 N) compared to the control group (164.45 ± 39.3 N) (P≤.012). CONCLUSION GLUMA desensitizer increases the tensile bond strength of RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement to dentin. PMID:27826391

  13. Treatment of experimental osteomyelitis by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with bone cement system releasing grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, Nicolas; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangellos; Kanellakopoulou, Kyriaki; Lazarettos, Ioannis; Giannoudis, Peter; Frangia, Konstantina; Magnissalis, Evangellos; Papadaki, Maria; Nikolaou, Vassilios S

    2008-12-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of the local anti-microbial treatment on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) experimental osteomyelitis. Thirty-six rabbits with chronic MRSA osteomyelitis of the right femur were treated with local grepafloxacin delivery system prepared by a mixture of acrylic bone cement (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) plus 4% grepafloxacin. Osteomyelitis was induced by inoculating MRSA (100 microl of cultured bacteria; 10(7)) and the local insertion of a needle, serving as a foreign body, at the upper third of the femur. The course of the infection was followed by clinical, radiographic and microbiological examination. In the third week, all animals were re-operated, needles were removed, and antibiotic containing acrylic cement was implanted. Thereafter, one control and five treated animals were sacrificed per week, within 6 weeks. Osteomyelitis was found in all rabbits. In vitro grepafloxacin levels remained high throughout the 6 weeks of the experiment. Histologically tissue reaction against the cement was not observed. Osteomyelitis lesions and bone structure were progressively repaired after cement implantation. Biomechanical analysis showed no significant influence on the mechanical properties of acrylic cement due to grepafloxacin. The above mixture could prove to be an important supplementary method for the treatment of bone infections. Such a system could replace the use of gentamycin PMMA beads in the treatment of patients with chronic osteomyelitis due to MRSA. Furthermore, the proposed method could be used as a spacer after removal septic loosened prostheses in combination with systemic administration of antibiotics.

  14. Effect of Steam Autoclaving on the Tensile Strength of Resin Cements Used for Bonding Two-Piece Zirconia Abutments.

    PubMed

    Fadanelli, Marcos Alexandre; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclave sterilization on the tensile strength of two types of resin cements used to bond customized CAD/CAM zirconia abutments onto titanium bases. Forty sets of zirconia abutments cemented to screwed titanium bases of implants analogs were divided into 4 groups (n = 10). Two groups were treated with a conventional chemically activated resin cement (ML, Multilink Ivoclar Vivadent) and the other two groups with a self-adhesive dual resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). One group from each cement was submitted to steam autoclaving. The autoclave sterilization cycle was performed after 72 hours of cementation for 15 minutes at 121°C and 2.1 Kgf/cm(2). The samples were subjected to tensile strength testing in a universal testing machine (200 Kgf, 0.5 mm/min), from which the means and standard deviations were obtained in Newtons. Results showed (via ANOVA and Tukey's test; α = 0.05) that in the absence of steam autoclaving, no difference was observed in tensile strength between the cements tested: ML: 344.87 (93.79) and U200: 280 (92.42) (P = .314). Steam autoclaving, however, significantly increased tensile strength for the ML: 465.42 (87.87) compared to U200: 289.10 (49.02) (P < .001). Despite the significant increase in the ML samples (P = .013), autoclaving did not affect the tensile strength of the U200 samples (P > 0.05). The authors concluded that steam autoclaving increases the mean tensile strength of the chemically activated cement compared to the dual-cure self-adhesive cement. The performance of both cements evaluated was similar if the sterilization step was disconsidered.

  15. Influence of the Resin Cement Thickness on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Regina Maria Helen-Cot; Kinder, Gustavo Ross; Alfredo, Edson; Quaranta, Tarcisio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of resin cement thickness on the bond strength of prefabricated and customized glass fiber posts after storage in distilled water. Thirty human uniradicular roots were treated endodontically. The roots were divided into 3 groups: THIN (thin cement layer) - post space preparation with #0.5 drill and cementation of #0.5 post; THICK (thick cement layer) - post space preparation with #1 drill and cementation of #0.5 post; and CUSTOM (customized cement layer) - post space preparation with #1 drill and cementation of a customized post (#0.5 glass fiber posts customized with resin composite). All posts were luted with self-adhesive resin cement. The push-out test was carried out after storage for 24 h and 90 days in distilled water at 37 °C. The data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Bond strengths were significantly higher for CUSTOM (9.37 MPa), than for THIN (7.85 MPa) and THICK (7.07 MPa), which were statistically similar. Considering the thirds, the bond strength varied in the sequence: apical (7.13 MPa) < middle (8.22 MPa) = coronal (8.94 MPa). Bond strength for 24 h storage was significantly higher (8.80 MPa) than for 90-day storage (7.40 MPa). It may be concluded that the thickness of resin cement influenced the bond strength of glass fiber posts. The customized posts presented higher bond strength. Storage in water for 90 days affected negatively the values of bond strength, especially for thick cement layers in the apical third.

  16. Porosity reduction in bone cement at the cement-stem interface.

    PubMed

    Bishop, N E; Ferguson, S; Tepic, S

    1996-05-01

    The fatigue failure of bone cement, leading to loosening of the stem, is likely to be one mode of failure of cemented total hip replacements. There is strong evidence that cracks in the cement are initiated at voids which act as stress risers, particularly at the cement-stem interface. The preferential formation of voids at this site results from shrinkage during polymerisation and the initiation of this process at the warmer cement-bone interface, which causes bone cement to shrink away from the stem. A reversal of the direction of polymerisation would shrink the cement on to the stem and reduce or eliminate the formation of voids at this interface. We have investigated this by implanting hip prostheses, at room temperature or preheated to 44 degrees C, into human cadaver femora kept at 37 degrees C. Two types of bone cement were either hand-mixed or vacuum-mixed before implantation. We found that the area of porosity at the cement-stem interface was dramatically reduced by preheating the stem and that the preheating temperature of 44 degrees C determined by computer analysis of transient heat transfer was the minimum required to induce initial polymerisation at the cement-stem interface. Temperature measurements taken during these experiments in vitro showed that preheating of the stem caused a negligible increase in the temperature of the bone. Reduction of porosity at the cement-stem interface could significantly increase the life of hip arthroplasties.

