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Sample records for center swine raising

  1. Chlortetracycline-Resistant Intestinal Bacteria in Organically Raised and Feral Swine

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Thad B.; Humphrey, Samuel B.; Stoffregen, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 μg CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. PMID:21821750

  2. Visitor center museum display, detail of diorama booth with raised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Visitor center museum display, detail of diorama booth with raised step; door to electrical door panel at left - Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center, Highway 158, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC

  3. Typical Raised Planter Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Raised Planter - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  4. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  5. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... strain made headlines in 2009-2010 as "swine flu" reached pandemic levels in the United States. But the new Swedish study "indicates that first trimester administration of H1N1 vaccine does not seem to increase congenital birth ...

  6. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely, if ever, among fattening pigs raised in confinement.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Blaga, Radu; Mircean, Viorica; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive place for evaluating the influence of animal management on the exposure risk of the zoonotic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The fact that many Romanians eat uncooked or undercooked pork, especially when raised for household consumption, elevates the public health imperative to understand these risks. The aim of the study, therefore, was to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in pigs and wild boars from Romania. During 2008-2010, we collected 3,595 serum samples from pigs (fattening pigs, sows, backyard pigs) and 150 serum samples from wild boars. The sera were assayed by immunofluorescence antibody test (cutoff, 1:32) for antibodies against T. gondii. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 23.1 % (829/3,595) in pigs and 16 % (24/150) in wild boars. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in backyard pigs (30.5 %; 783/2,564) than in sows (12.4 %; 46/371) or fattening pigs (none of the sera was positive). The management system (indoor pigs versus backyard pigs) represented the most important factor in the epidemiology of T. gondii infection. The proximity of backyard pigs to the definitive host of this parasite (cats), as well as their access to contaminated meat products, elevated their exposure risk well above that of pigs raised in confinement, and even above that of wild boars inhabiting sylvatic environments.

  7. Muscle mechanical work requirements during normal walking: the energetic cost of raising the body's center-of-mass is significant.

    PubMed

    Neptune, R R; Zajac, F E; Kautz, S A

    2004-06-01

    Inverted pendulum models of walking predict that little muscle work is required for the exchange of body potential and kinetic energy in single-limb support. External power during walking (product of the measured ground reaction force and body center-of-mass (COM) velocity) is often analyzed to deduce net work output or mechanical energetic cost by muscles. Based on external power analyses and inverted pendulum theory, it has been suggested that a primary mechanical energetic cost may be associated with the mechanical work required to redirect the COM motion at the step-to-step transition. However, these models do not capture the multi-muscle, multi-segmental properties of walking, co-excitation of muscles to coordinate segmental energetic flow, and simultaneous production of positive and negative muscle work. In this study, a muscle-actuated forward dynamic simulation of walking was used to assess whether: (1). potential and kinetic energy of the body are exchanged with little muscle work; (2). external mechanical power can estimate the mechanical energetic cost for muscles; and (3.) the net work output and the mechanical energetic cost for muscles occurs mostly in double support. We found that the net work output by muscles cannot be estimated from external power and was the highest when the COM moved upward in early single-limb support even though kinetic and potential energy were exchanged, and muscle mechanical (and most likely metabolic) energetic cost is dominated not only by the need to redirect the COM in double support but also by the need to raise the COM in single support. PMID:15111069

  8. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  9. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  10. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.

  11. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  12. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  13. Swine immune system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probably no area of veterinary medicine has seen a greater explosion in knowledge then the immune system and its implications in disease and vaccination. In this chapter on the Swine Immune System for the 10th Edition of Diseases of Swine we expand on the information provided in past editions by in...

  14. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmasso, E.A.

    1992-04-01

    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  15. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  16. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  17. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  18. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  19. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  20. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL... Sanitary Trade Issues Team, National Center for Import and Export, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from regions where...

  1. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL..., National Center for Import and Export, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from regions where...

  2. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  3. Vesicular exanthema of swine.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Akers, T G

    1976-10-01

    Vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) was first recognized in 1932. At the time, eradication measures and, later, quarantine procedures were instituted and extension of the disease to surrounding farms appeared to have been prevented. Between 1932 and 1936, however, seemingly unrelated epizootics continued among swine herds being fed raw garbage. In 1936, VES disappeared only to reappear in 1939. The disease was contained within California until 1952, at which time it spread to all the major swine producing areas of the United States. The disease was eradicated in 1959, through the enforcement of laws prohibiting the feeding of raw garbage to swine. Other than the association with raw garbage, a reservoir for VES virus (VESV) was never found. In 1972, a virus isolated from California sea lions--and thus named the San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV)--proved to be distinguishable from VESV. When SMSV was injected into swine, clinical signs of vesicular exanthema developed, leading to the conclusion that, for all practical purposes, SMSV and VESV were the same. To date, 5 species of marine mammals and 2 species of terrestrial mammals, including feral swine, have been shown to possess antibodies to 1 or more of the 4 distinct SMSV serotypes. Current evidence suggests that SMSV infections occur among both terrestrial and marine mammals inhabiting the California coastal zones. This and the practice of shipping frozen meats known to contain SMSV to mink ranches in Utah point to the possibility that domestic swine in the United States are occasionally being exposed to SMSV. Although marine mammals are a source of SMSV, the primary virus reservoir is thought to be 1 or more submammalian marine species common to the southern California coastline. Such a primary reservoir presumably is the source of a new SMSV serotypes infecting marine mammals and may have been the original source of the VESV serotypes that infected swine through the intermediary of raw garbage.

