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Sample records for center attack disaster

  1. The World Trade Center Attack: Lessons for disaster management

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ronald; Teperman, Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    As the largest, and one of the most eclectic, urban center in the United States, New York City felt the need to develop an Office of Emergency Management to coordinate communications and direct resources in the event of a mass disaster. Practice drills were then carried out to assess and improve disaster preparedness. The day of 11 September 2001 began with the unimaginable. As events unfolded, previous plans based on drills were found not to address the unique issues faced and new plans rapidly evolved out of necessity. Heroic actions were commonplace. Much can be learned from the events of 11 September 2001. Natural and unnatural disasters will happen again, so it is critical that these lessons be learned. Proper preparation will undoubtedly save lives and resources. PMID:11737917

  2. The World Trade Center attack. Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    PubMed

    Mattox, K

    2001-12-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness.

  3. The World Trade Center Attack Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness. PMID:11737919

  4. Epidemiology of respiratory health outcomes among World Trade Center disaster workers: review of the literature 10 years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Ekenga, Christine C; Friedman-Jiménez, George

    2011-09-01

    Tens of thousands of workers participated in rescue, recovery, and cleanup activities at the World Trade Center (WTC) site in lower Manhattan after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (9/11). The collapse of the WTC resulted in the release of a variety of airborne toxicants. To date, respiratory symptoms and diseases have been among the most examined health outcomes in studies of WTC disaster workers. A systematic review of the literature on respiratory health outcomes was undertaken to describe the available information on new onset of respiratory symptoms and diseases among WTC disaster workers after September 11, 2001. Independent risk factors for respiratory health outcomes included being caught in the dust and debris cloud, early arrival at the WTC site, longer duration of work, and delaying mask and respirator use. Methodological challenges in epidemiologic studies of WTC disaster workers involved study design, exposure misclassification, and limited information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. In the 10 years after 9/11, epidemiologic studies of WTC disaster workers have been essential in investigating the respiratory health consequences of WTC exposure. Longitudinal studies along with continued medical surveillance will be vital in understanding the long-term respiratory burden associated with occupational WTC exposure.

  5. The longitudinal course of PTSD among disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11th.

    PubMed

    Cukor, Judith; Wyka, Katarzyna; Mello, Brittany; Olden, Megan; Jayasinghe, Nimali; Roberts, Jennifer; Giosan, Cezar; Crane, Michael; Difede, Joann

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the long-term mental health outcomes of 2,960 nonrescue disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center site in New York City following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. Semistructured interviews and standardized self-report measures were used to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychopathology 4 and 6 years after the attacks. Clinician-measured rates of PTSD and partial PTSD 4-years posttrauma were 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively, in a subsample of 727 individuals. Rates decreased to 5.8% and 7.7% for full and partial PTSD 6 years posttrauma. For the larger sample, self-report scores revealed probable PTSD and partial PTSD prevalence to be 4.8% and 3.6% at 4 years, and 2.4% and 1.8% at 6 years. Approximately 70% of workers never met criteria for PTSD. Although PTSD rates decreased significantly over time, many workers remained symptomatic, with others showing delayed-onset PTSD. The strongest predictors of ongoing PTSD 6 years following 9/11 were trauma history (odds ratio (OR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06, 4.85]); the presence of major depressive disorder 1-2 years following the trauma (OR = 2.80, 95% CI [1.17, 6.71]); and extent of occupational exposure (OR = 1.31, 95% CI [1.13, 1.51]). The implications of the findings for both screening and treatment of disaster workers are discussed.

  6. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyse...

  7. Psychosocial response to disaster: the attacks on the Stark and the Cole.

    PubMed

    Kootte, Anton F

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist attack on the USS Cole on 12 October 2000 was remarkably similar to the 1987 attack on the USS Stark. This article discusses the psychosocial consequences of the attacks on the families and crews of the ships and the community response of the Navy to the attacks, particularly that of the Navy Family Service Centers. The impact of the attacks is compared to the impact of natural and man-made disasters on communities while the impact on the crew is examined in light of combat psychiatry and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Events such as these are very likely to produce PTSD despite early intervention efforts. Following the attack on the Stark greater attention was given to the grief of family members than to the trauma of the crew, while the crew of the Cole has received longer-term psychiatric assistance than in previous similar episodes.

  8. Mental health issues in disasters and terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Jernigan, Nancy E

    2003-01-01

    Recent events make clear that those living in the United States are at risk of exposure to a variety of potentially traumatic events, ranging from sniper and terrorist attacks to a variety of natural disasters. This paper provides a broad overview of the most common psychological reactions that can be expected in the aftermath of such events, how primary care practitioners can identify such reactions in their patients, and actions those practitioners might take.

  9. In Time of Emergency. A Citizen's Handbook on Nuclear Attack and Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A major emergency affecting a large number of people may occur anytime and any place. Natural disasters such as a flood, tornado, fire, hurricane, blizzard or earthquake, or an enemy nuclear attack on the United States may all constitute a major emergency. In any type of general disaster, lives can be saved if people are prepared for the emergency…

  10. Health and environmental consequences of the world trade center disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J; Lioy, Paul J; Thurston, George; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Chen, L C; Chillrud, Steven N; Gavett, Stephen H; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Geyh, Alison S; Levin, Stephen; Perera, Frederica; Rappaport, Stephen M; Small, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyses of outdoor and indoor settled dust; high-altitude imaging and modeling of the atmospheric plume; inhalation studies of WTC dust in mice; and clinical examinations, community surveys, and prospective epidemiologic studies of exposed populations. WTC dust was found to consist predominantly (95%) of coarse particles and contained pulverized cement, glass fibers, asbestos, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated furans and dioxins. Airborne particulate levels were highest immediately after the attack and declined thereafter. Particulate levels decreased sharply with distance from the WTC. Dust pH was highly alkaline (pH 9.0-11.0). Mice exposed to WTC dust showed only moderate pulmonary inflammation but marked bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 10,116 firefighters showed exposure-related increases in cough and bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 183 cleanup workers showed new-onset cough (33%), wheeze (18%), and phlegm production (24%). Increased frequency of new-onset cough, wheeze, and shortness of breath were also observed in community residents. Follow-up of 182 pregnant women who were either inside or near the WTC on 11 September showed a 2-fold increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. In summary, environmental exposures after the WTC disaster were associated with significant adverse effects on health. The high alkalinity of WTC dust produced bronchial hyperreactivity, persistent cough, and increased risk of asthma. Plausible causes of the observed increase in SGA infants include maternal exposures to PAH and particulates. Future risk of mesothelioma may be increased, particularly among workers and

  11. The World Trade Center attack. Is critical care prepared for terrorism?

    PubMed

    Kvetan, V

    2001-12-01

    This commentary on the World Trade Center attack is written from the perspective of a New York City critical care service, with a long history of activity in disaster management, which is located at the Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The paper describes some of the local concerns of the service in the first hours, the reality of dispersal of victims throughout the New York City hospital system, and some of the resources made available and their utilization. In general, the US Critical Care Medicine System receives massive resources in terms of gross national product expenditure when compared with other developed countries. A large capacity is subsequently in place to provide care to critically ill patients resulting from manmade as well as natural disasters. It was the nature of the World Trade Center attack in terms of the ratio of injured survivors to dead victims that did not allow the full capacity and capability of the system to engage.

  12. Responding to disasters: academic medical centers' responsibilities and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sklar, David P; Richards, Michael; Shah, Mark; Roth, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Disaster preparedness and disaster response should be a capability of all academic health centers. The authors explore the potential role and impact of academic medical centers (AMC)s in disaster response. The National Disaster Medical System and the evolution of disaster medical assistance teams (DMAT) are described, and the experience at one AMC with DMAT is reviewed. The recent deployment of a DMAT sponsored by an AMC to the Hurricane Katrina disaster is described, and the experience is used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges of future disaster medical training, research, and practice at AMCs. AMCs are encouraged to identify an appropriate academic unit to house and nurture disaster-preparedness activities, participate in education programs for health professionals and the public, and perform research on disaster epidemiology and response. Networks of AMCs offer the potential of acting as a critical resource for those AMCs stricken by a disaster and for communities needing the infusion of highly trained and motivated health care providers. The Association of American Medical Colleges can play a critical role in assisting and coordinating AMC networks through its relationship with all AMCs and the federal government and by increasing the awareness of medical educators and researchers about this important, emerging area of medical knowledge.

  13. The World Trade Center Attack: Doctors in the fire and police services

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Charles; Gonzalez, Dario

    2001-01-01

    The World Trade Center attack cast some physicians in roles outside their usual hospital practice. The incident required several physicians to function in the dangerous environment of the disaster. Priorities and triage strategies established by the police, emergency medical service and fire departments, while adhered to, required instantaneous modification and upgrading given the vast loss of civilian and rescue personnel lives. Many civilian medical staff presented themselves with good intentions but needed to be placed out of the collapse zone for fear of incurring additional casualties. In addition, problems with re-establishment of command and control, communications, personnel and equipment replacement all impacted on the rescue effort. This article recounts the roles played by the two coauthors during the World Trade Center attack. PMID:11737912

  14. KAMEDO report no. 87: bomb attack in Finnish shopping center, 2002.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Edward; Ortenwall, Per; Almgren, Ola; Riddez, Louis

    2007-01-01

    The detonation of a bomb in a shopping center in Vantaa, Finland, took place on 11 October 2002. Seven people died as a result and > 160 people required medical attention. Because the rescue teams were inadequately trained to respond to terrorist attacks, the event was handled according to protocol. A number of problems arose, including: people from different rescue agencies were difficult to distinguish from each other; there was inadequate communication between the incident site and the main hospital; relatives of victims were not kept informed; and psychiatric problems in the wake of the disaster were not addressed sufficiently.

  15. An evaluation of the role played by remote sensing technology following the World Trade Center attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyck, Charles K.; Adams, Beverley J.; Kehrlein, David I.

    2003-06-01

    Remote sensing technology has been widely recognized for contributing to emergency response efforts after the World Trade Center attack on September 11th, 2001. The need to coordinate activities in the midst of a dense, yet relatively small area, made the combination of imagery and mapped data strategically useful. This paper reviews the role played by aerial photography, satellite imagery, and LIDAR data at Ground Zero. It examines how emergency managers utilized these datasets, and identifies significant problems that were encountered. It goes on to explore additional ways in which imagery could have been used, while presenting recommendations for more effective use in future disasters and Homeland Security applications. To plan adequately for future events, it was important to capture knowledge from individuals who responded to the World Trade Center attack. In recognition, interviews with key emergency management and geographic information system (GIS) personnel provide the basis of this paper. Successful techniques should not be forgotten, or serious problems dismissed. Although widely used after September 11th, it is important to recognize that with better planning, remote sensing and GIS could have played an even greater role. Together with a data acquisition timeline, an expanded discussion of these issues is available in the MCEER/NSF report “Emergency Response in the Wake of the World Trade Center Attack; The Remote Sensing Perspective” (Huyck and Adams, 2002)

  16. [The Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center].

    PubMed

    Pourriat, Jean-Louis; Dahan, Benjamin; Lapandry, Claude

    2012-01-01

    French (AP-HP) and Chinese (Beijing Health Office) hospitals, with support from the French company Total, collaborated in order to improve Chinese doctors' knowledge of emergency and disaster medicine prior to the Beijing Olympic Games. A Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center was subsequently opened in Beijing in 2008, with the aim of providing high-level continuous medical training for Chinese specialists in emergency medicine. Teaching in the management of critical situations was based on the use of a latest-generation simulator (Sim 3G; Laerdal). This collaboration has had both pedagogical and diplomatic benefits.

  17. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P < .001, and OR = 3.7, P < .001, respectively, for nonhigh school and high school graduates, compared with college graduates), being exposed to stressful life events (OR = 1.6, P = .048), having current posttraumatic stress disorder (3.1, P < .001), having a fear of death (OR = 2.5, P = .002), and reporting a likelihood of fleeing an attack against advice (OR = 1.5, P = .034). The best predictors of preparedness in a multivariate model was being between 30 to 64 years old (30−44 years old, OR = 2.6, P = .001; 45−64 yeas old, OR = 1.8, P = .03, respectively, compared with 18−29 years old), having higher exposure to the WTCD (moderate exposure, OR = 1.7, P = .05; high exposure, OR = 2.4, P = .002; very high exposure, OR = 4.1, P < .001), respectively, compared

  18. Injuries and illnesses among New York City Fire Department rescue workers after responding to the World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    2002-09-11

    Within minutes of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) operated a continuous rescue/recovery effort at the World Trade Center (WTC) site. Medical officers of FDNY Bureau of Health Services (FDNY-BHS) responded to provide emergency medical services (see box). The collapse of the WTC towers and several adjacent structures resulted in a vast, physically dangerous disaster zone. The height of the WTC towers produced extraordinary forces during their collapse, pulverizing considerable portions of the buildings' structural components and exposing first responders and civilians to substantial amounts of airborne particulate matter. Fires burned continuously under the debris until mid-December 2001. Because of ongoing fire activity and the large numbers of civilians and rescue workers who were killed during the attacks, approximately 11,000 FDNY firefighters and many emergency medical service (EMS) personnel worked on or directly adjacent to the rubble and incurred substantial exposures (Figure). This report describes morbidity and mortality in FDNY rescue workers during the 11-month period after the WTC attacks and documents a substantial increase in respiratory and stress-related illness compared with the time period before the WTC attacks. These findings demonstrate the need to provide acute and long-term medical monitoring, treatment, and counseling to FDNY rescue workers exposed to this disaster and to solve supply, compliance, and supervision problems so that respiratory protection can be rapidly provided at future disasters.

  19. Destruction of the World Trade Center Towers. Lessons Learned from an Environmental Health Disaster.

    PubMed

    Reibman, Joan; Levy-Carrick, Nomi; Miles, Terry; Flynn, Kimberly; Hughes, Catherine; Crane, Michael; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2016-05-01

    The assault and subsequent collapse of the World Trade Center towers in New York City on September 11, 2001 (9/11), released more than a million tons of debris and dust into the surrounding area, engulfing rescue workers as they rushed to aid those who worked in the towers, and the thousands of nearby civilians and children who were forced to flee. In December 2015, almost 15 years after the attack, and 5 years after first enactment, Congress reauthorized the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, a law designed to respond to the adverse health effects of the disaster. This reauthorization affords an opportunity to review human inhalation exposure science in relation to the World Trade Center collapse. In this Special Article, we compile observations regarding the collective medical response to the environmental health disaster with a focus on efforts to address the adverse health effects experienced by nearby community members including local residents and workers. We also analyze approaches to understanding the potential for health risk, characterization of hazardous materials, identification of populations at risk, and shortfalls in the medical response on behalf of the local community. Our overarching goal is to communicate lessons learned from the World Trade Center experience that may be applicable to communities affected by future environmental health disasters. The World Trade Center story demonstrates that communities lacking advocacy and preexisting health infrastructures are uniquely vulnerable to health disasters. Medical and public health personnel need to compensate for these vulnerabilities to mitigate long-term illness and suffering.

  20. Alcohol use disorders and drinking among survivors of the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Adinoff, Bryon; Pollio, David E; Kinge, Sagar; Downs, Dana L; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2013-10-01

    Research on the relationship of alcohol and disasters has yielded mixed conclusions. Some studies investigate alcohol consumption but others examine alcohol use disorders in relation to disaster. Alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have not be studied concurrently in relation to specific disaster trauma exposures. A volunteer sample of 379 individuals from New York City agencies affected by the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks on World Trade Center were assessed approximately 3years postdisaster for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders relative to specific disaster exposures. Increases in alcohol consumption were relatively small, eventually returning to pre-9/11 levels, with few cases of new alcohol use disorders or alcohol relapse. The findings suggest that postdisaster alcohol use has negligible clinical relevance for most of the population. Scarce disaster resources should be focused on those at identified risk of excessive alcohol use, that is, those with pre-existing alcohol or other psychiatric disorders.

  1. An academic medical center under prolonged rocket attack--organizational, medical, and financial considerations.

    PubMed

    Bar-El, Yaron; Michaelson, Moshe; Hyames, Gila; Skorecki, Karl; Reisner, Shimon A; Beyar, Rafael

    2009-09-01

    The Rambam Medical Center, the major academic health center in northern Israel, serving a population of two million and providing specialized tertiary care, was exposed to an unprecedented experience during the Second Lebanon War in the summer of 2006. For more than one month, it was subjected to continuous rocket attacks, but it continued to provide emergency and routine medical services to the civilian population and also served the military personnel who were evacuated from the battlefront. To accomplish the goals of serving the population while itself being under fire, the Rambam Medical Center had to undertake major organizational decisions, which included maximizing safety within the hospital by shifting patients and departments, ensuring that the hospital was properly fortified, managing the health professional teams' work schedules, and providing needed services for the families of employees. The Rambam Medical Center's Level I trauma center expertise included multidisciplinary teams and extensive collaborations; modern imaging modalities usually reserved for peacetime medical practice were frequently used. The function of the hospital teams during the war was efficient and smooth, based on the long-term actions taken to prepare for disasters and wartime conditions. Routine hospital services continued, although at 60% of normal occupancy. Financial losses incurred were primarily due to the decrease in revenue-generating activity. The two most important components of managing the hospital under these conditions are (1) the ability to arrive at prompt and meaningful decisions with respect to the organizational and medical hospital operations and (2) the leadership and management of the professional staff and teams.

  2. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective: To identify the methodological approaches used to study children's reactions to three recent major disasters--the September 11, 2001, attacks; the…

  3. Occupational exposures during the World Trade Center disaster response.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, K M; Snyder, E M

    2001-06-01

    Upon the request of the New York City Department of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitored occupational exposures among emergency response workers during the rescue and recovery activities at the World Trade Center disaster site from September 18 through 4 October 2001. During this period, over 1,200 bulk and air samples were collected to estimate or characterize workers' occupational exposures. Samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), diesel exhaust, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic acids, mercury and other metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, respirable particulate not otherwise regulated (PNOR), respirable crystalline silica, total PNOR, and volatile organic compounds. Exposures to most of these potential hazards did not exceed NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits or Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limits. However, one torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium and another worker (and possibly three others) was overexposed to CO. The elevated cadmium and CO levels were the result of workers using oxy-acetylene cutting torches and gasoline-powered cutting saws. Recommendations were made to ensure adequate ventilation and worker understanding when using these tools and, where possible, to substitute rechargeable, battery-powered cutting saws for gasoline-powered ones. Toxicology

  4. The World Trade Center attack. Observations from New York's Bellevue Hospital.

    PubMed

    Roccaforte, J D

    2001-12-01

    This report describes selected aspects of the response by Bellevue Hospital Center to the World Trade Center attack of 11 September 2001. The hospital is 2.5 miles (4 km) from the site of the attack. These first-hand observations and this analysis may aid in future preparations. Key issues described relate to communication, organization, injuries treated, staffing, and logistics.

  5. To leave an area after disaster: how evacuees from the WTC buildings left the WTC area following the attacks.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rae; Sherman, Martin F

    2011-05-01

    How people leave a devastated area after a disaster is critical to understanding their ability to cope with risks they face while evacuating. Knowledge of their needs for communications about these risks is particularly crucial in planning for emergency responses. A convenience sample of 1,444 persons who survived the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on September 11, 2001 were surveyed to ascertain their initial and ultimate destinations once they had left the buildings, how they arrived there, the role of types of obstacles they encountered, and the need for information and the seeking of other people as potential factors in influencing the process of leaving immediately. This survey was part of a larger, original survey. Results showed differences in how people traveled by mode to initial and ultimate destinations, how immediately they left the area, and factors associated with when they left. How they traveled and when they left were associated with where people lived, their tendency in times of stress to seek out other people including who they knew in the immediate area (e.g., co-workers or friends), the physical conditions surrounding them, and the importance to some of waiting for more information. Many people indicated they did not leave immediately because they had no information about where to go or what services would be available to them. Perceptions and communications about risks they were facing were reflected in the choices they considered in how and when to leave the area. These findings have numerous ramifications for understanding and guiding personal behavior in catastrophic situations.

  6. School Library Media Center Disaster Response Plan Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois School Library Media Association, Fairfield.

    The best way to deal with a disaster or an emergency is to be prepared. Librarians must be aware of the emergencies which could arise, be ready to respond to them when they occur, and recover from them afterwards. Guidelines are offered by the Illinois School Library Media Association (ISLMA) to assist in the preparation of a disaster plan and the…

  7. Rapid assessment of injuries among survivors of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center--New York City, September 2001.

    PubMed

    2002-01-11

    On September 11, 2001, a jet aircraft crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan. Minutes later, a second aircraft crashed into the south tower. The impact, fires, and subsequent collapse of the buildings resulted in the deaths of thousands of persons. The precise number and causes of deaths could not be assessed in the immediate aftermath of the attack; however, data were available on the frequency and type of injuries among survivors (Figure 1). In previous disasters, such information assisted in characterizing type and severity of injuries and the health-care services needed by survivors. To assess injuries and use of health-care services by survivors, the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH) conducted a field investigation to review emergency department (ED) and inpatient medical records at the four hospitals closest to the crash site and a fifth hospital that served as a burn referral center. This report summarizes findings of that assessment, which indicated that the arrival of injured persons to this sample of hospitals began within minutes of the attack and peaked 2 to 3 hours later. Among 790 injured survivors treated within 48 hours, approximately 50% received care within 7 hours of the attack, most for inhalation or ocular injuries; 18% were hospitalized. Comprehensive surveillance of disaster-related health effects is an integral part of effective disaster planning and response.

  8. Availability of a pediatric trauma center in a disaster surge decreases triage time of the pediatric surge population: a population kinetics model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The concept of disaster surge has arisen in recent years to describe the phenomenon of severely increased demands on healthcare systems resulting from catastrophic mass casualty events (MCEs) such as natural disasters and terrorist attacks. The major challenge in dealing with a disaster surge is the efficient triage and utilization of the healthcare resources appropriate to the magnitude and character of the affected population in terms of its demographics and the types of injuries that have been sustained. Results In this paper a deterministic population kinetics model is used to predict the effect of the availability of a pediatric trauma center (PTC) upon the response to an arbitrary disaster surge as a function of the rates of pediatric patients' admission to adult and pediatric centers and the corresponding discharge rates of these centers. We find that adding a hypothetical pediatric trauma center to the response documented in an historical example (the Israeli Defense Forces field hospital that responded to the Haiti earthquake of 2010) would have allowed for a significant increase in the overall rate of admission of the pediatric surge cohort. This would have reduced the time to treatment in this example by approximately half. The time needed to completely treat all children affected by the disaster would have decreased by slightly more than a third, with the caveat that the PTC would have to have been approximately as fast as the adult center in discharging its patients. Lastly, if disaster death rates from other events reported in the literature are included in the model, availability of a PTC would result in a relative mortality risk reduction of 37%. Conclusions Our model provides a mathematical justification for aggressive inclusion of PTCs in planning for disasters by public health agencies. PMID:21992575

  9. Chronic Physical Health Consequences of Being Injured During the Terrorist Attacks on World Trade Center on September 11, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Brackbill, Robert M.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Stellman, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have focused on injuries from the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. Severe injury has health consequences, including an increased mortality risk 10 years after injury and the risk of mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Trade Center Health Registry identified 14,087 persons with none of a selected group of preexisting chronic conditions before 2002 who were present during and soon after the World Trade Center attacks, 1,980 of whom reported sustaining 1 or more types of injury (e.g., a broken bone or burn). Survey data obtained during 2003−2004 and 2006−2007 were used to assess the odds of reporting a diagnosis of chronic conditions (heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer) up to 5–6 years after the attacks. Number of injury types and probable PTSD were significantly associated with having any chronic conditions diagnosed in 2002–2007. Persons with multiple injuries and PTSD had a 3-fold higher risk of heart disease than did those with no injury and no PTSD, and persons with multiple injuries and with no PTSD had a 2-fold higher risk of respiratory diseases. The present study shows that injured persons with or without comorbid PTSD have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. Clinicians should be aware of the heightened risk of chronic heart and respiratory conditions among injured persons. PMID:24561992

  10. Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3,271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    DiGrande, Laura; Neria, Yuval; Brackbill, Robert M; Pulliam, Paul; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-01

    Although the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in US history, there is little extant research documenting the attacks' consequences among those most directly affected, that is, persons who were in the World Trade Center towers. Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2-3 years after the attacks ascertained the prevalence of long-term, disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 3,271 civilians who evacuated World Trade Center towers 1 and 2. Overall, 95.6% of survivors reported at least 1 current posttraumatic stress symptom. The authors estimated the probable rate of PTSD at 15.0% by using the PTSD Checklist. Women and minorities were at an increased risk of PTSD. A strong inverse relation with annual income was observed. Five characteristics of direct exposure to the terrorist attacks independently predicted PTSD: being on a high floor in the towers, initiating evacuation late, being caught in the dust cloud that resulted from the tower collapses, personally witnessing horror, and sustaining an injury. Working for an employer that sustained fatalities also increased risk. Each addition of an experience of direct exposure resulted in a 2-fold increase in the risk of PTSD (odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.84, 2.36). Identification of these risk factors may be useful when screening survivors of large-scale terrorist events for long-term psychological sequelae.

  11. Focus Groups with Children after the World Trade Center Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S.; Pollio, David E.; Wallace, Nancy E.; Smith, Rebecca; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups with 23 New York City children examined their reactions to the September 11 terrorist attacks, their parents' reactions, and their expectations about the future. We identified an initial set of six topics; these topics were reviewed and assigned to a final set of thematic categories--understanding the events and motives, emotional…

  12. Attacking Al-Qaeda’s Operational Centers of Gravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-23

    Arab world. Many believe that the CIA and Israeli Mossad conspired to conduct the 9-11 attacks to hurt Islam, and that the doctrine of preventative...the West is Losing the War on Terror (Washington, DC: Brassey’s Inc. 2004), xviii; and Ahmed S. Hashim, “The World According to Usama Bin Laden...Global Insurgency, Hurlburt Field, FL, May 2006. Hasenauer, Heike. “Mission: Horn of Africa.” Soldiers. (August 2005): 11-13. Hashim, Ahmed

  13. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Establishment and growth, 2008–2010 1

    PubMed Central

    Love, Cynthia B.; Arnesen, Stacey J.; Phillips, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) established the Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC). Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of involvement in providing health information for disaster management. Aware of this legacy and moved by the catastrophic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM’s Long Range Plan 2006–2016) called for creation of a center to show “a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem”. NLM was urged to “ensure continuous access to health information and effective use of libraries and librarians when disasters occur”. In response to this charge, NLM has undertaken substantial efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper documents the history, goals, initiatives, accomplishments and future plans of the Center. PMID:25324584

  14. National Disaster Health Consortium: Competency-Based Training and a Report on the American Nurses Credentialing Center Disaster Certification Development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sherrill J; Farra, Sharon L

    2016-12-01

    As the largest profession of health care providers, nurses are an integral component of disaster response. Having clearly delineated competencies and developing training to acquire those competencies are needed to ensure nurses are ready when disasters occur. This article provides a review of nursing and interprofessional disaster competencies and development of a new interprofessional disaster certification. An overview of a standardized disaster training program, the National Disaster Health Consortium, is provided as an exemplar of a competency-based interprofessional disaster education program.

  15. Paresthesias Among Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, Michael; Shao, Yongzhao; Bhatt, D. Harshad; Stecker, Mark M.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Goldring, Roberta M.; Rosen, Rebecca L.; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Kazeros, Angeliki; Pradhan, Deepak; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Reibman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Paresthesias can result from metabolic disorders, nerve entrapment following repetitive motions, hyperventilation pursuant to anxiety, or exposure to neurotoxins. We analyzed data from community members exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001, to evaluate whether exposure to the disaster was associated with paresthesias. Methods: Analysis of data from 3141 patients of the WTC Environmental Health Center. Results: Fifty-six percent of patients reported paresthesias at enrollment 7 to 15 years following the WTC disaster. After controlling for potential confounders, paresthesias were associated with severity of exposure to the WTC dust cloud and working in a job requiring cleaning of WTC dust. Conclusions: This study suggests that paresthesias were commonly associated with WTC-related exposures or post-WTC cleaning work. Further studies should objectively characterize these paresthesias and seek to identify relevant neurotoxins or paresthesia-inducing activities. PMID:28157767

  16. The current state of affairs for disaster planning for a nuclear terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents current thinking on the effects of an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view and will argue that current US Federal plans for a nuclear disaster are simply crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and principally relies on martial law as a means of crowd control. The simple physics of a fusion reaction bomb is discussed along with the plans of other countries, apparently "secret"American plans, which show a poor knowledge of the physics of nuclear bombs as well as poor insight into what will be needed to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative plan involving computer modeling and educating the public to the effects of a fission explosion are presented. The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, as the Federal government has dumped medical problems on "the local level."

  17. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Achieving the vision, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Love, Cynthia B.; Arnesen, Stacey J.; Phillips, Steven J.; Windom, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2013, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) continued to build its programs and services on the foundation laid in its starting years, 2008–2010. Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of providing health information, training, and tools in response to disasters. Aware of this legacy, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM’s Long Range Plan 2006–2016) called for creation of a center to show “a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem”. NLM is continuing efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper describes the 2010–2013 goals and activities of DIMRC and its future plans. PMID:27570333

  18. Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Erik R.; Runkle, Jennifer R.; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Bennett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters. PMID:23066404

  19. [Disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  20. Disability and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers responding to September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster.

    PubMed

    Evans, Susan; Patt, Ivy; Giosan, Cezar; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

    2009-07-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that social and occupational disability plays a significant role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to assess the role of social/occupational disability and to identify predictors of the development of PTSD in a group of disaster relief workers (DRWs) who had been deployed to the World Trade Center (WTC) following September 11, 2001. Eight hundred forty-two utility workers completed a battery of comprehensive tests measuring PTSD and social occupational functioning. Results indicated a significant association between PTSD symptoms and impaired social/occupational functioning. Symptomatic workers were also more likely to have a history of trauma, panic disorder, and depression. Those with a history of trauma, depression, generalized anxiety disorder or panic reported significantly more disability than those without a psychiatric history. Careful screening of PTSD and social/occupational functioning in DRWs following a disaster is warranted so that early treatment can be undertaken to prevent a chronic and disabling course.

  1. Implications of the World Trade Center Attack for the Public Health and Health Care Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Susan; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center had profound effects on the well-being of New York City. The authors describe and assess the strengths and weaknesses of the city’s response to the public health, environmental/ occupational health, and mental health dimensions of the attack in the first 6 months after the event. They also examine the impact on the city’s health care and social service system. The authors suggest lessons that can inform the development of a post–September 11th agenda for strengthening urban health infrastructures. PMID:12604481

  2. Implications of the World Trade Center attack for the public health and health care infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Susan; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    The September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center had profound effects on the well-being of New York City. The authors describe and assess the strengths and weaknesses of the city's response to the public health, environmental/ occupational health, and mental health dimensions of the attack in the first 6 months after the event. They also examine the impact on the city's health care and social service system. The authors suggest lessons that can inform the development of a post-September 11th agenda for strengthening urban health infrastructures.

  3. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6-7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2-3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11-18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5-12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1-28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners.