  17. Composition for a lightweight cement slurry for cementing oil and gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Parcevaux, P.; Sault, P.

    1988-01-26

    A homogeneous lightweight cement slurry for cementing the annulus of an oil or gas well is described comprising: cement, an extender in the form of solid particles, a styrenebutadiene latex, and water, having a specific gravity lying substantially in the range from 1.2 to 1.6 and having a volume ratio of the liquid phase of the slurry to the total volume of the slurry of less than about 70%. A method of cementing the annulus of a wellbore by pumping an aqueous cement slurry through the wellbore and into the annulus the aqueous cement slurry comprising is described comprising cement, an extender in the form of solid particles, a styrenebutadiene latex and water, having a specific gravity lying substantially in the range from 1.2 to 1.6 and having a volume ratio of the liquid phase of the slurry to the total volume of the slurry of less than about 70%.

  18. Effects of cement-curing mode and light-curing unit on the bond durability of ceramic cemented to dentin.

    PubMed

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio Assunção; Michida, Silvia Masae Araújo; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Oliveira, Simone Helena Gonçalves de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different light-curing units and resin cement curing types on the bond durability of a feldspathic ceramic bonded to dentin. The crowns of 40 human molars were sectioned, exposing the dentin. Forty ceramic blocks of VITA VM7 were produced according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The ceramic surface was etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid / 60s and silanized. The dentin was treated with 37% phosphoric acid / 15s, and the adhesive was applied. The ceramic blocks were divided and cemented to dentin according to resin cement / RC curing type (dual- and photo-cured), light-curing unit (halogen light / QTH and LED), and storage conditions (dry and storage / 150 days + 12,000 cycles / thermocycling). All blocks were stored in distilled water (37°C / 24h) and sectioned (n = 10): G1 - QTH + RC Photo, G2 - QTH + RC Dual, G3 - LED + RC Photo, G4 - LED + RC Dual. Groups G5, G6, G7, and G8 were obtained exactly as G1 through G4, respectively, and then stored and thermocycled. Microtensile bond strength tests were performed (EMIC), and data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The bond strength values (MPa) were: G1 - 12.95 (6.40)ab; G2 - 12.02 (4.59)ab; G3 - 13.09 (5.62)ab; G4 - 15.96 (6.32)a; G5 - 6.22 (5.90)c; G6 - 9.48 (5.99)bc; G7 - 12.78 (11.30)ab; and G8 - 8.34 (5.98)bc. The same superscript letters indicate no significant differences. Different light-curing units affected the bond strength between ceramic cemented to dentin when the photo-cured cement was used, and only after aging (LED > QTH). There was no difference between the effects of dual- and photo-cured resin-luting agents on the microtensile bond strength of the cement used in this study.

  19. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  20. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  2. A note on cement in asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilalbegović, G.

    2016-09-01

    Cement mineral tobermorite was formed in hydrothermal experiments on alternation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Unidentified bands at 14 μm were measured for CAIs and the matrix of the Allende meteorite sample, as well as for Hektor and Agamemnon asteroids. The presence of cement nanoparticles may explain the feature at 14 μm.

  3. Effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of zirconia to three resin cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadjoo, Nisa

    Statement of problem: There are no standard guidelines for material selection to obtain acceptable bonding to high-strength zirconium oxide ceramic. Studies suggest resin cements in combination with MDP-containing primer is a reasonable choice, however, the other cements cannot be rejected and need further investigation. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was the evaluation of the shear bond strength of three composite resin cements to zirconia ceramic after using different surface conditioning methods. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty sintered Y-TZP ceramic (IPS e.max ZirCAD) squares (8 x 8 x 4 mm) were embedded in acrylic molds, then divided into three groups (n=40) based on the type of cement used. Within each group, the specimens were divided into four subgroups (n=10) and treated as follows: (1) Air abrasion with 50microm aluminum oxide (Al2O 3) particles (ALO); (2) Air abrasion + Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SBU); (3) Air abrasion + Monobond Plus (MBP); (4) Air abrasion + Z-Prime Plus (ZPP). Composite cylinders were used as carriers to bond to conditioned ceramic using (1) RelyX Ultimate adhesive resin cement (RX); (2) Panavia SA self-adhesive resin cement (PSA); (3) Calibra esthetic cement (CAL). The bonded specimens were submerged in distilled water and subjected to 24-hour incubation period at 37°C. All specimens were stressed in shear at a constant crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. The bond strength values (MPa), means and standard deviations were calculated and data were analyzed using analysis of variance with Fisher's PLSD multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The nature of failure was recorded. Results: The two-way ANOVA showed Panavia SA to have the highest strength at 44.3 +/- 16.9 MPa (p<0.05). The combination of Scotchbond Universal surface treatment with Panavia SA cement showed statistically higher bond strength (p=0.0054). The highest bond

  4. Presence and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves and in soil treated with contaminated compost and irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Anguera, M; Abadias, M