  4. Raising Strong Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadeberg, Jeanette

    In response to an alarming drop in girls' self-esteem in early adolescence, this parents' guide provides suggestions for raising daughters to become confident, healthy, and independent. Chapter 1, "Yesterday's Daughters," examines how cultural messages inhibit girls' development. Chapter 2, "Raising an Opinionated Daughter," suggests how to help…

  5. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  6. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  7. Fund Raising with Panache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Robert

    1985-01-01

    The key to fund raising is the donor, and fund raisers should learn to cultivate potential donors, approach them with goals compatible with their own, supplement their thinking, get them involved, and swamp them with gratitude. (MSE)

  8. Raising the Titanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  9. Hepatitis E virus sequences in swine related to sequences in humans, The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    van der Poel, W. H.; Verschoor, F.; van der Heide, R.; Herrera, M. I.; Vivo, A.; Kooreman, M.; de Roda Husman, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major cause of viral hepatitis in much of the developing world, has recently been detected in swine in North America and Asia, raising concern about potential for zoonotic transmission. To investigate if HEV is commonly present in swine in the Netherlands, pooled stool samples from 115 swine farms and nine individual pigs with diarrhea were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. HEV RNA was detected by RT-PCR and hybridization in 25 (22%) of the pooled specimens, but in none of the individual samples. RT-PCR amplification products of open reading frames 1 and 2 were sequenced, and the results were compared with published sequences of HEV genotypes from humans and swine. HEV strains from swine in the Netherlands were clustered in at least two groups, together with European and American isolates from swine and humans. Our data show that HEV in swine in the Netherlands are genetically closely related to HEV isolates from humans. Although zoonotic transmission has not been proven, these findings suggest that swine may be reservoir hosts of HEV. PMID:11747723

  10. Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

  11. Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A virus in North American swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C; Gramer, Marie

    2011-06-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003-2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens.

  12. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  13. Raising Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Carol; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    1997-01-01

    Notes that teaching social and emotional skills can have a long-term positive effect on academic achievement. The University of Washington's Raising Healthy Children Project tries to reduce children's risk of developing problems in adolescence by providing interventions that bond students to family and school. The program features staff…

  14. Plaque assay for African swine fever virus on swine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bustos, M J; Nogal, M L; Revilla, Y; Carrascosa, A L

    2002-07-01

    A plaque assay developed to detect the infection of African Swine Fever Virus on swine macrophages is described. Plaques were generated by all of the virus isolates tested. The method is suitable not only for virus titration but also for the selection of clones in protocols for isolation/purification of recombinant viruses.

  15. Feral swine contact with domestic swine: a serologic survey and assessment of potential for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, A Christy; Henke, Scott E; Campbell, Tyler A; Hewitt, David G; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2009-04-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are present in 38 of the 50 United States, and their populations continue to expand. Domestic swine are widely regarded as vulnerable to diseases harbored by feral swine. Our objectives were to determine antibody prevalence for selected pathogens in Texas feral swine populations and identify contact events between feral and domestic swine. Overall prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis and pseudorabies virus was 11% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus were detected in 3% of feral swine from southern Texas. All samples tested negative for antibodies to classical swine fever virus. To determine the frequency of contact events between feral swine and domestic swine in neighboring facilities, we analyzed movement data from 37 adult feral swine that were trapped < or =10 km from domestic swine facilities and equipped with geographic positioning system collars. Seven of the 37 feral swine had contact (relocated within 100 m) with domestic swine. We found that contact between feral swine and domestic swine occurred predominantly at night. Additionally, we analyzed 60 consecutive days of experimental track plots around pens that contained domestic swine and empty control pens, and found greater visitation by feral swine to the domestic swine pens. Our data demonstrate that feral swine have direct contact with domestic swine, which presents opportunity for disease transmission.

  16. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  17. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  18. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  19. Absence of human innate immune evasion complex in LA-MRSA ST5 strains isolated from pigs, swine facilities, and humans with swine contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Since its first ties to swine, livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has raised public health concerns because livestock may be the largest reservoir of MRSA outside the hospital setting. In contrast to Europe and Asia, where the primary sequence type...