  4. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6–7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2–3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11–18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5–12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1–28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners. PMID:28229007

  5. Bioinformatics and human identification in mass fatality incidents: the world trade center disaster.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Benoît; Shaler, Robert; Carmody, George R; Eliason, Kristilyn; Hendrickson, Brant C; Judkins, Thad; Norton, Michael J; Sears, Christopher; Scholl, Tom

    2007-07-01

    Victim identification initiatives undertaken in the wake of Mass Fatality Incidents (MFIs) where high-body fragmentation has been sustained are often dependent on DNA typing technologies to complete their mandate. The success of these endeavors is linked to the choice of DNA typing methods and the bioinformatic tools required to make the necessary associations. Several bioinformatic tools were developed to assist with the identification of the victims of the World Trade Center attacks, one of the most complex incidents to date. This report describes one of these tools, the Mass Disaster Kinship Analysis Program (MDKAP), a pair-wise comparison software designed to handle large numbers of complete or partial Short Tandem Repeats (STR) genotypes, and infer identity of, or biological relationships between tested samples. The software performs all functions required to take full advantage of the information content of processed genotypic data sets from large-scale MFIs, including the collapse of victims data sets, remains re-association, virtual genotype generation through gap-filling, parentage trio searching, and a consistency check of reported/inferred biological relationships within families. Although very few WTC victims were genetically related, the software can detect parentage trios from within a victim's genotype data set through a nontriangulated approach that screens all possible parentage trios. All software-inferred relationships from WTC data were confirmed by independent statistical analysis. With a 13 STR loci complement, a fortuitous parentage trio (FPT) involving nonrelated individuals was detected. Additional STR loci would be required to reduce the risk of an FPT going undetected in large-scale MFIs involving related individuals among the victims. Kinship analysis has proven successful in this incident but its continued success in larger scale MFIs is contingent on the use of a sufficient number of STR loci to reduce the risk of undetected FPTs, the

  6. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective To identify the methodological approaches used to study children’s reactions to three recent major disasters—the September 11, 2001, attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina. Methods This review was guided by a systematic literature search. Results A total of 165 unduplicated empirical reports were generated by the search and examined for this review. This included 83 references on September 11, 29 on the 2004 Tsunami, and 53 on Hurricane Katrina. Conclusions A diversity of methods has been brought to bear in understanding children’s reactions to disasters. While cross-sectional studies predominate, pre-event data for some investigations emerged from archival data and data from studies examining non-disaster topics. The nature and extent of the influence of risk and protective variables beyond disaster exposure are not fully understood due, in part, to limitations in the study designs used in the extant research. Advancing an understanding of the roles of exposure and various individual, family, and social factors depends upon the extent to which measures and assessment techniques are valid and reliable, as well as on data sources and data collection designs. Comprehensive assessments that extend beyond questionnaires and checklists to include interviews and cognitive and biological measures to elucidate the negative and positive effects of disasters on children also may improve the knowledge base. PMID:24443635

  7. Exposure and Human Health Evaluation of Airborne Pollution from the World Trade Center Disaster

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) towers, many Federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), were called upon to bring their technical and scientific expertise to the national e...

  8. EXPOSURE AND HUMAN HEALTH EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE POLLUTION FROM THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) towers, many Federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), were called upon to bring their technical and scientific expertise to the national e...

  9. The World Trade Center attack. Eye witness: observations of a physician on the outside looking in.

    PubMed

    Chalfin, D B

    2001-12-01

    Having personally witnessed the destruction at the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001, this paper presents my personal feelings and observations as an observer of both disaster and terror. Aside from the unimaginable horror as a result of the carnage, a feeling of helplessness was particularly prominent due to the inability to be able to care for casualties since most victims were fatalities. The passage of time has enabled a return to normalcy, however 'normalcy' carries a new definition due to the vastness of the tragedy and the sudden threat of bioterrorism and other weapons of mass destruction.

  10. The World Trade Center Disaster and the Health of Workers: Five-Year Assessment of a Unique Medical Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Robin; Moline, Jacqueline; Skloot, Gwen; Metzger, Kristina; Baron, Sherry; Luft, Benjamin; Markowitz, Steven; Udasin, Iris; Harrison, Denise; Stein, Diane; Todd, Andrew; Enright, Paul; Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Landrigan, Philip J.; Levin, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Approximately 40,000 rescue and recovery workers were exposed to caustic dust and toxic pollutants following the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). These workers included traditional first responders, such as firefighters and police, and a diverse population of construction, utility, and public sector workers. Methods To characterize WTC-related health effects, the WTC Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program was established. This multicenter clinical program provides free standardized examinations to responders. Examinations include medical, mental health, and exposure assessment questionnaires; physical examinations; spirometry; and chest X rays. Results Of 9,442 responders examined between July 2002 and April 2004, 69% reported new or worsened respiratory symptoms while performing WTC work. Symptoms persisted to the time of examination in 59% of these workers. Among those who had been asymptomatic before September 11, 61% developed respiratory symptoms while performing WTC work. Twenty-eight percent had abnormal spirometry; forced vital capacity (FVC) was low in 21%; and obstruction was present in 5%. Among nonsmokers, 27% had abnormal spirometry compared with 13% in the general U.S. population. Prevalence of low FVC among nonsmokers was 5-fold greater than in the U.S. population (20% vs. 4%). Respiratory symptoms and spirometry abnormalities were significantly associated with early arrival at the site. Conclusion WTC responders had exposure-related increases in respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function test abnormalities that persisted up to 2.5 years after the attacks. Long-term medical monitoring is required to track persistence of these abnormalities and identify late effects, including possible malignancies. Lessons learned should guide future responses to civil disasters. PMID:17185275

  11. Anger and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster: one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Giosan, Cezar; Evans, Susan; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

    2008-11-01

    Although anger is an important feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) it is unclear whether it is simply concomitant or plays a role in maintaining symptoms. A previous study of disaster workers responding to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 () indicated that those with PTSD evidenced more severe anger than those without. The purpose of this study was to conduct a 1-year follow-up to assess the role of anger in maintaining PTSD. Workers with PTSD continued to report more severe anger than those without; there were statistically significant associations between changes in anger, PTSD severity, depression, and psychiatric distress. Multiple regression analysis indicated initial anger severity to be a significant predictor of PTSD severity at follow-up, which is consistent with the notion that anger maintains PTSD. One implication is that disaster workers with high anger may benefit from early intervention to prevent chronic PTSD.

  12. Protecting worker and public health during responses to catastrophic disasters-learning from the World Trade Center experience.

    PubMed

    Newman, David M

    2014-11-01

    Despite incremental lessons learned since 9/11, responder and community health remain at unnecessary risk during responses to catastrophic disasters, as evidenced during the BP Deepwater Horizon spill and Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Sandy. Much of the health harm that occurs during disaster response, as distinct from during the disaster event itself, is avoidable. Protection of public health should be an integral component of disaster response, which should "do no additional harm." This commentary examines how challenges and gaps the World Trade Center response resulted in preventable occupational and environmental health harm. It proposes changes in disaster response policies to better protect the health of rescue and recovery workers, volunteers, and impacted worker and residential communities.

  13. Mixed lateral preference and peritraumatic reactions to the World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    Chemtob, Claude M; Wang, Yanping; Dugan, Kelly L; Abramovitz, Robert; Marmar, Charles

    2006-11-01

    There is evidence that mixed lateral preference is a risk factor for developing more intense posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. However, no research has examined whether mixed-handed persons experience greater threat of loss of life and physical injury and more intense emotional reactions (terror, helplessness, horror) during peritraumatic exposure. This study compared the intensity of ratings of perceived threat to life and physical injury and emotional reactions among mixed-handed and fully right-handed mothers directly exposed to the World Trade Center attacks. Controlling for exposure, mixed-handed mothers reported more intense ratings, indicating that mixed lateral preference may be associated with greater peritraumatic emotional distress.

  14. Model for determining logistic distribution center: case study of Mount Merapi eruption disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, T. J.; Wigati, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most active volcano in the earth, Mount Merapi is periodically erupted and it is considered as a natural disaster for the surrounding area. Kabupaten Sleman as one of the nearest location to this mount has to be always prepared to this disaster. The local government already set three different groups of region, in which potentially affected by Mount Merapi eruption, called KRB I, KRB II, and KRB III. Region KRB III is the closest area to the mount crater and most often affected by the eruption disaster. Whenever KRB III is affected, people live in that area usually being transfer to the next region set that is KRB II. The case presented in this paper is located at the KRB II region, which is the second closest region to the mount crater. A humanitarian distribution system has to be set in this region, since usually this region is became the location of shelters for KRB III population whenever a ‘big’ eruption is happened. A mathematical model is proposed in this paper, for determining the location of distribution center, vehicle route, and the amount of goods delivered to each customer. Some numerical illustration are presented in order to know the behavior of the proposed model.

  15. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events. PMID:25774097

  16. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events.

  17. An HIT Solution for Clinical Care and Disaster Planning: How One health Center in Joplin, MO Survived a Tornado and Avoided a Health Information Disaster.

    PubMed

    Shin, Peter; Jacobs, Feygele

    2012-01-01

    Since taking office, President Obama has made substantial investments in promoting the diffusion of health information technology (IT). The objective of the national health IT program is, generally, to enable health care providers to better manage patient care through secure use and sharing of health information. Through the use of technologies including electronic health records, providers can better maintain patient care information and facilitate communication, often improving care outcomes. The recent tornado in Joplin, MO highlights the importance of health information technology in the health center context, and illustrates the importance of secure electronic health information systems as a crucial element of disaster and business continuity planning. This article examines the experience of a community health center in the aftermath of the major tornado that swept through the American Midwest in the spring of 2011, and provides insight into the planning for disaster survival and recovery as it relates to patient records and health center data.

  18. Applications of tactical mobile robot technology to urban search and rescue: lessons learned at the World Trade Center disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, S. S.; Alibozek, Fred; Frost, Thomas; Norman, Christopher O.; Shein, Andrew M.; Smith, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    In the wake of the World Trade Center tragedy on Sept. 11th 2001, robots developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Tactical Mobile Robot program were used under the direction of CRASAR, the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue, to provide technical support to the relief effort. The TMR's (Tactical Mobile Robots) were used to search the disaster scene for casualties, locate victims, and assess building integrity. During the effort the Tactical Mobile Robots were presented with unprecedented obstacles and challenges. This paper serves to outline lessons learned at the WTC (World Trade Center) disaster and provide information for the development of more capable search and rescue robots.

  19. NASA Involvement in National Priority Support for Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGregor, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the role NASA remote sensing played in planning recovery operations in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The presentation includes AVIRIS and satellite imagery of the attack sites, and photographs taken on the ground after the attacks. One page of the presentation addresses NASA's role in disaster management of the 2002 Winter Olympics.

  20. Enhancing Disaster Management: Development of a Spatial Database of Day Care Centers in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Nagendra; Tuttle, Mark A.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2015-07-30

    Children under the age of five constitute around 7% of the total U.S. population and represent a segment of the population, which is totally dependent on others for day-to-day activities. A significant proportion of this population spends time in some form of day care arrangement while their parents are away from home. Accounting for those children during emergencies is of high priority, which requires a broad understanding of the locations of such day care centers. As concentrations of at risk population, the spatial location of day care centers is critical for any type of emergency preparedness and response (EPR). However, until recently, the U.S. emergency preparedness and response community did not have access to a comprehensive spatial database of day care centers at the national scale. This paper describes an approach for the development of the first comprehensive spatial database of day care center locations throughout the USA utilizing a variety of data harvesting techniques to integrate information from widely disparate data sources followed by geolocating for spatial precision. In the context of disaster management, such spatially refined demographic databases hold tremendous potential for improving high resolution population distribution and dynamics models and databases.

  1. Enhancing Disaster Management: Development of a Spatial Database of Day Care Centers in the USA

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Nagendra; Tuttle, Mark A.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2015-07-30

    Children under the age of five constitute around 7% of the total U.S. population and represent a segment of the population, which is totally dependent on others for day-to-day activities. A significant proportion of this population spends time in some form of day care arrangement while their parents are away from home. Accounting for those children during emergencies is of high priority, which requires a broad understanding of the locations of such day care centers. As concentrations of at risk population, the spatial location of day care centers is critical for any type of emergency preparedness and response (EPR). However,more » until recently, the U.S. emergency preparedness and response community did not have access to a comprehensive spatial database of day care centers at the national scale. This paper describes an approach for the development of the first comprehensive spatial database of day care center locations throughout the USA utilizing a variety of data harvesting techniques to integrate information from widely disparate data sources followed by geolocating for spatial precision. In the context of disaster management, such spatially refined demographic databases hold tremendous potential for improving high resolution population distribution and dynamics models and databases.« less

  2. Disasters and Perinatal Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Harville, EW; Xiong, X; Buekens, P

    2012-01-01

    Background The empirical literature on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period is limited. The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence on the effect of disasters on perinatal health. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycInfo), including literature on disasters and pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth, low birthweight, congenital anomalies), mental health, and child development. 110 articles were identified, but many published reports were anecdotes or recommendations rather than systematic studies. The final review included 49 peer-reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria. Results Studies addressing the World Trade Center disaster of September 11th and other terrorist attacks, environmental/chemical disasters, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes were identified. Disasters of various types may reduce fetal growth in some women, though there does not appear to be an effect on gestational age at birth. Severity of exposure is the major predictor of mental health issues among pregnant and postpartum women. The mother's mental health after a disaster may more strongly influence on child development than any direct effect of disaster-related prenatal stress. Conclusions There is evidence that disaster impacts maternal mental health and some perinatal health outcomes, particular among highly-exposed women. Future research should focus on under-studied outcomes such as spontaneous abortion. Relief workers and clinicians should concentrate on the most exposed women, particularly with respect to mental health. PMID:21375788

  3. Exposure and Human Health Evaluation of Airborne Pollution from the World Trade Center Disaster (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the collapse of the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001, New York State and Federal agencies initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the ongoing impact of emissions from the disaster. This report focuses on these air measurement da...

  4. EXPOSURE AND HUMAN HEALTH EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE POLLUTION FROM THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the collapse of the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001, New York State and Federal agencies initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the ongoing impact of emissions from the disaster. This report focuses on these air measurement da...

  5. Attachment and psychological adaptation in high exposure survivors of the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Fazzari, David A; Bonanno, George A; Dekel, Sharon

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and psychological adaptation in a sample of high-exposure survivors of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were assessed via self-report 7 and 18 months after the attacks. In addition, friends and relatives were asked to provide evaluations of participants' adjustment before and after the attacks. Findings indicate that securely attached individuals exhibited fewer symptoms of PTSD and depression than insecurely attached individuals and were viewed by friends and relatives as showing an increase in adjustment following the attacks. Highly dismissing adults were viewed by their friends and family as showing neither increments nor decrements in adjustment, despite the fact that highly dismissing people self-reported relatively high levels of PTSD and depression.

  6. Air levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the World Trade Center disaster.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Vette, Alan F; Johnson, Brent A; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2004-08-10

    The catastrophic collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. The subsequent cleanup used diesel equipment that further polluted the air until the following June. The particulate air pollutants contained mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). By using an assay developed for archived samples of fine particles, we measured nine PAHs in 243 samples collected at or near Ground Zero from September 23, 2001, to March 27, 2002. Based on temporal trends of individual PAH levels, we differentiated between fire and diesel sources and predicted PAH levels between 3 and 200 d after the disaster. Predicted PAH air concentrations on September 14, 2001, ranged from 1.3 to 15 ng/m(3); these values are among the highest reported from outdoor sources. We infer that these high initial air concentrations resulted from fires that rapidly diminished over 100 d. Diesel sources predominated for the next 100 d, during which time PAH levels declined slowly to background values. Because elevated PAH levels were transient, any elevation in cancer risk from PAH exposure should be very small among nonoccupationally exposed residents of NYC. However, the high initial levels of PAHs may be associated with reproductive effects observed in the offspring of women who were (or became) pregnant shortly after September 11, 2001. Because no PAH-specific air sampling was conducted, this work provides the only systematic measurements, to our knowledge, of ambient PAHs after the WTC disaster.

  7. Disasters; the 2010 Haitian earthquake and the evacuation of burn victims to US burn centers.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Skarote, Mary Beth; Cairns, Charles B; Strickland, Samantha Cooksey; Smith, Howard G; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Response to the 2010 Haitian earthquake included an array of diverse yet critical actions. This paper will briefly review the evacuation of a small group of patients with burns to burn centers in the southeastern United States (US). This particular evacuation brought together for the first time plans, groups, and organizations that had previously only exercised this process. The response to the Haitian earthquake was a glimpse at what the international community working together can do to help others, and relieve suffering following a catastrophic disaster. The international response was substantial. This paper will trace one evacuation, one day for one unique group of patients with burns to burn centers in the US and review the lessons learned from this process. The patient population with burns being evacuated from Haiti was very small compared to the overall operation. Nevertheless, the outcomes included a better understanding of how a larger event could challenge the limited resources for all involved. This paper includes aspects of the patient movement, the logistics needed, and briefly discusses reimbursement for the care provided.

  8. Elements of resilience after the World Trade Center disaster: reconstituting New York City's Emergency Operations Centre.

    PubMed

    Kendra, James M; Wachtendorf, Tricia

    2003-03-01

    In this paper we examine the reconstitution of the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after its destruction in the World Trade Center attack, using that event to highlight several features of resilience. The paper summarises basic EOC functions, and then presents conceptions of resilience as understood from several disciplinary perspectives, noting that work in these fields has sought to understand how a natural or social system that experiences disturbance sustains its functional processes. We observe that, although the physical EOC facility was destroyed, the organisation that had been established to manage crises in New York City continued, enabling a response that drew on the resources of New York City and neighbouring communities, states and the federal government. Availability of resources--which substituted for redundancy of personnel, equipment and space--pre-existing relationships that eased communication challenges as the emergency developed and the continuation of organisational patterns of response integration and role assignments were among the factors that contributed to resilience following the attack.

  9. PTSD and alcohol use after the World Trade Center attacks: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Kirchner, H Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E

    2011-10-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased alcohol use, but the findings have not been consistent. We assessed alcohol use, binge drinking, and psychotropic medication use longitudinally in 1,681 New York City adults, representative of the 2000 census, 2 years after the World Trade Center attacks. We found that, with the exception of a modified CAGE Questionnaire index for alcohol, alcohol use showed a modest increase over time and was related to PTSD symptoms, with an increase of about 1 more drink per month for those with PTSD, even though overall levels appeared to be within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's safe range. Psychotropic medication use followed a similar trend; those with PTSD used psychotropics about 20 more days over the past year than those without. Because the study analyses adjusted for key psychosocial variables and confounders, it is not clear if the increased alcohol use following trauma exposure is associated with self-medication of PTSD symptoms, whether increased alcohol use prior to exposure is a risk for delayed-onset PTSD, or whether a third unmeasured variable is involved. Further research is warranted.

  10. PTSD and Alcohol Use After the World Trade Center Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N.; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased alcohol use, but the findings have not been consistent. We assessed alcohol use, binge drinking, and psychotropic medication use longitudinally in 1,681 New York City adults, representative of the 2000 census, 2 years after the World Trade Center attacks. We found that, with the exception of a modified CAGE Questionnaire index for alcohol, alcohol use showed a modest increase over time and was related to PTSD symptoms, with an increase of about 1 more drink per month for those with PTSD, even though overall levels appeared to be within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s safe range. Psychotropic medication use followed a similar trend; those with PTSD used psychotropics about 20 more days over the past year than those without. Because the study analyses adjusted for key psychosocial variables and confounders, it is not clear if the increased alcohol use following trauma exposure is associated with self-medication of PTSD symptoms, whether increased alcohol use prior to exposure is a risk for delayed-onset PTSD, or whether a third unmeasured variable is involved. Further research is warranted. PMID:21882246

  11. Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS): Psychometric Testing of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Hurricane Assessment and Referral Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Post disaster psychosocial surveillance procedures are important for guiding effective and efficient recovery. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS) is a model designed with the goal of assisting recovering communities in understanding the needs of and targeting services…

  12. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  13. Serum perfluoroalkyl substances in children exposed to the world trade center disaster.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Koshy, Tony T; Gilbert, Joseph; Burdine, Lauren K; Attina, Teresa M; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Honda, Masato; Marmor, Michael; Chu, Dinh Binh; Han, Xiaoxia; Shao, Yongzhao; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-04-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released large amounts of various chemical substances into the environment, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Yet, no studies have examined exposures in children living or attending schools near the disaster site. We measured serum PFASs in WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) respondents who were ≤8 years of age on September 11, 2001 and a sociodemographically-matched comparison group. We also examined the relationship of PFASs levels with dust cloud exposure; home dust exposure, and with traumatic exposure, the latter to take into account differences related to possible mental health consequences and associated behavioral problems. Serum samples, collected between 2014 and 2016, were analyzed from 123 WTCHR participants and from 185 participants in the comparison group. In the WTCHR group, median perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) levels were 1.81ng/mL and 3.72ng/mL, respectively. Controlling for sex, caloric intake, race/ethnicity, and date of birth, significant increases among WTCHR participants compared with the matched comparison group were detected for perfluorohexanesulfonate (0.23ng/mL increase or 0.24log unit increase, p=0.006); PFOS (0.86ng/mL increase or 0.16log unit increase, p=0.011); PFOA (0.35ng/mL increase or 0.18log unit increase, p<0.001); perfluorononanoic acid (0.12ng/mL increase or 0.17log unit increase, p=0.003); perfluorodecanoic acid (0.06ng/mL increase or 0.42log unit increase, p<0.001); and perfluoroundecanoic acid (0.03ng/mL increase or 0.32log unit increase, p=0.019). Stronger associations were identified for home dust exposures and traumatic exposures than dust cloud. These findings highlight the importance of conducting longitudinal studies in this population to assess possible cardiometabolic and renal consequences related to these exposures.

  14. The Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (CFE-DMHA): An Assessment of Roles and Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Regional Medical Com- mand at Tripler, PACOM, and the University of Hawaii. The CDC provided a full- time program manager and research physician and a...to manage inherently gov- ernmental tasks), and organization and oversight to cover a broader range of activities have, at times , threatened the...course. 22 The Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance The classroom HART course takes place approximately 12 times

  15. Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

    2002-05-03

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were determined at World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174{plus_minus}0.074 (2{sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53{plus_minus}0.17 and 2.83{plus_minus}0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. Tritium is used in self-luminescent emergency EXIT signs. No such signs were present inside the WTC buildings. However, it was determined that Boeing 767-222 aircraft operated by the United Airlines that hit WTC Tower 2 as well as Boeing 767-223ER operated by the American Airlines, that hit WTC Tower 1, had a combined 34.3 Ci of tritium at the time of impact. Other possible sources of tritium include dials and lights of fire and emergency equipment, sights and scopes in weaponry, as well as time devices equipped with tritium dials. It was determined that emergency equipment was not a likely source. However, WTC hosted several law-enforcement agencies such as ATF, CIA, US Secret Service and US Customs. The ATF office had two weapon vaults in WTC Building 6. Also 63 Police Officers, possibly carrying handguns with tritium sights, died in the attack. The weaponry containing tritium was therefore a likely and significant source of tritium. It is possible that some of the 2830 victims carried tritium watches, however this source appears to be less significant that the other

  16. Planning and Implementing a Disaster Recovery Capability for a Mainframe-Based Hospital Information System: Duke University Medical Center's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, J. David; Walker, L. Phillip; Aaron, Walter H.; Whitesell, Judy J.; Stead, William W.

    1988-01-01

    Since October 1986, the Medical Center Information Systems Department at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) has been developing and implementing a plan to provide for the continuation of the functions performed by Duke Hospital's central computing system in the event of a disaster that would disable the central hardware configuration for an extended amount of time. The key characteristic of the plan is that it provides for the full function and performance of the system to be returned to the end users within twenty four hours of the primary system's failure.

  17. The Mental Health Consequences of Disaster-Related Loss: Findings from Primary Care One Year After the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Yuval; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gross, Raz; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Blanco, Carlos; Manetti-Cusa, Julián; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the long-term psychiatric consequences, pain interference in daily activities, work loss, and functional impairment associated with 9/11-related loss among low-income, minority primary care patients in New York City. A systematic sample of 929 adult patients completed a survey that included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12). Approximately one-quarter of the sample reported knowing someone who was killed in the attacks of 9/11, and these patients were sociodemographically similar to the rest of the sample. Compared to patients who had not experienced 9/11-related loss, patients who experienced loss were roughly twice as likely (OR = 1.97, 95%; CI = 1.40, 2.77) to screen positive for at least one mental disorder, including major depressive disorder (MDD; 29.2%), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 19.4%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 17.1%). After controlling for pre-9/11 trauma, 9/11-related loss was significantly related to extreme pain interference, work loss, and functional impairment. The results suggest that disaster-related mental health care in this clinical population should emphasize evidence-based treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:19152283

  18. The mental health consequences of disaster-related loss: findings from primary care one year after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Neria, Yuval; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gross, Raz; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Blanco, Carlos; Manetti-Cusa, Julián; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the long-term psychiatric consequences, pain interference in daily activities, work loss, and functional impairment associated with 9/11-related loss among low-income, minority primary care patients in New York City. A systematic sample of 929 adult patients completed a survey that included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12). Approximately one-quarter of the sample reported knowing someone who was killed in the attacks of 9/11, and these patients were sociodemographically similar to the rest of the sample. Compared to patients who had not experienced 9/11-related loss, patients who experienced loss were roughly twice as likely (OR = 1.97, 95%; CI = 1.40, 2.77) to screen positive for at least one mental disorder, including major depressive disorder (MDD; 29.2%), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 19.4%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 17.1%). After controlling for pre-9/11 trauma, 9/11-related loss was significantly related to extreme pain interference, work loss, and functional impairment. The results suggest that disaster-related mental health care in this clinical population should emphasize evidence-based treatments for mood and anxiety disorders.

  19. Post-disaster reproductive health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Marianne E; Williams, Amy M; Robertson, McKaylee; Horney, Jennifer; Hsia, Jason

    2013-07-01

    We examined methodological issues in studies of disaster-related effects on reproductive health outcomes and fertility among women of reproductive age and infants in the United States (US). We conducted a systematic literature review of 1,635 articles and reports published in peer-reviewed journals or by the government from January 1981 through December 2010. We classified the studies using three exposure types: (1) physical exposure to toxicants; (2) psychological trauma; and (3) general exposure to disaster. Fifteen articles met our inclusion criteria concerning research focus and design. Overall studies pertained to eight different disasters, with most (n = 6) focused on the World Trade Center attack. Only one study examined pregnancy loss, i.e., occurrence of spontaneous abortions post-disaster. Most studies focused on associations between disaster and adverse birth outcomes, but two studies pertained only to post-disaster fertility while another two examined it in addition to adverse birth outcomes. In most studies disaster-affected populations were assumed to have experienced psychological trauma, but exposure to trauma was measured in only four studies. Furthermore, effects of both physical exposure to toxicants and psychological trauma on disaster-affected populations were examined in only one study. Effects on birth outcomes were not consistently demonstrated, and study methodologies varied widely. Even so, these studies suggest an association between disasters and reproductive health and highlight the need for further studies to clarify associations. We postulate that post-disaster surveillance among pregnant women could improve our understanding of effects of disaster on the reproductive health of US pregnant women.

  20. Asthma control in adolescents 10 to 11 y after exposure to the World Trade Center disaster

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Lisa M.; Thomas, Pauline A.; Stellman, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little is known about asthma control in adolescents who were exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001 and diagnosed with asthma after 9/11. This report examines asthma and asthma control 10–11 y after 9/11 among exposed adolescents. Methods: The WTC Health Registry adolescent Wave 3 survey (2011–2012) collected data on asthma diagnosed by a physician after 11 September 2001, extent of asthma control based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, probable mental health conditions, and behavior problems. Parents reported healthcare needs and 9/11-exposures. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between asthma and level of asthma control and 9/11-exposure, mental health and behavioral problems, and unmet healthcare needs. Results: Poorly/very poorly controlled asthma was significantly associated with a household income of ≤$75,000 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–8.8), having unmet healthcare needs (AOR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.4–27.1), and screening positive for at least one mental health condition (AOR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.4–17.7), but not with behavioral problems. The impact of having at least one mental health condition on the level of asthma control was substantially greater in females than in males. Conclusions: Comprehensive care of post-9/11 asthma in adolescents should include management of mental health-related comorbidities. PMID:27656769

  1. Routine High-Resolution Forecasts/Analyses for the Pacific Disaster Center: User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, John; Han, J.; Chen, S.; Burgan, R.; Fujioka, F.; Stevens, D.; Funayama, D.; Chambers, C.; Bingaman, B.; McCord, C.; Paylor, Earnest (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Enclosed herein is our HWCMO user manual. This manual constitutes the final report for our NASA/PDC grant, NASA NAG5-8730, "Routine High Resolution Forecasts/Analysis for the Pacific Disaster Center". Since the beginning of the grant, we have routinely provided experimental high resolution forecasts from the RSM/MSM for the Hawaii Islands, while working to upgrade the system to include: (1) a more robust input of NCEP analyses directly from NCEP; (2) higher vertical resolution, with increased forecast accuracy; (3) faster delivery of forecast products and extension of initial 1-day forecasts to 2 days; (4) augmentation of our basic meteorological and simplified fireweather forecasts to firedanger and drought forecasts; (5) additional meteorological forecasts with an alternate mesoscale model (MM5); and (6) the feasibility of using our modeling system to work in higher-resolution domains and other regions. In this user manual, we provide a general overview of the operational system and the mesoscale models as well as more detailed descriptions of the models. A detailed description of daily operations and a cost analysis is also provided. Evaluations of the models are included although it should be noted that model evaluation is a continuing process and as potential problems are identified, these can be used as the basis for making model improvements. Finally, we include our previously submitted answers to particular PDC questions (Appendix V). All of our initially proposed objectives have basically been met. In fact, a number of useful applications (VOG, air pollution transport) are already utilizing our experimental output and we believe there are a number of other applications that could make use of our routine forecast/analysis products. Still, work still remains to be done to further develop this experimental weather, climate, fire danger and drought prediction system. In short, we would like to be a part of a future PDC team, if at all possible, to further

  2. An Air Campaign for a Second Korean War: A Strategy for Attacking the Centers of Gravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-18

    for a Second Korean War. The author argues that North Korea has three concentric centers of gravity--one each at the strategic, operational, and...tactical level. The strategic center is the national and military leadership; the operational center is the North Korean Integrated Air Defense System; the...Second Korean War. The author argues that North Korea has three concentric centers of gravity--one each at the strategic, operational, and tactical

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MODELING ASSOCIATED WITH NATIONAL EMERGENCIES - EXPERIENCES GAINED FROM THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop was held in Research Triangle Park, NC on November 18-19, 2002 to discuss scientific issues associated with measuring, modeling, and assessing exposure and risk to air containing contaminants generated as a result of national emergencies and disasters. Participants wer...

  4. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  5. Cost analysis of a disaster facility at an apex tertiary care trauma center of India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sheetal; Gupta, Shakti; Daga, Anoop; Siddharth, Vijaydeep; Wundavalli, LaxmiTej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For the Commonwealth Games 2010, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre (JPNATC) of India had been directed by the Director General Health Services and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to set up a specialized unit for the definitive management of the injured/unwell athletes, officials, and related personnel coming for the Commonwealth Games in October 2010. The facility included a 20-bedded fully equipped ward, six ICU beds with ventilator capacity, one very very important person observation area, one perioperative management cubicle, and one fully modular and integrated operating room. Objective: The objective of this study was to calculate the cost of disaster facility at JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Methodology: Traditional (average or gross) costing methodology was used to arrive at the cost for the provisioning of these services by this facility. Results: The annual cost of providing services at disaster facility at JPNATC, New Delhi, was calculated to be INR 61,007,334.08 (US$ 983,989.258) while the per hour cost was calculated to be INR 7061.03 of the total cost toward the provisioning of services by disaster facility where 26% was the capital cost and 74% was the operating cost. Human resource caters to maximum chunk of the expenditures (47%). Conclusion: The results of this costing study will help in the future planning of resource allocation within the financial constraints (US$ 1 = INR 62 in the year 2013). PMID:27904258

  6. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made. PMID:25983663

  7. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made.

  8. Considerations in Identifying and Attacking the Enemy’s Center of Gravity,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-14

    1941 Crusader and 1942 Bustard Hunt operations - in order to identify insights and lessons applicable to center of gravity at the operational level...I II. ANALYSIS OF OPERATION CRUSADER ................. 9 III. ANALYSIS OF OPERATION BUSTARD HUNT ............ 19 S, IV. CONCLUSIONS...28 APPENDIX A (MAPS FOR CRUSADER) ................. 31 APPENDIX B (MAPS FOR BUSTARD HUNT) ............. 35 ENDNOTES

  9. Cumulative trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder among children exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack.