    2012-05-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with produce consumption have brought attention to contaminated compost manure, and polluted irrigation water as potential sources of pathogens for the contamination of these crops. The aim of this study was to determine the potential transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil fertilized with contaminated compost or irrigated with contaminated water to edible parts of lettuce together with its persistence in soil under field conditions in two different seasons (fall and spring). Moreover, its survival on lettuce sprinkled with contaminated irrigation water was evaluated, as well as the prevalence of aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae in control lettuce samples. Four treatments, contaminated compost, surface and sprinkle irrigation with contaminated water and uninoculated pots, were used in this work. Contaminated compost was applied to soil in the pots before lettuce was transplanted and contaminated irrigation water was applied twice and three times on the plants after the seedlings were transplanted, for sprinkle and surface irrigation, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 survived in soil samples for 9 weeks at levels, 4.50 log cfu gdw(-1) (dw, dry weight) in fall and 1.50 log cfu gdw(-1) in spring. The pathogen survives better in fall, indicating an important influence of environmental factors. E. coli O157:H7 population in lettuce leaves after sprinkle irrigation was very high (between 10(3) and 10(6) cfu g(-1)), but decreased to undetectable levels at field conditions. There was also transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil contaminated with compost or irrigated with contaminated water to lettuce leaves, mainly to the outer ones. The mean counts for aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae populations were also influenced by environmental conditions; higher levels were observed under fall conditions than in spring conditions. Contamination of lettuce plants in the field can occur

  5. Antibiotic cement-coated plates for management of infected fractures.

    PubMed

    Conway, Janet D; Hlad, Lee M; Bark, Samantha E

    2015-02-01

    Deep infection in the presence of an implant after open reduction and internal fixation is usually treated with removal of the implant, serial débridement procedures, lavage, intravenously administered antibiotics, and occasionally, placement of antibiotic-impregnated beads. If infection occurs during the early stages of bone healing, fracture stabilization might be compromised after implant removal. Osteomyelitis, unstable owing to a bone deficit or fracture, was treated with an antibiotic cement-coated (tobramycin and vancomycin) plate. The goal was successful eradication of infection with the patient remaining infection-free for 1 year. Four patients were treated with antibiotic-coated plates for osteomyelitis and all have achieved successful union, clinically free of signs of infection for more than 1 year. One patient experienced a prominent and painful plate, necessitating removal. Based on our experience, early aggressive débridement coupled with broad-spectrum antibiotic cement-coated plate insertion, provides fracture stability and helps eradicate the infection with 1 surgical procedure.

  6. Rheological Characterization of Oil Cement Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderrahmane, Mellak; Moh-Amokrane, Aitouche

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the study of the rheological behavior of cement suspensions. An oil well is drilled, cased, cemented and set completion. The well drilling is done in several phases then at various diameters to isolate the following problems like land fragile subsidence and poorly consolidated aquifer formations, loss of the movement in the porous and permeable formations. Therefore, it would go down a casing and cementing to work safely. The materials studied were chosen to satisfy the requirements and the problems encountered in real applications in the oil field (casing cementing wells). So it was used an oil hydraulic binder "G". This systematic study of rheological properties of cement Class "G" standardized API (American Petroleum Institute) deal with a formulation which is compatible with the surrounding environment taking account an optimal efficiency.

  7. A new technique for removing intramedullary cement.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Vosburg, Caleb; Murtha, Yvonne M; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Crist, Brett D

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of infected long bone fractures or nonunions requires stability for bony union, yet retained implants can lead to persistent infection. Antibiotic cement intramedullary nails, in addition to external fixation, are commonly used to deliver intramedullary antibiotics in infected long bone fractures and provide temporary stability. However, the retrieval of these nails can result in debonding of antibiotic cement, which can require significant time and effort to remove. A variety of methods, including intramedullary hooks, reverse curettes, flexible osteotomes, and stacked guide rods, are commonly used to remove cement fragments. When these methods fail to allow access to the entire length of the canal, the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator system (Synthes, Paoli, PA) serves as an effective method for removing retained intramedullary cement. The surgical technique is described, and three cases illustrate the successful use of the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator system for removal of an antibiotic cement intramedullary nail.

  8. Depth microhardness of glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, V; Moya, F; Payan, J; Bartala, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of different conditions of storage on the surface and in the depth of luting glass ionomer cement by measuring microhardness. The hardness of a glass ionomer cement was measured after storage in wet and dry conditions and in an atmosphere of 80% relative humidity, for times up to 1000 h. Storage in distilled water produced a softening effect, but the depth hardness increased progressively. The penetration of the water is a surface phenomenon and does not affect the depth of the cement. However, the cement is vulnerable to moisture to a depth of 600 microns and marginal gaps evolve in the range of 40 to 80 microns when the luting cement at the tooth crown margin is always destroyed.

  9. Current Status of Geothermal Well Cement Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study made in 1976 indicated that the cements used for well completion deteriorate in the geothermal environments and that the life expectancy of a well, and therefore the economics of geothermal processes, could be improved significantly if better materials were developed. On the basis of this assessment, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) helped the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy to organize a program to develop materials that meet the estimated design criteria for geothermal well cements. The BNL work involves research on polymer cements and full management of an integrated program involving contract research and industrial participation. The program consists of the following phases: (1) problem definition, (2) cement research and development, (3) property verification, (4) downhole testing, and (5) cementing of demonstration wells.

  10. Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

  11. Promotion of in vivo degradability, vascularization and osteogenesis of calcium sulfate-based bone cements containing nanoporous lithium doping magnesium silicate

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qirong; Cui, Jin; Zhao, Yuechao; Shin, Jung-Woog; Su, Jiacan

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous lithium doping magnesium silicate (nl-MS) was introduced into calcium sulfate hemihydrate to prepare calcium sulfate composite (nl-MSC) bone cements. The introduction of nl-MS improved the in vitro degradability of nl-MSC cements, which could neutralize acidic degradable products of calcium sulfate and prevented the pH from dropping. The cements were implanted into the bone defects of femur bone of rabbits, and the results of histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that massive new bone tissue formed in the defects while the cements were degradable, indicating that the osteogenesis and degradability of the nl-MSC cements were much better than the control calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD) cements. Furthermore, the positive expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and collagen type I for nl-MSC cements was higher than CSD, indicating that addition of nl-MS into the cements enhanced vascularization and osteogenic differentiation. The results suggested that the nl-MSC cements with good biocompatibility and degradability could promote vascularization and osteogenesis, and had great potential to treat bone defects. PMID:28260883

