Science.gov

Sample records for center analytical response

  1. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Nielsen

    2003-04-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

  2. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  3. National Response Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NRC is the federal government's national communications center, which is staffed 24 hours a day by U.S. Coast Guard officers and marine science technicians. Sole federal point of contact for reporting all hazardous substance releases and oil spills

  4. Teaching social responsibility in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, M; Christian, G D; Lucena, R

    2013-07-02

    Analytical chemistry is key to the functioning of a modern society. From early days, ethics in measurements have been a concern and that remains today, especially as we have come to rely more on the application of analytical science in many aspects of our lives. The main aim of this Feature is to suggest ways of introducing the topic of social responsibility and its relation to analytical chemistry in undergraduate or graduate chemistry courses.

  5. User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean C.; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-03-23

    In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

  6. User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-03-23

    In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in facilitating the adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

  7. Analytic evaluation of two-center molecular integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.

    1986-01-01

    By using the Fourier-transform technique, the explicit expressions for the one-electron - two-center overlap integrals of Slater-type atomic orbitals up to 3d are derived. The final expressions are analytic, simple, and independent of local coordinates. Furthermore, they do not contain the nonclosed-form of exponential integrals which were presented in expressions given in earlier work. It is shown that the two-electron - two-center Coulomb integrals, as well as the hybrid integrals, can simply be expressed in terms of these integrals. The numerical instability arising from the situation in which the exponents of the two orbitals are almost equal is discussed, and a solution for this problem based on a Taylor-series expansion of the integral is suggested.

  8. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  9. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jermey; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier.

    2007-06-30

    The Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) focuses on leveraging scientific visualization andanalytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasingscientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technologyhave resulted in an 'information big bang,' which in turn has created asignificant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widelyacknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporaryscience. The vision of VACET is to adapt, extend, create when necessary,and deploy visual data analysis solutions that are responsive to theneeds of DOE'scomputational and experimental scientists. Our center isengineered to be directly responsive to those needs and to deliversolutions for use in DOE's large open computing facilities. The researchand development directly target data understanding problems provided byour scientific application stakeholders. VACET draws from a diverse setof visualization technology ranging from production quality applicationsand application frameworks to state-of-the-art algorithms forvisualization, analysis, analytics, data manipulation, and datamanagement.

  10. VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathon; Duchaineau, Mark; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom,Peter; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-06-19

    This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.

  11. An analytics approach to designing patient centered medical homes.

    PubMed

    Ajorlou, Saeede; Shams, Issac; Yang, Kai

    2015-03-01

    Recently the patient centered medical home (PCMH) model has become a popular team based approach focused on delivering more streamlined care to patients. In current practices of medical homes, a clinical based prediction frame is recommended because it can help match the portfolio capacity of PCMH teams with the actual load generated by a set of patients. Without such balances in clinical supply and demand, issues such as excessive under and over utilization of physicians, long waiting time for receiving the appropriate treatment, and non-continuity of care will eliminate many advantages of the medical home strategy. In this paper, by using the hierarchical generalized linear model with multivariate responses, we develop a clinical workload prediction model for care portfolio demands in a Bayesian framework. The model allows for heterogeneous variances and unstructured covariance matrices for nested random effects that arise through complex hierarchical care systems. We show that using a multivariate approach substantially enhances the precision of workload predictions at both primary and non primary care levels. We also demonstrate that care demands depend not only on patient demographics but also on other utilization factors, such as length of stay. Our analyses of a recent data from Veteran Health Administration further indicate that risk adjustment for patient health conditions can considerably improve the prediction power of the model.

  12. An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

  13. Reducing Conservatism of Analytic Transient Response Bounds via Shaping Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Aiyueh; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jan, Jiann-Woei; Grigoriadis, Karolos; Hua, Tuyen (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Recent results show that the peak transient response of a linear system to bounded energy inputs can be computed using the energy-to-peak gain of the system. However, analytically computed peak response bound can be conservative for a class of class bounded energy signals, specifically pulse trains generated from jet firings encountered in space vehicles. In this paper, shaping filters are proposed as a Methodology to reduce the conservatism of peak response analytic bounds. This Methodology was applied to a realistic Space Station assembly operation subject to jet firings. The results indicate that shaping filters indeed reduce the predicted peak response bounds.

  14. Using Configural Frequency Analysis as a Person-Centered Analytic Approach with Categorical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmler, Mark; Heine, Jörg-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Configural frequency analysis and log-linear modeling are presented as person-centered analytic approaches for the analysis of categorical or categorized data in multi-way contingency tables. Person-centered developmental psychology, based on the holistic interactionistic perspective of the Stockholm working group around David Magnusson and Lars…

  15. A poison center's emergency response plan.

    PubMed

    Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1988-04-01

    Over 30 major chemical accidents have occurred in the tri-state area during the last decade. A recent incident involved a train which was carrying at least 5 toxic chemicals and was derailed in a heavily populated area causing 20,000 residents to be evacuated from their homes twice in 24 hr. In a 30-hr period over 900 calls were received at the poison center and approximately 80 people were examined at local health care facilities and treated for symptoms of toxic fume inhalation. This incident prompted the poison center to evaluate our emergency response capabilities. A strategy was developed to enable the poison center to deal with an increased call volume rapidly and effectively. Our Emergency Response Plan includes a chain of command for notification in the event of an anticipated increase in call volume; delineated responsibilities for medical, administrative, and professional staff members; designation of phone lines for incoming and outgoing calls; and a means of documenting both poison exposures and inquiries regarding the chemicals. So that staff members may report to the center without delay, child care provisions are also included. The development of the Emergency Response Plan, potential applications, and a synopsis of the aforementioned chemical spill will be discussed in detail.

  16. An analytical and experimental study of crack extension in center-notched composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The normal stress ratio theory for crack extension in anisotropic materials is studied analytically and experimentally. The theory is applied within a microscopic-level analysis of a single center notch of arbitrary orientation in a unidirectional composite material. The bulk of the analytical work of this study applies an elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center line to obtain critical stress and crack growth direction predictions. An elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center elliptical flaw is also used to obtain qualitative predictions of the location of crack initiation on the border of a rounded notch tip. The analytical portion of the study includes the formulation of a new crack growth theory that includes local shear stress. Normal stress ratio theory predictions are obtained for notched unidirectional tensile coupons and unidirectional Iosipescu shear specimens. These predictions are subsequently compared to experimental results.

  17. Alternative analytically calculation procedure of two-center kinetic energy integral in molecular coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Bahtiyar Akber; Copuroglu, Ebru

    2017-02-01

    By using the Löwdin-α function method, we have analytically calculated the two-center kinetic energy integrals over Slater type orbitals (STOs). The two-center kinetic energy integrals are presented in terms of the two-center overlap integrals. A new approach is applicable to accurate calculations of two-center kinetic energy integral over STOs for arbitrary values of scaling parameters and interatomic distances. Obtained results show that the proposed method is easy to apply to the real systems, and has better calculation CPU time with compared to the existing approximations.

  18. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier

    2006-11-28

    The SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) began operation on 10/1/2006. This document, dated11/27/2006, is the first version of the VACET project management plan. Itwas requested by and delivered to ASCR/DOE. It outlines the Center'saccomplishments in the first six weeks of operation along with broadobjectives for the upcoming future (12-24 months).

  19. Synthetic Biomarker Design by Using Analyte-Responsive Acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Tatsuya; Inoue, Joe; Tabata, Sho; Murakami, Shinnosuke; Ishikawa, Takamasa; Saito, Natsumi; Fukuda, Shinji; Tomita, Masaru; Soga, Tomoyoshi

    2017-05-18

    The use of synthetic biomarkers is an emerging technique to improve disease diagnosis. Here, we report a novel design strategy that uses analyte-responsive acetaminophen (APAP) to expand the catalogue of analytes available for synthetic biomarker development. As proof-of-concept, we designed hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-responsive APAP (HR-APAP) and succeeded in H2 O2 detection with cellular and animal experiments. In fact, for blood samples following HR-APAP injection, we demonstrated that the plasma concentration ratio [APAP+APAP conjugates]/[HR-APAP] accurately reflects in vivo differences in H2 O2 levels. We anticipate that our practical methodology will be broadly useful for the preparation of various synthetic biomarkers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dynamically analyte-responsive macrocyclic host-fluorophore systems.

    PubMed

    Ghale, Garima; Nau, Werner M

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Host-guest chemistry commenced to a large degree with the work of Pedersen, who in 1967 first reported the synthesis of crown ethers. The past 45 years have witnessed a substantial progress in the field, from the design of highly selective host molecules as receptors to their application in drug delivery and, particularly, analyte sensing. Much effort has been expended on designing receptors and signaling mechanism for detecting compounds of biological and environmental relevance. Traditionally, the design of a chemosensor comprises one component for molecular recognition, frequently macrocycles of the cyclodextrin, cucurbituril, cyclophane, or calixarene type. The second component, used for signaling, is typically an indicator dye which changes its photophysical properties, preferably its fluorescence, upon analyte binding. A variety of signal transduction mechanisms are available, of which displacement of the dye from the macrocyclic binding site is one of the simplest and most popular ones. This constitutes the working principle of indicator displacement assays. However, indicator displacement assays have been predominantly exploited in a static fashion, namely, to determine absolute analyte concentrations, or, by using combinations of several reporter pairs, to achieve a differential sensing and, thus, identification of specific food products or brands. In contrast, their use in biological systems, for example, with membranes, cells, or with enzymes has been comparably less explored, which led us to the design of the so-called tandem assays, that is, dynamically analyte-responsive host-dye systems, in which the change in analyte concentrations is induced by a biological reaction or process. This methodological variation has practical application potential, because the ability to monitor these biochemical pathways or to follow specific molecules in real time is of paramount interest for both biochemical laboratories and the pharmaceutical industry

  1. Selecting the optimal healthcare centers with a modified P-median model: a visual analytic perspective.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tao; Tao, Hongbing; Qin, Kun; Wang, Yulong; Liu, Chengkun; Gao, Qili

    2014-10-22

    In a conventional P-median model, demanding points are likely assigned to the closest supplying facilities, but this method exhibits evident limitations in real cases. This paper proposed a modified P-median model in which exact and approximate strategies are used. The first strategy aims to enumerate all of the possible combinations of P facilities, and the second strategy adopts simulated annealing to allocate resources considering capacity constraint and spatial compactness constraint. These strategies allow us to choose optimal locations by applying visual analytics, which is rarely employed in location allocation planning. This model is applied to a case study in Henan Province, China, where three optimal healthcare centers are selected from candidate cities. First, the weighting factor in spatial compactness constraint is visually evaluated to obtain a plausible spatial pattern. Second, three optimal healthcare centers, namely, Zhengzhou, Xinxiang, and Nanyang, are identified in a hybrid transportation network by performing visual analytics. Third, alternative healthcare centers are obtained in a road network and compared with the above solution to understand the impacts of transportation network types. The optimal healthcare centers are visually detected by employing an improved P-median model, which considers both geographic accessibility and service quality. The optimal solutions are obtained in two transportation networks, which suggest high-speed railways and highways play a significant role respectively.

  2. Analytical modeling for transient probe response in eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel

    Analytical models that describe the electromagnetic field interactions arising between field generating and sensing coils in close proximity to conducting structures can be used to enhance analysis and information extracted from signals obtained using electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation technologies. A novel strategy, which enables the derivation of exact solutions describing all electromagnetic interactions arising in inductively coupled circuits due to a voltage excitation, is developed in this work. Differential circuit equations are formulated in terms of an arbitrary voltage excitation and of the magnetic fields arising in inductive systems, using Faraday's law and convolution, and solved using the Fourier transform. The approach is valid for systems containing any number of driving and receiving coils, and include nearby conducting and ferromagnetic structures. In particular, the solutions account for feedback between a ferromagnetic conducting test piece and the driving and sensing coils, providing correct voltage response of the coils. Also arising from the theory are analytical expressions for complex inductances in a circuit, which account for real (inductive) and imaginary (loss) elements associated with conducting and ferromagnetic structures. A novel model-based method for simultaneous characterization of material parameters, which includes magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, wall thickness and liftoff, is subsequently developed from the forward solutions. Furthermore, arbitrary excitation waveforms, such as a sinusoid or a square wave, for applications in conventional and transient eddy current, respectively, may be considered. Experimental results, obtained for a square wave excitation, are found to be in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.

  3. Analytical modelling of regional radiotherapy dose response of lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Stroian, Gabriela; Kopek, Neil; AlBahhar, Mahmood; Seuntjens, Jan; El Naqa, Issam

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of the dose-response of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is necessary for optimization of radiotherapy (RT) treatment plans involving thoracic cavity irradiation. This study models the time-dependent relationship between local radiation dose and post-treatment lung tissue damage measured by computed tomography (CT) imaging. Fifty-eight follow-up diagnostic CT scans from 21 non-small-cell lung cancer patients were examined. The extent of RILD was segmented on the follow-up CT images based on the increase of physical density relative to the pre-treatment CT image. The segmented RILD was locally correlated with dose distribution calculated by analytical anisotropic algorithm and the Monte Carlo method to generate the corresponding dose-response curves. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model was fit to the dose-response curves at six post-RT time periods, and temporal change in the LKB parameters was recorded. In this study, we observed significant correlation between the probability of lung tissue damage and the local dose for 96% of the follow-up studies. Dose-injury correlation at the first three months after RT was significantly different from later follow-up periods in terms of steepness and threshold dose as estimated from the LKB model. Dependence of dose response on superior-inferior tumour position was also observed. The time-dependent analytical modelling of RILD might provide better understanding of the long-term behaviour of the disease and could potentially be applied to improve inverse treatment planning optimization.

  4. Customer Use Cases and Analytics for Climate Data at NOAA's National Centers forEnvironmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Dissen, J.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is the world's largest repository of climate data. Millions of individuals and companies around the world use NCEI's use-inspired data and information to make decisions and to build and deliver products and services. The impact of NCEI data to the global economy is enormous. Recently, NCEI has undertaken a concerted effort to understand the uses of its data, the benefit the data provides to customers, and who exactly those customers are. Highlights from use case studies, customer analytics, and unique success stories will be provided showing the value and breadth of NCEI data uses and users.

  5. Analytical representation for Varian EDW factors at off-center points

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, Vadim Y.

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate a new analytical model for Varian enhanced dynamic wedge factors at off-center points. The new model was verified by comparing measured and calculated wedge factors for the standard set of wedge angles (i.e., 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg. and 60 deg.), different symmetric and asymmetric fields, and two different photon energies. The maximum difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is less than 2%. The average absolute difference is within 1%. The obtained results indicate that the suggested model can be useful for independent dose calculation with enhanced dynamic wedges.

  6. A Collaborative Responsive Teacher Center Model for Preparing Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James R.

    A collaborative responsive model for teacher education using the potentials of the teacher center concept is described. This model was created in response to the theory practice gap commonly found in many teacher education programs. Utilizing the model, two field based programs were initiated. The two teacher centers involved were each served by…

  7. Rural Community Mental Health Centers' Responses to the Farm Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermelstein, Joanne; Sundet, Paul A.

    1986-01-01

    Survey of 20 community mental health centers in 12 Midwest grain belt farm states found continuum of farm crisis problems requires professional responses consistent with philosophy and goals of community mental health. Results indicate responses vary, not in relationship to severity of problems, but because of center philosophy and resource…

  8. Teacher Center Responses to Teacher Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Roberta D.; Mort, Ken

    1981-01-01

    The intention of this article is to view specific means of meeting teacher needs through Maslow's multiple-factor theory of self-actualization. Under each of Maslow's five headings, a brief explanation of the use of the term and examples of teacher center services fitting under that heading are discussed. (Author)

  9. Automating the Analytical Laboratories Section, Lewis Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, W. G.; Barton, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of computerized automation of the Analytical Laboratories Section at NASA's Lewis Research Center was considered. Since that laboratory's duties are not routine, the automation goals were set with that in mind. Four instruments were selected as the most likely automation candidates: an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an emission spectrometer, an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and an X-ray diffraction unit. Two options for computer automation were described: a time-shared central computer and a system with microcomputers for each instrument connected to a central computer. A third option, presented for future planning, expands the microcomputer version. Costs and benefits for each option were considered. It was concluded that the microcomputer version best fits the goals and duties of the laboratory and that such an automted system is needed to meet the laboratory's future requirements.

  10. Analytical and physical modeling program for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, J. M.; Deidrich, J. H.; Groeneweg, J. F.; Povinelli, L. A.; Reid, L.; Reinmann, J. J.; Szuch, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center to rehabilitate and extend the capabilities of the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT). This extended capability will include a maximum test section Mach number of about 0.9 at an altitude of 55,000 ft and a -20 F stagnation temperature (octagonal test section, 20 ft across the flats). In addition, the AWT will include an icing and acoustic research capability. In order to insure a technically sound design, an AWT modeling program (both analytical and physical) was initiated to provide essential input to the AWT final design process. This paper describes the modeling program, including the rationale and criteria used in program definition, and presents some early program results.

  11. ID-Viewer: a visual analytics architecture for infectious diseases surveillance and response management in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; Ahsan, Z; Amin, M; Latif, S; Ayyaz, A; Ayyaz, M N

    2016-05-01

    Globally, disease surveillance systems are playing a significant role in outbreak detection and response management of Infectious Diseases (IDs). However, in developing countries like Pakistan, epidemic outbreaks are difficult to detect due to scarcity of public health data and absence of automated surveillance systems. Our research is intended to formulate an integrated service-oriented visual analytics architecture for ID surveillance, identify key constituents and set up a baseline for easy reproducibility of such systems in the future. This research focuses on development of ID-Viewer, which is a visual analytics decision support system for ID surveillance. It is a blend of intelligent approaches to make use of real-time streaming data from Emergency Departments (EDs) for early outbreak detection, health care resource allocation and epidemic response management. We have developed a robust service-oriented visual analytics architecture for ID surveillance, which provides automated mechanisms for ID data acquisition, outbreak detection and epidemic response management. Classification of chief-complaints is accomplished using dynamic classification module, which employs neural networks and fuzzy-logic to categorize syndromes. Standard routines by Center for Disease Control (CDC), i.e. c1-c3 (c1-mild, c2-medium and c3-ultra), and spatial scan statistics are employed for detection of temporal and spatio-temporal disease outbreaks respectively. Prediction of imminent disease threats is accomplished using support vector regression for early warnings and response planning. Geographical visual analytics displays are developed that allow interactive visualization of syndromic clusters, monitoring disease spread patterns, and identification of spatio-temporal risk zones. We analysed performance of surveillance framework using ID data for year 2011-2015. Dynamic syndromic classifier is able to classify chief-complaints to appropriate syndromes with high classification

  12. Responsibility Center Management: Lessons from 25 Years of Decentralized Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Jon C.; Curry, John R.

    Decentralization of authority is a natural act in universities, but decentralization of responsibility is not. A problem faced by universities is the decoupling of academic authority from financial responsibility. The solution proposed in this book for the coupling is Responsibility Center Management (RCM), also called Revenue Responsibility…

  13. Measuring perceptual centers using the phase correction response.

    PubMed

    Villing, Rudi C; Repp, Bruno H; Ward, Tomas E; Timoney, Joseph M

    2011-07-01

    The perceptual center (P-center) is fundamental to the timing of heterogeneous event sequences, including music and speech. Unfortunately, there is currently no comprehensive and reliable model of P-centers in acoustic events, so P-centers must instead be measured empirically. This study reviews existing measurement methods and evaluates two methods in detail-the rhythm adjustment method and a new method based on the phase correction response (PCR) in a synchronous tapping task. The two methods yielded consistent P-center estimates and showed no evidence of P-center context dependence. The PCR method appears promising because it is accurate and efficient and does not require explicit perceptual judgments. As a secondary result, the magnitude of the PCR is shown to vary systematically with the onset complexity of speech sounds, which presumably reflects the perceived clarity of a sound's P-center.

  14. Dynamic response of gold nanoparticle chemiresistors to organic analytes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Müller, Karl-Heinz; Chow, Edith; Wieczorek, Lech; Raguse, Burkhard; Cooper, James S; Hubble, Lee J

    2011-10-28

    We investigate the response dynamics of 1-hexanethiol-functionalized gold nanoparticle chemiresistors exposed to the analyte octane in aqueous solution. The dynamic response is studied as a function of the analyte-water flow velocity, the thickness of the gold nanoparticle film and the analyte concentration. A theoretical model for analyte limited mass-transport is used to model the analyte diffusion into the film, the partitioning of the analyte into the 1-hexanethiol capping layers and the subsequent swelling of the film. The degree of swelling is then used to calculate the increase of the electron tunnel resistance between adjacent nanoparticles which determines the resistance change of the film. In particular, the effect of the nonlinear relationship between resistance and swelling on the dynamic response is investigated at high analyte concentration. Good agreement between experiment and the theoretical model is achieved. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  15. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  16. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  17. GIS in the World Trade Center Response: 10 Years after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevany, M.

    2011-08-01

    The World Trade Center attack of 9/11/01 and the response brought major attention to GIS as a valuable tool for supporting emergency management and response. That attention led to the allocation of considerable resources to the enhancement of GIS. This paper is intended to provide a look back at the events prior to and immediately following the attack, review of GIS in the response and recovery efforts, explore the emergence of GIS in Emergency Management from the impetus generated in the NYC experience and explore the challenges yet facing the use of GIS in emergency management. The author participated in the WTC response as a member of the Emergency Mapping and Data Center component of the Emergency Operations Center through which the response was managed.

  18. Description of a Generalized Analytical Model for the Micro-dosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Stewart-Sloan, Charlotte R.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Hunter, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    An analytical prediction capability for space radiation in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), correlated with the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) measurements, is presented. The model takes into consideration the energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the TEPC detector, and is capable of predicting energy deposition fluctuations in a micro-volume by incoming ions through both direct and indirect ionic events. The charged particle transport calculations correlated with STS 56, 51, 110 and 114 flights are accomplished by utilizing the most recent version (2005) of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport WZETRN), which has been extensively validated with laboratory beam measurements and available space flight data. The agreement between the TEPC model prediction (response function) and the TEPC measured differential and integral spectra in lineal energy (y) domain is promising.

  19. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  20. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  1. Mental Health Response to Terrorism: The World Trade Center Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofman, Paul S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reviews literature pertaining directly to responses to man-made disasters, with specific emphasis on emotional responses to terrorism. Summarizes the effects of the bombing of the World Trade Center on its survivors and on the wider community. Examples of mental health outreach efforts and case vignettes of brief cognitive behavior therapeutic…

  2. Application of person-centered analytic methodology in longitudinal research: exemplars from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial data.

    PubMed

    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Cochrane, Barbara B; Herting, Jerald R; Thompson, Hilaire J; Woods, Nancy F; Lacroix, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Despite the variety of available analytic methods, longitudinal research in nursing has been dominated by use of a variable-centered analytic approach. The purpose of this article is to present the utility of person-centered methodology using a large cohort of American women 65 and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (N = 19,891). Four distinct trajectories of energy/fatigue scores were identified. Levels of fatigue were closely linked to age, socio-demographic factors, comorbidities, health behaviors, and poor sleep quality. These findings were consistent regardless of the methodological framework. Finally, we demonstrated that energy/fatigue levels predicted future hospitalization in non-disabled elderly. Person-centered methods provide unique opportunities to explore and statistically model the effects of longitudinal heterogeneity within a population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? 403.207 Section 403.207 Education Regulations of... the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? A State shall forward to the National Center for Research in Vocational Education a copy of an abstract...

  4. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? 403.207 Section 403.207 Education Regulations of... the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? A State shall forward to the National Center for Research in Vocational Education a copy of an abstract...

  5. The germinal center antibody response in health and disease.

    PubMed

    DeFranco, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    The germinal center response is the delayed but sustained phase of the antibody response that is responsible for producing high-affinity antibodies of the IgG, IgA and/or IgE isotypes. B cells in the germinal center undergo re-iterative cycles of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin gene variable regions, clonal expansion, and Darwinian selection for cells expressing higher-affinity antibody variants. Alternatively, selected B cells can terminally differentiate into long-lived plasma cells or into a broad diversity of mutated memory B cells; the former secrete the improved antibodies to fight an infection and to provide continuing protection from re-infection, whereas the latter may jumpstart immune responses to subsequent infections with related but distinct infecting agents. Our understanding of the molecules involved in the germinal center reaction has been informed by studies of human immunodeficiency patients with selective defects in the production of antibodies. Recent studies have begun to reveal how innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors can enhance the magnitude and selective properties of the germinal center, leading to more effective control of infection by a subset of viruses. Just as early insights into the nature of the germinal center found application in the development of the highly successful conjugate vaccines, more recent insights may find application in the current efforts to develop new generations of vaccines, including vaccines that can induce broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus or HIV-1.

  6. The Center for Healthy Weight: an academic medical center response to childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T N; Kemby, K M

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity represents a worldwide medical and public health challenge. Academic medical centers cannot avoid the effects of the obesity epidemic, and must adopt strategies for their academic, clinical and public policy responses to childhood obesity. The Center for Healthy Weight at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford provides an example and model of one such strategy. The design provides both breadth and depth through six cores: Research, Patient Care, Community Programs, Advocating for Public Policy Change, Training and Professional Education, and the Healthy Hospital Initiative. The Center and its cores are designed to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration across the university, medical school, children's hospital and surrounding community. The foci of these cores are likely to be relevant to almost any academic medical center's mission and functions. PMID:25089192

  7. Analyte-Responsive Hydrogels: Intelligent Materials for Biosensing and Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Culver, Heidi R; Clegg, John R; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2017-02-21

    Nature has mastered the art of molecular recognition. For example, using synergistic non-covalent interactions, proteins can distinguish between molecules and bind a partner with incredible affinity and specificity. Scientists have developed, and continue to develop, techniques to investigate and better understand molecular recognition. As a consequence, analyte-responsive hydrogels that mimic these recognitive processes have emerged as a class of intelligent materials. These materials are unique not only in the type of analyte to which they respond but also in how molecular recognition is achieved and how the hydrogel responds to the analyte. Traditional intelligent hydrogels can respond to environmental cues such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength. The functional monomers used to make these hydrogels can be varied to achieve responsive behavior. For analyte-responsive hydrogels, molecular recognition can also be achieved by incorporating biomolecules with inherent molecular recognition properties (e.g., nucleic acids, peptides, enzymes, etc.) into the polymer network. Furthermore, in addition to typical swelling/syneresis responses, these materials exhibit unique responsive behaviors, such as gel assembly or disassembly, upon interaction with the target analyte. With the diverse tools available for molecular recognition and the ability to generate unique responsive behaviors, analyte-responsive hydrogels have found great utility in a wide range of applications. In this Account, we discuss strategies for making four different classes of analyte-responsive hydrogels, specifically, non-imprinted, molecularly imprinted, biomolecule-containing, and enzymatically responsive hydrogels. Then we explore how these materials have been incorporated into sensors and drug delivery systems, highlighting examples that demonstrate the versatility of these materials. For example, in addition to the molecular recognition properties of analyte-responsive hydrogels, the

  8. The Quick Response Center: An Interactive Business Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Aaron

    1995-01-01

    Describes the educational Quick Response (QR) Center developed at the Fashion Institute of Technology to enable students, faculty, and industry to bridge the technology learning gap between college and the workplace. QR is a working model of a Just-in-Time computer system that enables companies to produce and deliver finished goods just in time to…

  9. The Quick Response Center: An Interactive Business Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Aaron

    1995-01-01

    Describes the educational Quick Response (QR) Center developed at the Fashion Institute of Technology to enable students, faculty, and industry to bridge the technology learning gap between college and the workplace. QR is a working model of a Just-in-Time computer system that enables companies to produce and deliver finished goods just in time to…

  10. Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Capability Development at NASA Langley Research Center: Strategy, Roadmap, and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Yagle, Jeremy J.; Reith, William; McLarney, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a team of researchers, engineers and information technology specialists at NASA Langley Research Center developed a Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Strategy and Roadmap as part of Langley's Comprehensive Digital Transformation Initiative, with the goal of identifying the goals, objectives, initiatives, and recommendations need to develop near-, mid- and long-term capabilities for data analytics and machine intelligence in aerospace domains. Since that time, significant progress has been made in developing pilots and projects in several research, engineering, and scientific domains by following the original strategy of collaboration between mission support organizations, mission organizations, and external partners from universities and industry. This report summarizes the work to date in Data Intensive Scientific Discovery, Deep Content Analytics, and Deep Q&A projects, as well as the progress made in collaboration, outreach, and education. Recommendations for continuing this success into future phases of the initiative are also made.

  11. Analytical Solution for Flexural Response of Epoxy Resin Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-23

    uniaxial response of polymeric materials. By modifying the definitions of the effective stress and effective inelastic strain rate in the Drucker ... Prager yield criteria, Li and Pan (1990), Chang and Pan (1997), and Hsu et al. (1999) developed an approach for the constitutive law of polymeric

  12. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center: Phase I Response

    SciTech Connect

    C. Riland; D. R. Bowman; R. Lambert; R. Tighe

    1999-09-30

    A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to a Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or State request when a radiological emergency is anticipated or has occurred. The FRMAC coordinates the off-site monitoring, assessment, and analysis activities during such an emergency. The FRMAC response is divided into three phases. FRMAC Phase 1 is a rapid, initial-response capability that can interface with Federal or State officials and is designed for a quick response time and rapid radiological data collection and assessment. FRMAC Phase 1 products provide an initial characterization of the radiological situation and information on early health effects to officials responsible for making and implementing protective action decisions.

  13. Real-Time Data Warehousing and On-Line Analytical Processing at Aberdeen Test Center’s Distributed Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Aberdeen Test Center,Aberdeen Proving Ground,MD,21005 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

  14. Dose-Response of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion Highlights Individuality in Time Course of Blood Analyte Responses.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig

    2016-10-01

    To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion is commonplace. The individualized dose-response relationship between NaHCO3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO3 ingestion. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 2 years; 78.6 ± 15.1 kg) attended three randomized order-balanced, nonblinded sessions, ingesting a single dose of either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g·kg(-1)BM of NaHCO3 (Intralabs, UK). Fingertip capillary blood was obtained at baseline and every 10 min for 1 hr, then every 15 min for a further 2 hr. There was a significant main effect of both time and condition for all assessed blood analytes (p ≤ .001). Blood analyte responses were significantly lower following 0.1 g·kg(-1)BM compared with 0.2 g·kg(-1)BM; bicarbonate concentrations and base excess were highest following ingestion of 0.3 g·kg(-1)BM (p ≤ .01). Bicarbonate concentrations and pH significantly increased from baseline following all doses; the higher the dose the greater the increase. Large interindividual variability was shown in the magnitude of the increase in bicarbonate concentrations following each dose (+2.0-5; +5.1-8.1; and +6.0-12.3 mmol·L(-1) for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg(-1)BM) and in the range of time to peak concentrations (30-150; 40-165; and 75-180 min for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg(-1)BM). The variability in bicarbonate responses was not affected by normalization to body mass. These results challenge current practices relating to NaHCO3 supplementation and clearly show the need for athletes to individualize their ingestion protocol and trial varying dosages before competition.

  15. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    PubMed

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function.

  16. Analytic theory of the adsorption-desorption transition of Gaussian polymers interacting with a periodic lattice of adsorbing centers.

    PubMed

    Chervanyov, A I; Heinrich, G

    2008-08-21

    Based on the obtained exact analytic solution, we calculate the adsorption-desorption diagram that describes the adsorption of Gaussian polymers onto a rigid surface that bears a periodic array of the adsorbing centers. It is shown that the polymer adsorption onto this substrate is fully governed by a delicate balance between the entropic depletion repulsion of polymers from the rigid surface and their attraction to the adsorbing centers. Magnitudes of these competitive effects are calculated in terms of the reduced overall affinity of the substrate eta(-1) and the reduced separation between the adsorbing centers d. The calculated exact adsorption-desorption diagram eta(d) that describes the equilibrium between the above depletion and adsorption interactions, is shown to obey the scaling law eta approximately d(-1.17).

  17. Can burn centers evacuate in response to disasters?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, James J; Jaco, Mary; Marvin, Janet; Herndon, David N

    2006-01-01

    On August 29, 2005, the Gulf Coast was hit by Hurricane Katrina, a category 4 storm. The storm was responsible for more than 1000 deaths and the displacement of hundreds of thousands of people. Hospitals in the city of New Orleans evacuated because of the complete collapse of infrastructure. This event influenced the decisions and actions taken to protect patients, families, and staff of a 30-bed pediatric burn center in the projected path of a second catastrophic hurricane 3 weeks later. Approximately 80 hours before projected landfall, the local government announced that a mandatory evacuation of the community surrounding the burn center would occur. A coordinated decision was made by administration, nursing, and medical staff to cancel upcoming clinics and elective surgery and to evacuate all 14 inpatients, 52 outpatients, and 66 guardians to other facilities. The evacuation plan was successfully completed in 32 hours. The eye wall of the hurricane passed 65 miles east of the burn center. No significant damage to the physical plant was noted. Repopulation of the hospital by patients and acceptance of new acute burn referrals began approximately 40 hours after the local government permitted the population to return to the area. No morbidity or mortality was attributed to the evacuation. Emergent evacuation of threatened burn centers can be safely accomplished with adequate prior planning of evacuation sites, and modes of transportation. An established communication command center plays a key role in this process.

  18. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling of the influences of family-centered care on parent and child psychological health.

    PubMed

    Dunst, Carl J; Trivette, Carol M

    2009-01-01

    Background. Family-centered care is now practiced throughout the world by physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals. The call for adoption of family-centered care is based on the contention that the physical and psychological health of a child is influenced by parents' psychological health where family-centered care enhances parent well-being which in turn influences child well-being. We empirically assessed whether these relationships are supported by available evidence. Method. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect influences of family-centered care and self-efficacy beliefs on parent and child psychological health. Data from more than 2900 parents and other caregivers in 15 studies were used for the analyses. Results. Family-centered care had indirect effects on parent and child psychological health mediated by self-efficacy beliefs. Conclusion. The relationships posited in the literature about family-centered care were supported by the study results.

  19. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  20. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  1. An Analytic Strategy for Modeling Multiple-Item Responses

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Verbitsky, Natalya; Given, Barbara; Given, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Item Response Theory (IRT) is increasingly applied in health research to combine information from multiple-item responses. IRT posits that a person's susceptibility to a symptom is driven by the interaction of the characteristics of the symptom and person. This article describes the statistical background of incorporating IRT into a multilevel framework and extends this approach to longitudinal health outcomes, where the self-report method is used to construct a multi-item scale. Methods A secondary analysis of data from 2 descriptive longitudinal studies is performed. The data include 21 symptoms reported across time by 350 women with breast cancer. A 3-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used for the analysis. Level 1 models the item responses, consisting of symptom presence or absence. Level 2 models the trajectory of each individual, representing change over time of the IRT-created latent variable symptom experience. Level 3 explains that trajectory using person-specific characteristics such as age and location of care. The purpose of the analysis is to examine if older and younger women with breast cancer differ in their symptom experience trajectory after controlling for location of care. Results Fatigue and pain were the most prevalent symptoms. The symptom experience of women with breast cancer was found to improve over time. Neither age nor location of care was significantly associated with the symptom experience trajectory. Discussion Embedding IRT into an HLM framework produces several benefits. The example provided demonstrates benefits through the creation of a latent symptom experience variable that can be used either as an outcome or as a covariate in another model, examining the latent symptom experience trajectory and its relationship with covariates at the individual level, and managing symptom nonresponse. PMID:16027565

  2. NASA Lewis Research Center Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L. (Compiler); Murthy, Durbha V. (Compiler); Morel, Michael (Compiler); Hoyniak, Dan (Compiler); Gauntner, Jim W. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery in August, 1993 is presented. It was sponsored by the following NASA organizations: Structures, Space Propulsion Technology, and Propulsion Systems Divisions of NASA LeRC and the Aeronautics and Advanced Concepts & Technology Offices of NASA Headquarters. In addition, the workshop was held in conjunction with the GUIde (Government/Industry/Universities) Consortium on Forced Response. The workshop was specifically designed to receive suggestions and comments from industry on current research at NASA LeRC in the area of forced vibratory response of turbomachinery blades which includes both computational and experimental approaches. There were eight presentations and a code demonstration. Major areas of research included aeroelastic response, steady and unsteady fluid dynamics, mistuning, and corresponding experimental work.

  3. Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Pablo; Pino, Francisco; Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Doménec; Ruibal, Álvaro; and others

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. Methods: Evaluation was performed using experimental data from a low magnification pinhole SPECT system that consisted of a rotating flat detector with a monolithic scintillator crystal. The SRM was computed following two approaches, which were based on Monte Carlo simulations (MC-SRM) and analytical techniques in combination with an experimental characterization (AE-SRM). The spatial response of the system, obtained by using the two approaches, was compared with experimental data. The effect of the MC-SRM and AE-SRM approaches on the reconstructed image was assessed in terms of image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, and spatial resolution. To this end, acquisitions were carried out using a hot cylinder phantom (consisting of five fillable rods with diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm and a uniform cylindrical chamber) and a custom-made Derenzo phantom, with center-to-center distances between adjacent rods of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mm. Results: Good agreement was found for the spatial response of the system between measured data and results derived from MC-SRM and AE-SRM. Only minor differences for point sources at distances smaller than the radius of rotation and large incidence angles were found. Assessment of the effect on the reconstructed image showed a similar contrast for both approaches, with values higher than 0.9 for rod diameters greater than 1 mm and higher than 0.8 for rod diameter of 1 mm. The comparison in terms of image quality showed that all rods in the different sections of a custom-made Derenzo phantom could be distinguished. The spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.7 mm at iteration 100 using both approaches. The SNR was lower for reconstructed images using MC-SRM than for those reconstructed using AE-SRM, indicating that AE-SRM deals better with the

  4. Gas turbine rotor/case structural response to rotating stall: Experimental documentation and analytical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The forcing functions and structural responses characterizing gas turbine rotor/case system vibration due to rotating stall in an axial flow compressor are described. Two data sets with fundamentally different response characteristics are presented; one is supersynchronous and the other subsynchronous. Conventional beam element rotor dynamics analysis is shown to be severely limited in its ability to predict these responses. A new analytical approach, which significantly increases structural response predictive capability for these phenomena, is briefly discussed.

  5. Validation of biomarkers to predict response to immunotherapy in cancer: Volume I - pre-analytical and analytical validation.

    PubMed

    Masucci, Giuseppe V; Cesano, Alessandra; Hawtin, Rachael; Janetzki, Sylvia; Zhang, Jenny; Kirsch, Ilan; Dobbin, Kevin K; Alvarez, John; Robbins, Paul B; Selvan, Senthamil R; Streicher, Howard Z; Butterfield, Lisa H; Thurin, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapies have emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat patients with cancer. Recently, there have been many clinical successes using checkpoint receptor blockade, including T cell inhibitory receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Despite demonstrated successes in a variety of malignancies, responses only typically occur in a minority of patients in any given histology. Additionally, treatment is associated with inflammatory toxicity and high cost. Therefore, determining which patients would derive clinical benefit from immunotherapy is a compelling clinical question. Although numerous candidate biomarkers have been described, there are currently three FDA-approved assays based on PD-1 ligand expression (PD-L1) that have been clinically validated to identify patients who are more likely to benefit from a single-agent anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Because of the complexity of the immune response and tumor biology, it is unlikely that a single biomarker will be sufficient to predict clinical outcomes in response to immune-targeted therapy. Rather, the integration of multiple tumor and immune response parameters, such as protein expression, genomics, and transcriptomics, may be necessary for accurate prediction of clinical benefit. Before a candidate biomarker and/or new technology can be used in a clinical setting, several steps are necessary to demonstrate its clinical validity. Although regulatory guidelines provide general roadmaps for the validation process, their applicability to biomarkers in the cancer immunotherapy field is somewhat limited. Thus, Working Group 1 (WG1) of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Immune Biomarkers Task Force convened to address this need. In this two volume series, we discuss pre-analytical and analytical (Volume I) as well as clinical and regulatory (Volume II) aspects of the validation process as applied to predictive biomarkers

  6. An Analytical Model for the Prediction of a Micro-Dosimeter Response Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Xapsos, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A rapid analytical procedure for the prediction of a micro-dosimeter response function in low Earth orbit (LEO), correlated with the Space Transportation System (STS, shuttle) Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) measurements is presented. The analytical model takes into consideration the energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the detector, and is capable of predicting energy deposition fluctuations in a cylindrical micro-volume of arbitrary aspect ratio (height/diameter) by incoming ions through both direct and indirect (ray) events. At any designated (ray traced) target point within the vehicle, the model accepts the differential flux spectrum of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and/or trapped protons at LEO as input. On a desktop PC, the response function of TEPC for each ion in the GCR/trapped field is computed at the average rate of 30 seconds/ion. The ionizing radiation environment at LEO is represented by O'Neill fs GCR model (2004), covering charged particles in the 1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28. O'Neill's free space GCR model is coupled with the Langley Research Center (LaRC) angular dependent geomagnetic cutoff model to compute the transmission coefficient in LEO. The trapped proton environment is represented by a LaRC developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8MIN/AP8MAX, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment is represented by the extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. The charged particle transport calculations correlated with STS 51 and 114 flights are accomplished by using the most recent version (2005) of the LaRC deterministic High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) code. We present the correlations between the TEPC model predictions (response function) and TEPC measured differential/integral spectra in the lineal energy (y) domain for both GCR and trapped protons, with the conclusion

  7. Two Analyte Calibration From The Transient Response Of Potentiometric Sensors Employed With The SIA Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cartas, Raul; Mimendia, Aitor; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    Calibration models for multi-analyte electronic tongues have been commonly built using a set of sensors, at least one per analyte under study. Complex signals recorded with these systems are formed by the sensors' responses to the analytes of interest plus interferents, from which a multivariate response model is then developed. This work describes a data treatment method for the simultaneous quantification of two species in solution employing the signal from a single sensor. The approach used here takes advantage of the complex information recorded with one electrode's transient after insertion of sample for building the calibration models for both analytes. The departure information from the electrode was firstly processed by discrete wavelet for transforming the signals to extract useful information and reduce its length, and then by artificial neural networks for fitting a model. Two different potentiometric sensors were used as study case for simultaneously corroborating the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  9. Responding to disasters: academic medical centers' responsibilities and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sklar, David P; Richards, Michael; Shah, Mark; Roth, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Disaster preparedness and disaster response should be a capability of all academic health centers. The authors explore the potential role and impact of academic medical centers (AMC)s in disaster response. The National Disaster Medical System and the evolution of disaster medical assistance teams (DMAT) are described, and the experience at one AMC with DMAT is reviewed. The recent deployment of a DMAT sponsored by an AMC to the Hurricane Katrina disaster is described, and the experience is used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges of future disaster medical training, research, and practice at AMCs. AMCs are encouraged to identify an appropriate academic unit to house and nurture disaster-preparedness activities, participate in education programs for health professionals and the public, and perform research on disaster epidemiology and response. Networks of AMCs offer the potential of acting as a critical resource for those AMCs stricken by a disaster and for communities needing the infusion of highly trained and motivated health care providers. The Association of American Medical Colleges can play a critical role in assisting and coordinating AMC networks through its relationship with all AMCs and the federal government and by increasing the awareness of medical educators and researchers about this important, emerging area of medical knowledge.

  10. An analytical and experimental study of the vibration response of a clamped ribbed plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tian Ran

    2012-02-01

    An analytical solution is presented in this paper for the vibration response of a ribbed plate clamped on all its boundary edges by employing a traveling wave solution. A clamped ribbed plate test rig is also assembled in this study for the experimental investigation of the ribbed plate response and to provide verification results to the analytical solution. The dynamic characteristics and mode shapes of the ribbed plate are measured and compared to those obtained from the analytical solution and from finite element analysis (FEA). General good agreements are found between the results. Discrepancies between the computational and experimental results at low and high frequencies are also discussed. Explanations are offered in the study to disclose the mechanism causing the discrepancies. The dependency of the dynamic response of the ribbed plate on the distance between the excitation force and the rib is also investigated experimentally. It confirms the findings disclosed in a previous analytical study [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, A closed form solution for the dynamic response of finite ribbed plates, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119 (2006) 917-925] that the vibration response of a clamped ribbed plate due to a point force excitation is controlled by the plate stiffness when the source is more than a quarter plate bending wavelength away from the rib and from the plate boundary. The response is largely affected by the rib stiffness when the source location is less than a quarter bending wavelength away from the rib.

  11. Applied analytical combustion/emissions research at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Nguyen, H. L.

    1992-07-01

    Emissions of pollutants from future commercial transports are a significant concern. As a result, the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating various low emission combustor technologies. As part of this effort, a combustor analysis code development program was pursued to guide the combustor design process, to identify concepts having the greatest promise, and to optimize them at the lowest cost in the minimum time.

  12. Applied analytical combustion/emissions research at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Nguyen, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants from future commercial transports are a significant concern. As a result, the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating various low emission combustor technologies. As part of this effort, a combustor analysis code development program was pursued to guide the combustor design process, to identify concepts having the greatest promise, and to optimize them at the lowest cost in the minimum time.

  13. Principles of analytic validation of immunohistochemical assays: Guideline from the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbons, Patrick L; Bradley, Linda A; Fatheree, Lisa A; Alsabeh, Randa; Fulton, Regan S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Haas, Thomas S; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Loykasek, Patti A; Marolt, Monna J; Shen, Steven S; Smith, Anthony T; Swanson, Paul E

    2014-11-01

    Laboratories must validate all assays before they can be used to test patient specimens, but currently there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding validation of immunohistochemical assays. To develop recommendations for initial analytic validation and revalidation of immunohistochemical assays. The College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center convened a panel of pathologists and histotechnologists with expertise in immunohistochemistry to develop validation recommendations. A systematic evidence review was conducted to address key questions. Electronic searches identified 1463 publications, of which 126 met inclusion criteria and were extracted. Individual publications were graded for quality, and the key question findings for strength of evidence. Recommendations were derived from strength of evidence, open comment feedback, and expert panel consensus. Fourteen guideline statements were established to help pathology laboratories comply with validation and revalidation requirements for immunohistochemical assays. Laboratories must document successful analytic validation of all immunohistochemical tests before applying to patient specimens. The parameters for cases included in validation sets, including number, expression levels, fixative and processing methods, should take into account intended use and should be sufficient to ensure that the test accurately measures the analyte of interest in specimens tested in that laboratory. Recommendations are also provided for confirming assay performance when there are changes in test methods, reagents, or equipment.