    PubMed

    Mullett-Hume, Elizabeth; Anshel, Daphne; Guevara, Vivianne; Cloitre, Marylene

    2008-01-01

    Two and one-half years after the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center attack, 204 middle school students in an immigrant community located near Ground Zero were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as influenced by "dose" of exposure to the attack and accumulated lifetime traumas. Ninety percent of students reported at least one traumatic event other than 9/11 (e.g., community violence) with an average of 4 lifetime events reported. An interaction was obtained such that the dose-response effect depended on presence of other traumas. Among students with the lowest number of additional traumas, the usual dose-response pattern of increasing PTSD symptoms with increasing 9/11 exposure was observed; among those with medium to high cumulative life trauma, PTSD symptoms were substantially higher and uniformly so regardless of 9/11 exposure dose. Results suggest that traumas that precede or follow mass violence often have as much as if not greater impact on long-term symptom severity than high-dose exposure to the event. Implications regarding the presence of continuing or previous trauma exposure for postdisaster and early intervention policies are discussed.

  10. Building a Student-Centered Culture in Times of Natural Disaster: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlinka, Karen Ramey

    2013-01-01

    Increased rates of student success and persistence have been positively linked to community colleges with student-centered cultures. A student-centered culture is one in which policies and practices promote a consistent message of concern and respect while expecting high standards of academic accomplishment. Developing a student-centered culture…

  11. Surviving Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Karen Greenwood

    2008-01-01

    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  12. Chemical contamination assessment of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary as a result of the attacks on the World Trade Center: analysis of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, K L; Commey, S; Apeti, D A; Lauenstein, G G

    2010-12-01

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in the destruction of buildings, and the release of tons of dust and debris into the environment. As part of the effort to characterize the environmental impact of the WTC collapse, Mussel Watch Program trace element measurements from the Hudson-Raritan Estuary (HRE) were assessed for the years before (1986-2001) and after (2001-2005) the attack. Trace element measurements in the HRE were significantly higher than Mussel Watch measurements taken elsewhere in the Nation. Post-attack trace element measurements were not significantly different from pre-attack measurements. The impacts of WTC collapse may have been obscured by high ambient levels of trace elements in the HRE.

  13. The first 24 hours of the World Trade Center attacks of 2001--the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention emergency phase response.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel A; Burger, Ronald; Keim, Mark

    2007-01-01

    On 11 September 2001, terrorists hijacked two passenger planes and crashed them into the two towers of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. These synchronized attacks were the largest act of terrorism ever committed on US soil. The impacts, fires, and subsequent collapse of the towers killed and injured thousands of people. Within minutes after the first plane crashed into the WTC, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, initiated one of the largest public health responses in its history. Staff of the CDC provided technical assistance on several key public health issues. During the acute phase of the event, CDC personnel assisted with: (1) assessing hospital capacity; (2) establishing injury and disease surveillance activities; (3) deploying emergency coordinators/liaisons to facilitate inter-agency coordination with the affected jurisdictions; and (4) arranging rapid delivery of emergency medical supplies, therapeutics, and personal protective equipment. This incident highlighted the need for adequate planning for all potential hazards and the importance of interagency and interdepartmental coordination in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies.

  14. Development of a quality, high throughput DNA analysis procedure for skeletal samples to assist with the identification of victims from the World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    Holland, Mitchell M; Cave, Christopher A; Holland, Charity A; Bille, Todd W

    2003-06-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers on September 11, 2001, represented the single largest terrorist-related mass fatality incident in the history of the United States. More than 2,700 individuals of varied racial and ethnic background lost their lives that day. Through the efforts of thousands of citizens, including recovery workers, medical examiners, and forensic scientists, the identification of approximately 1,500 victims had been accomplished through June 2003 (the majority of these identifications were made within the first 8-12 months). The principal role of The Bode Technology Group (Bode) in this process was to develop a quality, high throughput DNA extraction and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis procedure for skeletal elements, and to provide STR profiles to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) in New York City to be used for identification of the victims. A high throughput process was developed to include electronic accessioning of samples, so that the numbering system of the OCME was maintained; rapid preparation and sampling of skeletal fragments to allow for the processing of more than 250 fragments per day; use of a 96-well format for sample extraction, DNA quantification, and STR analysis; and use of the Applied Biosystems 3100 and 3700 instrumentation to develop STR profiles. Given the highly degraded nature of the skeletal remains received by Bode, an advanced DNA extraction procedure was developed to increase the quantity of DNA recovery and reduce the co-purification of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification inhibitors. In addition, two new STR multiplexes were developed specifically for this project, which reduced the amplicon size of the STR loci, and therefore, enhanced the ability to obtain results from the most challenged of samples. In all, the procedures developed allowed for the analysis of more than 1,000 skeletal samples each week. Approximately 13,000 skeletal fragments were analyzed at least once

  15. The Cooperation Between Poison Control Center and Organized Industrial District for Chemical Disaster Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    prevention efforts. A hotline line between center and district was established, while Tomes Plus and Intox Programmes adding Micromedex Computer Programme...to be 10342. Questionnaires revealed 47 different chemical agents. Two Safety discettes for each plant were prepared with reference to Micromedex Tomes

  16. AIR LEVELS OF CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FOLLOWING THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catastrophic collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. The subsequent cleanup used diesel equipment that further polluted the air un...

  17. Mass casualty following unprecedented tornadic events in the Southeast: natural disaster outcomes at a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Elizabeth H; Creel, Nathan; Lepard, Jacob; Maxwell, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    On April 27, 2011, an EF4 (enhanced Fujita scale) tornado struck a 48-mile path across northwest Georgia and southeast Tennessee. Traumatic injuries sustained during this tornado and others in one of the largest tornado outbreaks in history presented to the regional Level I trauma center, Erlanger Health System, in Chattanooga, TN. Patients were triaged per mass casualty protocols through an incident command center and triage officer. Medical staffing was increased to anticipate a large patient load. Records of patients admitted as a result of tornado-related injury were retrospectively reviewed and characterized by the injury patterns, demographics, procedures performed, length of stay, and complications. One hundred four adult patients were treated in the emergency department; of these, 28 (27%) patients required admission to the trauma service. Of those admitted, 16 (57%) were male with an age range of 21 to 87 years old and an average length of stay of 10.9 ± 11.8 days. Eleven (39%) patients required intensive care unit admissions. The most common injuries seen were those of soft tissue, bony fractures, and the chest. Interventions included tube thoracostomies, exploratory laparotomies, orthopedic fixations, soft tissue reconstructions, and craniotomy. All 28 patients admitted survived to discharge. Nineteen (68%) patients were discharged home, six (21%) went to a rehabilitation hospital, and three (11%) were transferred to skilled nursing facilities. Emergency preparedness and organization are key elements in effectively treating victims of natural disasters. Those victims who survive the initial tornadic event and present to a Level I trauma center have low mortality. Like in our experience, triage protocols need to be implemented to quickly and effectively manage mass injuries.

  18. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts.

  19. World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  20. DNA preservation in skeletal elements from the World Trade Center disaster: recommendations for mass fatality management.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Bartelink, Eric J; Mar-Cash, Elaine

    2009-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) victim identification effort highlights taphonomic influences on the degradation of DNA from victims of mass fatality incidents. This study uses a subset of the WTC-Human Remains Database to evaluate differential preservation of DNA by skeletal element. Recovery location, sex, and victim type (civilian, firefighter, or plane passenger) do not appear to influence DNA preservation. Results indicate that more intact elements, as well as elements encased in soft tissue, produced slightly higher identification rates than more fragmented remains. DNA identification rates by element type conform to previous findings, with higher rates generally found in denser, weight-bearing bones. However, smaller bones including patellae, metatarsals, and foot phalanges yielded rates comparable to both femora and tibiae. These elements can be easily sampled with a disposable scalpel, and thus reduce potential DNA contamination. These findings have implications for DNA sampling guidelines in future mass fatality incidents.

  1. Disaster Response on September 11, 2001 Through the Lens of Statistical Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schweinberger, Michael; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Vu, Duy Quang

    2014-01-01

    The rescue and relief operations triggered by the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City demanded collaboration among hundreds of organisations. To shed light on the response to the September 11, 2001 attacks and help to plan and prepare the response to future disasters, we study the inter-organisational network that emerged in response to the attacks. Studying the inter-organisational network can help to shed light on (1) whether some organisations dominated the inter-organisational network and facilitated communication and coordination of the disaster response; (2) whether the dominating organisations were supposed to coordinate disaster response or emerged as coordinators in the wake of the disaster; and (3) the degree of network redundancy and sensitivity of the inter-organisational network to disturbances following the initial disaster. We introduce a Bayesian framework which can answer the substantive questions of interest while being as simple and parsimonious as possible. The framework allows organisations to have varying propensities to collaborate, while taking covariates into account, and allows to assess whether the inter-organisational network had network redundancy—in the form of transitivity—by using a test which may be regarded as a Bayesian score test. We discuss implications in terms of disaster management. PMID:24707073

  2. Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, Morton; Cohen, Mitchell D.; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings’ huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80–90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from ~2.5 μm upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air currents. High concentrations of coarse and supercoarse WTC Dust were inhaled and deposited in the conductive airways in the head and lungs, and subsequently swallowed, causing both physical and chemical irritation to the respiratory and gastroesophageal epithelia. There were both acute and chronic adverse health effects in rescue/recovery workers; cleanup workers; residents; and office workers, especially in those lacking effective personal respiratory protective equipment. The numerous health effects in these people were not those associated with the monitored PM2.5 toxicants, which were present at low concentrations, that is, asbestos fibers, transition and heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and dioxins. Attention was never directed at the very high concentrations of the larger-sized and highly alkaline WTC Dust particles that, in retrospect, contained the more likely causal toxicants. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the air quality monitoring and guidance on exposure prevention programs on low-concentration components was never revised. Public agencies need to be better prepared to provide reliable guidance to the public on more appropriate means of exposure assessment, risk assessment, and preventive measures. PMID:26058443

  3. Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster's inadequate risk management.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Morton; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2015-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings' huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80-90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from ∼2.5 μm upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air currents. High concentrations of coarse and supercoarse WTC Dust were inhaled and deposited in the conductive airways in the head and lungs, and subsequently swallowed, causing both physical and chemical irritation to the respiratory and gastroesophageal epithelia. There were both acute and chronic adverse health effects in rescue/recovery workers; cleanup workers; residents; and office workers, especially in those lacking effective personal respiratory protective equipment. The numerous health effects in these people were not those associated with the monitored PM2.5 toxicants, which were present at low concentrations, that is, asbestos fibers, transition and heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and dioxins. Attention was never directed at the very high concentrations of the larger-sized and highly alkaline WTC Dust particles that, in retrospect, contained the more likely causal toxicants. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the air quality monitoring and guidance on exposure prevention programs on low-concentration components was never revised. Public agencies need to be better prepared to provide reliable guidance to the public on more appropriate means of exposure assessment, risk assessment, and preventive measures.

  4. PRIORITIZATION OF PEDIATRIC CBRNE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS EDUCATION AND TRAINING NEEDS

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, David; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Needle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Children are the members of our population who are most vulnerable to the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE) attack. It has been over 12 years since 9/11 and the majority of clinicians who would be providing care to children in the event of another attack still lack the requisite disaster preparedness training. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the recent developments that will enable the affordable creation of key CBRNE educational and just in time material. In 2011, the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) convened a pediatric disaster preparedness conference. Much of the initial groundwork for development of a pediatric disaster preparedness curriculum, including the identification of target audiences and requisite role specific CBRNE curriculum content, was the product of this conference. Much of the needed pediatric education and training content for the diagnosis and treatment of the injurious effects of CBRNE has recently been both developed and well vetted. Bringing together these efforts in an educational program will result in a workforce that is better trained and prepared to address the needs of children impacted by these types of disasters. PMID:25587241

  5. PRIORITIZATION OF PEDIATRIC CBRNE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS EDUCATION AND TRAINING NEEDS.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Needle, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Children are the members of our population who are most vulnerable to the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE) attack. It has been over 12 years since 9/11 and the majority of clinicians who would be providing care to children in the event of another attack still lack the requisite disaster preparedness training. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the recent developments that will enable the affordable creation of key CBRNE educational and just in time material. In 2011, the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) convened a pediatric disaster preparedness conference. Much of the initial groundwork for development of a pediatric disaster preparedness curriculum, including the identification of target audiences and requisite role specific CBRNE curriculum content, was the product of this conference. Much of the needed pediatric education and training content for the diagnosis and treatment of the injurious effects of CBRNE has recently been both developed and well vetted. Bringing together these efforts in an educational program will result in a workforce that is better trained and prepared to address the needs of children impacted by these types of disasters.

  6. Trajectories of PTSD Among Lower Manhattan Residents and Area Workers Following the 2001 World Trade Center Disaster, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Welch, Alice E; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Group-based trajectory modeling was used to explore empirical trajectories of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 17,062 adult area residents/workers (nonrescue/recovery workers) enrolled in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry using 3 administrations of the PTSD Checklist (PCL) over 9 years of observation. Six trajectories described PTSD over time: low-stable (48.9%), moderate-stable (28.3%), moderate-increasing (8.2%), high-stable (6.0%), high-decreasing (6.6 %), and very high-stable (2.0%). To examine factors associated with improving or worsening PTSD symptoms, groups with similar intercepts, but different trajectories were compared using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. The adjusted odds of being in the moderate-increasing relative to the moderate-stable group were significantly greater among enrollees reporting low social integration (OR = 2.18), WTC exposures (range = 1.34 to 1.53), job loss related to the September 11, 2001 disaster (OR = 1.41), or unmet mental health need/treatment (OR = 4.37). The odds of being in the high-stable relative to the high-decreasing group were significantly greater among enrollees reporting low social integration (OR = 2.23), WTC exposures (range = 1.39 to 1.45), or unmet mental health need/treatment (OR = 3.42). The influence of severe exposures, scarce personal/financial resources, and treatment barriers on PTSD trajectories suggest a need for early and ongoing PTSD screening postdisaster.

  7. Estimating the time interval between exposure to the World Trade Center disaster and incident diagnoses of obstructive airway disease.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Michelle S; Webber, Mayris P; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Weakley, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoxue; Ye, Fen; Cohen, Hillel W; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kelly, Kerry J; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D; Prezant, David J; Hall, Charles B

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory disorders are associated with occupational and environmental exposures. The latency period between exposure and disease onset remains uncertain. The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster presents a unique opportunity to describe the latency period for obstructive airway disease (OAD) diagnoses. This prospective cohort study of New York City firefighters compared the timing and incidence of physician-diagnosed OAD relative to WTC exposure. Exposure was categorized by WTC arrival time as high (on the morning of September 11, 2001), moderate (after noon on September 11, 2001, or on September 12, 2001), or low (during September 13-24, 2001). We modeled relative rates and 95% confidence intervals of OAD incidence by exposure over the first 5 years after September 11, 2001, estimating the times of change in the relative rate with change point models. We observed a change point at 15 months after September 11, 2001. Before 15 months, the relative rate for the high- versus low-exposure group was 3.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.51, 6.26) and thereafter, it was 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.46). Incident OAD was associated with WTC exposure for at least 5 years after September 11, 2001. There were higher rates of new-onset OAD among the high-exposure group during the first 15 months and, to a lesser extent, throughout follow-up. This difference in relative rate by exposure occurred despite full and free access to health care for all WTC-exposed firefighters, demonstrating the persistence of WTC-associated OAD risk.

  8. Estimating the Time Interval Between Exposure to the World Trade Center Disaster and Incident Diagnoses of Obstructive Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Michelle S.; Webber, Mayris P.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Weakley, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoxue; Ye, Fen; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D.; Prezant, David J.; Hall, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory disorders are associated with occupational and environmental exposures. The latency period between exposure and disease onset remains uncertain. The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster presents a unique opportunity to describe the latency period for obstructive airway disease (OAD) diagnoses. This prospective cohort study of New York City firefighters compared the timing and incidence of physician-diagnosed OAD relative to WTC exposure. Exposure was categorized by WTC arrival time as high (on the morning of September 11, 2001), moderate (after noon on September 11, 2001, or on September 12, 2001), or low (during September 13–24, 2001). We modeled relative rates and 95% confidence intervals of OAD incidence by exposure over the first 5 years after September 11, 2001, estimating the times of change in the relative rate with change point models. We observed a change point at 15 months after September 11, 2001. Before 15 months, the relative rate for the high- versus low-exposure group was 3.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.51, 6.26) and thereafter, it was 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.46). Incident OAD was associated with WTC exposure for at least 5 years after September 11, 2001. There were higher rates of new-onset OAD among the high-exposure group during the first 15 months and, to a lesser extent, throughout follow-up. This difference in relative rate by exposure occurred despite full and free access to health care for all WTC-exposed firefighters, demonstrating the persistence of WTC-associated OAD risk. PMID:24980522

  9. The epidemiology of disasters.

    PubMed

    Lechat, M F

    1976-06-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based.

  10. The epidemiology of disasters.

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based. PMID:959212

  11. Epidemiologic research on man-made disasters: strategies and implications of cohort definition for World Trade Center worker and volunteer surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Oxman, Rachael T; Metzger, Kristina B; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Stein, Diane; Moline, Jacqueline M; Herbert, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Studies of long-term health consequences of disasters face unique methodologic challenges. The authors focused on studies of the health of cleanup and recovery workers, who are often poorly enumerated at the outset and difficult to follow over time. Comparison of the experience at the World Trade Center disaster with 4 past incidents of chemical and radiation releases at Seveso, Italy; Bhopal, India; Chernobyl, Ukraine; and Three Mile Island, USA, provided useful contrasts. Each event had methodologic advantages and disadvantages that depended on the nature of the disaster and the availability of records on area residents, and the emergency-response and cleanup protocol. The World Trade Center Worker Monitoring Program has well-defined eligibility criteria but lacks information on the universe of eligible workers to characterize response proportions or the potential for distortion of reported health effects. Nonparticipation may result from lack of interest, lack of awareness of the program, availability of another source of medical care, medical conditions precluding participation, inability to take time off from work, moving out of the area, death, or shift from initially ineligible to eligible status. Some of these considerations suggest selective participation by the sickest individuals, whereas others favor participation by the healthiest. The greatest concern with the validity of inferences regarding elevated health risks relative to external populations is the potential for selective enrollment among those who are affected. If there were a large pool of nonparticipating workers and those who suffered ill health were most motivated to enroll, the rates of disease among participants would be substantially higher than among all those eligible for the program. Future disaster follow-up studies would benefit substantially by having access to accurate estimates of the number of workers and information on the individuals who contributed to the cleanup and recovery

  12. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST - elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD - heart attack; Coronary artery disease - heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  13. The Role of Epidemiology in Disaster Response Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Lorna E; Assari, Shervin; Deppen, Stephen; Glied, Sherry; Lurie, Nicole; Mauer, Matthew P; Mays, Vickie M.; Trapido, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Disasters expose the general population and responders to a range of potential contaminants and stressors which may harm physical and mental health. This article addresses the role of epidemiology in informing policies after a disaster to mitigate ongoing exposures, provide care and compensation, and improve preparedness for future disasters. Methods The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster response is used as a case study. We examine how epidemiologic evidence was used to shape post-disaster policy and identify important gaps in early research. Results In the wake of WTC attacks, epidemiologic research played a key role in identifying and characterizing affected populations, assessing environmental exposures, quantifying physical and mental health impacts, and producing evidence to ascribe causation. However, most studies suffered from methodological challenges, including delays, selection biases, poor exposure measurement, and nonstandardized outcomes. Gaps included measuring unmet health needs and financing coverage, as well as coordination across longitudinal cohorts of studies for rare conditions with long latency, such as cancer. Conclusions Epidemiologists can increase their impact on evidence-based policymaking by ensuring core mechanisms are in place prior to a disaster to mount monitoring of responders and other affected populations, improve early exposure assessment efforts, identify critical gaps in scientific knowledge, and coordinate communication of scientific findings to policymakers and the public. PMID:25150446

  14. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A.; Gordon, Mollie R.; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company’s workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees’ emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals. PMID:23066661

  15. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A; Gordon, Mollie R; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company's workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees' emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals.

  16. An academic medical center's response to widespread computer failure.

    PubMed

    Genes, Nicholas; Chary, Michael; Chason, Kevin W

    2013-01-01

    As hospitals incorporate information technology (IT), their operations become increasingly vulnerable to technological breakdowns and attacks. Proper emergency management and business continuity planning require an approach to identify, mitigate, and work through IT downtime. Hospitals can prepare for these disasters by reviewing case studies. This case study details the disruption of computer operations at Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC), an urban academic teaching hospital. The events, and MSMC's response, are narrated and the impact on hospital operations is analyzed. MSMC's disaster management strategy prevented computer failure from compromising patient care, although walkouts and time-to-disposition in the emergency department (ED) notably increased. This incident highlights the importance of disaster preparedness and mitigation. It also demonstrates the value of using operational data to evaluate hospital responses to disasters. Quantifying normal hospital functions, just as with a patient's vital signs, may help quantitatively evaluate and improve disaster management and business continuity planning.

  17. A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs.

  18. A Person-Centered Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: Predictors of Latent Class Membership

    PubMed Central

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Coffey, Scott F.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  19. Meaning reconstruction in the face of terror: An examination of recovery and posttraumatic growth among victims of the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n=118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth.

  20. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  1. Preparation for disaster.

    PubMed

    CHESBRO, W

    1958-08-01

    Standardization of county medical society plans for dealing with casualties in disasters would greatly facilitate integration with the state Civil Defense organization. Without such plans there can be no hope of coping with the great number of casualties that would come should this area be attacked. The plan of the Alameda-Contra Costa County Medical Association herein described, has been tested in actual emergency and has been found effective.

  2. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center.

  3. Natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J M

    1980-09-01

    This presentation covers the various types of natural disasters which are faced by investigators throughout the world. Each geophysical substance is discussed, including earth, air and water, and secondary effects including fire. Additionally, four myths associated with disasters are reviewed.

  4. Unmet mental health care need 10–11 years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks: 2011–2012 results from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little current information about the unmet mental health care need (UMHCN) and reasons for it among those exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of UMHCN among symptomatic individuals enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) in 2011–2012, and to analyze the relationship between UMHCN due to attitudinal, cost, and access factors and mental health symptom severity, mental health care utilization, health insurance availability, and social support. Methods The WTCHR is a prospective cohort study of individuals with reported exposure to the 2001 WTC attacks. This study used data from 9,803 adults who completed the 2003–2004 (Wave 1) and 2011–2012 (Wave 3) surveys and had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression in 2011–2012. We estimated logistic regression models relating perceived attitudinal, cost and access barriers to symptom severity, health care utilization, a lack of health insurance, and social support after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Slightly more than one-third (34.2%) of study participants reported an UMHCN. Symptom severity was a strong predictor of UMHCN due to attitudinal and perceived cost and access reasons. Attitudinal UMHCN was common among those not using mental health services, particularly those with relatively severe mental health symptoms. Cost-related UMHCN was significantly associated with a lack of health insurance but not service usage. Access-related barriers were significantly more common among those who did not use any mental health services. A higher level of social support served as an important buffer against cost and access UMHCN. Conclusions A significant proportion of individuals exposed to the WTC attacks with depression or PTSD 10 years later reported an UMHCN, and individuals with more severe and disabling conditions, those who lacked health insurance, and those with low levels of social

  5. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  6. Dissociation versus posttraumatic stress: cortisol and physiological correlates in adults highly exposed to the World Trade Center attack on 9/11.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Daphne; Yehuda, Rachel; Knutelska, Margaret; Schmeidler, James

    2008-12-15

    Nine months on average after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack, 21 highly exposed adults and 10 healthy controls without major exposure did not differ in cortisol and physiologic measures. Dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms were quantified in the exposed group. Dissociation was associated with greater peritraumatic dissociation and, marginally, childhood trauma, lower plasma cortisol levels at 08.00h, and blunted heart rate reactivity to psychosocial stress. Posttraumatic stress was associated with exposure, peritraumatic distress, and early posttraumatic stress, and marginally associated with peritraumatic dissociation; it was not associated with cortisol or physiologic measures. Urinary cortisol differed significantly in its relationship to dissociation versus posttraumatic stress. This small study emphasizes the importance of dissecting the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress versus dissociative traumatic responses.

  7. Nationwide program of education for undergraduates in the field of disaster medicine: development of a core curriculum centered on blended learning and simulation tools.

    PubMed

    Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of "Disaster Health" according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants' knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners

  8. Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed. PMID:26909207

  9. Environmental Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy of the World Trade Center Area After the September 11, 2001 Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Hoefen, T.; Livo, E.; Sutley, S.; Meeker, G.; Plumlee, G.; Brownfield, I.; Hageman, P.; Lamothe, P.; Gent, C.; Morath, L.; Taggart, J.; Theodorakos, T.; Adams, M.; Green, R.; Pavri, B.; Sarture, C.; Vance, S.; Boardman, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), a hyperspectral remote sensing instrument, was flown by JPL/NASA over the World Trade Center (WTC) area on September 16, 18, 22, and 23, 2001. A 2-person USGS crew collected samples of dusts and airfall debris from more than 35 localities within a 1-km radius of the World trade Center site on the evenings of September 17 and 18, 2001. The AVIRIS data, field spectrometer data collected in areas away from the WTC, and information derived from field samples in and around the WTC were used to calibrate, provide ground truth, and map the debris and its composition in the lower Manhattan area with 2x4-meter sampling. Laboratory analyses and the AVIRIS mapping results indicate the dusts are variable in composition, both on a fine scale within individual samples and on a coarser spatial scale based on direction and distance from the WTC. Replicate mineralogical and chemical analyses of material from the same sample reveal variability that presumably is due to the heterogeneous mixture of different materials comprising the dusts. The spatial variability is observed at large scales of tens of meters to centimeter and smaller scales. AVIRIS mapping suggests that materials with higher iron content settled to the south-southeast of the building 2 collapse center. Chrysotile may occur primarily (but not exclusively) in a discontinuous pattern radially in west, north, and easterly directions, perhaps at distances greater than 3/4 kilometer from ground zero. Although only trace levels of chrysotile asbestos have been detected in the dust and airfall samples studied to date, the presence of up to 20 volume % chrysotile asbestos in material coating steel beams in the WTC debris, and the potential areas indicated in the AVIRIS mineral maps, indicate that asbestos can be found in localized concentrations.

  10. The role of the plastic surgeon in disaster relief.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Hema J; Pepe, Paul E; Rohrich, Rod J

    2009-09-01

    Awareness of large-scale disasters among members of the medical community and the public at large has been heightened by recent events such as the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing incident, the 2001 World Trade Center attack, and the 2005 London Underground bombings. Experience with these events has highlighted the critical role of surgical specialists, including plastic surgeons. As part of their residency, plastic surgeons are trained in acute trauma management. In addition, they also are required to demonstrate expertise in the assessment and treatment of soft-tissue injuries, upper extremity trauma, facial fractures, and both operative and nonoperative burn management. Accordingly, the plastic surgeon is among the most qualified of physicians to provide specialized injury care, especially in the disaster medicine setting. In turn, training programs should include key elements of incident command and catastrophe relief.

  11. Planning for biological disasters. Occupational health nurses as "first responders".

    PubMed

    Salazar, Mary K; Kelman, Betty

    2002-04-01

    1. As a result of recent terrorist events, there is an immediate need for occupational nurses to review their disaster plans and to develop strategies to cope with bioterrorism in their workplaces. 2. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified three major categories of biological weapons. Category A, which is the highest priority category (and the focus of this article), includes smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, filoviruses, and adenoviruses. Dealing with bioterrorism requires occupational health nurses to be familiar with these organisms, including their pathophysiology and methods of prevention, detection, and treatment. 3. Five principles can be used to guide responses to a biological attack. Incorporation of these principles into disaster planning will increase the effectiveness of responses to bioterrorism, if and when it occurs. Developing a plan of action before an event occurs will greatly enhance the likelihood that the repercussions of such an event are minimized.

  12. Co-occurring Lower Respiratory Symptoms and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 5 to 6 Years After the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Hemanth P.; Ekenga, Christine C.; Cone, James E.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Farfel, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the epidemiology of co-occurring lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 5 to 6 years after exposure to the 9/11 disaster. Methods. We analyzed residents, office workers, and passersby (n = 16 363) in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined patterns of reported respiratory symptoms, treatment sought for symptoms, diagnosed respiratory conditions, mental health comorbidities, quality of life, and unmet health care needs in relation to comorbidity. Results. Among individuals with either LRS or PTSD, 24.6% had both conditions. The odds of comorbidity was significantly higher among those with more severe 9/11 exposures. Independent of 9/11 exposures, participants with LRS had 4 times the odds of those without it of meeting criteria for PTSD, and those with PTSD had 4 times the odds of those without it of meeting criteria for LRS. Participants with comorbidity had worse quality of life and more unmet mental health care needs than did all other outcome groups. Conclusions. Respiratory and mental illness are closely linked in individuals exposed to 9/11 and should be considered jointly in public health outreach and treatment programs. PMID:22897552

  13. Environmental mapping of the World Trade Center area with imaging spectroscopy after the September 11, 2001 attack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Green, Robert O.; Livo, Keith E.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Pavri, Betina; Sarture, Charles M.; Boardman, Joe; Brownfield, Isabelle; Morath, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) was flown over the World Trade Center area on September 16, 18, 22, and 23, 2001. The data were used to map the WTC debris plume and its contents, including the spectral signatures of asbestiform minerals. Samples were collected and used as ground truth for the AVARIS mapping. A number of thermal hot spots were observed with temperatures greater than 700 °C. The extent and temperatures of the fires were mapped as a function of time. By September 23, most of the fires observed by AVIRIS had been eliminated or reduced in intensity. The mineral absorption features mapped by AVARIS only indicated the presence of serpentine mineralogy and not if the serpentine has asbestiform.

  14. Initial estimates of the temperature and fractional areas of fires at the World Trade Center Disaster from AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Boardman, J.; Pavri, B.; Sarture, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the measurements, algorithms, analyses, and results of the fire temperature and fractional area determinations with AVIRIS calibrated spectra at the World Trade Center site in September 2001.

  15. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  16. Setting Up an Efficient Therapeutic Hypothermia Team in Conscious ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A UK Heart Attack Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A; Tang, Kare H; Davies, John R; Keeble, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial.

  17. Impact of September 11 attacks on workers in the vicinity of the World Trade Center--New York City.

    PubMed

    2002-09-11

    In January 2002, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health received requests for Health Hazard Evaluations from labor unions representing workers employed in buildings in the vicinity of the World Trade Center (WTC). Workers reported persistent physical and mental health symptoms that they associated with exposures from the WTC collapse and ensuing fires. To address these concerns, CDC conducted surveys of workers at four workplaces in New York City (NYC), a high school (high school A) and college (college A) near the WTC site, and a high school (comparison high school B) and college (comparison college B) > or = 5 miles from the WTC site to determine rates of physical and mental health symptoms. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the employee surveys, which indicated that workers employed near the WTC site had significantly higher rates of physical and mental health symptoms than workers employed > or = 5 miles from the site. Intervention programs should be tailored to address the needs of these workers, and the effectiveness of these programs should be evaluated. Further assessment is warranted to describe the nature and extent of illness in specific working groups and individual medical follow-up in those with persistent symptoms.

  18. Setting Up an Efficient Therapeutic Hypothermia Team in Conscious ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A UK Heart Attack Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A.; Tang, Kare H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial. PMID:26154447

  19. Treatise of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust generated during the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the WTC towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Steven R.

    The initial devastation created by the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers resulting from the September 11, 2001 bombings was followed by the dissemination of newly formed toxic dust throughout Lower Manhattan. The ensuing fires that burned within the six-story high debris pile produced a continuous stream of hazardous combustion products. Emphasis on this research was placed on the characterization, the extent of contamination, remediation procedures, and the potential for recontamination by dusts produced by the events of 9/11/2001. A detailed characterization of the WTC Dust was performed using a wide variety of methods. Through the analyses of known WTC Dust, WTC Dust Markers were identified using the composition and morphology of the particles present. Buildings throughout Lower Manhattan were tested for WTC Dust Markers and the radial extent of the WTC Dust was identified. Case studies of buildings located in close proximity to the WTC Site were undertaken to determine the pervasiveness of the WTC Dust into various building systems and components. Testing was conducted on all major building systems/spaces including: occupied spaces, perimeter induction units, structural steel, interior wall cavities, curtain walls, IT raceways, HVAC, and MEP systems. The analytical results indicated that all systems contained WTC Dust and that reservoirs were present. The feasibility of remediation of the WTC Dust from surfaces was evaluated in order to determine if it is possible for the dusts and contaminants to be eradicated. Utilizing standard remediation methods specific to surface type and contaminate type, surfaces throughout the studied buildings were cleaned. Results of post-remediation analyses indicated that remediation efforts in a building contaminated with WTC Dust were ineffective in returning the building to its state prior to the WTC Event. Recontamination studies were also performed in buildings that had been previously cleaned to determine if

  20. Natural Disaster & Crisis Management in School Districts and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This document provides school districts and community colleges in Florida with guidance on disaster preparedness planning and management for all types of disasters. Procedures include those for insurance coverage, emergency shelters, command centers and disaster team organization, emergency communications, security, preparation prior to disaster,…

  1. ASSESSING CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) LEVELS IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE NEW YORK WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted smoke and soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. Outdoor pollutant levels in lower Manhattan returned to urban...