  12. Evaluation and comparison of the effect of different surface preparations on bond strength of glass ionomer cement with nickel-chrome metal-ceramic alloy: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hasti, Kalpana; Jagadeesh, H G; Patil, Narendra P

    2011-03-01

    Retention of fixed partial dentures is mostly dependent upon the bond between metal and cement as well as cement and tooth structure. However, most of the time clinical failure of bond has been observed at metal and cement interface. The treatment of metal surface, prior to luting, plays a crucial role in bonding cement with the metal. This study is conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of different surface preparations on the bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement with nickel-chromium metal ceramic alloy. Fifty caries-free extracted molar teeth were made flat until the dentin of the occlusal surface was exposed. After fabrication of the wax patterns and subsequent castings, the castings were subjected to porcelain firing cycles. The nickel-chromium metal ceramic alloy discs were also divided into five groups and subjected to various surface treatments: (1) Unsandblasted (U), (2) sandblasted (S), (3) sandblasted and treated with 10% aqueous solution of KMnO4 (SK), (4) unsandblasted and roughened with diamond abrasive points (UD) and (5) unsandblasted and roughened with diamond abrasive points and treated with 10% aqueous solution of KMnO(4) (UDK). After surface treatments, the castings were cemented using Fuji PLUS encapsulated resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The obtained values of all the groups were subjected to statistical analysis for Tensile and Shear bond strength. Different surface treatments of the metal affects the bond strength values of resin-modified glass ionomer cement when used as luting agent.

  13. Cements with low Clinker Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lodeiro, I.; Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid alkaline cements are multi-component systems containing a high percentage of mineral additions (fly ash, blast furnace slag), low proportions (<30%) of Portland clinker and scarce amounts of alkaline activators. The substantially lower amount of clinker needed to manufacture these binders in comparison to ordinary Portland cement is both economically and ecologically beneficial. Their enormous versatility in terms of the raw materials used has made them the object of considerable interest. The present study explored the mechanical strength of binary blends mixes; B1= 20% clinker (CK) + 80% fly ash (FA) and B2=20% clinker + 80% blast furnace slag (BFS), both hydrated in the presence and absence of an alkaline activator specifically designed for this purpose. The use of the activator enhanced the development of early age strength considerably. All the hydrated matrices were characterised with XRD, SEM/EDX and (29Si and 27Al) NMR. The use of the alkaline activator generated reaction products consisting primarily of a mix of gels ((N,C)-A-S-H and C-A-S-H) whose respective proportions were found to depend upon system composition and initial reactivity.

  14. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  15. Hydrothermal cement/metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Baldwin, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the adherence of two cementitious materials, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and silica flour-filled class G cement (CGC), to metal substrates, such as cold-rolled steel (CRS), stainless steel (SS), electroplated zinc-coated steel (EZS), and zinc phosphate-coated steel (ZPS) after autoclaving at 200 C. In CPC/metal joints, the {gamma}-AlOOH phase, which segregated from the hydroxyapatite phase of the CPC matrix, was preferentially precipitated on the CRS and SS surfaces and also mixed with the reaction products formed at the interfaces between CPC and EZS or ZPS. Precipitation of {gamma}-AlOOH caused the formation of a weak boundary layer at the interfacial transition zones, thereby resulting in a low shear-bond strength. Although CGC accelerated the rate of corrosion of CRS and SS surfaces, the growth of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} clusters, formed as the corrosion products of metals at interfaces, aided the anchoring effect of xonotlite crystals as the major phase of CGC matrix, thereby conferring a high shear-bond strength. The EZS and ZPS surfaces were susceptible to alkali dissolution caused by the attack of the high-pH interstitial fluid of CGC pastes to the Zn and zinc phosphate coatings. Thus, the bond strengths of the CGC/EZS and /ZPS joints were lower than those of the joints made with CRS and SS.

  16. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Noble and Base Metal Alloys with Different Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Raeisosadat, Farkhondeh; Ghavam, Maryam; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoomeh; Arami, Sakineh; Sedaghati, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The bond strength of resin cements to metal alloys depends on the type of the metal, conditioning methods and the adhesive resins used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of resin cements to base and noble metal alloys after sand blasting or application of silano-pen. Materials and Method: Cylinders of light cured Z 250 composite were cemented to “Degubond 4” (Au Pd) and “Verabond” (Ni Cr) alloys by either RelyX Unicem or Panavia F2, after sandblasting or treating the alloys with Silano-Pen. The shear bond strengths were evaluated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t tests at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: When the alloys were treated by Silano-Pen, RelyX Unicem showed a higher bond strength for Degubond 4 (P=0.021) and Verabond (P< 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the bond strength of Panavia F2 to the alloys after either of surface treatments, Degubond 4 (P=0.291) and Verabond (P=0.899). Panavia F2 showed a higher bond strength to sandblasted Verabond compared to RelyX Unicem (P=0.003). The bond strength of RelyX Unicem was significantly higher to Silano-Pen treated Verabond (P=0.011). The bond strength of the cements to sandblasted Degubond 4 showed no significant difference (P=0.59). RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated Degubond 4 (P=0.035). Conclusion: The bond strength of resin cements to Verabond alloy was significantly higher than Degubond 4. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated alloys. Surface treatments of the alloys did not affect the bond strength of Panavia F2. PMID:25628687

  17. Sustainable development of the cement industry and blended cements to meet ecological challenges.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Konstantin

    2003-05-05

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and--at the same time--uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement.