  20. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  1. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  2. Diverse Virulence Gene Content of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Finishing Swine

    PubMed Central

    Fratamico, Pina M.; Bagi, Lori; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Manning, Shannon D.; Funk, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are a critical public health concern because they can cause severe clinical outcomes, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, in humans. Determining the presence or absence of virulence genes is essential in assessing the potential pathogenicity of STEC strains. Currently, there is limited information about the virulence genes carried by swine STEC strains; therefore, this study was conducted to examine the presence and absence of 69 virulence genes in STEC strains recovered previously from finishing swine in a longitudinal study. A subset of STEC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine their genetic relatedness. Swine STEC strains (n = 150) were analyzed by the use of a high-throughput real-time PCR array system, which included 69 virulence gene targets. Three major pathotypes consisted of 16 different combinations of virulence gene profiles, and serotypes were determined in the swine STEC strains. The majority of the swine STEC strains (n = 120) belonged to serotype O59:H21 and carried the same virulence gene profile, which consisted of 9 virulence genes: stx2e, iha, ecs1763, lpfAO113, estIa (STa), ehaA, paa, terE, and ureD. The eae, nleF, and nleH1-2 genes were detected in one swine STEC strain (O49:H21). Other genes encoding adhesins, including iha, were identified (n = 149). The PFGE results demonstrated that swine STEC strains from pigs raised in the same finishing barn were closely related. Our results revealed diverse virulence gene contents among the members of the swine STEC population and enhance understanding of the dynamics of transmission of STEC strains among pigs housed in the same barn. PMID:25107960

  3. UPDATE ON SWINE DISEASE AND GENOMICS RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will summarize advances in swine genomics and how it has altered approaches for swine disease and vaccination research. The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive p...

  4. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  5. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  6. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  7. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  8. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  9. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  10. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  11. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  12. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  13. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  14. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the s...

  15. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  16. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  17. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  18. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  19. The Small Library and Fund-Raising for Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Dwight F.

    1989-01-01

    Offers advice on the principles of successful fund raising, specifically addressing small libraries and fund raising for automation. The discussion covers the need for careful planning, identification of receptive funding sources, and clear communication of needs and objectives. A sidebar provides information on the Foundation Center, an…

  20. Detection by Reverse Transcription-PCR and Genetic Characterization of Field Isolates of Swine Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs in Different Geographic Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F. F.; Haqshenas, G.; Guenette, D. K.; Halbur, P. G.; Schommer, S. K.; Pierson, F. W.; Toth, T.E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern in many developing countries. HEV is also endemic in some industrialized counties, including the United States. With our recent discovery of swine HEV in pigs that is genetically closely related to human HEV, hepatitis E is now considered a zoonotic disease. Human strains of HEV are genetically heterogenic. So far in the United States, only one strain of swine HEV has been identified and characterized from a pig. To determine the extent of genetic variations and the nature of swine HEV infections in U.S. pigs, we developed a universal reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay that is capable of detecting genetically divergent strains of HEV. By using this universal RT-PCR assay, we tested fecal and serum samples of pigs of 2 to 4 months of age from 37 different U.S. swine farms for the presence of swine HEV RNA. Thirty-four of the 96 pigs (35%) and 20 of the 37 swine herds (54%) tested were positive for swine HEV RNA. The sequences of a 348-bp region within the ORF2 gene of 27 swine HEV isolates from different geographic regions were determined. Sequence analyses revealed that the 27 U.S. swine HEV isolates shared 88 to 100% nucleotide sequence identities with each other and 89 to 98% identities with the prototype U.S. strain of swine HEV. These U.S. swine HEV isolates are only distantly related to the Taiwanese strains of swine HEV, with about 74 to 78% nucleotide sequence identities; to most known human strains of HEV worldwide, with <79% sequence identities; and to avian HEV, with 54 to 56% sequence identities. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the U.S. swine HEV isolates identified in this study clustered in the same genotype with the prototype U.S. swine HEV and the two U.S. strains of human HEV. The data from this study indicated that swine HEV is widespread and enzoonotic in U.S. swine herds and that, as is with human HEV, swine HEV isolates from different geographic regions of the world are

  1. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Adrienne L.; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  2. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  3. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  4. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  5. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  6. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  7. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  8. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Looft, Torey; Johnson, Timothy A.; Allen, Heather K.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Sul, Woo Jun; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Chai, Benli; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.; Stanton, Thad B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1–11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses. PMID:22307632

  9. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  10. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  11. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  12. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  13. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  14. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  15. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  16. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  17. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  18. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of a swine influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Korea in 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Sehee; Lee, Sangmoo; Hwang, Min-Woong; Bae, Joon-Yong; Heo, Jun; Kim, Donghwan; Jang, Seok-Il; Kim, Kabsu; Park, Man-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can infect avian and mammalian species, including humans. The genome nature of IAVs may contribute to viral adaptation in different animal hosts, resulting in gene reassortment and the reproduction of variants with optimal fitness. As seen again in the 2009 swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic, pigs are known to be susceptible to swine, avian, and human IAVs and can serve as a 'mixing vessel' for the generation of novel IAV variants. To this end, the emergence of swine influenza viruses must be kept under close surveillance. Herein, we report the isolation and phylogenetic study of a swine IAV, A/swine/Korea/PL01/2012 (swPL01, H3N2 subtype). After screening nasopharyngeal samples from pigs in the Gyeongsangnam-do region of Korea from December 2011 to May 2012, we isolated the swPL01 virus and sequenced its all of 8 genome segments (polymerase basic 2, PB2; polymerase basic 1, PB1; polymerase acidic, PA; hemagglutinin, HA; nucleocapsid protein, NP; neuraminidase, NA; matrix protein, M; and nonstructural protein, NS). The phylogenetic study, analyzed with reference strains registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, indicated that the swPL01 virus was similar to the North American triple-reassortant swine strains and that the HA gene of the swPL01 virus was categorized into swine H3 cluster IV. The swPL01 virus had the M gene of the triple-reassortant swine H3N2 viruses, whereas that of other contemporary strains in Korea was transferred from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. These data suggest the possibility that various swine H3N2 viruses may co-circulate in Korea, which underlines the importance of a sustained surveillance system against swine IAVs.