  2. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Benjamin H

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  3. The BEYOND center of excellence for the effective exploitation of satellite time series towards natural disasters monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Amiridis, Vassilis; Balasis, George; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Herekakis, Themistocles; Christia, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    BEYOND project (2013-2016, 2.3Meuro) funded under the FP7-REGPOT scheme is an initiative which aims to build a Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation (EO) based monitoring of natural disasters in south-eastern Europe (http://beyond-eocenter.eu/), established at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). The project focuses on capacity building on top of the existing infrastructure, aiming at unlocking the institute's potential through the systematic interaction with high-profile partners across Europe, and at consolidating state-of-the-art equipment and technological know-how that will allow sustainable cutting-edge interdisciplinary research to take place with an impact on the regional and European socioeconomic welfare. The vision is to set up innovative integrated observational solutions to allow a multitude of space borne and ground-based monitoring networks to operate in a complementary and cooperative manner, create archives and databases of long series of observations and higher level products, and make these available for exploitation with the involvement of stakeholders. In BEYOND critical infrastructural components are being procured for fostering access, use, retrieval and analysis of long EO data series and products. In this framework NOA has initiated activities for the development, installation and operation of important acquisition facilities and hardware modules, including space based observational infrastructures as the X-/L-band acquisition station for receiving EOS Aqua/Terra, NPP, JPSS, NOAA, Metop, Feng Yun data in real time, the setting up of an ESA's Mirror Site of Sentinel missions to be operable from 2014 onwards, an advanced Raman Lidar portable station, a spectrometer facility, several ground magnetometer stations. All these are expected to work in synergy with the existing capacity resources and observational networks including the MSG/SEVIRI acquisition station, nationwide seismographic, GPS, meteo and atmospheric networks. The

  4. Wasted Resources: Volunteers and Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    influx of volunteers by creating these centers. Two such centers exist in Frederick County , Maryland, and Fairfax, Virginia. According to the Volunteer...and assigned to emergency/disaster related volunteer duties requested by agencies in Frederick County .”10 The organizers of Frederick County have...mobilization center or volunteer reception center. Frederick County in Maryland and Fairfax County in Virginia have established two such centers and have

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ATOMIC DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edward C.

    1954-01-01

    Increasing attention to the psychological aspects of atomic disaster will help improve the ability of the citizens of this country to withstand attack and survive as a free people. Since an enemy may be expected to exploit any internal weaknesses it can find, preparation must be made against the onslaught. The ability to deal effectively with any situation, even the most awesome, depends on knowledge of what to expect, and there is no reason to believe that facts about atomic disaster are an exception to this time proven truth. The psychological aspects need to be considered from two points of view, namely, the effect on masses of people and on individuals. PMID:13182616

  6. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments’ Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs. PMID:26823922

  7. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments' Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs.

  8. Disastrous assumptions about community disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Dynes, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    Planning for local community disasters is compounded with erroneous assumptions. Six problematic models are identified: agent facts, big accident, end of the world, media, command and control, administrative. Problematic assumptions in each of them are identified. A more adequate model centered on problem solving is identified. That there is a discrepancy between disaster planning efforts and the actual response experience seems rather universal. That discrepancy is symbolized by the graffiti which predictably surfaces on many walls in post disaster locations -- ``First the earthquake, then the disaster.`` That contradiction is seldom reduced as a result of post disaster critiques, since the most usual conclusion is that the plan was adequate but the ``people`` did not follow it. Another explanation will be provided here. A more plausible explanation for failure is that most planning efforts adopt a number of erroneous assumptions which affect the outcome. Those assumptions are infrequently changed or modified by experience.

  9. Chemical contamination of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary as a result of the attack on the World Trade Center: analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in mussels and sediment.

    PubMed

    Lauenstein, G G; Kimbrough, K L

    2007-03-01

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in a massive plume of dust and smoke that blanketed lower Manhattan and part of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary (HRE). The NOAA National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program has long-term monitoring sites in the area and thus had an opportunity to assess the effect of the WTC attack on PAH and PCB contamination of the surrounding estuary. Seven additional sites were added in the Upper HRE to attain higher sampling resolution for comparison with regularly sampled Mussel Watch Project HRE sites. Elevated background levels of PCBs and PAHs in mussel tissue and sediments were high enough before the WTC attack that concentrations were not measurably changed by WTC derived contaminant input.

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Hospitalizations in Relation to Exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center Disaster and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Morabia, Alfredo; Miller‐Archie, Sara A.; Alper, Howard; Laskaris, Zoey; Brackbill, Robert M.; Cone, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Background A cohort study found that 9/11‐related environmental exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder increased self‐reported cardiovascular disease risk. We attempted to replicate these findings using objectively defined cardiovascular disease hospitalizations in the same cohort. Methods and Results Data for adult World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees residing in New York State on enrollment and no cardiovascular disease history (n=46 346) were linked to a New York State hospital discharge–reporting system. Follow‐up began at Registry enrollment (2003–2004) and ended at the first cerebrovascular or heart disease (HD) hospitalization, death, or December 31, 2010, whichever was earliest. We used proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for HD (n=1151) and cerebrovascular disease (n=284) hospitalization during 302 742 person‐years of observation (mean follow‐up, 6.5 years per person), accounting for other factors including age, race/ethnicity, smoking, and diabetes. An elevated risk of HD hospitalization was observed among women (AHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.71) but not men (AHR 1.16, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.40) with posttraumatic stress disorder at enrollment. A high overall level of World Trade Center rescue and recovery–related exposure was associated with an elevated HD hospitalization risk in men (AHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.13; P for trend=0.05), but findings in women were inconclusive (AHR 3.29, 95% CI 0.85 to 12.69; P for trend=0.09). Similar associations were observed specifically with coronary artery disease hospitalization. Posttraumatic stress disorder increased the cerebrovascular disease hospitalization risk in men but not in women. Conclusions 9/11‐related exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder appeared to increase the risk of subsequent hospitalization for HD and cerebrovascular disease. This is consistent with findings based on self‐reported outcomes. PMID:24157650

  11. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  12. Occupational exposures to air contaminants at the World Trade Center disaster site--New York, September-October, 2001.

    PubMed

    2002-05-31

    Amid concerns about the fires and suspected presence of toxic materials in the rubble pile following the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) buildings on September 11, 2001, the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH) asked CDC for assistance in evaluating occupational exposures at the site. CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected general area (GA) and personal breathing zone (PBZ) air samples for numerous potential air contaminants. This report summarizes the results of the assessment, which indicate that most exposures, including asbestos, did not exceed NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs) or Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PELs). One torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium; another worker was overexposed to carbon monoxide (CO) while cutting metal beams with an oxyacetylene torch or a gasoline-powered saw, and two more were possibly overexposed to CO. NIOSH recommended that workers ensure adequate on-site ventilation when using gas-powered equipment and use rechargeable, battery-powered equipment when possible.

  13. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  14. [Natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Smolka, A

    1988-07-01

    The attempt is made to illustrate the role played by natural disasters in the history of the earth and mankind by examples of past catastrophes. Subsequently, the earthquake of Tangshan/China in 1976 and the hypothetical scenario of a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake in a modern setting serve as a basis for discussion of the significance of natural disasters in modern times.

  15. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137

  16. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  17. MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1959-01-01

    The Federal Civil Defense Administration has been consolidated under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 with the Office of Defense Mobilization. The new organization, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, should be able to deal more efficiently with the problem of mobilization and management of all resources and production of the nation in time of disaster. As preparation for possible enemy attack, organized plans entailing training, supplies, equipment and communications for use in major peacetime disasters—floods, earthquakes, tornado damage—should be carried forward vigorously. Apathy must be overcome. From the local to the highest level all civil defense and disaster plans must be developed and kept flexible enough to be operable during any kind of emergency. Physicians must learn as much as they can about the mass care of casualties, how to survive under the most trying of circumstances. Drills in dealing with simulated disaster are of utmost importance for finding out ahead of time what must be done and the personnel and supplies needed for doing it. PMID:13651962

  18. Biomonitoring of perfluorochemicals in plasma of New York State personnel responding to the World Trade Center disaster.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Aldous, Kenneth M; Mauer, Matthew P; Eadon, George A

    2008-05-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in the release of several airborne pollutants in and around the site. Perfluorochemicals including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which are used in soil- and stain-resistant coatings on upholstery, carpets, leather, floor waxes, polishes, and in fire-fighting foams were potentially released during the collapse of the WTC. In this pilot study, we analyzed 458 plasma samples of New York State (NYS) employees and National Guard personnel assigned to work in the vicinity of the WTC between September 11 and December 23, 2001, to assess exposure to perfluorochemicals released in dust and smoke. The plasma samples collected from NYS WTC responders were grouped based on estimated levels of exposure to dust and smoke, as follows: more dust exposure (MDE), less dust exposure (LDE), more smoke exposure (MSE), and less smoke exposure (LSE). Furthermore, samples were grouped, based on self-reported symptoms at the time of sampling, as symptomatic and asymptomatic. Eight perfluorochemicals were measured in 458 plasma samples. PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), were consistently detected in almost all samples. PFOA and PFHxS concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher in WTC responders than the concentrations reported for the U.S. general population. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of perfluorochemicals between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Concentrations of PFHxS were significantly (p < or = 0.05) higher in the MDE group than in the LDE group. Concentrations of PFNA were significantly higher in the MSE group than in the LSE group. Significantly higher concentrations of PFOA and PFHxS were found in individuals exposed to smoke than in individuals exposed to dust. A significant negative correlation existed between plasma lipid content and concentrations of certain perfluorochemicals

  19. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  20. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  1. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  2. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  3. Monitoring Disasters by Use of Instrumented Robotic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Dunagan, Steven E.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Buechel, Sally W.; Stoneburner, Jay; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop data-acquisition, data-processing, and data-communication systems for monitoring disasters over large geographic areas by use of uninhabited aerial systems (UAS) robotic aircraft that are typically piloted by remote control. As integral parts of advanced, comprehensive disaster- management programs, these systems would provide (1) real-time data that would be used to coordinate responses to current disasters and (2) recorded data that would be used to model disasters for the purpose of mitigating the effects of future disasters and planning responses to them. The basic idea is to equip UAS with sensors (e.g., conventional video cameras and/or multispectral imaging instruments) and to fly them over disaster areas, where they could transmit data by radio to command centers. Transmission could occur along direct line-of-sight paths and/or along over-the-horizon paths by relay via spacecraft in orbit around the Earth. The initial focus is on demonstrating systems for monitoring wildfires; other disasters to which these developments are expected to be applicable include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, leaks of toxic chemicals, and military attacks. The figure depicts a typical system for monitoring a wildfire. In this case, instruments aboard a UAS would generate calibrated thermal-infrared digital image data of terrain affected by a wildfire. The data would be sent by radio via satellite to a data-archive server and image-processing computers. In the image-processing computers, the data would be rapidly geo-rectified for processing by one or more of a large variety of geographic-information- system (GIS) and/or image-analysis software packages. After processing by this software, the data would be both stored in the archive and distributed through standard Internet connections to a disaster-mitigation center, an investigator, and/or command center at the scene of the fire. Ground assets (in this case

  4. Infectious diseases in disaster areas/catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Benca, J; Kalavsky, E; Miklosko, Jozef; Rudinsky, B; Taziarova, M; McKenzie, F

    2007-06-01

    There is very little data and no prospective research possible in the field of catastrophic medicine (disaster medicine) including infectious diseases. This minireview tries to contribute to the pathogenesis and outcome of infectious diseases in areas after anthropogenic (war, genocide, terrorist attack, industrial disasters) and non anthropogenic (natural) catastrophes (earthquake, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, volcano eruptions). Therefore ISC received a proposal to create a working group on infectious diseases in areas after catastrophes, better to understand epidemiology, prevention and therapy of infectious diseases occurring in conjunction to various anthropogenic and non anthropogenic (natural) disasters.

  5. Reductions in Circulating Endocannabinoid Levels in Individuals with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Following Exposure to the World Trade Center Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Makotkine, Iouri; Golier, Julia A.; Galea, Sandro; McEwen, Bruce S.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been identified as a modulator of adaptation to stress, and is integral to basal and stress-induced glucocorticoid regulation. Furthermore, interactions between eCBs and glucocorticoids have been shown to be necessary for the regulation of emotional memories, suggesting that eCB function may relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To examine this, plasma eCBs were measured in a sample (n=46) drawn from a population-based cohort selected for physical proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) at the time of the 9/11 attacks. Participants received a structured diagnostic interview and were grouped according to whether they met diagnostic criteria for PTSD (no PTSD, n=22; lifetime diagnosis of PTSD = 24). eCB content (2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA)) and cortisol were measured from 8 a.m. plasma samples. Circulating 2-AG content was significantly reduced among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The effect of reduced 2-AG content in PTSD remained significant after controlling for the stress of exposure to the WTC collapse, gender, depression and alcohol abuse. There were no significant group differences for AEA or cortisol levels; however, across the whole sample AEA levels positively correlated with circulating cortisol, and AEA levels exhibited a negative relationship with the degree of intrusive symptoms within the PTSD sample. This report shows that PTSD is associated with a reduction in circulating levels of the eCB 2-AG. Given the role of 2-AG in the regulation of the stress response, these data support the hypothesis that deficient eCB signaling may be a component of the glucocorticoid dysregulation associated with PTSD. The negative association between AEA levels and intrusive symptoms is consistent with animal data indicating that reductions in AEA promote retention of aversive emotional memories. Future work will aim to replicate these findings and extend their

  6. Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid levels in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder following exposure to the World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew N; Bierer, Linda M; Makotkine, Iouri; Golier, Julia A; Galea, Sandro; McEwen, Bruce S; Hillard, Cecilia J; Yehuda, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been identified as a modulator of adaptation to stress, and is integral to basal and stress-induced glucocorticoid regulation. Furthermore, interactions between eCBs and glucocorticoids have been shown to be necessary for the regulation of emotional memories, suggesting that eCB function may relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To examine this, plasma eCBs were measured in a sample (n=46) drawn from a population-based cohort selected for physical proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) at the time of the 9/11 attacks. Participants received a structured diagnostic interview and were grouped according to whether they met diagnostic criteria for PTSD (no PTSD, n=22; lifetime diagnosis of PTSD=24). eCB content (2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA)) and cortisol were measured from 8 a.m. plasma samples. Circulating 2-AG content was significantly reduced among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The effect of reduced 2-AG content in PTSD remained significant after controlling for the stress of exposure to the WTC collapse, gender, depression and alcohol abuse. There were no significant group differences for AEA or cortisol levels; however, across the whole sample AEA levels positively correlated with circulating cortisol, and AEA levels exhibited a negative relationship with the degree of intrusive symptoms within the PTSD sample. This report shows that PTSD is associated with a reduction in circulating levels of the eCB 2-AG. Given the role of 2-AG in the regulation of the stress response, these data support the hypothesis that deficient eCB signaling may be a component of the glucocorticoid dysregulation associated with PTSD. The negative association between AEA levels and intrusive symptoms is consistent with animal data indicating that reductions in AEA promote retention of aversive emotional memories. Future work will aim to replicate these findings and extend their

  7. Planning for burn disasters: lessons learned from one hundred years of history.

    PubMed

    Barillo, David J; Wolf, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11th have prompted interest in developing plans to manage thousands of burn casualties. There is little actual experience in the United States in managing disasters of this magnitude. As an alternative, lessons may be learned from the historical experiences of previous civilian burn or fire disasters occurring in this country. A review of relevant medical, fire service, and popular literature pertaining to civilian burn or fire disasters occurring in the United States between the years 1900 and 2000 was performed. In the 20th century, 73 major U.S. fire or burn disasters have occurred. With each disaster prompting a strengthening of fire regulations or building codes, the number of fatalities per incident has steadily decreased. Detailed examination of several landmark fires demonstrated that casualty counts were great but that most victims had fatal injuries and died on the scene or within 24 hours. A second large cohort comprised the walking wounded, who required minimal outpatient treatment. Patients requiring inpatient burn care comprise a small percentage of the total casualty figure but consume enormous resources during hospitalization. Burn mass casualty incidents are uncommon. The number of casualties per incident decreased over time. In most fire disasters, the majority of victims either rapidly die or have minimal injuries and can be treated and released. As a result, most disasters produce fewer than 25 to 50 patients requiring inpatient burn care. This would be a rational point to begin burn center preparations for mass casualty incidents. A robust outpatient capability to manage the walking wounded is also desirable.

  8. Effects of the World Trade Center Attack on NYC Public School Students: Initial Report to the New York City Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This study investigated the mental health needs of New York City (NYC) public school students 6 months after the September 11, 2001 attack. A needs assessment survey was conducted on 8,266 students in grades 4-12 from 94 schools in the Ground Zero area, other presumed high risk areas, and the remainder of NYC. The survey assessed such factors as…

  9. 76 FR 20433 - California Disaster #CA-00169

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00169 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 04/05/2011. Incident: Center Fire. Incident Period: 03/18/2011 through 03/20/2011. Effective Date:...

  10. 76 FR 35936 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00020

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Doc No: 2011-15127] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12632 and 12633] Alaska Disaster AK-00020 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of... to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  11. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Applied Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the ISEA, predecessor to ISES, held a special roundtable to discuss lessons learned for exposure science during and following environmental disasters, especially the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Since then, environmental agencies have been involved in responses to...

  12. Disaster Research Team Building: A Case Study of a Web-based Disaster Research Training Program.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Randal D; Johnson, L Clark; Maida, Carl A; Houston, J Brian; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2012-11-19

    This case study describes the process and outcomes of the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice Child and Family Disaster Research Training (UWDRT) Program housed at the University of Washington, which used web-based distance learning technology. The purposes of this program were to provide training and to establish a regional cadre of researchers and clinicians; to increase disaster mental health research capacity and collaboration; and to improve the scientific rigor of research investigations of disaster mental health in children and families. Despite a number of obstacles encountered in development and implementation, outcomes of this program included increased team member awareness and knowledge of child and family disaster mental health issues; improved disaster and public health instruction and training independent of the UWDRT program; informed local and state disaster response preparedness and response; and contributions to the child and family disaster mental health research literature.

  13. Disaster Research Team Building: A Case Study of a Web-based Disaster Research Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Randal D.; Johnson, L. Clark; Maida, Carl A.; Houston, J. Brian; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the process and outcomes of the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice Child and Family Disaster Research Training (UWDRT) Program housed at the University of Washington, which used web-based distance learning technology. The purposes of this program were to provide training and to establish a regional cadre of researchers and clinicians; to increase disaster mental health research capacity and collaboration; and to improve the scientific rigor of research investigations of disaster mental health in children and families. Despite a number of obstacles encountered in development and implementation, outcomes of this program included increased team member awareness and knowledge of child and family disaster mental health issues; improved disaster and public health instruction and training independent of the UWDRT program; informed local and state disaster response preparedness and response; and contributions to the child and family disaster mental health research literature. PMID:23264756

  14. Disaster management following explosion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making.

  15. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Results Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. Conclusion The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources. PMID:17274813

  16. Challenges of DNA profiling in mass disaster investigations.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Antonio; Martin, Pablo; Albarrán, Cristina; Garcia, Pilar; Fernandez de Simon, Lourdes; Jesús Iturralde, Maria; Fernández-Rodriguez, Amparo; Atienza, Inmaculada; Capilla, Javier; García-Hirschfeld, Julia; Martinez, Pilar; Vallejo, Gloria; García, Oscar; García, Emilio; Real, Pilar; Alvarez, David; León, Antonio; Sancho, Manuel

    2005-08-01

    In cases of mass disaster, there is often a need for managing, analyzing, and comparing large numbers of biological samples and DNA profiles. This requires the use of laboratory information management systems for large-scale sample logging and tracking, coupled with bioinformatic tools for DNA database searching according to different matching algorithms, and for the evaluation of the significance of each match by likelihood ratio calculations. There are many different interrelated factors and circumstances involved in each specific mass disaster scenario that may challenge the final DNA identification goal, such as: the number of victims, the mechanisms of body destruction, the extent of body fragmentation, the rate of DNA degradation, the body accessibility for sample collection, or the type of DNA reference samples availability. In this paper, we examine the different steps of the DNA identification analysis (DNA sampling, DNA analysis and technology, DNA database searching, and concordance and kinship analysis) reviewing the "lessons learned" and the scientific progress made in some mass disaster cases described in the scientific literature. We will put special emphasis on the valuable scientific feedback that genetic forensic community has received from the collaborative efforts of several public and private USA forensic laboratories in assisting with the more critical areas of the World Trade Center (WTC) mass fatality of September 11, 2001. The main challenges in identifying the victims of the recent South Asian Tsunami disaster, which has produced the steepest death count rise in history, will also be considered. We also present data from two recent mass fatality cases that involved Spanish victims: the Madrid terrorist attack of March 11, 2004, and the Yakolev-42 aircraft accident in Trabzon, Turkey, of May 26, 2003.

  17. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-14

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  18. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  19. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  20. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.

  1. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R

    2008-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  2. Burn-injured patients in a disaster: September 11th revisited.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Roger W; Bessey, Palmer Q; Alden, Nicole E; Meisels, Daniel; Delaney, John J; Rabbitts, Angela; Greene, William T

    2006-01-01

    We sought to review the steps taken by the New York Presbyterian Healthcare System to address disaster preparedness in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. We reviewed the institutional records of emergency preparedness efforts, including improvements in infrastructure, employee education and training, and participation in intramural and extramural disaster response initiatives. We used a state discharge database to review burn injury triage within New York State (1995-2004). Since September 11, 2001, significant resources have been devoted to emergency preparedness: expansion of emergency services training, education, response, equipment, and communications; participation in regional disaster response exercises; revision of hospital preparedness plans; and development of municipal and regional responses to a burn mass casualty incident. A review of state and city burn triage patterns during the period of 1995 to 2004 revealed a decline in the number of burn cases treated in New York State-based hospitals by an average of 81 +/- 24 (mean +/- SEM) fewer cases/year (P = .01), occurring primarily in hospitals outside of New York City. Additionally, there was a steady increase in the proportion of New York City burn patients treated at burn center hospitals by 1.8 +/- 0.1 % per year (P < .0001). In response to the events of September 11, 2001, this health care system and this hospital has taken many steps to enhance its disaster response capabilities.

  3. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Sep 19,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  4. Comparative Assessment of U.S. Marine Corps Disaster Recovery Plans for Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Marine Corps were obtained from two Regional Automated Services Centers at Marine Corps Bases C’mp Pendleton, California, and Camp Lejeune, North...Regional Automated Services Center disaster recovery plan. 4 I’ * INDUSTRY PLANS FOR DISASTER RECOVERY PLANNING A. OVERVIEW Review of industry plans...DISASTER PLANNING A. DISCUSSION The disaster recovery plans that were reviewed were obtained from the Regional Automated Services Centers at Marine

  5. Risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries.

    PubMed

    Uzwyshyn, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries. It is suitable for a broad audience interested in online libraries and research centers in universities and colleges. It outlines risk mitigation strategies, and disaster recover planning for online resource-centered information systems.

  6. Terrorist attacks in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan: Profile of soft tissue and skeletal injuries from a single trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Shahid; Waheed, Shahan; Ali, Arif; Mumtaz, Narjis; Feroze, Asher; Noordin, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pakistan has been hugely struck with massive bomb explosions (car and suicide bombs) resulting in multiple casualties in the past few years. The aim of this study is to present the patterns of skeletal and soft tissue injuries and to review the outcome of the victims who presented to our hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to December 2012. The medical record numbers of patients were obtained from the hospital Health Information and Management Sciences (HIMS) as per the ICD-9 coding. RESULTS: During the study period, more than 100 suicide and implanted bomb blast attacks took place in the public proceedings, government offices, residential areas and other places of the city. Altogether 262 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 31±14 years. The shrapnel inflicted wounds were present on to the upper limb in 24 patients and the lower limb in 50. CONCLUSION: Long bone fractures were the most common skeletal injuries. The fractures were complicated by penetrating fragments and nails which result in post operative infections and prolonged hospital stay. PMID:26401184

  7. Factor structure of posttraumatic stress among Western New York undergraduates following the September 11th terrorist attack on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Baschnagel, Joseph S; O'Connor, Roisin M; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W

    2005-12-01

    The structure of posttraumatic stress is of both theoretical and clinical interest. In the present study, seven models of posttraumatic stress were compared using confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 528 Western New York undergraduate students was assessed 1 and 3 months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks. At the Month 1 assessment, the current three-factor Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) model, which consists of Intrusions, Avoidance/Numbing, and Hyperarousal, did not provide a good fit to the data; however, a four-factor model consisting of factors labeled Intrusions, Avoidance, Dysphoria, and Hyperarousal did fit the data well and provided better fit than the three-factor model and other competing models. Importantly, Dysphoria spans symptoms from the traditional DSM Numbing and Hyperarousal clusters. The four-factor model continued to fit the data well at Month 3. These findings parallel the results of earlier studies which suggest that a four-factor model better reflects the nature of posttraumatic stress than do simpler models, including the DSM. The present work is consistent with a dimensional model of stress responses and calls for further longitudinal work in this area.

  8. [Communication networks in great natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Galinski, R

    1990-02-01

    A great natural disaster destroys every energy supplies and the communication network necessary for the organisation of health care (telephone, telex) is entirely or partially not functioning. It becomes impossible to be informed about the hospitals and others sanitary availabilities in the disaster area. Our personal experience, during the El Asnam's and Mexico's earthquakes demonstrates the necessity to maintain a functioning network for sanitary use. The unique possibility is the availability of portable, battery operated radio-transmitters. It is necessary to have these equipment in all hospitals and health centers in the area of a previsible disaster. A good scheduled training is necessary for the medical and paramedical personal of these areas.

  9. Wildfire Disasters and Nursing.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Patricia Frohock

    2016-12-01

    Multiple factors contribute to wildfires in California and other regions: drought, winds, climate change, and spreading urbanization. Little has been done to study the multiple roles of nurses related to wildfire disasters. Major nursing organizations support disaster education for nurses. It is essential for nurses to recognize their roles in each phase of the disaster cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Skills learned in the US federal all-hazards approach to disasters can then be adapted to more specific disasters, such as wildfires, and issues affecting health care. Nursing has an important role in each phase of the disaster cycle.

  10. Disaster Preparation and Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a natural disaster, like a hurricane, tornado, flood or earthquake. It might also be man-made, ... the insurance you need, including special types, like flood insurance. No matter what kind of disaster you ...

  11. Introduction and Overview: Counseling Psychologists' Roles, Training, and Research Contributions to Large-Scale Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Sue C.; Leach, Mark M.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2011-01-01

    Counseling psychologists have responded to many disasters, including the Haiti earthquake, the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and Hurricane Katrina. However, as a profession, their responses have been localized and nonsystematic. In this first of four articles in this contribution, "Counseling Psychology and Large-Scale Disasters,…

  12. Healing loss, ambiguity, and trauma: a community-based intervention with families of union workers missing after the 9/11 attack in New York City.

    PubMed

    Boss, Pauline; Beaulieu, Lorraine; Wieling, Elizabeth; Turner, William; LaCruz, Shulaika

    2003-10-01

    A team of therapists from Minnesota and New York worked with labor union families of workers gone missing on September 11, 2001, after the attack on the World Trade Center, where they were employed. The clinical team shares what they did, what was learned, the questions raised, and preliminary evaluations about the multiple family meetings that were the major intervention. Because of the vast diversity, training of therapists and interventions for families aimed for cultural competence. The community-based approach, preferred by union families, plus family therapy using the lens of ambiguous loss are proposed as necessary additions to disaster work.

  13. Disaster planning: the past, present, and future concepts and principles of managing a surge of burn injured patients for those involved in hospital facility planning and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Alson, Roy L; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    The 9/11 attacks reframed the narrative regarding disaster medicine. Bypass strategies have been replaced with absorption strategies and are more specifically described as "surge capacity." In the succeeding years, a consensus has coalesced around stratifying the surge capacity into three distinct tiers: conventional, contingency, and crisis surge capacities. For the purpose of this work, these three distinct tiers were adapted specifically to burn surge for disaster planning activities at hospitals where burn centers are not located. A review was conducted involving published plans, other related academic works, and findings from actual disasters as well as modeling. The aim was to create burn-specific definitions for surge capacity for hospitals where a burn center is not located. The three-tier consensus description of surge capacity is delineated in their respective stratifications by what will hereinafter be referred to as the three "S's"; staff, space, and supplies (also referred to as supplies, pharmaceuticals, and equipment). This effort also included the creation of a checklist for nonburn center hospitals to assist in their development of a burn surge plan. Patients with serious burn injuries should always be moved to and managed at burn centers, but during a medical disaster with significant numbers of burn injured patients, there may be impediments to meeting this goal. It may be necessary for burn injured patients to remain for hours in an outlying hospital until being moved to a burn center. This work was aimed at aiding local and regional hospitals in developing an extemporizing measure until their burn injured patients can be moved to and managed at a burn center(s).

  14. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack . Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  15. Serving through Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2007-01-01

    Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

  16. Disaster: Planning, Preparation, Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Christine

    1990-01-01

    Discusses causes of library disasters and provides several examples of disasters. Emphasis is on the importance of awareness, insurance protection, a written disaster plan, cooperation with the fire marshall and insurance agent in planning, and staff training. Several elements of the written plan are listed. (22 references) (MES)

  17. Disaster Planning in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling; Green, Ravonne

    2006-01-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important issue in library management today. This article presents a general overview of the theoretical aspects of disaster planning in libraries. The stages of disaster planning are a circular process of planning, prevention, response, recovery, preparedness, and training.

  18. Burn disasters in shooting range areas.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Fatih; Oksüz, Sinan; Yüksel, Fuat

    2008-08-06

    Shooting range injuries are generally caused by ballistic accidents, and so far no burn disaster has been reported. In this article we reported a disaster caused by a gunpowder explosion in an indoor shooting range area in Istanbul, Turkey. Fourteen injured people were evacuated from the scene. Our burn center accepted 7 of them. Of the 7 injured people, 2 who were accepted by our burn center, and 3 people who were admitted by another center died. It is clearly identified how this mechanism of injury differs from that of usual burn injuries, due to both the high temperature generated, and the combination of hot and toxic gases produced by the explosion. We described the features of burn injury, and possible reasons of burn disasters.

  19. Mental health needs in New York state following the September 11th attacks.

    PubMed

    Herman, Daniel; Felton, Chip; Susser, Ezra

    2002-09-01

    In October 2001, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University conducted a rapid assessment of the nature and magnitude of mental health needs in the state resulting from the September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. This effort was carried out during a period of great turmoil and uncertainty as New Yorkers responded to the shocking events of this unprecedented disaster. Using the limited data available at the time, we estimated that over 520,000 persons in New York City and the surrounding counties would experience posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from exposure to the attacks, and that more than 129,000 would seek treatment for this disorder during 2002. This assessment is part of an ongoing collaborative process between public and academic partners; the effort is designed to strengthen the capacity of the mental health system to respond to current and future terrorism. Estimates from this initial assessment will be refined over time as further data concerning the impact of the September 11th attacks become available.