  18. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yufei; Xue, Jingchuan; Huang, Qifei

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As) in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O) were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H) was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V) and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO4)2, Ca3(AsO4)2, and Na2HAsO4. PMID:24223030

  19. Microscale investigation of arsenic distribution and species in cement product from cement kiln coprocessing wastes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Xue, Jingchuan; Huang, Qifei

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As) in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O) were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H) was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V) and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO4)2, Ca3(AsO4)2, and Na2HAsO4.

  20. Extraoral Cementation Technique to Minimize Cement-Associated Peri-implant Marginal Bone Loss: Can a Thin Layer of Zinc Oxide Cement Provide Sufficient Retention?

    PubMed

    Frisch, Eberhard; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Weigl, Paul; Woelber, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the use of laboratory-fabricated crown intaglio replicas for extraorally prepared cementation of fixed restorations to implants. This technique minimizes excess cement and may therefore reduce the risk of cement-related marginal peri-implant bone loss. It is unclear whether the remaining thin layer of luting agent provides sufficient retention if low-adhesive zinc oxide (ZnO) cement is used. In 85 consecutive patients, 113 single crowns were cemented to implants using extraoral cementation technique (ECT) and ZnO cement. All patients were followed for 6 months and investigated for decementation. Seven events of decementation (incidence: 6.19%) were found in 7 patients (8.24%). ECT may represent a viable cementation technique for implant-supported single crowns, even using low-adhesion cements.

  1. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  2. Chloride-free set accelerated cement compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, S.E.; Totten, P.L.; Childs, J.D.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a method of cementing a conduit in a well bore penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises introducing a cement composition into the space between the conduit and the walls of the well bore, the cement composition consisting essentially of hydraulic cement, water and a set tine accelerator.

  3. Radon resistant potential of concrete manufactured using Ordinary Portland Cement blended with rice husk ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Kumar, Amit

    2013-12-01

    The emission of radon from building materials and soil depends upon the radium content, porosity, moisture content and radon diffusion length of materials. Several techniques have been used to reduce the radon emission from the soil using different flooring materials. But the effectiveness of radon shielding depends upon the diffusion of radon through these materials. The present study proposes a method for producing a radon resistant material for decreasing radon diffusion through it. The method involves rice husk ash (RHA) in addition to cement for the preparation of concrete used for flooring and walls. The radon diffusion, exhalation and mechanical property of concrete prepared by rice husk ash blended cement were studied. The addition of RHA caused the reduction in radon diffusion coefficient, exhalation rates, porosity and enhanced the compressive strength of concrete. The bulk radon diffusion coefficient of cementitious concrete was reduced upto 69% by addition of rice husk ash as compare to that of control concrete.

  4. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on bond durability of fiber posts cemented with etch-and-rinse adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Sarafraz, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was undertaken to investigate whether use of an adhesive penetration enhancer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), improves bond stability of fiber posts to root dentin using two two-step etch-and-rinse resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty human maxillary central incisor roots were randomly divided into 4 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation, based on the fiber post/cement used with and without DMSO pretreatment. Acid-etched root dentin was treated with 5% DMSO aqueous solution for 60 seconds or with distilled water (control) prior to the application of Excite DSC/Variolink II or One-Step Plus/Duo-link for post cementation. After micro-slicing the bonded root dentin, push-out bond strength (P-OBS) test was performed immediately or after 1-year of water storage in each group. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-test (α=.05). RESULTS A significant effect of time, DMSO treatment, and treatment × time interaction were observed (P<.001). DMSO did not affect immediate bonding of the two cements. Aging significantly reduced P-OBS in control groups (P<.001), while in DMSO-treated groups, no difference in P-OBS was observed after aging (P>.05). CONCLUSION DMSO-wet bonding might be a beneficial method in preserving the stability of resin-dentin bond strength over time when fiber post is cemented with the tested etch-and-rinse adhesive cements. PMID:27555893

  5. Environmental Assessment of Different Cement Manufacturing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Due to its high environmental impact and energy intensive production, the cement industry needs to adopt more energy efficient technologies to reduce its demand for fossil fuels and impact on the environment. Bearing in mind that cement is the most widely used material for housing and modern infrastructure, the aim of this paper is to analyse the Emergy and Ecological Footprint of different cement manufacturing processes for a particular cement plant. There are several mitigation measures that can be incorporated in the cement manufacturing process to reduce the demand for fossil fuels and consequently reduce the CO2 emissions. The mitigation measures considered in this paper were the use of alternative fuels and a more energy efficient kiln process. In order to estimate the sustainability effect of the aforementioned measures, Emergy and Ecological Footprint were calculated for four different scenarios. The results show that Emergy, due to the high input mass of raw material needed for clinker production, stays at about the same level. However, for the Ecological Footprint, the results show that by combining the use of alternative fuels together with a more energy efficient kiln process, the environmental impact of the cement manufacturing process can be lowered. The research paper presents an analysis of the sustainability of cement production , a major contributor to carbon emissions, with respect to using alternative fuels and a more efficient kiln. It show

  6. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  7. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  8. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided.