  14. An academic medical center's response to widespread computer failure.

    PubMed

    Genes, Nicholas; Chary, Michael; Chason, Kevin W

    2013-01-01

    As hospitals incorporate information technology (IT), their operations become increasingly vulnerable to technological breakdowns and attacks. Proper emergency management and business continuity planning require an approach to identify, mitigate, and work through IT downtime. Hospitals can prepare for these disasters by reviewing case studies. This case study details the disruption of computer operations at Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC), an urban academic teaching hospital. The events, and MSMC's response, are narrated and the impact on hospital operations is analyzed. MSMC's disaster management strategy prevented computer failure from compromising patient care, although walkouts and time-to-disposition in the emergency department (ED) notably increased. This incident highlights the importance of disaster preparedness and mitigation. It also demonstrates the value of using operational data to evaluate hospital responses to disasters. Quantifying normal hospital functions, just as with a patient's vital signs, may help quantitatively evaluate and improve disaster management and business continuity planning.

  15. Evaluation of the risk factors associated with rectal neuroendocrine tumors: a big data analytic study from a health screening center.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Jeung Hui; Hong, Sung Noh; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Chang, Dong Kyung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae Jun; Choi, Sun Kyu; Jung, Sin-Ho; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is the most common NET in Asia. The risk factors associated with rectal NETs are unclear because of the overall low incidence rate of these tumors and the associated difficulty in conducting large epidemiological studies on rare cases. The aim of this study was to exploit the benefits of big data analytics to assess the risk factors associated with rectal NET. A retrospective case-control study was conducted, including 102 patients with histologically confirmed rectal NETs and 52,583 healthy controls who underwent screening colonoscopy at the Center for Health Promotion of the Samsung Medical Center in Korea between January 2002 and December 2012. Information on different risk factors was collected and logistic regression analysis applied to identify predictive factors. Four factors were significantly associated with rectal NET: higher levels of cholesterol [odds ratio (OR) = 1.007, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.013, p = 0.016] and ferritin (OR = 1.502, 95 % CI, 1.167-1.935, p = 0.002), presence of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.768, 95 % CI, 1.071-2.918, p = 0.026), and family history of cancer among first-degree relatives (OR = 1.664, 95 % CI, 1.019-2.718, p = 0.042). The findings of our study demonstrate the benefits of using big data analytics for research and clinical risk factor studies. Specifically, in this study, this analytical method was applied to identify higher levels of serum cholesterol and ferritin, metabolic syndrome, and family history of cancer as factors that may explain the increasing incidence and prevalence of rectal NET.

  16. An Analytical Solution for Transient Thermal Response of an Insulated Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical solution was derived for the transient response of an insulated aerospace vehicle structure subjected to a simplified heat pulse. This simplified problem approximates the thermal response of a thermal protection system of an atmospheric entry vehicle. The exact analytical solution is solely a function of two non-dimensional parameters. A simpler function of these two parameters was developed to approximate the maximum structural temperature over a wide range of parameter values. Techniques were developed to choose constant, effective properties to represent the relevant temperature and pressure-dependent properties for the insulator and structure. A technique was also developed to map a time-varying surface temperature history to an equivalent square heat pulse. Using these techniques, the maximum structural temperature rise was calculated using the analytical solutions and shown to typically agree with finite element simulations within 10 to 20 percent over the relevant range of parameters studied.

  17. Empirical Evaluation of Meta-Analytic Approaches for Nutrient and Health Outcome Dose-Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winifred W.; Schmid, Christopher H.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Lau, Joseph; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to empirically compare alternative meta-analytic methods for combining dose-response data from epidemiological studies. We identified meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between a single nutrient and a dichotomous outcome. For each topic, we performed meta-analyses of odds ratios…

  18. Empirical Evaluation of Meta-Analytic Approaches for Nutrient and Health Outcome Dose-Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winifred W.; Schmid, Christopher H.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Lau, Joseph; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to empirically compare alternative meta-analytic methods for combining dose-response data from epidemiological studies. We identified meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between a single nutrient and a dichotomous outcome. For each topic, we performed meta-analyses of odds ratios…

  19. A General Factor-Analytic Procedure for Assessing Response Bias in Questionnaire Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semi-restricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item…

  20. Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory: Analytical and Empirical Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Dae-Yeop

    This study compared classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The behavior of the item and person statistics derived from these two measurement frameworks was examined analytically and empirically using a data set obtained from BILOG (R. Mislay and D. Block, 1997). The example was a 15-item test with a sample size of 600…

  1. A General Factor-Analytic Procedure for Assessing Response Bias in Questionnaire Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semi-restricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item…

  2. Analytical stability and simulation response study for a coupled two-body system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, K. M.; Roberts, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical stability study and a digital simulation response study of two connected rigid bodies are documented. Relative rotation of the bodies at the connection is allowed, thereby providing a model suitable for studying system stability and response during a soft-dock regime. Provisions are made of a docking port axes alignment torque and a despin torque capability for encountering spinning payloads. Although the stability analysis is based on linearized equations, the digital simulation is based on nonlinear models.

  3. Flight and Analytical Methods for Determining the Coupled Vibration Response of Tandem Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeates, John E , Jr; Brooks, George W; Houbolt, John C

    1957-01-01

    Chapter one presents a discussion of flight-test and analysis methods for some selected helicopter vibration studies. The use of a mechanical shaker in flight to determine the structural response is reported. A method for the analytical determination of the natural coupled frequencies and mode shapes of vibrations in the vertical plane of tandem helicopters is presented in Chapter two. The coupled mode shapes and frequencies are then used to calculate the response of the helicopter to applied oscillating forces.

  4. 77 FR 20887 - Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... solicits comments on the information needed to measure customer satisfaction with delivered products and... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity...: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey, VA Form 0863....

  5. Response of plasmonic resonant nanorods: an analytical approach to optical antennas.

    PubMed

    Kalousek, Radek; Dub, Petr; Břínek, Lukáš; Šikola, Tomáš

    2012-07-30

    An analytical model of the response of a free-electron gas within the nanorod to the incident electromagnetic wave is developed to investigate the optical antenna problem. Examining longitudinal oscillations of the free-electron gas along the antenna nanorod a simple formula for antenna resonance wavelengths proving a linear scaling is derived. Then the nanorod polarizability and scattered fields are evaluated. Particularly, the near-field amplitudes are expressed in a closed analytical form and the shift between near-field and far-field intensity peaks is deduced.

  6. Analytic Solutions for the Spectral Responses of RCA-Grating-Based Waveguide Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Kai; Wei, Lai

    2012-12-01

    Analytic solutions (ASs) for the spectral responses of waveguide devices with raised-cosine-apodized (RCA) gratings are presented. The waveguide devices include short- and long-period RCA-gratings, RCA-grating-based interferometers as Fabry—Perot, Mach—Zehnder and Michelson interferometers. The calculations based on the analytic solutions are demonstrated and compared with those based on the transfer matrix (TM) method preferred, which has confirmed that the AS-based analysis is with enough accuracy and several thousands times the efficiency of the TM method.

  7. Occupational exposures during the World Trade Center disaster response.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, K M; Snyder, E M

    2001-06-01

    Upon the request of the New York City Department of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitored occupational exposures among emergency response workers during the rescue and recovery activities at the World Trade Center disaster site from September 18 through 4 October 2001. During this period, over 1,200 bulk and air samples were collected to estimate or characterize workers' occupational exposures. Samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), diesel exhaust, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic acids, mercury and other metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, respirable particulate not otherwise regulated (PNOR), respirable crystalline silica, total PNOR, and volatile organic compounds. Exposures to most of these potential hazards did not exceed NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits or Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limits. However, one torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium and another worker (and possibly three others) was overexposed to CO. The elevated cadmium and CO levels were the result of workers using oxy-acetylene cutting torches and gasoline-powered cutting saws. Recommendations were made to ensure adequate ventilation and worker understanding when using these tools and, where possible, to substitute rechargeable, battery-powered cutting saws for gasoline-powered ones. Toxicology

  8. Pathways to Healing: Person-centered Responses to Complementary Services

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Sharon W.; Fermon, Barbara; Coleman, Julie Foley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This research study assessed perceived changes in quality-of-life measures related to participation in complementary services consisting of a variety of nontraditional therapies and/or programs at Pathways: A Health Crisis Resource Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Design: Survey data were used to assess perceived changes participants ascribed to their experience with complementary services at Pathways. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using participant demographics together with participant ratings of items from the “Self-Assessment of Change” (SAC) measure developed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on written responses to an additional survey question: “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Setting/Location: Pathways offers a variety of services, including one-to-one sessions using nontraditional healing therapies, support groups, educational classes, and practice groups such as yoga and meditation for those facing serious health challenges. These services are offered free of charge through community financial support using volunteer practitioners. Participants: People (126) diagnosed with serious health challenges who used Pathways services from 2007 through 2009. Interventions: Participation in self-selected Pathways services. Measures: Responses to items on the SAC measure plus written responses to the question, “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Results: Quantitative findings: Participants reported experiencing significant changes across all components of the SAC measure. Qualitative findings: Responses to the open-ended survey question identified perspectives on the culture of Pathways and a shift in participants' perceptions of well-being based on their experience of Pathways services. Conclusions: Participation in services provided by the Pathways organization improved perceptions of

  9. Analytical and numerical studies on the nonlinear dynamic response of orthotropic membranes under impact load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zheng, Zhoulian; Yang, Xiaoyan

    2016-12-01

    Orthotropic membrane components and structures are widely used in building structures, instruments and meters, electronic engineering, space and aeronautics, etc., because of their light weights. However, the same lightweight combined with low stiffness make membranes prone to vibration under dynamic loads, and in some cases the vibration may lead to structural failure. Herein, the undamped nonlinear vibration response of pretension rectangular orthotropic membrane structures subjected to impact loading is studied by analytical and numerical methods. The analytical solution is obtained by solving the governing equations by the Bubnov-Galerkin method and the Lindstedt-Poincaré perturbation method. Numerical analysis has also been carried out based on the same theoretical model. The analytical and numerical results have been compared and analyzed, and the influence of various model parameters on membrane vibration discussed. The results obtained herein provide some theoretical basis for the vibration control and dynamic design of orthotropic membrane components and structures.

  10. Utilizing Actionable Data Analytics to Support Patient Navigation Enrollment and Retention Within Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Melody M; Stone, Gregory; Tokarz, Stephanie; Wortham, Benjamin

    Emergency departments (EDs) have become the primary source of care for increasing number of patients, leading to treatment of nonemergent cases, which divert resources from true emergency situations and represent poor cost-effectiveness for treating such cases. There is evidence that suggests that patient navigation (PN) integrated into the ED and other case management techniques can help reduce the number of primary care-related ED visits and these navigation programs are more cost-effective than the ED visits themselves. The Greater New Orleans Community Health Connection Primary Care Capacity Project Quality Improvement Initiative (GNOPQii) is a pilot project aimed at improving the efficiency of PN for patients who have had avoidable ED encounters or inpatient readmissions through applied data and technology program. Partnering Federally Qualified Health Centers were equipped with actionable ED utilization data to integrate with their own patient clinical data to track patient ED activity. The pilot design also included the use of patient navigators to address the nonclinical cultural and behavioral barriers to care. As part of the overall evaluation, comparisons of data utilization and PN services pre- and post-GNOPQii were conducted. A total of 337 referrals were made, and 145 patients were enrolled into the GNOPQii pilot program. The direct services needed the most by patients were transportation and medication resources. Of those who enrolled (N = 145), 63 patients graduated, meaning program compliance and 90 days without visits to the ED, resulting in a 43% success rate. If an estimated $1898 savings for every nonemergency ED encounter replaced by an office-based encounter is applied to our results, the GNOPQii program contributed to a minimum of $119 574.00 savings even if only 1 deterred ED visit per graduate is assumed. Future research is needed to systematically test the efficacy of GNOPQii in reducing nonemergent ED visits.

  11. Center/surround organization of retinal bipolar cells: High correlation of fundamental responses of center and surround to sinusoidal contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Dwight A.; Bartoletti, Theodore M.; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2012-01-01

    Receptive field organization of cone-driven bipolar cells was investigated by intracellular recording in the intact light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Centered spots and concentric annuli of optimum dimensions were used to selectively stimulate the receptive field center and surround with sinusoidal modulations of contrast at 3 Hz. At low contrasts, responses of both the center and surround of both ON and OFF bipolar cells were linear, showing high gain and thus contrast enhancement relative to cones. The contrast/response curves for the fundamental response, measured by a Fast Fourier Transform, reached half maximum amplitude quickly at 13% contrast followed by saturation at high contrasts. The variation of the normalized amplitude of the center and surround responses was remarkably similar, showing linear regression over the entire response range with very high correlations, r2 = 0.97 for both ON and OFF cells. The contrast/response curves of both center and surround for both ON and OFF cells were well fit (r2 = 0.98) by an equation for single-site binding. In about half the cells studied, the nonlinear waveforms of center and surround could be brought into coincidence by scaling and shifting the surround response in time. This implies that a nonlinearity, common to both center and surround, occurs after polarity inversion at the cone feedback synapse. Evidence from paired whole-cell recordings between single cones and OFF bipolar cells suggests that substantial nonlinearity is not due to transmission at the cone synapse but instead arises from intrinsic bipolar cell and network mechanisms. When sinusoidal contrast modulations were applied to the center and surround simultaneously, clear additivity was observed for small responses in both ON and OFF cells, whereas the interaction was strikingly nonadditive for large responses. The contribution of the surround was then greatly reduced, suggesting attenuation at the cone feedback

  12. Multi-center analytical evaluation of a novel automated tacrolimus immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shipkova, Maria; Vogeser, Michael; Ramos, Pedro Alía; Verstraete, Alain G; Orth, Matthias; Schneider, Christian; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is a post-transplantation immunosuppressant drug used in patients for whom careful monitoring of TAC concentration is essential. A new semi-automated immunoassay for TAC measurement, the Elecsys Tacrolimus assay, is available and has been assessed in a multi-center evaluation. Residual whole blood samples from patients undergoing TAC therapy after organ transplant were used in assay evaluation at five clinical laboratories in Europe. Experiments included imprecision according to CLSI EP5-A2 (within-run and intermediate), functional sensitivity, linearity according to CLSI EP6-A, and recovery from external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) samples. The assay was compared to LC-MS/MS used routinely at each investigational site, and to the Abbott Architect immunoassay. Linearity from 0.5 to 40 μg/L was observed and functional sensitivity of 0.3 μg/L (CV ≤ 20%) was determined. Within-run imprecision was ≤ 5.1% on cobas e 602 (5.1% at 1.5 μg/L) and ≤ 8.9% (8.9% at 0.8μg/L) on cobas e 411. The intermediate imprecision for TAC concentrations ≥ 6.8 μg/L was ≤ 6.5%. At lower therapeutic concentrations (to 1.5 μg/L) it was consistently ≤ 10%. Deming regression analysis of method comparison to LC-MS/MS yielded slopes of 1.07 (95%CI: 1.05/1.10) for heart transplant samples, 1.13 (95%CI: 1.09/1.16) for kidney, and 1.05 (95%CI: 1.02/1.08) for lung transplant samples. The Elecsys Tacrolimus assay has good linearity, functional sensitivity and intermediate imprecision and is comparable to LC-MS/MS methods. The over-all performance of ECLIA demonstrates a modern generation TAC assay that meets the demands of monitoring drug concentrations in current immunosuppressive regimens. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Instrumentation for Reliably Determining Porous Silicon Photoluminescence Responses to Gaseous Analyte Vapors.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Justin M; Van Gorder, Nathan S; Richardson, Caley A; Eriacho, Richie D; Bright, Frank V

    2016-12-01

    We report new instrumentation for rapidly and reliably measuring the temperature-dependent photoluminescence response from porous silicon as a function of analyte vapor concentration. The new system maintains the porous silicon under inert conditions and it allows on-the-fly steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence intensity and hyper-spectral measurements between 293 K and 450 K. The new system yields reliable data at least 100-fold faster in comparison to previous instrument platforms.

  14. CRMS vegetation analytical team framework: Methods for collection, development, and use of vegetation response variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, Kari F.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    This document identifies the main objectives of the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation analytical team, which are to provide (1) collection and development methods for vegetation response variables and (2) the ways in which these response variables will be used to evaluate restoration project effectiveness. The vegetation parameters (that is, response variables) collected in CRMS and other coastal restoration projects funded under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) are identified, and the field collection methods for these parameters are summarized. Existing knowledge on community and plant responses to changes in environmental drivers (for example, flooding and salinity) from published literature and from the CRMS and CWPPRA monitoring dataset are used to develop a suite of indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. Two indices, the floristic quality index (FQI) and a productivity index, are described for herbaceous and forested vegetation. The FQI for herbaceous vegetation is tested with a long-term dataset from a CWPPRA marsh creation project. Example graphics for this index are provided and discussed. The other indices, an FQI for forest vegetation (that is, trees and shrubs) and productivity indices for herbaceous and forest vegetation, are proposed but not tested. New response variables may be added or current response variables removed as data become available and as our understanding of restoration success indicators develops. Once indices are fully developed, each will be used by the vegetation analytical team to assess and evaluate CRMS/CWPPRA project and program effectiveness. The vegetation analytical teams plan to summarize their results in the form of written reports and/or graphics and present these items to CRMS Federal and State sponsors, restoration project managers, landowners, and other data users for their input.

  15. Analytical approach to calculation of response spectra from seismological models of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1988-01-01

    An analytical approach to calculate response spectra from seismological models of ground motion is presented. Seismological models have three major advantages over empirical models: (1) they help in an understanding of the physics of earthquake mechanisms, (2) they can be used to predict ground motions for future earthquakes and (3) they can be extrapolated to cases where there are no data available. As shown with this study, these models also present a convenient form for the calculation of response spectra, by using the methods of random vibration theory, for a given magnitude and site conditions. The first part of the paper reviews the past models for ground motion description, and introduces the available seismological models. Then, the random vibration equations for the spectral response are presented. The nonstationarity, spectral bandwidth and the correlation of the peaks are considered in the calculation of the peak response.

  16. Analytical solution for the poroelastic responses in pulse decay permeability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, Masaatsu

    2014-05-01

    The pulse decay method has been widely used for the permeability measurement for the low permeable rocks. In existing studies, the poroelastic coupled responses caused by the sudden pore pressure change have been discussed only by numerical simulations such as finite element method because an analytical solution was not known. In this study, an analytical solution for the poroelastic coupled equations in the Laplace-space is obtained by the method of separation of variable. The pore pressure distribution in the rock sample is expressed with the superposition of products of hyperbolic functions with respect to z-coordinate and Dini series with respect to r-coordinate, products of Fourier series with respect to z-coordinate and modified Bessel function with respect to r-coordinate, a linear function with respect to z-coordinate. All the integral constants are determined by boundary conditions in the laboratory test. The time-domain solution can be stably calculated by Stehfest's algorithm and the characteristics of coupled responses are demonstrated. The obtained analytical solution is expected to contribute to the validation of numerical codes as well as the evaluation of experimental results.

  17. A two-center evaluation of the blood gas immediate response mobile analyzer (IRMA).

    PubMed

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Del, Buono Laura; Bonini, Pierangelo; Germagnoli, Luca; Ferrero, Carlo A; Pezzo, Mario; Marocchi, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The Immediate Response Mobile Analyzer (IRMA) is a selective and portable point-of-care testing (POCT) blood gas, electrolyte and hematocrit (Hct) analyzer. The overall analytical performance was evaluated in a two-center study involving two Italian hospital laboratories, following the guidelines suggested by the manufacturer (based on the NCCLS protocol), after a preliminary evaluation of their formal validity. The IRMA was compared to the analyzers used in the routine laboratory as reference. The considered parameters were pH, pO2, pCO2, Na+, K+, ionized calcium and Hct. When using the aqueous quality control material provided by the manufacturer most of the parameters showed good precision, with the exception of pCO2 and pO2 that showed high CVs on two of the three levels of the aqueous control. We could demonstrate that this imprecision was material-related and was reduced when using a different material (blood equilibrated by tonometry). With tonometred blood for pO2 and pCO2 and the aqueous material for the remaining parameters the CVs were all below 5%, ranging from 0.08% to 2.8%. The IRMA results correlated adequately with the comparison instruments, with the exception of sodium and ionized calcium where contradictory results were obtained in the two centers.

  18. Side peak suppression in responses of an across-frequency integration model to stimuli of varying bandwidth as demonstrated analytically and by implementation.

    PubMed

    Goeckel, Tom; Führ, Hartmut; Lakemeyer, Gerhard; Wagner, Hermann

    2014-02-01

    Multiplication-like sound localization models are subjected to phase ambiguities for high-frequency tonal stimuli as multiplication creates several equivalent response peaks in tuning curves. By increasing the bandwidth of the stimulus, phase ambiguities can be reduced, which is often referred to as side peak suppression. In this study we present a Jeffress-based sound localization model, and determine side peak suppression analytically. The results were verified with an implementation of the same model, and compared to physiological data of barn owls. Three types of stimuli were analyzed: pure-tone stimuli, two-tone complexes with varying frequency distances, and noise signals with variable bandwidths. As an additional parameter we also determined the half-width of the main response peak to examine the scaling of tuning curves in azimuth. Results showed that side peak suppression did not only depend on bandwidth, but also on the center frequency and the distance of the side peak to the main response peak. In particular, the analytical model predicted that side peak suppression is a function of relative bandwidth, whereas half-width is inversely proportional to center frequency, with a proportionality factor depending on relative bandwidth. The analytical approach and the implementation yielded equivalent tuning curves (deviation < 1%). Moreover, the electrophysiological data recorded in barn owls closely matched the predicted tuning curves.

  19. Analytical and empirical evaluation of low-level waste drum response to accident environments

    SciTech Connect

    May, R. A.; Romesberg, L. E.; Yoshimura, H. R.; Baker, W. E.; Hokanson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on results of tests to date, it was found that the structural response of low-level waste drums to impact environments can be generally predicted, both analytically and with subscale models. As currently represented, only the 1/4 scale models would adequately represent full scale drum deformation; however, additional work has shown that with proper heat treating the strength of the material used in the 1/8 scale containers can be reduced to the correct value. Both analytical models give results that are expected to be within the range of behavior of the full scale drums. Failure of the drum closure can be adequately inferred from the radial deformation results of both subscale tests and computer analyses. 6 figures.

  20. Dynamic response of electronic systems to shocks and vibrations: Application of analytical (mathematical) modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    2012-08-01

    Some basic problems of the dynamic response of electronic and photonic (E&P) systems to shocks and vibrations are addressed and discussed. The emphasis is on analytical (mathematical) modeling, the reliability physics behind the addressed phenomena, and design-for-reliability (DfR) issues and challenges. The addressed problems include 1) linear response: effect of viscous damping, shock tests vs. drop tests, role of compliant interfaces, and maximum acceleration and maximum dynamic stress as a suitable reliability criterion; 2) nonlinear response: printed circuit board (PCB) experiencing an impact load applied to its support contour and ball-grid-array (BGA) testing on the board level; 3) shock protection of portable electronics, including the possible use of nano-wires as a suitable protective "cushion". The fruitfulness of the probabilistic DfR (PDfR) concept to quantify and assure the field (operational) reliability of E&P devices and systems is also indicated.

  1. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers. Application to Planck/HFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic

    2016-12-01

    Context: Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν < 1 Hz, and secondly the Analog To digital Converter (ADC) component had been insufficiently characterized on-ground. These two problems require an exquisite knowledge of detector response. However bolometers have highly nonlinear characteristics, coming from their electrical and thermal coupling making them very difficult to model. Goal: We present a method to build the analytical transfer function in frequency domain which describe the voltage response of an Alternative Current (AC) biased bolometer to optical excitation, based on the standard bolometer model. This model is built using the setup of the Planck/HFI instrument and offers the major improvement of being based on a physical model rather than the currently in use had-hoc model based on Direct Current (DC) bolometer theory. Method: The analytical transfer function expression will be presented in matrix form. For this purpose, we build linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. Results: The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.

  2. Analytical and experimental evaluations of Space Shuttle TPS tile vibration response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical studies and laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the vibration response of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles due to the intense rocket generated acoustic noise during lift-off. The TPS tiles are mounted over the exterior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter structure through Strain Isolation Pads (SIP) which protect the tiles from thermal induced shear loads at their interface. The analytical predictions indicate that the response of a typical tile is governed by the structural vibration inputs through the SIP under the tile at frequencies below 250 Hz, and by the direct acoustic excitation over the exterior surface of the tile at frequencies above 250 Hz. An evaluation of the laboratory test data for this same tile, in which conditioned (partial) coherent output spectral analysis procedures were used, leads to exactly the same conclusion. The results demonstrate the power of conditioned spectral analysis procedures in identifying vibration response mechanisms when two or more of the inputs are highly correlated.

  3. Analytical procedures for estimating structural response to acoustic fields generated by advanced launch systems, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Lin, Y. K.; Zhu, Li-Ping; Fang, Jian-Jie; Cai, G. Q.

    1994-01-01

    This report supplements a previous report of the same title submitted in June, 1992. It summarizes additional analytical techniques which have been developed for predicting the response of linear and nonlinear structures to noise excitations generated by large propulsion power plants. The report is divided into nine chapters. The first two deal with incomplete knowledge of boundary conditions of engineering structures. The incomplete knowledge is characterized by a convex set, and its diagnosis is formulated as a multi-hypothesis discrete decision-making algorithm with attendant criteria of adaptive termination.

  4. Analytic model of energy-absorption response functions in compound X-ray detector materials.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Youn, Hanbean; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A

    2013-10-01

    The absorbed energy distribution (AED) in X-ray imaging detectors is an important factor that affects both energy resolution and image quality through the Swank factor and detective quantum efficiency. In the diagnostic energy range (20-140 keV), escape of characteristic photons following photoelectric absorption and Compton scatter photons are primary sources of absorbed-energy dispersion in X-ray detectors. In this paper, we describe the development of an analytic model of the AED in compound X-ray detector materials, based on the cascaded-systems approach, that includes the effects of escape and reabsorption of characteristic and Compton-scatter photons. We derive analytic expressions for both semi-infinite slab and pixel geometries and validate our approach by Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic model provides the energy-dependent X-ray response function of arbitrary compound materials without time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. We believe this model will be useful for correcting spectral distortion artifacts commonly observed in photon-counting applications and optimal design and development of novel X-ray detectors.

  5. Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations. I. Analytical step-response functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, A.F.; Barlow, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Laplace transform step-response functions are presented for various homogeneous confined and leaky aquifer types and for anisotropic, homogeneous unconfined aquifers interacting with perennial streams. Flow is one-dimensional, perpendicular to the stream in the confined and leaky aquifers, and two-dimensional in a plane perpendicular to the stream in the water-table aquifers. The stream is assumed to penetrate the full thickness of the aquifer. The aquifers may be semi-infinite or finite in width and may or may not be bounded at the stream by a semipervious streambank. The solutions are presented in a unified manner so that mathematical relations among the various aquifer configurations are clearly demonstrated. The Laplace transform solutions are inverted numerically to obtain the real-time step-response functions for use in the convolution (or superposition) integral. To maintain linearity in the case of unconfined aquifers, fluctuations in the elevation of the water table are assumed to be small relative to the saturated thickness, and vertical flow into or out of the zone above the water table is assumed to occur instantaneously. Effects of hysteresis in the moisture distribution above the water table are therefore neglected. Graphical comparisons of the new solutions are made with known closed-form solutions.Laplace transform step-response functions are presented for various homogeneous confined and leaky aquifer types and for anisotropic, homogeneous unconfined aquifers interacting with perennial streams. Flow is one-dimensional, perpendicular to the stream in the confined and leaky aquifers, and two-dimensional in a plane perpendicular to the stream in the water-table aquifers. The stream is assumed to penetrate the full thickness of the aquifer. The aquifers may be semi-infinite or finite in width and may or may not be bounded at the stream by a semipervious streambank. The solutions are presented in a unified manner so that mathematical relations among the

  6. On the use of a uniformly valid analytical cascade response function for fan broadband noise predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, H.; Moreau, S.; Roger, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present paper extends an existing analytical model of the aeroacoustic response of a rectilinear cascade of flat-plate blades to three-dimensional incident vortical gusts, to the prediction of the noise generated by a three-dimensional annular blade-row. The extended formulation is meant to be implemented in a fan broadband noise prediction tool. The intended applications include the modern turbofan engines, for which analytical modelling is believed to be a good alternative to more expensive numerical techniques. The prediction noise model resorts to a strip theory approach based on a three-dimensional rectilinear cascade model. The latter is based on the Wiener-Hopf technique, and yields the pressure field in the blade passage and the unsteady blade loading. The analytical pressure solution is derived by making an extensive use of the residue theorem. The obtained unsteady blade loading distribution over the blades is then used as a dipole source distribution in an acoustic analogy applied in the annular rigid duct with uniform mean flow. The new achievements are then tested on three-dimensional annular-benchmark configurations and compared with three-dimensional lifting-surface models and three-dimensional Euler linearized codes available in the literature. The accuracy of the model is shown for high hub-to-tip ratio cases. When used as such in a true rectilinear-cascade configuration, it also reproduces the exact radiated field that can be derived directly. For low hub-to-tip ratio configurations, the model departs from three-dimensional computations, both regarding the blade loading and the acoustic radiation. A correction is proposed to account for the actual annular dispersion relation in the rectilinear-cascade response function. The results suggest that the proposed correction is necessary to get closer to the underlying physics of the annular-space wave equation, but that it is yet not sufficient to fully reproduce three-dimensional results.

  7. Analytical and experimental comparisons of electromechanical vibration response of a piezoelectric bimorph beam for power harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumentut, M. F.; Howard, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    Power harvesters that extract energy from vibrating systems via piezoelectric transduction show strong potential for powering smart wireless sensor devices in applications of health condition monitoring of rotating machinery and structures. This paper presents an analytical method for modelling an electromechanical piezoelectric bimorph beam with tip mass under two input base transverse and longitudinal excitations. The Euler-Bernoulli beam equations were used to model the piezoelectric bimorph beam. The polarity-electric field of the piezoelectric element is excited by the strain field caused by base input excitation, resulting in electrical charge. The governing electromechanical dynamic equations were derived analytically using the weak form of the Hamiltonian principle to obtain the constitutive equations. Three constitutive electromechanical dynamic equations based on independent coefficients of virtual displacement vectors were formulated and then further modelled using the normalised Ritz eigenfunction series. The electromechanical formulations include both the series and parallel connections of the piezoelectric bimorph. The multi-mode frequency response functions (FRFs) under varying electrical load resistance were formulated using Laplace transformation for the multi-input mechanical vibrations to provide the multi-output dynamic displacement, velocity, voltage, current and power. The experimental and theoretical validations reduced for the single mode system were shown to provide reasonable predictions. The model results from polar base excitation for off-axis input motions were validated with experimental results showing the change to the electrical power frequency response amplitude as a function of excitation angle, with relevance for practical implementation.

  8. An analytical and experimental investigation of the response of the curved, composite frame/skin specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moas, Eduardo; Boitnott, Richard L.; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Six-foot diameter, semicircular graphite/epoxy specimens representative of generic aircraft frames were loaded quasi-statistically to determine their load response and failure mechanisms for large deflections that occur in airplanes crashes. These frame/skin specimens consisted of a cylindrical skin section co-cured with a semicircular I-frame. The skin provided the necessary lateral stiffness to keep deformations in the plane of the frame in order to realistically represent deformations as they occur in actual fuselage structures. Various frame laminate stacking sequences and geometries were evaluated by statically loading the specimen until multiple failures occurred. Two analytical methods were compared for modeling the frame/skin specimens: a two-dimensional shell finite element analysis and a one-dimensional, closed-form, curved beam solution derived using an energy method. Flange effectivities were included in the beam analysis to account for the curling phenomenon that occurs in thin flanges of curved beams. Good correlation was obtained between experimental results and the analytical predictions of the linear response of the frames prior to the initial failure. The specimens were found to be useful for evaluating composite frame designs.

  9. Big Data Analytics for Disaster Preparedness and Response of Mobile Communication Infrastructure during Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Takano, K.; Ji, Y.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The disruption of telecommunications is one of the most critical disasters during natural hazards. As the rapid expanding of mobile communications, the mobile communication infrastructure plays a very fundamental role in the disaster response and recovery activities. For this reason, its disruption will lead to loss of life and property, due to information delays and errors. Therefore, disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure itself is quite important. In many cases of experienced disasters, the disruption of mobile communication networks is usually caused by the network congestion and afterward long-term power outage. In order to reduce this disruption, the knowledge of communication demands during disasters is necessary. And big data analytics will provide a very promising way to predict the communication demands by analyzing the big amount of operational data of mobile users in a large-scale mobile network. Under the US-Japan collaborative project on 'Big Data and Disaster Research (BDD)' supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and National Science Foundation (NSF), we are going to investigate the application of big data techniques in the disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure. Specifically, in this research, we have considered to exploit the big amount of operational information of mobile users for predicting the communications needs in different time and locations. By incorporating with other data such as shake distribution of an estimated major earthquake and the power outage map, we are able to provide the prediction information of stranded people who are difficult to confirm safety or ask for help due to network disruption. In addition, this result could further facilitate the network operators to assess the vulnerability of their infrastructure and make suitable decision for the disaster preparedness and response. In this presentation, we are going to introduce the

  10. Psychophysiological, behavioral, and cognitive indices of the emotional response: a factor-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Navarro, Juan Pedro; Martínez-Selva, José María; Torrente, Ginesa; Román, Francisco

    2008-05-01

    Previous research on the components of the emotional response employing factor analytic studies has yielded a two-factor structure (Lang, Greenwald, Bradley, & Hamm, 1993; Cuthbert, Schupp, Bradley, Birbaumer, & Lang, 2000). However, the startle blink reflex, a widely employed measure of the emotional response, has not been considered to date. We decided to include two parameters of the startle reflex (magnitude and latency) in order to explore further how this response fits into the two-factor model of emotion. We recorded the acoustic startle blink response, skin conductance response, heart rate, free viewing time, and picture valence and arousal ratings of 45 subjects while viewing 54 pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; 18 unpleasant, 18 neutral, and 18 pleasant). Factorizations of all measures gave a two-factor solution (valence and arousal) that accounted for 70% of the variance. Although some measurements, including heart rate change, did not behave as predicted, our results reinforce the two-dimension model of the emotion, and show that startle fits into the model.

  11. Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fenglin; Chen, Haiwei; Gou, Fangwang; Lee, Yun-Han; Wand, Michael; Li, Ming-Chun; Lee, Seok-Lyul; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2017-01-01

    Motion picture response time (MPRT) affects the image blurs of thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid crystal displays and organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. We derive an analytical equation to correlate MPRT with the liquid crystal (LC)/OLED response time and TFT frame rate. Good agreement between our physical model and experimental results is obtained. Based on our model, we find that if the LC's response time is 2 ms or less, then its MPRT is nearly the same as that of OLED, even if OLED's response time is assumed to be 0. To achieve MPRT comparable to OLEDs, we developed an ultra-low viscosity LC mixture for the vertical alignment mode operation. The measured average gray-to-gray response time is 0.93 ms, and its MPRT at 120 Hz is 6.88 ms. In comparison, OLED's MPRT is 6.67 ms. To further shorten MPRT, we could either increase the frame rate or reduce the backlight duty ratio. Pros and cons of these approaches are discussed.

  12. Financing Public Higher Education: The Impact of Responsibility Center Management on a Public Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappone, David J.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the impacts on public universities of implementing an incentive-based budgeting system, this dissertation focuses on one university's extensive experience with Responsibility Center Management. The financial and non-financial impacts of Responsibility Center Management will be considered by examining the extent to which commonly held…

  13. Financing Public Higher Education: The Impact of Responsibility Center Management on a Public Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappone, David J.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the impacts on public universities of implementing an incentive-based budgeting system, this dissertation focuses on one university's extensive experience with Responsibility Center Management. The financial and non-financial impacts of Responsibility Center Management will be considered by examining the extent to which commonly held…

  14. How Porcupines Make Love: Notes on a Response-Centered Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Alan C., Ed.

    These "notes on a response-centered curriculum" specify four objectives of an English program in the schools. In the program an individual is to trust himself; get to know himself; recognize his differences from others; and recognize his similarity with others. After an overview of the response-centered English curriculum, chapters are devoted to:…

  15. Treating Suicidality in College Counseling Centers: A Response to Polychronis

    PubMed Central

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Coyle, Trevor N.; Locey, Nadia Samad; Walloch, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article by Paul D. Polychronis, “Changes Across Three Editions of The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care: Relevance to Counseling Centers,” published in this issue of the Journal of College Student Psychotherapy. PMID:28752155

  16. Treating Suicidality in College Counseling Centers: A Response to Polychronis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Coyle, Trevor N.; Locey, Nadia Samad; Walloch, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The article entitled "Changes Across Three Editions of The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care: Relevance to Counseling Centers" by Paul Polychronis (EJ1123965) provides an informative summary of the evolution of Bongar & Sullivan's (2013) book The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care across…

  17. Treating Suicidality in College Counseling Centers: A Response to Polychronis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Coyle, Trevor N.; Locey, Nadia Samad; Walloch, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The article entitled "Changes Across Three Editions of The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care: Relevance to Counseling Centers" by Paul Polychronis (EJ1123965) provides an informative summary of the evolution of Bongar & Sullivan's (2013) book The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care across…

  18. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Condensed Phase Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (CP-MIMS): Improved Analytical Response Time and Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vandergrift, Gregory W; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Chris G

    2017-05-16

    Condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS) is an online, in situ analysis technique for low volatility analytes. Analytes diffuse through a hollow fiber membrane, where they are then dissolved by a liquid (condensed) acceptor phase flowing through the membrane lumen. Permeating analytes are entrained to an atmospheric pressure ionization source for subsequent measurement by a mass spectrometer. Larger analytes, with inherently lower diffusivities, suffer from lengthy response times and lower sensitivity, limiting the use of CP-MIMS for their online, real-time measurement. We present the use of a heptane cosolvent in a methanol acceptor phase in combination with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The heptane generates an in situ polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) with the PDMS. We report improved measurement response times and greater sensitivity across a suite of analytes studied (gemfibrozil, nonylphenol, triclosan, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and naphthenic acids), with detection limits in the low parts per trillion (ppt) range. These improvements are attributed to increasing analyte diffusivities, as well as increased analyte partitioning across the PIM. Response times are ∼3× faster for the larger analytes studied, and calibration sensitivity is improved by up to ∼3.5× using 0.046 mole fraction heptane in the methanol acceptor. We report the use of short sample exposure times and the use of non-steady-state signals to reduce the analytical duty cycle, and illustrate that the use of a PIM provides a simple and robust variant of CP-MIMS amenable to rapid screening of analytes in complex samples.

  19. A hybrid analytical model for the transverse vibration response of a micro-end mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, K. B.; Zhong, Z. W.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of its detrimental effect on tool life and product quality, vibration analyses are crucial if the full potential of micro-milling operation is to be attained. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model (HAM) developed for estimating the transverse response of a micro-end mill is presented. The HAM is a combination of discrete and distributed structural elements. The discrete elements account for the stiffness and damping coefficients of the machining system, while the distributed elements idealize the geometrical representation of the micro-end mill with a novel model of the micro-flute. A number of slot micro-end milling operations, carefully designed with the Taguchi method of design of experiments, are carried out to examine the accuracy of the HAM. The comparison of the response profile from the experiment and the developed model shows reasonably close similarity. The influence of the helix angle is found to be far greater on the response of the micro-end mill than the other geometric variables. By making use of the root mean square of the response, it is further observed that the representation of the micro-flute of the micro-end mill with a less accurate model deteriorates the prediction of the HAM.

  20. Big Data Analytics for Demand Response: Clustering Over Space and Time

    SciTech Connect

    Chelmis, Charalampos; Kolte, Jahanvi; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2015-10-29

    The pervasive deployment of advanced sensing infrastructure in Cyber-Physical systems, such as the Smart Grid, has resulted in an unprecedented data explosion. Such data exhibit both large volumes and high velocity characteristics, two of the three pillars of Big Data, and have a time-series notion as datasets in this context typically consist of successive measurements made over a time interval. Time-series data can be valuable for data mining and analytics tasks such as identifying the “right” customers among a diverse population, to target for Demand Response programs. However, time series are challenging to mine due to their high dimensionality. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We explore novel representations of time-series data for BigData analytics, and propose a clustering technique for determining natural segmentation of customers and identification of temporal consumption patterns. Our method is generizable to large-scale, real-world scenarios, without making any assumptions about the data. We evaluate our technique using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~ 18,200,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our technique in efficiency detecting the number of optimal number of clusters.

  1. Function-weighted frequency response function sensitivity method for analytical model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Since the frequency response function (FRF) sensitivity method was first proposed [26], it has since become a most powerful and practical method for analytical model updating. Nevertheless, the original formulation of the FRF sensitivity method does suffer the limitation that the initial analytical model to be updated should be reasonably close to the final updated model to be sought, due the assumed mathematical first order approximation implicit to most sensitivity based methods. Convergence to correct model is not guaranteed when large modelling errors exist and blind application often leads to optimal solutions which are truly sought. This paper seeks to examine all the important numerical characteristics of the original FRF sensitivity method including frequency data selection, numerical balance and convergence performance. To further improve the applicability of the method to cases of large modelling errors, a new novel function-weighted sensitivity method is developed. The new method has shown much superior performance on convergence even in the presence of large modelling errors. Extensive numerical case studies based on a mass-spring system and a GARTEUR structure have been conducted and very encouraging results have been achieved. Effect of measurement noise has been examined and the method works reasonably well in the presence of measurement uncertainties. The new method removes the restriction of modelling error magnitude being of second order in Euclidean norm as compared with that of system matrices, thereby making it a truly general method applicable to most practical model updating problems.

  2. Finite strain response of crimped fibers under uniaxial traction: An analytical approach applied to collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Michele; Wriggers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Composite materials reinforced by crimped fibers intervene in a number of advanced structural applications. Accordingly, constitutive equations describing their anisotropic behavior and explicitly accounting for fiber properties are needed for modeling and design purposes. To this aim, the finite strain response of crimped beams under uniaxial traction is herein addressed by obtaining analytical relationships based on the Principle of Virtual Works. The model is applied to collagen fibers in soft biological tissues, coupling geometric nonlinearities related to fiber crimp with material nonlinearities due to nanoscale mechanisms. Several numerical applications are presented, addressing the influence of geometric and material features. Available experimental data for tendons are reproduced, integrating the proposed approach within an optimization procedure for data fitting. The obtained results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed approach in correlating fibers structure with composite material mechanics.

  3. Dynamic response of a plane-symmetrical exothermic reaction center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. W.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    ?sger,An analysis of the dynamic behavior of an idealized, plane-symmetrical exothermic reaction center is presented. The conservation equations for the reaction center are combined and yield a single integral equation expressing a nonlinear transfer function of the system for which the input is provided by a given time profile of the heat released per unit mass while the output gives the pressure pulse it generates under the restriction of plane-symmetrical motion. The solution is governed by a Daumk]hler number. For a given form of the exothermic power pulse profile, the dynamic behavior of the system is completely specified in terms of only this Daumk]hler number and the heat of reaction per unit mass of the combustible medium. Specific solutions are worked out for a set of typical elementary power pulse profiles, and the practical significance of the results is illustrated by their application to the problem of transition to detonation in an explosive gas.

  4. Analytical Sensor Response Function of Viscosity Sensors Based on Layered Piezoelectric Thickness Shear Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benes, Ewald; Nowotny, Helmut; Braun, Stefan; Radel, Stefan; Gröschl, Martin

    Resonant piezoelectric sensors based on bulk acoustic wave (BAW) thickness shear resonators are promising for the inline measurement of fluid viscosity, e.g., in industrial processes. The sensor response function can be derived from the general rigorous transfer matrix description of one-dimensional layered structures consisting of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers of arbitrary number. This model according to Nowotny et al. provides a complete analytical description of the electrical and mechanical behaviour of such structures with two electrodes and arbitrary acoustic termination impedances (Rig-1d-Model). We apply this model to derive the sensor response functions and the mechanical displacement curves of the following configurations appropriate for viscosity sensors: An AT cut quartz crystal plate in contact with vacuum at the backside plane and with the liquid under investigation at the front side plane (QL). An AT cut quartz crystal in contact with the liquid under investigation at both sides (LQL). It is shown that in the QL case the originally only heuristically introduced and well established sensor response function according to Kanasawa can be derived from the Rig-1d-Model by introducing minor approximations. Experimental results are presented for the LQL configuration using an N1000 viscosity reference oil as test fluid.

  5. Evaluation of a wind-tunnel gust response technique including correlations with analytical and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L. T.; Hanson, P. W.; Wynne, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    A wind tunnel technique for obtaining gust frequency response functions for use in predicting the response of flexible aircraft to atmospheric turbulence is evaluated. The tunnel test results for a dynamically scaled cable supported aeroelastic model are compared with analytical and flight data. The wind tunnel technique, which employs oscillating vanes in the tunnel throat section to generate a sinusoidally varying flow field around the model, was evaluated by use of a 1/30 scale model of the B-52E airplane. Correlation between the wind tunnel results, flight test results, and analytical predictions for response in the short period and wing first elastic modes of motion are presented.

  6. Radioanalytical Data Quality Objectives and Measurement Quality Objectives during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Response

    SciTech Connect

    E. C. Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    During the early and intermediate phases of a nuclear or radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) collects environmental samples that are analyzed by organizations with radioanalytical capability. Resources dedicated to quality assurance (QA) activities must be sufficient to assure that appropriate radioanalytical measurement quality objectives (MQOs) and assessment data quality objectives (DQOs) are met. As the emergency stabilizes, QA activities will evolve commensurate with the need to reach appropriate DQOs. The MQOs represent a compromise between precise analytical determinations and the timeliness necessary for emergency response activities. Minimum detectable concentration (MDC), lower limit of detection, and critical level tests can all serve as measurements reflecting the MQOs. The relationship among protective action guides (PAGs), derived response levels (DRLs), and laboratory detection limits is described. The rationale used to determine the appropriate laboratory detection limit is described.

  7. Implementing Response to Intervention in Context. A Center Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Response to intervention is meant to be broad-based and preventative. However, as formulated and practiced the approach often is too limited in how it frames what needs to go on to enable learning, engage students, and keep them engaged. In particular, it pays too little attention to the need to strengthen the classroom and schoolwide context in…

  8. Analytical solutions for the seismic response of underground structures under SH wave propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Smerzini, C.; Aviles, J.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2008-07-08

    A theoretical approach is presented to study the antiplane seismic response of underground structures subjected to the incidence of plane waves. The structure is assumed to be a circular inclusion embedded in a homogenous, isotropic and linear visco-elastic halfspace and its mathematical formulation is approached through the theory of multiple scattering and diffraction. The inclusion may consist either of a cavity, with or without a ring-shaped boundary, or it may be filled in with a linear-elastic material, without loss of generality. The seismic response of the inclusion and its influence on surface ground motions are analyzed in both frequency and time domains. The dependence of the transfer function amplitudes on several parameters, such as the angle of incident SH waves, the frequency content of the excitation, the impedance contrast between the inclusion and the surrounding medium and the position along the ground surface, is underlined. Considering the lack of analytical solutions for quantifying the modification of ground motions induced by subterranean inhomogeneities, the results of this study can be used, on one side, as benchmark for both geophysical investigations and numerical dynamic soil-structure interaction studies, and, on the other side, to support the formulation of simplified approaches and/or formulas for the seismic design and assessment of underground structures.