  20. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  1. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  2. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  3. Practitioner Perspectives on a Disaster Management Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) is constructing a high-level reference model for the use of satellites, sensors, models, and associated data products from many different global data and service providers in disaster response and risk assessment. To help streamline broad, effective access to satellite information, the reference model provides structured, shared, holistic views of distributed systems and services - in effect, a common vocabulary describing the system-of-systems building blocks and how they are composed for disaster management. These views are being inferred from real-world experience, by documenting and analyzing how practitioners have gone about using or providing satellite data to manage real disaster events or to assess or mitigate hazard risks. Crucial findings and insights come from case studies of three kinds of experience: - Disaster response and recovery (such as the 2008 Sichuan/Wenchuan earthquake in China; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan); - Technology pilot projects (such as NASA's Flood Sensor Web pilot in Namibia, or the interagency Virtual Mission Operation Center); - Information brokers (such as the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, or the U.K.-based Disaster Management Constellation). Each of these experiences sheds light on the scope and stakeholders of disaster management; the information requirements for various disaster types and phases; and the services needed for effective access to information by a variety of users. They also highlight needs and gaps in the supply of satellite information for disaster management. One need stands out: rapid and effective access to complex data from multiple sources, across inter-organizational boundaries. This is the near-real-time challenge writ large: gaining access to satellite data resources from multiple organizationally distant and geographically disperse sources, to meet an

  4. Preparing for Emergencies and Disasters. SPEC Kit 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Findings from a March 1980 Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) survey on preservation indicated that more than one-fourth of the members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) had written disaster plans, and many other plans were in preparation. This SPEC kit on preparing for emergencies and disasters comprises excerpts from…

  5. 76 FR 35937 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Doc No: 2011-15136] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12599 and 12600] Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  6. 76 FR 35937 - Arkansas Disaster Number AR-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...: 2011-15135] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12560 and 12561] Arkansas Disaster Number AR-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6. SUMMARY: This is an...: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road,...

  7. 76 FR 35936 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...: 2011-15124] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12590 and 12591] South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  8. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  9. What Is a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the flow ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  10. Getting HBCUs in the Disaster-Response Loop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colston, Ladd G.

    2005-01-01

    Natural and man-made disasters represent an ominous threat to the research, instructional and public service missions of colleges and universities. From the bombings in Oklahoma City to the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11 to last year's Hurricane Frances, the potential damage to campus buildings, human life and irreplaceable archival resources is a…

  11. PTSD, depression, prescription drug use, and health care utilization of Chinese workers affected by the WTC attacks.

    PubMed

    de Bocanegra, Heike Thiel; Moskalenko, Sophia; Kramer, Elizabeth J

    2006-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on emotional problems, prescription drug usage, and utilization of medical and mental health services within the Chinese community in lower Manhattan. We administered a survey to 148 randomly selected Chinese workers affected by the WTC attacks in March 2003. Although nearly half of the respondents had elevated PTSD and/or elevated depression scores, only a few (4.4%) had talked to a counselor. However, nearly all (86%) reported having visited a physician at least once since September 11, 2001. Individuals with elevated PTSD scores were significantly more likely to have gone to a physician after 9/11. They were also more likely to have received prescription drugs and to indicate an interest in counseling after 9/11 than individuals with low PTSD scores. The findings highlight the role of the primary care physician as gatekeeper for mental health symptoms after a disaster. They further suggest that primary care physicians should use screening tools for depression and posttraumatic stress after a major disaster and that they should be sensitive to potential emotional problems that are associated with somatic complaints.

  12. Attack-Related Life Disruption and Child Psychopathology in New York City Public Schoolchildren 6-Months Post-9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Fan, Bin; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Musa, George J.; Mandell, Donald J.; Albano, Anne Marie; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of disasters, understanding relationships between disaster-related life disruption and children's functioning is key to informing future postdisaster intervention efforts. The present study examined attack-related life disruptions and psychopathology in a representative sample (N = 8,236) of New York City public schoolchildren…

  13. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Ilan

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.

  14. International disaster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Martin Elliot

    1991-01-01

    No existing telecommunications system can be expected to provide strategy and tactics appropriate to the complex, many faceted problem of disaster. Despite the exciting capabilities of space, communications, remote sensing, and the miracles of modern medicine, complete turnkey transfers to the disaster problem do not make the fit, and cannot be expected to do so. In 1980, a Presidential team assigned the mission of exploring disaster response within the U.S. Federal Government encountered an unanticipated obstacle: disaster was essentially undefined. In the absence of a scientifically based paradigm of disaster, there can be no measure of cost effectiveness, optimum design of manpower structure, or precise application of any technology. These problems spawned a 10-year, multidisciplinary study designed to define the origins, anatomy, and necessary management techniques for catastrophes. The design of the study necessarily reflects interests and expertise in disaster medicine, emergency medicine, telecommunications, computer communications, and forencsic sciences. This study is described.

  15. Traumatic tiger attack.

    PubMed

    Chum, Marvin; Ng, Wai Pui

    2011-11-01

    Attacks on humans by large cats are uncommon occurrences and thus the principles of managing such injuries are not well documented. The authors here report the case of an 11-year-old boy who was mauled by a privately owned tiger. The attack resulted in multiple cranial lacerations and fractures, dissection of the internal carotid artery, and persistent neurological deficits. This case outlines the multiple sources of injury and pathology that can result from such an attack. Discussion is focused on the pattern of injury seen in large feline attacks and the treatment approach.

  16. 78 FR 7848 - Connecticut Disaster Number CT-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Connecticut Disaster Number CT-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment...: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road,...

  17. 13 CFR 123.604 - How can my business spend my economic injury disaster loan under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.604 How can my business spend my economic injury disaster loan... concern until resumption of normal operations and for expenditures necessary to alleviate the...

  18. Confirmatory factor analysis of the PTSD Checklist and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale in disaster workers exposed to the World Trade Center Ground Zero.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Patrick A; Weathers, Frank W; Difede, JoAnn; King, Dainel W

    2007-05-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) factor analytic research has yielded little support for the DSM-IV 3-factor model of reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms, no clear consensus regarding alternative models has emerged. One possible explanation is differential instrumentation across studies. In the present study, the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to compare a self-report measure, the PTSD Checklist (PCL), and a structured clinical interview, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), in 2,960 utility workers exposed to the World Trade Center Ground Zero site. Although two 4-factor models fit adequately for each measure, the latent structure of the PCL was slightly better represented by correlated reexperiencing, avoidance, dysphoria, and hyperarousal factors, whereas that of the CAPS was slightly better represented by correlated reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal factors. After accounting for method variance, the model specifying dysphoria as a distinct factor achieved slightly better fit. Patterns of correlations with external variables provided additional support for the dysphoria model. Implications regarding the underlying structure of PTSD are discussed.

  19. 78 FR 48764 - Texas Disaster # TX-00413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00413 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers following direct and indirect trauma exposure to Ground Zero.

    PubMed

    Zimering, Rose; Gulliver, Suzy B; Knight, Jeffrey; Munroe, James; Keane, Terence M

    2006-08-01

    The present study compared rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relief workers at the World Trade Center collapse from two sources: direct exposure to the disaster site and indirect exposure through survivor narratives. Standardized clinical interviews for PTSD were conducted with 109 relief workers 6-8 months after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Rates of acute PTSD from direct and indirect exposure to traumatic stressors were 6.4% and 4.6%, respectively. The findings suggest that indirect exposures can lead to PTSD even when Criterion A1 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 463), i.e., "experienced by a family member or other close associate" is not met. Further research is necessary to define precisely the parameters of indirect traumatic exposure that may be linked to the development of PTSD.

  1. Predictors of responses to psychotherapy referral of WTC utility disaster workers.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Giosan, Cezar; Difede, Joann; Spielman, Lisa; Robin, Lisa

    2006-04-01

    This study examined male utility disaster workers' responses to referral for trauma-specific psychotherapy. Among 328 workers offered referral for symptoms related to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during psychological screening, approximately 48% chose to accept, 28% chose to consider only, and 24% chose to decline. Analyses examined predisposing factors, i.e., age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, previous mental health treatment, and previous disorder; as well as illness level; i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and general psychiatric distress; current treatment; and time of referral as predictors of referral response. PTSD (specifically reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms), depressive symptoms, and previous mental health treatment were positively associated with workers' accepting referral. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  2. Disaster Management and the Role of Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rahul Vinaychandra; Pandi, Srinivas Chakravarthi; Meka, Sridhar; Lingamaneni, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    “Disaster” the word itself suggests an event resulting in great loss and misfortune. In this developing world, India is becoming more powerful and is shining across the world. But we are still left to deal with various disasters, so that no harm comes to mankind. India has the occasional national disaster to which we have to promptly respond. Like the rest of the world, India has become a terror prone nation and recent attacks since the last decades affected not only the function but also it made citizens insecure. As we are in a large nation so, no matter how large a disaster it may be; we have to overcome it. The oral and maxillofacial region in a human body is very delicate with complicated anatomy, which decides the life of a human being. The management of disaster is a multitask approach, in which maxillofacial surgeon plays an important role. It is a very difficult task to operate in disaster zone. It is essential for a surgeon to make quick and important decisions under stressful conditions. Usually the surgeries are performed in a well-equipped hospital but, when it comes to disaster zone the surgeon have to treat the patient with a minimal armamentarium available within a fraction of time. The surgical competence in a disaster field is an alarming situation. Disaster management itself is not an alarming situation but the time management is important for better outcomes. A surgeon however should be trained, so that he should not miss injuries for better outcomes along with personal safety. The article discusses about disaster management strategy and guidelines for both oral maxillofacial surgeons and the statuary body to make maxillofacial surgeon as part of disaster management team for better outcomes. PMID:26816920

  3. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  4. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  5. Steps toward a national disaster plan for obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kay; Oakeson, Ann Marie; Hilton, Gillian

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals play a central role in disasters by receiving an influx of casualties and coordinating medical efforts to manage resources. However, plans have not been fully developed in the event the hospital itself is severely damaged, either from natural disasters like earthquakes or tornados or manmade events such as a massive electrical failure or terrorist attacks. Of particular concern is the limited awareness of the obstetric units' specialized needs in the world of disaster planning. Within the same footprint of any obstetric unit, there exists a large variety of patient acuity and needs including laboring women, postoperative patients, and healthy postpartum patients with their newborns. An obstetric-specific triage method is paramount to accurately assess and rapidly triage patients during a disaster. An example is presented here called OB TRAIN (Obstetric Triage by Resource Allocation for Inpatient). To accomplish a comprehensive obstetric disaster plan, there must be 1) national adoption of a common triage and evacuation language including an effective patient tracking system to avoid maternal-neonatal separation; 2) a stratification of maternity hospital levels of care; and 3) a collaborative network of obstetric hospitals, both regionally and nationally. However, obstetric disaster planning goes beyond evacuation and must include plans for shelter-in-place and surge capacity, all uniquely designed for the obstetric patient. Disasters, manmade or natural, are neither predictable nor preventable, but we can and should prepare for them.

  6. Disaster Preparedness among Health Professionals and Support Staff: What is Effective? An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gowing, Jeremy R; Walker, Kim N; Elmer, Shandell L; Cummings, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-16

    Introduction It is important that health professionals and support staff are prepared for disasters to safeguard themselves and the community during disasters. There has been a significantly heightened focus on disasters since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York (USA); however, despite this, it is evident that health professionals and support staff may not be adequately prepared for disasters. Report An integrative literature review was performed based on a keyword search of the major health databases for primary research evaluating preparedness of health professionals and support staff. The literature was quality appraised using a mixed-methods appraisal tool (MMAT), and a thematic analysis was completed to identify current knowledge and gaps. Discussion The main themes identified were: health professionals and support staff may not be fully prepared for disasters; the most effective content and methods for disaster preparedness is unknown; and the willingness of health professionals and support staff to attend work and perform during disasters needs further evaluation. Gaps were identified to guide further research and the creation of new knowledge to best prepare for disasters. These included the need for: high-quality research to evaluate the best content and methods of disaster preparedness; inclusion of the multi-disciplinary health care team as participants; preparation for internal disasters; the development of validated competencies for preparedness; validated tools for measurement; and the importance of performance in actual disasters to evaluate preparation.

  7. Predictors of survival and favorable functional outcomes after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in patients systematically brought to a dedicated heart attack center (from the Harefield Cardiac Arrest Study).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Bilal; Al-Hussaini, Abtehale; Rosser, Gareth; Salehi, Saleem; Phylactou, Maria; Rajakulasingham, Ramyah; Patel, Jayna; Elliott, Katharine; Mohan, Poornima; Green, Rebecca; Whitbread, Mark; Smith, Robert; Ilsley, Charles

    2015-03-15

    Despite advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), survival remains low after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). Acute coronary ischemia is the predominating precipitant, and prompt delivery of patients to dedicated facilities may improve outcomes. Since 2011, all patients experiencing OOHCA in London, where a cardiac etiology is suspected, are systematically brought to heart attack centers (HACs). We determined the predictors for survival and favorable functional outcomes in this setting. We analyzed 174 consecutive patients experiencing OOHCA from 2011 to 2013 brought to Harefield Hospital-a designated HAC in London. We analyzed (1) all-cause mortality and (2) functional status using a modified Rankin scale (mRS 0 to 6, where mRS0-3(+) = favorable functional status). The overall survival rates were 66.7% (30 days) and 62.1% (1 year); and 54.5% had mRS0-3(+) at discharge. Patients with mRS0-3(+) had reduced mortality compared to mRS0-3(-): 30 days (1.2% vs 72.2%, p <0.001) and 1 year (5.3% vs 77.2%, p <0.001). Multivariate analyses identified lower patient comorbidity, absence of cardiogenic shock, bystander CPR, ventricular tachycardia/ventricullar fibrillation as initial rhythm, shorter duration of resuscitation, prehospital advanced airway, absence of adrenaline and inotrope use, and intra-aortic balloon pump use as predictors of mRS0-3(+). Consistent predictors of increased mortality were the presence of cardiogenic shock, advanced airway use, increased duration of resuscitation, and absence of therapeutic hypothermia. A streamlined delivery of patients experiencing OOHCA to dedicated facilities is associated with improved functional status and survival. Our study supports the standardization of care for such patients with the widespread adoption of HACs.

  8. PM 2.5 exposure assessment of the population in Lower Manhattan area of New York City after the World Trade Center disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, S. P.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.; Grossinho, A.; Chen, L. C.; Kendall, M.

    On 11 September 2001, the explosion and the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) Twin Towers in New York City (NYC), USA, generated a massive release of dust and inhalable toxic substances to the atmosphere as a result of the pulverization of various building materials, furniture, and computers. Many concerns were raised as Particulate Matter (PM) levels in Lower Manhattan might not meet the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (65 μg m -3). The current study aims to provide a first estimate of the scale of population exposures during this episode. Data collected from existing monitoring stations in September showed the occurrence of a series of high peaks of PM 2.5 registered in the Lower Manhattan area after the 11 September. An interpolation technique was used within a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environment to estimate outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations over NYC. Monthly average of 24 h outdoor PM 2.5 concentration of Lower Manhattan was 20.2 μg m -3 and did not exceed the NAAQS value. PM 2.5 concentrations in indoor micro-environments were simulated by a deterministic micro-environmental model (INTAIR) and linear regression equations. Three typical population groups were identified for the NYC area—home-makers, office/shop-workers, and students/children—and their 12 h nighttime and daytime exposures were estimated from 14 September until the end of September, either as mean exposure (daytime and nighttime) or as exposure weighted by residential population distribution (nighttime only). Average nighttime and daytime exposures of the Lower Manhattan population were calculated to be 37.3 and 23.6 μg m -3, respectively (daily average: 30.45 μg m -3), in which the various group movements and activities, smoking habits of individuals, and special population movements due to access restrictions and risk avoidance behaviors were considered. Within the study period, assuming the real nighttime population distribution followed the

  9. 13 CFR 123.603 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.603 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan under this subpart? Your economic injury disaster loan under this subpart will have an interest rate of... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the interest rate on...

  10. Disaster Preparedness Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Douglas O.

    Prepared for use by the staff of a community college library, this manual describes the natural, building, and human hazards which can result in disaster in a library and outlines a set of disaster prevention measures and salvage procedures. A list of salvage priorities, floor plans for all three levels of Bourke Memorial Library, and staff duties…

  11. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  12. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  13. Large-Scale Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  14. Epidemics after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Watson, John T; Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings.

  15. Helping nursing homes prepare for disasters.

    PubMed

    Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M; Polivka-West, LuMarie; Berman, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Responding to the deaths and suffering of older adults in long-term care facilities following Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma, the John A. Hartford Foundation funded an initiative called Hurricane and Disaster Preparedness for Long-Term Care Facilities. Long-term care providers are now acknowledged as health care providers by most federal and state emergency response centers. This paper describes the planning, research, and dissemination efforts of the Hartford grantees. It also provides insights into successful disaster grant making, noting foundations' unique flexibility, strategic and long-term view, and ability to be a neutral convener of stakeholders that can help grantees work toward achieving major policy change.

  16. Supply Chain Attack Framework and Attack Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Malware is embedded in a replacement server motherboard (e.g., in the flash memory) in order to alter server functionality from that intended. Attack...Slashdot: Dell Ships Infected Motherboards July 21, 2010(c/o Rick Dove) Threat: An adversary with access to hardware procurement, maintenance, or upgrade...control can embed malware in a critical component server motherboard . Vulnerabilities: The control processes and mechanisms for hardware

  17. Stroke following rottweiler attack.

    PubMed

    Miller, S J; Copass, M; Johansen, K; Winn, H R

    1993-02-01

    A previously healthy 50-year-old man suffered a major right cerebral infarction shortly after receiving head and neck bites in an attack by two rottweilers. Arteriography revealed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, an intimal flap and pseudoaneurysm in the high right internal carotid artery just proximal to the skull base, and an obstructed right vertebral artery. The powerful jaw mechanism of rottweilers and other large mastiff-type dogs makes their bites particularly destructive. The predilection of these animals for attacking the head and upper body makes occult crush injury to the extracranial cerebral vessels an important diagnostic consideration following such attacks.

  18. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  19. The EOSDIS Products Usability for Disaster Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafle, Durga N.; Wanchoo, Lalit; Won, Young-In; Michael, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the study is to categorize both NRT and standard data products based on applicability to the SDR-defined disaster types. This will identify which datasets from current NASA satellite missions instruments are best suited for disaster response. The distribution metrics of the products that have been used for studying various selected disasters that have occurred over last 5 years will be analyzed that include volume, number of files, number of users, user domains, user country, etc. This data usage analysis will provide information to the data centers staff that can help them develop the functionality and allocate the resources needed for enhanced access and timely availability of the data products that are critical for the time-sensitive analyses.

  20. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  1. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  2. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  3. New sensitivity analysis attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Choubassi, Maha; Moulin, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    The sensitivity analysis attacks by Kalker et al. constitute a known family of watermark removal attacks exploiting a vulnerability in some watermarking protocols: the attacker's unlimited access to the watermark detector. In this paper, a new attack on spread spectrum schemes is designed. We first examine one of Kalker's algorithms and prove its convergence using the law of large numbers, which gives more insight into the problem. Next, a new algorithm is presented and compared to existing ones. Various detection algorithms are considered including correlation detectors and normalized correlation detectors, as well as other, more complicated algorithms. Our algorithm is noniterative and requires at most n+1 operations, where n is the dimension of the signal. Moreover, the new approach directly estimates the watermark by exploiting the simple geometry of the detection boundary and the information leaked by the detector.

  4. Localized attacks on spatially embedded networks with dependencies.

    PubMed

    Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-03-11

    Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures-even of finite fraction-if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems.

  5. Localized attacks on spatially embedded networks with dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M.; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures—even of finite fraction—if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems. PMID:25757572

  6. DISASTER MEDICAL CARE AND SHELTER—The Federal Program

    PubMed Central

    Dearing, W. Palmer

    1960-01-01

    The role of the physician in event of natural disaster or overwhelming (perhaps nuclear) attack by an enemy is: To assist the layman in preparing to meet his own health needs in a disaster situation until organized health services can reach him. To prepare and plan for the provision of organized medical care when conditions permit. To extend his own capability to render medical care outside his normal specialty. To assist in the training of allied and professional health workers and laymen for specific mobilization assignments in health services. PMID:18732323

  7. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality.

  8. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  9. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  10. The Use of DOE Technologies at The World Trade Center Incident: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.; Kovach, J.; Carpenter, C.; Blair, D.

    2003-02-25

    In response to the attack of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) National Hazmat Program (OENHP) assembled and deployed a HAZMAT Emergency Management Team (Team) to the disaster site (Site). The response team consisted of a Certified Industrial Hygienist and a rotating team of industrial hygienists, safety professionals, and certified HAZMAT instructors. Through research funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the IUOE conducted human factors assessments on baseline and innovative technologies during real-world conditions and served as an advocate at the WTC disaster site to identify opportunities for the use and evaluation of DOE technologies. From this work, it is clear that opportunities exist for more DOE technologies to be made readily available for use in future emergencies.

  11. Natural disasters and the lung.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

    2011-04-01

    As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters.

  12. Differences in mental health outcomes among Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics following a community disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between race and ethnicity and psychological health status following exposure to a stressful event. However, some of these studies indicate racial and ethnic minorities have poorer mental health relative to Whites, while others show no differences or that minorities may actually have better psychological health. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we collected data on a random sample of city residents (N = 2368). The dependent variables were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), PTSD symptom severity, major depression, panic attack, and general physical and mental well-being. We categorized our respondents as Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic African American, Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanics. Bivariate results indicated racial/ethnic differences for PTSD symptom severity, depression, general physical and mental health, and panic attack. Using logistic regression and controlling for possible confounding factors, most of these associations were rendered non-significant. That is, we found no post-disaster racial/ethnic differences for PTSD, PTSD symptom severity, or physical health. African Americans and Other Hispanics were less likely to meet criteria for major depression or to be classified as unhealthy on the self-report SF-12 mental health scale compared to Whites. Only for panic attack were African Americans and Puerto Ricans more likely to meet criteria for this outcome. Thus, our study found little support for the hypothesis that Latinos or African Americans consistently suffered from poorer psychological and physical well-being in the aftermath of traumatic events, relative to Whites.

  13. Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377

  14. Social capital and disaster preparedness among low income Mexican Americans in a disaster prone area.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Belinda M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Lee, Minjae; Chen, Zhongxue; Alam, Sartaj R; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community's ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR = 3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital's presence among a low

  15. Social Capital and Disaster Preparedness Among Low Income Mexican Americans in a Disaster Prone Area

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Lee, MinJae; Chen, Zhongxue; Raja, Sartaj Alam; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community’s ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR=3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR= 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital’s presence among a low

  16. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  17. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  18. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-03-01

    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  19. Disasters and public health

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the health effects of disasters have shown that epidemiological indices can be of value in planning preventive and relief measures and in evaluating their effectiveness. Mortality rates naturally vary considerably, but in earthquakes, for example, the number of deaths per 100 houses destroyed can give an indication of the adequacy of building techniques. Age-specific mortality rates can help to identify particularly vulnerable groups and perhaps indicate what form of education would be valuable. Except in earthquakes, the number of casualties after a disaster is usually low in relation to the number of deaths, and study of the distribution and types of lesions would help in planning the amounts and types of relief supplies and personnel required. Disasters also affect the general level of morbidity in a district because of either interruption of normal health care services or of spraying or other disease control measures. Mental health and nutrition following disasters are particular problems that require further investigation. Study of all these features of disasters has been handicapped by a lack of data, particularly concerning the health situation immediately after the impact. The provision of surveillance teams in disaster-prone areas would appear to be a field in which international cooperation could yield immense benefits. PMID:311707

  20. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  1. Children Who Lost a Parent as a Result of the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001: Registry Construction and Population Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Conroy, David L.; Hochauser, Carl J.; Laraque, Danielle; Banks, Josette; Schmeidler, James; Dela Cruz, Maan; Nelsen, William C.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Children who experience traumatic bereavement in the context of catastrophic disasters are at increased risk for developing post-disaster problems. Despite massive loss of life on September 11th, 2001, no public data were collected on those children who lost a parent in the multiple terrorist attacks. Such a registry would be an important public…

  2. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan W.

    2013-04-01

    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  3. Effects of Disasters: Risk and Resilience Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused and natural disasters. Disasters may be explosions, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornados, or fires. In a disaster, ... at severe natural disasters, such as the Armenian earthquake, mudslides in Mexico, and Hurricane Andrew in the ...

  4. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  5. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

  6. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  7. Understanding and managing disaster evacuation on a transportation network.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Parlak, Ayse I; Zhou, Qian; Miller, John S; Fontaine, Michael D; Guterbock, Thomas M; Clements, Janet L; Thekdi, Shital A

    2013-01-01

    Uncertain population behaviors in a regional emergency could potentially harm the performance of the region's transportation system and subsequent evacuation effort. The integration of behavioral survey data with travel demand modeling enables an assessment of transportation system performance and the identification of operational and public health countermeasures. This paper analyzes transportation system demand and system performance for emergency management in three disaster scenarios. A two-step methodology first estimates the number of trips evacuating the region, thereby capturing behavioral aspects in a scientifically defensible manner based on survey results, and second, assigns these trips to a regional highway network, using geographic information systems software, thereby making the methodology transferable to other locations. Performance measures are generated for each scenario including maps of volume-to-capacity ratios, geographic contours of evacuation time from the center of the region, and link-specific metrics such as weighted average speed and traffic volume. The methods are demonstrated on a 600 segment transportation network in Washington, DC (USA) and are applied to three scenarios involving attacks from radiological dispersion devices (e.g., dirty bombs). The results suggests that: (1) a single detonation would degrade transportation system performance two to three times more than that which occurs during a typical weekday afternoon peak hour, (2) volume on several critical arterials within the network would exceed capacity in the represented scenarios, and (3) resulting travel times to reach intended destinations imply that un-aided evacuation is impractical. These results assist decisions made by two categories of emergency responders: (1) transportation managers who provide traveler information and who make operational adjustments to improve the network (e.g., signal retiming) and (2) public health officials who maintain shelters, food and

  8. Reducing Disaster Exacerbated Non-Communicable Diseases Through Public Health Infrastructure Resilience: Perspectives of Australian Disaster Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Benjamin J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Burkle Jr., Frederick M.; Aitken, Peter; Smith, Erin; Watt, Kerrianne; Leggat, Peter

    2016-01-01

    cycle impacting public health service infrastructure. Specific measures include: increasing the use of telemedicine; preplanning with medical suppliers; effective town planning; health professionals visiting evacuation centers; evacuation centers having power for medical equipment; hubs for treatment and care after a disaster; evacuation of high risk people prior to disaster; mapping people at risk by non-communicable disease; and a mechanism for sharing information between agencies. A common theme from the participants was that having accurate and easily accessible data on people with non-communicable diseases would allow disaster service providers to adequately prepare for and respond to a disaster. Conclusions: Disaster service providers can play a vital role in reducing the risk of disaster exacerbated non-communicable diseases through public health service infrastructure resilience. They are often employed in communities where disasters occur and are therefore best-placed to lead implementation of the mitigation strategies identified in this research. To sustainably implement the mitigation strategies they will need to become integrated into effective performance and monitoring of the disaster response and health sector during non-disaster periods. For this to occur, the strategies should be integrated into business and strategic plans. Achieving this will help implement the Sendia Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and, most importantly, help protect the health of people with non-communicable diseases before, during and after a disaster. PMID:28239511

  9. [Terrorists' target World Cup 2006: disaster medicine on the sidelines?! Aspects of hospital disaster planning].

    PubMed

    Weidringer, J W; Ansorg, J; Ulrich, B C; Polonius, M-J; Domres, B D

    2004-09-01

    Focussing on possible mass casualty situations during events such as the soccer world championship in 2006, the Professional Board of Surgeons in Germany and the German Society for Surgery canvassed surgeons-in-chief in the last quarter of 2003 concerning disaster plans for hospitals. The rate of returned questionnaires amounted to 26% covering the following areas of interest: plans-ready to use, known by the employees as well as by the rescue coordination center, performance of exercises, and concepts on decontamination and detoxification. Based on past numbers of casualties during soccer disasters, an excursus into details also includes a description of an approach to reduce the danger of bottleneck effects at doors. A preliminary concept based on the upcoming system for funding hospitals in Germany and including new partnerships is outlined, succeeded by some hopefully helpful hints for a web-based hospital disaster plan.

  10. Disaster Rescue and Response Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... being distant, judgmental, or over-controlling What severe stress symptoms can result for disaster workers? Most disaster ... life) Who is at greatest risk for severe stress symptoms? Rescue workers who directly experience or witness ...

  11. Compassion Fatigue Following the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: A Study of Secondary Trauma among New York City Social Workers

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Experience suggests that individuals working in the caring and psychotherapeutic professions are among those to provide mental health services to disaster victims suffering from psychological trauma following catastrophic events. Yet, few studies have focused on the emotional exhaustion from working with such clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF) in this study, and how CF differs from other occupational hazards, such as secondary trauma (ST) and job burnout. In the present study, we used recently validated scales to predict ST and job burnout related to providing services to those affected by the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Our study data were based on a random survey of 236 social workers living in New York City (NYC), over 80% of which reported being involved in post-WTC disaster counseling efforts. Our analyses indicated that controlling for demographic factors, years of counseling, and personal trauma history, ST was positively associated with WTC recovery involvement (p < .001) and negatively associated with having a supportive work environment (p < .01). In contrast, job burnout was negatively associated with having a supportive work environment (p < .01), but not associated with WTC involvement or WTC counseling efforts. We discuss these results in light of future conceptual and empirical research needs. PMID:15298076

  12. Disaster aeromedical evacuation.

    PubMed

    Lezama, Nicholas G; Riddles, Lawrence M; Pollan, William A; Profenna, Leonardo C

    2011-10-01

    Successful disaster aeromedical evacuation depends on applying the principles learned by moving patients since World War II, culminating in today's global patient movement system. This article describes the role of the Department of Defense patient movement system in providing defense support to civil authorities during the 2008 hurricane season and the international disaster response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Adapting and applying the principles of active partnerships, establishing patient movement requirements, patient preparation, and in-transit visibility have resulted in the successful aeromedical evacuation of over 1,600 patients since the federal response to Hurricane Katrina.

  13. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  14. Disaster Preparedness in YOUR School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Adult and Continuing Education.

    A look at what to do in time of natural and man-made disasters is presented. Disasters covered include tornados, hurricanes, floods, fires, blizzards, and nuclear disaster. The responsibilities of the Board of Education, school superintendent, school principal, teachers, school nurse, custodian, students, bus drivers, and cafeteria workers are…

  15. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Symptoms in Women Updated:Jan 10,2017 Heart Attack Signs in Women Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or ...

  16. The St Croix disaster and the National Disaster Medical System.

    PubMed

    Roth, P B; Vogel, A; Key, G; Hall, D; Stockhoff, C T

    1991-04-01

    The National Disaster Medical System was designed to respond to a catastrophic disaster by creating a group of specially trained civilian disaster medical assistance teams. The teams would be transported to the periphery of the event to triage, stabilize, and then prepare victims for evacuation to facilities elsewhere in the United States that have agreed in advance to accept such patients. Hurricane Hugo's devastation in St Croix offered the first opportunity to test the system. The event was an example of a type of medical disaster that resulted in a sudden reduction in medical resources without a great increase in casualties. Background information and operation of the New Mexico disaster medical assistance team are presented with a clinical profile of the patients seen during the disaster. We describe the first actual deployment of a disaster medical assistance team and the issues that must be addressed before future deployments.

  17. Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh

    2012-07-01

    The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements.

  18. An Attack Surface Metric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Measurement of security, both qualitatively and quantitatively, has been a long standing challenge to the research community , and is of...our approach to related work in Section 2. We introduce the entry point and exit point framework in Section 3. We present the definitions of...ignores the specific system configuration that gave rise to the vulnerability, and it does not capture a system’s future attackability. Our approach

  19. When women attack.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart.

  20. The Ontology of Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  1. Allied health disaster volunteering.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Alphonso; Wilson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Allied health practitioners will play an important role in providing medical care following a disaster. The clinical and laboratory skills possessed by allied health practitioners will be of extreme importance in the processing of disaster victims. The degree that allied health practitioners can help process disaster victims will play a large role in helping stabilize survivors of man-made or natural disasters. Those allied health practitioners skilled in triage, patient assessment, and emergency treatment of those injured can make a large difference in improving the utilization of human resources at an emergency site and thereby potentially improve treatment outcomes. Failure of a health professional to preregister as a health volunteer can affect the quality and responsiveness of a community's surge capacity. The rationale for advance registration ensures that the time-intensive effort of identifying professional credentials and licenses does not consume or divert resources that are necessary for mitigation of the immediate emergency. Of equal importance for allied health practitioners are the liability issues that exist in providing health care services outside of a formal employment agreement.