  9. Results of cement augmentation and curettage in aneurysmal bone cyst of spine

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Saumyajit; Patel, Dharmesh R; Dhakal, Gaurav; Sarangi, T

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a vascular tumor of the spine. Management of spinal ABC still remains controversial because of its location, vascular nature and incidence of recurrence. In this manuscript, we hereby describe two cases of ABC spine treated by curettage, vertebral cement augmentation for control of bleeding and internal stabilization with two years followup. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature describing the role of cement augmentation in spinal ABC in controlling vascular bleeding in curettage of ABC of spine. Case 1: A 22 year old male patient presented with chronic back pain. On radiological investigation, there were multiple, osteolytic septite lesions at L3 vertebral body without neural compression or instability. Percutaneous transpedicular biopsy of L3 from involved pedicle was done. This was followed by cement augmentation through the uninvolved pedicle. Next, transpedicular complete curettage was done through involved pedicle. Case 2: A 15-year-old female presented with nonradiating back pain and progressive myelopathy. On radiological investigation, there was an osteolytic lesion at D9. At surgery, decompression, pedicle screw-rod fixation and posterolateral fusion from D7 to D11 was done. At D9 level, through normal pedicle cement augmentation was added to provide anterior column support and to control the expected bleeding following curettage. Transpedicular complete curettage was done through the involved pedicle with controlled bleeding at the surgical field. Cement augmentation was providing controlled bleeding at surgical field during curettage, internal stabilization and control of pain. On 2 years followup, pain was relieved and there was a stable spinal segment with well filled cement without any sign of recurrence in computed tomography scan. In selected cases of spinal ABC with single vertebral, single pedicle involvement; cement augmentation of vertebra through normal pedicle has an

  10. Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength between resin cements and zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Erdem, A; Akar, G C; Erdem, A; Kose, T

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the bond strength of resin cement and yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramic with different surface conditioning methods. Two hundred presintered Y-TZP ceramic specimens were prepared, sintered (4 × 4 × 4 mm), and randomly assigned to four equal groups as control (C, no conditioning); airborne particle abraded (APA, air abrasion with 11 μm Al2O3); tribochemical silica coating/silane coupling system (TSC, Rocatec, air abrasion with 110 μm Al2O3, 30 μm silica-coated Al2O3 and silane); and laser (L, Er:YAG laser irradiation treated at a power setting of 200 mJ). After specimen preparation, composite resin cylinders were prepared and cemented with resin cements (Clearfil Esthetic, Panavia F 2.0, Rely X-U100, Super Bond C&B, and Multilink Automix) on the ceramic surfaces and kept in an incubator at 37°C for 60 days. All specimens were tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine, and fractured surfaces were evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α=0.05). The bond strengths for C and L groups were not significantly different according to adhesive resin cement. APA and TSC resulted in increased bond strength for Panavia F 2.0 and Rely X-U100 resin cements. Additionally, TSC presented higher bond strength with Multilink Automix. Adhesive fracture between the ceramic and resin cement was the most common failure. Complete cohesive fracture at the ceramic or composite cylinders was not observed. Regardless of the adhesive resin cement used, laser treatment did not improve resin bond strength.

  11. Influence of strontia on various properties of surgical simplex P acrylic bone cement and experimental variants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gladius; Xu, Jie; Madigan, Seamus; Towler, Mark R

    2007-11-01

    The fact that the composition of acrylic bone cement, as used in cemented primary arthroplasties, is not optimal has been highlighted in the literature. For example: (i) deleterious effects of the radiopacifier (BaSO(4) or ZrO(2) particles in the powder) have been reported; (ii) there is an indication that pre-polymerized poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) beads in the powder may be dispensed with; and (iii) there is a strong consensus that the accelerator commonly used, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT), is toxic and has many other undesirable properties. At the same time, the effectiveness of drugs that contain a strontium compound in treating the effects of osteoporosis has been explained in terms of the role of strontium in bone formation and resorption. This indicates that strontium compounds may also have desirable effects on osseointegration of arthroplasties. The present study is a detailed evaluation of 24 acrylic bone cement formulations comprising different relative amounts of BaSO(4), strontia (as an alternative radiopacifier), pre-polymerized PMMA beads and DMPT. A large number of properties of the curing and cured cement were determined, including setting time, polymerization rate, fracture toughness and fatigue life. The focus was on the radiopacifier, with the finding being that many properties of formulations that contained strontia were about the same or better than those for cements that contained BaSO(4). Thus, further developmental work on strontia-containing acrylic bone cements is justified, with a view to making them candidates for use in cemented primary arthroplasties.

  12. Long Term Results of Liner Polyethylene Cementation Technique in Revision for Peri-acetabular Osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Gurion; Kandel, Leonid; Qutteineh, Bilal; Liebergall, Meir; Mattan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Patients with peri-acetabular osteolysis around a well fixed cementless acetabular component may be treated with liner exchange. When the locking mechanism is unreliable or unavailable, cementing the liner into the fixed acetabular component is a feasible option. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic long term results of this technique. Forty hip revisions with liner cementation in 37 patients were performed. The minimum follow up was 10 years. Modified Harris Hip Score and recent x rays were reviewed. Four hips were re-revised. Two patients were diagnosed with exacerbation of osteolysis but refused revision. Dislocation rate was relatively high (16%). Liner cementation technique in revision hip surgery is useful in patients with a well fixed metal backed acetabular component.

  13. Residual stress effects on fracture energies of cement-bone and cement-implant interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zor, Mehmet; Küçük, Mümin; Aksoy, Sami

    2002-04-01

    The effects of residual stresses, which are caused by the temperature difference arising after polymerisation of bone cement, on the fracture energies of cement bone and cement-implant interfaces have been examined by using both experimental and numerical works. Only fracture loads of the test specimen having interfacial cracks have been measured in the experimental stage. The values of fracture loads and temperature difference after polymerisation have been applied to finite element models of the test specimens to calculate critical J-integral values of these both interfaces in the numerical stage. In addition, fracture energies of bone and cement, have been obtained by experimentally, using three-point bending test method The results have shown that residual stresses can produce changes in the fracture energies of these bimaterial systems, especially in cement implant interface and J(Ic) values of interfaces are considerably smaller than the experimentally determined J(Ic) values of cement and bone.

  14. Cemented and cementless fixation: results and techniques.

    PubMed

    Silverton, Craig D

    2006-01-01

    There are multiple reports of successful cemented and cementless total knee arthroplasty in the current literature. Although technically more demanding to implant, selected cementless designs, with nearly 20 years of follow-up, demonstrate near-equal success compared with cemented implants, the gold standard. Far more important than the decision to use a cemented or cementless implant is the use of precise technique, adequate balancing of the soft tissues, and proper overall alignment. Failure to achieve these basic principles can lead to early failure in any total knee replacement system.