  9. An experimental and analytical investigation on the response of GR/EP composite I-frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moas, E., Jr.; Boitnott, R. L.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Six-foot diameter, semicircular graphite/epoxy specimens representative of generic aircraft frames were loaded quasi-statically to determine their load response and failure mechanisms for large deflections that occur in an airplane crash. These frame-skin specimens consisted of a cylindrical skin section cocured with a semicircular I-frame. Various frame laminate stacking sequences and geometries were evaluated by statically loading the specimen until multiple failures occurred. Two analytical methods were compared for modeling the frame-skin specimens: a two-dimensional branched-shell finite element analysis and a one-dimensional, closed-form, curved beam solution derived using an energy method. Excellent correlation was obtained between experimental results and the finite element predictions of the linear response of the frames prior to the initial failure. The beam solution was used for rapid parameter and design studies, and was found to be stiff in comparison with the finite element analysis. The specimens were found to be useful for evaluating composite frame designs.

  10. 20 CFR 670.220 - Are we responsible for the protection and maintenance of center facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance of center facilities? 670.220 Section 670.220 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... and Protection and Maintenance of Facilities § 670.220 Are we responsible for the protection and maintenance of center facilities? (a) Yes, the Secretary establishes procedures for the protection...

  11. 20 CFR 670.510 - Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training? 670.510 Section 670.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Program Activities and Center Operations...

  12. The effect of dipole moment of analytes on the response of phthalocyanıne thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Okan; Mısırlıoǧlu, Banu Süngü; Altındal, Ahmet

    2016-03-01

    The effects of dipole moment of the analyte molecules on the response characteristics of bis(pentafluorophenyl)methoxyl substituted phthalocyanine thin film are explored to understand the details of molecular interactions of analytes with the sensor surface which lead to charge depletion and the chemiresistive effect. The concentration dependence of dc conductivity is measured to investigate the adress the response of the Pc film. It was found that the speed of the response is dominated by the polarity of the analytes. Four kinetic models, the first-order equation, the Elovich model, the second-order equation and the Ritchie's equation were selected to follow the adsorption process. The rate constants, equilibrium capacities and related correlation coefficients for each kinetic model were calculated and discussed. The second-order equation was the best of the various kinetic models studied to describe the adsorption kinetic of VOC vapours on Pc film, as evidenced by the highest correlation coefficients.

  13. Analysing task design and students' responses to context-based problems through different analytical frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-05-01

    found successful to analyse both the test items as well as students' responses in a systematic way. The framework can therefore be applied in the design of new tasks, the analysis and assessment of students' responses, and as a tool for teachers to scaffold students in their problem-solving process. Conclusions:This paper gives implications for practice and for future research to both develop new context-based problems in a structured way, as well as providing analytical tools for investigating students' higher order thinking in their responses to these tasks.

  14. Visual analytics of phosphorylation time-series data on insulin response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, David K. G.; Stolte, Christian; Kaur, Sandeep; Bain, Michael; O'Donoghue, Seán I.

    2013-10-01

    Visual analysis of time-series data on protein phosphorylation presents a particular challenge: bioinformatics tools currently available for visualising 'omics' data in time series have been developed primarily to study gene expression, and cannot easily be adopted to phosphorylation data, where a single protein typically has multiple phosphosites. In this study, we worked with an experimental research group that is applying very recent methods in high-throughput experimental proteomics to study the time course of protein phosphorylation events in human cells in vitro following stimulation by insulin, as part of a broader study of diabetes and obesity. We applied several existing visual analytics approaches with the goal of organising the data to facilitate new insight into underlying molecular processes. We developed a novel layout strategy called 'Minardo' that is loosely based on cell topology and ordered by time and causality. This layout utilises a frame of reference familiar to life scientists and helpful for organising and interpreting time-series data. This strategy proved to be useful, leading to new insights into the insulin response pathway. We are working on generalising the Minardo layout to accommodate similar datasets related to other signalling pathways, which should be straightforward.

  15. Empirical evaluation of meta-analytic approaches for nutrient and health outcome dose-response data.

    PubMed

    Yu, Winifred W; Schmid, Christopher H; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lau, Joseph; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to empirically compare alternative meta-analytic methods for combining dose-response data from epidemiological studies. We identified meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between a single nutrient and a dichotomous outcome. For each topic, we performed meta-analyses of odds ratios with five approaches: using extreme exposure categories only, two-step approach (first calculated study-specific effects then combined across studies) using unadjusted data, two-step approach using adjusted data, one-step approach (analyzed all data in one regression model) using unadjusted data, and one-step approach using adjusted data. Meta-analyses including only extreme exposure categories gave consistently bigger effects and wider confidence intervals than meta-analyses using all data. Confidence intervals of effect sizes were generally wider in meta-analyses with the two-step approach, compared with the one-step approach. Meta-analyses using unadjusted data and adjusted data differed, with no consistent pattern of discordance in direction, statistical significance, or magnitude of effect. We discourage using meta-analysis approaches that only use data from extreme exposure categories. The one-step approach generally has higher precision than the two-step approach. Sensitivity analysis comparing results between meta-analyses of adjusted and unadjusted data may be useful in indicating the presence of confounding.

  16. All-coupling polaron optical response: Analytic approaches beyond the adiabatic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimin, S. N.; Tempere, J.; Devreese, J. T.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the problem of an all-coupling analytic description for the optical conductivity of the Fröhlich polaron is treated, with the goal being to bridge the gap in the validity range that exists between two complementary methods: on the one hand, the memory-function formalism and, on the other hand, the strong-coupling expansion based on the Franck-Condon picture for the polaron response. At intermediate coupling, both methods were found to fail as they do not reproduce diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo results. To resolve this, we modify the memory-function formalism with respect to the Feynman-Hellwarth-Iddings-Platzman approach in order to take into account a nonquadratic interaction in a model system for the polaron. The strong-coupling expansion is extended beyond the adiabatic approximation by including in the treatment nonadiabatic transitions between excited polaron states. The polaron optical conductivity that we obtain at T =0 by combining the two extended methods agrees well, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo results in the whole available range of the electron-phonon coupling strength.

  17. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ojha, A.; Garg, A. D.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  18. Analytical and clinical performance of the epoc blood analysis system: experience at a large tertiary academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Stotler, Brie A; Kratz, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    To describe validation and performance of epoc, a blood gas analysis point-of-care system, in a live clinical setting. Data were collected for 156 epoc systems over 12 months. Preimplementation precision and correlation studies and postimplementation quality assurance data were collected, including test card, reader, and personal data assistant (PDA) failure rates. The coefficient of variation was clinically acceptable for all analytes. Correlation studies yielded an R(2) from 0.901 (for sodium) to 0.994 (for potassium) with the Nova analyzer and from 0.961 (sodium) to 0.991 (glucose) with the i-STAT. Average test card failure rate was 13%. Of the PDA/reader units, 55% needed repair within 1 year. The analytical performance showed high precision and good correlation with the Nova and i-STAT platforms. Test card and instrument failure rates were higher than that of the i-STAT system.

  19. How Porcupines Make Love II: Teaching a Response-Centered Literature Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.; And Others

    Written in the same spirit as the earlier edition but thoroughly revised and updated, this book is designed to make teachers aware of reader-response theory and its implications for literature instruction and curriculum. The book demonstrates how a response-centered curriculum brings students to a greater understanding of all forms of literature…

  20. A Response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study," the authors agree that assessments should seek parsimony in both theory and application wherever possible. Doing so allows maximal dissemination and implementation while minimizing costs. The Writing…

  1. The decade of the nineties at the UCLA Medical Center: responses to dramatic marketplace changes.

    PubMed

    Karpf, M; Schultze, R G; Levey, G

    2000-08-01

    The evolution of the health care marketplace in the nineties in Southern California is described, including the dominance of managed care at the decade's end. The marketplace, especially in Los Angeles, is now one of the most complex, competitive, and challenging medical marketplaces in the country. The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center and the academic health center of which it is a part have had to respond appropriately and vigorously to survive and to position themselves for the future. This article focuses on the responses of the medical center to these marketplace pressures. The center has recognized single-signature contracting, cost containment, and an emphasis on ambulatory care as fundamental success factors for survival in a complex, organized managed care environment. Data on the medical, financial, and educational performances of the medical center are presented in terms of its responses to the marketplace. Preliminary information about quality of care is presented for three patient-population groups that have been heavily affected by managed care. The need for emphasis on quality and service for future success and the attendant need for emphasis on information systems are discussed. The importance of fundamental understanding of markets is also reviewed. The concomitant approaches to securing the center's academic missions are described, including changes in institutional governance for the entire health sciences center of which the medical center is a part and the establishment of priorities in research, clinical care, and teaching programs, especially teaching programs in primary care.

  2. Measurement of Plastic Stress and Strain for Analytical Method Verification (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Project No. 93-08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.; Steeve, B. E.; Swanson, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical prediction of stress, strain, and fatigue life at locations experiencing local plasticity is full of uncertainties. Much of this uncertainty arises from the material models and their use in the numerical techniques used to solve plasticity problems. Experimental measurements of actual plastic strains would allow the validity of these models and solutions to be tested. This memorandum describes how experimental plastic residual strain measurements were used to verify the results of a thermally induced plastic fatigue failure analysis of a space shuttle main engine fuel pump component.

  3. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  4. A Bright Fluorescent Probe for H2S Enables Analyte-Responsive, 3D Imaging in Live Zebrafish Using Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a critical gaseous signaling molecule emerging at the center of a rich field of chemical and biological research. As our understanding of the complexity of physiological H2S in signaling pathways evolves, advanced chemical and technological investigative tools are required to make sense of this interconnectivity. Toward this goal, we have developed an azide-functionalized O-methylrhodol fluorophore, MeRho-Az, which exhibits a rapid >1000-fold fluorescence response when treated with H2S, is selective for H2S over other biological analytes, and has a detection limit of 86 nM. Additionally, the MeRho-Az scaffold is less susceptible to photoactivation than other commonly used azide-based systems, increasing its potential application in imaging experiments. To demonstrate the efficacy of this probe for H2S detection, we demonstrate the ability of MeRho-Az to detect differences in H2S levels in C6 cells and those treated with AOAA, a common inhibitor of enzymatic H2S synthesis. Expanding the use of MeRho-Az to complex and heterogeneous biological settings, we used MeRho-Az in combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize H2S in the intestinal tract of live zebrafish. This application provides the first demonstration of analyte-responsive 3D imaging with LSFM, highlighting the utility of combining new probes and live imaging methods for investigating chemical signaling in complex multicellular systems. PMID:26061541

  5. A Bright Fluorescent Probe for H2S Enables Analyte-Responsive, 3D Imaging in Live Zebrafish Using Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hammers, Matthew D; Taormina, Michael J; Cerda, Matthew M; Montoya, Leticia A; Seidenkranz, Daniel T; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Pluth, Michael D

    2015-08-19

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a critical gaseous signaling molecule emerging at the center of a rich field of chemical and biological research. As our understanding of the complexity of physiological H2S in signaling pathways evolves, advanced chemical and technological investigative tools are required to make sense of this interconnectivity. Toward this goal, we have developed an azide-functionalized O-methylrhodol fluorophore, MeRho-Az, which exhibits a rapid >1000-fold fluorescence response when treated with H2S, is selective for H2S over other biological analytes, and has a detection limit of 86 nM. Additionally, the MeRho-Az scaffold is less susceptible to photoactivation than other commonly used azide-based systems, increasing its potential application in imaging experiments. To demonstrate the efficacy of this probe for H2S detection, we demonstrate the ability of MeRho-Az to detect differences in H2S levels in C6 cells and those treated with AOAA, a common inhibitor of enzymatic H2S synthesis. Expanding the use of MeRho-Az to complex and heterogeneous biological settings, we used MeRho-Az in combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize H2S in the intestinal tract of live zebrafish. This application provides the first demonstration of analyte-responsive 3D imaging with LSFM, highlighting the utility of combining new probes and live imaging methods for investigating chemical signaling in complex multicellular systems.

  6. Utilization of rapid response resources and outcomes in a comprehensive cancer center*.

    PubMed

    Austin, Charles A; Hanzaker, Chris; Stafford, Renae; Mayer, Celeste; Culp, Loc; Lin, Feng-Chang; Chang, Lydia

    2014-04-01

    To compare the differences in characteristics and outcomes of cancer center patients with other subspecialty medical patients reviewed by rapid response teams. A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized general medicine patients, subspecialty medicine patients, and oncology patients requiring rapid response team activation over a 2-year period from September 2009 to August 2011. Five hundred fifty-seven subspecialty medical patients required rapid response team intervention. A single academic medical center in the southeastern United States (800+ bed) with a dedicated 50-bed inpatient comprehensive cancer care center. Data abstraction from computerized medical records and a hospital quality improvement rapid response database. Of the 557 patients, 135 were cancer center patients. Cancer center patients had a significantly higher Charlson Comorbidity Score (4.4 vs 2.9, < 0.001). Cancer center patients had a significantly longer hospitalization period prior to rapid response team activation (11.4 vs 6.1 d, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between proportions of patients requiring ICU transfer between the two groups (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8). Cancer center patients had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with the other subspecialty medical patients (33% vs 18%; odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.50-3.5). If the rapid response team event required an ICU transfer, this finding was more pronounced (56% vs 23%; odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.0-7.8). The utilization of rapid response team resources during the 2-year period studied was also much higher for the oncology patients with 37.34 activations per 1,000 patient discharges compared with 20.86 per 1,000 patient discharges for the general medical patients. Oncology patients requiring rapid response team activation have a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate, particularly if the rapid response team requires ICU transfer. Oncology patients also utilize rapid response team

  7. 20 CFR 670.555 - What are the center's responsibilities in ensuring that students' religious rights are respected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the center's responsibilities in ensuring that students' religious rights are respected? 670.555 Section 670.555 Employees' Benefits... INVESTMENT ACT Program Activities and Center Operations § 670.555 What are the center's responsibilities...

  8. Chemometric study of the influence of instrumental parameters on ESI-MS analyte response using full factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, M. A.; Schug, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between instrumental parameters in two mass spectrometers equipped with conventional electrospray ion sources (Thermo LCQ Deca XP and Shimadzu LCMS 2010). Four major parameters (spray voltage, ion transfer capillary temperature, ion transfer capillary voltage, and tube lens voltage) were investigated in both instruments for their contribution to analyte response, leading to a total of 16 experiments performed for each instrument. Significant parameters were identified by plotting the cumulative probability of each treatment against the estimated effects in normal plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to evaluate the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on ESI-MS analyte response. The results reveal a number of important interactions in addition to the main effects for each instrument. In all the experiments performed, the tube lens voltage (or Q-array dc voltage in LCMS 2010) was found to have significant effects on analyte response in both instruments. The tube lens voltage was also found to interact with the capillary temperature in the case of the LCQ Deca XP and with the spray voltage in the case of the LCMS 2010. The results of these experiments provide important considerations in the instrumental optimization of ionization response for ESI-MS analysis.

  9. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F; Cerra, Frank B; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field.

  10. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F.; Cerra, Frank B.; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  11. Edge analyzing properties of center/surround response functions in cybernetic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of center/surround response functions to make explicit high resolution spatial information in optical images was investigated by performing convolutions of two dimensional response functions and image intensity functions (mainly edges). The center/surround function was found to have the unique property of separating edge contrast from shape variations and of providing a direct basis for determining contrast and subsequently shape of edges in images. Computationally simple measures of contrast and shape were constructed for potential use in cybernetic vision systems. For one class of response functions these measures were found to be reasonably resilient for a range of scan direction and displacements of the response functions relative to shaped edges. A pathological range of scan directions was also defined and methods for detecting and handling these cases were developed. The relationship of these results to biological vision is discussed speculatively.

  12. Sites of overt and covert attention define simultaneous spatial reference centers for visuomotor response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Liang, Lixin; Pan, Yujun; Qian, Ning; Zhang, Mingsha

    2017-04-21

    The site of overt attention (fixation point) defines a spatial reference center that affects visuomotor response as indicated by the stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) effect: When subjects press, e.g., a left key to report stimuli, their reaction time is shorter when stimuli appear to the left than to the right of the fixation. Covert attention to a peripheral site appears to define a similar reference center but previous studies did not control for confounding spatiotemporal factors or investigate the relationship between overt- and covert-attention-defined centers. Using an eye tracker to monitor fixation, we found an SRC effect relative to the site of covert attention induced by a flashed cue dot, and a concurrent reduction, but not elimination, of the overt-attention SRC effect. The two SRC effects jointly determined the overall motor reaction time. Since trials with different cue locations were randomly interleaved, the integration of the two reference centers must be updated online. When the cue was invalid and diminished covert attention, the covert-attention SRC effect disappeared and the overt-attention SRC effect retained full strength, excluding non-attention-based interpretations. We conclude that both covert- and overt-attention sites define visual reference centers that simultaneously contribute to motor response.

  13. Multiple analyte response and molecular logic operations by excited-state charge-transfer modulation in a bipyridine integrated fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Manojkumar, T K; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2011-02-01

    The tunable excited-state properties of a new donor-π-acceptor-π-donor-type fluorophore 1 with a bipyridyl moiety and its ability to respond to different analytes in solution and on paper microchannels are described. Furthermore, the multiple analyte response of fluorophore 1 has been exploited to perform multiple logic operations. Molecule 1, by virtue of its excited-state charge transfer, exhibits solvatochromism and reversible modulation of its emission in response to multiple chemical inputs, thus resulting in different fluorescent signals. The intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) emission of 1 at 574 nm has been modulated to three emission outputs by using different chemical inputs, such as Zn(2+), H(+), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Thus, different logic operations such as AND, 2-input-INH, 3-input-INH, IMP, and a combination of these logic operations could be achieved.

  14. Correction of age-associated deficiency in germinal center response by immunization with immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Biao; Switzer, Kirsten; Marinova, Ekaterina; Wansley, Daniel; Han, Shuhua

    2007-08-01

    In aging, both primary and secondary antibody responses are impaired. One of the most notable changes in age-associated immune deficiency is the diminished germinal center (GC) reaction. This impaired GC response reduces antibody affinity maturation, decreases memory B cell development, and prevents the establishment of long-term antibody-forming cells in the bone marrow. It is of great importance to explore novel strategy in improving GC response in the elderly. In this study, the efficacy of immunization with immune complexes in overcoming age-associated deficiency in GC response was investigated. We show that the depressed GC response in aged mice can be significantly elevated by immunization with immune complexes. Importantly, there is a significant improvement of B cell memory response and long-lived plasma cells. Our results demonstrate that immune complex immunization may represent a novel strategy to elicit functional GC response in aging, and possibly, to overcome age-related immune deficiency in general.

  15. NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center: Providing Situational Awareness for Spaceflight Contingency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; Bihner, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the NASA Headquarters mishap response process for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and how the process has evolved based on lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia accidents. It also describes the NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center (SOC) and its special role in facilitating senior management's overall situational awareness of critical spaceflight operations, before, during, and after a mishap, to ensure a timely and effective contingency response.

  16. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    DOE PAGES

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we proposemore » a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.« less

  17. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  18. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.; Griffin, John C.

    2015-07-01

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. Using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  19. Project management plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-12-12

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the Hanford Site will involve the handling and cleanup of toxic substances. Thousands of workers involved in these new activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and associated risks. This project is an important part of the Hanford Site mission and will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet high standards for safety. The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER) project will construct a centralized regional training center dedicated to training hazardous materials workers and emergency responders in classrooms and with hands-on, realistic training aids representing actual field conditions. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a cost-effective, high-quality way to meet the Hanford Site training needs. The training center creates a partnership among DOE; government contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and selected institutions of higher education.

  20. Cultural Responsiveness and Routines: When Center and Home Don't Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses cultural responsiveness and routines of child care centers that do not match what families are accustomed to at home. It can be difficult to discuss cultural differences in some routine caregiving activities because of the standards, rules, regulations, best practices, and health concerns that those trained in early…

  1. RE: National Alliance of Forest Owner's Response to Center for Biological Diversity's Request for Correction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letter from the National Alliance of Forest Owners requesting the EPA consider its previous response to EPA's Call for Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources and consider the Center for Biological Diversity's assertions without merit.

  2. Cultural Responsiveness and Routines: When Center and Home Don't Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses cultural responsiveness and routines of child care centers that do not match what families are accustomed to at home. It can be difficult to discuss cultural differences in some routine caregiving activities because of the standards, rules, regulations, best practices, and health concerns that those trained in early…

  3. Sustaining the Dream: A Response to Excessive Positivism in Person-Centered Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Excessive Positivism in Person-Centered Planning," by Steve Holburn and Christine D. Cea. The author begins by complementing Holburn and Cea on their courage to voice concerns that perhaps may not appear to be politically correct or perhaps too bold to express in the context of a journal like…

  4. Teaching Language Arts: A Student- and Response-Centered Classroom. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carole

    Taking a consistent student- and response-centered approach to literature-based teaching in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms, this book is designed for use as a main text in undergraduate and graduate language arts methods courses. The book is firmly grounded in current social constructivist learning theory combined with a…

  5. Functional design criteria for the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, P.K.

    1995-03-10

    Within the United States, there are few hands-on training centers capable of providing integrated technical training within a practical application environment. Currently, there are no training facilities that offer both radioactive and chemical hazardous response training. There are no hands-on training centers that provide training for both hazardous material operations and emergency response that also operate as a partnership between organized labor, state agencies, tribes, and local emergency responders within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Available facilities appear grossly inadequate for training the thousands of people at Hanford, and throughout the Pacific Northwest, who are required to qualify under nationally-mandated requirements. It is estimated that 4,000 workers at the Hanford Site alone need hands-on training. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, the potential target audience would be over 30,000 public sector emergency response personnel, as well as another 10,000 clean-up workers represented by organized labor. The HAMMER Training Center will be an interagency-sponsored training center. It will be designed, built, and operated to ensure that clean-up workers, fire fighters, and public sector management and emergency response personnel are trained to handle accidental spills of hazardous materials. Training will cover wastes at clean-up sites, and in jurisdictions along the transportation corridors, to effectively protect human life, property, and the environment.

  6. 20 CFR 670.510 - Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training? 670.510 Section 670.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Program Activities and...

  7. 20 CFR 670.510 - Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training? 670.510 Section 670.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Program Activities and...

  8. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  9. Five key pillars of an analytics center of excellence, which are required to manage populations and transform organizations into the next era of health care.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Jim; Furlong, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    Acute care facilities are experiencing fiscal challenges as noted by decreasing admissions and lower reimbursement creating an unsustainable fiscal environment as we move into the next era of health care. This situation necessitates a strategy to move away from acting solely on hunches and instinct to using analytics to become a truly data-driven organization that identifies opportunities within patient populations to improve the quality and efficiency of care across the continuum. A brief overview of knowledge management philosophies will be provided and how it is used to enable organizations to leverage data, information, and knowledge for operational transformation leading to improved outcomes. This article outlines the 5 key pillars of an Analytics Center of Excellence; governance, organizational structure, people, process, and technology, that are foundational to the development of this strategy. While culture is the most important factor to achieve organizational transformation and improved care delivery, it is the 5 pillars of the ACoE that will enable the culture shift necessary to become a truly data-driven organization and thus achieve transformation into the next era of health care.

  10. Domains of analyticity for response solutions in strongly dissipative forced systems

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, Livia E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it; Feola, Roberto E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it; Gentile, Guido E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it

    2013-12-15

    We study the ordinary differential equation εx{sup ¨}+x{sup .}+εg(x)=εf(ωt), where g and f are real-analytic functions, with f quasi-periodic in t with frequency vector ω. If c{sub 0}∈R is such that g(c{sub 0}) equals the average of f and g′(c{sub 0}) ≠ 0, under very mild assumptions on ω there exists a quasi-periodic solution close to c{sub 0} with frequency vector ω. We show that such a solution depends analytically on ε in a domain of the complex plane tangent more than quadratically to the imaginary axis at the origin.

  11. Light propagation in media with a highly nonlinear response: An analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarinova, Larisa L.; Garcia, Martin E.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of light propagation in highly nonlinear media is studied with the help of a recently introduced systematic approach to the analytical solution of equations of nonlinear optics [L.L. Tatarinova, M.E. Garcia, Exact solutions of the eikonal equations describing self-focusing in highly nonlinear geometrical optics, Phys. Rev. A 78 (2008) 021806(R)(1-4)]. Numerous particular cases of media exhibiting high-order nonlinear refractive indices are considered. We obtain analytical expressions for determining the self-focusing position and a new exact expression for calculating the filament intensity. The constructed solutions allowed us to revise a so-called self-focusing scaling law, i.e., the functional dependence of the self-focusing position on the initial light peak intensity. It was demonstrated that this dependence is governed by the form of the nonlinear refractive index and not by the laser beam shape at the boundary.

  12. Service of Remembrance: a comprehensive cancer center's response to bereaved family members.

    PubMed

    Knight, Louise; Cooper, Rhonda S; Hypki, Cinder

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive cancer centers that offer an array of clinical trials and treatment options often experience significant patient mortality rates. Bereavement resources may not be routinely incorporated into the service delivery model in these specialty hospitals. In response, an interdisciplinary team at one cancer center proposed, planned, and implemented an annual Service of Remembrance. The incorporation of music, poetry, and visual arts was important in designing a program that would provide a meaningful, spiritual experience. A community artist who designed an interactive memorial art piece played a pivotal role. This article outlines the process of institutional culture change and describes future challenges in the implementation of this type of bereavement service.

  13. Accuracy and progress in the analytics of pharmaceuticalization: a response to Davis (2014).

    PubMed

    Abraham, John

    2015-04-01

    This commentary considers the important contribution to understanding pharmaceuticalization made by Davis's (2014) case study of cancer drug treatment in end-of-life-care. However, it argues that Davis (2014) has misunderstood some aspects of the conceptual and analytical framework put forward by Abraham (2010) as a way of explaining the nature and implications of pharmaceuticalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparedness and emergency response research centers: using a public health systems approach to improve all-hazards preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Leinhos, Mary; Qari, Shoukat H; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems.

  15. A cell-centered Lagrangian finite volume approach for computing elasto-plastic response of solids in cylindrical axisymmetric geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar; Shashkov, Mikhail J.; Burton, Donald E.

    2013-03-01

    A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian formulation is presented for solving large deformation problems in cylindrical axisymmetric geometries. Since solid materials can sustain significant shear deformation, evolution equations for stress and strain fields are solved in addition to mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The total strain-rate realized in the material is split into an elastic and plastic response. The elastic and plastic components in turn are modeled using hypo-elastic theory. In accordance with the hypo-elastic model, a predictor-corrector algorithm is employed for evolving the deviatoric component of the stress tensor. A trial elastic deviatoric stress state is obtained by integrating a rate equation, cast in the form of an objective (Jaumann) derivative, based on Hooke's law. The dilatational response of the material is modeled using an equation of state of the Mie-Grüneisen form. The plastic deformation is accounted for via an iterative radial return algorithm constructed from the J2 von Mises yield condition. Several benchmark example problems with non-linear strain hardening and thermal softening yield models are presented. Extensive comparisons with representative Eulerian and Lagrangian hydrocodes in addition to analytical and experimental results are made to validate the current approach.

  16. Developing the academic institution's role in response to bioterrorism: the Iowa Center for Public Health Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Atchison, Christopher G; Uden-Holman, Tanya; Greene, Barry R; Prybil, Lawrence D

    2003-01-01

    The terrorist acts during the fall of 2001 triggered renewed concern about the capacity of the nation's public health system to deal with crisis. A critical element of the response ability of the public health system is a prepared workforce. Based on a pre-existing concern about emerging infectious disease, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), working with the Association of Schools of Public Health, had established a network of university-based Centers for Public Health Preparedness. The events of September 11 accelerated, expanded, and focused this effort. This article discusses this national program, details the activities of the based Center for Public Health Preparedness located at the University of Iowa, and suggests preparedness issues deserving future development.

  17. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for their dependent children. (b) Job Corps centers may operate on center child development programs... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits... have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are responsible...

  18. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for their dependent children. (b) Job Corps centers may operate on center child development programs... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits... have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are responsible...

  19. Meta-Analytic Approaches for Multistressor Dose-Response Function Development: Strengths, Limitations, and Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Fabian, M Patricia; Peters, Junenette L

    2015-06-01

    For many policy analyses, including but not limited to cumulative risk assessments, it is important to characterize the individual and joint health effects of multiple stressors. With an increasing focus on psychosocial and other nonchemical stressors, this often includes epidemiological meta-analysis. Meta-analysis has limitations if epidemiological studies do not include all of the stressors of interest or do not provide multivariable outputs in a format necessary for risk assessment. Given these limitations, novel analytical methods are often needed to synthesize the published literature or to build upon available evidence. In this article, we discuss three recent case studies that highlight the strengths and limitations of meta-analytic approaches and other research synthesis techniques for human health risk assessment applications. First, a literature-based meta-analysis within a risk assessment context informed the design of a new epidemiological investigation of the differential toxicity of fine particulate matter constituents. Second, a literature synthesis for an effects-based cumulative risk assessment of hypertension risk factors led to a decision to develop new epidemiological associations using structural equation modeling. Third, discrete event simulation modeling was used to simulate the impact of changes in the built environment on environmental exposures and associated asthma outcomes, linking literature meta-analyses for key associations with a simulation model to synthesize all of the model components. These case studies emphasize the importance of conducting epidemiology with a risk assessment application in mind, the need for interdisciplinary collaboration, and the value of advanced analytical methods to synthesize epidemiological and other evidence for risk assessment applications.

  20. Swiprosin-1/EFhd2 limits germinal center responses and humoral type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Brachs, Sebastian; Turqueti-Neves, Adriana; Stein, Merle; Reimer, Dorothea; Brachvogel, Bent; Bösl, Michael; Winkler, Thomas; Voehringer, David; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Mielenz, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    Activated B cells are selected for in germinal centers by regulation of their apoptosis. The Ca2+ -binding cytoskeletal adaptor protein Swiprosin-1/EFhd2 (EFhd2) can promote apoptosis in activated B cells. We therefore hypothesized that EFhd2 might limit humoral immunity by repressing both the germinal center reaction and the expected enhancement of immune responses in the absence of EFhd2. Here, we established EFhd2(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6 background, which revealed normal B- and T-cell development, basal Ab levels, and T-cell independent type 1, and T-cell independent type 2 responses. However, T cell-dependent immunization with sheep red blood cells and infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (N.b) increased production of antibodies of multiple isotypes, as well as germinal center formation in EFhd2(-/-) mice. In addition, serum IgE levels and numbers of IgE+ plasma cells were strongly increased in EFhd2(-/-) mice, both after primary as well as after secondary N.b infection. Finally, mixed bone marrow chimeras unraveled an EFhd2-dependent B cell-intrinsic contribution to increased IgE plasma cell numbers in N.b-infected mice. Hence, we established a role for EFhd2 as a negative regulator of germinal center-dependent humoral type 2 immunity, with implications for the generation of IgE.

  1. A micro-level event-centered approach to investigating armed conflict and population responses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathalie E; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G; Jennings, Elyse A; Pradhan, Meeta S

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we construct and test a micro-level event-centered approach to the study of armed conflict and behavioral responses in the general population. Event-centered approaches have been successfully used in the macro-political study of armed conflict but have not yet been adopted in micro-behavioral studies. The micro-level event-centered approach that we advocate here includes decomposition of a conflict into discrete political and violent events, examination of the mechanisms through which they affect behavior, and consideration of differential risks within the population. We focus on two mechanisms: instability and threat of harm. We test this approach empirically in the context of the recent decade-long armed conflict in Nepal, using detailed measurements of conflict-related events and a longitudinal study of first migration, first marriage, and first contraceptive use. Results demonstrate that different conflict-related events independently shaped migration, marriage, and childbearing and that they can simultaneously influence behaviors in opposing directions. We find that violent events increased migration, but political events slowed migration. Both violent and political events increased marriage and contraceptive use net of migration. Overall, this micro-level event-centered approach yields a significant advance for the study of how armed conflict affects civilian behavioral responses.

  2. A Micro-Level Event-Centered Approach to Investigating Armed Conflict and Population Responses

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathalie E.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.; Jennings, Elyse A.; Pradhan, Meeta S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we construct and test a micro-level event-centered approach to the study of armed conflict and behavioral responses in the general population. Event-centered approaches have been successfully used in the macro-political study of armed conflict but have not yet been adopted in micro-behavioral studies. The micro-level event-centered approach that we advocate here includes decomposition of a conflict into discrete political and violent events, examination of the mechanisms through which they affect behavior, and consideration of differential risks within the population. We focus on two mechanisms: instability and threat of harm. We test this approach empirically in the context of the recent decade-long armed conflict in Nepal, using detailed measurements of conflict-related events and a longitudinal study of first migration, first marriage, and first contraceptive use. Results demonstrate that different conflict-related events independently shaped migration, marriage, and childbearing and that they can simultaneously influence behaviors in opposing directions. We find that violent events increased migration, but political events slowed migration. Both violent and political events increased marriage and contraceptive use net of migration. Overall, this micro-level event-centered approach yields a significant advance for the study of how armed conflict affects civilian behavioral responses. PMID:22911154

  3. [Optimization of cataplasm matrix with face-centered design-response surface method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuzhi; Li, Junhong; Jin, Rixian; Du, Maobo

    2009-12-01

    To optimize the matrix formulation of cataplasm. Face-centered design was used in the experimental design, and response surface was produced in quadratic polynomial after data fitting in order to explore the impacts of Sodium Polyacrylate, Carbomer and the cross-linking agent on stickiness of cataplasm, optimize the prescription of the cataplasm matrix and perform the evaluation analysis. The multiple correlation coefficient (R2) and adjusted R2 in the fitting method using quadratic polynomial were 0.970 and 0. 952 (F = 53.953, P = 0.0001), respectively, and the model was significant different. The ratio of optimum proportion of Sodium Polyacrylate, Carbomer and the cross-linking agent in the matrix of cataplasm was determined, which was proved efficaciously. Face-centered design-response surface method is a simple method with good prediction result for the optimization of cataplasm matrix.

  4. Sustained antigen availability during germinal center initiation enhances antibody responses to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myungsun; Pelet, Jeisa M.; Ruda, Vera M.; Foley, Maria H.; Hu, Joyce K.; Kumari, Sudha; Crampton, Jordan; Baldeon, Alexis D.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Crotty, Shane; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1–2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime. Computational modeling of the germinal center response suggested that antigen availability as higher-affinity antibodies evolve enhances antigen capture in lymph nodes. Consistent with these predictions, we found that exp-inc dosing led to prolonged antigen retention in lymph nodes and increased Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell numbers. Thus, regulating the antigen and adjuvant kinetics may enable increased vaccine potency. PMID:27702895

  5. Sustained antigen availability during germinal center initiation enhances antibody responses to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tam, Hok Hei; Melo, Mariane B; Kang, Myungsun; Pelet, Jeisa M; Ruda, Vera M; Foley, Maria H; Hu, Joyce K; Kumari, Sudha; Crampton, Jordan; Baldeon, Alexis D; Sanders, Rogier W; Moore, John P; Crotty, Shane; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Chakraborty, Arup K; Irvine, Darrell J

    2016-10-25

    Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1-2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime. Computational modeling of the germinal center response suggested that antigen availability as higher-affinity antibodies evolve enhances antigen capture in lymph nodes. Consistent with these predictions, we found that exp-inc dosing led to prolonged antigen retention in lymph nodes and increased Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell numbers. Thus, regulating the antigen and adjuvant kinetics may enable increased vaccine potency.

  6. The adaptive response metric: toward an all-hazards tool for planning, decision support, and after-action analytics.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret A; Schuh, Russell G; Pomer, Bruce; Stebbins, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Local health departments are organized, resourced, and operated primarily for routine public health services. For them, responding to emergencies and disasters requires adaptation to meet the demands of an emergency, and they must reallocate or augment resources, adjust work schedules, and, depending on severity and duration of the event, even compromise routine service outputs. These adaptations occur to varying degrees regardless of the type of emergency or disaster. The Adaptive Response Metric was developed through collaboration between a number of California health departments and university-based preparedness researchers. It measures the degree of "stress" from an emergency response as experienced by local health departments at the level of functional units (eg, nursing, administration, environmental services). Pilot testing of the Adaptive Response Metric indicates its utility for emergency planning, real-time decision making, and after-action analytics.

  7. Metabolic response to optic centers to visual stimuli in the albino rat: anatomical and physiological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Toga, A.W.; Collins, R.C.

    1981-07-10

    The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections /sup 14/C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers.

  8. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) Report, Former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) L PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUNSII ERM, Inc. 855 Springdale Drive N/ A Exton, PA 19341 9. SPONqSORING...Unlimited I& A &STRACT (Maamu, 200wow) . This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation...conducted by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) at the former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg (ARC), a U.S. Government property selected for

  9. Analytical Prediction of the Seismic Response of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.; Tsurumaki, S.

    1999-03-19

    Under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) is investigating the seismic behavior of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) through scale-model testing using the high-performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory. A series of tests representing design-level seismic ground motions was initially conducted to gather valuable experimental measurements for use in design verification. Additional tests will be conducted with increasing amplifications of the seismic input until a structural failure of the test model occurs. In a cooperative program with NUPEC, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), is conducting analytical research on the seismic behavior of RCCV structures. As part of this program, pretest analytical predictions of the model tests are being performed. The dynamic time-history analysis utilizes a highly detailed concrete constitutive model applied to a three-dimensional finite element representation of the test structure. This paper describes the details of the analysis model and provides analysis results.

  10. Development of a simplified analytical method for representing material cyclic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a simplified method for estimating structural inelastic stress and strain response to cyclic thermal loading is presented. The method assumes that high temperature structural response is the sum of time independent plastic and time dependent elastic/creep components. The local structural stress and strain response predicted by linear elastic analysis is modified by the simplified method to predict the inelastic response. The results with simulations by a nonlinear finite element analysis and used time independent plasticity and unified time dependent material model are compared.

  11. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses of unknown analytical response in imported Fava beans: 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole.

    PubMed

    Petzinger, G; Barry, T L; Roach, J A; Musser, S M; Sphon, J

    1995-01-01

    A halogenated unidentified analytical response (UAR) was encountered in a number of imported Fava bean samples during the Food and Drug Administration's routine pesticide-monitoring program. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses identified the halogenated component as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole, a naturally occurring promutagen in Fava beans that has been linked to incidents of gastric cancer. Data from electron impact, positive and negative chemical ionization, collision-induced dissociation, and deuteration studies of this compound are presented, along with GC retention time data.

  12. Simulation of population response to ionizing radiation in an ecosystem with a limiting resource--Model and analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Sazykina, Tatiana G; Kryshev, Alexander I

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model is formulated, predicting the development of radiation effects in a generic animal population, inhabiting an elemental ecosystem 'population-limiting resource'. Differential equations of the model describe the dynamic responses to radiation damage of the following population characteristics: gross biomass; intrinsic fractions of healthy and reversibly damaged tissues in biomass; intrinsic concentrations of the self-repairing pool and the growth factor; and amount of the limiting resource available in the environment. Analytical formulae are found for the steady states of model variables as non-linear functions of the dose rate of chronic radiation exposure. Analytical solutions make it possible to predict the expected severity of radiation effects in a model ecosystem, including such endpoints as morbidity, mortality, life shortening, biosynthesis, and population biomass. Model parameters are selected from species data on lifespan, physiological growth and mortality rates, and individual radiosensitivity. Thresholds for population extinction can be analytically calculated for different animal species, examples are provided for generic mice and wolf populations. The ecosystem model demonstrates a compensatory effect of the environment on the development of radiation effects in wildlife. The model can be employed to construct a preliminary scale 'radiation exposure-population effects' for different animal species; species can be identified, which are vulnerable at a population level to chronic radiation exposure.

  13. Responsibility-based A/R reporting: how one health system drove performance with analytics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa; Hindman, Ashley; McMillan, Brett

    2009-09-01

    An automated accounts receivable (A/R) reporting package should provide managers with data-driven information to help them respond to emerging trends in the revenue cycle. Responsibility for clearly defined account portfolios should be assigned to managers, and targets should be established. This data-driven approach with its culture of responsibility can help healthcare organizations reach their A/R goals.

  14. Methods for Measuring Student Response to Stimulant Medication: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Someki, Fumio; Burns, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Measuring student response to interventions has become an important role for school psychologists. Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are frequently treated with stimulant medication, but the response to the treatment is rarely adequately assessed. The current study examined the sensitivity of measures used to assess the…

  15. A collaborative large spatio-temporal data visual analytics architecture for emergence response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, D.; Li, J.; Cao, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The unconventional emergency, usually outbreaks more suddenly, and is diffused more quickly, but causes more secondary damage and derives more disaster than what it is usually expected. The data volume and urgency of emergency exceeds the capacity of current emergency management systems. In this paper, we propose a three-tier collaborative spatio-temporal visual analysis architecture to support emergency management. The prototype system, based on cloud computation environment, supports aggregation of massive unstructured and semi-structured data, integration of various computing model sand algorithms; collaborative visualization and visual analytics among users with a diversity of backgrounds. The distributed data in 100TB scale is integrated in a unified platform and shared with thousands of experts and government agencies by nearly 100 models. The users explore, visualize and analyse the big data and make a collaborative countermeasures to emergencies.

  16. Copper-based reactions in analyte-responsive fluorescent probes for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, Ho Yu; Chan, Chung Ying; Tong, Ka Yan; Yu, Zuo Hang

    2017-07-04

    Copper chemistry has been capitalized on in a wide spectrum of biological events. The central importance of copper in biology lies in the diverse chemical reactivity of the redox-active transition metal ranging from electron transfer, small molecule binding and activation, to catalysis. In addition to its many different roles in natural biological systems, the diverse chemical reactivity of copper also represents a rich opportunity and resource to develop synthetic bioanalytical tools for the study of biologically important species and molecules. In this mini-review, fluorescent probes featuring a specific copper-based chemical reaction to selectively detect a biologically relevant analyte will be discussed. In particular, fluorescent probes for sensing labile copper ions, amino acids and small reactive species will be highlighted. The chemical principles, advantages and limitations of the different types of copper-mediated chemical reactions in these fluorescent probes will be emphasized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers: advancing standardized evaluation of public health preparedness and response trainings.

    PubMed

    Hites, Lisle S; Sass, Marcia M; D'Ambrosio, Luann; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Peters, Karen E; Sobelson, Robyn K

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLCs) across the United States. The PERLCs provide training to state, local, and tribal public health organizations to meet workforce development needs in the areas of public health preparedness and response, specialized training, education, and consultation. Using Donald Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model, the PERLC network established 4 evaluation working groups that developed evaluation criteria to address each level of the model. The purpose of the working groups was to inform and promote center-level and program-level evaluation across the PERLC network; identify common training evaluation methods and measures; and share materials, resources, and lessons learned with state, local, and tribal public health organizations for potential replication. The evaluation of education and training, irrespective of its modality (eg, in-person, online, webinars, seminars, symposia) can be accomplished using Kirkpatrick's 4-level taxonomy. The 4 levels aim to measure the following aspects of training programs: (1) trainees' reaction; (2) knowledge acquired, skills improved, or attitudes changed; (3) behavior changed; and (4) results or impact. To successfully evaluate emergency preparedness training, drills and exercises, it is necessary to understand the fundamental tenets of each level and how to apply each to measure training outcomes. The PERLC evaluators have adopted the basic schema of Kirkpatrick's 4-level model and applied its structure to a wide variety of preparedness and emergency response training and related activities. The PERLC evaluation working groups successfully developed and tested survey methods and instruments for each of the 4 levels of Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model. Each can be used for replication by state, local, and tribal public health professionals.

  18. Regulation of germinal center responses and B-cell memory by the chromatin modifier MOZ

    PubMed Central

    Good-Jacobson, Kim L.; Chen, Yunshun; Voss, Anne K.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Thomas, Tim; Tarlinton, David

    2014-01-01

    Memory B cells and long-lived bone marrow-resident plasma cells maintain humoral immunity. Little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms that are essential for forming memory B cells or endowing them with the ability to rapidly differentiate upon reexposure while maintaining the population over time. Histone modifications have been shown to regulate lymphocyte development, but their role in regulating differentiation and maintenance of B-cell subsets during an immune response is unclear. Using stage-specific deletion of monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ), a histone acetyltransferase, we demonstrate that mutation of this chromatin modifier alters fate decisions in both primary and secondary responses. In the absence of MOZ, germinal center B cells were significantly impaired in their ability to generate dark zone centroblasts, with a concomitant decrease in both cell-cycle progression and BCL-6 expression. In contrast, there was increased differentiation to IgM and low-affinity IgG1+ memory B cells. The lack of MOZ affected the functional outcome of humoral immune responses, with an increase in secondary germinal centers and a corresponding decrease in secondary high-affinity antibody-secreting cell formation. Therefore, these data provide strong evidence that manipulating epigenetic modifiers can regulate fate decisions during humoral responses, and thus could be targeted for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24979783

  19. Response to catastrophic marine pollution incidents: an analytic method for resource planning and control

    SciTech Connect

    Harrald, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The consequences of an oil spill in an environmentally sensitive area can be serious; the result of a chemical release in a densely populated port area could be catastrophic. Response forces in either case will have a limited period of time to initiate action if their amelioration efforts are to be successful. The need for improved response planning and control is established by reviewing the historical development of maritime response forces, and by showing why rescue and salvage organizations are poorly equipped to deal with the problem of large-scale cargo releases. A multi-objective resource allocation model based on the time constained nature of this response problem is developed. A three-step process is used to adapt the covering model formulation to the maritime problem and to demonstrate its applicability. Models applied to other similar problems are reviewed and extended. The extended model is tested by applying it to the time constrained problem of response to a major oil spill in Long Island Sound. The results of this application show the utility of the algorithm both as a tactical decision support tool and as a planning model. An analysis of the risks of chemical spills in the New York Harbor based on the best available data is used to provide the basis for a broader application of the model. Results show the inadequacy of existing resources and demonstrate that significant improvements in response capability could be attained.