  2. Bracing for Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    A freak blizzard, a mentally ill and armed student, a record-breaking flood. No matter how idyllic a campus may feel, no matter how cocooned the ivory tower, disaster can strike. If a campus is unprepared, it comes like a sucker punch, potentially turning a crisis into a tragedy of unimagined proportions--and causing reverberations that will be…

  3. Protecting against Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    This article features an assistant professor of technology who shares his story of near disaster and offers advice for others about protecting their data. The author presents steps that can be taken to prevent unexpected events from destroying data. The author strongly recommends using backup files as a way of securing computer files and data.…

  4. Computer Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Orvin R.

    Arguing that complete, reliable, up-to-date system documentation is critical for every data processing environment, this paper on computer disaster recovery planning begins by discussing the importance of such documentation both for recovering from a systems crash, and for system maintenance and enhancement. The various components of system…

  5. Replacement Attack: A New Zero Text Watermarking Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashardoost, Morteza; Mohd Rahim, Mohd Shafry; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of zero watermarking methods that are suggested for the authentication of textual properties is to increase the fragility of produced watermarks against tampering attacks. On the other hand, zero watermarking attacks intend to alter the contents of document without changing the watermark. In this paper, the Replacement attack is proposed, which focuses on maintaining the location of the words in the document. The proposed text watermarking attack is specifically effective on watermarking approaches that exploit words' transition in the document. The evaluation outcomes prove that tested word-based method are unable to detect the existence of replacement attack in the document. Moreover, the comparison results show that the size of Replacement attack is estimated less accurate than other common types of zero text watermarking attacks.

  6. [Disaster relief through inter-professional collaboration --from the standpoint of a dietitian].

    PubMed

    Inamura, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined disaster relief efforts by registered and other dietitians following the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify related problems. Based on this, the study discussed what is required to develop a "disaster relief system through inter-professional collaboration" to cope with unanticipated disasters. On March 15, 2011, the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA) independently established the "Great East Japan Earthquake relief emergency headquarters". The association along with these volunteers was committed to the establishment of a system for disaster relief activities with the support of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures: the number of registered volunteers was 978; a total of 1,588 dietitians were dispatched; and 602 became involved in relief work in the disaster-stricken areas. Registered and other dietitians dispatched for disaster relief provided support and home care for evacuation centers, elderly facilities, and temporary housing, including dietary and nutrition advice and consultation, in cooperation and collaboration with administrative dietitians in disaster areas, registered and other dietitians of disaster headquarters in disaster-stricken prefectures, the Primary Care for All Teams (PCAT) of the Japan Primary Care Association, disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs), and volunteer groups. Through the course of the relief activities, the following problems were identified: difficulties in responding to varying needs in different phases, nutritional measures (population-based and high-risk approaches), nutritional disparities among evacuation centers, necessity of a section to collect ever-changing information on disaster areas in a comprehensive manner, importance of working cooperatively to establish a support system, and differences in volunteers' support skills. To facilitate disaster relief through inter-professional collaboration, it is necessary for many different organizations to understand each other's capabilities

  7. Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Trevor

    2014-05-01

    produced under each category was then compared to establish best practices. Thus, the information produced by a disaster management system following a major disaster can be compared to these best practices within days of the disaster. The resulting "information gap analysis" can help identify areas of the response that may need to be improved and raise questions as to why critical information is lacking or delayed. This information gap analysis therefore complements ex post evaluations and can help lead to improvements in the immediate response and subsequently reduce disaster impacts on the population. The methodology has already been applied in the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology's (CEDIM) Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) activities following tropical cyclone Phailin in India, and the Bohol Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines.

  8. Forensic Disaster Analysis in Near-real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Michael; Zschau, Jochen; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological and geophysical events are controlled by various factors including severity of the event (intensity, duration, spatial extent), amplification with other phenomena (multihazard or cascading effects), interdependencies of technical systems and infrastructure, preparedness and resilience of the society. The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) has adopted the comprehensive understanding of disasters and develops methodologies of near real-time FDA as a complementing component of the FORIN program of IRDR. The new research strategy 'Near Real-Time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA)' aims at scrutinizing disasters closely with a multi-disciplinary approach in order to assess the various aspects of disasters and to identify mechanisms most relevant for an extreme event to become a disaster (e.g., causal loss analysis). Recent technology developments - which have opened unprecedented opportunities for real-time hazard, vulnerability and loss assessment - are used for analyzing disasters and their impacts in combination with databases of historical events. The former covers modern empirical and analytical methods available in engineering and remote sensing for rapid impact assessments, rapid information extraction from crowd sourcing as well as rapid assessments of socio-economic impacts and economic losses. The event-driven science-based assessments of CEDIM are compiled based on interdisciplinary expertise and include the critical evaluation, assessment, validation, and quantification of an event. An important component of CEDIM's FDA is the near real-time approach which is expected to significantly speed up our understanding of natural disasters and be used to provide timely, relevant and valuable information to various user groups within their respective contexts. Currently, CEDIM has developed models and methodologies to assess different types of hazard. These approaches were applied to several

  9. 76 FR 35935 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00019 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...: 2011-15139] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12619] New Mexico Disaster NM-00019 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  10. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  11. Modeling Partial Attacks with Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Amerson; Bond, Mike; Clulow, Jolyon

    The automated and formal analysis of cryptographic primitives, security protocols and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) up to date has been focused on discovering attacks that completely break the security of a system. However, there are attacks that do not immediately break a system but weaken the security sufficiently for the adversary. We term these attacks partial attacks and present the first methodology for the modeling and automated analysis of this genre of attacks by describing two approaches. The first approach reasons about entropy and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the ECB|ECB|OFB triple-mode DES block-cipher. The second approach reasons about possibility sets and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the personal identification number (PIN) derivation algorithm used in the IBM 4758 Common Cryptographic Architecture.

  12. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    SciTech Connect

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  13. DNS Rebinding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    action [From 2] The same origin policy is also called Single Origin or Same Site Policy. It was originally released with Netscape Navigator 2.0 and...success Netscape 8.2.1 Windows XP / SP2 success Opera 9.0.2 Windows 2000 / SP4 success Table 6. Satoh’s attack results using Adobe Flash Player...dns/dns-rebinding.pdf. Retrieved May 2009. [4] D. Dean, E. W. Felten, and D. S. Wallach “Java Security: From HotJava to Netscape and Beyond

  14. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment for a heart attack can ... or years after the procedure. Other Treatments for Heart Attack Other treatments for heart attack include: Medicines Medical ...

  15. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  16. Academic Responses to Fukushima Disaster.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Yuko; Kamiya, Kenji; Miyatani, Rie; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Sakai, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy; Abdel-Wahab, May; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2017-03-01

    Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Herein, we introduce 3 novel educational programs that have been initiated to provide students, professionals, and leaders with the knowledge of and skills to elude the social consequences of complex nuclear disasters. The first program concentrates on radiation disaster medicine for medical students at the Fukushima Medical University, together with a science, technology, and society module comprising various topics, such as public risk communication, psychosocial consequences of radiation anxiety, and decision making for radiation disaster. The second program is a Phoenix Leader PhD degree at the Hiroshima University, which aims to develop future leaders who can address the associated scientific, environmental, and social issues. The third program is a Joint Graduate School of Master's degree in the Division of Disaster and Radiation Medical Sciences at the Nagasaki University and Fukushima Medical University.

  17. Disaster Research: A Nursing Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W.

    2013-01-01

    Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to post-disaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting post-disaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors’ personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005–2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing post-disaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and health care responses. PMID:23899191

  18. WTC medical monitoring and treatment program: comprehensive health care response in aftermath of disaster.

    PubMed

    Moline, Jacqueline M; Herbert, Robin; Levin, Stephen; Stein, Diane; Luft, Benjamin J; Udasin, Iris G; Landrigan, Philip J

    2008-01-01

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11th, 2001 exposed thousands of individuals to an unprecedented mix of chemicals, combustion products and micronized building materials. Clinicians at the Mount Sinai Irving Selikoff Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, in partnership with affected stakeholder organizations, developed a medical screening program to evaluate the health status of workers and volunteers who spent time at the WTC site and thus sustained exposure in the aftermath of September 11th. Standardized questionnaires were adapted for use in this unique population and all clinicians underwent training to ensure comparability. The WTC Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program (MSP) received federal funding in April 2002 and examinations began in July 2002. The MSP and the follow up medical monitoring program has successfully recruited nearly 22,000 responders, and serves as a model for the rapid development of a medical screening program to assess the health of populations exposed to environmental hazards as a result of natural and man-made disasters. The MSP constitutes a successful screening program for WTC responders. We discuss the challenges that confronted the program; the absence of a prior model for the rapid development of a program to evaluate results from mixed chemical exposures; little documentation of the size of the exposed population or of who might have been exposed; and uncertainty about both the nature and potential severity of immediate and long-term health effects.

  19. Disasters and development: Part I. Relationships between disasters and development.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob S; DuFrane, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This module introduces a paradigm for understanding the disaster/development interface. Specifically, the module asserts that disasters and development are linked closely in that disasters can both destroy development initiatives and create development opportunities, and that development schemes can both increase and decrease vulnerability. The module consists of four parts: Part One introduces these concepts and discusses how disasters can vary from one type of hazard to another, as well as from one type of economic condition to another. Part Two develops the paradigm in depth, and provides case examples to amplify the points made in the text. Part Three describes and discusses different methods and tools for analyzing decisions for potential investment of resources, and should enhance the reader's capacity to analyze the mitigational benefits of development alternatives in both the pre- and post-disaster context. Part Four conceptualizes the role of UN agencies, NGOs, and the affected communities in promoting development based on the concepts discussed in the module. This training module, Disasters and Development, initially was designed to introduce this aspect of disaster management to an audience of UN organization professionals who form disaster management teams, as well as to government counterpart agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and donors. The educational process has been designed to increase the audience's awareness of the nature and management of disasters, in order to lead to better performance in disaster preparedness and response. The content has been written by experts in the field of disaster management and in general follows the UNDP/UNDRO Disaster Management Manual and its principles, procedures, and terminology.

  20. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  1. Sequential defense against random and intentional attacks in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Network robustness against attacks is one of the most fundamental researches in network science as it is closely associated with the reliability and functionality of various networking paradigms. However, despite the study on intrinsic topological vulnerabilities to node removals, little is known on the network robustness when network defense mechanisms are implemented, especially for networked engineering systems equipped with detection capabilities. In this paper, a sequential defense mechanism is first proposed in complex networks for attack inference and vulnerability assessment, where the data fusion center sequentially infers the presence of an attack based on the binary attack status reported from the nodes in the network. The network robustness is evaluated in terms of the ability to identify the attack prior to network disruption under two major attack schemes, i.e., random and intentional attacks. We provide a parametric plug-in model for performance evaluation on the proposed mechanism and validate its effectiveness and reliability via canonical complex network models and real-world large-scale network topology. The results show that the sequential defense mechanism greatly improves the network robustness and mitigates the possibility of network disruption by acquiring limited attack status information from a small subset of nodes in the network.

  2. Posttraumatic stress symptoms after exposure to two fire disasters: comparative study.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, Nancy E; van de Schoot, Rens; Faber, Albertus W

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated traumatic stress symptoms in severely burned survivors of two fire disasters and two comparison groups of patients with "non-disaster" burn injuries, as well as risk factors associated with acute and chronic stress symptoms. Patients were admitted to one out of eight burn centers in The Netherlands or Belgium. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) was administered to 61 and 33 survivors respectively of two fire disasters and 54 and 57 patients with "non-disaster" burn etiologies at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the event. We used latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses to investigate the stress trajectories and predictors in the two disaster and two comparison groups. The results showed that initial traumatic stress reactions in disaster survivors with severe burns are more intense and prolonged during several months relative to survivors of "non-disaster" burn injuries. Excluding the industrial fire group, all participants' symptoms on average decreased over the two year period. Burn severity, peritraumatic anxiety and dissociation predicted the long-term negative outcomes only in the industrial fire group. In conclusion, fire disaster survivors appear to experience higher levels of traumatic stress symptoms on the short term, but the long-term outcome appears dependent on factors different from the first response. Likely, the younger age, and several beneficial post-disaster factors such as psychosocial aftercare and social support, along with swift judicial procedures, contributed to the positive outcome in one disaster cohort.

  3. Disaster care for 15 million Californians.

    PubMed

    ROBINSON, H G

    1960-08-01

    The urgency of the crisis following a nuclear attack staggers the imagination. We would have thousands or millions of survivors making a desperate struggle to survive. Safe water supplies and waste-disposal systems would be gone. In some areas, there would be little or no food or shelter. Yet California has already manned a medical arsenal that is second to none in the United States. We have stored 115 emergency hospitals at strategic points, and through the county medical associations we have appointed cadres including physicians, nurses and technicians. Plans have been made for workers who will assist in setting up the hospitals and first aid stations. In our future operations we will continue to place strong emphasis on the medical phase of our program of disaster care.The program would be just as essential in the event of major natural disaster as nuclear war. Our objective is a simple one. We are seeking to preserve the human resources which are necessary for recovery.California's medical profession, with the allied professions of nursing and technical skills, has a vital interest in continuing operations to the maximum extent even under the most trying conditions.

  4. Management of blood system in disasters.

    PubMed

    Kuruppu, Kumudu K S

    2010-01-01

    Managing the blood system in disasters is one of the main challenges for any blood transfusion service exposed to natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and tsunamis, biological threats such as pandemic influenza as well as manmade disruptions and terrorism. Sri Lanka had to face contrasting types of situations. The most unexpected and dreadful one was the 2004 December 26 tsunami catastrophe which cost >30,000 human lives, leaving more than 23,000 injured. Health services were over-burdened with influx of dead bodies and injured people, most due to drowning. Injuries varied from small lacerations to deeper wounds, broken arms, legs, ribs, damaged organs and head injuries. The National Blood Transfusion Service, had to coordinate its blood supply effectively and to manage large number of blood donors during the first few days following tsunami. In contrast to the acute destruction of tsunami, Sri Lanka also faced a "chronic disaster" of 3 decades due to the separatist war waged by the Tamil Tigers, until it was completely terminated in 2009. There were large scale terrorist attacks using suicide bombers, land mines and claymore mines resulting in frequent influxes of dead bodies and injured patients to hospitals. The experiences of Sri Lanka blood system in the face of two contrasting types of disastrous situations are presented.

  5. Disaster Response in India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    and preventative measures. The cumulative effects of deforestation, erosion, water-logging, salinity and nutrient depletion all over the country have...and the Sahel (Mali, Niger); and 1982-86 drought in the Sahel (Sudan, Ethiopia). during disasters) in terms of migration and loss of employment but...attribute drought in the country to the following major causes: • El Niño effect, the periodic appearance of warm and saline oce- anic currents in the

  6. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  7. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  8. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  9. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  10. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  11. Population behavioral scenarios influencing radiological disaster preparedness and planning.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Ayse I; Lambert, James H; Guterbock, Thomas M; Clements, Janet L

    2012-09-01

    Considerable attention is focused on plans for sheltering or evacuating the population of the US national capital region in response to a regional emergency such as a terrorist attack or natural disaster. Such planning engages multiple disciplines spanning infrastructure engineering, emergency management, health care, mass communication, water and food supply, logistics, and others. Knowledge of population behaviors should influence the many dimensions of protection, prevention, response, and recovery. Of particular interest are the behaviors and needs of the resident and non-resident populations in the aftermath of a regional disaster, including those at home, at work, and traveling. The authors deployed a 30-min telephone survey to 2700 residents of the region to gain knowledge of their intended behaviors in the event of a variety of potential dirty bomb attacks. The survey provides a unique foundation for the current paper. The paper will identify and model the assumptions of population behaviors that most affect agency priorities for emergency planning including regional sheltering and evacuation following a radiological disaster such as a dirty bomb. The technical approach assessed several planning initiatives across performance criteria derived from strategic plans and applied combinations of behavioral assumptions to vary the relative importance of each criterion. The results reveal the behavioral scenarios that are most significant to the prioritization of planning initiatives and identify the highest and lowest priority initiatives across the criteria used.

  12. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  13. Dream project: Applications of earth observations to disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, G.; Gill, S.; Davies, R.; Betorz, F.; Andalsvik, Y.; Cackler, J.; Dos Santos, W.; Dunlop, K.; Ferreira, I.; Kebe, F.; Lamboglia, E.; Matsubara, Y.; Nikolaidis, V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, S.; Sakita, M.; Verstappen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of disaster risk management is relatively new and takes a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to the threat of natural and man-made disasters. Disaster risk management consists primarily of risk assessment and the development of strategies to mitigate disaster risk. This paper will discuss how increasing both Earth observation data and information technology capabilities can contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in Belize. The paper presents the results and recommendations of a project conducted by an international and interdisciplinary team of experts at the 2009 session of the International Space University in NASA Ames Research Center (California, USA). The aim is to explore the combination of current, planned and potential space-aided, airborne, and ground-based Earth observation tools, the emergence of powerful new web-based and mobile data management tools, and how this combination can support and improve the emerging field of disaster risk management. The starting point of the project was the World Bank's Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) program, focused in Central America. This program was used as a test bed to analyze current space technologies used in risk management and develop new strategies and tools to be applied in other regions around the world.

  14. Upper and lower respiratory diseases after occupational and environmental disasters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, David J; Levin, Stephen; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory consequences from occupational and environmental disasters are the result of inhalation exposures to chemicals, particulate matter (dusts and fibers) and/or the incomplete products of combustion that are often liberated during disasters such as fires, building collapses, explosions and volcanoes. Unfortunately, experience has shown that environmental controls and effective respiratory protection are often unavailable during the first days to week after a large-scale disaster. The English literature was reviewed using the key words-disaster and any of the following: respiratory disease, pulmonary, asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or sarcoidosis. Respiratory health consequences after aerosolized exposures to high-concentrations of particulates and chemicals can be grouped into 4 major categories: 1) upper respiratory disease (chronic rhinosinusitis and reactive upper airways dysfunction syndrome), 2) lower respiratory diseases (reactive [lower] airways dysfunction syndrome, irritant-induced asthma, and chronic obstructive airways diseases), 3) parenchymal or interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans, and 4) cancers of the lung and pleura. This review describes several respiratory consequences of occupational and environmental disasters and uses the World Trade Center disaster to illustrate in detail the consequences of chronic upper and lower respiratory inflammation.

  15. Financing Disaster Recovery and Resilience Mitigation for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Free webinar series on Financing for Disaster Recovery and Resilience Mitigation for Water and Wastewater Utilities, hosted by EPA's Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center and Water Security Division.

  16. Information technology and public health management of disasters--a model for South Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Dolly

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights the use of information technology (IT) in disaster management and public health management of disasters. Effective health response to disasters will depend on three important lines of action: (1) disaster preparedness; (2) emergency relief; and (3) management of disasters. This is facilitated by the presence of modern communication and space technology, especially the Internet and remote sensing satellites. This has made the use of databases, knowledge bases, geographic information systems (GIS), management information systems (MIS), information transfer, and online connectivity possible in the area of disaster management and medicine. This paper suggests a conceptual model called, "The Model for Public Health Management of Disasters for South Asia". This Model visualizes the use of IT in the public health management of disasters by setting up the Health and Disaster Information Network and Internet Community Centers, which will facilitate cooperation among all those in the areas of disaster management and emergency medicine. The suggested infrastructure would benefit the governments, non-government organizations, and institutions working in the areas of disaster and emergency medicine, professionals, the community, and all others associated with disaster management and emergency medicine. The creation of such an infrastructure will enable the rapid transfer of information, data, knowledge, and online connectivity from top officials to the grassroots organizations, and also among these countries regionally. This Model may be debated, modified, and tested further in the field to suit the national and local conditions. It is hoped that this exercise will result in a viable and practical model for use in public health management of disasters by South Asian countries.

  17. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Natural Disasters The Basics In the ...

  18. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  19. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  20. In the Eye of the Beholder: CMHC Reactions to Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    In response to the Hurricane Hugo disaster, the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (SCDMH) deployed 10 percent of its workforce to serve as members of "Go Teams" that worked with the Charleston Area Community Mental Health Center (CACMHC) staff and provided crisis intervention services to the community. This study examined the…

  1. 78 FR 7848 - New Jersey Disaster Number NJ-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION New Jersey Disaster Number NJ-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment...: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road,...

  2. 78 FR 42994 - Illinois Disaster Number IL-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Illinois Disaster Number IL-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center,...

  3. 78 FR 60008 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  4. 78 FR 36632 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  5. 78 FR 60008 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  6. 78 FR 7848 - New York Disaster Number NY-00130

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION New York Disaster Number NY-00130 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5.... Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  7. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  8. Disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces a network-enabled model to examine the disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations (STOs). Little attention is devoted to this matter in recent research. This study places emphasis on such organisations and the proposed model tests hypotheses related to network relation and coordination preparedness. It analyses the data set entitled 'Preparedness of large retail malls to prevent and respond to terrorist attack, 2004', which contains 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls in the United States.(1) The following questions form the basis of this study: 'What do STOs need to be better prepared to respond to a disaster?'; 'How does network relationship between STOs and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of STOs for disaster recovery?'; and 'Which centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse coordination preparedness?' The results show that STOs with a high level of connectedness and strong ties to other emergency agencies are better prepared for disaster response.

  9. Collaboration Between Academia and Practice: Interprofessional Crises Leadership and Disaster Management.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Cheryl; Farra, Sharon; Mainous, Rosalie; Baute, Rebecca; Gneuhs, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    An innovative interprofessional disaster preparedness program was designed and implemented through an academic-practice partnership between a large midwestern children's hospital and a community-based state university. This course was part of a constellation of courses developed in response to Presidential Directive (HSPD) 8, a mandate to standardize disaster response training that was issued after the inefficiencies following Hurricane Katrina. A hybrid immersive and didactic approach was used to train senior leadership and frontline clinicians. Included were simulated experiences at the National Center for Medical Readiness, a workshop, and online modules. The program that focused on crisis leadership and disaster management was developed and implemented to serve patient-centered organizations.

  10. 76 FR 27138 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Bradley, Greene, Hamilton, Washington. The Interest... 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P...

  11. The ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Chang, Philip; Maguina, Pirko; Combs, Elena; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-01-01

    On June 5, 2009, the ABC Daycare facility in Hermosillo, Mexico, caught on fire with an estimated 142 children and 6 adult caregivers inside. The purpose of this article is to describe the factors contributing to the disaster including care of the survivors, tertiary burn center triage, patient transport, and treatment for this international mass casualty event. Finally, the results of an investigation performed by the Mexican Government are reviewed. A summary of the Mexican Government's investigation of the circumstances of fire and an examination of prevention lapses in other Mexican daycare centers was obtained from their public Web site. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the children transported to the burn center were obtained from the patients' medical records and transport data sheets. The ABC Daycare had many fire safety breaches that contributed to the severity of the tragedy. Twenty-nine children died at the scene and more than 35 children were hospitalized throughout Mexico. A total of 12 children were transported to two Shriners Hospitals, 9 to Sacramento, and 3 to Cincinnati. The mean age of patients sent to the Shriners Hospitals was 2.9 ± 0.16 years (2-4 years), with 5 being male and 7 female. The mean duration between injury and arrival was 9.2 ± 2.1 days, the burn size was 43.0 ± 6.8% TBSA (6.5-80%), and there were 3.75 operations per patient. Four had fourth-degree burns requiring finger amputations (2), flaps to cover bone (1), or a through-knee amputation (1). Ten patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and nine patients (seven with inhalation injury) required mechanical ventilation for a mean of 23.6 ± 10.3 days. All the surviving children were discharged after a mean length of stay of 45.9 ± 8.7 days. In the first year postinjury, seven children were readmitted a total of 11 times for reconstructive surgery, wound care, or rehabilitation. Ultimately, a total of 49 children died. A review of other daycare centers

  12. Disaster Recovery and Data Centre Operational Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero Bejar, J.; Caramarcu, C.; De Stefano, J., Jr.; Ernst, M.; Fetzko, J.; Gamboa, C.; Hollowell, C.; Hover, J.; Kandasamy, S.; Karasawa, M.; Liu, Z.; Misawa, S.; Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Rind, O.; Smith, J.; Wlodek, T.; Wong, A.; Yu, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zhao, X.

    2014-06-01

    The RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility (RACF) at Brookhaven Lab is a dedicated data center serving the needs of the RHIC and US ATLAS community. Since it began operations in the mid-1990's, it has operated continuously with few unplanned downtimes. In the past 15 months, Brookhaven Lab has been affected by two hurricanes and a record-breaking snowstorm. In this presentation, we discuss lessons learned regarding (natural or man-made) disaster preparedness, operational continuity, remote access and safety protocols, including overall operational procedures developed as a result of these recent events.

  13. Invulnerability of grown Peer-to-Peer networks under progressive targeted attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao; Zhao, Dandan; Han, Jianmin; Lu, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    Security issues of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks have attracted more and more research in recent years. In this paper, using complex features of P2P networks, we shift the focus to the study of invulnerability of grown P2P networks under progressive targeted attacks. Based on dynamic process and reverse percolation theory, we present several mechanisms that attacked P2P networks can adopt to minimize the disasters aftermath progressive targeted attacks. In this process, we proposed: (i) the dynamics of grown P2P networks under targeted attacks can make sure an attacked P2P network restore a power-law (PL) characteristic to a normal level; (ii) a global degree restoring process from the aftermath of progressive targeted attacks can restore the status of set of high degree peers to normal; (iii) a reverse percolation process glues the fragmented small connected component of a destroyed grown P2P network into a giant connected component (GCC). Experimental results show that an attacked grown P2P network can restore the key characteristics, such as power-law characteristic of original P2P network, the set of high degree peers and the giant connected component, to a regular status. In this way, we can illustrate the invulnerability of progressive targeted attacks on grown P2P networks which is particularly useful in designing complex P2P networks.

  14. Scenario Graphs and Attack Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-14

    46 6.1 Vulnerability Analysis of a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.2 Sandia Red Team Attack Graph...asymptotic bound. The test machine was a 1Ghz Pentium III with 1GB of RAM, running Red Hat Linux 7.3. Figure 4.1(a) plots running time of the implemen...host scanning tools network information vulnerability Attack Graph network Red

  15. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  16. Iowa Statewide Disaster Recovery Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Barry L., Ed.

    The purpose in developing a statewide disaster recovery plan for libraries is to encourage librarians at the local level to develop their own plans to be used in time of disaster and to provide information about resources which can be used in an emergency. This manual provides self-assessment forms for identifying staff members and sources of…

  17. Supporting Adolescents Exposed to Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Anne K.; Vernberg, Eric; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents possess numerous strengths and vulnerabilities based on their unique stage of development. When youth experience a disaster, whether natural or human-caused, there are certain considerations to be taken into account when providing them with support. This article describes common adolescent reactions to the impact phase of disasters as…

  18. Regional Interagency Disaster Response Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Sullivan, D.; Butow, S.; Beilin, P.

    2008-12-01

    In affiliation with the "Great Worden Quake II" (GWQII) disaster preparedness exercise, the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field California, the Air Force National Guard (ANG) 129th Rescue Wing, Moffett Field, California, and the Bay Area Automated Mapping Association,led by the IT group for the City of Walnut Creek, California, will engage in a technology transfer demonstration utilizing the collaborative environment developed for NASA's very successful wildfire mapping campaigns during the years 2006-2008. The aircraft platform will be the ANG C-130, a viable candidate to substitute for the Ikana UAV, which cannot fly from Ames because of FAA restrictions on UAV flights over populated areas. In this technology transfer demonstration, we will: (1) Prove, document and train Regional Fire departments how to link and use NASA real-time data with existing software (ESRI, IRRIS, etc). (2) Demonstrate how to access and use this data as a bridge between the real-time (3) Refine the questions and capabilities that would be involved and developed with this type of real-time data available This paper describes this exercise.

  19. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims.

  20. Attack resilience of the evolving scientific collaboration network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Tse, Chi K

    2011-01-01

    Stationary complex networks have been extensively studied in the last ten years. However, many natural systems are known to be continuously evolving at the local ("microscopic") level. Understanding the response to targeted attacks of an evolving network may shed light on both how to design robust systems and finding effective attack strategies. In this paper we study empirically the response to targeted attacks of the scientific collaboration networks. First we show that scientific collaboration network is a complex system which evolves intensively at the local level--fewer than 20% of scientific collaborations last more than one year. Then, we investigate the impact of the sudden death of eminent scientists on the evolution of the collaboration networks of their former collaborators. We observe in particular that the sudden death, which is equivalent to the removal of the center of the egocentric network of the eminent scientist, does not affect the topological evolution of the residual network. Nonetheless, removal of the eminent hub node is exactly the strategy one would adopt for an effective targeted attack on a stationary network. Hence, we use this evolving collaboration network as an experimental model for attack on an evolving complex network. We find that such attacks are ineffectual, and infer that the scientific collaboration network is the trace of knowledge propagation on a larger underlying social network. The redundancy of the underlying structure in fact acts as a protection mechanism against such network attacks.

  1. Gout attacks and lunar cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikulecký, M; Rovenský, J

    2000-07-01

    The aim was to search for periodical fluctuations in daily occurrence of gout attacks during the synodic lunar cycle. 126 gout attacks were recorded between 1972 and 1994 at known calendar dates. The synodic plexogram, displaying the number of attacks for each day of the cycle, was processed by cosinor regression. A pronounced cycling was found, with highest peaks under the new and full moon (syzygigies). Thus, the maximal occurrence of attacks coincides with the peaking lunisolar tidal effect. Similar relation of attacks to synodic moon was seen in bronchial asthma of children, and a reciprocal one in paroxysmal tachyarrhythmia. Differing pathogenetic backgrounds of these diseases substantiate the observed differences in their putative reactions on the changing cosmogeophysical environment.

  2. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  3. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Attack? Updated:Sep 16,2016 Begin the quiz Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary ... in Women “Can you recognize a heart attack?” Quiz • Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack ...

  4. Web-based methods in terrorism and disaster research.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2006-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of the Internet for conducting studies after terrorist attacks and other large-scale disasters. We begin with a brief summary of the scientific and logistical challenges of conducting such research, followed by a description of some of the most important design features that are required to produce valid findings. We then describe one approach to Internet surveys that, although not perfect, addresses many of the challenges well. We close with some thoughts about how the Internet-based methods available today are likely to develop further in coming years.

  5. Squatters' nightmare: the political economy of disasters and disaster response in zambia.

    PubMed

    Mulwanda, M P

    1989-12-01

    Despite the frequency with which disasters occur, very few if any third world countries have developed elaborate disaster mitigation networks. Most commonly, governments in these countries focus their attention on disaster relief rather than disaster mitigation and preparedness. It is the contention of this paper that apart from the political and economic instability which will result from government apathy, lack of sensitivity to the question of disasters and disaster preparedness will result in untold suffering for the millions of our people who live on the urban margins and who are the most exposed to the dangers of disasters. This paper is about disasters and disaster response in Zambia.

  6. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  7. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  8. Principles and practice of disaster relief: lessons from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ernest; Bassily-Marcus, Adel M; Babu, Elizabeth; Silver, Lester; Martin, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Disaster relief is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the organizational processes that help prepare for and carry out all emergency functions necessary to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters caused by all hazards, whether natural, technological, or human-made. Although it is an important function of local and national governing in the developed countries, it is often wanting in resource-poor, developing countries where, increasingly, catastrophic disasters tend to occur and have the greatest adverse consequences. The devastating January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake is a case study of the impact of an extreme cataclysm in one of the poorest and most unprepared settings imaginable. As such, it offers useful lessons that are applicable elsewhere in the developing world. Emergency preparedness includes 4 phases: mitigation or prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Periods of normalcy are the best times to develop disaster preparedness plans. In resource-poor countries, where dealing with the expenses of daily living is already a burden, such planning is often neglected; and, when disasters strike, it is often with great delay that the assistance from international community can be deployed. In this increasingly interconnected world, the Haiti earthquake and the important international response to it make a strong case for a more proactive intervention of the international community in all phases of emergency management in developing countries, including in mitigation and preparedness, and not just in response and recovery. Predisaster planning can maximize the results of the international assistance and decrease the human and material tolls of inevitable disasters. There should be a minimum standard of preparedness that every country has to maintain and the international assistance to achieve that. International academic medical centers interested in global health could strengthen their programs by prospectively

  9. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  10. High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK IN A VERY LOW TURBULENCE LEVEL AIR STREAM by B.L.Hunt and P.C.Dexter 17 WIND AND WATER TUNNEL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF...FIGURE 1. TYPICAL FIGffTER FOREBODY LENGTHS It baa been convincingly shown in small-scale wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments that the apfro...attack taken during a water tunnel test. jn asymmetric vor~ox pattern io clearly ubewn. LOW ANGLE OF ATTACKC HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK (SYMMETRIC

  11. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator.