  15. Use of cemented paste backfill in arsenic-rich tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamberg, Roger; Maurice, Christian; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Gold is extracted by cyanide leaching from inclusions in arsenopyrite from a mine in the north of Sweden. The major ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite-loellingite. Effluents from the gold extraction were treated with Fe2(SO4)3, with the aim to form stable As-bearing Fe-precipitates (FEP). The use of the method called cemented paste backfill (CPB) is sometimes suggested for the management of tailings. In CPB, tailings are commonly mixed with low proportions (3 - 7 %) of cement and backfilled into underground excavated area. To reduce costs, amendments such as granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), biofuel fly ash (BFA) and cement kiln dust (CKD) are used for partial replacement of cement in CPB due to their pozzolanic and alkaline properties. The objective for this study was to evaluate the leaching behaviour of As in CPB-mixtures with low proportions (1 - 3 %) of BFA and ordinary cement and unmodified tailings. The selection of CPB-recipies was made based on technical and economical criterias to adress the demands deriving from the mining operations. Speciation of the As in ore and tailings samples revealed that mining processes have dissolved the majority of the arsenopyrite in the ore, causing secondary As phases to co-precipitate with newly formed FEP:s. Tank leaching tests (TLT) and weathering cells (WCT) were used to compare leaching behaviour in a monolithic mass contra a crushed material. Quantification of the presumed benefit of CPB was made by calculation of the cumulative leaching of As. Results from the leaching tests (TLT and WCT) showed that the inclusion of As-rich tailings into a cementitious matrix increased leaching of As. This behaviour could partially be explained by an increase of pH. The addition of alkaline binder materials to tailings increased As leaching due to the relocation of desorbed As from FEPs into less acid-tolerant species such as Ca-arsenates and cementitious As-phases. Unmodified tailings generated an

  16. Successful treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine with cement augmentation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Siyi; Kong, Xiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xi; Qiu, Guixing

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine is rare, and there is no standard curative management. Treatment via open surgery is often risky in the perioperative period, while osteoplasty by cement augmentation is a less invasive option.We describe 2 patients with recurrence of pheochromocytoma involving the spine and the pelvis who were successfully treated with osteoplasty by cement augmentation. A 31-year-old female underwent cement augmentation for a pelvic lesion 6 months after the resection and screw fixation of an L3 lesion. A 58-year-old male underwent cement augmentation to directly destroy the functional tumor, with a surgical decompression 6 months later. Both patients showed appropriate destruction of the tumor, adequate pain relief, and the decreased release of catecholamine from metastatic lesions.Osteoplasty by cement augmentation may be a treatment option for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma who cannot undergo appropriate surgery or decline surgery. This represents a safe approach to sustainably relieve pain and stabilize vertebral bodies with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma.

  17. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of resin cements through in vitro and in situ experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. P. G. O.; Karam, L. Z.; Pulido, C. A.; Gomes, O. M. M.; Kalinowski, H. J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two types of resin cements , conventional dual and dual self adhesive, through in vitro and in situ experiments. For the in vitro assay were selected two resin cements that were handled and dispensed over a mylar strip supported by a glass plate. The Bragg grating sensors were positioned and another portion of cement. was placed, covered by another mylar strip. For the in situ experiment 16 single-rooted teeth were selected who were divided into 2 groups: group 1 - conventional dual resin cement Relyx ARC and group 2 - dual self adhesive resin cement Relyx U200 ( 3M/ESPE ). The teeth were treated and prepared to receive the intracanal posts. Two Bragg grating sensors were recorded and introduced into the root canal at different apical and coronal positions. The results showed that the in vitro experiment presented similar values of polymerization shrinkage that the in situ experiment made in cervical position; whereas Relyx ARC resulted lower values compared to Relyx U200; and cervical position showed higher shrinkage than the apical.

  18. Successful treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine with cement augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Siyi; Kong, Xiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xi; Qiu, Guixing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine is rare, and there is no standard curative management. Treatment via open surgery is often risky in the perioperative period, while osteoplasty by cement augmentation is a less invasive option. We describe 2 patients with recurrence of pheochromocytoma involving the spine and the pelvis who were successfully treated with osteoplasty by cement augmentation. A 31-year-old female underwent cement augmentation for a pelvic lesion 6 months after the resection and screw fixation of an L3 lesion. A 58-year-old male underwent cement augmentation to directly destroy the functional tumor, with a surgical decompression 6 months later. Both patients showed appropriate destruction of the tumor, adequate pain relief, and the decreased release of catecholamine from metastatic lesions. Osteoplasty by cement augmentation may be a treatment option for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma who cannot undergo appropriate surgery or decline surgery. This represents a safe approach to sustainably relieve pain and stabilize vertebral bodies with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:28121933

  19. Arsenic and Chromium Concentrations in Sand and Soil Below Play Structures Constructed With Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCR) Treated Wood in San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polly, J.; Delos Santos, D.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Santo, D.; Beier, J.

    2006-12-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in the construction of outdoor play structures has been CCA-treated wood. In December 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency classified CCA as a restricted use product, for use only by certified pesticide applicators. Of the City of San Francisco's 142 play structures, 92 are constructed with CCA pressure-treated wood. Eighty-five were tested by the City of San Francisco and 34 play structures tested positive for As by wipe tests of the play structures themselves. The SF-ROCKS high school outreach program hypothesized that we would find significant levels of As and Cr, in the sand or clay below each structure due to the weathering and flaking off of the CCA-treated wood. We visited 18 of the playgrounds that showed the highest levels of As and sampled the sand and clay beneath the structures for the presence of transported As and Cr. We collected 2-3 samples from varying depth at each of the 11 playgrounds that had not yet been replaced by the City of San Francisco. Sand and clay samples were then extracted and analyzed for As and Cr totals. This study outlines the As and Cr concentrations present in the sand and clay below each CCA-treated wood play structure we visited in San Francisco.