  20. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, especially among new drivers, ... whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, sudden braking or swerving, and other ...

  1. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  2. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  3. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  4. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  5. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  6. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  7. Feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Couturier, Kathy J; Felix, Rodney K; Avery, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Feral swine are well known as environmentally destructive invasive animals in many areas around the world, where they degrade native habitats, harm rare plant and animal species, damage agricultural interests, and spread disease. We provide the first quantification of their potential as agents of disturbance at archaeological sites. Our study was conducted in south-central Florida at Avon Park Air Force Range, a base comprising over 40,000 ha and containing many archaeological sites. To determine the identifiable prevalence of feral swine disturbance, we examined 36 sites registered with the Florida State Historic Preservation Office and also eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Moreover, we evaluated the extent of swine disturbance at a prehistoric site of extraordinary significance to Florida's prehistory, "Dead Cow." Fifteen of the 36 NRHP-eligible sites (42 %) had some level of swine disturbance, including 14 of 30 (47 %) sites known to have artifacts within 20 cm of the surface (well within swine rooting depths). At the Dead Cow site, we documented disturbance at 74 % of shovel test points. Sites with shallow artifact depositions appeared highly vulnerable to disturbance by feral swine, threatening destruction of artifact stratigraphy and provenience. Our observations likely are a minimal representation of accumulated damage. These irreplaceable sites tell the area's land use story across the millennia. That they are under threat from feral swine should serve broad notice of potential threats that feral swine may pose to archaeological sites globally, making effective swine management imperative for site protection.

  8. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  9. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) diversity in Sinclair and Hanford swine.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chak-Sum; Martens, Gregory W; Amoss, Max S; Gomez-Raya, Luis; Beattie, Craig W; Smith, Douglas M

    2010-03-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotype B is associated with increased penetrance of the tumor traits in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma (SSCM). We established a series of SinclairxHanford swine crosses to facilitate genetic mapping of the tumor-associated loci. In this study, the SLA diversity in the founding animals was characterized for effective selection of maximum tumor penetrance in the pedigrees. Using the sequence-based typing (SBT) method we identified a total of 29 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing six class I and five class II haplotypes. We subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the crossbred progeny. In a total of 469 animals we identified three crossovers within the class I region and three between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.39% and 0.56%, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of two expressed SLA-1 loci in three of the class I haplotypes and were able to determine the relative chromosomal arrangement of the duplicated loci in two haplotypes. This study furthers our understanding of the allelic architecture and polymorphism of the SLA system and will facilitate the mapping of loci associated with the expression of SSCM.

  10. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The "Double Pyramid Model" Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption.

  11. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The “Double Pyramid Model” Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption. PMID:25988137

  12. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The "Double Pyramid Model" Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption. PMID:25988137

  13. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Danny J; Kalra, Girish L; Rifai, Luay; Eapen, Christina A; Merchant, Nadya; Khan, Bobby V

    2010-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:21072287

  14. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in swine at the US Meat Animal Research Center has relied heavily on linkage mapping in either F2 or Backcross families. QTL identified in the initial scans typically have very broad confidence intervals and further refinement of the QTL’s position is needed bef...

  15. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  16. Energy integrated swine farm system in Nebraska: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, W.E.; Schulte, D.D.

    1987-05-01

    One of the guidelines used to establish the Energy-Integrated Farm System (EIFS) was that it be representative of Midwest agriculture. Sales of irrigated crops and hogs in Nebraska generate over 50% of the state's revenue. Thus, an irrigated crop and wine farm was chosen for demonstration. The concept of this project involved the use of ''state-of-the-art'' technology in an attempt to achieve zero flow of direct and indirect petroleum input into the farming operation. Specific objectives were: utilization of energy-saving irrigation scheduling and low-pressure center-pivot and gated-pipe irrigation systems; use of 190 proof ethanol produced from sweet sorghum as a replacement for fuel in farm engines; reduced tillage and fertilizer usage for energy, soil and water conservation; development of solar energy and methane gas usage in an integrated fashion for electricity production and for hot-water and space heating in a swine-production facility; use of mini- and micro-computer technology for on-farm energy conservation and management; recovery of waste heat and carbon dioxide from alcohol fermentation and swine production for greenhouse production of vegetables; demonstration of natural air grain drying, use of windbreaks, and other energy conservation practices; and determination of the economic feasibility of energy integrated farming for swine and irrigated crop production. A new farm was constructed to achieve these objectives. This report describes the system, its components and gives an economic analysis.