  12. Flight and full-scale wind-tunnel comparison of pressure distributions from an F-18 aircraft at high angles of attack. [Conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Lanser, Wendy R.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure distributions were obtained at nearly identical fuselage stations and wing chord butt lines in flight on the F-18 HARV at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and in the NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft. The static pressures were measured at the identical five stations on the forebody, three stations on the left and right leading-edge extensions, and three spanwise stations on the wing. Comparisons of the flight and wind-tunnel pressure distributions were made at alpha = 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg/59 deg. In general, very good agreement was found. Minor differences were noted at the forebody at alpha = 45 deg and 60 deg in the magnitude of the vortex footprints and a Mach number effect was noted at the leading-edge extension at alpha = 30 deg. The inboard leading edge flap data from the wind tunnel at alpha = 59 deg showed a suction peak that did not appear in the flight data. This was the result of a vortex from the corner of the leading edge flap whose path was altered by the lack of an engine simulation in the wind tunnel.

  13. Unpredictable, unpreventable and impersonal medicine: global disaster response in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Russell J; Quintana, Leonidas M

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recognized the devastating consequences of "unpredictable, unpreventable and impersonal" disasters-at least US $2 trillion in economic damage and more than 1.3 million lives lost from natural disasters in the last two decades alone. In many disasters (both natural and man-made) hundreds-and in major earthquakes, thousands-of lives are lost in the first days following the event because of the lack of medical/surgical facilities to treat those with potentially survivable injuries. Disasters disrupt and destroy not only medical facilities in the disaster zone but also infrastructure (roads, airports, electricity) and potentially local healthcare personnel as well. To minimize morbidity and mortality from disasters, medical treatment must begin immediately, within minutes ideally, but certainly within 24 h (not the days to weeks currently seen in medical response to disasters). This requires that all resources-medical equipment and support, and healthcare personnel-be portable and readily available; transport to the disaster site will usually require helicopters, as military medical response teams in developed countries have demonstrated. Some of the resources available and in development for immediate medical response for disasters-from portable CT scanners to telesurgical capabilities-are described. For immediate deployment, these resources-medical equipment and personnel-must be ready for deployment on a moment's notice and not require administrative approvals or bureaucratic authorizations from numerous national and international agencies, as is presently the case. Following the "trauma center/stroke center" model, disaster response incorporating "disaster response centers" would be seamlessly integrated into the ongoing daily healthcare delivery systems worldwide, from medical education and specialty training (resident/registrar) to acute and subacute intensive care to long-term rehabilitation. The benefits of such a global disaster

  14. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack Updated:Sep 16,2016 Knowledge is power, so ... medication. This content was last reviewed June 2016. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  15. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  16. Review of Recent Large-Scale Burn Disasters Worldwide in Comparison to Preparedness Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Dai, Andrea; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Mandell, Samuel P; Fudem, Gary; Gibran, Nicole S; Pham, Tam N

    The US National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program indicates that each care facility must have "a plan to care for at least 50 cases per million people for patients suffering burns or trauma" to receive national funding disaster preparedness. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this directive is commensurate with the severity recent burn disasters, both nationally and internationally. We conducted a review of medical journal articles, investigative fire reports, and media news sources for major burn disasters dating from 1990 to present day. We defined a major burn disaster as any incident with ≥50 burn injuries and/or ≥ 30 burn-related deaths. We compared existing preparedness guidelines with the magnitude of recent burn disasters using as reference the 2005 U.S. Health and Human Services directive that each locale must "have a plan to care for at least 50 cases per million people for patients suffering burns or trauma." We reported the number of actual casualties for each incident, and estimated the number of burn beds theoretically available if the "50 [burn-injury] cases per million people" directive were to be applied to metropolitan areas outside the United States. Seven hundred fifty-two burn disaster incidents met our inclusion criteria. The majority of burn disasters occurred in Asia/Middle East. The incidence of major burn disasters from structural fires and industrial blasts remains constant in high-income and resource-restricted countries during this study period. The incidence of terrorist attacks increased 20-fold from 2001 to 2015 compared with 1990 to 2000. Recent incidents demonstrate that if current preparedness guidelines were to be adopted internationally, local resources including burn-bed availability would be insufficient to care for the total number of burn casualties. These findings underscore an urgent need to organize better regional, national, and international collaboration in burn disaster response.

  17. Nortriptyline in the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia with panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Munjack, D J; Usigli, R; Zulueta, A; Crocker, B; Adatia, N; Buckwalter, J G; Baltazar, P; Kurvink, W; Inglove, H; Kelly, R

    1988-06-01

    Thirty-four consecutive patients with panic disorder or agoraphobia with panic attacks were treated with nortriptyline at the LAC-USC Medical Center's Anxiety Disorders Clinic. Fourteen (67%) of the 21 completers totally lost their panic attacks, five (24%) showed partial improvement, and two (10%) showed no improvement. The relationship of treatment outcome to pretreatment and posttreatment measures of depression is discussed, in addition to the potential role of nortriptyline in treating panic attacks in clinical practice.

  18. On the offensive against brain attack

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Healthcare Technologies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has undertaken a stroke initiative whose purpose is to provide the medical community with the tools that will allow doctors to diagnose and treat stroke as aggressively as they do heart attack. A multidisciplinary team of stroke-initiative researchers is collaborating with academic medical centers and private companies to move these tools from the research and development stage through clinical trials, regulatory approval, and manufacture so that they can benefit many thousands of people who have strokes each year. Tools the team has developed fall into four categories: microsensors for brain and clot characterization, a catheter-based system using laser energy to break up clots in the blood vessels of the brain, laser-tissue interaction models in support of laser {open_quotes}clot busting,{close_quotes} and microtools for treating the aneurysms that cause hemorrhagic stroke.

  19. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  20. C41SR and Urban Disasters Disaster Response & Recovery Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Brouillette, Greg A.

    2007-03-27

    These are slides for various presentations on C41SR and urban disasters disasters response and recovery tools. These are all mainly charts and images of disaster response and recovery tools. Slides included have headings such as the following: vignette of a disaster response, situational awareness and common operating picture available to EOC, plume modeling capability, Program ASPECT Chemical Response Products, EPA ASPECT - Hurricane RITA Response 9/25/2005, Angel Fire Imagery, incident commander's view/police chief's view/ EMS' view, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training capability, systems diagram, Austere Challenge 06 Sim/C4 Requirements, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training environment, common situational awareness, real world, crisis response, and consequence management.

  1. Limit Asthma Attacks Caused by Colds or Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attack. References Bailey W, et al. Trigger control to enhance asthma management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 19, ... Flu and people with asthma. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... and Management of Asthma. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. ...

  2. Revising School Attack Protections since 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, prompted federal officials to step up campaigns to make schools safe. After visiting Ground Zero at New York City's World Trade Center, Education Secretary Rodney Paige sent each chief state school officer suggestions for managing school crises. Many states also have school safety plans in place. New…

  3. [A new stream of the next disaster response with a variety of hospital ship in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kato, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    In Japan, experience from an earthquake has always provided an opportunity to reconsider measures of disaster preparedness. To facilitate decision-making and its enforcement in a large-scale disaster response, a cross-agency organization and tough infrastructure are required as a foundation of crisis management. In the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Management Center could not perform their mission due to the collapse of various infrastructure caused by the earthquake. The archipelago structure of Japan is easy terrain that provides approach from the shore to any place in the country; this makes it possible to plan effective relief operations. Therefore, in preparing for the next large-scale disaster, the use of a hospital ship has been discussed as one of the strong bases to combat collapse of infrastructure. For effective utilization of the ship, we will discuss the main points collated from experience of past disaster responses and training.

  4. The growing role of web-based geospatial technology in disaster response and support.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Akiyuki; Berman, Merrick Lex; Guan, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines changes in disaster response and relief efforts and recent web-based geospatial technological developments through an evaluation of the experiences of the Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University, of the Sichuan (2008) and Haiti (2010) earthquake responses. This paper outlines how conventional GIS (geographic information systems) disaster responses by governmental agencies and relief response organisations and the means for geospatial data-sharing have been transformed into a more dynamic, more transparent, and decentralised form with a wide participation. It begins by reviewing briefly at historical changes in the employment of geospatial technologies in major devastating disasters, including the Sichuan and Haiti earthquakes (case studies for our geospatial portal project). It goes on to assess changes in the available dataset type and in geospatial disaster responders, as well as the impact of geospatial technological changes on disaster relief effort. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learned from recent responses and offers some thoughts for future development.

  5. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-15

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  6. Burn disaster response planning: an urban region's approach.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Roger W; Lazar, Eliot J; Leahy, Nicole E; Cagliuso, Nicholas V; Rabbitts, Angela C; Akkapeddi, Vijay; Cooper, Arthur; Dajer, Antonio; Delaney, Jack; Mineo, Frank P; Silber, Steven H; Soloff, Lewis; Magbitang, Kevin; Mozingo, David W

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a draft response plan for the tiered triage, treatment, or transportation of 400 adult and pediatric victims (50/million population) of a burn disaster for the first 3 to 5 days after injury using regional resources. Review of meeting minutes and the 11 deliverables of the draft response plan was performed. The draft burn disaster response plan developed for NYC recommended: 1) City hospitals or regional burn centers within a 60-mile distance be designated as tiered Burn Disaster Receiving Hospitals (BDRH); 2) these hospitals be divided into a four-tier system, based on clinical resources; and 3) burn care supplies be provided to Tier 3 nonburn centers. Existing burn center referral guidelines were modified into a hierarchical BDRH matrix, which would vector certain patients to local or regional burn centers for initial care until capacity is reached; the remainder would be cared for in nonburn center facilities for up to 3 to 5 days until a city, regional, or national burn bed becomes available. Interfacility triage would be coordinated by a central team. Although recommendations for patient transportation, educational initiatives for prehospital and hospital providers, city-wide, interfacility or interagency communication strategies and coordination at the State or Federal levels were outlined, future initiatives will expound on these issues. An incident resulting in critically injured burn victims exceeding the capacity of local and regional burn center beds may be a reality within any community and warrants a planned response. To address this possibility within New York City, an initial draft of a burn disaster response has been created. A scaleable plan using local, state, regional, or federal health care and governmental institutions was developed.

  7. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2005 FEB 2005 Selective Availability Anti- Spoofing Module (SAASM)/ GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A MAR 2005 SEP 2005 MAR 2005 Change Explanations...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  8. Duloxetine-related panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients' trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who responded to duloxetine treatment administered in the initial dose of 30 mg per day with as many as three panic attacks in two days. Upon duloxetine withdrawal, these panic attacks ceased as well. The patient continued tianeptine and alprazolam treatment during which no significant side-effects had been seen, so that she gradually recovered. Some of the available literature sources have suggested the possibility of duloxetine administration to the end of generalised anxiety disorder and panic attack treatment. However, they are outnumbered by the contributions reporting about duloxetine-related anxiety, aggressiveness and panic attacks. In line with the foregoing, further monitoring of each and every duloxetine-administered patient group needs to be pursued so as to be able to evaluate treatment benefits and weigh them against risks of anxiety or panic attack onset.

  9. Exposure to Trauma and Separation Anxiety in Children after the WTC Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, Christina W.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Erickson, Elizabeth A.; Musa, George J.; Mandell, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of exposure to the World Trade Center attack on children presenting separation anxiety disorder (SAD) 6 months after the attack was studied in a representative sample of New York City public school students (N = 8,236). Probable SAD occurred in 12.3% of the sample and was more frequent in girls, young children, and children who…

  10. Epidemic activity after natural disasters without high mortality in developing settings

    PubMed Central

    Loayza-Alarico, Manuel J; Lescano, Andres G; Suarez-Ognio, Luis A; Ramirez-Prada, Gladys M; Blazes, David L

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters with minimal human mortality rarely capture headlines but occur frequently and result in significant morbidity and economic loss. We compared the epidemic activity observed after a flood, an earthquake, and volcanic activity in Peru. Following post-disaster guidelines, healthcare facilities and evacuation centers surveyed 10–12 significant health conditions for ~45 days and compared disease frequency with Poisson regression. The disasters affected 20,709 individuals and 15% were placed in evacuation centers. Seven deaths and 6,056 health conditions were reported (mean: 0.29 per person). Health facilities reported fewer events than evacuation centers (0.06–0.24 vs. 0.65–2.02, P < 0.001) and disease notification increased 1.6 times after the disasters (95% CI: 1.5–1.6). Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent event (41–57%) and psychological distress was second/third (7.6% to 14.3%). Morbidity increased after disasters without substantial casualties, particularly at evacuation centers, with frequent respiratory infections and psychological distress. Post-disaster surveillance is valuable even after low-mortality events. PMID:28228992

  11. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  12. Selected infectious disease disasters for nursing staff training at Egyptian Eastern Border.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Labib, Nargis Albert; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Ibrahim, Abeer Mohammad Abdallah; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-04-01

    Infectious disease disasters are events that involve a biological agent, disease and that result in mass casualties, such as a bioterrorism attack, an emerging outbreak of infectious disease; all disasters pose a risk of infection transmission. But, infectious disease disasters pose the great-risk to illness or death from an infectious disease. This study raised the awareness and improved knowledge by educational program for Military Nursing Staff on selected infectious disease disasters acquired at Egyptian Eastern Border. The selected arthropod-borne diseases were Anthrax, Tick borne relapsing, Louse borne replasing fever and liver fluke; Clonorchis sinensis. An interventional study was used, for 125 staff nurse who accepted to participate. The tools dealt with four questionnaires: (1) Some sociodemographic characteristics data (2) Educational needs assessment a structured questionnaire. (3) Knowledge test (pre/post-test) and (4) Participants' reactions questionnaire. The results showed that educational intervention significantly improvements the nursing staff knowledge, which were achieved at the immediate post intervention phase, and retained via three months post-test phase. In the service training programs about infectious disease disasters at Egyptian Eastern Border must be established and continued on regular basis. This would improve their knowledge about the epidemiology of these infectious disease disasters.

  13. Infections and sepsis in disasters.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, S M; Nichols, R L

    1991-04-01

    It seems reasonable to expect that infections will occur after certain types of disasters. There are some data to support this conjecture in studies of tornadoes, hurricanes, and mass trauma situations. We have tried to extrapolate from these data what we believe will be the infectious effects of different types of disasters, taking into account the potential for alteration in the host secondary to injury, the modification of living conditions, and the possibility of the disruption of medical care.

  14. The National Disaster Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reutershan, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Mobilization Preparedness Board developed plans for improved national preparedness in case of major catastrophic domestic disaster or the possibility of an overseas conventional conflict. Within the health and medical arena, the working group on health developed the concept and system design for the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). A description of NDMS is presented including the purpose, key components, medical response, patient evacuation, definitive medical care, NDMS activation and operations, and summary and benefits.

  15. Selected resources for emergency and disaster preparedness and response from the United States National Library of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hochstein, Colette; Arnesen, Stacey; Goshorn, Jeanne; Szczur, Marti

    2008-01-01

    The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) works to organize and provide access to a wide range of environmental health and toxicology resources. In recent years, the demand for, and availability of, information on health issues related to natural and man-made emergencies and disasters has increased. Recognizing that access to information is essential in disaster preparedness, a new focus of NLM's 2006-2016 Long Range Plan calls for the establishment of a Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) that will aid in collecting, disseminating, and sharing information related to health and disasters. This paper introduces several of TEHIP's resources for emergency/disaster preparedness and response, such as the Radiation Event Medical Management Web site (REMM) and the Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) . Several of NLM's other disaster preparedness and response resources will also be reviewed.

  16. RoboCup-Rescue: an international cooperative research project of robotics and AI for the disaster mitigation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Satoshi; Kitano, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Tomoichi; Noda, Itsuki; Matsubara, Hitoshi; Shinjoh, Atsushi; Koto, Tetsuo; Takeuchi, Ikuo; Takahashi, Hironao; Matsuno, Fumitoshi; Hatayama, Mitsunori; Nobe, Jun; Shimada, Susumu

    2000-07-01

    This paper introduces the RoboCup-Rescue Simulation Project, a contribution to the disaster mitigation, search and rescue problem. A comprehensive urban disaster simulator is constructed on distributed computers. Heterogeneous intelligent agents such as fire fighters, victims and volunteers conduct search and rescue activities in this virtual disaster world. A real world interface integrates various sensor systems and controllers of infrastructures in the real cities with the real world. Real-time simulation is synchronized with actual disasters, computing complex relationship between various damage factors and agent behaviors. A mission-critical man-machine interface provides portability and robustness of disaster mitigation centers, and augmented-reality interfaces for rescue in real disasters. It also provides a virtual- reality training function for the public. This diverse spectrum of RoboCup-Rescue contributes to the creation of the safer social system.

  17. Applying a Behavioral Model Framework for Disaster Recovery Research in Local Public Health Agencies: A Conceptual Approach.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Lauren; Garrity, Stephanie; Rutkow, Lainie; Thompson, Carol B; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Altman, Brian A; Schor, Kenneth; Barnett, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    The local public health agency (LPHA) workforce is at the center of the public health emergency preparedness system and is integral to locally driven disaster recovery efforts. Throughout the disaster recovery period, LPHAs have a primary responsibility for community health and are responsible for a large number of health services. In the face of decreasing preparedness funding and increasing frequency and severity of disasters, LPHAs continue to provide essential disaster life cycle services to their communities. However, little is known about the confidence that LPHA workers have in performing disaster recovery-related duties. To date, there is no widely used instrument to measure LPHA workers' sense of efficacy, nor is there an educational intervention designed specifically to bolster disaster recovery-phase efficacy perceptions. Here, we describe the important role of the LPHA workforce in disaster recovery and the operational- and efficacy-related research gaps inherent in today's disaster recovery practices. We then propose a behavioral framework that can be used to examine LPHA workers' disaster recovery perceptions and suggest a research agenda to enhance LPHA workforce disaster recovery efficacy through an evidence-informed educational intervention.

  18. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  19. A disaster relief exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  20. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  1. Burn disaster preparedness and the southern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy; Holmes, James; Cairns, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Disasters with significant numbers of burn-injured patients create incredible challenges for disaster planners. Although not unique to burn care, high-intensity areas of specialty such as burns, pediatrics, and trauma quickly become scarce resources in a disaster.All disasters are local, but regional support is critical in burn disaster planning. On a day-to-day basis, burn bed capacity can be problematic. A review of the literature and our experiences, including mathematical modeling and real events, reaffirm how rapidly we can overwhelm our resources.This review includes the Southern Burn Plan, created by the burn centers of the American Burn Association's Southern Region, should there be a need for additional hospital burn beds (capacity) and burn care (capability) in response to a disaster. This article also explores planning and preparedness developments and describes options to improve our efforts, including training and education.It is incumbent upon everyone in the healthcare profession to become comfortable managing burn-injured patients until the patients can be moved to a burn center. Understanding the regional capacity, capability, and when a surge of patients may require the practice of altered standards of care is essential for those involved in medical disaster preparedness.

  2. Disaster Management with a Next Generation Disaster Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.

  3. Preparing for disasters: Enhancing the role of pediatric nurses in wartime.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2002-08-01

    During the tragic terrorist attacks that occurred against the United States on September 11, 2001, nurses were on the front lines making a difference for patients, families, and children. As noted in the American Nurse, the official publication of the American Nurses Association, "September 11, 2001, is no longer just a day gone by. It now takes the place alongside other infamous dates like December 7, 1941, the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan" (Trossman, 2001, p. 1). This article will focus on resources available for pediatric nurses to use when working with children and families who are either preparing for or responding to disasters.

  4. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  5. Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters.

    PubMed

    Sauer, S W; Keim, M E

    2001-06-01

    The United States is under the constant threat of a mass casualty cyanide disaster from industrial accidents, hazardous material transportation incidents, and deliberate terrorist attacks. The current readiness for cyanide disaster by the emergency medical system in the United States is abysmal. We, as a nation, are simply not prepared for a significant cyanide-related event. The standard of care for cyanide intoxication is the cyanide antidote kit, which is based on the use of nitrites to induce methemoglobinemia. This kit is both expensive and ill suited for out-of-hospital use. It also has its own inherent toxicity that prevents rapid administration. Furthermore, our hospitals frequently fail to stock this life-saving antidote or decline to stock more than one. Hydroxocobalamin is well recognized as an efficacious, safe, and easily administered cyanide antidote. Because of its extremely low adverse effect profile, it is ideal for out-of-hospital use in suspected cyanide intoxication. To effectively prepare for a cyanide disaster, the United States must investigate, adopt, manufacture, and stockpile hydroxocobalamin to prevent needless morbidity and mortality.

  6. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  7. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-07

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments.

  8. Eyespots divert attacks by fish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish’ own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Manhattan, New York City, after the September 11th terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Gold, Joel; Bucuvalas, Michael; Kilpatrick, Dean; Stuber, Jennifer; Vlahov, David

    2002-09-01

    Estimates of acute mental health symptoms in the general population after disasters are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in residents of Manhattan 5-8 weeks after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. We used random-digit dialing to contact a representative sample of adults living in Manhattan below 110th Street. Participants were interviewed about prior life events, personal characteristics, exposure to the events of September 11th, and psychological symptoms after the attack. Among 988 eligible adults, 19.3% reported symptoms consistent with PTSD at some point in their life, and 8.8% reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of current (within the past 30 days) PTSD. Overall, 57.8% of respondents reported at least one PTSD symptom in the past month. The most common past-month symptoms were intrusive memories (27.4%) and insomnia (24.5%). Predictors of current PTSD in a multivariable model were residence below Canal Street, low social support, life stressors 12 months prior to September 11th, perievent panic attack, losing possessions in the attacks, and involvement in the rescue efforts. These findings can help guide resource planning for future disasters in densely populated urban areas.

  10. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  11. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  12. Promoting a culture of disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Medina, Angeli

    2016-01-01

    Disasters from all hazards, ranging from natural disasters, human-induced disasters, effects of climate change to social conflicts can significantly affect the healthcare system and community. This requires a paradigm shift from a reactive approach to a disaster risk management 'all-hazards' approach. Disaster management is a joint effort of the city, state, regional, national, multi-agencies and international organisations that requires effective communication, collaboration and coordination. This paper offers lessons learned and best practices, which, when taken into consideration, can strengthen the phases of disaster risk management.

  13. The role of the organisational psychologist in disasters and emergency situations.

    PubMed

    San Juan Guillén, César

    2011-04-01

    Interventions in extreme situations, such as natural or technological disasters, terrorist attacks or emergencies in general, take place in settings of great uncertainty and are always accompanied by extraordinary circumstances. For this reason, there are various processes related to implementing intervention protocols that must be carefully examined, including an evaluation of work scenarios, personnel selection, within-group relationships in work teams, decision-making processes, or certain peculiarities of burnout among emergency personnel. In the view of this author, an ad hoc review of the role of the organisational psychologist can highlight interesting analysis and performance possibilities that could make work in emergency and disasters contexts more effective. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of the organisational psychologist pre-and post-disaster. Furthermore, it supports the idea that professional profiles must be designed that take into account specific knowledge and skills, as well as certain aptitudes and values.

  14. Structure and needs of global loss databases about natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Global loss databases are used for trend analyses and statistics in scientific projects, studies for governmental and nongovernmental organizations and for the insurance and finance industry as well. At the moment three global data sets are established: EM-DAT (CRED), Sigma (Swiss Re) and NatCatSERVICE (Munich Re). Together with the Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) started a collaborative initiative in 2007 with the aim to agreed on and implemented a common "Disaster Category Classification and Peril Terminology for Operational Databases". This common classification has been established through several technical meetings and working groups and represents a first and important step in the development of a standardized international classification of disasters and terminology of perils. This means concrete to set up a common hierarchy and terminology for all global and regional databases on natural disasters and establish a common and agreed definition of disaster groups, main types and sub-types of events. Also the theme of georeferencing, temporal aspects, methodology and sourcing were other issues that have been identified and will be discussed. The implementation of the new and defined structure for global loss databases is already set up for Munich Re NatCatSERVICE. In the following oral session we will show the structure of the global databases as defined and in addition to give more transparency of the data sets behind published statistics and analyses. The special focus will be on the catastrophe classification from a moderate loss event up to a great natural catastrophe, also to show the quality of sources and give inside information about the assessment of overall and insured losses. Keywords: disaster category classification, peril terminology, overall and insured losses, definition

  15. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  16. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  17. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  18. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. International decade for natural disaster reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout history, humanity has found itself in conflict with naturally occurring events of geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric origin. this conflict has been demonstrated repeatedly when people build urban centers at the water's edge, in or near active fault systems capable of generating earthquakes, on steep slopes, near active volcanoes, or at the urban-wilderness interface prone to wildfires. Naturally occurring, recurrent events such as floods, windstorms, tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires have tested human-engineered works many times and have often found them unable to withstand the forces generated by the event. In the past 20 years, for example, events like these throughout the world have claimed more than 2.8 million lives and adversely affected 820 million people; single disasters have caused economic losses of billions of dollars. Industrialized countries like the United States and Japan have been able to absorb the socioeconomic losses of past natural disasters, but the economics of many developing countries have been devastated by losses equal to a large percentage of their gross national product. Furthermore, the magnitude of the losses is increasing at a rapid rate as the building wealth of nations is expanded to meet the needs of rapidly increasing population, often without adequate consideration of the potential threat posed by the recurrent natural hazards and without implementing effective loss-reduction measures because of lack of knowledge or lack of technical capability. 

  1. Command and Control During the First 72 Hours of a Joint Military-Civilian Disaster Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and Governor Blanco (both Democrats), and their collective relationship to the Republican administration. The fact is, managing disaster response...Chef Menteur Highway across the industrial canal , who were reportedly attacking contractors of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers involved in the...17th Street Canal repair. 2007 Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium Adapting C2 to the 21st Century – Newport, Rhode Island, USA, June

  2. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  3. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  4. Alcohol use in New York after the terrorist attacks: A study of the effects of psychological trauma on drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Research has suggested that exposure to psychological trauma is associated with increased abuse of psychoactive substances, particularly alcohol. To assess this, we analyzed alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence among a random sample of 1681 New York City adults 1 year and 2 years after the September 11 attacks. In multivariate models controlling for demographic factors, other stressor exposures, social psychological resources, and history of anti-social behavior, we found that greater exposure to the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) was associated with greater alcohol consumption at 1 year and 2 years after this event. In addition, our analyses also indicated that exposure to the WTCD was associated with binge drinking at 1 year after but not 2 years after this event. Alcohol dependence, assessed as present in either year 1 or year 2, also was positively associated with greater WTCD exposures. Posttraumatic stress disorder was not associated with alcohol use, once WTCD exposure and other covariates were controlled. Our study suggests that exposure to psychological trauma may be associated with increases in problem drinking long after exposure and deserves further investigation. PMID:15982827

  5. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  6. Post disaster resilience

    PubMed Central

    Nicdao, Ethel G; Noel, La Tonya; Ai, Amy L; Plummer, Carol; Groff, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The present analyses examined the differential risks of and protective factors against depressive symptoms of African American and Non-Hispanic White American student volunteers, respectively after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (H-KR). A total sample of 554 student volunteers were recruited from mental health professional programs at five universities located in the Deep South, namely areas severely impacted by H-KR during fall semester 2005. The response rate was 91% (n = 505). African American respondents (n = 299) and Non-Hispanic White Americans (n = 206) completed the survey questionnaires. Respondents retrospectively provided information on peritraumatic emotional reactions and previous trauma that were recalled by H-KR and H-KR stressors. African American respondents reported higher levels of depressive symptoms (65.2%) than their Non-Hispanic White counterparts (34.8%). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that disaster related stressors affected African Americans (p < 0.001), but not Non-Hispanic Whites. However, African Americans who experienced peritraumatic positive emotions had lower depression levels. Lower rates of recollection of prior traumas during H-KR were reported by African American respondents, whereas previous trauma recollections predicted symptoms among Non-Hispanic White Americans (p < 0.05). Exhibiting more optimism had lower depression levels among Non-Hispanic White Americans. Peritraumatic negative emotion was the only shared risk for depressive symptoms of both groups. Findings underscore racially different levels of depressive symptoms that may contribute to varying degrees of resilience among student volunteers. Future research and practice may address these racial differences by understanding the risk factors for depressive symptoms to develop appropriate interventions for racial groups, and cultivating the protective factors that contribute to resilience from traumatic experiences.

  7. Emergency Wound Care After a Natural Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  8. 78 FR 45283 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00066

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Missouri Disaster MO-00066 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Barton; Callaway; Cape Girardeau; Chariton;...

  9. 78 FR 45282 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Clearfield; Fayette;...

  10. 78 FR 15796 - Michigan Disaster #MI-00038.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Michigan Disaster MI-00038. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mecosta. Contiguous Counties: Michigan:...

  11. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  12. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  13. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  14. [Psychic consequences of natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Agnieszka; Malyszczak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters were presented according to: development of the diagnosis of PTSD, variability of factors impacting on formation and sustenance (support) of distemper related to a cataclysm. The natural disaster causing emotional sufferings might be also the reason of psychic distempers that led to: 1. real or anticipate fear of death, 2. physical injuries, 3. economic loss, or 4. death of the relatives. Occurrence of PTSD relies on the pre-traumatic factors (like sex, coexistence of psychic disaster and/or risk of any other traumatic disturbances in the past, economical status, education), on the sort, intensity and duration of keeping the disorders initiated by the stressor and on the posttraumatic features such as social and psychological support.

  15. Disaster mental health services: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Weeks, S M

    1999-02-01

    1. Services that may be provided by psychiatric-mental health nurses following a disaster include education, intervention, problem solving, advocacy, and referral. 2. Nurses providing disaster mental health services must be flexible and creative. Strong observational skills and teamwork are also essential characteristics in disaster settings. 3. Psychiatric-mental health nurses who wish to receive training for disaster mental health volunteer opportunities should contact their local chapter of the American Red Cross.

  16. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  17. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  18. 75 FR 6681 - National Disaster Recovery Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Disaster Recovery Framework AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Management Agency (FEMA), in coordination with the interagency Long Term Disaster Recovery Working Group, is accepting comments on the draft National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF). The NDRF is intended to work...

  19. 77 FR 15179 - Disaster Declaration for Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Counties: Clallam, Grays Harbor, King, Klickitat, Lewis, Mason, Pierce, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston... ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13027 and 13028; Washington Disaster WA-00036] Disaster Declaration for Washington AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of...

  20. 75 FR 60588 - Immediate Disaster Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...This interim final rule implements the provision in the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (the Farm Act) which requires SBA to establish a guaranteed disaster loan program to provide interim loans to businesses affected by a disaster. Under that authority, this rule establishes the Immediate Disaster Assistance Program (IDAP), including the requirements for carrying out the program.......

  1. Characteristics of Disaster Associated with Chronic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew

    Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…

  2. 77 FR 61815 - California Disaster #CA-00190

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00190 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California...'s disaster declaration for the State of California, dated 09/14/2012 I hereby amended to...

  3. 75 FR 17792 - California Disaster # CA-00150

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00150 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of disaster for the State of California.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Administrative disaster declaration for the State of...

  4. 76 FR 80446 - California Disaster #CA-00182

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...] California Disaster CA-00182 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 12/19/2011... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Los Angeles. Contiguous Counties: California:...

  5. 75 FR 27846 - California Disaster # CA-00155

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 95 (Tuesday, May 18, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 27846] [FR Doc No: 2010-11746] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12166 and 12167] California Disaster CA... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of California (FEMA-...

  6. 75 FR 8414 - California Disaster # CA-00150

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00150 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 02/16... disaster: Primary Counties: Los Angeles. Contiguous Counties: California: Kern, Orange San...