  20. Radiographic appearance of commonly used cements in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pette, Gregory A; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Norkin, Frederic J

    2013-01-01

    Cement-retained restorations allow for a conventional fixed partial denture approach to restoring dental implants. However, inadequate removal of excess cement at the time of cementation may introduce a severe complication: cement-induced peri-implantitis. Radiopaque cements are more easily detected on radiographs and should improve the recognition of extravasated cement at the time of insertion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of commercially available cements in vitro. Eighteen different cements commonly used for luting restorations to implants were tested at both 0.5- and 1.0-mm thicknesses. The cements examined were zinc oxide eugenol, zinc oxide, zinc polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate, resin-reinforced glass ionomer, urethane resin, resin, and composite resin. Two samples of each cement thickness underwent standardized radiography next to an aluminum step wedge as a reference. The mean grayscale value of each of the nine 1-mm steps in the step wedge were used as reference values and compared to each of the cement samples. Temp Bond Clear (resin), IMProv (urethane resin), Premier Implant Cement (resin), and Temrex NE (resin) were not radiographically detectable at either sample thickness. Cements containing zinc were the most detectable upon radiographic analysis. There are significant differences in the radiopacity of many commonly used cements. Since cementinduced peri-implantitis can lead to late implant failure, cements that can be visualized radiographically may reduce the incidence of this problem.

  1. Radiopacity Evaluation of Contemporary Luting Cements by Digitization of Images

    PubMed Central

    Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Jorge, Érica Gouveia; Ribeiro, João Gustavo Rabelo; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two conventional cements (Zinc Cement and Ketac Cem Easymix), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2) and six resin cements (Multilink, Bistite II DC, RelyX ARC, Fill Magic Dual Cement, Enforce and Panavia F) by digitization of images. Methods. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 × 1.0 mm) were made for each material, according to ISO 4049. After setting of the cements, radiographs were made using occlusal films and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1.0 to 16 mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of the cements was compared with the aluminum stepwedge using the software VIXWIN-2000. Data (mmAl) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results. The Zinc Cement was the most radiopaque material tested (P < 0.05). The resin cements presented higher radiopacity (P < 0.05) than the conventional (Ketac Cem Easymix) or resin-modified glass ionomer (RelyX Luting 2) cements, except for the Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce. The Multilink presented the highest radiopacity (P < 0.05) among the resin cements. Conclusion. The glass ionomer-based cements (Ketac Cem Easymix and RelyX Luting 2) and the resin cements (Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce) showed lower radiopacity values than the minimum recommended by the ISO standard. PMID:23008777

  2. Influence of the temperature on the cement disintegration in cement-retained implant restorations.

    PubMed

    Linkevicius, Tomas; Vindasiute, Egle; Puisys, Algirdas; Linkeviciene, Laura; Svediene, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the average disintegration temperature of three dental cements used for the cementation of the implant-supported prostheses. One hundred and twenty metal frameworks were fabricated and cemented on the prosthetic abutments with different dental cements. After heat treatment in the dental furnace, the samples were set for the separation to test the integration of the cement. Results have shown that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RGIC) exhibited the lowest disintegration temperature (p<0.05), but there was no difference between zinc phosphate cement (ZPC) and dual cure resin cement (RC) (p>0.05). Average separation temperatures: RGIC - 306 ± 23 °C, RC - 363 ± 71 °C, it could not be calculated for the ZPC due to the eight unseparated specimens. Within the limitations of the study, it could be concluded that RGIC cement disintegrates at the lowest temperature and ZPC is not prone to break down after exposure to temperature.

  3. Cementation of prosthetic restorations: from conventional cementation to dental bonding concept.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2011-05-01

    The cementation procedure of metal-free fixed partial dentures exhibits special characteristics about the porcelains and cementation agents, which turns the correct association between these materials necessary. Our purpose in this literature review was to point the main groups of cements associated to metal-free restoration and discuss about the advantages, disadvantages, and recommendations of each one. Our search was confined to the electronic databases PubMed and SciELO and to books about this matter. There are essentially 3 types of hard cement: conventional, resin, or a hybrid of the two. The metal-free restorations can be fixed with conventional or resin cements. The right choice of luting material is of vital importance to the longevity of dental restorative materials. Conventional cements are advantageous when good compressive straight, good film thickness, and water dissolution resistance are necessary. However, they need an ideal preparation, and they are not acid dissolution resistant. Conventional cements are indicated to porcelains that cannot be acid etched. Resin cements represent the choice to metal-free restoration cementation because they present better physical properties and aesthetic than conventional agents.

  4. Dicalcium phosphate cements: brushite and monetite.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Faleh; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Barralet, Jake

    2012-02-01

    Dicalcium phosphate cements were developed two decades ago and ever since there has been a substantial growth in research into improving their properties in order to satisfy the requirements needed for several clinical applications. The present paper presents an overview of the rapidly expanding research field of the two main dicalcium phosphate bioceramics: brushite and monetite. This review begins with a summary of all the different formulae developed to prepare dicalcium phosphate cements, and their setting reaction, in order to set the scene for the key cement physical and chemical properties, such as compressive and tensile strength, cohesion, injectability and shelf-life. We address the issue of brushite conversion into either monetite or apatite. Moreover, we discuss the in vivo behavior of the cements, including their ability to promote bone formation, biodegradation and potential clinical applications in drug delivery, orthopedics, craniofacial surgery, cancer therapy and biosensors.

  5. Cements for Structural Concrete in Cold Regions.

    DTIC Science &