  20. All Source Solution Decision Support Products Created for Stennis Space Center in Response to Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Graham, William D.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and in response to the needs of SSC (Stennis Space Center), NASA required the generation of decision support products with a broad range of geospatial inputs. Applying a systems engineering approach, the NASA ARTPO (Applied Research and Technology Project Office) at SSC evaluated the Center's requirements and source data quality. ARTPO identified data and information products that had the potential to meet decision-making requirements; included were remotely sensed data ranging from high-spatial-resolution aerial images through high-temporal-resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products. Geospatial products, such as FEMA's (Federal Emergency Management Agency's) Advisory Base Flood Elevations, were also relevant. Where possible, ARTPO applied SSC calibration/validation expertise to both clarify the quality of various data source options and to validate that the inputs that were finally chosen met SSC requirements. ARTPO integrated various information sources into multiple decision support products, including two maps: Hurricane Katrina Inundation Effects at Stennis Space Center (highlighting surge risk posture) and Vegetation Change In and Around Stennis Space Center: Katrina and Beyond (highlighting fire risk posture).

  1. Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers: supporting the workforce for national health security.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Alyson L; Sobelson, Robyn K; Cioffi, Joan P

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a competent and prepared national public health workforce, ready to respond to threats to the public's health, has been acknowledged in numerous publications since the 1980s. The Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLCs) were funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2010 to continue to build upon a decade of focused activities in public health workforce preparedness development initiated under the Centers for Public Health Preparedness program (http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/cphp/). All 14 PERLCs were located within Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accredited schools of public health. These centers aimed to improve workforce readiness and competence through the development, delivery, and evaluation of targeted learning programs designed to meet specific requirements of state, local, and tribal partners. The PERLCs supported organizational and community readiness locally, regionally, or nationally through the provision of technical consultation and dissemination of specific, practical tools aligned with national preparedness competency frameworks and public health preparedness capabilities. Public health agencies strive to address growing public needs and a continuous stream of current and emerging public health threats. The PERLC network represented a flexible, scalable, and experienced national learning system linking academia with practice. This system improved national health security by enhancing individual, organizational, and community performance through the application of public health science and learning technologies to frontline practice.

  2. Self-organization of head-centered visual responses under ecological training conditions.

    PubMed

    Mender, Bedeho M W; Stringer, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the development of head-centered visual responses in an unsupervised self-organizing neural network model which was trained under ecological training conditions. Four independent spatio-temporal characteristics of the training stimuli were explored to investigate the feasibility of the self-organization under more ecological conditions. First, the number of head-centered visual training locations was varied over a broad range. Model performance improved as the number of training locations approached the continuous sampling of head-centered space. Second, the model depended on periods of time where visual targets remained stationary in head-centered space while it performed saccades around the scene, and the severity of this constraint was explored by introducing increasing levels of random eye movement and stimulus dynamics. Model performance was robust over a range of randomization. Third, the model was trained on visual scenes where multiple simultaneous targets where always visible. Model self-organization was successful, despite never being exposed to a visual target in isolation. Fourth, the duration of fixations during training were made stochastic. With suitable changes to the learning rule, it self-organized successfully. These findings suggest that the fundamental learning mechanism upon which the model rests is robust to the many forms of stimulus variability under ecological training conditions.

  3. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, G.; Walters, G.; Ward, L.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) conducted by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) at the former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg (ARC), a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA, Federal agencies are required to identity expeditiously real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. ARC is an 18-acre site located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. ARC was used for a variety of activities from 1955-1986. has served as a Nike Missile Control Site, as a communications and electronics research facility, and as an Army Reserve Center. Activities of environmental concern were mainly associated with construction, testing, and maintenance of electronic systems. The site has been vacant since 1986. Former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg, CERFA, Base closure, BRAC.

  4. Analytical design and evaluation of an active control system for helicopter vibration reduction and gust response alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.; Zwicke, P. E.; Gold, P.; Miao, W.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to define the basic configuration of an active control system for helicopter vibration and gust response alleviation. The study culminated in a control system design which has two separate systems: narrow band loop for vibration reduction and wider band loop for gust response alleviation. The narrow band vibration loop utilizes the standard swashplate control configuration to input controller for the vibration loop is based on adaptive optimal control theory and is designed to adapt to any flight condition including maneuvers and transients. The prime characteristics of the vibration control system is its real time capability. The gust alleviation control system studied consists of optimal sampled data feedback gains together with an optimal one-step-ahead prediction. The prediction permits the estimation of the gust disturbance which can then be used to minimize the gust effects on the helicopter.

  5. Coherent response of a stochastic nonlinear oscillator to a driving force: analytical characterization of the spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a classical nonlinear oscillator subject to noise and driven by a sinusoidal force. In particular, we give an analytical identification of the mechanisms responsible for the supernarrow peaks observed recently in the spectrum of a mechanical realization of the system. Our approach, based on the application of averaging techniques, simulates standard detection schemes used in practice. The spectral peaks, detected in a range of parameters corresponding to the existence of two attractors in the deterministic system, are traced to characteristics already present in the linearized stochastic equations. It is found that, for specific variations of the parameters, the characteristic frequencies near the attractors converge on the driving frequency and, as a consequence, the widths of the peaks in the spectrum are significantly reduced. The implications of the study to the control of the observed coherent response of the system are discussed.

  6. An analytic model for the response of a CZT detector in diagnostic energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    LeClair, Robert J.; Wang Yinkun; Zhao Peiying; Boileau, Michel; Wang, Lilie; Fleurot, Fabrice

    2006-05-15

    A CdZnTe detector (CZTD) can be very useful for measuring diagnostic x-ray spectra. The semiconductor detector does, however, exhibit poor hole transport properties and fluorescence generation upon atomic de-excitations. This article describes an analytic model to characterize these two phenomena that occur when a CZTD is exposed to diagnostic x rays. The analytical detector response functions compare well with those obtained via Monte Carlo calculations. The response functions were applied to 50, 80, and 110 kV x-ray spectra. Two 50 kV spectra were measured; one with no filtration and the other with 1.35 mm Al filtration. The unfiltered spectrum was numerically filtered with 1.35 mm of Al in order to see whether the recovered spectrum resembled the filtered spectrum actually measured. A deviation curve was obtained by subtracting one curve from the other on an energy bin by bin basis. The deviation pattern fluctuated around the zero line when corrections were applied to both spectra. Significant deviations from zero towards the lower energies were observed when the uncorrected spectra were used. Beside visual observations, the exposure obtained using the numerically attenuated unfiltered beam was compared to the exposure calculated with the actual filtered beam. The percent differences were 0.8% when corrections were applied and 25% for no corrections. The model can be used to correct diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with a CdZnTe detector.

  7. A village treatment center for malaria: community response in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D; Van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, F P

    2000-03-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases is one of the basic elements of the current global malaria control strategy. In order to provide this service to people in rural areas there is a need for new cost-effective approaches. To ensure that such new approaches are acceptable to the target communities, it is important to know the rationale for people's malaria treatment-seeking behavior. The present study provides insights into the reasons for people's preferences for different types of healthcare facilities and describes variation of these preferences within a rural community in Sri Lanka. The study reports on the experiences with the establishment of a village health facility and its effect on the treatment-seeking behavior of the population. After the introduction of the village treatment center it quickly took over the role of main provider for diagnosis and treatment of malaria from the government facilities. The treatment center did not improve the response time in seeking treatment for young children, but the delay for adults was reduced by 1-2 days. Mothers with small children often preferred the government facilities since they wanted a more qualified opinion than available from the locally recruited staff of the village treatment center. The treatment center significantly reduced the stress and discomfort experienced by the elderly and handicapped segment of the community. The study indicated that the effective catchment area of a village treatment center will be influenced by the degree of initial support from key individuals in the communities, the selection procedure and training of assistants, and the history of the relationships between different villages to be served by the center. The government health services and communities across the dry zone of Sri Lanka could benefit substantially from the establishment of more village treatment centers. To ensure the long-term sustainability of these type of facilities it is necessary to assess the

  8. IQ Is Not Strongly Related to Response to Reading Instruction: A Meta-Analytic Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    STUEBING, KARLA K.; BARTH, AMY E.; MOLFESE, PETER J.; WEISS, BRANDON; FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 22 studies evaluating the relation of different assessments of IQ and intervention response did not support the hypothesis that IQ is an important predictor of response to instruction. We found an R2 of .03 in models with IQ and the autoregressor as predictors and a unique lower estimated R2 of .006 and a higher estimated R2 of .013 in models with IQ, the autoregressor, and additional covariates as predictors. There was no evidence that these aggregated effect sizes were moderated by variables such as the type of IQ measure, outcome, age, or intervention. In simulations of the capacity of variables with effect sizes of .03 and .001 for predicting response to intervention, we found little evidence of practical significance. PMID:20224749

  9. An analytical study of the response of a constant-attitude aircraft to atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Carden, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A light airplane equipped with an automatic control system which drives large wing flaps and the stabilator so as to produce a constant pitch attitude in all flight modes was analyzed for its response to a specific gust. The aircraft was also equipped with a bank-angle steering, zero sideslip automatic control system which was studied for its effectiveness in suppressing a specific lateral gust. The gusts were assumed to be comprised of 200 lateral and 400 vertical sinusoids. Each was used to excite the controlled aircraft and the time response to the sum of all sinusoids was plotted. The assumption was that the gust may be treated as stationary in space but variable in time rather than the reverse. Results indicate that such a control system can suppress vertical gusts up to the limit of control authority. Either the lateral accelerations or the yawing velocity response to lateral gusts can be suppressed with this system but not both simultaneously.

  10. Analytical ultrasonics for evaluation of composite materials response. Part 2: Generation and detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the response of composite materials, it is imperative that the input excitation as well as the observed output be well characterized. This characterization ideally should be in terms of displacements as a function of time with high spatial resolution. Additionally, the ability to prescribe these features for the excitation is highly desirable. Various methods for generating and detecting ultrasound in advanced composite materials are examined. Characterization and tailoring of input excitation is considered for contact and noncontact, mechanical, and electromechanical devices. Type of response as well as temporal and spatial resolution of detection methods are discussed as well. Results of investigations at Virginia Tech in application of these techniques to characterizing the response of advanced composites are presented.

  11. An analytical-numerical method for determining the mechanical response of a condenser microphone.

    PubMed

    Homentcovschi, Dorel; Miles, Ronald N

    2011-12-01

    The paper is based on determining the reaction pressure on the diaphragm of a condenser microphone by integrating numerically the frequency domain Stokes system describing the velocity and the pressure in the air domain beneath the diaphragm. Afterwards, the membrane displacement can be obtained analytically or numerically. The method is general and can be applied to any geometry of the backplate holes, slits, and backchamber. As examples, the method is applied to the Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) 4134 1/2-inch microphone determining the mechanical sensitivity and the mechano-thermal noise for a domain of frequencies and also the displacement field of the membrane for two specified frequencies. These elements compare well with the measured values published in the literature. Also a new design, completely micromachined (including the backvolume) of the B&K micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEM) 1/4-inch measurement microphone is proposed. It is shown that its mechanical performances are very similar to those of the B&K MEMS measurement microphone.

  12. An analytical-numerical method for determining the mechanical response of a condenser microphone

    PubMed Central

    Homentcovschi, Dorel; Miles, Ronald N.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on determining the reaction pressure on the diaphragm of a condenser microphone by integrating numerically the frequency domain Stokes system describing the velocity and the pressure in the air domain beneath the diaphragm. Afterwards, the membrane displacement can be obtained analytically or numerically. The method is general and can be applied to any geometry of the backplate holes, slits, and backchamber. As examples, the method is applied to the Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) 4134 1/2-inch microphone determining the mechanical sensitivity and the mechano-thermal noise for a domain of frequencies and also the displacement field of the membrane for two specified frequencies. These elements compare well with the measured values published in the literature. Also a new design, completely micromachined (including the backvolume) of the B&K micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEM) 1/4-inch measurement microphone is proposed. It is shown that its mechanical performances are very similar to those of the B&K MEMS measurement microphone. PMID:22225026

  13. A factor analytic investigation of children's nighttime fear and coping responses.

    PubMed

    Mooney, K C; Graziano, A M; Katz, J N

    1985-06-01

    Checklists of children's nighttime fears and nighttime coping responses, completed by 178 8- to 13-year-old children and one of their parents, were factor analyzed. The resulting factors from each checklist were comparable for children and parents. The nighttime fear categories consisted of content around security either for one's personal life, loss, or safety or for others' safety and continued presence; imaginal-numinous concerns; and characteristics inherent in a nighttime situation. The coping categories consisted of responses related to internal self-control, social support, support from inanimate objects, prayer, and avoidance or escape either by controlling the inanimate environment or by controlling others.

  14. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  15. Crisis Preparedness and Response for Schools: An Analytical Study of Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad Latif; Niazi, Hamid Khan

    2015-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the Preparedness and Response to crises in School Education department at secondary level in Punjab, Pakistan. This was done through the experiences and views of District Education Officers (DEOs), Head of Schools and Secondary School Teachers (SST). The purpose of the study was not only to examine preparedness…

  16. Relationships among Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Frameworks via Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…

  17. Relationships among Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Frameworks via Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…

  18. Experimental, numerical, and analytical studies on the seismic response of steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epackachi, Siamak

    The seismic performance of rectangular steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls is assessed for application to buildings and mission-critical infrastructure. The SC walls considered in this study were composed of two steel faceplates and infill concrete. The steel faceplates were connected together and to the infill concrete using tie rods and headed studs, respectively. The research focused on the in-plane behavior of flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. An experimental program was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo and was followed by numerical and analytical studies. In the experimental program, four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure- and flexure-shear critical. The progression of damage in the four walls was identical, namely, cracking and crushing of the infill concrete at the toes of the walls, outward buckling and yielding of the steel faceplates near the base of the wall, and tearing of the faceplates at their junctions with the baseplate. A robust finite element model was developed in LS-DYNA for nonlinear cyclic analysis of the flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. The DYNA model was validated using the results of the cyclic tests of the four SC walls. The validated and benchmarked models were then used to conduct a parametric study, which investigated the effects of wall aspect ratio, reinforcement ratio, wall thickness, and uniaxial concrete compressive strength on the in-plane response of SC walls. Simplified analytical models, suitable for preliminary analysis and design of SC walls, were

  19. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    PubMed

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    interpretation of the analytical results.

  20. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    1978-01-01

    Surface motion of compliant walls in drag reduction experiments was analyzed. Critical comparison was made between the dynamic motion of the structure and the postulated mechanism of drag reduction. The spectrum of surface motion indicated that membranes over deep cavities respond at low frequencies and large wavelengths. The membrane over a deep cavity is therefore found not to yield the desired response predicted by the postulated mechanism. The membrane over a thin air gap is found to act as a wavelength chopper, and analysis of the nonlinear response of that compliant surface indicated its possible suitability for compliant wall experiments. Periodic structures are found to lock in the desired wavelengths of motion, and it was shown that at least in Kramer's initial experiments they produced high frequency surface motions. Laminated structures are found to be very ineffective as compliant models, except when there is no bonding between the membrane and the backing. Computer programs developed for these analyses are documented.

  1. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments.

  2. Engineering Values into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mildred K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to “edit” genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a “gene drive” that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments. PMID:26632356

  3. An analytical solution for the elastoplastic response of a continuous fiber composite under uniaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Allen, David H.

    1990-01-01

    A continuous fiber composite is modelled by a two-element composite cylinder in order to predict the elastoplastic response of the composite under a monotonically increasing tensile loading parallel to fibers. The fibers and matrix are assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic materials obeying Hill's and Tresca's yield criteria, respectively. Here, the composite behavior when the fibers yield prior to the matrix is investigated.

  4. Hurricane Katrina: medical response at the Houston Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex.

    PubMed

    Gavagan, Thomas F; Smart, Kieran; Palacio, Herminia; Dyer, Carmel; Greenberg, Stephen; Sirbaugh, Paul; Fishkind, Avrim; Hamilton, Douglas; Shah, Umair; Masi, George; Ivey, R Todd; Jones, Julie; Chiou-Tan, Faye Y; Bloodworth, Donna; Hyman, David; Whigham, Cliff; Pavlik, Valory; Feigin, Ralph D; Mattox, Kenneth

    2006-09-01

    On September 1, 2005, with only 12 hours notice, various collaborators established a medical facility--the Katrina Clinic--at the Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex in Houston. By the time the facility closed roughly two weeks later, the Katrina Clinic medical staff had seen over 11,000 of the estimated 27,000 Hurricane Katrina evacuees who sought shelter in the Complex. Herein, we describe the scope of this medical response, citing our major challenges, successes, and recommendations for conducting similar efforts in the future.

  5. Effect of Phase on Human Responses to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration and SHOCK—ANALYTICAL Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    The effect of the “phase” on human responses to vertical whole-body vibration and shock has been investigated analytically using alternative methods of predicting subjective responses (using r.m.s., VDV and various frequency weightings). Two types of phase have been investigated: the effect of the relative phase between two frequency components in the input stimulus, and the phase response of the human body. Continuous vibrations and shocks, based on half-sine and one-and-a-half-sine accelerations, each of which had two frequency components, were used as input stimuli. For the continuous vibrations, an effect of relative phase was found for the vibration dose value (VDV) when the ratio between two frequency components was three: about 12% variation in the VDV of the unweighted acceleration was possible by changing the relative phase. The effect of the phase response of the body represented by frequency weightings was most significant when the frequencies of two sinusoidal components were about 3 and 9 Hz. With shocks, the effect of relative phase was observed for all stimuli used. The variation in the r.m.s. acceleration and in the VDV caused by variations in the relative phase varied between 3 and 100%, depending on the nature of stimulus and the frequency weighting. The phase of the frequency weightings had a different effect on the r.m.s. and the VDV.

  6. Analytic derivative couplings in time-dependent density functional theory: Quadratic response theory versus pseudo-wavefunction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M.

    2015-02-01

    We revisit the formalism for analytic derivative couplings between excited states in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We derive and implement these couplings using quadratic response theory, then numerically compare this response-theory formulation to couplings implemented previously based on a pseudo-wavefunction formalism and direct differentiation of the Kohn-Sham determinant. Numerical results, including comparison to full configuration interaction calculations, suggest that the two approaches perform equally well for many molecular systems, provided that the underlying DFT method affords accurate potential energy surfaces. The response contributions are found to be important for certain systems with high symmetry, but can be calculated with only a moderate increase in computational cost beyond what is required for the pseudo-wavefunction approach. In the case of spin-flip TDDFT, we provide a formal proof that the derivative couplings obtained using response theory are identical to those obtained from the pseudo-wavefunction formulation, which validates our previous implementation based on the latter formalism.

  7. Is harm reduction profitable? An analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption.

    PubMed

    Massin, Sophie

    2012-06-01

    This article aims to help resolve the apparent paradox of producers of addictive goods who claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified as harmful. It advances that reputation effects are crucial in this issue and that determining whether harm reduction practices are costly or profitable for the producers can help to assess the sincerity of their discourse. An analytical framework based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption that includes a deterrent effect of heavy use on initiation is developed. This framework enables us to establish a clear distinction between a simple responsible discourse and genuine harm reduction practices and, among harm reduction practices, between use reduction practices and micro harm reduction practices. Using simulations based on tobacco sales in France from 1950 to 2008, we explore the impact of three corresponding types of actions: communication on damage, restraining selling practices and development of safer products on total sales and on the social cost. We notably find that restraining selling practices toward light users, that is, preventing light users from escalating to heavy use, can be profitable for the producer, especially at early stages of the epidemic, but that such practices also contribute to increase the social cost. These results suggest that the existence of a deterrent effect of heavy use on the initiation of the consumption of an addictive good can shed new light on important issues, such as the motivations for corporate social responsibility and the definition of responsible actions in the particular case of harm reduction.

  8. Analytic derivative couplings in time-dependent density functional theory: Quadratic response theory versus pseudo-wavefunction approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M

    2015-02-14

    We revisit the formalism for analytic derivative couplings between excited states in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We derive and implement these couplings using quadratic response theory, then numerically compare this response-theory formulation to couplings implemented previously based on a pseudo-wavefunction formalism and direct differentiation of the Kohn-Sham determinant. Numerical results, including comparison to full configuration interaction calculations, suggest that the two approaches perform equally well for many molecular systems, provided that the underlying DFT method affords accurate potential energy surfaces. The response contributions are found to be important for certain systems with high symmetry, but can be calculated with only a moderate increase in computational cost beyond what is required for the pseudo-wavefunction approach. In the case of spin-flip TDDFT, we provide a formal proof that the derivative couplings obtained using response theory are identical to those obtained from the pseudo-wavefunction formulation, which validates our previous implementation based on the latter formalism.

  9. Analytic derivative couplings in time-dependent density functional theory: Quadratic response theory versus pseudo-wavefunction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M.

    2015-02-14

    We revisit the formalism for analytic derivative couplings between excited states in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We derive and implement these couplings using quadratic response theory, then numerically compare this response-theory formulation to couplings implemented previously based on a pseudo-wavefunction formalism and direct differentiation of the Kohn-Sham determinant. Numerical results, including comparison to full configuration interaction calculations, suggest that the two approaches perform equally well for many molecular systems, provided that the underlying DFT method affords accurate potential energy surfaces. The response contributions are found to be important for certain systems with high symmetry, but can be calculated with only a moderate increase in computational cost beyond what is required for the pseudo-wavefunction approach. In the case of spin-flip TDDFT, we provide a formal proof that the derivative couplings obtained using response theory are identical to those obtained from the pseudo-wavefunction formulation, which validates our previous implementation based on the latter formalism.

  10. Analytical calculation of in-plane response of plates with concentrated masses to impact and application to pyroshock simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacher, Alexander; Jüngel, Nikolas; von Wagner, Utz; Bäger, Annette

    2012-07-01

    In aerospace missions pyroshocks occur due to controlled explosions of ordnance devices enabling the functionality of space modules. These shocks result from deployment mechanisms or opening solar sails and can cause failures of electronic devices and structures. Thus, essential components for assuring the reliability of modules are pyroshock tests for the completion of which strict requirements by the aerospace administrations have to be met. One of them is the definition of a specific acceleration signal and, based on this, the Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) for each part. So far, there is rather empirical than analytical knowledge about producing desired SRS with mechanical impacts and its characteristics due to the variation of input parameters. In this paper a widespread testing procedure for far-field pyroshocks is discussed which is realized by the in-plane impact of a hammer pendulum on a plate including the test specimen. The mechanical model consists of the contact between a rigid sphere and a free deformable rectangular plate with attached masses including subsequent propagation and reflection of longitudinal waves. In order to allow for a prediction of the acceleration field and the corresponding SRS due to the impact the problem is solved semi-analytically by using Hertzian contact theory, the Galerkin-procedure and numerical integration in time domain. The in-plane problem has, to the best of the authors' knowledge, not yet been treated in the literature in the way presented. The results calculated are compared with experimental data showing very good coincidence and allowing for a fast prediction of far-field pyroshock tests due to the impact excitation by a hammer pendulum. Hence, the framework of this paper is an enrichment for the current state of the art considering analytical pyroshock simulation. By better understanding the effect of pyroshocks to one and two dimensional structures a reduction of costs as well as durations for testing procedures

  11. Distinct germinal center selection at local sites shapes memory B cell response to viral escape

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Yu; Onodera, Taishi; Yamada, Yuki; Daio, Rina; Tsuiji, Makoto; Inoue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Ato, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory influenza virus infection induces cross-reactive memory B cells targeting invariant regions of viral escape mutants. However, cellular events dictating the cross-reactive memory B cell responses remain to be fully defined. Here, we demonstrated that lung-resident memory compartments at the site of infection, rather than those in secondary lymphoid organs, harbor elevated frequencies of cross-reactive B cells that mediate neutralizing antibody responses to viral escape. The elevated cross-reactivity in the lung memory compartments was correlated with high numbers of VH mutations and was dependent on a developmental pathway involving persistent germinal center (GC) responses. The persistent GC responses were focused in the infected lungs in association with prolonged persistence of the viral antigens. Moreover, the persistent lung GCs supported the exaggerated B cell proliferation and clonal selection for cross-reactive repertoires, which served as the predominant sites for the generation of cross-reactive memory progenitors. Thus, we identified the distinct GC selection at local sites as a key cellular event for cross-reactive memory B cell response to viral escape, a finding with important implications for developing broadly protective influenza vaccines. PMID:26324444

  12. Rapid-Response Parenting Intervention in Diagnostic Centers as a Patient-Centered Innovation for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, Stephen Edward; Bultas, Margaret W.; Wilmott, Jennifer; Grafeman, Sarah; Zand, Debra H.

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children newly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are a high-need population for whom skills-based parenting interventions likely help. Diagnostic centers are compelling locations to deliver parenting interventions because families are served in an accessible location and at a time they receive overwhelming treatment…

  13. Rapid-Response Parenting Intervention in Diagnostic Centers as a Patient-Centered Innovation for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, Stephen Edward; Bultas, Margaret W.; Wilmott, Jennifer; Grafeman, Sarah; Zand, Debra H.

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children newly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are a high-need population for whom skills-based parenting interventions likely help. Diagnostic centers are compelling locations to deliver parenting interventions because families are served in an accessible location and at a time they receive overwhelming treatment…

  14. An analytic strategy for modeling multiple-item responses: a breast cancer symptom example.

    PubMed

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Verbitsky, Natalya; Given, Barbara; Given, Charles W

    2005-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) is increasingly applied in health research to combine information from multiple-item responses. IRT posits that a person's susceptibility to a symptom is driven by the interaction of the characteristics of the symptom and person. This article describes the statistical background of incorporating IRT into a multilevel framework and extends this approach to longitudinal health outcomes, where the self-report method is used to construct a multi-item scale. A secondary analysis of data from 2 descriptive longitudinal studies is performed. The data include 21 symptoms reported across time by 350 women with breast cancer. A 3-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used for the analysis. Level 1 models the item responses, consisting of symptom presence or absence. Level 2 models the trajectory of each individual, representing change over time of the IRT-created latent variable symptom experience. Level 3 explains that trajectory using person-specific characteristics such as age and location of care. The purpose of the analysis is to examine if older and younger women with breast cancer differ in their symptom experience trajectory after controlling for location of care. Fatigue and pain were the most prevalent symptoms. The symptom experience of women with breast cancer was found to improve over time. Neither age nor location of care was significantly associated with the symptom experience trajectory. Embedding IRT into an HLM framework produces several benefits. The example provided demonstrates benefits through the creation of a latent symptom experience variable that can be used either as an outcome or as a covariate in another model, examining the latent symptom experience trajectory and its relationship with covariates at the individual level, and managing symptom nonresponse.

  15. Sensitivity-based scaling for correlating structural response from different analytical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kwan J.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Giles, Gary L.; Kao, Pi-Jen

    1991-01-01

    A sensitivity-based linearly varying scale factor is described used to reconcile results from refined models for analysis of the same structure. The improved accuracy of the linear scale factor compared to a constant scale factor as well as the commonly used tangent approximation is demonstrated. A wing box structure is used as an example, with displacements, stresses, and frequencies correlated. The linear scale factor could permit the use of a simplified model in an optimization procedure during preliminary design to approximate the response given by a refined model over a considerable range of design changes.

  16. An analytical study of the longitudinal response of airplanes to positive wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal response of jet transport aircraft to vertical variation of the horizontal winds is analyzed. Specific reference is given to the role of the speed (u) stability derivatives in the interaction of the airplane and its environment. The relative importance of the u stability derivatives is determined. The wind shear tolerance factor is found which can be used to determine, in a qualitative manner, the stability (tolerance) of an airplane to wind shear. A further study of the control problem shows that the criteria for good control could be reduced from two to one automatic control systems. Only a speed control system is necessary for good control in wind shear.

  17. An analytical/numerical correlation study of the multiple concentric cylinder model for the thermoplastic response of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Salzar, Robert S.; Williams, Todd O.

    1993-01-01

    The utility of a recently developed analytical micromechanics model for the response of metal matrix composites under thermal loading is illustrated by comparison with the results generated using the finite-element approach. The model is based on the concentric cylinder assemblage consisting of an arbitrary number of elastic or elastoplastic sublayers with isotropic or orthotropic, temperature-dependent properties. The elastoplastic boundary-value problem of an arbitrarily layered concentric cylinder is solved using the local/global stiffness matrix formulation (originally developed for elastic layered media) and Mendelson's iterative technique of successive elastic solutions. These features of the model facilitate efficient investigation of the effects of various microstructural details, such as functionally graded architectures of interfacial layers, on the evolution of residual stresses during cool down. The available closed-form expressions for the field variables can readily be incorporated into an optimization algorithm in order to efficiently identify optimal configurations of graded interfaces for given applications. Comparison of residual stress distributions after cool down generated using finite-element analysis and the present micromechanics model for four composite systems with substantially different temperature-dependent elastic, plastic, and thermal properties illustrates the efficacy of the developed analytical scheme.

  18. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-11-09

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations.

  19. The development of a patient-centered program based on the relaxation response: the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP).

    PubMed

    Park, Elyse R; Traeger, Lara; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Scult, Matthew; Lerner, Jonathan A; Benson, Herbert; Denninger, John; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic daily stress has significant physical, emotional, and financial implications; levels of stress are increasing in the US. Dr. Benson highlighted how the mind and body function together in one's experience of the stress response and proposed the existence of the relaxation response (RR). The current paper describes the foundation and development of an 8-session multimodal treatment program for coping with chronic stress: the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP). We review the past decades of RR research, outline the development of the 3RP treatment, and provide an overview of the program's theory and content. Extensive research and clinical work have examined how eliciting the RR may combat stress through down-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Related to this work are the multidimensional constructs of resiliency and allostatic load. The 3RP is based on principles from the fields of stress management, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and positive psychology, and has three core target areas: (1) elicitation of the RR; (2) stress appraisal and coping; and (3) growth enhancement. An 8-week patient-centered treatment program has been developed, with the purpose of assisting patients with a variety of psychological and medical issues to better cope with chronic stress. Mastery of the RR is theorized to maximize one's ability to benefit from multimodal mind body strategies. The goal of the 3RP is to enhance individuals' adaptive responses to chronic stress through increasing awareness and decreasing the physiological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral effects of the stress response, while simultaneously promoting the effects of being in the RR. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  1. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface motion of compliant walls in drag reduction experiments was analyzed. The spectrum of surface motion indicates that membranes over deep cavities respond at low frequencies and large wavelengths. The membrane over a deep cavity is therefore found not to yield the desired reponse predicted by the postulated mechanism. The membrane over a thin air gap is found to act as a wavelength chopper, and analysis of the nonlinear response of the compliant surface indicates its possible suitability for compliant wall experiments. Periodic structures are found to lock in the desired wavelengths of motion. Laminated structures are found to be very ineffective as compliant models, except when there is no bonding between the membrane and the backing. Computer programs developed for these analyses are documented.

  2. An analytic estimation of the Magnetotelluric response of one dimensional stochastic conductivity Earth structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-04-01

    The complexity of the conductivity structure of the Earth's crust makes the study of electromagnetic wave propagation interesting because of the existence of a geoelectric environment with random variation of the conductivity. A random medium can be viewed as an ensemble of a multitude of heterogeneous media, called realizations, which differ from each other in the detailed structure of the fluctuation, but have some common statistical properties. In the random-medium approach one deals with statistical quantities of the medium and the relevant statistical quantities of the wavefield. In the present work we consider the particular case in which the conductivity depends only on the z coordinate (layered medium). Introducing a layer of thickness L with conductivity σ(z) = σo + σ(z),where σο represents the average conductivity of the layer and σ(z)is a random, uncorrelated, zero-mean function of the z coordinate, we estimate the propagation matrix to approximation order (kL)2, i.e. when the penetration depth of the MT variation is much greater than L, and we derive the magnetotelluric response when a randomly layered medium exists. We demonstrate the result for the case of a homogeneous half-space disturbed in its upper part by a randomly layered variation of the conductivity. The calculation of the relevant stochastic integrals also allows the determination of the statistical properties of the magnetotelluric response. References F. Vallianatos, Magnetotelluric responce of a random layered Earth, Geophysical Journal International , 125, 557-583, 1996. F. Vallianatos, Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random fat fractal medium, Proceedings of the International Conference on Marine Electromagnetics,Imperial College, 1997 J. Bigalke, Analysis of conductivity of random media using dc, MT, and TEM, Geophysics, 68, 2, 506-515, 2003

  3. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.207 What are... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities to the National...

  4. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.207 What are... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities to the National...

  5. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.207 What are... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities to the National...

  6. Analytical study of graphite-epoxy tube response to thermal loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, Tamara W.; Hyer, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermally-induced stresses and deformations in graphite-epoxy tubes with aluminum foil bonded to both inner and outer surfaces, and to the outer surface only are computed. Tubes fabricated from three material systems, T300/934, P75s/934, and P75s/BP907, and having a 1 inch inner radius and a lamination sequence of (+15/0 + or - 10/0)sub s are studied. Radial, axial, and circumferential stresses in the various layers of the tube, in the foil, and in the adhesive bonding the foil to the tubes are computed using an elasticity solution. The results indicate that the coatings have no detrimental effect on the stress state in the tube, particularly those stresses that lead to microcracking. The addition of the aluminum foil does, however, significantly influence the axial expansion of the T300/934 tube, the tube with the softer graphite fibers. The addition of foil can change the sign of the axial coefficient of thermal expansion. Twist tendencies of the tubes are only slightly affected by the addition of the coatings, but are of second order compared to the axial response.

  7. A Versatile Phenotyping System and Analytics Platform Reveals Diverse Temporal Responses to Water Availability in Setaria.

    PubMed

    Fahlgren, Noah; Feldman, Maximilian; Gehan, Malia A; Wilson, Melinda S; Shyu, Christine; Bryant, Douglas W; Hill, Steven T; McEntee, Colton J; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Kumar, Indrajit; Ficor, Tracy; Turnipseed, Stephanie; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Brutnell, Thomas P; Carrington, James C; Mockler, Todd C; Baxter, Ivan

    2015-10-05

    Phenotyping has become the rate-limiting step in using large-scale genomic data to understand and improve agricultural crops. Here, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform for controlled-environment plant growth and automated multimodal phenotyping is described. The system has capacity for 1140 plants, which pass daily through stations to record fluorescence, near-infrared, and visible images. Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV) was developed as open-source, hardware platform-independent software for quantitative image analysis. In a 4-week experiment, wild Setaria viridis and domesticated Setaria italica had fundamentally different temporal responses to water availability. While both lines produced similar levels of biomass under limited water conditions, Setaria viridis maintained the same water-use efficiency under water replete conditions, while Setaria italica shifted to less efficient growth. Overall, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform and PlantCV software detected significant effects of genotype and environment on height, biomass, water-use efficiency, color, plant architecture, and tissue water status traits. All ∼ 79,000 images acquired during the course of the experiment are publicly available. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytical study of graphite-epoxy tube response to thermal loads

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, T.W.; Hyer, M.W.

    1988-09-01

    The thermally-induced stresses and deformations in graphite-epoxy tubes with aluminum foil bonded to both inner and outer surfaces, and to the outer surface only are computed. Tubes fabricated from three material systems, T300/934, P75s/934, and P75s/BP907, and having a 1 inch inner radius and a lamination sequence of (+15/0 + or - 10/0)sub s are studied. Radial, axial, and circumferential stresses in the various layers of the tube, in the foil, and in the adhesive bonding the foil to the tubes are computed using an elasticity solution. The results indicate that the coatings have no detrimental effect on the stress state in the tube, particularly those stresses that lead to microcracking. The addition of the aluminum foil does, however, significantly influence the axial expansion of the T300/934 tube, the tube with the softer graphite fibers. The addition of foil can change the sign of the axial coefficient of thermal expansion. Twist tendencies of the tubes are only slightly affected by the addition of the coatings, but are of second order compared to the axial response.

  9. Teachers' Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach.

    PubMed

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers' relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student's relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers' depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers' personal accomplishment. Teachers' secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers' relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher's wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student-teacher relationships in education.

  10. Teachers’ Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers’ relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student’s relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers’ depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers’ personal accomplishment. Teachers’ secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers’ relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher’s wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student–teacher relationships in education. PMID:26779045

  11. CCR7-deficient mice develop atypically persistent germinal centers in response to thymus-independent type 2 antigens.

    PubMed

    Achtman, Ariel H; Höpken, Uta E; Bernert, Carola; Lipp, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens are repetitive antigens capable of eliciting antibody responses without T cell help. They are important in the immune response against encapsulated bacteria and as a rapid first line of defense against pathogens. TI-2 antigens induce strong proliferation in extrafollicular foci. However, any germinal centers forming in response to TI-2 antigens involute synchronously 5 days after immunization. This is thought to be caused by the lack of T cell help. Surprisingly, immunization of mice deficient for the homeostatic chemokine receptor CCR7 with TI-2 antigens resulted not only in the expected, vigorous extrafollicular plasma cell response but also in persisting splenic germinal centers. This was observed for two different TI-2 antigens, heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae and (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-Ficoll (NP-Ficoll). Germinal centers induced by TI-2 and thymus-dependent (TD) antigens were located in the periarteriolar area of the white pulp in CCR7 knockout mice, corresponding to the T zone of wild-type (WT) mice. The TI-2-induced germinal centers contained peripheral rings of follicular dendritic cells and unusually for TI-2-induced germinal centers, T cells. The licensing responsible for their atypical persistence did not endow TI-2-induced germinal centers with the full range of characteristics of classic germinal centers induced by TD antigens. Thus, class-switching, affinity maturation, and memory B cell generation were not increased in CCR7-deficient mice. It seems unlikely that a defect in regulatory T cell (Treg) location was responsible for the atypical persistence of TI-2-induced germinal centers, as Tregs were comparably distributed in germinal centers of CCR7-deficient and WT mice.

  12. Response times for visually guided saccades in persons with Parkinson's disease: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jonathan M; Prescott, Tony J

    2010-03-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) show marked impairments in their ability to generate self-initiated, or "voluntary", saccadic eye movements. Investigations of visually guided, or "reflexive", saccades have, on the other hand, produced inconclusive results with studies showing response times (RTs) in persons with PD that are slower, faster, or indistinguishable from those of controls. We performed a meta-analysis to establish whether there are consistent effects of PD on the metrics of visually guided saccades. Combining results across 47 studies we found that reflexive saccades are overall initiated more slowly in persons with PD than in controls, however, this analysis also revealed considerable heterogeneity across studies. Step-wise meta-regression, using eleven potential predictors, subsequently showed that differences in mean RT between controls and persons with PD may arise due to aspects of experimental design. In particular, mean target eccentricity was shown to impact substantially on RTs such that persons with PD predictably initiate saccades faster than controls at small target eccentricities, while responding more slowly for large target eccentricities. Changes in eye-tracking and display equipment over the period covered by the review were also found to have impacted on the pattern of results obtained. We conclude that a, previously unsuspected, eccentricity effect could explain why the saccadic eye movements of persons with PD are sometimes found to be "hyper-reflexive" compared to controls, and suggest that this effect may arise due to PD-induced changes in both peripheral perceptual processing and in central executive mechanisms involving the basal ganglia.

  13. Photoelectric currents across planar bilayer membranes containing bacterial reaction centers. Response under conditions of single electron turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Packham, N K; Dutton, P L; Mueller, P

    1982-01-01

    Light-induced electric current and potential responses have been measured across planar phospholipid membranes containing reaction centers from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Under conditions in which the reaction centers are restricted to a single electron turnover, the responses can be correlated with the light-induced electron transfer reactions associated with the reaction center. The results indicate that electron transfer from the bacteriochlorophyll dimer to the primary ubiquinone molecule, and from ferrocytochrome c to the oxidized dimer occur in series across the planar membrane. Electron transfer from the primary to secondary ubiquinone molecule is not electrogenic. PMID:6277403

  14. Experimental and Analytical Characterization of the Macromechanical Response for Triaxial Braided Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    micromacromechanical computer model is created to simulate the behavior of these composite material systems under static and ballistic impact loading using the test data acquired. The model also quantifies the way in which the fiber/matrix interface affects material response under static and impact loading. The results show that the test methods are capable of accurately quantifying the polymer resin under a variety of strain rates and temperature for three loading conditions. The resin strength and stiffness data show a clear rate and temperature dependence. The data also show the hydrostatic stress effects and hysteresis, all of which can be used by researchers developing composite constitutive models for the resins. The results for the composite data reveal noticeable differences in strength, failure strain, and stiffness in the different material systems presented. The investigations into the microscale failure mechanisms provide information about the nature of the different material system behaviors. Finally, the developed computer model predicts composite static strength and stiffness to within 10 percent of the gathered test data and also agrees with composite impact data, where available.

  15. [Survey of analytical work done for drugs at the emergency and critical care centers equipped with high-performance instruments provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (at present: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998].

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasushi; Iseki, Ken; Suzuki, Koichiro; Namera, Akira; Fukumoto, Mariko; Fuke, Chiaki; Mori, Hiromi; Soma, Kazui

    2010-09-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 73 emergency and critical care centers where high-performance instruments for analyzing drugs and chemicals were provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998. 52 centers (71.2%) responded to the questionnaire. Among these, the instruments have been in operation at 36 centers. This means that analytical work has been performed in at least 49.3% (36/73) of facilities with the instruments. A positive correlation was observed between the annual number of patients tested for drugs and chemicals and analytical work hours at the 36 facilities. The results indicated that 150 cases may be tested for drugs and chemicals in a year on the condition that 100 hours a month of analytical work are secured, and 200 or more cases may be tested if 200 hours a month are secured. As for the running costs required for the operation of the instruments, the instrument maintenance and repair cost was estimated at 2 million yen a year, and it was calculated that 100 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 1 million yen and 150 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 2 million yen. These results suggest that the instrument running cost would be fully covered at nationwide emergency and critical care centers if the additional 5,000 NHI points (1 point = 10 yen) for hospital admission, which is approved for advanced emergency and critical care centers, were applicable to all facilities. Among the 36 facilities, the implementation of analysis varied for each of the 15 toxic substances recommended for analysis by the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology. Further research will be necessary to investigate and assess the frequency of analysis requests and combination of simple qualitative and instrumental analyses for each of the 15 substances, in order to evaluate the approach to the 15 substances in analytical work.

  16. Report of tritide study at the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Robert; Coffey, Jaime

    2008-11-01

    This report documents a study of sample counting results for wipes from routine surface area monitoring conducted at the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment Center (RNGPDC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The study was initiated in November 2006, with two samples suspected of containing erbium tritide, after some samples were found to exhibit higher tritium counting rates upon recount at a later time. The main goal of the study was to determine whether the current practice of analyzing tritium wipe samples once, within a few days of sample collection, is adequate to accurately quantify the amount of tritium on the sample when tritides may be present. Recommendations are made toward routine recounting of vials suspected of containing particulate forms of tritium.

  17. Follicular helper T cells progressively differentiate to regulate the germinal center response

    PubMed Central

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Esplugues, Enric; Flavell, Richard; Craft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Germinal center (GC) B cells undergo affinity selection, dependent upon interactions with CD4+ follicular helper T (TFH) cells. We demonstrate that TFH cells progressed through transcriptionally and functionally distinct stages, providing differential signals for GC regulation. They initially localized proximally to mutating B cells, secreted IL-21, induced expression of the transcription factor Bcl-6 and selected high affinity B cell clones. As the GC response evolved, TFH cells extinguished IL-21 and switched to IL-4 production, showed robust CD40 ligand expression and promoted the development of antibody-secreting B cells via upregulation of the transcription factor Blimp-1. Thus, TFH cells in the B cell follicle progressively differentiated through stages of localization, cytokine production and surface ligand expression to fine-tune of the GC reaction. PMID:27573866

  18. How germinal centers evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies: the breadth of the follicular helper T cell response.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Rob J; Perelson, Alan S

    2017-09-06

    Many HIV-1 infected patients evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This evolutionary process typically takes several years, and is poorly understood as selection taking place in germinal centers occurs on the basis of antibody affinity. B cells with the highest affinity receptors tend to acquire the most antigen from the FDC network, and present the highest density of cognate peptides to follicular helper T cells (Tfh), which provide survival signals to the B cell. BnAbs are therefore only expected to evolve when the B cell lineage evolving breadth is consistently capturing and presenting more peptides to Tfh cells than other lineages of more specific B cells. Here we develop mathematical models of Tfh in germinal centers to explicitly define the mechanisms of selection in this complex evolutionary process.Our results suggest that broadly reactive B cells presenting a high density of pMHC are readily outcompeted by B cells responding to lineages of HIV-1 that transiently dominate the within host viral population. Conversely, if broadly reactive B cells acquire a large variety of several HIV-1 proteins from the FDC network and present a high diversity of several pMHC, they be rescued by a large fraction of the Tfh repertoire in the germinal center. Under such circumstances the evolution of bnAbs is much more consistent. Increasing the magnitude of the Tfh response, or the breadth of the Tfh repertoire, both markedly facilitate the evolution of bnAbs. Because both can be increased by vaccination with several HIV-1 proteins, this calls for experiments testing.Importance Many HIV-infected patients slowly evolve antibodies that can neutralize a large variety of viruses. Such "broadly neutralizing antibodies" (bnAbs) could in the future become therapeutic agents. BnAbs appear very late and patients are typically not protected by them. At the moment we fail to understand why this takes so long, and how the immune system selects for broadly neutralizing capacity

  19. Experimental research activities in dynamic response and sonic fatigue of hypersonic vehicle structures at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of experimental research activities being pursued at the NASA Langley Research Center for dynamic response and sonic fatigue of hypersonic vehicle structures. The capabilities of the principle test facility, the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus, are first given. Results from recent dynamic response and sonic fatigue tests on candidate hypersonic vehicle structures are then presented.

  20. Assessing Beaked Whale Reproduction and Stress Response Relative to Sonar Activity at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Assessing Beaked Whale Reproduction and Stress Response...both groups of animals to investigate whether there is a relationship between sonar activity, stress measures, and reproductive rates, to assess... Reproduction and Stress Response Relative to Sonar Activity at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  1. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias towards the plasma cell (PC) fate,...

  2. Post-Keplerian perturbations of the orbital time shift in binary pulsars: an analytical formulation with applications to the galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    We develop a general approach to analytically calculate the perturbations Δ δ τ _ {p} of the orbital component of the change δ τ _ {p} of the times of arrival of the pulses emitted by a binary pulsar p induced by the post-Keplerian accelerations due to the mass quadrupole Q_2, and the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric (GE) and Lense-Thirring (LT) fields. We apply our results to the so-far still hypothetical scenario involving a pulsar orbiting the supermassive black hole in the galactic center at Sgr A^*. We also evaluate the gravitomagnetic and quadrupolar Shapiro-like propagation delays δ τ _ {prop}. By assuming the orbit of the existing main sequence star S2 and a time span as long as its orbital period P_b, we obtain | Δ δ τ _ {p}^ {GE}| ≲ 10^3 {s}, | Δ δ τ _ {p}^ {LT}| ≲ 0.6 {s},| Δ δ τ _ {p}^{Q_2}| ≲ 0.04 {s}. Faster ( P_b= 5 {years}) and more eccentric ( e=0.97) orbits would imply net shifts per revolution as large as | < Δ δ τ _ {p}^ {GE}\\rangle | ≲ 10 {Ms}, | < Δ δ τ _ {p}^ {LT}\\rangle | ≲ 400 {s},| < Δ δ τ _ {p}^{Q_2}\\rangle | ≲ 10^3 {s}, depending on the other orbital parameters and the initial epoch. For the propagation delays, we have | δ τ _ {prop}^ {LT}| ≲ 0.02 {s}, | δ τ _ {prop}^{Q_2}| ≲ 1 μs. The results for the mass quadrupole and the Lense-Thirring field depend, among other things, on the spatial orientation of the spin axis of the Black Hole. The expected precision in pulsar timing in Sgr A^* is of the order of 100 μs, or, perhaps, even 1-10 μs. Our method is, in principle, neither limited just to some particular orbital configuration nor to the dynamical effects considered in the present study.