  17. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu.

  18. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive physiology. Swine have been used extensively for studies of infectious disease processes and analyses of preventative strategies, inc...

  19. Summary of Control Issues for Swine Influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple subtypes of endemic swine influenza virus (SIV) co-circulate in the U.S. and Canada (H3N2, H1N1, and H1N2 with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses). As a result of reassortment events and antigenic drift, four H1 SIV...

  20. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... II of the P&S Act to include Subtitle B--Swine Packer Marketing Contracts. The 1999 Act mandated the creation and maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for... example marketing contracts with GIPSA along with monthly estimates of the number of swine to be...

  1. How (Not) to Raise Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeree, Jacob K.; Maasland, Emiel; Onderstal, Sander; Turner, John L.

    2005-01-01

    We show that standard winner-pay auctions are inept fund-raising mechanisms because of the positive externality bidders forgo if they top another's high bid. Revenues are suppressed as a result and remain finite even when bidders value a dollar donated the same as a dollar kept. This problem does not occur in lotteries and all-pay auctions, where…

  2. Fund Raising for University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Andrew J.

    1971-01-01

    Library fund raising must be a cooperative effort involving library staff, development office personnel, faculty, president, trustees, and off-campus volunteers, and friends of the university. There are various sources of funds and kinds of approaches to donors which may be tried. Success is not assured, but the potential is great. (6 references)…

  3. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  4. Central American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence and profile of Central American grandparents raising grandchildren in the United States of America. Using nationally representative data from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, Central American grandparent caregivers are compared with their noncare-giving peers. Results indicate that nationally an estimated…

  5. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  6. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6 Section 166.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding...

  7. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6 Section 166.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding...

  8. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  9. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  10. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  11. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  12. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  13. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  14. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  15. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  16. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  17. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  18. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  19. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  20. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  1. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  2. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  3. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  4. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  5. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  6. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  7. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  8. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  9. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  10. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  11. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  12. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  13. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  14. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  15. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  16. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  17. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  18. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  19. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  20. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  1. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  2. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  3. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  4. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  5. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  6. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Marketing Act (7 U.S.C. 1636). (g) How can I review information from the swine contract library? The... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a)...

  7. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... review information from the swine contract library? The information will be available on the Internet on... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  9. Genetic evolution of recently emerged novel human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) in United States swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...

  10. Making contact: rooting out the potential for exposure of commercial production swine facilities to feral swine in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard; Betsill, Carl; Ray, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Despite North Carolina's long history with feral swine, populations were low or absent in eastern counties until the 1990s. Feral swine populations have since grown in these counties which also contain a high density of commercial production swine (CPS) facilities. Sixteen of the highest swine producing U.S. counties also populated with feral swine are in North Carolina. Disconcertingly, since 2009, positive tests for exposure to swine brucellosis or pseudorabies virus have been found for feral swine. We surveyed 120 CSP facilities across four eastern counties to document the level and perception of feral swine activity around CSP facilities and to identify disease transmission potential to commercial stock. Nearly all facility operators (97%) recognized feral swine were in their counties. Far fewer said they had feral swine activity nearby (18%). Our inspections found higher presence than perceived with feral swine sign at 19% of facilities where operators said they had never observed feral swine or their sign. Nearly 90% expressed concern about feral to domestic disease transmission, yet only two facilities had grain bins or feeders fenced against wildlife access. Due to increasing feral swine populations, recent evidence of disease in feral populations, the importance of swine production to North Carolina's economy and the national pork industry, and potential for feral-domestic contact, we believe feral swine pose an increasing disease transmission threat warranting a stringent look at biosecurity and feral swine management at North Carolina CPS facilities.

  11. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs <6 months and 99 pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P < 0.0001). Moreover, 16 fattening pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  12. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice versa. Here the importance of swine as a biomedical model, current technologies to produce genetically enhanced swine, current biomedical models, and how the completion of the swine genome will promote swine as a biomedical model are discussed. Conclusions The completion of the swine genome will enhance the continued use and development of swine as models of human health, syndromes and conditions. PMID:23151353

  13. Cross reactivity among the swine mycoplasmas as identified by protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Andrew C; Oneal, David C; Seibel, Janice R; Poel, Kylie; Daum, Courtney L; Djordjevic, Steven P; Minion, F Chris

    2016-08-30

    Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria that infect a variety of animals in a species-specific manner. In swine, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the most virulent and presents the most disease and economic problems to the swine industry. Serological assays are commonly used to assess colonization and disease, but antigenic cross-reactivity between M. hyopneumoniae and other mycoplasma species, most notably Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and Mycoplasma flocculare, is a concern. The extent of cross-reactivity has not been thoroughly investigated. These studies were designed to identify M. hyopneumoniae proteins that are recognized by rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against the other swine mycoplasmas. Our results indicate extensive cross-reactivity between M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae, which explains previous reports seen with ELISA assays. Only three of the thirty-nine M. hyopneumoniae proteins tested showed no cross reactivity with the other three swine mycoplasmas, mhp182 (42kDa C-terminal fragment), mhp638 and mhp684 (C-terminal fragment). Two proteins, mhp384 and mhp511, were cross-reactive with hyperimmune sera generated against three of the four species. None of the anti-M. hyorhinis hyperimmune sera reacted to any of the M. hyopneumoniae proteins. These results suggest that inapparent M. flocculare infections could produce positive responses in M. hyopneumoniae serological assays due to cross-reactivity, and that M. hyosynoviae infections are less likely to do so and M. hyorhinis infections unlikely to affect assay results. PMID:27527784