  7. 76 FR 18614 - California Disaster #CA-00167

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00167 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 03/29... the disaster: Primary Counties: Del Norte. Contiguous Counties: California: Humboldt, Siskiyou....

  8. 78 FR 47816 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 07/29/2013... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Perry. Contiguous Counties:...

  9. 76 FR 18288 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 03/18...'s disaster declaration in the State of Ohio, dated 03/18/2011, is hereby amended to establish...

  10. 75 FR 61229 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of OHIO dated 09/27/2010... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Athens. Contiguous Counties: Ohio: Hocking,...

  11. 75 FR 47859 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00022.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00022. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 08/04/2010... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Lawrence. Contiguous Counties:...

  12. 77 FR 16315 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 03/13/2012... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Clermont. Contiguous Counties: Ohio: Brown,...

  13. 75 FR 47858 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00021

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 08/04/2010... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Wood. Contiguous Counties:...

  14. 76 FR 45644 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00016

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... is hereby amended to modify the incident description for this disaster from Monument Fire to Monument... ADMINISTRATION Arizona Disaster AZ-00016 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of disaster for the State of Arizona dated...

  15. 75 FR 69733 - California Disaster #CA-00161

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Doc No: 2010-28587] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12373 and 12374] California Disaster CA-00161 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 11/05/2010....

  16. 76 FR 44976 - Washington Disaster # WA-00031

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... No: 2011-18896] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12693 and 12694] Washington Disaster WA-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Washington dated 07/19/2011....

  17. 77 FR 76584 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-31302] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13420 and 13421] Massachusetts Disaster MA-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated...

  18. 77 FR 41248 - Disaster Designation Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... the comments. Definitions Comment: Removing the list of examples of unusual and adverse weather... disaster as an unusual or severe weather condition or other natural phenomena that causes severe losses..., and other property losses. Natural disaster is a disaster in which unusual and adverse...

  19. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  20. 78 FR 3494 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Mississippi Disaster MS-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Mississippi dated 01... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Pearl River. Contiguous Counties: Mississippi;...

  1. 76 FR 76801 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Doc No: 2011-31555] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12938 and 12939] Mississippi... an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MISSISSIPPI dated 11/29/2011. Incident... the disaster: Primary Counties: Jones. Contiguous Counties: Mississippi Covington, Forrest,...

  2. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe PMID:19561968

  3. 9/11-Related Experiences and Tasks of Landfill and Barge Workers: Qualitative Analysis from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have documented the experiences of individuals who participated in the recovery and cleanup efforts at the World Trade Center Recovery Operation at Fresh Kills Landfill, on debris loading piers, and on transport barges after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of workers and volunteers from the World Trade Center Health Registry. Qualitative methods were used to analyze the narratives. Results Twenty workers and volunteers were interviewed. They described the transport of debris to the Landfill via barges, the tasks and responsibilities associated with their post-9/11 work at the Landfill, and their reflections on their post-9/11 experiences. Tasks included sorting through debris, recovering human remains, searching for evidence from the terrorist attacks, and providing food and counseling services. Exposures mentioned included dust, fumes, and odors. Eight years after the World Trade Center disaster, workers expressed frustration about poor risk communication during recovery and cleanup work. Though proud of their contributions in the months after 9/11, some participants were concerned about long-term health outcomes. Conclusions This qualitative study provided unique insight into the experiences, exposures, and concerns of understudied groups of 9/11 recovery and cleanup workers. The findings are being used to inform the development of subsequent World Trade Center Health Registry exposure and health assessments. PMID:21575237

  4. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    PubMed

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

    2012-06-01

    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  5. No Evidence of Suicide Increase Following Terrorist Attacks in the United States: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B.

    2009-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of…

  6. Ethics in disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkash, S.

    2012-04-01

    Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India

  7. Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN): Preparing Families for Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Carolyn; Saunders, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    According to the American Red Cross (n.d.), less than half of Americans have an emergency preparedness plan in place. Therefore, it is critical that the Cooperative Extension System takes a role in encouraging the development of family preparedness plans. The Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN) has developed a family and consumer sciences…

  8. Challenges in disaster data collection during recent disasters.

    PubMed

    Morton, Melinda; Levy, J Lee

    2011-06-01

    Gathering essential health data to provide rapid and effective medical relief to populations devastated by the effects of a disaster-producing event involves challenges. These challenges include response to environmental hazards, security of personnel and resources, political and economic issues, cultural barriers, and difficulties in communication, particularly between aid agencies. These barriers often impede the timely collection of key health data such as morbidity and mortality, rapid health and sheltering needs assessments, key infrastructure assessments, and nutritional needs assessments. Examples of these challenges following three recent events: (1) the Indian Ocean tsunami; (2) Hurricane Katrina; and (3) the 2010 earthquake in Haiti are reviewed. Some of the innovative and cutting-edge approaches for surmounting many of these challenges include: (1) the establishment of geographical information systems (GIS) mapping disaster databases; (2) establishing internet surveillance networks and data repositories; (3) utilization of personal digital assistant-based platforms for data collection; (4) involving key community stakeholders in the data collection process; (5) use of pre-established, local, collaborative networks to coordinate disaster efforts; and (6) exploring potential civil-military collaborative efforts. The application of these and other innovative techniques shows promise for surmounting formidable challenges to disaster data collection.

  9. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    by distributing a large amount of private goods to the selectorate—the cronies—can be termed kleptocracies . Many govern- ments do indeed resemble...where the high-private goods kleptocracy is a good model. Furthermore, while not an example of crony attack to affect policy change (as opposed to...information about those nearest to the leader. The relationships part is only the start. Kleptocracies , like orga- nized crime leaders, are clever

  10. The effect of asymmetric attack on trim angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ballistic range tests were conducted to determine the effect of an asymmetrically ablated heat shield on the trim angle of attack of an entry vehicle. The tests, which were in support of Project Galileo, were conducted in atmospheric air at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 2.0. For the results for the configuration that was tested, the deduced trim angle varied between 13 deg and 21 deg.

  11. Center for Infrastructure Assurance and Security - Attack and Defense Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Security; Botnet; Steganography ; Biometrics; Information Infrastructure 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER...5  4.1.  Steganography Detection Tools ................................................................................................ 5... steganography , cryptography, wireless security, and intrusion detection. These topics were chosen based on proposals submitted by UTSA faculty and

  12. Group Policy Reference Systems and Network Attack Center (SNAC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-02

    prohibited snap-in does not appear. n IGMP Routing Default Setting: Not configured. Administrator may choose from among the following: Not...extension snap-in), 147 IGMP Routing (MMC extension snap-in), 147 Increase quotas, 8 Increase scheduling priority, 9 Indexing Service (MMC snap-in), 135...DHCP Relay Management, 146 Event Viewer, 146 IAS Logging, 147 IGMP Routing, 147 IP Routing, 148 IPX RIP Routing, 148 IPX Routing, 149 IPX SAP

  13. Destruction of the World Trade Center and PCBs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, and chlorinated biphenylenes in water, sediment, and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Litten, Simon; McChesney, Dennis J; Hamilton, M C; Fowler, Brian

    2003-12-15

    Ash-laden runoff samples collected near Ground Zero soon after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) and subsequent fire demonstrate the release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dipheyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and tetra- and pentachlorinated biphenylenes (PCBPs) from the incident. Relative abundances of PCDD/F congeners in the runoff water and post-disaster lower Manhattan dust samples were different from those seen in pre-disaster NYC combined sewer outfall (CSO) samples. The WTC-related samples showed a greater relative abundance of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF than usually seen in CSOs, sludges, and treated wastewaters. This congener may be associated with certain types of incineration. Comparison of sediment and water samples collected in the lower Hudson River before and shortly after September 11, 2001 (9/11) showed no changes in PCB or PCDD/F concentrations or homologue profiles determined down to the parts per quadrillion range. Comparisons of ambient water samples collected post-9/11 with archived samples suggest that the WTC disaster did not significantly impact ambient concentrations of the target chemicals. Ambient concentrations of PBDD/Fs in New York Harbor are similar to those of PCDD/Fs, suggesting that these contaminants deserve increased scrutiny with respect to toxicity, sources, and fate in the environment.

  14. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing in Response to Meteorological Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Bell, Jordan R.; Schultz, Lori A.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Short-­-term Predic1on Research and Transi1on (SPoRT) Center supports the transi1on of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasing community. Our primary partners are NOAA's National Weather Service, their Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs), and National Centers. These organizations predict natural hazards and also assist in the disaster assessment process, benefiting from remotely sensed data. In 2013, SPoRT continued to transition high resolution satellite imagery, derived products, and value-­-added analysis to WFO partners and NASA's Applied Sciences Program.

  15. Disaster Manual: Emergency, Evacuation, Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplowitz, Brad; And Others

    This manual outlines the responsibilities of the director of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries in the event of a disaster as well as the functions of the emergency recovery team (ERT) in the coordination of recovery, and emergency action steps to be taken. The evacuation and emergency plan provided for the Allen Wright Memorial Library Building…

  16. The Bhopal Disaster of 1984

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Roli; Varma, Daya R.

    2005-01-01

    The 20th anniversary of the Bhopal calamity fell on December 3, 2004. The world's worst industrial disaster in Bhopal, India, happened because of inadequate maintenance by Union Carbide and poor monitoring by the Indian authorities. Malfunctioning safety measures, inappropriate location of the plant, and lack of information about the identity and…

  17. Disaster Training: Monroe Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkey, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses Monroe Community College's CERT (Community Emergency Response Team), a program designed to help neighborhoods and work sites prepare for effective disaster response through training and planning. The program requires 24 hours of theoretical and hands-on practice in self-help and mutual-aid emergency functions. CERT personnel…

  18. The economics of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2007-05-01

    Mitigating natural disasters is probably more important for society than it can be inferred from direct losses. Total economic losses, indeed, can be much larger than direct losses, especially for large disasters, which affect the economy for extended periods of time (e.g., New Orleans after Katrina), and represent an important obstacle to economic development in certain regions (e.g. Central America). A series of recent modelling exercises highlights several findings. First, total economic losses due to an event are increasing nonlinearly as a function of its direct losses, because destructions both increase reconstruction needs and reduce reconstruction capacity. Second, endogenous economic dynamics has to be taken into account in the assessment of disaster consequences. More particularly, an economy in the expansion phase of its business cycle appears to be more vulnerable to extreme events than an economy in recession. This result is supported by the fact that worker availability is found to be one of the main obstacles to a rapid and efficient reconstruction. Third, natural disasters can create poverty traps for poor countries, which have a lower ability to fund and carry out reconstruction. As a consequence, climate change impacts from extreme events may be significant, and will depend on how societies are able to adapt their reconstruction capacity to new levels of risk.

  19. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide , mudslide, snowstorm, or drought) or...range of subtypes to include severe winter storms, severe storms and flooding, landslides and mudslides, tornadoes, inland and coastal flooding...national responsibility. Majority of States Subsidize the Minority of States Two problems with the trend towards nationalization of disaster response

  20. The Japanese aerial attack on Hanford Engineer Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Charles W.

    The day before the Pearl Harbor attack, December 6, 1941, the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory was given four goals: design a plutonium (Pu) bomb; produce Pu by irradiation of uranium (U); extract Pu from the irradiated U; complete this in time to be militarily significant. A year later the first controlled nuclear chain reaction was attained in Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1). In January 1943, Hanford, WA was chosen as the site of the Pu factory. Neutron irradiation of 238U was to be used to make 239Pu. This was done by a larger version of CP-1, Hanford Reactor B, which went critical in September 1944. By July 1945 it had made enough Pu for two bombs: one used at the Trinity test in July; the other at Nagasaki, Japan in August. I focus on an ironic sidelight to this story: disruption of hydroelectric power to Reactor B by a Japanese fire balloon attack on March 10, 1945. This activated the costly coal-fired emergency backup plant to keep the reactor coolant water flowing, thwarting disaster and vindicating the conservative design of Hanford Engineer Works. Management of the Hanford Engineer Works in World War II, H. Thayer (ASCE Press 1996).

  1. Disaster readiness for nurses in the workplace: preparing for the Zombie Apocalypse.

    PubMed

    Lowe, London Draper; Hummel, Faye I

    2014-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urges citizens everywhere to prepare for any emergency that might occur in their areas. In conjunction with the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the CDC has designed a four-step plan ("Ready America") to assist all Americans in taking action. As the largest body of health care providers, nurses across the nation have the potential to contribute substantially to disaster readiness in the workplace and the community. This article reviews lessons learned from previous disasters and also presents an overview of ethical-legal considerations related to disaster nursing care. In addition, a preparation guide for nurses in the workplace and on the home front is presented. Disaster preparation resources are also provided.

  2. Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164010.html Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues Monkey study may ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have learned where the Zika virus attacks the body in monkeys. In their ...

  3. Beware Heart Attack Risk from Shoveling Snow

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163566.html Beware Heart Attack Risk From Shoveling Snow Canadian study finds cases ... why men are more likely to suffer a heart attack after a heavy snowfall, researchers report. In a ...

  4. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  5. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  6. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J.; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as likely to report having a loved one at the 9/11 disaster site, twice as likely to know someone who was killed by the attacks, and twice as likely to know someone who was involved with the rescue/recovery efforts after the disaster. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19475656

  7. Network Attack Reference Data Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    services they offer. When the attacker attempts to access system services in order to determine which are available, the scan is called a “ portscan ”. Network...Scans The following portscans were crafted using simPortScan.cc (Appendix B.2). Filename: scan V TCP fast seq small.tcp Source: Crafted...Stealthy Portscans . Journal of Computer Security, 10, 105–136. 6. Yegneswaran, V., Barford, P., and Ullrich, J. (2003). Internet Intrusions: Global

  8. Biomechanics of knife stab attacks.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Nicol, A C; Lane, J V; Gray, T G

    1999-10-25

    Equipment, materials and methods for the measurement of the biomechanical parameters governing knife stab attacks have been developed and data have been presented that are relevant to the improvement of standards for the testing of stab-resistant materials. A six-camera Vicon motion analysis system was used to measure velocity, and derive energy and momentum during the approach phase of the attack and a specially developed force-measuring knife was used to measure three-dimensional forces and torque during the impact phase. The body segments associated with the knife were modelled as a series of rigid segments: trunk, upper arm, forearm and hand. The velocities of these segments, together with knowledge of the mass distribution from biomechanical tables, allowed the calculation of the individual segment energy and momentum values. The instrumented knife measured four components of load: axial force (along the length of the blade), cutting force (parallel to the breadth of the blade), lateral force (across the blade) and torque (twisting action) using foil strain gauges. Twenty volunteers were asked to stab a target with near maximal effort. Three styles of stab were used: a short thrust forward, a horizontal style sweep around the body and an overhand stab. These styles were chosen based on reported incidents, providing more realistic data than had previously existed. The 95th percentile values for axial force and energy were 1885 N and 69 J, respectively. The ability of current test methods to reproduce the mechanical parameters measured in human stab attacks has been assessed. It was found that current test methods could reproduce the range of energy and force values measured in the human stab attacks, although the simulation was not accurate in some respects. Non-axial force and torque values were also found to be significant in the human tests, but these are not reproduced in the standard mechanical tests.

  9. [Impact of disasters on the mental health].

    PubMed

    Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    The study on the impact of disasters on the mental health is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mental health, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters.

  10. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations.

  11. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention.

  12. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2004-01-01

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203

  13. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North Anatolian fault. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North Anatolian Fault. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey.

  14. Flashbulb memories of Paris attacks

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Wawrziczny, Emilie; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Flashbulb memories are detailed and vivid memories of attributes of the reception context of surprising and emotionally arousing public events. Patient concerns and diagnosis: This paper offers a fine-grained view of flashbulb memories in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interventions: The patient underwent a directed interview about the 13 November 2015 attacks in Paris. Outcomes: Unlike her memory about the date and month of the attacks, the patient provided accurate information about the year, time and places they occurred. The patient also provided accurate information about how she first became aware of the attacks, where she was, with whom, what she was doing, and what time it was when she learned about them. As for the affective characteristics of these memories, she tended to have high ratings of vividness and rehearsal. Negative emotional states and great surprise and novelty were also reported. Lessons: By assessing the impact of flashbulb memories in this patient with AD, this paper offers a unique view into how such memories may trigger a considerable recall of context as well much subjective reliving. PMID:27861395

  15. The Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallesh, Nayantara; Wright, Matthew

    Statistical disclosure is a well-studied technique that an attacker can use to uncover relations between users in mix-based anonymity systems. Prior work has focused on finding the receivers to whom a given targeted user sends. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of statistical disclosure in finding all of a users' contacts, including those from whom she receives messages. To this end, we propose a new attack called the Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack (RSDA). RSDA uses observations of all users sending patterns to estimate both the targeted user's sending pattern and her receiving pattern. The estimated patterns are combined to find a set of the targeted user's most likely contacts. We study the performance of RSDA in simulation using different mix network configurations and also study the effectiveness of cover traffic as a countermeasure. Our results show that that RSDA outperforms the traditional SDA in finding the user's contacts, particularly as the amounts of user traffic and cover traffic rise.

  16. Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques Maria Alexandrovna Gorlatova The scientific or...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Review of Existing Wormhole Attack

  17. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  18. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  19. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4

  20. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  1. Strategic stockpiling of power system supplies for disaster recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Coffrein, Carleton; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2010-11-23

    This paper studies the Power System Stochastic Storage Problem (PSSSP), a novel application in power restoration which consists of deciding how to store power system components throughout a populated area to maximize the amount of power served after disaster restoration. The paper proposes an exact mixed-integer formulation for the linearized DC power flow model and a general column-generation approach. Both formulations were evaluated experimentally on benchmarks using the electrical power infrastructure of the United States and disaster scenarios generated by state-of-the-art hurricane simulation tools similar to those used by the National Hurricane Center. The results show that the column-generation algorithm produces near-optimal solutions quickly and produces orders of magnitude speedups over the exact formulation for large benchmarks. Moreover, both the exact and the column-generation formulations produce significant improvements over greedy approach and hence should yield significant benefits in practice.

  2. When disaster hits, where does the standard of care go?

    PubMed

    Cushman Esq, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, it was reported in the news that a $25 million-dollar settlement was reached in a class-action lawsuit alleging that Memorial Medical Center in Louisiana failed to adequately prepare for the devastating catastrophe known as Hurricane Katrina. This magnitude of a claim raises serious questions regarding the viability of lawsuits and the lack of immunity available to hospital facilities, physicians, nurses and other healthcare providers for the provision of emergency aid during national disasters. This article is intended to address one aspect of the legal issues facing healthcare providers and to analyze the standard of care by which facilities and individual providers may be judged, measured and assessed following national disasters.

  3. New tools to anticipate disasters, epidemics, flu outbreaks.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Researchers at the Johns Hopkins National Center for the Study of Preparedness and Catastrophic Event Response (PACER) in Baltimore, MD, have unveiled three new web-based tools that hospitals, EDs, and public health authorities can use to help them prepare for surges related to disasters, epidemics, and seasonal flu outbreaks. The prediction models, including EMCAPS 2.0, Surge, and FluCast, are designed to give health care administrators a better idea of anticipated patient volumes as well as the number and types of injuries that are likely to result from specific disaster scenarios. The web-based tools are being made available free of charge. Users just need to register and establish an account on the PACER website. Further refinements to all three tools are planned as user feedback is collected and results are assessed.

  4. Sample and design considerations in post-disaster mental health needs assessment tracking surveys.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Keane, Terence M; Ursano, Robert J; Mokdad, Ali; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2008-12-01

    Although needs assessment surveys are carried out after many large natural and man-made disasters, synthesis of findings across these surveys and disaster situations about patterns and correlates of need is hampered by inconsistencies in study designs and measures. Recognizing this problem, the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) assembled a task force in 2004 to develop a model study design and interview schedule for use in post-disaster needs assessment surveys. The US National Institute of Mental Health subsequently approved a plan to establish a center to implement post-disaster mental health needs assessment surveys in the future using an integrated series of measures and designs of the sort proposed by the SAMHSA task force. A wide range of measurement, design, and analysis issues will arise in developing this center. Given that the least widely discussed of these issues concerns study design, the current report focuses on the most important sampling and design issues proposed for this center based on our experiences with the SAMHSA task force, subsequent Katrina surveys, and earlier work in other disaster situations.

  5. A Focus Group Study of the Impact of Trauma Exposure in the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Barney, Carissa J.; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Much of the mental health research that has emerged from the September 11 (9/11) attacks has been focused on posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms. To better understand the broader experience of individuals following a disaster, focus groups were conducted with individuals from affected companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. Methods Twenty-one focus groups with a total of 140 participants were conducted in the second post-9/11 year. Areas of identified concern were coded into the following themes: Disaster Experience, Emotional Responses, Workplace Issues, Coping, and Issues of Public Concern. Results Discussions of focus groups included material represented in all five themes in companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. The emphasis and the content within these themes varied between the Ground Zero and other companies. Content suggesting symptoms of PTSD represented only a minority of the material, especially in the company groups not at Ground Zero. Conclusions This study’s findings revealed an array of psychosocial concerns following the 9/11 attacks among employees of companies in New York City that extended far beyond PTSD. This study’s results provide further evidence that trauma exposure is central to individuals’ post-disaster experience and focus, and to individuals’ adjustment and experience after disaster. PMID:25319111

  6. Attack-Related Life Disruption and Child Psychopathology in New York City Public Schoolchildren 6-Months Post-9/11

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Fan, Bin; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Musa, George J.; Mandell, Donald J.; Albano, Anne Marie; Hoven, Christina W.

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of disasters, understanding relationships between disaster-related life disruption and children’s functioning is key to informing future postdisaster intervention efforts. The present study examined attack-related life disruptions and psychopathology in a representative sample (N = 8,236) of New York City public schoolchildren (Grades 4–12) surveyed 6 months after September 11, 2001. One in 5 youth reported a family member lost their job because of the attacks, and 1 in 3 reported their parents restricted their postattack travel. These forms of disruption were, in turn, associated with elevated rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders (and major depressive disorder in the case of restricted travel). Results indicate that adverse disaster-related experiences extend beyond traumatic exposure and include the prolonged ripple of postdisaster life disruption and economic hardship. Future postdisaster efforts must, in addition to ensuring the availability of mental health services for proximally exposed youth, maintain a focus on youth burdened by disaster-related life disruption. PMID:20589558

  7. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  8. The aftermath of violence: children, disaster, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Schroeder-Bruce, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Terrorist attacks, situations of armed conflict, and all forms of catastrophe tax our abilities to cope, understand, and respond. Because of their developmental status, children are even more emotionally vulnerable to the devastating effects of a disaster. When tragedy strikes a family, community, or the nation, helping children cope and regain a sense of safety is critical. A child with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops symptoms such as intense fear, disorganized and agitated behavior, emotional numbness, anxiety, or depression after being directly exposed to or witnessing an extreme traumatic situation involving threatened death or serious injury. Victims of repeated abuse or children who live in violent neighborhoods or war zones, or who have witnessed extensive media coverage of violent events, may experience PTSD.

  9. The proposal about constructing the National Disaster Monitoring, Forecast and Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang-yun; Tong, Kai; Yang, Jia-chi

    It is known that different kinds of natural disaster cause big loss in people's lives and damage in properties every year in many countries, and the monitoring, forecast and control to prevent as mitigate the harm is very important indeed. Some kinds of disasters might be foreseen and the developing trend may be understood from the observation facilities under management of professional department. Here we suggest that the existing domestic and foreign monitoring systems, especially the space systems already in use, should be utilized for disaster mitigation purpose before some new system being developed specially for it. The information collection part of the Disaster Monitoring, Forecast and Control System (DMFCS) may be composed of three layers of sensing implements, the earth observing satellites, the remote sensing airplanes and the local ground sensing instruments whose data could be sent to the centers concerned through the data collcetion system (DCS) of various kinds of satellits. In coordination with the monitoring systems, the position fixing satellite system, the Global Positioning System (GPS/GLONASS) or the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS) which in China was named the Bisatellite Position Determination System (BPDS) under developing is also indispensable. In DMFCS the nucleus is the Control Center (DMFCC). It is connected with the centers of the existing professional organizations and the Regional Disaster Control Centers (RDCC). In this paper we pay more attention to the construction of DMFCC. The center should be led by the department particularly concerned with disaster prevention, preparedness and relief (as it has been announced by the United Nations). The Centers will fully utilize the real time information from the monitoring means and the information stored in the data base to display the state of the disasters, to help the decision of the department leader to issue instructions to the Regional Centers to take measures for

  10. Risk, coping and PTSD symptom trajectories in World Trade Center responders.

    PubMed

    Feder, Adriana; Mota, Natalie; Salim, Ryan; Rodriguez, Janice; Singh, Ritika; Schaffer, Jamie; Schechter, Clyde B; Cancelmo, Leo M; Bromet, Evelyn J; Katz, Craig L; Reissman, Dori B; Ozbay, Fatih; Kotov, Roman; Crane, Michael; Harrison, Denise J; Herbert, Robin; Levin, Stephen M; Luft, Benjamin J; Moline, Jacqueline M; Stellman, Jeanne M; Udasin, Iris G; Landrigan, Philip J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Yehuda, Rachel; Southwick, Steven M; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    Trajectories of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are often heterogeneous, and associated with common and unique risk factors, yet little is known about potentially modifiable psychosocial characteristics associated with low-symptom and recovering trajectories in disaster responders. A total of 4487 rescue and recovery workers (1874 police and 2613 non-traditional responders) involved during and in the aftermath of the unprecedented World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, were assessed an average of 3, 6, 8, and 12 years post-9/11/2001. Among police responders, WTC-related PTSD symptoms were characterized by four trajectories, including no/low-symptom (76.1%), worsening (12.1%), improving (7.5%), and chronic (4.4%) trajectories. In non-traditional responders, a five-trajectory solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a no/low-symptom trajectory (55.5%), and the remainder in subtly worsening (19.3%), chronic (10.8%), improving (8.5%), and steeply worsening (5.9%) trajectories. Consistent factors associated with symptomatic PTSD trajectories across responder groups included Hispanic ethnicity, pre-9/11 psychiatric history, greater WTC exposure, greater medical illness burden, life stressors and post-9/11 traumas, and maladaptive coping (e.g., substance use, avoidance coping). Higher perceived preparedness, greater sense of purpose in life, and positive emotion-focused coping (e.g., positive reframing, acceptance) were negatively associated with symptomatic trajectories. Findings in this unique cohort indicate considerable heterogeneity in WTC-related PTSD symptom trajectories over 12 years post-9/11/2001, with lower rates of elevated PTSD symptoms in police than in non-traditional responders. They further provide a comprehensive risk prediction model of PTSD symptom trajectories, which can inform prevention, monitoring, and treatment efforts in WTC and other disaster responders.

  11. Holistic Approach to Disaster Management for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2006-01-01

    Disasters are becoming the key concern of many nations. The term disaster usually meant for natural calamities. There of course may be a human hand behind each of the disasters, whether its' impact is small or large. Disasters can be categorized into natural and man made. In the case of natural disasters there may be some natural indicators to…

  12. 78 FR 32414 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... affected by this major disaster: Cook, DeKalb, DuPage, Fulton, Grundy, Kane, Kendall, Lake, LaSalle,...

  13. Aviation Disaster Intervention: A Mental Health Volunteer's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…

  14. A fundamental, national, medical disaster management plan: an education-based model.

    PubMed

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Hosseinijenab, Vahid; Hasani, Azadeh; Shirmardi, Kianoush; Castrén, Maaret; Ohlén, Gunnar; Panahi, Farzad

    2009-01-01

    During disasters, especially following earthquakes, health systems are expected to play an essential role in reducing mortality and morbidity. The most significant naturally occurring disaster in Iran is earthquakes; they have killed >180,000 people in the last 90 years. According to the current plan in 2007, the disaster management system of Iran is composed of three main work groups: (1) Prevention and risk management, (2) Education, and (3) Operation. This organizational separation has resulted in lack of necessary training programs for experts of specialized organizations, e.g., the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME).The National Board of MOHME arranged a training program in the field of medical disaster management. A qualified training team was chosen to conduct this program in each collaborating center, based on a predefined schedule. All collaborating centers were asked to recall 5-7 experts from each member university. Working in medical disaster management field for greater than or equal to 2 years was an inclusion criterion. The training programs lasted three days, consisted of all relevant aspects of medical disaster management, and were conducted over a six-month period (November 2007-April 2008). Pre-test and post-tests were used to examine the participants' knowledge regarding disaster management; the mean score on the pretest was 67.1 +/-11.6 and 88.1 +/-6.2, respectively. All participants were asked to hold the same training course for their organizations in order to enhance knowledge of related managers, stakeholders, and workers, and build capacity at the local and provincial levels. The next step was supposed to be developing a comprehensive medical disaster management plan for the entire country. Establishing nine disaster management regional collaborating centers in the health system of Iran has provided an appropriate base for related programs to be rapidly and easily accomplished throughout the country. This tree-shaped model is

  15. International repatriation following overseas disasters.

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, N J; Ramage, C; Bristow, A

    1991-01-01

    The repatriation of 33 hospitalized patients to the United Kingdom following the Joigny coach accident in 1990 is described. The repatriation was undertaken by medical staff from St Bartholomew's Hospital Careflight project and EuropAssistance using a chartered McDonnell Douglas 83 aircraft. All patients were repatriated without mishap, but a number of difficulties were encountered. It is recommended that agreement is reached in advance as to the organization that should handle overseas disasters involving British citizens. The organization should have expertise in repatriation as well as close ties with the NHS. A protocol should be designed and adhered to. The initial response should involve despatching a team to the disaster country and provision of a control centre in the U.K. Special arrangements need to be made for staff and equipment. Liason with the airlines and ambulance services is essential. PMID:1888420

  16. The mass media and disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Past investigations by myself and others on the role of the mass media in disasters indicate that news people typically find themselves in situations of uncertainty, ambiguity, and conflicting information; the communication and transportation services that these people use in covering a story become inoperative. However, the media are expected to make sense of the disaster situation almost immediately. the difficulties of doing so were reflected by the ABC Goodyear Blimp footage of the collapsed Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, broadcast nationally on the evening of October 17, 1989. The televised picture showed the disastrous results of the Loma Prieta earthquake, but for an hour or more the announcer could not correctly identify what was being shown. He did not seem to realize that the upper deck of the freeway had collapsed on the lower deck, crushing vechiles and people. 

  17. Optimism following a tornado disaster.

    PubMed

    Suls, Jerry; Rose, Jason P; Windschitl, Paul D; Smith, Andrew R

    2013-05-01

    Effects of exposure to a severe weather disaster on perceived future vulnerability were assessed in college students, local residents contacted through random-digit dialing, and community residents of affected versus unaffected neighborhoods. Students and community residents reported being less vulnerable than their peers at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the disaster. In Studies 1 and 2, absolute risk estimates were more optimistic with time, whereas comparative vulnerability was stable. Residents of affected neighborhoods (Study 3), surprisingly, reported less comparative vulnerability and lower "gut-level" numerical likelihood estimates at 6 months, but later their estimates resembled the unaffected residents. Likelihood estimates (10%-12%), however, exceeded the 1% risk calculated by storm experts, and gut-level versus statistical-level estimates were more optimistic. Although people believed they had approximately a 1-in-10 chance of injury from future tornadoes (i.e., an overestimate), they thought their risk was lower than peers.

  18. Aftermath of Venezuelan flood disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    One month after several rounds of devastating floods and mudslides waterlogged parts of Venezuela in December and January, the country and government are trying to come to grips with the damage and begin reconstruction efforts. They are also trying to limit potential health risks that can arise following natural disasters. Epidemics, however, rarely occur following a disaster, according to Jean-Luc Poncelet, a doctor with the Pan American Health Organization. Between 25,000 and 50,000 people in Venezuela were killed, and about 150,000 displaced, according to local and international aid authorities. In addition,Venezuelan national authorities have declared part of the Port of La Guaira as a dangerous chemical zone because of ruptured containers of dangerous chemicals, hundreds of kilometers of the Caribbean coast have been closed to fishing and swimming because of contaminated runoff from the floods, roads remain blocked, and the lack of potable water is a key concern.

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  20. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year...N/A Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM)/GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A Mar 2005 Mar 2005 Mar 2005