  3. Research On Subjective Response To Simulated Sonic Booms At NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2006-05-01

    Over the past 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center has conducted many tests investigating subjective response to simulated sonic booms. Most tests have used the Sonic Boom Booth, an airtight concrete booth fitted with loudspeakers that play synthesized sonic booms pre-processed to compensate for the response of the booth/loudspeaker system. Tests using the Booth have included investigations of shaped booms, booms with simulated ground reflections, recorded booms, outdoor and indoor booms, booms with differing loudness for bow and tail shocks, and comparisons of aircraft flyover recordings with sonic booms. Another study used loudspeakers placed inside people's houses, so that they could experience the booms while in their own homes. This study investigated the reactions of people to different numbers of booms heard within a 24-hour period. The most recent Booth test used predicted boom shapes from candidate low-boom aircraft. At present, a test to compare the Booth with boom simulators constructed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is underway. The Lockheed simulator is an airtight booth similar to the Langley booth; the Gulfstream booth uses a traveling wave method to create the booms. Comparison of "realism" as well as loudness and other descriptors is to be studied.

  4. Research on Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center has conducted many tests investigating subjective response to simulated sonic booms. Most tests have used the Sonic Boom Booth, an airtight concrete booth fitted with loudspeakers that play synthesized sonic booms pre-processed to compensate for the response of the booth/loudspeaker system. Tests using the Booth have included investigations of shaped booms, booms with simulated ground reflections, recorded booms, outdoor and indoor booms, booms with differing loudness for bow and tail shocks, and comparisons of aircraft flyover recordings with sonic booms. Another study used loudspeakers placed inside people s houses, so that they could experience the booms while in their own homes. This study investigated the reactions of people to different numbers of booms heard within a 24-hour period. The most recent Booth test used predicted boom shapes from candidate low-boom aircraft. At present, a test to compare the Booth with boom simulators constructed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is underway. The Lockheed simulator is an airtight booth similar to the Langley booth; the Gulfstream booth uses a traveling wave method to create the booms. Comparison of "realism" as well as loudness and other descriptors is to be studied.

  5. Light saturation response of inactive photosystem II reaction centers in spinach.

    PubMed

    Chylla, R A; Whitmarsh, J

    1990-07-01

    The effective absorption cross section of inactive photosystem II (PS II) centers, which is the product of the effective antenna size and the quantum yield for photochemistry, was investigated by comparing the light saturation curves of inactive PS II and active reaction centers in intact chloroplasts and thylakoid membranes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Inactive PS II centers are defined as the impaired PS II reaction centers that require greater than 50 ms for the reoxidation of QA (-) subsequent to a single turnover flash. Active reaction centers are defined as the rapidly turning over PS II centers (recovery time less than 50 ms) and all of the PS I centers. The electrochromic shift, measured by the flash-induced absorbance increase at 518 nm, was used to probe the activity of the reaction centers. Light saturation curves were generated for inactive PS II centers and active reaction centers by measuring the extent of the absorbance increase at 518 nm induced by red actinic flashes of variable energy. The light saturation curves show that inactive PS II centers required over twice as many photons as active reaction centers to achieve the same yield. The ratio of the flash energy required for 50% saturation for active reaction centers (PS II active + PS I) compared to inactive PS II centers was 0.45±0.04 in intact chloroplasts, and 0.54±0.11 in thylakoid membranes. Analysis of the light saturation curves using a Poisson statistical model in which the ratio of the antenna size of active PS II centers to that of PS I is considered to range from 1 to 1.5, indicates that the effective absorption cross section of inactive PS II centers was 0.54-0.37 times that of active PS II centers. If the quantum yield for photochemistry is assumed to be one, we estimate that the antenna system serving the inactive PS II centers contains approx. 110 chlorophyll molecules.

  6. Web Analytics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  7. Immobilization of β-Galactosidase onto Functionalized Graphene Nano-sheets Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Analytical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Devesh; Talat, Mahe; Srivastava, Onkar Nath; Kayastha, Arvind M.

    2012-01-01

    Background β-Galactosidase is a vital enzyme with diverse application in molecular biology and industries. It was covalently attached onto functionalized graphene nano-sheets for various analytical applications based on lactose reduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design of experiment was used for determination of optimal immobilization conditions, which resulted in 84.2% immobilization efficiency. Native and immobilized functionalized graphene was characterized with the help of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Functionalized graphene sheets decorated with islands of immobilized enzyme were evidently visualized under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy after immobilization. FTIR spectra provided insight on various chemical interactions and bonding, involved during and after immobilization. Optimum temperature and energy of activation (Ea) remains unchanged whereas optimum pH and Km were changed after immobilization. Increased thermal stability of enzyme was observed after conjugating the enzyme with functionalized graphene. Significance Immobilized β-galactosidase showed excellent reusability with a retention of more than 92% enzymatic activity after 10 reuses and an ideal performance at broad ranges of industrial environment. PMID:22815797

  8. Geographic Variation in Tsunami Warning Center Response Time: Identifying Areas of Greatest Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Sardiña, V.; Cessaro, R. K.; Fryer, G. J.; Weinstein, S.

    2010-12-01

    network. We estimate the time required for P-waves generated by subduction zone earthquakes to reach the number of stations typically needed to produce a tsunami warning. We then project these data to the nearest coastlines to produce a table of P-wave reception times for earthquakes affecting these coastlines. Next, we subtract these reception time values from the travel time of tsunamis from these earthquakes to the coastlines. The resulting data sets and corresponding maps reveal the time window of opportunity for populations to act upon PTWC's warnings and safely evacuate these coastal areas. Our maps show that while most of the world's coastal populations have an hour or more to evacuate after receiving a warning from PTWC, certain coastlines have less than an hour, and in the worst cases, the first tsunami wave will arrive before PTWC can warn the affected areas. While our analysis reveals response problems for a given tsunami warning center, it also highlights the solutions by indicating where to install and monitor additional seismic stations, and where data outages could have the greatest negative impact, thus showing where redundancy in station deployment is most critical.

  9. A semi-analytical method to evaluate the dynamic response of functionally graded plates subjected to underwater shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lizhong; Izzuddin, Bassam A.; Liu, Guohua

    2015-02-01

    Functionally graded (FG) plates are of current interest and are widely used in a variety of applications including deep sea exploration and naval/marine and coastal engineering, despite the fact that there has, to date, been little research undertaken on the subject. In order to remedy the situation, an analytical method to investigate the elastic dynamic responses of FG plates to underwater shock is proposed here, their material properties varying by the same exponential law along the thickness direction. Taylor's one dimensional fluid solid interaction (FSI) model is extended to fit a three dimensional model suitable for FG plates. The extended FSI model and Laplace transform are integrated into the state space method, with the transient solution in the time domain being obtained by using the numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. The solutions of the total forces acting throughout the front and back faces in the time domain are derived for the first time. The present method is validated by comparing it with the results of other methods and experiments found in the relevant literature. The influence of the boundary conditions at the backside of the plate and FG parameters on front and back side pressures, cavitations, displacements, stresses and total forces acting throughout the faces are then investigated, with the time progression of the cavitation areas of air-backed plates and water-backed plates being investigated in detail. The method proposed in this paper may prove useful for the future three-dimensional assessment of the response of FG structures when FSI effects are taken into consideration. It is hoped that the results will lead to a full understanding of the mechanism of the interaction between fluid and an FG plate, and that they can be used as benchmark solutions in further research.

  10. Investigating the sources of variability in the dynamic response of built-up structures through a linear analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfathi, Ali; O'Boy, Dan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Fisher, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the dynamic response of a number of nominally identical built-up structures are often different and the variability increases with increasing complexity of the structure. Furthermore, the effects of the different parameters, for example the variation in joint locations or the range of the Young's modulus, on the dynamic response of the system are not the same. In this paper, the effects of different material and geometric parameters on the variability of a vibration transfer function are compared using an analytical model of a simple linear built-up structure that consist of two plates connected by a single mount. Similar results can be obtained if multiple mounts are used. The scope of this paper is limited to a low and medium frequency range where usually deterministic models are used for vibrational analysis. The effect of the mount position and also the global variation in the properties of the plate, such as modulus of elasticity or thickness, is higher on the variability of vibration transfer function than the effect of the mount properties. It is shown that the vibration transfer function between the plates is independent of the mount property if a stiff enough mount with a small mass is implemented. For a soft mount, there is a direct relationship between the mount impedance and the variation in the vibration transfer function. Furthermore, there are a range of mount stiffnesses between these two extreme cases at which the vibration transfer function is more sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the mount than when compared to a soft mount. It is found that the effect of variation in the mount damping and the mount mass on the variability is negligible. Similarly, the effect of the plate damping on the variability is not significant.

  11. Factors affecting response to hepatitis B vaccine among hemodialysis patients in a large Saudi Hemodialysis Center.

    PubMed

    Al Saran, Khalid; Sabry, Alaa; Al Halawany, Zakaria; Ismail, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to identify the factors that could affect this response. This retrospective study was carried out during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 in the Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases (PSCKD), Riyadh, and included 144 patients (78 males and 66 females) on regular HD, all of whom received hepatitis B vacci-nation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the level of hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb): Responders group (>10 IU/L) and non-responders group (<10 IU/L). The study looked at the factors that may affect the responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination, like gender, age, co-existence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, dialysis adequacy that was evaluated by urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V, hemoglobin level, albumin level, protein catabolic rate (PCR), body mass index (BMI), subjective global nutritional status (SGA) and HbA1c. There were 129 patients (89.6%) in the responders group including 69 males and 60 females and 15 patients (10.4%) in the non-responders group including nine males and six females. The mean age in the responders group and the non-responders group was 50.56 ± 15.35 and 56.87 ± 12.52 years, respectively (P = 0.128). The mean value of the PCR was 1.03 ± 0.17 and 0.88 ± 0.17 g/kg/day in the responders group and non-responders group, respectively (P = 0.002). There was no statically significant difference between the two groups regarding the presence or absence of HCV infection, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, URR, Kt/V, hemoglobin level and albumin level. We report a high response rate (89%) for HBV vaccination in our HD patients. The PCR was the only factor that affected the response to HBV vaccination in these patients.

  12. Can a pediatric trauma center improve the response to a mass casualty incident?

    PubMed

    Barthel, Erik R; Pierce, James R; Goodhue, Catherine J; Burke, Rita V; Ford, Henri R; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-10-01

    Recent events including the 2001 terrorist attacks on New York; Hurricane Katrina; the 2010 Haitian and Chilean earthquakes; and the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster in Japan have reminded disaster planners and responders of the tremendous scale of mass casualty disasters and their resulting human devastation. Although adult disaster medicine is a well-developed field with roots in wartime medicine, we are increasingly recognizing that children may comprise up to 50% of disaster victims, and response mechanisms are often designed without adequate preparation for the number of pediatric victims that can result. In this short educational review, we explore the differences between the pediatric and adult disaster and trauma populations, the requirements for designation of a site as a pediatric trauma center (PTC), and the magnitude of the problem of pediatric disaster patients as described in the literature, specifically as it pertains to the availability and use of designated PTCs as opposed to trauma centers in general. We also review our own experience in planning and simulating pediatric mass casualty events and suggest strategies for preparedness when there is no PTC available. We aim to demonstrate from this brief survey that the availability of a designated PTC in the setting of a mass casualty disaster event is likely to significantly improve the outcome for the pediatric demographic of the affected population. We conclude that the relative scarcity of disaster data specific to children limits epidemiologic study of the pediatric disaster population and offer suggestions for strategies for future study of our hypothesis. Systematic review, level III.

  13. Writing Centers and the Politics of Location: A Response to Terrance Riley and Stephen M. North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Critiques Terrance Riley's "The Uncompromising Future of Writing Centers" and Stephen M. North's "Revisiting 'The Idea of a Writing Center'"--two articles that upset assumptions about writing centers. Suggests that while the vision of these writers may strike some as harsh, readers should turn toward rather than away from the important questions…

  14. Sharing the Data along with the Responsibility: Examining an Analytic Scale-Based Model for Assessing School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, John; Taylor, Clint; Cadenas, Herminia; Jones, Albert

    This study was a pilot effort to examine the efficacy of an analytic trait scale school climate assessment instrument and democratic change system in two urban high schools. Pilot study results indicate that the instrument shows promising soundness in that it exhibited high levels of validity and reliability. In addition, the analytic trait format…

  15. A cooperative approach to animal disease response activities: Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and vvIBD in California poultry.

    PubMed

    Saito, Emi K; Shea, Supie; Jones, Annette; Ramos, Gregory; Pitesky, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDv) was first detected in the United States at the end of 2008. Since its detection, Federal and State animal health officials, the poultry industry and the research/academic community have led response activities through a collaborative effort. By June 2011, much still remained unknown regarding the basic epidemiology and ecology of vvIBD in California, although there were a number of potential activities to fill this information gap. Available resources limited the ability to pursue all the activities, and responsible parties and stakeholders recognized the need to prioritize the activities. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a useful multi-criteria decision making methodology that incorporates qualitative information (in the form of judgments) with available quantitative information. This is especially useful when there is very limited quantitative information, such as in the situation with vvIBD in California. A commercial package that allows ready use of the AHP model was utilized for prioritizing activities, incorporating input from members from the three stakeholder groups: State and Federal animal health officials, poultry industry, and research/academia. Based on their inputs on 17 potential activities, the participants identified three priority activities; specifically determination of risk factors for re-emergence or re-introduction at affected premises, development of a laboratory diagnostic test to screen for segment B of the vvIBDV genome and surveillance of other potential reservoirs (mealworms, rodents, beetles). In order to evaluate the ability of the AHP to respond to differences, a sensitivity analysis was done in order to evaluate changes in prioritization of activities. Changes in prioritization were noted demonstrating the plasticity of the model under different conditions. However, a 50% increase or decrease in weighting was necessary to affect the order of the three highest scoring

  16. Improving Response to Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: Findings of the Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE), 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Context Each year foodborne diseases (FBD) affect approximately 1 in 6 Americans, resulting in 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Decreasing resources impact the ability of public health officials to identify, respond to, and control FBD outbreaks. Geographically dispersed outbreaks necessitate multijurisdictional coordination across all levels of the public health system. Rapid response depends on rapid detection. Objective Targeted resources were provided to state and local health departments to improve completeness and timeliness of laboratory, epidemiology, and environmental health (EH) activities for FBD surveillance and outbreak response. Design Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers, selected through competitive award, implemented work plans designed to make outbreak response more complete and faster in their jurisdiction. Performance metrics were developed and used to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of activities. Participants Departments of Health in Connecticut, New York City, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin. Results From the first year (Y1) of the program in October 2010 to the end of second year (Y2) in December 2012, the centers completed molecular subtyping for a higher proportion of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Listeria (SSL) isolates (86% vs 98%) and reduced the average time to complete testing from a median of 8 to 4 days. The centers attempted epidemiologic interviews with more SSL case-patients (93% vs 99%) and the average time to attempt interviews was reduced from a median of 4 to 2 days. During Y2, nearly 200 EH assessments were conducted. FoodCORE centers began documenting model practices such as streamlining and standardizing case-patient interviewing. Conclusion Centers used targeted resources and process evaluation to implement and document practices that improve the completeness and timeliness of FBD surveillance and outbreak response activities

  17. Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Kristin L; Perales, Hugo R

    2010-09-01

    Landraces cultivated in centers of crop diversity result from past and contemporary patterns of natural and farmer-mediated evolutionary forces. Successful in situ conservation of crop genetic resources depends on continuity of these evolutionary processes. Climate change is projected to affect agricultural production, yet analyses of impacts on in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity and farmers who conserve it have been absent. How will crop landraces respond to alterations in climate? We review the roles that phenotypic plasticity, evolution, and gene flow might play in sustaining production, although we might expect erosion of genetic diversity if landrace populations or entire races lose productivity. For example, highland maize landraces in southern Mexico do not express the plasticity necessary to sustain productivity under climate change, but may evolve in response to altered conditions. The outcome for any given crop in a given region will depend on the distribution of genetic variation that affects fitness and patterns of climate change. Understanding patterns of neutral and adaptive diversity from the population to the landscape scale is essential to clarify how landraces conserved in situ will continue to evolve and how to minimize genetic erosion of this essential natural resource.

  18. Financial sustainability of academic health centers: identifying challenges and strategic responses.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Jim P; Li, Tao; Shiyanbola, Oyewale O; Jacobson, Janelle J

    2014-06-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) play a vital role in the health care system. The training of health care personnel and delivery of health care services, especially to the most complex and financially challenged patients, has been a responsibility increasingly shouldered by AHCs over the years. Additionally, AHCs play a significant role in researching and developing new treatment protocols, including discovering and validating new health technologies. However, AHCs face unique financial challenges in fulfilling their social mission in the health care system. Reforms being implemented under the Affordable Care Act and shifting economic patterns are threatening the financial sustainability of AHCs.The authors review challenges facing AHCs, including training new health care professionals with fewer funding resources, disproportionate clinical care of complex and costly patients, charity care to uninsured and underinsured, and reduced research funding opportunities. Then, they provide a review of some potential solutions to these challenges, including new reimbursement methods, improvements in operational efficiency, price regulation, subsidization of education, improved decision making and communication, utilization of industrial management tools, and increasing internal and external cooperation. Devising solutions to the evolving problems of AHCs is crucial to improving health care delivery in the United States. Most likely, a combination of market, government, and system reforms will be needed to improve the viability of AHCs and assist them in fulfilling their social and organizational missions.

  19. Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Exhibiting Acid-Responsive Regulation of Photoinduced Charge Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Pahk, Ian; Kodis, Gerdenis; Fleming, Graham R.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2016-09-16

    Charge separation (CS) is the primary light-driven reaction in photosynthesis whereas onphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is a photoprotective regulatory mechanism employed by many photosynthetic organisms to dynamically modulate energy flow within the photosynthetic apparatus in response to fluctuating light conditions. Activated by decreases in lumen pH produced during periods of high photon flux, NPQ induces rapid thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. As a result, the rate of CS decreases, thereby limiting the accumulation of potentially deleterious reactive intermediates and byproducts. In this article, a molecular triad that functionally mimics the effects of NPQ associated with an artificial photosynthetic reaction center is described. Steady-state absorption and emission, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies have been used to demonstrate a 1 order of magnitude reduction in the CS quantum yield via reversible protonation of an excited-state-quenching molecular switch moiety. As in the natural system, the populations of unquenched and quenched states and therefore the overall yields of CS were found to be dependent on acid concentration.

  20. Strategic response by providers to specialty hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, and retail clinics.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawton R; David, Guy; Helmchen, Lorens A

    2011-04-01

    Radical innovation and disruptive technologies are frequently heralded as a solution to delivering higher quality, lower cost health care. According to the literature on disruption, local hospitals and physicians (incumbent providers) may be unable to competitively respond to such "creative destruction" and alter their business models for a host of reasons, thus threatening their future survival. However, strategic management theory and research suggest that, under certain conditions, incumbent providers may be able to weather the discontinuities posed by the disrupters. This article analyzes 3 disruptive innovations in service delivery: single-specialty hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, and retail clinics. We first discuss the features of these innovations to assess how disruptive they are. We then draw on the literature on strategic adaptation to suggest how incumbents develop competitive responses to these disruptive innovations that assure their continued survival. These arguments are then evaluated in a field study of several urban markets based on interviews with both incumbents and entrants. The interviews indicate that entrants have failed to disrupt incumbent providers primarily as a result of strategies pursued by the incumbents. The findings cast doubt on the prospects for these disruptive innovations to transform health care.

  1. Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kristin L; Perales, Hugo R

    2010-01-01

    Landraces cultivated in centers of crop diversity result from past and contemporary patterns of natural and farmer-mediated evolutionary forces. Successful in situ conservation of crop genetic resources depends on continuity of these evolutionary processes. Climate change is projected to affect agricultural production, yet analyses of impacts on in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity and farmers who conserve it have been absent. How will crop landraces respond to alterations in climate? We review the roles that phenotypic plasticity, evolution, and gene flow might play in sustaining production, although we might expect erosion of genetic diversity if landrace populations or entire races lose productivity. For example, highland maize landraces in southern Mexico do not express the plasticity necessary to sustain productivity under climate change, but may evolve in response to altered conditions. The outcome for any given crop in a given region will depend on the distribution of genetic variation that affects fitness and patterns of climate change. Understanding patterns of neutral and adaptive diversity from the population to the landscape scale is essential to clarify how landraces conserved in situ will continue to evolve and how to minimize genetic erosion of this essential natural resource. PMID:25567941

  2. Analytical Protocol (GC/ECNIMS) for OSWER's Response to OIG Report (2005-P-00022) on Toxaphene Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research approached the large number and complexity of the analytes as four separate groups: technical toxaphene, toxaphene congeners (eight in number), chlordane, and organochlorine pesticides. This approach was advantageous because it eliminated potential interferences amon...

  3. Analytical Protocol (GC/ECNIMS) for OSWER's Response to OIG Report (2005-P-00022) on Toxaphene Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research approached the large number and complexity of the analytes as four separate groups: technical toxaphene, toxaphene congeners (eight in number), chlordane, and organochlorine pesticides. This approach was advantageous because it eliminated potential interferences amon...

  4. Recommendations for Safe Separation Distances from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) Using a Heat-Flux-Based Analytical Approach (Abridged)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cragg, Clinton H.; Bowman, Howard; Wilson, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to provide computational modeling to support the establishment of a safe separation distance surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The two major objectives of the study were 1) establish a methodology based on thermal flux to determine safe separation distances from the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) with large numbers of solid propellant boosters containing hazard division 1.3 classification propellants, in case of inadvertent ignition; and 2) apply this methodology to the consideration of housing eight 5-segment solid propellant boosters in the VAB. The results of the study are contained in this report.

  5. Functional Annotation Analytics of Bacillus Genomes Reveals Stress Responsive Acetate Utilization and Sulfate Uptake in the Biotechnologically Relevant Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Baraka S; Isokpehi, Raphael D; Mbah, Andreas N; Hollman, Antoinesha L; Bernard, Christina O; Simmons, Shaneka S; Ayensu, Wellington K; Garner, Bianca L

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus species form an heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria that include members that are disease-causing, biotechnologically-relevant, and can serve as biological research tools. A common feature of Bacillus species is their ability to survive in harsh environmental conditions by formation of resistant endospores. Genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP) domain confer cellular and organismal survival during unfavorable conditions such as nutrient depletion. As of February 2012, the genome sequences and a variety of functional annotations for at least 123 Bacillus isolates including 45 Bacillus cereus isolates were available in public domain bioinformatics resources. Additionally, the genome sequencing status of 10 of the B. cereus isolates were annotated as finished with each genome encoded 3 USP genes. The conservation of gene neighborhood of the 140 aa universal stress protein in the B. cereus genomes led to the identification of a predicted plasmid-encoded transcriptional unit that includes a USP gene and a sulfate uptake gene in the soil-inhabiting Bacillus megaterium. Gene neighborhood analysis combined with visual analytics of chemical ligand binding sites data provided knowledge-building biological insights on possible cellular functions of B. megaterium universal stress proteins. These functions include sulfate and potassium uptake, acid extrusion, cellular energy-level sensing, survival in high oxygen conditions and acetate utilization. Of particular interest was a two-gene transcriptional unit that consisted of genes for a universal stress protein and a sirtuin Sir2 (deacetylase enzyme for NAD+-dependent acetate utilization). The predicted transcriptional units for stress responsive inorganic sulfate uptake and acetate utilization could explain biological mechanisms for survival of soil-inhabiting Bacillus species in sulfate and acetate limiting conditions. Considering the key role of sirtuins in mammalian physiology additional

  6. Functional Annotation Analytics of Bacillus Genomes Reveals Stress Responsive Acetate Utilization and Sulfate Uptake in the Biotechnologically Relevant Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Baraka S.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Mbah, Andreas N.; Hollman, Antoinesha L.; Bernard, Christina O.; Simmons, Shaneka S.; Ayensu, Wellington K.; Garner, Bianca L.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus species form an heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria that include members that are disease-causing, biotechnologically-relevant, and can serve as biological research tools. A common feature of Bacillus species is their ability to survive in harsh environmental conditions by formation of resistant endospores. Genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP) domain confer cellular and organismal survival during unfavorable conditions such as nutrient depletion. As of February 2012, the genome sequences and a variety of functional annotations for at least 123 Bacillus isolates including 45 Bacillus cereus isolates were available in public domain bioinformatics resources. Additionally, the genome sequencing status of 10 of the B. cereus isolates were annotated as finished with each genome encoded 3 USP genes. The conservation of gene neighborhood of the 140 aa universal stress protein in the B. cereus genomes led to the identification of a predicted plasmid-encoded transcriptional unit that includes a USP gene and a sulfate uptake gene in the soil-inhabiting Bacillus megaterium. Gene neighborhood analysis combined with visual analytics of chemical ligand binding sites data provided knowledge-building biological insights on possible cellular functions of B. megaterium universal stress proteins. These functions include sulfate and potassium uptake, acid extrusion, cellular energy-level sensing, survival in high oxygen conditions and acetate utilization. Of particular interest was a two-gene transcriptional unit that consisted of genes for a universal stress protein and a sirtuin Sir2 (deacetylase enzyme for NAD+-dependent acetate utilization). The predicted transcriptional units for stress responsive inorganic sulfate uptake and acetate utilization could explain biological mechanisms for survival of soil-inhabiting Bacillus species in sulfate and acetate limiting conditions. Considering the key role of sirtuins in mammalian physiology additional

  7. Responsibilities and practical limitations in the operation of an astronomical data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.; Mead, J. M.; Nagy, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of an astronomical data center requires that many decisions be made concerning the handling of the astronomical catalogs and data distributed. Should a data center be, as Wilkins (1977) described it, passive, in that catalogs and data are collected and distributed blackbox-wise upon request, or should a data center be active and have experts in various fields to scrutinize, correct, reformat, and document data where necessary. These questions will be addressed and illustrated by describing the current operations and future goals of the Astronomical Data Center at NASA/GSFC.

  8. Critical roles of mTOR Complex 1 and 2 for T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialong; Lin, Xingguang; Pan, Yun; Wang, Jinli; Chen, Pengcheng; Huang, Hongxiang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Gao, Jimin; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-09-30

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play critical roles for germinal center responses and effective humoral immunity. We report here that mTOR in CD4 T cells is essential for Tfh differentiation. In Mtor(f/f)-Cd4Cre mice, both constitutive and inducible Tfh differentiation is severely impaired, leading to defective germinal center B cell formation and antibody production. Moreover, both mTORC1 and mTORC2 contribute to Tfh and GC B cell development but may do so via distinct mechanisms. mTORC1 mainly promotes CD4 T cell proliferation to reach the cell divisions necessary for Tfh differentiation, while Rictor/mTORC2 regulates Tfh differentiation by promoting Akt activation and TCF1 expression without grossly influencing T cell proliferation. Together, our results reveal crucial but distinct roles for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in CD4 T cells during Tfh differentiation and germinal center responses.

  9. Learning from Examples of Civic Responsibility: What Community-Based Art Centers Teach Us about Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jessica Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    While the arts struggle for a place in mainstream education, they are at the center of numerous educational programs in the community. Looking to what schools can learn from community example, this paper identifies three objections to prioritizing the arts in schools (value, measurement, and autonomy) and finds responses to each in community arts…

  10. 20 CFR 670.700 - What are Job Corps centers' responsibilities in preparing students for placement services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are Job Corps centers' responsibilities in preparing students for placement services? 670.700 Section 670.700 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Placement and Continued Services...

  11. 20 CFR 670.950 - What are the financial management responsibilities of Job Corps center operators and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the financial management responsibilities of Job Corps center operators and other service providers? 670.950 Section 670.950 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...

  12. 20 CFR 670.700 - What are Job Corps centers' responsibilities in preparing students for placement services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are Job Corps centers' responsibilities in preparing students for placement services? 670.700 Section 670.700 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Placement and...

  13. 20 CFR 670.700 - What are Job Corps centers' responsibilities in preparing students for placement services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are Job Corps centers' responsibilities in preparing students for placement services? 670.700 Section 670.700 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Placement and...

  14. 20 CFR 670.950 - What are the financial management responsibilities of Job Corps center operators and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the financial management responsibilities of Job Corps center operators and other service providers? 670.950 Section 670.950 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...

  15. Motor equivalent control of the center of mass in response to support surface perturbations.

    PubMed

    Scholz, J P; Schöner, G; Hsu, W L; Jeka, J J; Horak, F; Martin, V

    2007-06-01

    To claim that the center of mass (CM) of the body is a controlled variable of the postural system is difficult to verify experimentally. In this report, a new variant of the method of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis was used to evaluate CM control in response to an abrupt surface perturbation during stance. Subjects stood upright on a support surface that was displaced in the posterior direction. Support surface translations between 0.03 and 0.12 m, each lasting for 275 ms, were presented randomly. The UCM corresponding to all possible combinations of joints that are equivalent with respect to producing the average pre-perturbation anterior-posterior position of the center of mass (CM(AP)) were linearly estimated for each trial. At each point in time thereafter, the difference between the current joint configuration and the average pre-perturbation joint configuration was computed. This joint difference vector was then projected onto the pre-perturbation UCM as a measure of motor equivalence, and onto its complementary subspace, which represents joint combinations that lead to a different CM(AP) position. A similar analysis was performed related to control of the trunk's spatial orientation. The extent to which the joint velocity vector acted to stabilize the CM(AP) position was also examined. Excursions of the hip and ankle joints both increased linearly with perturbation magnitude. The configuration of joints at each instance during the perturbation differed from the mean configuration prior to the perturbation, as evidenced by the joint difference vector. Most of this joint difference vector was consistent, however, with the average pre-perturbation CM(AP) position rather than leading to a different CM(AP )position. This was not the case, however, when performing this analysis with respect to the UCM corresponding to the control of the pre-perturbation trunk orientation. The projection of the instantaneous joint velocity vector also was found to lie

  16. Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

    2012-01-01

    Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

  17. SU-E-P-45: An Analytical Formula for Deriving Mechanical Iso-Center of Rotational Gantry Treatment Unit Rotational Gantry Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X; Bues, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To present an analytical formula for deriving mechanical isocenter (MIC) of a rotational gantry treatment unit. The input data to the formula is obtained by a custom-made device. The formula has been implemented and used in an operational proton therapy facility since 2005. Methods: The custom made device consisted of 3 mutually perpendicular dial indicators and 5 clinometers, to obtain displacement data and gantry angle data simultaneously. During measurement, a steel sphere was affixed to the patient couch, and the device was attached to the snout rotating with the gantry. The displacement data and angle data were obtained simultaneously at angular increments of less than 1 degree. The analytical formula took the displacement and angle as input and derived the positions of dial indicator tips (DIT) position in room-fixed coordinate system. The formula derivation presupposes trigonometry and 3-dimentional coordinate transformations. Due to the symmetry properties of the defining equations, the DIT position can be solved for analytically without using mathematical approximations. We define the mean of all points in the DIT trajectory as the MIC. The formula was implemented in computer code, which has been employed during acceptance test, commissioning, as well as routine QA practice in an operational proton facility since 2005. Results: It took one minute for the custom-made device to acquire the measurement data for a full gantry rotation. The DIT trajectory and MIS are instantaneously available after the measurement. The MIC Result agrees well with vendor’s Result, which came from a different measurement setup, as well as different data analysis algorithm. Conclusion: An analytical formula for deriving mechanical isocenter was developed and validated. The formula is considered to be absolutely accurate mathematically. Be analyzing measured data of radial displacements as function of gantry angle, the formula calculates the MI position in room

  18. Visual Analytics 101

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Burtner, Edwin R.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2016-06-13

    This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics

  19. Smoking: The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use. An Annotated Bibliography with Analytical Introduction. Science and Social Responsibility Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Cecilia M.; Gray, Richard A.

    This volume contains an extensive introduction to the health consequences of tobacco use and extended annotations of the most important English-language monographs and articles to appear on the subject in the 1980s and 1990s arranged in classified order under select headings. The introductory analytical essay by Richard A. Gray covers: early and…

  20. Smoking: The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use. An Annotated Bibliography with Analytical Introduction. Science and Social Responsibility Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Cecilia M.; Gray, Richard A.

    This volume contains an extensive introduction to the health consequences of tobacco use and extended annotations of the most important English-language monographs and articles to appear on the subject in the 1980s and 1990s arranged in classified order under select headings. The introductory analytical essay by Richard A. Gray covers: early and…

  1. Empirical-Analytical Methodological Research in Environmental Education: Response to a Negative Trend in Methodological and Ideological Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to methodological discourse about research approaches to environmental education. More specifically, the paper explores the current status of the "empirical-analytical methodology" and its "positivist" (traditional- and post-positivist) ideologies, in environmental education research through the critical…

  2. Protecting worker and public health during responses to catastrophic disasters-learning from the World Trade Center experience.

    PubMed

    Newman, David M

    2014-11-01

    Despite incremental lessons learned since 9/11, responder and community health remain at unnecessary risk during responses to catastrophic disasters, as evidenced during the BP Deepwater Horizon spill and Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Sandy. Much of the health harm that occurs during disaster response, as distinct from during the disaster event itself, is avoidable. Protection of public health should be an integral component of disaster response, which should "do no additional harm." This commentary examines how challenges and gaps the World Trade Center response resulted in preventable occupational and environmental health harm. It proposes changes in disaster response policies to better protect the health of rescue and recovery workers, volunteers, and impacted worker and residential communities.

  3. Reaction of germinal centers in the T-cell-independent response to the bacterial polysaccharide alpha(1-->6)dextran.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D; Wells, S M; Stall, A M; Kabat, E A

    1994-01-01

    Primary immunization of BALB/c mice with alpha(1-->6)dextran (DEX), a native bacterial polysaccharide, induces an unexpected pattern of splenic B-cell responses. After a peak of antibody-secreting B-cell response at day 4, deposition of dextran-anti-dextran immune complexes, as revealed by staining with both dextran and antibodies to dextran, occurs and persists in splenic follicles until at least the fourth week after immunization. Antigen-specific B cells appear and proliferate in such follicles, leading by day 11 to development of DEX-specific germinal centers as characterized by the presence of distinct regions of DEX+ peanut agglutinin-positive (PNA+) cells. At this time, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis also reveals the appearance of a distinct population of DEX+ PNA+ splenic B cells. In contrast, DEX+ PNA- cells, characterized by intense cytoplasmic staining, are present outside of splenic follicles, peak at day 4 to day 5, and persist until at least day 28. The frequency of these cells correlates with DEX-specific antibody-secreting cells, as detected by the ELISA-spot assay. Thus, in addition to the expected plasma cellular response, the typical T-cell-independent type II antigen, DEX, surprisingly also elicits the formation of antigen-specific germinal centers. These observations raise fundamental questions about the roles of germinal centers in T-cell-independent immune responses. Images PMID:7511812

  4. The first 24 hours of the World Trade Center attacks of 2001--the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention emergency phase response.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel A; Burger, Ronald; Keim, Mark

    2007-01-01

    On 11 September 2001, terrorists hijacked two passenger planes and crashed them into the two towers of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. These synchronized attacks were the largest act of terrorism ever committed on US soil. The impacts, fires, and subsequent collapse of the towers killed and injured thousands of people. Within minutes after the first plane crashed into the WTC, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, initiated one of the largest public health responses in its history. Staff of the CDC provided technical assistance on several key public health issues. During the acute phase of the event, CDC personnel assisted with: (1) assessing hospital capacity; (2) establishing injury and disease surveillance activities; (3) deploying emergency coordinators/liaisons to facilitate inter-agency coordination with the affected jurisdictions; and (4) arranging rapid delivery of emergency medical supplies, therapeutics, and personal protective equipment. This incident highlighted the need for adequate planning for all potential hazards and the importance of interagency and interdepartmental coordination in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies.

  5. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  6. Learner-centered online courses/programs in gerontology and geriatrics: new responses to changing needs of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Cotter, J James; Welleford, E Ayn; Drain, Cecil B

    2008-01-01

    This article describes recent trends that have led to an emphasis on a learner-centered approach to gerontology and geriatrics education especially in distance-based education. A learner-centered approach to education has combined with technological advances to stimulate distance-enhanced education for students in geriatric and gerontology programs. The technological advances, especially the Internet, that have enhanced the capacity of educational programs to involve students in the learning process even though separated from the instructor by time and distance, are discussed. In response to the needs of health care professionals who were seeking to enhance their skills in research, education, and leadership in their respective professions, including gerontology, the learner-centered Doctoral Program in Health-Related Sciences (DPHRS) was established in the School of Allied Health Professions of Virginia Commonwealth University. The specifics of this distance-enhanced, learner-centered program are described. The article ends with strategies for encouraging a learner-centered experience with special focus on distance-based education.

  7. Ghrelin Modulates the fMRI BOLD Response of Homeostatic and Hedonic Brain Centers Regulating Energy Balance in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Deli, Levente; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Hegedűs, Nikolett; Tihanyi, Károly; Liposits, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    The orexigenic gut-brain peptide, ghrelin and its G-protein coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1A) are pivotal regulators of hypothalamic feeding centers and reward processing neuronal circuits of the brain. These systems operate in a cooperative manner and receive a wide array of neuronal hormone/transmitter messages and metabolic signals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed in the current study to map BOLD responses to ghrelin in different brain regions with special reference on homeostatic and hedonic regulatory centers of energy balance. Experimental groups involved male, ovariectomized female and ovariectomized estradiol-replaced rats. Putative modulation of ghrelin signaling by endocannabinoids was also studied. Ghrelin-evoked effects were calculated as mean of the BOLD responses 30 minutes after administration. In the male rat, ghrelin evoked a slowly decreasing BOLD response in all studied regions of interest (ROI) within the limbic system. This effect was antagonized by pretreatment with GHS-R1A antagonist JMV2959. The comparison of ghrelin effects in the presence or absence of JMV2959 in individual ROIs revealed significant changes in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens of the telencephalon, and also within hypothalamic centers like the lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the female rat, the ghrelin effects were almost identical to those observed in males. Ovariectomy and chronic estradiol replacement had no effect on the BOLD response. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid signaling by rimonabant significantly attenuated the response of the nucleus accumbens and septum. In summary, ghrelin can modulate hypothalamic and mesolimbic structures controlling energy balance in both sexes. The endocannabinoid signaling system contributes to the manifestation of ghrelin's BOLD effect in a region specific manner. In females, the estradiol milieu does

  8. MORT User's Manual for use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1,500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  9. A combined analytical formulation and genetic algorithm to analyze the nonlinear damage responses of continuous fiber toughened composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Haemin; Yu, Jaesang; Lee, Hunsu; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Jae Woo; Jung, Yong Chae; Yang, Cheol-Min; Yang, B. J.

    2017-04-01

    Continuous fiber-reinforced composites are important materials that have the highest commercialized potential in the upcoming future among existing advanced materials. Despite their wide use and value, their theoretical mechanisms have not been fully established due to the complexity of the compositions and their unrevealed failure mechanisms. This study proposes an effective three-dimensional damage modeling of a fibrous composite by combining analytical micromechanics and evolutionary computation. The interface characteristics, debonding damage, and micro-cracks are considered to be the most influential factors on the toughness and failure behaviors of composites, and a constitutive equation considering these factors was explicitly derived in accordance with the micromechanics-based ensemble volume averaged method. The optimal set of various model parameters in the analytical model were found using modified evolutionary computation that considers human-induced error. The effectiveness of the proposed formulation was validated by comparing a series of numerical simulations with experimental data from available studies.

  10. Analytical determination of space station response to crew motion and design of suspension system for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Frank C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make analytical determination of the acceleration produced by crew motion in an orbiting space station and define design parameters for the suspension system of microgravity experiments. A simple structural model for simulation of the IOC space station is proposed. Mathematical formulation of this model provides the engineers a simple and direct tool for designing an effective suspension system.

  11. Analytical determination of space station response to crew motion and design of suspension system for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make analytical determination of the acceleration produced by crew motion in an orbiting space station and define design parameters for the suspension system of microgravity experiments. A simple structural model for simulation of the IOC space station is proposed. Mathematical formulation of this model provides the engineers a simple and direct tool for designing an effective suspension system.

  12. Use of Child Centered Play Therapy Responses in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, Joel H.; Muro, Lilia Lamar; Rose, Katherine Kensinger; Webster, Lindsey; Allen, Cassie

    2017-01-01

    The communication process between care providers and children can, at times, be complex. Young children typically lack the verbal language necessary for complex emotional expression. In this article, the authors contend that using some basic "child centered play therapy" (CCPT) techniques would be beneficial in enhancing communicative…

  13. The Hamovitch Research Center: An Experiment in Collective Responsibility for Advancing Science in the Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Marilyn; Brekke, John S.; Soydan, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    Research centers in schools of social work are growing in number and scope. In this article the authors argue that this increase is in line with the growing recognition that research and science are critical components of the mission of the social work profession. The authors examine the purposes and various models for establishing research…

  14. Analytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Graeme W.

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90° rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  15. Analytic materials.

    PubMed

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  16. Product matrix. Patient-centered care the IS/MM response.

    PubMed

    Aligheri, T E

    1994-01-01

    No single MMIS vendor has the total solution to meet the needs of patient-centered care. Addressing it should be one of their top priorities, since this is not fleeting fancy, but rather a new era of healthcare delivery. Elements that will be necessary include: increased communication between care centers and materiel management; electronic ordering and purchasing of goods with prime vendors; the ability to relieve inventory and charge patients without intruding on the care of the patient; the ability to track extensive usage data per care center and nurse server. Usage data can be employed during price negotiations and provide materiel management with important "gatekeeping" information. The more usage data that materiel management has, the more bargaining power will exist with the prime vendor, distributor and care center. It is important to note, however, that information must be concise and easy to obtain. Graphical information has more impact and provides the best visual guide for the materiel manager. A 400-page document containing the month's usage will not "cut it" anymore--if it ever did. The transference and reduction of inventory from the warehouses to the care center probably presents the biggest obstacle for materiel management and nursing. The more work that can done upfront by the prime vendor (such as separating the purchased items into bin-type devices for delivery to specific care centers), the faster the goods can be administered to the patient. With care mapping, the items may even be broken down further, based on case mix information. The items could, and sometimes actually are, stored in the patient's room. It is a nurse's dream to have at his or her fingertips all the supplies needed at the time of request. One key for MMIS in realizing this dream is to track and monitor the on-line, real-time information. In fact, some companies' business is providing immediate inventory replacement information using bed-side terminals. I believe everyone

  17. Direct Probing of Germinal Center Responses Reveals Immunological Features and Bottlenecks for Neutralizing Antibody Responses to HIV Env Trimer.

    PubMed

    Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Carnathan, Diane G; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; Pauthner, Matthias; Briney, Bryan; Reiss, Samantha M; Wood, Jennifer S; Kaushik, Kirti; van Gils, Marit J; Rosales, Sandy L; van der Woude, Patricia; Locci, Michela; Le, Khoa M; de Taeye, Steven W; Sok, Devin; Mohammed, Ata Ur Rasheed; Huang, Jessica; Gumber, Sanjeev; Garcia, AnaPatricia; Kasturi, Sudhir P; Pulendran, Bali; Moore, John P; Ahmed, Rafi; Seumois, Grégory; Burton, Dennis R; Sanders, Rogier W; Silvestri, Guido; Crotty, Shane

    2016-11-22

    Generating tier 2 HIV-neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses by immunization remains a challenging problem, and the immunological barriers to induction of such responses with Env immunogens remain unclear. Here, some rhesus monkeys developed autologous tier 2 nAbs upon HIV Env trimer immunization (SOSIP.v5.2) whereas others did not. This was not because HIV Env trimers were immunologically silent because all monkeys made similar ELISA-binding antibody responses; the key difference was nAb versus non-nAb responses. We explored the immunological barriers to HIV nAb responses by combining a suite of techniques, including longitudinal lymph node fine needle aspirates. Unexpectedly, nAb development best correlated with booster immunization GC B cell magnitude and Tfh characteristics of the Env-specific CD4 T cells. Notably, these factors distinguished between successful and unsuccessful antibody responses because GC B cell frequencies and stoichiometry to GC Tfh cells correlated with nAb development, but did not correlate with total Env Ab binding titers. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Strain Measurements from Acoustic Bench Tests of the Battleship Flowliner Test Articles To Link Analytical Model Results to In-Service Resonant Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Greg; Smaolloey, Kurt; LaVerde, Bruce; Bishop, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The paper will discuss practical and analytical findings of a test program conducted to assist engineers in determining which analytical strain fields are most appropriate to describe the crack initiating and crack propagating stresses in thin walled cylindrical hardware that serves as part of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's fuel system. In service the hardware is excited by fluctuating dynamic pressures in a cryogenic fuel that arise from turbulent flow/pump cavitation. A bench test using a simplified system was conducted using acoustic energy in air to excite the test articles. Strain measurements were used to reveal response characteristics of two Flowliner test articles that are assembled as a pair when installed in the engine feed system.

  19. Use of Strain Measurements from Acoustic Bench Tests of the Battleship Flowliner Test Articles To Link Analytical Model Results to In-Service Resonant Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Greg; Smaolloey, Kurt; LaVerde, Bruce; Bishop, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The paper will discuss practical and analytical findings of a test program conducted to assist engineers in determining which analytical strain fields are most appropriate to describe the crack initiating and crack propagating stresses in thin walled cylindrical hardware that serves as part of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's fuel system. In service the hardware is excited by fluctuating dynamic pressures in a cryogenic fuel that arise from turbulent flow/pump cavitation. A bench test using a simplified system was conducted using acoustic energy in air to excite the test articles. Strain measurements were used to reveal response characteristics of two Flowliner test articles that are assembled as a pair when installed in the engine feed system.

  20. Meteorological forecasting for emergency preparedness and response at the Kennedy Space Center of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Hodur, R.; Liou, C.S.