  14. Increased airways responsiveness in swine farmers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Hurst, T S; Cockcroft, D W; Dosman, J A

    1991-04-01

    A respiratory questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and an examination of airways responsiveness were conducted on 20 swine farmers and 20 control subjects. The swine farmers represented almost the complete work force from 13 Hutterite colonies and had worked in confinement buildings with more than 2,000 swine (3,270 +/- 1,221 swine) for at least four hours (6.6 +/- 1.8 hours) per day for more than two years (10.5 +/- 7.5 years). The control subjects were randomly selected from outdoor city workers from the city of Saskatoon and were matched for gender, age (+/- 2 years), and smoking status. Eleven swine farmers (55 percent) had chronic cough, compared with three (15 percent) of the control subjects (p less than 0.01). Eight (40 percent) of the swine farmers had symptoms of wheezing, compared with three (15 percent) of the control subjects (p less than 0.05). The FEV1 was significantly lower in swine farmers (97.2 +/- 11.5 percent predicted) than in control subjects (106.0 +/- 12.0 percent of predicted) (p less than 0.05). Airways responsiveness was measured by methacholine challenge with doubling concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 256 mg/ml. The provocation concentrations resulting in a reduction of 10 percent (PC10) and 20 percent (PC20) in FEV1 were lower in swine farmers than in control subjects (PC10, 77.2 +/- 78.8 mg/ml vs 180.8 +/- 96.5 mg/ml; p less than 0.01; and PC20, 154.5 +/- 99.9 mg/ml vs 229.6 +/- 66.8 mg/ml; p less than 0.05). Twelve swine farmers (60 percent) had PC20 of less than 256 mg/ml, compared with three (15 percent) of the control workers (p less than 0.01). Fewer swine farmers demonstrated atopy as measured by skin prick tests than did control workers (21 percent vs 56 percent; p less than 0.05). These findings suggested that occupational exposure in swine confinement buildings is associated with mild increases of nonspecific, nonatopic airways responsiveness in swine farmers. PMID:2009799

  15. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  16. Classical swine fever in China: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Li, Su; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-08-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an OIE-listed, highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine worldwide. Currently, the disease is controlled by prophylactic vaccination in China and many other countries using the modified live vaccines derived from C-strain, which was developed in China in the mid-1950s. This minireview summarizes the epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control and challenges of CSF in China. Though CSF is essentially under control, complete eradication of CSF in China remains a challenging task and needs long-term, joint efforts of stakeholders.

  17. Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gavin J D; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Bahl, Justin; Lycett, Samantha J; Worobey, Michael; Pybus, Oliver G; Ma, Siu Kit; Cheung, Chung Lam; Raghwani, Jayna; Bhatt, Samir; Peiris, J S Malik; Guan, Yi; Rambaut, Andrew

    2009-06-25

    In March and early April 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States. During the first few weeks of surveillance, the virus spread worldwide to 30 countries (as of May 11) by human-to-human transmission, causing the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to level 5 of 6. This virus has the potential to develop into the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century. Here we use evolutionary analysis to estimate the timescale of the origins and the early development of the S-OIV epidemic. We show that it was derived from several viruses circulating in swine, and that the initial transmission to humans occurred several months before recognition of the outbreak. A phylogenetic estimate of the gaps in genetic surveillance indicates a long period of unsampled ancestry before the S-OIV outbreak, suggesting that the reassortment of swine lineages may have occurred years before emergence in humans, and that the multiple genetic ancestry of S-OIV is not indicative of an artificial origin. Furthermore, the unsampled history of the epidemic means that the nature and location of the genetically closest swine viruses reveal little about the immediate origin of the epidemic, despite the fact that we included a panel of closely related and previously unpublished swine influenza isolates. Our results highlight the need for systematic surveillance of influenza in swine, and provide evidence that the mixing of new genetic elements in swine can result in the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential in humans.

  18. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  19. Solar heated swine farrowing shed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A swine farrowing shed that uses energy for heat is described. The design of the shed incorporates solar collector glazing, a rock bed storage, and two ventilation fans. The results of solar calculations are presented.

  20. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  1. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  2. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  3. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Khiabanian, Hossein; Trifonov, Vladimir; Rabadan, Raul

    2009-10-07

    Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1), reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  4. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children are ... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of ...