    1995-10-13

    The NORAPS model has been used to simulate the motion of Hurricane Erin over Florida. A triplynested grid was used to capture the meteorological features which span from regional to local scales with the highest resolution nest centered at the Kennedy Space Center area. The simulated storm track agreed remarkably well with the observed path of the hurricane. There was also good qualitative agreement between the computed surface precipitation pattern and observations based on radar signatures. Although the validity of the Kuo- type cumulus parameterization scheme used in the model was marginal and even questionable on the finest resolution (4 km) nest, the simulated results were nevertheless qualitatively reasonable. The results generated by NORAPS from the simulation of such a numerical challenging meteorological event were very encouraging. Our next step is to use the meteorological information from the model to provide wind fields for dispersion model simulations of potential atmospheric releases.

  1. A Model of Self-Organizing Head-Centered Visual Responses in Primate Parietal Areas

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Bedeho M. W.; Stringer, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a hypothesis for how head-centered visual representations in primate parietal areas could self-organize through visually-guided learning, and test this hypothesis using a neural network model. The model consists of a competitive output layer of neurons that receives afferent synaptic connections from a population of input neurons with eye position gain modulated retinal receptive fields. The synaptic connections in the model are trained with an associative trace learning rule which has the effect of encouraging output neurons to learn to respond to subsets of input patterns that tend to occur close together in time. This network architecture and synaptic learning rule is hypothesized to promote the development of head-centered output neurons during periods of time when the head remains fixed while the eyes move. This hypothesis is demonstrated to be feasible, and each of the core model components described is tested and found to be individually necessary for successful self-organization. PMID:24349064

  2. Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax: International Response by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Jonathan T.; De La Cruz, Margarita Irizarry; Lai, James E.; McAuliffe, Jay F.; Popovic, Tanja; Pillai, Segaran P.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    After reports of the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States, epidemiologists, laboratorians, and clinicians around the world were called upon to respond to widespread political and public concerns. To respond to inquiries from other countries regarding anthrax and bioterrorism, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established an international team in its Emergency Operations Center. From October 12, 2001, to January 2, 2002, this team received 130 requests from 70 countries and 2 territories. Requests originated from ministries of health, international organizations, and physicians and included subjects ranging from laboratory procedures and clinical evaluations to assessments of environmental and occupational health risks. The information and technical support provided by the international team helped allay fears, prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment, and enhance laboratory-based surveillance for bioterrorism events worldwide. PMID:12396915

  3. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus in Egypt Reveals Lack of Reassortment of Re -Introduction of New Viruses into the Region. Options for the Control...Collaborating Center for Emerging and Re - emerging Infectious Diseases in 2001 US NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT NO. 6 (NAMRU-6), LIMA, PERU...Electronic Disease Surveillance Initiative guided by the International Health Regulations (2005) Emerging and re - emerging diseases are a well-defined

  4. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    PubMed

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  5. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  6. Structural Response of Fluid Containing Tanks to Penetrating Projectiles (Hydraulic Ram) - A Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    HYDRAULIC rA)L - U A COMPARISON OF EXPERIXEMNTAL AND ANATYTICAL RESULTS - R. E. BALL MAY 1976 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Prepared...2 II. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 A . Naval Weapons Center Exit Wall Test Program ...... 7 B. Naval...Postgraduate School Entry Wall Test Program .* . 13 III. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION ... . . . . . . . . . . 16 A . Governing Equations

  7. Item Response Theory Scaling of an Academic Medical Center Student Satisfaction Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiers, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Item response theory scaling has been well established in achievement testing, but the practice has seen limited use in student development research. The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of a graded response model scaling of an existing college student satisfaction survey. The existing survey was found to measure…

  8. Experimental and analytical study on the flutter and gust response characteristics of a torsion-free-wing airplane model. [in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data and correlative analytical results on the flutter and gust response characteristics of a torsion-free-wing (TFW) fighter airplane model are presented. TFW consists of a combined wing/boom/canard surface and was tested with the TFW free to pivot in pitch and with the TFW locked to the fuselage. Flutter and gust response characteristics were measured in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel with the complete airplane model mounted on a cable mount system that provided a near free flying condition. Although the lowest flutter dynamic pressure was measured for the wing free configuration, it was only about 20 deg less than that for the wing locked configuration. However, no appreciable alleviation of the gust response was measured by freeing the wing.

  9. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-09-28

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents.

  10. Critical roles of mTOR Complex 1 and 2 for T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jialong; Lin, Xingguang; Pan, Yun; Wang, Jinli; Chen, Pengcheng; Huang, Hongxiang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Gao, Jimin; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play critical roles for germinal center responses and effective humoral immunity. We report here that mTOR in CD4 T cells is essential for Tfh differentiation. In Mtorf/f-Cd4Cre mice, both constitutive and inducible Tfh differentiation is severely impaired, leading to defective germinal center B cell formation and antibody production. Moreover, both mTORC1 and mTORC2 contribute to Tfh and GC B cell development but may do so via distinct mechanisms. mTORC1 mainly promotes CD4 T cell proliferation to reach the cell divisions necessary for Tfh differentiation, while Rictor/mTORC2 regulates Tfh differentiation by promoting Akt activation and TCF1 expression without grossly influencing T cell proliferation. Together, our results reveal crucial but distinct roles for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in CD4 T cells during Tfh differentiation and germinal center responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17936.001 PMID:27690224

  11. On the use of an analytical cascade response function to predict sound transmission through an annular cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, H.; Bériot, H.; Moreau, S.

    2013-07-01

    The present study aims at developing and assessing an analytical model for the sound transmission through an annular stator row in a configuration without mean flow. The model reformulates a three-dimensional annular model dedicated to turbulence interaction noise to deal with the case of an incident acoustic mode of an annular duct. It is a strip theory approach coupled with a previously published analytical formulation for the unsteady vane loading in a rectilinear cascade. Three formulations are developed on the basis of different definitions of the incident acoustic waves impinging on the rectilinear cascade. The latter are designed to match most of the properties of the incident mode in the annular case. The formulations are compared with a finite element method solution and with a rectilinear cascade model in configurations with no mean flow. The benchmarks consist in four annular ducts from very high (0.98) to moderate (0.5) hub-to-tip ratio containing a possibly staggered annular cascade. The frequency and the radial mode order of the incident mode are varied. Both pressure field and pressure coefficients are compared.

  12. Analytic treatment of the compound action potential: Estimating the summed post-stimulus time histogram and unit response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertoff, Mark E.

    2004-11-01

    The convolution of an equation representing a summed post-stimulus time histogram computed across auditory nerve fibers [P(t)] with an equation representing a single-unit wave form [U(t)], resulted in an analytic expression for the compound action potential (CAP). The solution was fit to CAPs recorded to low and high frequency stimuli at various signal levels. The correlation between the CAP and the analytic expression was generally greater than 0.90. At high levels the width of P(t) was broader for low frequency stimuli than for high frequency signals, but delays were comparable. This indicates that at high signal levels there is an overlap in the population of auditory nerve fibers contributing to the CAP for both low and high frequency stimuli but low frequencies include contributions from more apical regions. At low signal levels the width of P(t) decreased for most frequencies and delays increased. The frequency of oscillation of U(t) was largest for high frequency stimuli and decreased for low frequency stimuli. The decay of U(t) was largest at 8 kHz and smallest at 1 kHz. These results indicate that the hair cell or neural mechanisms involved in the generation of action potentials may differ along the cochlear partition. .

  13. Effect of Percent Relative Humidity, Moisture Content, and Compression Force on Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Response as a Process Analytical Tool.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ishan G; Stagner, William C

    2016-08-01

    The effect of percent relative humidity (16-84% RH), moisture content (4.2-6.5% w/w MC), and compression force (4.9-44.1 kN CF) on the light-induced fluorescence (LIF) response of 10% w/w active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) compacts is reported. The fluorescent response was evaluated using two separate central composite designs of experiments. The effect of % RH and CF on the LIF signal was highly significant with an adjusted R (2)  = 0.9436 and p < 0.0001. Percent relative humidity (p = 0.0022), CF (p < 0.0001), and % RH(2) (p = 0.0237) were statistically significant factors affecting the LIF response. The effects of MC and CF on LIF response were also statistically significant with a p value <0.0001 and adjusted R (2) value of 0.9874. The LIF response was highly impacted by MC (p < 0.0001), CF (p < 0.0001), and MC(2) (p = 0022). At 10% w/w API, increased % RH, MC, and CF led to a nonlinear decrease in LIF response. The derived quadratic model equations explained more than 94% of the data. Awareness of these effects on LIF response is critical when implementing LIF as a process analytical tool.

  14. Germinal Center B Cell and T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to Viral Vector and Protein-in-Adjuvant Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan; Hart, Matthew; Chui, Cecilia; Ajuogu, Augustine; Brian, Iona J.; de Cassan, Simone C.; Borrow, Persephone; Draper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the development of Ab-inducing subunit vaccines targeting infections, including HIV, malaria, and Ebola. We previously reported that adenovirus vectored vaccines are potent in priming Ab responses, but uncertainty remains regarding the optimal approach for induction of humoral immune responses. In this study, using OVA as a model Ag, we assessed the magnitude of the primary and anamnestic Ag–specific IgG responses of mice to four clinically relevant vaccine formulations: replication-deficient adenovirus; modified vaccinia Ankara (a poxvirus); protein with alum; and protein in the squalene oil-in-water adjuvant Addavax. We then used flow cytometric assays capable of measuring total and Ag-specific germinal center (GC) B cell and follicular Th cell responses to compare the induction of these responses by the different formulations. We report that adenovirus vectored vaccines induce Ag insert–specific GC B cell and Ab responses of a magnitude comparable to those induced by a potent protein/squalene oil-in-water formulation whereas—despite a robust overall GC response—the insert-specific GC B cell and Ab responses induced by modified vaccinia Ankara were extremely weak. Ag-specific follicular Th cell responses to adenovirus vectored vaccines exceeded those induced by other platforms at day 7 after immunization. We found little evidence that innate immune activation by adenovirus may act as an adjuvant in such a manner that the humoral response to a recombinant protein may be enhanced by coadministering with an adenovirus lacking a transgene of interest. Overall, these studies provide further support for the use of replication-deficient adenoviruses to induce humoral responses. PMID:27412417

  15. Turning Reader-Response Theory into Student-Centered Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Murdo William

    1986-01-01

    Describes how reader response theory can be easily adapted to classroom practice, thereby sharpening student interest in reading, increasing their capacity to reason and write, and fostering greater regard for different points of view. (HOD)

  16. Creating learner-centered classrooms: use of an audience response system in pediatric dentistry education.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey T

    2005-03-01

    Research suggests that the exclusive use of lecture in the classroom hinders student learning. The advent of compact electronic wireless audience response systems has allowed for increased student participation in the classroom. Such technology is utilized in medical education. This article describes the use of an audience response system in a "quiz bowl" format to facilitate and improve the comprehension of student dentists in core concepts in pulp therapy for the pediatric patient.

  17. Human-centered design of a cyber-physical system for advanced response to Ebola (CARE).

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Velin; Jagtap, Vinayak; Skorinko, Jeanine; Chernova, Sonia; Gennert, Michael; Padir, Taşkin

    2015-01-01

    We describe the process towards the design of a safe, reliable, and intuitive emergency treatment unit to facilitate a higher degree of safety and situational awareness for medical staff, leading to an increased level of patient care during an epidemic outbreak in an unprepared, underdeveloped, or disaster stricken area. We start with a human-centered design process to understand the design challenge of working with Ebola treatment units in Western Africa in the latest Ebola outbreak, and show preliminary work towards cyber-physical technologies applicable to potentially helping during the next outbreak.

  18. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center, Baltimore, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-11

    Public Laws designated more than 100 Department of Army facilities for closure and realignment. As a result, it became necessary to expedite the environmental investigation and cleanup process, as necessary, prior to the release and reuse of Army Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) property. The BRAC environmental restoration program was established in 1989 with the first round (BRAC 88) of base closures and continued with subsequent rounds (BRAC 91, BRAC 93, etc.). As a result of the BRAC program, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center has been investigated to determine its environmental condition.

  19. Iterative user-centered design of a next generation patient monitoring system for emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tia; Kim, Matthew I; White, David; Alm, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a system for real-time patient monitoring during large-scale disasters. Our system is designed with scalable algorithms to monitor large numbers of patients, an intuitive interface to support the overwhelmed responders, and ad-hoc mesh networking capabilities to maintain connectivity to patients in the chaotic settings. This paper describes an iterative approach to user-centered design adopted to guide development of our system. This system is a part of the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) architecture.

  20. A simplified analytical solution for thermal response of a one-dimensional, steady state transpiration cooling system in radiative and convective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubota, H.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified analytical method for calculation of thermal response within a transpiration-cooled porous heat shield material in an intense radiative-convective heating environment is presented. The essential assumptions of the radiative and convective transfer processes in the heat shield matrix are the two-temperature approximation and the specified radiative-convective heatings of the front surface. Sample calculations for porous silica with CO2 injection are presented for some typical parameters of mass injection rate, porosity, and material thickness. The effect of these parameters on the cooling system is discussed.

  1. Exact analytical expressions and numerical analysis of two-center Franck Condon factors and matrix elements over displaced harmonic oscillator wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseinov, I. I.; Mamedov, B. A.; Ekenoğlu, A. S.

    2006-08-01

    A detailed study is undertaken, using various techniques, in deriving analytical formula of Franck-Condon overlap integrals and matrix elements of various functions of power (x), exponential (exp(-2cx)) and Gaussian (exp(-cx)) over displaced harmonic oscillator wave functions with arbitrary frequencies. The results suggested by previous experience with various algorithms are presented in mathematically compact form and consist of generalization. The relationships obtained are valid for the arbitrary values of parameters and the computation results are in good agreement with the literature. The numerical results illustrate clearly a further reduction in calculation times. Program summaryProgram name:FRANCK Catalogue identifier:ADXX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXX_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Programming language:Mathematica 5.0 Computer:Pentium M 1.4 GHz Operating system:Mathematica 5.0 RAM:512 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:825 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:16 344 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem:The programs calculate the Franck-Condon factors and matrix elements over displaced harmonic oscillator wave functions with arbitrary quantum numbers (n,n), frequencies (a,a) and displacement (d) for the various functions of power (x), exponential (exp(-2cx)) and Gaussian (exp(-cx)). Solution method:The Franck-Condon factors and matrix elements are evaluated using binomial coefficients and basic integrals. Restrictions:The results obtained by the present programs show great numerical stability for arbitrary quantum numbers (n,n), frequencies (a,a) and displacement (d). Unusual features:None Running time:As an example, for the value of Franck-Condon Overlap Integral I(d;α,α)=0.004405001887372332 with n=3, n=2, a=4, a=3, d=2, the compilation time in a Pentium M 1.4 GHz computer is 0.18 s. Execution

  2. Metal-centered polymers: Using controlled polymerization methodologies for the generation of responsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert Matthew

    Controlled polymerization methods were used to prepare highly modular polymeric metal complexes via convergent and divergent strategies. In these materials, the metal center provides a versatile hub for preparing diverse architectures through coordinative bonds. Moreover, the metal complex introduces various properties to the polymer such as luminescence, magnetism, or electroactivity. Suitably functionalized metal complexes have been used for the atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylate and methacrylate monomers by metalloinitiation to generate luminescent biocompatible materials through a divergent synthesis. By cleaving the tert-butyl groups from poly(tert -butyl acrylate), water soluble [Ru(bpyPAA2)3] 2+ has been prepared as well as the amphiphilic star block copolymer [Ru{bpy(PLA-PAA)2}3]2+ (PLA = poly(lactic acid), PAA = poly(acrylic acid) Bipyridine-centered polymeric macroligands may be chelated to a variety of metal salts. The polymer size greatly influences the formation of [Fe(bpy) 3]2+ centered polymers. As the molecular weight increases (> ˜25 kDa) tris complex formation decreases. Tris(bpy) synthesis is also impacted by chemical composition. BpyPtBA2 (PtBA = poly(tert-butyl acrylate) generates an iron mono(bpy) complex before giving rise to the bis(bpy) iron complex; no tris complex is observed. In contrast, the combination of bpyPEG2 (3 equiv) (PEG = (poly(ethylene glycol)) results in the formation of some iron tris(bpy) compound; however, complete tris(bpy) product formation is suppressed, presumably because of the chelating ability of the PEG chains. These examples contrast with other polymeric macroligands such as bpyPS2, bpyPMMA2, bpyPCL2 and bpyPLA 2 (PS = polystyrene; PMMA = poly(methyl methacrylate); PCL = poly(epsilon-caprolactone); PLA = poly(DL-lactic acid)) for which chelation reactions are facile for low molecular weight macroligands (<15 kDa), with chelation efficiencies (defined as (epsilonPMC/epsilonbpy) x 100%) only declining

  3. Circulating miRNA as fine regulators of the physiological responses to physical activity: Pre-analytical warnings for a novel class of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by specifically binding the target mRNA and by consequently inducing its degradation. miRNAs can be released into the circulation where they remain stable and they can be measured. Their changes reflect individual biologic adaptation to exposures to specific environmental conditions. As such, measurement of circulating microRNAs represents an opportunity to evaluate biologic changes associated with interventions such as exercise and diet. Physical activity is, indeed, a very important modifying factor for circulating miRNAs. Toward their use in clinical settings several issues should be still solved. Their clinical application is hindered by the high heterogeneity of the analytical procedures used for their measurements. Furthermore, several pre-analytical concerns equally reduce the clinical applicability of miRNA. Pre-analytical phase in sports medicine is an important issue both because, often the conditions in which sampling are performed are peculiar (and not always canonical) and because some of the tested parameters, in the case of professional athletes, enters in routine anti-doping testing and, as such, they should be treated according to precise rules in order to avoid any false positive results. Aim of this review is to give an overview of the main available knowledges about the pre-analytical management of the sample for circulating miRNA evaluation along with the importance of miRNA as regulators of the response to physical activity and their possible future use in anti-doping settings. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An interdependent analytic approach to explaining the evolution of NGOs, social movements, and biased government response to AIDS and tuberculosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2013-02-01

    The politics of government response to health epidemics is a new area of scholarly research. Nevertheless, to date scholars have not considered how social science theory can be used and interdependently linked to provide a more thorough discussion of civil societal and national government response to different types of health epidemics. Introducing what I call an interdependent analytic framework of government response to epidemics, this article illustrates how social science theories can be interdependently linked and applied to help explain the evolutionary role of interest groups and social movements in response to AIDS and tuberculosis in Brazil, and when and why the government eventually responded more aggressively to AIDS but not tuberculosis. Evidence from Brazil suggests that the policy influence of interest groups and social movements evolves over time and is more influential after the national government implements new policies; moreover, this response is triggered by the rise of international pressures and government reputation building, not civil society. I highlight new areas of research that the framework provides and provide examples of how this approach can help explain civil societal and biased government responses to different types of epidemics in other nations.

  5. A comparison of analytical techniques for modeling the Rayleigh-Taylor response of elastic-plastic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.C.

    1988-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability response of elastic-plastic solids can be modeled by approximate means. However, neither the linear elastic response equation nor the so-called /open quotes/minimum amplitude/close quotes/ instability criterion derived from rigid plastic analyses is sufficient to describe overall stability characteristics at very large driving pressures. We compare several versions of the modal or one-degree-of-freedom approximation technique and indicate the common features which must be included to obtain the qualitative response seen in numerical experiments.

  6. Identifying Regulators of the Immune Response to Dying Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for carrying out antigen-mediated immune responses against virally-infected and malignant cells. In both cases, cytotoxic T cells are stimulated by interacting with antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). Infected cells produce virus-specific antigens and pathogen associated molecular patterns, which are recognized by DCs and lead to robust T cell activation. Dead or dying uninfected cells, on the other hand, release damage associated molecular patterns, but their release does not always appear to be sufficient to induce cytotoxic T cell activity. Tim Greten, M.D., of CCR’s Medical Oncology Branch, and a group of international collaborators set out to understand how immune responses against dying cancer cells are regulated. These processes are likely to be important for improving the efficacy of cancer treatment vaccines, which induce an immune reaction against a patient’s cancer cells.

  7. Vegetation Response to Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to vegetation response to carbon dioxide and climate includes: • Area and Carbon Content of Sphagnum Since Last Glacial Maximum (2002) (Trends Online) • TDE Model Intercomparison Project Data Archive • Presentations and abstracts from the recent DOE Terrestrial Science Team Meeting (Argonne National Laboratory, October 29-31, 2001) • FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) • Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth (2001) • Bibliography on CO2 Effects on Vegetation and Ecosystems: 1990-1999 Literature (2000) • Direct effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on plants and ecosystems: An updated bibliographic data base (1994) • A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (1999) • A Database of Woody Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (1999) • Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST) Database (1995) • Effects of CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Nutrient Content of Juvenile Ponderosa Pine (1998) • Carbon Dioxide Enrichment: Data on the Response of Cotton to Varying CO2Irrigation, and Nitrogen (1992) • Growth and Chemical Responses to CO2 Enrichment Virginia Pine Pinus Virginiana Mill.(1985)

  8. Community-Centered Responses to Ebola in Urban Liberia: The View from Below

    PubMed Central

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane; McLean, Kristen E.; McKune, Sarah Lindley; Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Fallah, Mosoka; Monger, Josephine; Tehoungue, Kodjo; Omidian, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The West African Ebola epidemic has demonstrated that the existing range of medical and epidemiological responses to emerging disease outbreaks is insufficient, especially in post-conflict contexts with exceedingly poor healthcare infrastructures. In this context, community-based responses have proven vital for containing Ebola virus disease (EVD) and shifting the epidemic curve. Despite a surge in interest in local innovations that effectively contained the epidemic, the mechanisms for community-based response remain unclear. This study provides baseline information on community-based epidemic control priorities and identifies innovative local strategies for containing EVD in Liberia. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted in September 2014 in 15 communities in Monrovia and Montserrado County, Liberia – one of the epicenters of the Ebola outbreak. Findings from 15 focus group discussions with 386 community leaders identified strategies being undertaken and recommendations for what a community-based response to Ebola should look like under then-existing conditions. Data were collected on the following topics: prevention, surveillance, care-giving, community-based treatment and support, networks and hotlines, response teams, Ebola treatment units (ETUs) and hospitals, the management of corpses, quarantine and isolation, orphans, memorialization, and the need for community-based training and education. Findings have been presented as community-based strategies and recommendations for (1) prevention, (2) treatment and response, and (3) community sequelae and recovery. Several models for community-based management of the current Ebola outbreak were proposed. Additional findings indicate positive attitudes towards early Ebola survivors, and the need for community-based psychosocial support. Conclusions/Significance Local communities’ strategies and recommendations give insight into how urban Liberian communities contained the EVD outbreak

  9. Does the implementation of responsibility centers, total quality management, and physician fee programs improve hospital efficiency? Evidence from Taiwan hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsuan-Lien; Liu, Shuen-Zen; Romeis, James C

    2002-12-01

    This study evaluates whether the implementation of various types of hospital-physician integration strategies, such as the responsibility centers system, total quality management, and physician fee programs, enhance efficiency for Taiwan hospitals. Because hospitals in Taiwan are structurally similar to staff-model HMOs, the study has implications beyond Taiwan. The Data Envelopment Analysis model is applied to measure hospital efficiency. Hospital efficiency refers to the ability to produce more outputs (eg, ambulatory and emergency visits, inpatient days, and inpatient visits) with the same inputs (eg, physicians, nurses, ancillary labor, and hospital beds). The sample consists of 90 general hospitals in Taiwan from 1994 to 1996. In addition, multitobit regression analysis is used to simultaneously estimate the effects of the hospital-physician integration strategies and provide better control for the effect of other factors (eg, size, degree of competition, ownership structure, teaching status, and the change in regulatory regime) that may also affect hospital efficiency. When evaluating the hospital-physician integration strategies individually, hospitals that implemented the responsibility centers system, total quality management, and physician fee programs were more efficient than hospitals that did not. Controlling for other factors using the multitobit model, hospitals that implemented physician fee programs remained significantly more efficient than others. In addition, hospitals that implemented total quality management were more efficient when they had implemented the strategy for at least 2 years. Hospitals that implemented the responsibility centers system were more efficient but only when integrating the system with formal incentive schemes. Physician fee programs seem to provide the most direct and robust incentives to enhance hospital efficiency under a fee-for-service regime like that in Taiwan. Because of time-lagged effects, hospitals that

  10. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  11. Corn Response as Affected by Planting Distance from the Center of Strip-Till Fertilized Rows

    PubMed Central

    Adee, Eric; Hansel, Fernando D.; Ruiz Diaz, Dorivar A.; Janssen, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Strip-till has been used at a large scale in east central Kansas as an alternative to earlier planting dates under a no-till system. To determine the effects of planting corn (Zea mays) under previously established strip-tilled fertilized rows, experiments were conducted on an Osage silty clay loam soil in 2006 and 2008 and on a Woodson silt loam soil in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using three different planting distances from the strip-tilled fertilized rows (0, 10, 20, and 38 cm) with a strip-till operation performed between 1 and 73 days before planting. The depth of the strip-till fertilizer application was 13–15 cm below the soil surface. Corn that was planted 10 cm from the fertilized row showed greater early season growth, higher plant population, and grain yield. Planting 20 and 38 cm from the center of the fertilized rows showed none of the benefits that are typically associated with strip-tillage system. Enough time should be allowed between the strip-till operation and planting to reach satisfactory soil conditions (e.g., moist and firm seedbed). Our results suggest that the best location for planting strip-tilled fertilized corn vary depending on soil and climatic conditions as well as the time between fertilizer application with the strip-till operation and planting. With fewer number of days, planting directly on the center of fertilized strip-till resulted in decreased plant population and lower grain yield. However, the greatest yield benefit across different planting conditions was attained when planting within 10 cm of the strip. PMID:27588024

  12. Corn Response as Affected by Planting Distance from the Center of Strip-Till Fertilized Rows.

    PubMed

    Adee, Eric; Hansel, Fernando D; Ruiz Diaz, Dorivar A; Janssen, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Strip-till has been used at a large scale in east central Kansas as an alternative to earlier planting dates under a no-till system. To determine the effects of planting corn (Zea mays) under previously established strip-tilled fertilized rows, experiments were conducted on an Osage silty clay loam soil in 2006 and 2008 and on a Woodson silt loam soil in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using three different planting distances from the strip-tilled fertilized rows (0, 10, 20, and 38 cm) with a strip-till operation performed between 1 and 73 days before planting. The depth of the strip-till fertilizer application was 13-15 cm below the soil surface. Corn that was planted 10 cm from the fertilized row showed greater early season growth, higher plant population, and grain yield. Planting 20 and 38 cm from the center of the fertilized rows showed none of the benefits that are typically associated with strip-tillage system. Enough time should be allowed between the strip-till operation and planting to reach satisfactory soil conditions (e.g., moist and firm seedbed). Our results suggest that the best location for planting strip-tilled fertilized corn vary depending on soil and climatic conditions as well as the time between fertilizer application with the strip-till operation and planting. With fewer number of days, planting directly on the center of fertilized strip-till resulted in decreased plant population and lower grain yield. However, the greatest yield benefit across different planting conditions was attained when planting within 10 cm of the strip.

  13. Development of the University Center for Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response (UCDPER)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    become robust over the course of the project. Follow-up projects are being planned 15 . SUBJECT TERMS Disaster preparedness, emergency response. 16...three projects expected to be concluded by February 15 , 2011. The research projects conducted under the UCDPER umbrella have produced...operations conducted by Jafari concluded that real time information on patient tracking and resource availability can significantly improve patient flow

  14. Pharmacy Response to the Boston Marathon Bombings at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Katelyn W; Rocchio, Megan A; Belisle, Caryn; Matta, Lina; Goralnick, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Effective crisis response requires multidisciplinary communication and rapid action. Our goals are to highlight the experience of a pharmacy department's response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, to discuss the role of the pharmacist in a crisis response, and to identify potential learning opportunities for a future mass casualty event. Our initial response targeted 3 general areas: staffing, supplies, and communication. Pharmacist and technician staffing was increased throughout the hospital, with a 6-fold increase of pharmacists to the emergency department (ED). To ensure adequate supplies were available, inventory on the ED automatic dispensing cabinets (ADC) was assessed for vaccines, antibiotics, and vasoactive medications. ED pharmacists prepared emergent intravenous medications in the ED while the sterile products room bolstered our supply of intravenous medications for patients in the ED and operating room. Overall, there was a 33% increase in the number of ADC transactions, with pharmacists representing 28% of all ADC transactions. To optimize communication, we formulated a comprehensive plan for the timely dissemination of information to the entire pharmacy staff. A mass casualty event is a rare occasion, and it is vital for the pharmacy department to respond rapidly with little notification. The role of a pharmacist is unique and can most effectively triage drug information and medication distribution, especially during times of high demand and high stress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Promoting student-centered active learning in lectures with a personal response system.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Sally A; Dantas, Arianne M; Williams, David A; Kemm, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    We investigated whether an active learning approach, facilitated by a personal response system, would lead to improved student engagement and learning outcomes in large-group physiology lectures for undergraduate science students. We focused on encouraging students' active learning in lectures, whereas previous studies have made more use of audience response technology during lectures for formative or summative assessment. Students voluntarily answered questions posed during lectures with their personal response system (clickers), with individual answers automatically collated for immediate histogram display. This feedback then dictated the focus of followup discussions in the lecture. Student and instructor attitudes were surveyed through voluntary interviews with student responses correlated with their degree of clicker participation and individual exam results. Active lectures were found to increase both student motivation and engagement. Students who participated in answering questions achieved better results than students who chose not to. Students with the lowest scores in a prerequisite course (previous semester physiology exam marks of < 60%) showed significantly better outcomes from the use of clickers than both middle-achieving (60-75%) and high-achieving (>75%) entry students. Significant improvement was evident in both mid- and end-semester exam results compared with student cohorts from preceding years, although this could also be influenced by many other factors. Increased student engagement and the immediate feedback obtained during lectures were advantages commonly noted by lecturing staff.

  16. Solution-based characterization of surface-enhanced Raman response of single scattering centers

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, T A; Talley, C; Schwartzberg, A; Braun, G; Moskovits, M; Reich, N; Huser, T

    2008-03-06

    We demonstrate the rapid optical characterization of large numbers of individual metal nanoparticles freely diffusing in colloidal solution by confocal laser spectroscopy. We find that hollow gold nanospheres and solid silver nanoparticles linked with a bifunctional ligand, both designed nanostructures, exhibit significantly higher monodispersity in their Rayleigh and Raman scattering response than randomly aggregated gold and silver nanoparticles. We show that measurements of rotational diffusion timescales allow sizing of particles significantly more reliably than can be obtained using translational diffusion timescales.

  17. Increasing the Response Rate of the Patient Satisfaction Survey of Inpatients at National Naval Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Healt ’-care Administration by Charles Benninger Accesion For NTIS CRA&I LCDR, NC, USN DTIC...to shift the responsibility of the PSS from a one person or committee function to an all staff involvement mentality (Bevsek & Walters, 1990... mental health treatment. Evaluation and Program Planning, a, 349-56 Leuze, M. S. (1990). Correlation of nurses’ knowledge and valuation of the quality

  18. Flight investigation of XB-70 structural response to oscillatory aerodynamic shaker excitation and correlation with analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, J. M.; Kordes, E. E.; Wykes, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The low frequency symmetric structural response and damping characteristics of the XB-70 airplane were measured at four flight conditions: heavyweight at a Mach number of 0.87 at an altitude of 7620 meters (25,000 feet); lightweight at a Mach number of 0.86 at an altitude of 7620 meters (25,000 feet); a Mach number of 1.59 at an altitude of 11,918 meters (39.100 feet); and a Mach number of 2.38 and an altitude of 18,898 meters (62,000 feet). The flight data are compared with the response calculated by using early XB-70 design data and with the response calculated with mass, structural, and aerodynamic data updated to reflect as closely as possible the airplane characteristics at three of the flight conditions actually flown.

  19. Antigen targeting reveals splenic CD169+ macrophages as promoters of germinal center B‐cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Veninga, Henrike; Borg, Ellen G. F.; Vreeman, Kyle; Taylor, Philip R.; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kraal, Georg; Martinez‐Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Ag delivery to specific APCs is an attractive approach in developing strategies for vaccination. CD169+ macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen represent a suitable target for delivery of Ag because of their strategic location, which is optimal for the capture of blood‐borne Ag and their close proximity to B cells and T cells in the white pulp. Here we show that Ag targeting to CD169+ macrophages in mice resulted in strong, isotype‐switched, high‐affinity Ab production and the preferential induction and long‐term persistence of Ag‐specific GC B cells and follicular Th cells. In agreement with these observations, CD169+ macrophages retained intact Ag, induced cognate activation of B cells, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules upon activation. In addition, macrophages were required for the production of cytokines that promote B‐cell responses. Our results identify CD169+ macrophages as promoters of high‐affinity humoral immune responses and emphasize the value of CD169 as target for Ag delivery to improve vaccine responses. PMID:25487358

  20. Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses Reported by World Trade Center Response Workers and Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Perritt, Kara R.; Herbert, Robin; Levin, Stephen M.; Moline, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2002, the Mount Sinai Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, with support from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), began coordinating the World Trade Center (WTC) Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program (MSP) to monitor the health of qualified WTC responders. Enrolled participants were offered a clinical examination; interviewed to collect medical, mental health, and exposure information; and requested to complete a self-administered medical questionnaire. The objective of this study was to better understand work-related injuries and illnesses sustained on-site by WTC responders. Methods A descriptive analysis of select data from the MSP self-administered medical questionnaire was conducted. Data collected July 2002 through April 2004 from MSP participants enrolled at the Mount Sinai clinic were reviewed using univariate statistical techniques. Results Records from 7,810 participants were analyzed, with most participants associated with either the construction industry (n = 2,623, 34%) or law enforcement (n = 2,036, 26%). Approximately a third of the participants (n = 2,486, 32%) reported at least one injury or illness requiring medical treatment that was sustained during WTC work/volunteer activities. Of the total 4,768 injuries/illnesses reported by these participants, respiratory complaints were most common (n = 1,350, 28%), followed by traumatic injuries excluding eye injuries (n = 961, 20%), eye injuries/ailments (n = 709, 15%), chest pain (n = 375, 8%), headaches (n = 359, 8%), skin conditions (n = 178, 4%), and digestive system conditions (n = 163, 3%). Participants reported that 36% of injuries/illnesses were treated off-site and 29% were treated on-site, with the remaining not specifying treatment location. Off-site treatment was prevalent for respiratory complaints, psychological stress, and chest pain. On-site treatment was predominate for eye injuries/ailments and traumatic injuries

  1. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees AW; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. Methods This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Results Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. Conclusion The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations. PMID:16381611

  2. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population.

    PubMed

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A W; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-12-29

    Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations.

  3. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  4. Combined external and internal hospital disaster: impact and response in a Houston trauma center intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Nates, Joseph L

    2004-03-01

    To increase awareness of specific risks to healthcare systems during a natural or civil disaster. We describe the catastrophic disruption of essential services and the point-by-point response to the crisis in a major medical center. Case report, review of the literature, and discussion. A 28-bed intensive care unit in a level I trauma center in the largest medical center in the world. In June 2001, tropical storm Allison caused >3 feet of rainfall and catastrophic flooding in Houston, TX. Memorial Hermann Hospital, one of only two level I trauma centers in the community, lost electrical power, communications systems, running water, and internal transportation. All essential hospital services were rendered nonfunctional. Life-saving equipment such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and monitors became useless. Patients were triaged to other medical facilities based on acuity using ground and air ambulances. No patients died as result of the internal disaster. Adequate training, teamwork, communication, coordination with other healthcare professionals, and strong leadership are essential during a crisis. Electricity is vital when delivering care in today's healthcare system, which depends on advanced technology. It is imperative that hospitals take the necessary measures to preserve electrical power at all times. Hospitals should have battery-operated internal and external communication systems readily available in the event of a widespread disaster and communication outage. Critical services such as pharmacy, laboratories, blood bank, and central supply rooms should be located at sites more secure than the ground floors, and these services should be prepared for more extensive performances. Contingency plans to maintain protected water supplies and available emergency kits with batteries, flashlights, two-way radios, and a nonelectronic emergency system for patient identification are also very important. Rapid adaptation to unexpected adverse conditions is critical to

  5. Loading ultracold gases in topological Floquet bands: the fate of current and center-of-mass responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Alexandre; Tran, Duc-Thanh; Lewenstein, Maciej; Goldman, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    Topological band structures can be designed by subjecting lattice systems to time-periodic modulations, as was proposed for irradiated graphene, and recently demonstrated in two-dimensional (2D) ultracold gases and photonic crystals. However, changing the topological nature of Floquet Bloch bands from trivial to non-trivial, by progressively launching the time-modulation, is necessarily accompanied with gap-closing processes: this has important consequences for the loading of particles into a target Floquet band with non-trivial topology, and hence, on the subsequent measurements. In this work, we analyse how such loading sequences can be optimized in view of probing the topology of 2D Floquet bands through transport measurements. In particular, we demonstrate the robustness of center-of-mass responses, as compared to current responses, which present important irregularities due to an interplay between the micro-motion of the drive and inter-band interference effects. The results presented in this work illustrate how probing the center-of-mass displacement of atomic clouds offers a reliable method to detect the topology of Floquet bands, after realistic loading sequences.

  6. Ubiquitin-mediated fluctuations in MHC class II facilitate efficient germinal center B cell responses

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Simon J.; Ersching, Jonatan; Ishido, Satoshi; Victora, Gabriel D.; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Antibody affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers (GCs) through iterative rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection. Selection involves B cells competing for T cell help based on the amount of antigen they capture and present on their MHC class II (MHCII) proteins. How GC B cells are able to rapidly and repeatedly transition between mutating their B cell receptor genes and then being selected shortly after is not known. We report that MHCII surface levels and degradation are dynamically regulated in GC B cells. Through ectopic expression of a photoconvertible MHCII-mKikGR chimeric gene, we found that individual GC B cells differed in the rates of MHCII protein turnover. Fluctuations in surface MHCII levels were dependent on ubiquitination and the E3 ligase March1. Increases in March1 expression in centroblasts correlated with decreases in surface MHCII levels, whereas CD83 expression in centrocytes helped to stabilize MHCII at that stage. Defects in MHCII ubiquitination caused GC B cells to accumulate greater amounts of a specific peptide–MHCII (pMHCII), suggesting that MHCII turnover facilitates the replacement of old complexes. We propose that pMHCII complexes are periodically targeted for degradation in centroblasts to favor the presentation of recently acquired antigens, thereby promoting the fidelity and efficiency of selection. PMID:27162138

  7. The response of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dietz, William H

    2015-03-18

    The recognition of the obesity epidemic as a national problem began in 1999 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) publication of a series of annual state-based maps that demonstrated the rapid changes in the prevalence of obesity. Increasing rates of obesity had been noted in earlier CDC studies, but the maps provided evidence of a rapid, nationwide increase. The urgent need to respond to the epidemic led to the identification of state targets and the first generation of interventions for obesity prevention and control. The CDC's role was to provide setting- and intervention-specific guidance on implementing these strategies, and to assess changes in targeted policies and behaviors. The CDC's efforts were augmented by Congressional funding for community initiatives to improve nutrition and increase physical activity. Complementary investments by Kaiser Permanente, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Institute of Medicine improved the evidence base and provided policy recommendations that reinforced the need for a multisectoral approach. Legislative, regulatory, and voluntary initiatives enacted by President Obama's administration translated many of the strategies into effective practice. Whether current efforts to address obesity can be sustained will depend on whether they can be translated into greater grass-roots engagement consistent with a social movement.

  8. Response to Noah Sobe's "Rethinking "Cosmopolitanism" as an Analytic for the Comparative Study of Globalization and Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisler, Andria

    2010-01-01

    As a springboard into her response inspired by Noah Sobe's article, this author offers two possibilities for what cosmopolitanisms can tell about comparative and international education research. First, from her perspective, rooted in justice and peace studies, she is intrigued by several authors' assessments of cosmopolitanism as a cognitive or…

  9. Assessment of Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Incest: A Factor Analytic Study of the Responses to Childhood Incest Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Cardiovascular Safety Assessment in Early‐Phase Clinical Studies: A Meta‐Analytical Comparison of Exposure‐Response Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D; Denney, WS

    2016-01-01

    Exposure‐response analysis of QT interval in clinical studies has been proposed as a thorough QT study alternative. Many exposure‐response model structures have been proposed for cardiovascular (CV) safety markers, but few studies have compared models across multiple drugs. To recommend preferred drug‐effect exposure‐response models on vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) intervals, an individual‐level model‐based meta‐analysis (39 studies and 1,291 subjects) compared 90 model structures. Models were selected to describe the data and cross‐validate studies on the same drug. The most commonly selected baseline model was an unstructured model (estimation of a value at each study nominal time) for all measures but blood pressure. The unstructured model estimated a better cross‐validated drug‐effect when considering all markers. A linear model was the most commonly selected to characterize drug‐effect on all markers. We propose these models as a starting point assisting with CV safety exposure‐response assessment in nondedicated small studies with healthy subjects. PMID:27318037

  11. The response of academic medical centers to the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the Mount Sinai School of Medicine experience.

    PubMed

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response.

  12. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of

  13. The effect of work shift configurations on emergency medical dispatch center response.

    PubMed

    Montassier, Emmanuel; Labady, Julien; Andre, Antoine; Potel, Gilles; Berthier, Frederic; Jenvrin, Joel; Penverne, Yann

    2015-01-01

    It has been proved that emergency medical dispatch centers (EMDC) save lives by promoting an appropriate allocation of emergency medical service resources. Indeed, optimal dispatcher call duration is pivotal to reduce the time gap between the time a call is placed and the delivery of medical care. However, little is known about the impact of work shift configurations (i.e., work shift duration and work shift rotation throughout the day) and dispatcher call duration. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess the effect of work shift configurations on dispatcher call duration. During a 1-year study period, we analyzed the dispatcher call durations for medical and trauma calls during the 4 different work shift rotations (day, morning, evening, and night) and during the 10-hour work shift of each dispatcher in the EMDC of Nantes. We extracted dispatcher call durations from our advanced telephone system, configured with CC Pulse + (Genesys, Alcatel Lucent), and collected them in a custom designed database (Excel, Microsoft). Afterward, we analyzed these data using linear mixed effects models. During the study period, our EMDC received 408,077 calls. Globally, the mean dispatcher call duration was 107 ± 45 seconds. Based on multivariate linear mixed effects models, the dispatcher call duration was affected by night work shift and work shift duration greater than 8 hours, increasing it by about 10 ± 1 seconds and 4 ± 1 seconds, respectively (both p < 0.001). Our study showed that there was a statistically significant difference in dispatcher call duration over work shift rotation and duration, with longer durations seen over night shifts and shifts over 8 hours. While these differences are small and may not have clinical significance, they may have implications for EMDC efficiency.

  14. A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Freed, Melanie; Park, Subok; Badano, Aldo

    2010-06-01

    Accurate models of detector blur are crucial for performing meaningful optimizations of three-dimensional (3D) x-ray breast imaging systems as well as for developing reconstruction algorithms that faithfully reproduce the imaged object anatomy. So far, x-ray detector blur has either been ignored or modeled as a shift-invariant symmetric function for these applications. The recent development of a Monte Carlo simulation package called MANTIS has allowed detailed modeling of these detector blur functions and demonstrated the magnitude of the anisotropy for both tomosynthesis and breast CT imaging systems. Despite the detailed results that MANTIS produces, the long simulation times required make inclusion of these results impractical in rigorous optimization and reconstruction algorithms. As a result, there is a need for detector blur models that can be rapidly generated. In this study, the authors have derived an analytical model for deterministic detector blur functions, referred to here as point response functions (PRFs), of columnar CsI phosphor screens. The analytical model is x-ray energy and incidence angle dependent and draws on results from MANTIS to indirectly include complicated interactions that are not explicitly included in the mathematical model. Once the mathematical expression is derived, values of the coefficients are determined by a two-dimensional (2D) fit to MANTIS-generated results based on a figure-of-merit (FOM) that measures the normalized differences between the MANTIS and analytical model results averaged over a region of interest. A smaller FOM indicates a better fit. This analysis was performed for a monochromatic x-ray energy of 25 keV, a CsI scintillator thickness of 150 microm, and four incidence angles (0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees). The FOMs comparing the analytical model to MANTIS for these parameters were 0.1951 +/- 0.0011, 0.1915 +/- 0.0014, 0.2266 +/- 0.0021, and 0.2416 +/- 0.0074 for 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30

  15. A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Freed, Melanie; Park, Subok; Badano, Aldo

    2010-06-01

    Accurate models of detector blur are crucial for performing meaningful optimizations of three-dimensional (3D) x-ray breast imaging systems as well as for developing reconstruction algorithms that faithfully reproduce the imaged object anatomy. So far, x-ray detector blur has either been ignored or modeled as a shift-invariant symmetric function for these applications. The recent development of a Monte Carlo simulation package called MANTIS has allowed detailed modeling of these detector blur functions and demonstrated the magnitude of the anisotropy for both tomosynthesis and breast CT imaging systems. Despite the detailed results that MANTIS produces, the long simulation times required make inclusion of these results impractical in rigorous optimization and reconstruction algorithms. As a result, there is a need for detector blur models that can be rapidly generated. In this study, the authors have derived an analytical model for deterministic detector blur functions, referred to here as point response functions (PRFs), of columnar CsI phosphor screens. The analytical model is x-ray energy and incidence angle dependent and draws on results from MANTIS to indirectly include complicated interactions that are not explicitly included in the mathematical model. Once the mathematical expression is derived, values of the coefficients are determined by a two-dimensional (2D) fit to MANTIS-generated results based on a figure-of-merit (FOM) that measures the normalized differences between the MANTIS and analytical model results averaged over a region of interest. A smaller FOM indicates a better fit. This analysis was performed for a monochromatic x-ray energy of 25 keV, a CsI scintillator thickness of 150μm, and four incidence angles (0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°). The FOMs comparing the analytical model to MANTIS for these parameters were 0.1951±0.0011, 0.1915±0.0014, 0.2266±0.0021, and 0.2416±0.0074 for 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°, respectively. As a comparison, the

  16. Comparison of different experimental and analytical measures of the thermal annealing response of neutron-irradiated RPV steels

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    The thermal annealing response of several materials as indicated by Charpy transition temperature (TT) and upper-shelf energy (USE), crack initiation toughness, K{sub Jc}, predictive models, and automated-ball indentation (ABI) testing are compared. The materials investigated are representative reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels (several welds and a plate) that were irradiated for other tasks of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program and are relatively well characterized in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions. They have been annealed at two temperatures, 343 and 454 C (650 and 850 F) for varying lengths of time. The correlation of the Charpy response and the fracture toughness, ABI, and the response predicted by the annealing model of Eason et al. for these conditions and materials appears to be reasonable. The USE after annealing at the temperature of 454 C appears to recover at a faster rate than the TT, and even over-recovers (i.e., the recovered USE exceeds that of the unirradiated material).

  17. Chromatin Configuration Determines Cell Responses to Hormone Stimuli | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Ever since selective gene expression was established as the central driver of cell behavior, researchers have been working to understand the forces that control gene transcription. Aberrant gene expression can cause or promote many diseases, including cancer, and alterations in gene expression are the goal of many therapeutic agents. Recent work has focused on the potential role of chromatin structure as a contributor to gene regulation. Chromatin can exist in a tightly packed/inaccessible or loose/accessible configuration depending on the interactions between DNA and its associated proteins. Patterns of chromatin structure can differ between cell types and can also change within cells in response to certain signals. Cancer researchers are particularly interested in the role of chromatin in gene regulation because many of the genomic regions found to be associated with cancer risk are in open chromatin structures.

  18. National implementation of acute stroke care centers in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA): formative evaluation of the field response.

    PubMed

    Damush, Teresa M; Miller, Kristine K; Plue, Laurie; Schmid, Arlene A; Myers, Laura; Graham, Glenn; Williams, Linda S

    2014-12-01

    In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) released the Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) Directive, which mandated reorganization of acute stroke care, including self-designation of stroke centers as Primary (P), Limited Hours (LH), or Supporting (S). In partnership with the VHA Offices of Emergency Medicine and Specialty Care Services, the VA Stroke QUERI conducted a formative evaluation in a national sample of three levels of stroke centers in order to understand barriers and facilitators. The evaluation consisted of a mixed-methods assessment that included a qualitative assessment of data from semi-structured interviews with key informants and a quantitative assessment of stroke quality-of-care data reporting practices by facility characteristics. The final sample included 38 facilities (84 % participation rate): nine P, 24 LH, and five S facilities. In total, we interviewed 107 clinicians and 16 regional Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) leaders. Across all three levels of stroke centers, stroke teams identified the specific need for systematic nurse training to triage and initiate stroke protocols. The most frequently reported barriers centered around quality-of-care data collection. A low number of eligible veterans arriving at the VAMC in a timely manner was another major impediment. The LH and S facilities reported some unique barriers: access to radiology and neurology services; EMS diverting stroke patients to nearby stroke centers, maintaining staff competency, and a lack of stroke clinical champions. Solutions that were applied included developing stroke order sets and templates to provide systematic decision support, implementing a stroke code in the facility for a coordinated response to stroke, and staff resource allocation and training. Data reporting by facility evaluation demonstrated that categorizing site volume did indicate a lower likelihood of reporting among VAMCs with 25-49 acute stroke admissions per year. The AIS Directive

  19. Comparison of analytical and wind-tunnel results for flutter and gust response of a transport wing with active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Perry, B., III; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two flutter suppression control laws wre designed and tested on a low speed aeroelastic model of a DC-10 derivative wing. Both control laws demontrated increases in flutter speed in excess of 25 percent above the passive wing flutter speed. In addition, one of the control laws was effective in reducing loads due to turbulence generated in the wind tunnel. The effect of variations in gain and phase on the closed-loop performance was measured and is compared with predictions. In general, both flutter and gust response predictions agree reasonably well with experimental data.

  20. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids.

  1. [Medical Relief Response by Miyako Public Health Center after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 2011].

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    To improve disaster preparedness, we investigated the response of medical relief activities managed by Iwate Prefectural Miyako Public Health Center during the post-acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011. The study divided the post-disaster period into three approximate time segments: Period I (time of disaster through late March), Period II (mid-April), and Period III (end of May in Miyako City, early July in Yamada Town). We reviewed records on medical relief activities conducted by medical assistance teams (MATs) in Miyako City and Yamada Town. Miyako Public Health Center had organized a meeting to coordinate medical relief activities from Period I to Period III. According to demand for medical services and recovery from the local medical institutions (LMIs) in the affected area, MATs were deployed and active on evacuation centers in each area assigned. The number of patients examined by MATs in Miyako rose to approximately 250 people per day in Period I and decreased to 100 in Period III. However, in Yamada, the number surged to 700 in Period I, fell to 100 in Period II, and decreased to 50 in Period III. This difference could be partly explained as follows. In Miyako, most evacuees had consulted LMIs which restarted medical services after disaster, and the number of LMIs restarted had already reached 29 (94% of the whole) in Period I. In Yamada, most evacuees who had consulted MATs in Period I had almost moved to LMIs restarted in Period II. During the same time, a division of roles and coordination on medical services provision was conducted, such as MATs mainly in charge of primary emergency triage, in response to the number of LMIs restarted which reached 1 (20%) in Period I and 3 (60%) in Period II. Following Period III, more than 80% of patients in Miyako had been a slight illness, such as need for health guidance, and the number of people who underwent emergency medical transport reached pre-disaster levels in both

  2. Emotions predictably modify response times in the initiation of human motor actions: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Garrett F; Cranley, Nicole M; Carnaby, Giselle; Janelle, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Emotions motivate individuals to attain appetitive goals and avoid aversive consequences. Empirical investigations have detailed how broad approach and avoidance orientations are reflected in fundamental movement attributes such as the speed, accuracy, and variability of motor actions. Several theoretical perspectives propose explanations for how emotional states influence the speed with which goal directed movements are initiated. These perspectives include biological predisposition, muscle activation, distance regulation, cognitive evaluation, and evaluative response coding accounts. A comprehensive review of literature and meta-analysis were undertaken to quantify empirical support for these theoretical perspectives. The systematic review yielded 34 studies that contained 53 independent experiments producing 128 effect sizes used to evaluate the predictions of existing theories. The central tenets of the biological predisposition (Hedges' g = -0.356), distance regulation (g = -0.293; g = 0.243), and cognitive evaluation (g = -0.249; g = -0.405; g = -0.174) accounts were supported. Partial support was also identified for the evaluative response coding (g = -0.255) framework. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that substantiate existing theoretical perspectives, and provide potential direction for conceptual integration of these independent perspectives. Recommendations for future empirical work in this area are discussed.

  3. Where does brain neural activation in aesthetic responses to visual art occur? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Piccardi, L; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F; Giannini, A M; Zaidel, D W

    2016-01-01

    Here we aimed at finding the neural correlates of the general aspect of visual aesthetic experience (VAE) and those more strictly correlated with the content of the artworks. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 47 fMRI experiments described in 14 published studies. We also performed four separate ALE analyses in order to identify the neural substrates of reactions to specific categories of artworks, namely portraits, representation of real-world-visual-scenes, abstract paintings, and body sculptures. The general ALE revealed that VAE relies on a bilateral network of areas, and the individual ALE analyses revealed different maximal activation for the artworks' categories as function of their content. Specifically, different content-dependent areas of the ventral visual stream are involved in VAE, but a few additional brain areas are involved as well. Thus, aesthetic-related neural responses to art recruit widely distributed networks in both hemispheres including content-dependent brain areas of the ventral visual stream. Together, the results suggest that aesthetic responses are not independent of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive processes.

  4. Digital photography analysis: Analytical framework for measuring the effects of saturation on photo response non-uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Kris

    Over the years, and through various research, it has been found there are many ways to analyze digital photography to determine its source camera for the original capture. There are many factors to consider when analyzing photography, such as the device used, the environment of the capture, the software used to process the image and any alterations or editing which may have been done. One very important technique of camera source identification is to analyze photo response non-uniformity (PRNU). It has been found every camera, or more specifically every camera's sensor, reacts differently in various conditions. The photo response non-uniformity acts as a fingerprint for a camera. In this paper, we will explore the various techniques used to determine the source of a photo. We will also explore how the unique PRNU fingerprint responds to various situations, including environments of high saturation, artificial light and natural light. Chapter 4 will provide the framework for analyzing such images through multiple case studies using different devices. This study will provide a basis and explanation of how multiple levels of saturation can affect PRNU through the camera's sensor during capture.

  5. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the Public Health Response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    CRANE, Michael A.; CHO, Hyunje G.; LANDRIGAN, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. PMID:24317449

  6. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Shu; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Xiangying, Deng; Zuan, Lim Yok; Jones, Leigh Ann; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; de Vries, Victor C.; Dolpady, Jayashree; Aina, Hoi; Joseph, Sabrina; Narayanan, Sriram; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Puthia, Manoj; Wong, Glenn; Xiong, Huizhong; Poidinger, Michael; Urban, Joseph F.; Lafaille, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE+ B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias toward the plasma cell (PC) fate, and dependence on sequential switching for the production of high-affinity IgE. We show here that IgE+ GC B cells are unfit to undergo the conventional GC differentiation program due to impaired B cell receptor function and increased apoptosis. IgE+ GC cells fail to populate the GC light zone and are unable to contribute to the memory and long-lived PC compartments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that direct and sequential switching are linked to distinct B cell differentiation fates: direct switching generates IgE+ GC cells, whereas sequential switching gives rise to IgE+ PCs. We propose a comprehensive model for the generation and memory of IgE responses. PMID:24218137

  7. Fast, continuous recirculation of germinal center B cell populations enhances robustness of immune response towards varying pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or-Guil, Michal

    2009-03-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are dynamic microstructures that form in lymphatic tissues during immune responses. There, B cells undergo rapid proliferation and mutation of their B cell receptors (BCRs). Selection of B cells bearing BCRs that bind to the pathogen causing the immune response ultimately leads to BCRs that, when secreted as antibodies, form a new, effective, and pathogen specific antibody repertoire. However, the details of this evolutionary process are poorly understood, since currently available experimental techniques do not allow for direct observation of the prevailing mechanisms [Or-Guil et al., Imm.Rev. 2007]. Based on optimality considerations, we put forward the assumption that GCs are not isolated entities where evolutionary processes occur independently, but interconnected structures which allow for continuous exchange of B cells. We show that this architecture leads to a system whose response is much more robust towards different antigen variants than a set of independently working GCs could ever be. We test this hypothesis by generating our own experimental data (time course of 3-D volume distribution of GCs, analysis of high-throughput BCR sequences), and show that available data is consistent with the outlined hypothesis.

  8. Cationic micelle based vaccine induced potent humoral immune response through enhancing antigen uptake and formation of germinal center.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zichao; Shi, Shuai; Jin, Ling; Xu, Lu; Yu, Jing; Chen, Hao; Li, Xingyi

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles have been proven to be an effective vaccine delivery system that can boost immune responses to subunit vaccines. Herein, we developed and characterized a cationic polymeric polyethylene glycol2000-poly ϵ-caprolactone2000-polyethylenimine2000 (mPEG2000-PCL2000-g-PEI2000) micelle as a potent vaccine delivery system to boost the immune response in vivo. The micelles that we developed exhibited great antigen-loading capability and minimal cytotoxicity in vitro. Meanwhile, micelles facilitated OVA antigen uptake by dendritic cells both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, a micelle-formulated OVA vaccine could significantly promote anti-OVA antibody production by 190-fold and potently enhance T cell proliferation and the secretion of IL-5 and IFN-γ. We attributed these effects to its ability to promote antigen uptake, antigen deposition, and germinal center formation. In conclusion, the mPEG2000-PCL2000-PEI2000 micelle that we developed has potential as potent vaccine delivery system to induce Th2 immune response.

  9. Response of hydrothermal system to stress transients at Lassen Volcanic Center, California, inferred from seismic interferometry with ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Brenguier, Florent

    2016-10-01

    Time-lapse monitoring of seismic velocity at volcanic areas can provide unique insight into the property of hydrothermal and magmatic fluids and their temporal variability. We established a quasi real-time velocity monitoring system by using seismic interferometry with ambient noise to explore the temporal evolution of velocity in the Lassen Volcanic Center, Northern California. Our monitoring system finds temporal variability of seismic velocity in response to stress changes imparted by an earthquake and by seasonal environmental changes. Dynamic stress changes from a magnitude 5.7 local earthquake induced a 0.1 % velocity reduction at a depth of about 1 km. The seismic velocity susceptibility defined as ratio of seismic velocity change to dynamic stress change is estimated to be about 0.006 MPa-1, which suggests the Lassen hydrothermal system is marked by high-pressurized hydrothermal fluid. By combining geodetic measurements, our observation shows that the long-term seismic velocity fluctuation closely tracks snow-induced vertical deformation without time delay, which is most consistent with an hydrological load model (either elastic or poroelastic response) in which surface loading drives hydrothermal fluid diffusion that leads to an increase of opening of cracks and subsequently reductions of seismic velocity. We infer that heated-hydrothermal fluid in a vapor-dominated zone at a depth of 2-4 km range is responsible for the long-term variation in seismic velocity[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Crane, Michael A; Cho, Hyunje G; Landrigan, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima.

  11. Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs): A Response to Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination (2011 EFRC Summit, panel session)

    ScienceCinema

    Alivisatos, Paul (Director, LBNL); Crabtree, George (ANL); Dresselhaus, Mildred (MIT); Ratner, Mark (Northwestern University)

    2016-07-12

    A distinguished panel of speakers at the 2011 EFRC Summit looks at the EFRC Program and how it serves as a response to "Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination”, the culminating report that arose from a series of Basic Research Needs workshops. The panel members are Paul Alivisatos, the Director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, George Crabtree, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, Mildred Dresselhause, Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Mark Ratner, Professor at Northwestern University. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  12. [Proton Pump Inhibitor-responsive Esophageal Eosinophilia: An Overview of Cases from One University Hospital Center].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byungkyu; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Chang Min; Hwang, Jae Jin; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-04-25

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease, with eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophagus. A minority of EoE patients respond well to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy alone, and that condition is labelled PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). The prevalence of PPI-REE among EoE cases is unknown. We aimed to identify clinical manifestations of PPI-REE, and the proportion of PPI-REE among all EoE cases. We reviewed pathology of the 4,075 patients who underwent esophageal biopsy at an institution from March 2003 to July 2015. EoE was diagnosed based on esophageal symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophagus, with ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field. We collected endoscopic and pathologic findings, and clinical features for these patients. Thirteen (0.3%) patients were diagnosed with EoE. Clinical manifestations were dysphagia (30.8%), foreign body sensation (23.1%), regurgitation (23.1%), cough (15.4%), heartburn (15.4%), nausea (7.7%), dyspepsia (7.7%). The endoscopic findings noted were polypoid lesion (23.1%), whitish plaque or exudate (23.1%), linear furrow (7.7%), concentric ring (7.7%), nodularity (7.7%), erosion (7.7%), and normal (30.8%). Of these patients, five had a favorable course with PPI as monotherapy. The proportion of EoE among all patients undergoing endoscopic biopsy was 0.3%. Of those, PPI-REE comprised 38%. Most of the endoscopic findings were atypical or normal when compared to the typical findings in EoE. In conclusion, patients who present with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction need esophageal biopsy, regardless of the endoscopic findings. Moreover, patients diagnosed with EoE need to be treated first with PPI alone.

  13. Synthesis of biocompatible and highly photoluminescent nitrogen doped carbon dots from lime: analytical applications and optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Arkan, Elham; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2015-02-01

    Herein, a facile hydrothermal treatment of lime juice to prepare biocompatible nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) in the presence of ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen source has been presented. The resulting N-CQDs exhibited excitation and pH independent emission behavior; with the quantum yield (QY) up to 40%, which was several times greater than the corresponding value for CQDs with no added nitrogen source. The N-CQDs were applied as a fluorescent probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) ions with a detection limit of 14 nM. Moreover, the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of N-CQDs at different concentration ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 mg/ml were investigated by using PC12 cells as a model system. Response surface methodology was used for optimization and systematic investigation of the main variables that influence the QY, including reaction time, reaction temperature, and ammonium bicarbonate weight.

  14. The relation between self-reported psychopathic traits and distorted response styles: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Ray, James V; Hall, Jason; Rivera-Hudson, Nicole; Poythress, Norman G; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Morano, Mario

    2013-01-01

    A concern among researchers is that self-report measures may not be valid indicators of psychopathic traits due to the core features of psychopathy (e.g., lying, deception/manipulation). The current study addresses this issue by combining effects sizes from studies published on or before March 31, 2010 to examine the relation between scores of 3 widely used self-report psychopathy measures--the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and its revised version (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005) and Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) and scores on measures assessing response style (i.e., faking good and faking bad). Effect sizes were obtained from 45 studies for total, Factor 1, and Factor 2 scores (faking good: k = 54, 55, and 55, respectively; faking bad: k = 51, 50, and 50, respectively). Based on a random effects model, a significant negative association was found between social desirability/faking good and both total (r(w) = -.11, p < .01) and F2 (r(w) = -.16, p < .01) scores, and moderation analyses suggested that effect sizes varied as a function of psychopathy scale and validity scale used. Significant positive associations were also found between faking bad and both total (r(w) = .27, p < .05) and F2 (r(w) = .32, p < .05) scores. Also, moderation analyses suggested that effect sizes varied as a function of study location, psychopathy scale, and validity scale. Despite several limitations (e.g., inclusion of only published studies, limited moderators, exclusion of other measures), the general findings temper concerns of positive response bias and underscore the validity of self-report psychopathy scales.

  15. Individual responsibility for healthcare financing: application of an analytical framework exploring the suitability of private financing of assistive devices.

    PubMed

    Tinghög, Gustav; Carlsson, Per

    2012-12-01

    To operationalise and apply a conceptual framework for exploring when health services contain characteristics that facilitate individuals' ability to take individual responsibility for health care through out-of-pocket payment. In addition, we investigate if the levels of out-of-pocket payment for assistive devices (ADs) in Sweden are in line with the proposed framework. Focus groups were used to operationalise the core concepts of sufficient knowledge, individual autonomy, positive externalities, sufficient demand, affordability, and lifestyle enhancement into a measurable and replicable rationing tool. A selection of 28 ADs were graded separately as having high, medium, or low suitability for private financing according to the measurement scale provided through the operationalised framework. To investigate the actual level of private financing, a questionnaire about the level of out-of-pocket payment for the specific ADs was administered to county councils in Sweden. Concepts were operationalised into three levels indicating possible suitability for private financing. Responses to the questionnaire indicate that financing of ADs in Sweden varies across county councils as regards co-payment, full payment, discretionary payment for certain healthcare consumer groups, and full reimbursement. According to the framework, ADs commonly funded privately were generally considered to be more suitable for private financing. Sufficient knowledge, individual autonomy, and sufficient demand did not appear to influence why certain ADs were financed out-of-pocket. The level of positive externalities, affordability, and lifestyle enhancement appeared to be somewhat higher for ADs that were financed out-of-pocket, but the differences were small. Affordability seemed to be the most influential concept.

  16. Patient-centered interviewing is associated with decreased responses to painful stimuli: an initial fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Sarinopoulos, Issidoros; Hesson, Ashley M; Gordon, Chelsea; Lee, Seungcheol A; Wang, Lu; Dwamena, Francesca; Smith, Robert C

    2013-02-01

    To identify the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes associated with a patient-centered interview (PCI) and a positive provider-patient relationship (PPR). Nine female patients participated, five randomly selected to undergo a replicable, evidence-based PCI, the other four receiving standard clinician-centered interviews (CCI). To verify that PCI differed from CCI, we rated the interviews and administered a patient satisfaction with the provider-patient relationship (PPR) questionnaire. Patients were then scanned as they received painful stimulation while viewing pictures of the interviewing doctor and control images (unknown doctor). Interview ratings and questionnaire results confirmed that PCIs and CCIs were performed as planned and PCIs led to a much more positive PPR. We found significantly reduced pain-related neural activation in the left anterior insula region in the PCI group when the interviewing doctor's picture was shown. This study identifies an association between a PCI that produced a positive PPR and reduced pain-related neural responses in the anterior insula. This is an initial step in understanding the neural underpinnings of a PCI. If confirmed, our results indicate one neurobiological underpinning of an effective PCI, providing an additional scientific rationale for its use clinically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Analytic Solution of the Cable Equation Predicts Frequency Preference of a Passive Shunt-End Cylindrical Cable in Response to Extracellular Oscillating Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Monai, Hiromu; Omori, Toshiaki; Okada, Masato; Inoue, Masashi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Aonishi, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Under physiological and artificial conditions, the dendrites of neurons can be exposed to electric fields. Recent experimental studies suggested that the membrane resistivity of the distal apical dendrites of cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons may be significantly lower than that of the proximal dendrites and the soma. To understand the behavior of dendrites in time-varying extracellular electric fields, we analytically solved cable equations for finite cylindrical cables with and without a leak conductance attached to one end by employing the Green's function method. The solution for a cable with a leak at one end for direct-current step electric fields shows a reversal in polarization at the leaky end, as has been previously shown by employing the separation of variables method and Fourier series expansion. The solution for a cable with a leak at one end for alternating-current electric fields reveals that the leaky end shows frequency preference in the response amplitude. Our results predict that a passive dendrite with low resistivity at the distal end would show frequency preference in response to sinusoidal extracellular local field potentials. The Green's function obtained in our study can be used to calculate response for any extracellular electric field. PMID:20159148

  18. Endocrine and metabolic response to trauma in hypovolemic patients treated at a trauma center in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bahten, Luiz CV; Mauro, Fernando HO; Domingos, Maria F; Scheffer, Paula H; Pagnoncelli, Bruno H; Wille, Marco AR

    2008-01-01

    Background The metabolic changes in trauma patients with shock contribute directly to the survival of the patient. To understand these changes better, we made a rigorous analysis of the variations in the main examinations requested for seriously polytraumatized patients. Methods Prospective analysis of patients with blunt or penetrating trauma with hypovolemic shock, with systolic arterial pressure (SAP) equal to or lower than 90 mmHg at any time during initial treatment in the emergency room and aged between 14 and 60 years old. The following exams were analyzed: sodium, potassium, blood test, glycemia and arterial gasometry. The tests were carried out at intervals: T0 (the first exam, collected on admission) and followed by T24 (24 hours after admission), T48 (48 hours after admission), T72 (72 hours after admission). Results The test evaluations showed that there was a tendency towards hyperglycemia, which was more evident upon admission to hospital. The sodium in all the patients was found to be normal upon admission, with a later decline. However, no patient had significant hyponatremia; there was no significant variation in the potassium variable; the gasometry, low pH, BE (base excess) and bicarbonate levels when the first sample was collected and increased later with PO2 and PCO2 showing only slight variations, which meant an acidotic state during the hemorrhagic shock followed by a response from the organism to reestablish the equilibrium, retaining bicarbonate. The red blood count, shown by the GB (globular volume) and HB (hemoglobin) was normal upon entry but later it dropped steadily until it fell below normal; the white blood count (leukocytes, neutrophils and band neutrophil) remained high from the first moment of evaluation. Conclusion In this study we demonstrated the main alterations that took place in patients with serious trauma, emphasizing that even commonly requested laboratory tests can help to estimate metabolic alterations. Suitable

  19. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... child care for their dependent children. (b) Job Corps centers may operate on center child development... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits... Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are...

  20. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... child care for their dependent children. (b) Job Corps centers may operate on center child development... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits... Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are...

  1. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... child care for their dependent children. (b) Job Corps centers may operate on center child development... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits... Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are...

  2. Healthcare professionals' assertions and women's responses during labour: A conversation analytic study of data from One born every minute.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Clare; Land, Victoria; Holmes, Edward J B

    2017-03-01

    Communication during labour is consequential for women's experience yet analyses of situated labour-ward interaction are rare. This study demonstrates the value of explicating the interactional practices used to initiate 'decisions' during labour. Interactions between 26 labouring women, their birth partners and HCPs were transcribed from the British television programme, One Born Every Minute. Conversation analysis was used to examine how decisions were initiated and accomplished in interaction. HCPs initiate decision-making using interactional practices that vary the 'optionality' afforded labouring women in the responsive turn. Our focus here is on the minimisation of optionality through 'assertions'. An 'assertive' turn-design (e.g. 'we need to…') conveys strong expectation of agreement. HCPs assert decisions in contexts of risk but also in contexts of routine activities. Labouring women tend to acquiesce to assertions. The expectation of agreement set up by an assertive initiating turn can reduce women's opportunities to participate in shared decision-making (SDM). When decisions are asserted by HCPs there is a possible dissonance between the tenets of SDM in British health policy and what occurs in situ. This highlights an educational need for HCPs in how best to afford labouring women more optionality, particularly in low-risk contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Confirmatory factor analytic structure and measurement invariance of quantitative autistic traits measured by the social responsiveness scale-2.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Ratliff, Kristin R; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A; Constantino, John N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large (N = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using the Social Responsiveness Scale, representing a broad diversity of age, severity, and reporter type. A two-factor structure (corresponding to social communication impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior) as elaborated in the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria for autism spectrum disorder exhibited acceptable model fit in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was appreciable across age, sex, and reporter (self vs other), but somewhat less apparent between clinical and nonclinical populations in this sample comprised of both familial and sporadic autism spectrum disorders. The statistical power afforded by this large sample allowed relative differentiation of three factors among items encompassing social communication impairment (emotion recognition, social avoidance, and interpersonal relatedness) and two factors among items encompassing restricted, repetitive behavior (insistence on sameness and repetitive mannerisms). Cross-trait correlations remained extremely high, that is, on the order of 0.66-0.92. These data clarify domains of statistically significant factoral separation that may relate to partially-but not completely-overlapping biological mechanisms, contributing to variation in human social competency. Given such robust intercorrelations among symptom domains, understanding their co-emergence remains a high priority in conceptualizing common neural mechanisms underlying autistic syndromes.

  4. Analytical sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    Both a self instruction manual and a cookbook'' guide to field and laboratory analytical procedures, this book provides an essential reference for non-specialists. With a minimum of mathematics and virtually no theory, it introduces practitioners to easy, inexpensive options for sample collection and preparation, data acquisition, analytic protocols, result interpretation and verification techniques. This step-by-step guide considers the advantages and limitations of different procedures, discusses safety and troubleshooting, and explains support skills like mapping, photography and report writing. It also offers managers, off-site engineers and others using sediments data a quick course in commissioning studies and making the most of the reports. This manual will answer the growing needs of practitioners in the field, either alone or accompanied by Practical Sedimentology, which surveys the science of sedimentology and provides a basic overview of the principles behind the applications.

  5. Comparison of Analytical and CAA Solution(s): Unsteady Response of a Rectilinear Swept Cascade to an Incident Gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2000-01-01

    This problem is aimed at testing the ability of computational aeroacoustic methods to calculate the acoustic pressure field generated as a result of the interaction of a convected harmonic gust with a rectilinear cascade of swept flat plates. All relevant geometric information is the same as the unsteady response of an isolated finite span swept airfoil to an incident gust problem with the exception of the sweep angle alpha, which is now taken to be a variable. Assume a cascade stagger angle of zero (with the x-axis aligned with the chord) and a gap-to-chord ratio of h/c = 1. The mean flow Mach number M(sub 0), gust frequency omega, gust amplitude A, and chordwise wavenumber k(sub x) are the same. But for the cascade problem take k(sub y) = pi and k(sub z) = 0. The appropriate physical scales are also the same, as is the governing equation and boundary conditions. Naturally, the impermeability condition now applies to the entire cascade. For this problem, determine the amplitude of upstream-radiated rms acoustic pressure as a function of the sweep angle at the specified frequency. Specifically, show the variations of rms acoustic pressure amplitude at the upstream location (-5c, 0, l/2) for sweep angle alpha in the range (0.0 deg, 30.0 deg). Use sweep angle increments no larger than 2.5 deg. Express the results in dB using the rms pressure value for alpha = 0.0 deg as the reference level. The appropriate FORTRAN output statement should read "WRITE(IUNIT,*) alpha, 20-log10 (p(sub rms)(alpha)/p(sub rms)(0))".

  6. Human-robot interactions during the robot-assisted urban search and rescue response at the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Casper, J; Murphy, R R

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) rescue response provided an unfortunate opportunity to study the human-robot interactions (HRI) during a real unstaged rescue for the first time. A post-hoc analysis was performed on the data collected during the response, which resulted in 17 findings on the impact of the environment and conditions on the HRI: the skills displayed and needed by robots and humans, the details of the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task, the social informatics in the USAR domain, and what information is communicated at what time. The results of this work impact the field of robotics by providing a case study for HRI in USAR drawn from an unstaged USAR effort. Eleven recommendations are made based on the findings that impact the robotics, computer science, engineering, psychology, and rescue fields. These recommendations call for group organization and user confidence studies, more research into perceptual and assistive interfaces, and formal models of the state of the robot, state of the world, and information as to what has been observed.

  7. Monitoring the analytic surface.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Mayes, L C; Dahl, H

    1994-01-01

    How do we listen during an analytic hour? Systematic analysis of the speech patterns of one patient (Mrs. C.) strongly suggests that the clustering of shared pronouns (e.g., you/me) represents an important aspect of the analytic surface, preconsciously sensed by the analyst and used by him to determine when to intervene. Sensitivity to these patterns increases over the course of treatment, and in a final block of 10 hours shows a striking degree of contingent responsivity: specific utterances by the patient are consistently echoed by the analyst's interventions.

  8. Gold nanoparticles-induced enhancement of the analytical response of an electrochemical biosensor based on an organic-inorganic hybrid composite material.

    PubMed

    Barbadillo, M; Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2009-12-15

    The design and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid composite material for glucose electrochemical sensing are described. This material is based on the entrapment of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and glucose oxidase, which was chosen as a model, into a sol-gel matrix. The addition of spectroscopic grade graphite to this system, which confers conductivity, leads to the development of a material particularly attractive for electrochemical biosensor fabrication. The characterization of the hybrid composite material was performed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This composite material was applied to the determination of glucose in presence of hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator. The system exhibits a clear electrocatalytic activity towards glucose, allowing its determination at 250 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The performance of the resulting enzyme biosensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, stability and accuracy. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response of the resulting biosensor induced by the presence of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by comparison with a similar organic-inorganic hybrid composite material without AuNPs.

  9. Evaluation of non-response bias in a cohort study of World Trade Center terrorist attack survivors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengchao; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Ghuman, Sharon; Farfel, Mark R

    2015-02-15

    Few longitudinal studies of disaster cohorts have assessed both non-response bias in prevalence estimates of health outcomes and in the estimates of associations between health outcomes and disaster exposures. We examined the factors associated with non-response and the possible non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association estimates in a longitudinal study of World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack survivors. In 2003-04, 71,434 enrollees completed the WTC Health Registry wave 1 health survey. This study is limited to 67,670 adults who were eligible for both wave 2 and wave 3 surveys in 2006-07 and 2011-12. We first compared the characteristics between wave 3 participants (wave 3 drop-ins and three-wave participants) and non-participants (wave 3 drop-outs and wave 1 only participants). We then examined potential non-response bias in prevalence estimates and in exposure-outcome association estimates by comparing one-time non-participants (wave 3 drop-ins and drop-outs) at the two follow-up surveys with three-wave participants. Compared to wave 3 participants, non-participants were younger, more likely to be male, non-White, non-self enrolled, non-rescue or recovery worker, have lower household income, and less than post-graduate education. Enrollees' wave 1 health status had little association with their wave 3 participation. None of the disaster exposure measures measured at wave 1 was associated with wave 3 non-participation. Wave 3 drop-outs and drop-ins (those who participated in only one of the two follow-up surveys) reported somewhat poorer health outcomes than the three-wave participants. For example, compared to three-wave participants, wave 3 drop-outs had a 1.4 times higher odds of reporting poor or fair health at wave 2 (95% CI 1.3-1.4). However, the associations between disaster exposures and health outcomes were not different significantly among wave 3 drop-outs/drop-ins as compared to three-wave participants. Our results show that

  10. Successful implementation of a family and patient activated rapid response team in an adult level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Gerdik, Cynthia; Vallish, Roberta O; Miles, Kelly; Godwin, Steven A; Wludyka, Peter S; Panni, Moeen K

    2010-12-01

    When cardiac arrests occur in hospitalized patients, delays in treatment are associated with lower survival and poorer outcomes. Patients often show a physiological deterioration hours before cardiac or pulmonary arrest. As a result, many hospitals have implemented a rapid response team (RRT) as part of their involvement in the 100,000 Lives Campaign sponsored by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. In conjunction with the University Health System Consortium (UHC) Patient- and Family-Centered Care Implementation Collaborative, Shands Jacksonville Medical Center (SJMC) launched a pilot RRT program in October 2006 followed by campus-wide implementation in July 2007. The program was enhanced to allow patient and family activation of the RRT in October 2007. A review of the first 2 years of data indicates that the SJMC RRT received 25 patient or family activated calls. Forty-eight percent of the calls were initiated by a family member and 52% by the actual patient. Reasons for the calls have varied but the most frequent reason identified by the patient or family member was "something just doesn't feel right" with the patient. Other leading reasons for calls were similar to criteria that are used by staff-initiated calls, such as shortness of breath and pain issues. This is one of the first initiations of a family activated component of the RRT in an adult hospital that has led to improvements in outcomes such as reduction in mortality rates and non-ICU codes, without an overload of false positive calls. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  12. Constitutive CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminates germinal center response and leads to augmented plasma cell production in T cell areas.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Anna; Long, Eugene; Stapler, Dale; Cascalho, Marilia; Tsubata, Takeshi; Koni, Pandelakis A; Shimoda, Michiko

    2010-07-01

    CD40/CD40L engagement is essential to T cell-dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise role of CD40 signaling through cognate T-B interaction in the generation of germinal center and memory B cells is still incompletely understood. To address this issue, a B cell-specific CD40L transgene (CD40LBTg) was introduced into mice with B cell-restricted MHC class II deficiency. Using this mouse model, we show that constitutive CD40L expression on B cells alone could not induce germinal center differentiation of MHC class II-deficient B cells after immunization with T cell-dependent Ag. Thus, some other MHC class II-dependent T cell-derived signals are essential for the generation of germinal center B cells in response to T cell-dependent Ag. In fact, CD40LBTg mice generated a complex Ag-specific IgG1 response, which was greatly enhanced in early, but reduced in late, primary response compared with control mice. We also found that the frequency of Ag-specific germinal center B cells in CD40LBTg mice was abruptly reduced 1 wk after immunization. As a result, the numbers of Ag-specific IgG1 long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells were reduced. By histology, large numbers of Ag-specific plasma cells were found in T cell areas adjacent to Ag-specific germinal centers of CD40LBTg mice, temporarily during the second week of primary response. These results indicate that CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminated their ongoing germinal center response and produced plasma cells. Our results support the notion that CD40 signaling is an active termination signal for germinal center reaction.

  13. An analytical study of turbulence responses, including horizontal-tail loads, of a control-configured vehicle with relaxed static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, B., III

    1976-01-01

    A static stability augmentation system (SSAS) with angle-of-attack, pitch-rate, and forward-speed feedback is used to stabilize control-configured rigid vehicles with relaxed static stability. Airplane configurations include a baseline configuration and two representative control-configured vehicle configurations. The first statically unstable configuration has baseline geometry and an aft center of gravity; the second statically unstable configuration has reduced tail length and area and a forward neutral point. Stability, flying-qualities, and maneuverability requirements are imposed on the airplane-SSAS systems. Turbulence responses of the rigid airframe and tail loads are examined in terms of configuration changes for a given control law and in terms of control law changes for a given configuration.

  14. Melanomacrophage centers in kidney, spleen and liver: A toxic response in carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to mercury chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Pursetyo, Kustiawan Tri; Sulmartiwi, Laksmi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the potential of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) as a bioindicators of environment polluted with mercury chloride. This study used the carp fish that were kept in an environment that contained mercury chloride with a concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm for 21 days. The rate of accumulation of macrophages in the tissue of kidney, spleen and liver were measured by the activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase. The results showed that the MMCs in the spleen and liver tissue of the carp fish potential as the bio-indicators of polluted environment ≥0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The increased in accumulation of macrophages found in the kidney tissue of carp fish exposed to mercury chloride concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, although no significant difference with control (0 ppm). The suppressive effect of the accumulation of immune response showed at the carp fish liver tissue macrophages which were exposed to mercury chloride lower than carp fish that were not exposed.

  15. Testing alternative explanations for common responses to conceptual questions: An example in the context of center of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2017-06-01

    In physics education research it has been common to interpret student errors on conceptual questions in topic-specific ways, rather than in terms of general perceptual or reasoning difficulties. This paper examines two alternative accounts for responses to questions related to the concept of center of mass. In one account, difficulties are said to be perceptual in nature; in the other, difficulties are said to be tightly linked to the concepts in question. Hypotheses derived from the former perspective are tested in studies conducted among university students in introductory physics courses. The results do not provide strong support for the perceptual hypothesis; in fact, there is evidence that performance on perception tasks may be influenced by subjects' ideas about the physical scenario. While the results do not provide general support for one perspective versus the other, the paper serves as an illustration of the type of investigation needed to develop the kind of rich representation of student thinking that will allow instructional resources to be most effectively targeted.

  16. Early lymphoid responses and germinal center formation correlates with lower viral load set points and better prognosis of SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jung Joo; Amancha, Praveen K; Rogers, Kenneth A; Courtney, Cynthia L; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Crotty, Shane; Ansari, Aftab A; Villinger, Francois

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of germinal center (GC) formation in lymphoid tissues following acute SIV infection. SIV induces a marked follicular hyperplasia, associated with an aberrant accumulation of non-proliferating TFH cells within GCs, but with an abundance of cells producing IL-21, demonstrating that the mechanisms involved for these 2 events appear independent. IL-21 stimulated TFH cells are considered a critical element for GC formation, a physiological process that seems dysregulated and excessive during HIV/SIV infection, contributing to lymphoid pathogenesis. However, the data suggest that the kinetics by which such GC are formed may be an important predictor of the host-pathogen equilibrium, as early GC hyperplasia was associated with better control of viral replication. In contrast, monkeys undergoing fast disease progression upon infection exhibited an involution of GCs without local IL-21 production in GCs. These results provide important clues regarding GC-related hyper immune responses in the context of disease progression within various individuals during HIV/SIV infection and may open novel therapeutic avenues to limit lymphoid dysfunction, post infection. PMID:24907346

  17. Large photocurrent response and external quantum efficiency in biophotoelectrochemical cells incorporating reaction center plus light harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, Houman; Lafalce, Evan; Jun, Daniel; Jiang, Xiaomei; Beatty, J Thomas; Takshi, Arash

    2015-04-13

    Bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) are promising materials for solar energy harvesting, due to their high ratio of photogenerated electrons to absorbed photons and long recombination time of generated charges. In this work, photoactive electrodes were prepared from a bacterial RC-light-harvesting 1 (LH1) core complex, where the RC is encircled by the LH1 antenna, to increase light capture. A simple immobilization method was used to prepare RC-LH1 photoactive layer. Herein, we demonstrate that the combination of pretreatment of the RC-LH1 protein complexes with quinone and the immobilization method results in biophotoelectrochemical cells with a large peak transient photocurrent density and photocurrent response of 7.1 and 3.5 μA cm(-2), respectively. The current study with monochromatic excitation showed maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) and photocurrent density of 0.21% and 2 μA cm(-2), respectively, with illumination power of ∼6 mW cm(-2) at ∼875 nm, under ambient conditions. This work provides new directions to higher performance biophotoelectrochemical cells as well as possibly other applications of this broadly functional photoactive material.

  18. The Southwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center and the Oklahoma inter tribal emergency management coalition: a unique partnership.

    PubMed

    Chief, Vicki Tall; Burton, Tracey P; Campbell, Janis; Boatright, Daniel T; Wendelboe, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Oklahoma is home to 39 Native American tribes, so the issue of tribal sovereignty had to be addressed before tribes, local, and state preparedness officials could work together successfully. We describe the unique partnership that was established when the Southwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (SWPERLC) began working with tribes which led to the development of a tribal emergency management coalition. The SWPERLC established a formal partnership with tribal emergency managers and a 501(c)3 coalition was formed. The SWPERLC sponsors annual summits and attends and/or hosts monthly meetings, offering education and training opportunities year-round. One example of a lesson learned resulted from a pandemic influenza survey administered to Oklahoma tribes. We learned that 40% of those Native Americans surveyed who chose not be vaccinated were concerned with side effects. Our evidence showed that improved public health conversations regarding the safety of vaccines must be had with the Native American community. Because of all the activities that were completed we now better understand how state and local preparedness officials can more successfully and beneficially work with tribes. Persistence, patience, and dedication were key factors highlighted during the formation of the coalition. Mutual respect and trust have allowed and will allow this partnership to continue.

  19. Segmented post-column analyte addition; a concept for continuous response control of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry peaks affected by signal suppression/enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A novel technique, "segmented post-column analyte addition", is proposed to visualize and compensate signal suppression/enhancement effects in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Instead of delivering a constant flow of analyte solution between the liquid chromatography (LC) column exit and the ESI interface into the eluent resulting from LC separation of analyte-free matrix in order to determine retention time widows in which suppression/enhancement is unimportant (King et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2000; 11: 942), segmented packets of analyte-containing solvent and analyte-free solvent were infused into an LC eluent resulting from separation of an analyte-containing sample. The obtained, superimposed, periodic spikes are much narrower than the analyte peak eluting from the column. The height of the spikes is affected by signal suppression phenomena to the same extent as the analyte signal, and hence variations of the spike height can be used to correct the peak area of analyte peaks affected by signal suppression/enhancement.

  20. Center on Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah System Approach to Individualized Learning Project.

    Classroom areas organized into centers for specific study purposes are discussed. These centers are used for individual or small group work. The physical arrangement of the area used for a study center is described, including the organization of furniture, materials, and preferred locations. Suggestions are made for the management and stocking of…

  1. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Bronchodilator Response, and Incident Asthma in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Jeon, Yunho; Miller, Gregory E; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with asthma in cross-sectional studies. Whether PTSD leads to clinically significant bronchodilator response (BDR) or new-onset asthma is unknown. We sought to determine the relationship between probable PTSD and both BDR and incident asthma in a high-risk cohort of World Trade Center workers in New York (NY). This study was conducted on data from a high-risk cohort of 11,481 World Trade Center workers in New York, including 6,133 never smokers without a previous diagnosis of asthma. Of the 6,133 never smokers without asthma, 3,757 (61.3%) completed a follow-up visit several years later (mean = 4.95 yr, interquartile range = 3.74-5.90 yr). At the baseline visit, probable PTSD was defined as a score 44 points or greater in the PTSD Checklist questionnaire, and BDR was defined as both a change of 12% or greater and an increment of 200 ml or greater in FEV1 after bronchodilator administration. Incident asthma was defined as a self-report of new physician-diagnosed asthma after the baseline visit. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the analysis of probable PTSD and baseline BDR or incident asthma. Measurements and Main and Results: At baseline, probable PTSD was associated with BDR among all participants (adjusted odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.72), with similar results among never smokers without asthma. Among 3,757 never smokers, probable PTSD at baseline was associated with incident asthma, even after adjustment for baseline BDR (odds ratio = 2.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.85-3.13). This association remained significant in a confirmatory analysis after excluding 195 subjects with baseline BDR. In a cohort of adult workers exposed to a severe traumatic event, probable PTSD is significantly associated with BDR at baseline and predicts incident asthma.

  2. Meeting the Needs of Chinese English Language Learners at Writing Centers in America: A Proposed Culturally Responsive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peizhen; Machado, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the ways in which Writing Centers (WC) currently serve English Language Learners (ELL) at American universities. The authors argue that the pedagogy offered at these centers does not always meet the needs of the Chinese ELLs who make up the largest population of ELLs at American universities. The proposed supplemental model…

  3. 20 CFR 670.515 - What responsibilities do the center operators have in managing work-based learning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... have in managing work-based learning? 670.515 Section 670.515 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... operators have in managing work-based learning? (a) The center operator must emphasize and implement work-based learning programs for students through center program activities, including vocational...

  4. 20 CFR 670.515 - What responsibilities do the center operators have in managing work-based learning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... have in managing work-based learning? 670.515 Section 670.515 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... operators have in managing work-based learning? (a) The center operator must emphasize and implement work-based learning programs for students through center program activities, including vocational...

  5. 20 CFR 670.515 - What responsibilities do the center operators have in managing work-based learning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... have in managing work-based learning? 670.515 Section 670.515 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... operators have in managing work-based learning? (a) The center operator must emphasize and implement work-based learning programs for students through center program activities, including vocational...

  6. Liver disease stage determines whether the immune response stifles or stimulates tumor growth | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the Center for Cancer Research and colleagues from three cancer research centers in Germany have discovered a mechanism whereby precancerous liver cells, found in individuals with chronic liver disease, can prevent neighboring cells from becoming cancerous but can also speed the growth of cells that have already become cancerous.  Learn more...

  7. Designing Audience-Centered Interactive Voice Response Messages to Promote Cancer Screenings Among Low-Income Latinas

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Maria; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim M.; Tellez, Trinidad; Bastani, Roshan; Battaglia, Tracy A.; Michaelson, James S.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cancer screening rates among Latinas are suboptimal. The objective of this study was to explore how Latinas perceive cancer screening and the use and design of interactive voice response (IVR) messages to prompt scheduling of 1 or more needed screenings. Methods Seven focus groups were conducted with Latina community health center patients (n = 40) in need of 1 or more cancer screenings: 5 groups were of women in need of 1 cancer screening (breast, cervical, or colorectal), and 2 groups were of women in need of multiple screenings. A bilingual researcher conducted all focus groups in Spanish using a semistructured guide. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and translated into English for analysis. Emergent themes were identified by using thematic content analysis. Results Participants were familiar with cancer screening and viewed it positively, although barriers to screening were identified (unaware overdue for screening, lack of physician referral, lack of insurance or insufficient insurance coverage, embarrassment or fear of screening procedures, fear of screening outcomes). Women needing multiple screenings voiced more concern about screening procedures, whereas women in need of a single screening expressed greater worry about the screening outcome. Participants were receptive to receiving IVR messages and believed that culturally appropriate messages that specified needed screenings while emphasizing the benefit of preventive screening would motivate them to schedule needed screenings. Conclusion Participants’ receptiveness to IVR messages suggests that these messages may be an acceptable strategy to promote cancer screening among underserved Latina patients. Additional research is needed to determine the effectiveness of IVR messages in promoting completion of cancer screening. PMID:24625364

  8. Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring for Emergency Response and Hazards Assessment: Recent Developments at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buland, R. P.; Guy, M.; Kragness, D.; Patton, J.; Erickson, B.; Morrison, M.; Bryon, C.; Ketchum, D.; Benz, H.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has put into operation a new generation of seismic acquisition, processing and distribution subsystems that seamlessly integrate regional, national and global seismic network data for routine monitoring of earthquake activity and response to large, damaging earthquakes. The system, Bulletin Hydra, was designed to meet Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) design goals to handle thousands of channels of real-time seismic data, compute and distribute time-critical seismic information for emergency response applications, and manage the integration of contributed earthquake products and information, arriving from near-real-time up to six weeks after an event. Bulletin Hydra is able meet these goals due to a modular, scalable, and flexible architecture that supports on-the-fly consumption of new data, readily allows for the addition of new scientific processing modules, and provides distributed client workflow management displays. Through the Edge subsystem, Bulletin Hydra accepts waveforms in half a dozen formats. In addition, Bulletin Hydra accepts contributed seismic information including hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, unassociated and associated picks, and amplitudes in a variety of formats including earthworm import/export pairs and EIDS. Bulletin Hydra has state-driven algorithms for computing all IASPEI standard magnitudes (e.g. mb, mb_BB, ML, mb_LG, Ms_20, and Ms_BB) as well as Md, Ms(VMAX), moment tensor algorithms for modeling different portions of the wave-field at different distances (e.g. teleseismic body-wave, centroid, and regional moment tensors), and broadband depth. All contributed and derived data are centrally managed in an Oracle database. To improve on single station observations, Bulletin Hydra also does continuous real-time beam forming of high-frequency arrays. Finally, workflow management displays are used to assist NEIC analysts in their day-to-day duties. All combined

  9. The Teaching of Analytical Chemistry in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungor, Erno; Kellner, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of analytical chemistry in Europe. Asserts that analytical chemistry should not be intertwined with other branches of chemistry. Argues that analytical chemistry education should aim to create graduates who have adequate knowledge and are aware of their responsibility to society and to nature. (TW)

  10. Analytical Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In the mid 60s under contract with NASA, Dr. Benjamin W. Grunbaum was responsible for the development of an automated electrophoresis device that would work in the weightless environment of space. The device was never used in space but was revived during the mid 70s as a technology utilization project aimed at an automated system for use on Earth. The advanced system became known as the Grunbaum System for electrophoresis. It is a versatile, economical assembly for rapid separation of specific blood proteins in very small quantities, permitting their subsequent identification and quantification.