  5. Swine flu: a Birmingham experience.

    PubMed

    Scriven, James; Mcewen, Ruth; Mistry, Sanjay; Green, Chris; Osman, Husam; Bailey, Mark; Ellis, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    By the beginning of July 2009 the West Midlands had seen more cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) than any other region in the U.K. Over a three-week period almost 850 people presented to Heartlands Hospital with flu-like symptoms. Of those admitted 52 adults were subsequently confirmed as having H1N1 infection. Most were younger than 30 and not from traditional influenza risk groups. The main risk factor for severe disease was asthma, and to a lesser extent pregnancy and obesity. Seven patients were admitted to intensive care and five developed an acute lung injury requiring prolonged admission. Two patients required extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and one died. Despite increased workload normal clinical services were unaffected. The hospital was not closed to admissions nor was it paralysed by staff absence. With a predicted second wave expected at the end of 2009, efforts to maintain effective community assessment remain crucial.

  6. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  7. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  8. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  9. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  10. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  11. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  12. Pathogenesis and transmission studies: non-swine influenza A viruses in the swine host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Influenza A virus (IAV) causes disease in poultry, pigs, and people with wild waterfowl being the natural reservoir. IAV strains have been periodically transmitted between swine and humans in both directions and avian IAV have also sporadically infected swine. If an individual is infected w...

  13. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota. PMID:26414105

  14. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  15. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  16. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  17. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  18. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  19. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  20. 7 CFR 60.123 - Raised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raised. 60.123 Section 60.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.123 Raised. Raised means in the case of: (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 60.123 - Raised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raised. 60.123 Section 60.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.123 Raised. Raised means in the case of: (a)...

  2. Fund-Raising by School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClare, Greg; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A questionnaire completed by 138 principals indicated that fund-raising by pupils was extensive and was endorsed by parents, principals, and community organizations. The Toronto Board of Education subsequently adopted guidelines to ensure pupil safety in fund-raising outside school and to enhance the benefits of fund-raising, e.g., sharing,…

  3. Successful Community College Fund-Raising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Spencer

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a study whose primary purposes were to determine the characteristics of an effective fund-raising program, the marketing practices that contribute to the success of a fund-raising program, and factors of the development system's influence on a fund-raising program. This study utilized a Delphi research instrument. Initially,…

  4. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113.44 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted...

  5. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  6. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  7. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  8. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  9. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  10. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  11. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  12. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  13. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  14. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  15. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  16. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  17. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  18. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  19. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  20. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  1. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... acceptable methods to submit example contracts electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on...

  2. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... acceptable methods to submit example contracts electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on...

  3. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... acceptable methods to submit example contracts electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on...

  4. Results of Life-Supporting GalT-KO kidneys in Cynomolgus Monkeys Using Two Different Sources of GalT-KO Swine

    PubMed Central

    Sekijima, Mitsuhiro; Waki, Shiori; Sahara, Hisashi; Tasaki, Masayuki; Wilkinson, Robert A.; Villani, Vincenzo; Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Nakano, Kazuaki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Fishman, Jay A.; Shimizu, Akira; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Various durations of survival have been observed in the xenotransplantation of life-supporting alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) porcine kidneys into nonhuman primates (NHPs). While others have demonstrated loss of GalT-KO transplanted kidneys within two weeks, we have reported an average survival of 51 days with the co-transplantation of the kidney and vascularized thymus and an average of 29 days with the kidney alone. In order to determine the factors responsible for this difference in survival time, we performed xenogeneic kidney transplantations into cynomolgus monkeys with an anti-CD40L-based regimen using two different strains of GalT-KO swine, one derived from MGH-Miniature swine and the other obtained from Meji University. Materials and Methods Eight cynomolgus moneys received GalT-KO kidneys. Three kidney grafts were from MGH/NIBS GalT-KO pigs and 5 GalT-KO grafts were from MEIJI GalT-KO swine. All cynomolgus recipients were treated identically. Results Recipients of kidneys from the MGH GalT-KO swine, produced by nuclear transfer in Japan, survived an average of 28.7 days, while recipients of MEIJI GalT-KO swine survived an average of 9.2 days. Among the differences between these two groups, one potentially revealing disparity was that the MEIJI swine were positive for porcine-CMV, while the MGH-derived swine were negative. Conclusions This is the first study comparing renal xenotransplantation from two different sources of GalT-KO swine into NHPs at a single center. The results demonstrate that porcine-CMV may be responsible for early loss of GalTKO swine kidney xenografts. PMID:25243512

  5. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  6. Management of raised intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Pickard, J D; Czosnyka, M

    1993-08-01

    based on experience of the particular cause of raised intracranial pressure in a given age group. PMID:8350099

  7. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR...

  8. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR...