  11. Ultrasound in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Priego Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound is a type of energy which can help analytical chemists in almost all their laboratory tasks, from cleaning to detection. A generic view of the different steps which can be assisted by ultrasound is given here. These steps include preliminary operations usually not considered in most analytical methods (e.g. cleaning, degassing, and atomization), sample preparation being the main area of application. In sample preparation ultrasound is used to assist solid-sample treatment (e.g. digestion, leaching, slurry formation) and liquid-sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction, emulsification, homogenization) or to promote heterogeneous sample treatment (e.g. filtration, aggregation, dissolution of solids, crystallization, precipitation, defoaming, degassing). Detection techniques based on use of ultrasonic radiation, the principles on which they are based, responses, and the quantities measured are also discussed.

  12. Orientation-specific modulation of rat retinal ganglion cell responses and its dependence on relative orientations of the center and surround gratings.

    PubMed

    Girman, Sergej; Lund, Raymond

    2010-12-01

    In the primary visual cortex (V1), it has been shown that the neuronal response elicited by a grating patch in the receptive field (RF) center can be suppressed or facilitated by an annular grating presented in the RF surround area; the effect depends on the relative orientations of the two gratings. The effect is thought to play a role in figure-ground segregation. Here we have found that response modulation similar to that reported in cortical area V1 can also be found in all major classes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), including "concentric" cells. Orientation-specific response modulation of this kind cannot result from interactions of independent RF mechanisms; therefore more complex mechanism, which takes into account the relative orientations of the gratings in the RF center and surround, or sensing the borders between texture regions, has to be present in RFs of RGCs, even of the concentric type. This challenges the consensus notion that their responses to visual stimuli are governed entirely by a RF composed of separate mechanisms: center, antagonistic surround, and modulatory extraclassical surround. Our findings raise the question of whether initial stages of complex analysis of visual input, normally attributed to the visual cortex, can be achieved within the retina.

  13. A Model for an Angular Velocity-Tuned Motion Detector Accounting for Deviations in the Corridor-Centering Response of the Bee

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Chelsea; Gurney, Kevin; Vasilaki, Eleni; Marshall, James A. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel neurally based model for estimating angular velocity (AV) in the bee brain, capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental observations of visual odometry and corridor-centering in free-flying honeybees, including previously unaccounted for manipulations of behaviour. The model is fitted using electrophysiological data, and tested using behavioural data. Based on our model we suggest that the AV response can be considered as an evolutionary extension to the optomotor response. The detector is tested behaviourally in silico with the corridor-centering paradigm, where bees navigate down a corridor with gratings (square wave or sinusoidal) on the walls. When combined with an existing flight control algorithm the detector reproduces the invariance of the average flight path to the spatial frequency and contrast of the gratings, including deviations from perfect centering behaviour as found in the real bee’s behaviour. In addition, the summed response of the detector to a unit distance movement along the corridor is constant for a large range of grating spatial frequencies, demonstrating that the detector can be used as a visual odometer. PMID:27148968

  14. A Model for an Angular Velocity-Tuned Motion Detector Accounting for Deviations in the Corridor-Centering Response of the Bee.

    PubMed

    Cope, Alex J; Sabo, Chelsea; Gurney, Kevin; Vasilaki, Eleni; Marshall, James A R

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel neurally based model for estimating angular velocity (AV) in the bee brain, capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental observations of visual odometry and corridor-centering in free-flying honeybees, including previously unaccounted for manipulations of behaviour. The model is fitted using electrophysiological data, and tested using behavioural data. Based on our model we suggest that the AV response can be considered as an evolutionary extension to the optomotor response. The detector is tested behaviourally in silico with the corridor-centering paradigm, where bees navigate down a corridor with gratings (square wave or sinusoidal) on the walls. When combined with an existing flight control algorithm the detector reproduces the invariance of the average flight path to the spatial frequency and contrast of the gratings, including deviations from perfect centering behaviour as found in the real bee's behaviour. In addition, the summed response of the detector to a unit distance movement along the corridor is constant for a large range of grating spatial frequencies, demonstrating that the detector can be used as a visual odometer.

  15. 20 CFR 670.515 - What responsibilities do the center operators have in managing work-based learning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... arrangements with employers. Work-based learning must be under actual working conditions and must be designed... have in managing work-based learning? 670.515 Section 670.515 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... managing work-based learning? (a) The center operator must emphasize and implement work-based...

  16. 20 CFR 670.515 - What responsibilities do the center operators have in managing work-based learning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... have in managing work-based learning? 670.515 Section 670.515 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... managing work-based learning? (a) The center operator must emphasize and implement work-based learning... arrangements with employers. Work-based learning must be under actual working conditions and must be...

  17. 41 CFR 102-192.140 - What are your general responsibilities as a Federal mail center manager?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are your general... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Mail Center Manager Requirements § 102-192.140 What are your...

  18. 41 CFR 102-192.140 - What are your general responsibilities as a Federal mail center manager?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are your general... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Mail Center Manager Requirements § 102-192.140 What are your...

  19. Responses to "Intention to Leave, Anticipated Reasons for Leaving, and 12-Month Turnover of Child Care Center Staff."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Linda; Russell, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Two practitioners address problem of employee turnover in child care centers. The first plan argues for comprehensive wage raises, increased benefits, and low cost options to workers that increase flexibility. The second strategy advocates continuing education opportunities, special mentoring programs, and bonuses or raises paid early in the…

  20. MERRA Analytic Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  1. Assessing Beaked Whale Reproduction and Stress Response Relative to Sonar Activity at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS...localized in real time by passive acoustic detection of their echolocation clicks (DiMarzio et al. 2008). Acoustic technicians from the Naval Undersea...Warfare Center relay real-time cetacean localizations using the marine mammal monitoring system at AUTEC and direct observers on a 6.8 m rigid-hulled

  2. Johnson Space Center Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gafka, Tammy; Terrier, Doug; Smith, James

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is a review of the work of Johnson Space Center. It includes a section on technology development areas, (i.e., composite structures, non-destructive evaluation, applied nanotechnology, additive manufacturing, and fracture and fatigue analytical methods), a section on structural analysis capabilities within NASA/JSC and a section on Friction stir welding and laser peening.

  3. Recruitment of DNA replication and damage response proteins to viral replication centers during infection with NS2 mutants of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Zandra; Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2011-02-20

    MVM NS2 is essential for viral DNA amplification, but its mechanism of action is unknown. A classification scheme for autonomous parvovirus-associated replication (APAR) center development, based on NS1 distribution, was used to characterize abnormal APAR body maturation in NS2null mutant infections, and their organization examined for defects in host protein recruitment. Since acquisition of known replication factors appeared normal, we looked for differences in invoked DNA damage responses. We observed widespread association of H2AX/MDC1 damage response foci with viral replication centers, and sequestration and complex hyperphosphorylation of RPA(32), which occurred in wildtype and mutant infections. Quantifying these responses by western transfer indicated that both wildtype and NS2 mutant MVM elicited ATM activation, while phosphorylation of ATR, already basally activated in asynchronous A9 cells, was downregulated. We conclude that MVM infection invokes multiple damage responses that influence the APAR environment, but that NS2 does not modify the recruitment of cellular proteins.

  4. Deletion of WASp and N-WASp in B cells cripples the germinal center response and results in production of IgM autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Torres, Magda-Liz; Petersen, Sven H; Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Volpi, Stefano; Grasset, Emilie K; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Walter, Jolan E; Snapper, Scott B; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2015-08-01

    Humoral immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is associated with failure to respond to common pathogens and high frequency of autoimmunity. Here we addressed the question how deficiency in WASp and the homologous protein N-WASp skews the immune response towards autoreactivity. Mice devoid of WASp or both WASp and N-WASp in B cells formed germinal center to increased load of apoptotic cells as a source of autoantigens. However, the germinal centers showed abolished polarity and B cells retained longer and proliferated less in the germinal centers. While WASp-deficient mice had high titers of autoreactive IgG, B cells devoid of both WASp and N-WASp produced mainly IgM autoantibodies with broad reactivity to autoantigens. Moreover, B cells lacking both WASp and N-WASp induced somatic hypermutation at reduced frequency. Despite this, IgG1-expressing B cells devoid of WASp and N-WASp acquired a specific high affinity mutation, implying an increased BCR signaling threshold for selection in germinal centers. Our data provides evidence for that N-WASp expression alone drives WASp-deficient B cells towards autoimmunity.

  5. A graphical and analytical method to determine the transient response for an ideal transmission line, loaded by a time-varying impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Krehl, P.; Novender, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    Based on Bergeron's theory, a graphical and analytical method has been worked out to determine the dynamic load characteristic and load transients for a time-varying load impedance, pulsed by a lossless transmission line. The analytical solution has been compared with the numerical solution of the network analysis code SCEPTRE. A parametric study for a time-decreasing load function, demonstrated by the example of a vacuum-discharge flash X-ray tube, reveals that the dynamic load characteristic I /SUB L/ (U /SUB L/ (t),U/sub 0/,Z/sub 0/,T) and the transients U /SUB L/ (t,U/sub 0/,Z/sub 0/,T) and I /SUB L/ (t,U/sub 0/,Z/sub 0/,T) are dependent on the diode function Z /SUB L/ (t) as well as on the charging voltage U/sub 0/ and the characterics T and Z/sub 0/ of the line.

  6. Summary of investigations of engine response to distorted inlet conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Braithwaite, W. M.; Soeder, R. H.; Abdelwahab, M.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is presented of experimental and analytical experience of the NASA Lewis Research Center in engine response to inlet temperature and pressure distortions. This includes a description of the hardware and techniques employed, and a summary of the highlights of experimental investigations and analytical modeling. Distortion devices successfully simulated inlet distortion, and knowledge was gained about compression system response to different types of distortion. A list of NASA research references is included.

  7. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  8. Let's Talk... Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  9. Modeling Real-Time Coordination of Distributed Expertise and Event Response in NASA Mission Control Center Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Jeffrey

    This dissertation introduces a multidisciplinary framework for the enabling of future research and analysis of alternatives for control centers for real-time operations of safety-critical systems. The multidisciplinary framework integrates functional and computational models that describe the dynamics in fundamental concepts of previously disparate engineering and psychology research disciplines, such as group performance and processes, supervisory control, situation awareness, events and delays, and expertise. The application in this dissertation is the real-time operations within the NASA Mission Control Center in Houston, TX. This dissertation operationalizes the framework into a model and simulation, which simulates the functional and computational models in the framework according to user-configured scenarios for a NASA human-spaceflight mission. The model and simulation generates data according to the effectiveness of the mission-control team in supporting the completion of mission objectives and detecting, isolating, and recovering from anomalies. Accompanying the multidisciplinary framework is a proof of concept, which demonstrates the feasibility of such a framework. The proof of concept demonstrates that variability occurs where expected based on the models. The proof of concept also demonstrates that the data generated from the model and simulation is useful for analyzing and comparing MCC configuration alternatives because an investigator can give a diverse set of scenarios to the simulation and the output compared in detail to inform decisions about the effect of MCC configurations on mission operations performance.

  10. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterization of an Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Exhibiting Acid-Responsive Regulation of Charge Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahk, Ian

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a photoprotective regulatory mechanism essential to the robustness of the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants. Energy flow within the low-light adapted reaction centers is dynamically optimized to match the continuously fluctuating light conditions found in nature. Activated by compartmentalized decreases in pH resulting from photosynthetic activity during periods of elevated photon flux, NPQ induces rapid thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy that would otherwise overwhelm the apparatus's ability to consume it. Consequently, the frequency of charge separation decreases and the formation of potentially deleterious, high-energy intermediates slows, thereby reducing the threat of photodamage by disallowing their accumulation. Herein is described the synthesis and photophysical analysis of a molecular triad that mimics the effects of NPQ on charge separation within the photosynthetic reaction centers. Steady-state absorption and emission, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies were used to demonstrate reversible quenching of the first singlet excited state affecting the quantum yield of charge separation by approximately one order of magnitude. As in the natural system, the populations of unquenched and quenched states and, therefore, the overall yields of charge separation were found to be dependent upon acid concentration.

  11. Kinetic simulation of the optical absorption dose response of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) incorporating spatially correlated electron and hole trapping centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, I.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Oster, L.; Druzhyna, S.; Biderman, S.; Ginzburg, D.; Reshes, G.

    2017-09-01

    A conduction band/valence band (CB/VB) model incorporating a spatially-correlated trapping center/luminescent center (TC/LC) complex is described which is associated with composite glow peak 5 in the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100). The evidence for such a complex observed in the TL characteristics of TLD-100 is reviewed. Additional experimental evidence from the optical absorption (OA) energy spectrum and dose response of the individual bands has recently been reported in which the 4.0 eV band is interpreted to arise from two sub-bands at 3.84 eV and 4.3 eV. The 3.84 eV band demonstrates the commonly observed linear/exponentially saturating dose response and is interpreted to arise from the e-only TC which is not spatially correlated with an LC. The 4.3 eV band is interpreted to arise from two sub-bands which are unresolved in the OA spectrum but which show two very different dose-response characteristics. The first arising from the TC/LC which has captured only an electron (resulting again in a linear/exponentially saturating dose response) and the other from an electron-hole captured configuration which continues to increase in concentration up to the highest levels of dose investigated. The CB/VB model is used to simulate the kinetics of charge carrier transport and capture leading to the dose response of all the observed OA bands.

  12. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Modeling and Decision Support System for Radiological and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Baskett, R; Larsen, S; Bradley, M

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates with several government agencies and laboratories in order to accomplish its mission. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and

  13. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

  14. Privileged Communication--Rights and Responsibilities of College Counselors Under Wisconsin Law. Volume 4, Number 6. Counseling Center Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolting, Earl; Leege, William

    Selected legal responsibilities of counselors under the present laws of the State of Wisconsin are reviewed. Specifically, statutes concerning privileged communication and confidentiality, drug abuse and abortion are printed in full or in part, and major questions and basic legal principles relevant to them are examined as they pertain to the…

  15. Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community Responsive to Student Needs: Lessons Learned and Suggestions for Middle Level Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adolescents have unique basic and developmental needs. Middle level educators are best able to reach and teach young adolescents when they understand students' needs and when the school environment, including its organizational structures and teacher practices, are responsive to these needs. Findings from a recently conducted qualitative…

  16. Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community Responsive to Student Needs: Lessons Learned and Suggestions for Middle Level Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adolescents have unique basic and developmental needs. Middle level educators are best able to reach and teach young adolescents when they understand students' needs and when the school environment, including its organizational structures and teacher practices, are responsive to these needs. Findings from a recently conducted qualitative…

  17. Reaffirmed limitations of meta-analytic methods in the study of mild traumatic brain injury: a response to Rohling et al.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Farrer, Thomas J; Pertab, Jon L; James, Kelly; Petrie, Jo Ann; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 Pertab, James, and Bigler published a critique of two prior meta-analyses by Binder, Rohling, and Larrabee (1997) and Frencham, Fox, and Maybery (2005) that showed small effect size difference at least 3 months post-injury in individuals who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The Binder et al. and Frencham et al. meta-analyses have been widely cited as showing no lasting effect of mTBI. In their critique Pertab et al. (2009) point out many limitations of these two prior meta-analyses, demonstrating that depending on how inclusion/exclusion criteria were defined different meta-analytic findings occur, some supporting the persistence of neuropsychological impairments beyond 3 months. Rohling et al. (2011) have now critiqued Pertab et al. (2009). Herein we respond to the Rolling et al. (2011) critique reaffirming the original findings of Pertab et al. (2009), providing additional details concerning the flaws in prior meta-analytic mTBI studies and the effects on neuropsychological performance.

  18. A Review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Response to the HIV/AIDS Crisis Among Blacks in the United States, 1981–2009

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rhondette L.; Wolitski, Richard J.; Cleveland, Janet C.; Dean, Hazel D.; Fenton, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Among US racial/ethnic groups, Blacks are at the highest risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched the Heightened National Response to Address the HIV/AIDS Crisis Among African Americans, which seeks to engage public and nonpublic partners in a synergistic effort to prevent HIV among Blacks. The CDC also recently launched Act Against AIDS, a campaign to refocus attention on the domestic HIV/AIDS crisis. Although the CDC's efforts to combat HIV/AIDS among Blacks have achieved some success, more must be done to address this crisis. New initiatives include President Obama's goal of developing a National HIV/AIDS Strategy to reduce HIV incidence, decrease HIV-related health disparities, and increase access to care, especially among Blacks and other disproportionately affected populations. PMID:19797748

  19. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A.; Gordon, Mollie R.; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company’s workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees’ emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals. PMID:23066661

  20. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A; Gordon, Mollie R; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company's workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees' emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals.

  1. Center Size and Center Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helburn, Suzanne; Morris, John

    1996-01-01

    Examined the impact of child care center size on cost, quality, and profits per child. Examined centers ranging from 40 to 80 children and found total cost and revenue per child were similar for small, medium, and large centers. Found profits per child were highest in large centers and that there was no relationship between center quality and…

  2. Automated dynamic analytical model improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is developed and illustrated which finds minimum changes in analytical mass and stiffness matrices to make them consistent with a set of measured normal modes and natural frequencies. The corrected model is an improved base for studies of physical changes, changes in boundary conditions, and for prediction of forced responses. Features of the method are: efficient procedures not requiring solutions of the eigenproblem; the model may have more degrees of freedom than the test data; modal displacements at all the analytical degrees of freedom are obtained; the frequency dependence of the coordinate transformations are properly treated.

  3. Role of a database-driven web site in the immediate disaster response and recovery of Academic Health Center: the Katrina experience.

    PubMed

    Fordis, Michael; Alexander, J Douglas; McKellar, Julie

    2007-08-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina's landfall on August 29, 2005, and the subsequent levee failures, operations of Tulane University School of Medicine became unsustainable. As New Orleans collapsed, faculty, students, residents, and staff were scattered nationwide. In response, four Texas medical schools created an alliance to assist Tulane in temporarily relocating operations to south Texas. Resuming operations in a three- to four-week time span required developing and implementing a coordinated communication plan in the face of widespread communication infrastructure disruptions. A keystone of the strategy involved rapidly creating a "recovery Web site" to provide essential information on immediate recovery plans, mechanisms for reestablishing communications with displaced persons, housing relocation options (over 200 students, faculty, and staff were relocated using Web site resources), classes and residency training, and other issues (e.g., financial services, counseling support) vitally important to affected individuals. The database-driven Web site was launched in four days on September 11, 2005, by modifying an existing system and completing new programming. Additional functions were added during the next week, and the site operated continuously until March 2006, providing about 890,000 pages of information in over 100,000 visitor sessions. The site proved essential in disseminating announcements, reestablishing communications among the Tulane family, and supporting relocation and recovery. This experience shows the importance of information technology in collaborative efforts of academic health centers in early disaster response and recovery, reinforcing recommendations published recently by the Association of Academic Health Centers and the National Academy of Sciences.

  4. The transcription factor Foxo1 controls germinal center B cell proliferation in response to T cell help.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Shinnakasu, Ryo; Ise, Wataru; Kawai, Chie; Egawa, Takeshi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2017-04-03

    Germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between two states, the light zone (LZ) and the dark zone (DZ), and in the latter they proliferate and hypermutate their immunoglobulin genes. How this functional transition takes place is still controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that ablation of Foxo1 after GC development led to the loss of the DZ GC B cells and disruption of the GC architecture, which is consistent with recent studies. Mechanistically, even upon provision of adequate T cell help, Foxo1-deficient GC B cells showed less proliferative expansion than controls. Moreover, we found that the transcription factor BATF was transiently induced in LZ GC B cells in a Foxo1-dependent manner and that deletion of BATF similarly led to GC disruption. Thus, our results are consistent with a model where the switch from the LZ to the DZ is triggered after receipt of T cell help, and suggest that Foxo1-mediated BATF up-regulation is at least partly involved in this switch.

  5. The transcription factor Foxo1 controls germinal center B cell proliferation in response to T cell help

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Shinnakasu, Ryo; Ise, Wataru; Kawai, Chie

    2017-01-01

    Germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between two states, the light zone (LZ) and the dark zone (DZ), and in the latter they proliferate and hypermutate their immunoglobulin genes. How this functional transition takes place is still controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that ablation of Foxo1 after GC development led to the loss of the DZ GC B cells and disruption of the GC architecture, which is consistent with recent studies. Mechanistically, even upon provision of adequate T cell help, Foxo1-deficient GC B cells showed less proliferative expansion than controls. Moreover, we found that the transcription factor BATF was transiently induced in LZ GC B cells in a Foxo1-dependent manner and that deletion of BATF similarly led to GC disruption. Thus, our results are consistent with a model where the switch from the LZ to the DZ is triggered after receipt of T cell help, and suggest that Foxo1-mediated BATF up-regulation is at least partly involved in this switch. PMID:28351982

  6. The DISTANCE model for collaborative research: distributing analytic effort using scrambled data sets.

    PubMed

    Moffet, Howard H; Warton, E Margaret; Parker, Melissa M; Liu, Jennifer Y; Lyles, Courtney R; Karter, Andrew J

    Data-sharing is encouraged to fulfill the ethical responsibility to transform research data into public health knowledge, but data sharing carries risks of improper disclosure and potential harm from release of individually identifiable data. The study objective was to develop and implement a novel method for scientific collaboration and data sharing which distributes the analytic burden while protecting patient privacy. A procedure was developed where in an investigator who is external to an analytic coordinating center (ACC) can conduct original research following a protocol governed by a Publications and Presentations (P&P) Committee. The collaborating investigator submits a study proposal and, if approved, develops the analytic specifications using existing data dictionaries and templates. An original data set is prepared according to the specifications and the external investigator is provided with a complete but de-identified and shuffled data set which retains all key data fields but which obfuscates individually identifiable data and patterns; this" scrambled data set" provides a "sandbox" for the external investigator to develop and test analytic code for analyses. The analytic code is then run against the original data at the ACC to generate output which is used by the external investigator in preparing a manuscript for journal submission. The method has been successfully used with collaborators to produce many published papers and conference reports. By distributing the analytic burden, this method can facilitate collaboration and expand analytic capacity, resulting in more science for less money.

  7. Response to the comment by Henry Kahn and Dennis Santella on a summary of the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Lowers, Heather; Lioy, Paul J.; Lippmann, Morton

    2010-01-01

    A response by Gregory P. Meeker and colleagues to a commentary on their article on the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings is presented

  8. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  9. A meta-analytic review of the association between cortisol reactivity in response to a stressor and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kamradt, Jaclyn M; Momany, Allison M; Nikolas, Molly A

    2017-09-05

    A substantial literature suggests that abnormal cortisol reactivity may be a vulnerability for deleterious mental health outcomes, including ADHD. ADHD has been linked with difficulty in emotion regulation and increased risk of experiencing stressors, both of which may be related to psychobiological abnormalities (e.g., abnormal cortisol reactivity). Research has been mixed regarding the association between cortisol reactivity and ADHD. Therefore, the present meta-analytic review (k = 12) sought to quantify this association and review the relevant methodological issues and theoretical implications of this area of research. Overall, no effect was found between cortisol reactivity and ADHD (r = 0), although significant heterogeneity in the analyses suggested that there might be moderators of this association, if one does exist. Results highlight the importance of addressing limitations of the current literature on cortisol reactivity and ADHD and exploring additional indices of emotion regulation that may be associated with ADHD. Implications for future research efforts are discussed.

  10. Outcome of Referrals for Non-Responsive Celiac Disease in a Tertiary Center: Low Incidence of Refractory Celiac Disease in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Wanrooij, R L J; Bouma, G; Bontkes, H J; Neefjes-Borst, A; van Grieken, N C; von Blomberg, B M E; Mulder, C J J

    2017-01-26

    Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is a severe cause of non-responsive celiac disease (CD) due to its association with the enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). Conflicting data exist on the prevalence and the clinical manifestations of RCD type I (RCD I) and type II (RCD II). The aim of the current study was to provide insight in the incidence of RCD and in the distinction with other causes of non-responsive CD. A total of 106 CD patients were referred to our tertiary referral center between January 2006 and December 2011 for evaluation of non-responsive CD. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to all 82 gastroenterology departments in the Netherlands to reveal whether a patient with RCD was currently being evaluated or had been treated between 2006 and 2012. During a 6 year period, a total of 31 patients were diagnosed with RCD (19 RCD I and 12 RCD II). The nationwide survey revealed 5 additional patients with RCD I and one patient with RCD II. This leads to an annual incidence of RCD of 0.83/10.000 CD patients. The remaining patients were diagnosed with involuntary gluten ingestion (21.7%), delayed mucosal recovery (11.3%), enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (7.5%) and autoimmune enteropathy (1.8%). This nationwide study reveals a low incidence of RCD in the Netherlands. Nevertheless, RCD is a clinically relevant disease entity in CD patients non-responsive to the gluten-free diet.

  11. Roles and contributions of pharmacists in regulatory affairs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for public health emergency preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Tina R; Kim, Hye-Joo; Yu, Yon

    To provide a general description of the roles and contributions of three pharmacists from the Regulatory Affairs program (RA) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) who are involved in emergency preparedness and response activities, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) public health emergency. Atlanta, GA. RA consists of a staff of nine members, three of whom are pharmacists. The mission of RA is to support CDC's preparedness and emergency response activities and to ensure regulatory compliance for critical medical countermeasures against potential threats from natural, chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear events. RA was well involved in the response to the H1N1 outbreak through numerous activities, such as submitting multiple Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) requests to the Food and Drug Administration, including those for medical countermeasures to be deployed from the Strategic National Stockpile, and developing the CDC EUA website (www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/eua). RA will continue to support current and future preparedness and emergency response activities by ensuring that the appropriate regulatory mechanisms are in place for the deployment of critical medical countermeasures from the Strategic National Stockpile against threats to public health.

  12. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  13. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  14. Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-02-10

    The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG(+) memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM(+)(IgD(+))CD27(+) and IgG(+) memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG(+) memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-γ caused differentiation of IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG(+) post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils.

  15. Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B.; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG+ memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM+(IgD+)CD27+ and IgG+ memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG+ memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-γ caused differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG+ post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils. PMID:25624468

  16. Proposed Construction of the Madera County Educational Center in the State Center Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    In this report, the California Postsecondary Education Commission responds to a request by the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges to review the need for and location of a new educational center, the Madera County Educational Center, north of Fresno within the State Center Community College District. The report contains nine…

  17. A Survey of Risk Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoult, Evan

    2003-03-01

    Risk Analytical Units within Wall Street firms are responsible for developing the methods used to quantify the different forms of risk inherent in the firms' activities. This talk is an overview of risk analytics. It will cover: the function and validation of valuation models; the measurement of market risk; and the measurement of the different aspects of and forms of credit risk, including the simulation of the potential counterparty credit exposure of derivatives, the estimation of obligor default probability and the simulation of the potential loss distribution of loan portfolios. Risk Analytics is an applied field that integrates finance theory, mathematics and statistical analysis. It is a field in that has attracted many physicists and one in which many physicists have flourished. The talk will conclude with an analysis of why this is so.

  18. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  19. Analytical chemistry of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, Evan M; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research primarily because of its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. To understand its origin, activity, and regulation, accurate and precise measurement techniques are needed. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO's unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span the picomolar-to-micromolar range in physiological milieus, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with a focus on the underlying mechanism of each technique and on approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools to create novel NO sensors.

  20. Immunosuppressive Property within the Streptococcus pneumoniae Cell Wall That Inhibits Generation of T Follicular Helper, Germinal Center, and Plasma Cell Response to a Coimmunized Heterologous Protein

    PubMed Central

    Saumyaa; Arjunaraja, Swadhinya; Pujanauski, Lindsey; Colino, Jesus; Torres, Raul M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intact, inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae (unencapsulated strain R36A) inhibits IgG responses to a number of coimmunized soluble antigens (Ags). In this study, we investigated the mechanism of this inhibition and whether other extracellular bacteria exhibited similar effects. No inhibition was observed if R36A was given 24 h before or after immunization with soluble chicken ovalbumin (cOVA), indicating that R36A acts transiently during the initiation of the immune response. Using transgenic cOVA-specific CD4+ T cells, we observed that R36A had no significant effect on T-cell activation (24 h) or generation of regulatory T cells (day 7) and only a modest effect on T-cell proliferation (48 to 96 h) in response to cOVA. However, R36A mediated a significant reduction in the formation of Ag-specific splenic germinal center T follicular helper (GC Tfh) and GC B cells and antibody-secreting cells in the spleen and bone marrow in response to cOVA or cOVA conjugated to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten (NP-cOVA). Of note, the inhibitory effect of intact R36A on the IgG anti-cOVA response could be reproduced using R36A-derived cell walls. In contrast to R36A, neither inactivated, unencapsulated, intact Neisseria meningitidis nor Streptococcus agalactiae inhibited the OVA-specific IgG response. These results suggest a novel immunosuppressive property within the cell wall of Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:23817619

  1. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 4: ANALYTICAL GUIDE. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  2. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 4: ANALYTICAL GUIDE. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  3. Analyticity without Differentiability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  4. Effect of relative hypoparathyroidism on the responsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin in chronic hemodialysis patients: a single Saudi center experience.

    PubMed

    Al Saran, Khalid; Sabry, Alaa; Hassan, Ashraf H

    2013-07-01

    Anemia is a common concomitant disorder in dialysis patients. The responsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin in hemodialysis (HD) patients with relative hypoparathyroidism [4 ≤ intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) ≤16.5 pmol/L] remains undetermined. We retrospectively studied 70 chronic hemodialysis patients who were divided into two groups: Group A (32 patients) had 16.5 ≤ iPTH levels <33.5 pmol/L and Group B (38 patients) had 4 ≥ iPTH≤16.5 pmol/L during the preceding six months without 1- (OH) Vitamin D3 administration. The percentage of female gender was significantly higher in Group B compared with Group A (P = 0.018). In Groups A and B, the mean weekly recombinant human erythropoietin dose (U/kg/ week) was 227.96 ± 95.24 vs. 154.1 ± 84.9 (P = 0.001) and the mean hemoglobin level was 11.15 ± 0.63 g/dL versus 11.62 ± 0.63 g/dL (P = 0.008). There was no significant statistical difference regarding the other biochemical markers (serum ferritin, iron saturation, serum Ca, serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, serum B12, serum folate levels, residual renal function and Kt/v) between the groups. If other factors related to anemia are excluded in chronic HD patients, the lower the iPTH level (relative hypoparathyroidism) the better the responsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin.

  5. Extracting the Building Response with QCN-Taiwan Sensor Data: Application to the building of Science Education Center, National Taiwan Normal University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Lee, W.; Chen, K. H.; Yen, E. H.; Lawrence, J. F.; Lin, C.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have taken advantage of strong motion sensor data collected from the Taiwan Quake Catcher Network (QCN-Taiwan) in 2012 to extract the building response of the Science Education Center, National Taiwan Normal University. The QCN-Taiwan project is mainly aimed to construct a school seismic network with low-cost sensors for the purpose of earthquake science education in Taiwan. So far there are more than 60 volunteer QCN sites deployed island-wide in the campus of Taiwan. There were 10 MEMS sensors deployed in the basement and every story from 1 to 8 in the building. We analyze the acceleration data generated from 3 moderate to strong earthquakes (6.4≧ML≧5.2) to study the characteristic frequencies and responses of the building. Both deconvolution and H/V spectral ratio methods are used to characterize the building response. The dominant frequency in the NS direction is 1.7-1.9 Hz, which is slightly higher than recorded in the EW direction of 1.65-1.8 Hz. In addition, the amplification is much significant in levels higher than the 3rd floor in the frequency range of 1-3 Hz as shown in the H/V spectral ratio diagrams. We deconvolve all waveforms with both the motions in the ground and top floors to derive the building responses, respectively. Results show that the 1.6 Hz resonance is dominant in levels higher than the 4th floor for waveforms deconvolved with the basement data. On the other hand, both the up-going and down-going shear waves are clearly seen in the waveforms deconvoled with top floor data, which tells a shear velocity of ~190 m/s. We have proven that the strong motion data collected by the low-cost QCN MEMS sensors during large earthquakes is useful for extracting the building response.

  6. Epidemiology of male seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors and response to first-line chemotherapy from a tertiary cancer center in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A; Zanwar, S; Shetty, N; Patil, V; Noronha, V; Bakshi, G; Prakash, G; Menon, S; Prabhash, K

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the developed countries, there is a lack of good epidemiologic data for testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) in India with majority presenting in advanced stage. This study aims to elaborate on the epidemiology of testicular GCTs and response to standard first-line chemotherapy (CT). GCTs treated at our center from January 2013 to June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients underwent orchidectomy either outside or at our hospital. Based on stage and risk group, standard CT (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin/etoposide and cisplatin/carboplatin AUC7) and radiotherapy were given as appropriate. Response was calculated based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software. Fifty nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) and 36 of SGCT cases were studied. 30%, 46%, and 64% of NSGCT and 11%, 28%, and 22% of SGCT had N2, N3, and M1 diseases, respectively. The mean nodal size was 7 cm (1.5-19) in NSGCT and 5.5 cm (1.3-11) in SGCT. As per the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification, in patients with metastatic disease, 9% of NSGCT were good, 53% were intermediate, and 38% were poor risk whereas 75% of SGCT were good and 25% were intermediate risk. Following CT among NSGCT, 5% and 71% had radiologic complete response (CR) and partial response (PR), respectively. Among SGCT, 46% and 38% had radiologic CR and PR, respectively. 22%, 53%, and 13% of NSGCT and 12%, 24%, and 20% of SGCT developed febrile neutropenia, Grade 3 or 4 hematological and nonhematological toxicities, respectively, after standard chemotherapy. GCTs in India present with high nodal and high-risk diseases wherein the standard first-line CT may not be adequate as curative therapy; however, significant chemotoxicity is also a hindrance.

  7. Analytical psychology and Daoist inner alchemy: a response to C.G. Jung's 'Commentary on The Secret of the Golden Flower'.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caifang Jeremy

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a historical, religious-philosophical context for the study of the Daoist text known as The Secret of the Golden Flower. An updated study is conducted into the controversy over the source of the text including the editions translated by Richard Wilhelm and Thomas Cleary. The main teachings of the text and the basics of two major denominations of Daoism are introduced to ground later critiques of Jung's commentary. The psychodynamics of analytical psychology, especially those concerned with integration of unconscious contents and the realization of the self (individuation) are compared with the psycho-spiritual dynamics of integration in Eastern spirituality based on the Golden Flower text. The paper concludes that it was amiss for Jung to have equated the Western 'unconscious' with states of higher consciousness in Eastern meditation practices, although his claim that Eastern higher consciousness is characterized by a nebulous state of non-intentionality does raise questions about the appropriateness of calling Eastern meditative states 'consciousness'. A new concept is required to characterize the special qualities of this psychic state shared generally by Eastern spiritual traditions and a more meaningful comparison may be found in Jung's concept of the self.

  8. 88 hours: the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Earle, Paul S.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    The M 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and associated tsunami near the east coast of the island of Honshu caused tens of thousands of deaths and potentially over one trillion dollars in damage, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded. The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC), through its responsibility to respond to all significant global earthquakes as part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, quickly produced and distributed a suite of earthquake information products to inform emergency responders, the public, the media, and the academic community of the earthquake's potential impact and to provide scientific background for the interpretation of the event's tectonic context and potential for future hazard. Here we present a timeline of the NEIC response to this devastating earthquake in the context of rapidly evolving information emanating from the global earthquake-response community. The timeline includes both internal and publicly distributed products, the relative timing of which highlights the inherent tradeoffs between the requirement to provide timely alerts and the necessity for accurate, authoritative information. The timeline also documents the iterative and evolutionary nature of the standard products produced by the NEIC and includes a behind-the-scenes look at the decisions, data, and analysis tools that drive our rapid product distribution.

  9. The protein responsible for center A/B in spinach photosystem I: isolation with iron-sulfur cluster(s) and complete sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Oh-oka, H; Takahashi, Y; Kuriyama, K; Saeki, K; Matsubara, H

    1988-06-01

    The 9 kDa polypeptide from spinach photosystem I (PS I) complex was isolated with iron-sulfur cluster(s) by an n-butanol extraction procedure under anaerobic conditions. The polypeptide was soluble in a saline solution and contained non-heme irons and inorganic sulfides. The absorption spectrum of this iron-sulfur protein was very similar to those of bacterial-type ferredoxins. The amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was determined by using a combination of gas-phase sequencer and conventional procedures. It was composed of 80 amino acid residues giving a molecular weight of 8,894, excluding iron and sulfur atoms. The sequence showed the typical distribution of cysteine residues found in bacterial-type ferredoxins and was highly homologous (91% homology) to that deduced from the chloroplast gene, frxA, of liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. The 9 kDa polypeptide is considered to be the iron-sulfur protein responsible for the electron transfer reaction in PS I from center X to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, namely a polypeptide with center(s) A and/or B in PS I complex. It is noteworthy that the 9 kDa polypeptide was rather hydrophilic and a little basic in terms of the primary structure. A three-dimensional structure was simulated on the basis of the tertiary structure of Peptococcus aerogenes [8Fe-8S] ferredoxin, and the portions in the molecule probably involved in contacting membranes or other polypeptides were indicated. The phylogenetic implications of the structure of the present polypeptide as compared with those of several bacterial-type ferredoxins are discussed.

  10. Laboratory security and emergency response guidance for laboratories working with select agents. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jonathan Y; Nesby-O'Dell, Shanna L

    2002-12-06

    In recent years, concern has increased regarding use of biologic materials as agents of terrorism, but these same agents are often necessary tools in clinical and research microbiology laboratories. Traditional biosafety guidelines for laboratories have emphasized use of optimal work practices, appropriate containment equipment, well-designed facilities, and administrative controls to minimize risk of worker injury and to ensure safeguards against laboratory contamination. The guidelines discussed in this report were first published in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC and National Institutes of Health. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories [BMBL]. Richmond JY, McKinney RW, eds. 4th ed. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1999 [Appendix F]). In that report, physical security concerns were addressed, and efforts were focused on preventing unauthorized entry to laboratory areas and preventing unauthorized removal of dangerous biologic agents from the laboratory. Appendix F of BMBL is now being revised to include additional information regarding personnel risk assessments, and inventory controls. The guidelines contained in this report are intended for laboratories working with select agents under biosafety-level 2, 3, or 4 conditions as described in Sections II and III of BMBL. These recommendations include conducting facility risk assessments and developing comprehensive security plans to minimize the probability of misuse of select agents. Risk assessments should include systematic, site-specific reviews of 1) physical security; 2) security of data and electronic technology systems; 3) employee security; 4) access controls to laboratory and animal areas; 5) procedures for agent inventory and accountability; 6) shipping/transfer and receiving of select agents; 7) unintentional incident and injury policies; 8) emergency response plans; and 9) policies that address breaches in security. The security plan

  11. Potentiometric behaviour of ion selective electrodes based on iron porphyrins: the influence of porphyrin substituents on the response properties and analytical determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Emília M G; Araújo, Alberto N; Couto, Cristina M C M; Montenegro, M Conceição B S M

    2006-11-16

    The potentiometric response characteristics of diclofenac selective electrodes based on Fe(III) tetraphenylporphyrin-chloride (Fe(III)TPP-Cl) and Fe(III) tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin-chloride (Fe(III)TPFPP-Cl) in different mediator solvents and ionic additives are compared. The sensitivity, working range, detection limit, response mechanism, and selectivity of the membrane sensor show a significant dependence on the type of carrier substituent and on the pH value of the sample solution. Studies performed with different amounts of cationic additive (tetra-n-octylammoniumbromide (TOABr)) and anionic additive (sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB)) in the membranes allowed the determination of the potentiometric mechanism of action of the used metalloporphyrins. For the analysis of real samples, Fe(III)TPFPP-Cl (type G), prepared in o-NPOE, incorporating 10 mol% of TOABr, was used. This potentiometric unit presented a linear response towards diclofenac concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2)mol l(-1) ( I=0.1 mol l(-1)) and slopes of about -59 mV dec(-1), exhibiting a response time of 10s in a buffered solution of ammonia-ammonium sulphate with pH 9.9. The potentiometric analysis of sodium diclofenac in pharmaceutical formulations was carried out by direct potentiometry and the obtained results were compared to those provided by HPLC, presenting relative errors inferior to 1.0%.

  12. Moving from Reader Response to Critical Reading: Developing 10-11-Year-Olds' Ability as Analytical Readers of Literary Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents aspects of a research study into how a group of ten- and eleven-year-old students (in 5th Grade in Sydney, Australia) were apprenticed to view a literary text from critical reading positions. These ways of reading were an alternative to their more typical reader response interpretations of texts. The article contrasts…

  13. Organizing center for the bifurcation analysis of a generalized Gause model with prey harvesting and Holling response function of type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurin, Sophie; Rousseau, Christiane

    The present note is an addendum to the paper of Etoua-Rousseau (2010) [1] which presented a study of a generalized Gause model with prey harvesting and a generalized Holling response function of type III: p(x)={mx}/{ax+bx+1}. Complete bifurcation diagrams were proposed, but some parts were conjectural. An organizing center for the bifurcation diagram was given by a nilpotent point of saddle type lying on an invariant line and of codimension greater than or equal to 3. This point was of codimension 3 when b≠0, and was conjectured to be of infinite codimension when b=0. This conjecture was in line with a second conjecture that the Hopf bifurcation of order 2 degenerates to a Hopf bifurcation of infinite codimension when b=0. In this note we prove these two conjectures.

  14. Assessment of Early Toxicity and Response in Patients Treated With Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center Using the Raster Scanning Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Jensen, Alexandra; Haberer, Thomas; Jaekel, Oliver; Muenter, Marc W.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2011-12-01

    Puropose: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Patients and Methods: Between November 2009 and June 2010, we treated 118 patients with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) using active beam delivery. The main indications included skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, salivary gland tumors, and gliomas. We evaluated early toxicity within 6 weeks after RT and the initial clinical and radiologic response for quality assurance in our new facility. Results: In all 118 patients, few side effects were observed, in particular, no high numbers of severe acute toxicity were found. In general, the patients treated with particle therapy alone showed only a few single side effects, mainly Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Common Terminology Criteria grade 1. The most frequent side effects and cumulative incidence of single side effects were observed in the head-and-neck patients treated with particle therapy as a boost and photon intensity-modulated RT. The toxicities included common radiation-attributed reactions known from photon RT, including mucositis, dysphagia, and skin erythema. The most predominant imaging responses were observed in patients with high-grade gliomas and those with salivary gland tumors. For skull base tumors, imaging showed a stable tumor outline in most patients. Thirteen patients showed improvement of pre-existing clinical symptoms. Conclusions: Side effects related to particle treatment were rare, and the overall tolerability of the treatment was shown. The initial response was promising. The data have confirmed the safe delivery of carbon ions and protons at the newly opened Heidelberg facility.

  15. Outcome of Referrals for Non-Responsive Celiac Disease in a Tertiary Center: Low Incidence of Refractory Celiac Disease in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Wanrooij, R L J; Bouma, G; Bontkes, H J; Neefjes-Borst, A; van Grieken, N C; von Blomberg, B M E; Mulder, C J J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is a severe cause of non-responsive celiac disease (CD) due to its association with the enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). Conflicting data exist on the prevalence and the clinical manifestations of RCD type I (RCD I) and type II (RCD II). The aim of the current study was to provide insight in the incidence of RCD and in the distinction with other causes of non-responsive CD. Methods: A total of 106 CD patients were referred to our tertiary referral center between January 2006 and December 2011 for evaluation of non-responsive CD. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to all 82 gastroenterology departments in the Netherlands to reveal whether a patient with RCD was currently being evaluated or had been treated between 2006 and 2012. Results: During a 6 year period, a total of 31 patients were diagnosed with RCD (19 RCD I and 12 RCD II). The nationwide survey revealed 5 additional patients with RCD I and one patient with RCD II. This leads to an annual incidence of RCD of 0.83/10.000 CD patients. The remaining patients were diagnosed with involuntary gluten ingestion (21.7%), delayed mucosal recovery (11.3%), enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (7.5%) and autoimmune enteropathy (1.8%). Conclusions: This nationwide study reveals a low incidence of RCD in the Netherlands. Nevertheless, RCD is a clinically relevant disease entity in CD patients non-responsive to the gluten-free diet. PMID:28125074

  16. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  17. Understanding Business Analytics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science . . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only...broad category of inquiry that can be used to help drive changes and improvements in business practices. Data Science : the study of where infor...Management Sciences (INFORMS) This scientific process of transforming data into insight with ana- lytics for better decision-making has taken the form

  18. Proposed Construction of the Petaluma Center of Santa Rosa Junior College. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request for Capital Funds for a Permanent Off-Campus Center in Southern Sonoma County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The California Postsecondary Education Commission's (CPEC) analysis of the Sonoma County Junior College District's (SCJCD) proposal to establish a permanent off-campus center in the city of Petaluma is presented in this report. Part I provides background to the proposal, indicating that the SCJCD has operated a temporary center in relocatable…

  19. Sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Dechang; Senesac, Lawrence R; Thundat, Thomas G

    2011-07-05

    A sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes includes a microscale body having a first end and a second end and a surface between the ends for adsorbing a chemical analyte. The surface includes at least one conductive heating track for heating the chemical analyte and also a conductive response track, which is electrically isolated from the heating track, for producing a thermal response signal from the chemical analyte. The heating track is electrically connected with a voltage source and the response track is electrically connected with a signal recorder. The microscale body is restrained at the first end and the second end and is substantially isolated from its surroundings therebetween, thus having a bridge configuration.

  20. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)