  9. Titration of African swine fever (ASF) virus.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, L; Carrascosa, A L; Moreno, M A; Viñuela, E

    1976-09-01

    A haemadsorption microtest for African swine fever (ASF) virus is described. This assay is as sensitive and its response is faster than the conventional assay which uses buffy coat cultures in Leighton tubes. The method can also process a larger number of samples by using smaller amounts of swine blood and laboratory space. A plaque assay for ASF virus adapted to grow in VERO cells gives a titre similar to that obtained using the haemadsorption microtest. In both the micromethod and the plaque assay infection may be produced by a single infective particle. PMID:823294

  10. Titration of African swine fever (ASF) virus.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, L; Carrascosa, A L; Moreno, M A; Viñuela, E

    1976-09-01

    A haemadsorption microtest for African swine fever (ASF) virus is described. This assay is as sensitive and its response is faster than the conventional assay which uses buffy coat cultures in Leighton tubes. The method can also process a larger number of samples by using smaller amounts of swine blood and laboratory space. A plaque assay for ASF virus adapted to grow in VERO cells gives a titre similar to that obtained using the haemadsorption microtest. In both the micromethod and the plaque assay infection may be produced by a single infective particle.

  11. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... commerce, except at the time of slaughter as provided in 9 CFR 309.16(e). (g) Swine moving interstate... Department of Agriculture backtags, when used on swine moving to slaughter; (3) Official swine tattoos, when used on swine moving to slaughter, when the use of the official swine tattoo has been requested by...

  12. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... commerce, except at the time of slaughter as provided in 9 CFR 309.16(e). (g) Swine moving interstate... Department of Agriculture backtags, when used on swine moving to slaughter; (3) Official swine tattoos, when used on swine moving to slaughter, when the use of the official swine tattoo has been requested by...

  13. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commerce, except at the time of slaughter as provided in 9 CFR 309.16(e). (g) Swine moving interstate... Department of Agriculture backtags, when used on swine moving to slaughter; (3) Official swine tattoos, when used on swine moving to slaughter, when the use of the official swine tattoo has been requested by...

  14. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine...

  15. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commerce, except at the time of slaughter as provided in 9 CFR 309.16(e). (g) Swine moving interstate... Department of Agriculture backtags, when used on swine moving to slaughter; (3) Official swine tattoos, when used on swine moving to slaughter, when the use of the official swine tattoo has been requested by...

  16. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  17. Influenza exposure in United States feral swine populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.; DeYoung, R.W.; Pabilonia, K.; Avery, M.L.; Sullivan, H.; Clark, L.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Swine play an important role in the disease ecology of influenza. Having cellular receptors in common with birds and humans, swine provide opportunities for mixed infections and potential for genetic reassortment between avian, human, and porcine influenza. Feral swine populations are rapidly expanding in both numbers and range and are increasingly coming into contact with waterfowl, humans, and agricultural operations. In this study, over 875 feral swine were sampled from six states across the United States for serologic evidence of exposure to influenza. In Oklahoma, Florida, and Missouri, USA, no seropositive feral swine were detected. Seropositive swine were detected in California, Mississippi, and Texas, USA. Antibody prevalences in these states were 1% in Mississippi, 5% in California, and 14.4% in Texas. All seropositive swine were exposed to H3N2 subtype, the predominant subtype currently circulating in domestic swine. The only exceptions were in San Saba County, Texas, where of the 15 seropositive samples, four were positive for H1N1 and seven for both H1N1 and H3N2. In Texas, there was large geographical and temporal variation in antibody prevalence and no obvious connection to domestic swine operations. No evidence of exposure to avian influenza in feral swine was uncovered. From these results it is apparent that influenza in feral swine poses a risk primarily to swine production operations. However, because feral swine share habitat with waterfowl, prey on and scavenge dead and dying birds, are highly mobile, and are increasingly coming into contact with humans, the potential for these animals to become infected with avian or human influenza in addition to swine influenza is a distinct possibility. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  18. Satellite tracking and geospatial analysis of feral swine and their habitat use in Louisiana and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartley, Stephen B.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Goatcher, Buddy L.

    2012-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) is an invasive species that was first introduced to the continental United States in the 1500s by European explorers. Also known as feral hogs or feral pigs, the animals typically weigh about 200 pounds (up to 400 pounds), have characteristic tusks up to 3 inches long, are territorial, and live in groups, except for the boars, who are solitary and typically interact with sows only to breed. They have an average litter size of 5-6 piglets and occasionally two litters per year, and because they have few natural predators, survival of their young can be nearly 100 percent. Because of the detrimental impacts of this invasive species---including rooting, damaging agricultural lands, competing for food with and destroying the habitats of native animals, and spreading diseases and parasites---many public lands implement feral swine control programs on an annual basis. This activity is not enough to control or prevent an increase in swine populations, however, because of their distribution beyond the boundaries of public lands. Currently, little is known about feral swine populations, their habitat use and movement patterns, and the resulting habitat destruction in Louisiana and Mississippi. To abate this lack of knowledge, researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC)---in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, and several large landholding companies---are using collars equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to track feral swine in Louisiana and Mississippi to examine population movement patterns, document destruction of habitat and wildlife, and help increase and facilitate removal. The NWRC researchers are using the "Judas pig" system of attaching GPS-satellite telemetry collars to select feral swine to (1) track movement patterns on the landscape, (2) document habitat destruction and effects on native wildlife, and (3) improve

  19. Genetic and pathobiologic characterization of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viruses from a naturally infected swine herd.

    PubMed

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Neufeld, James; Kehler, Helen; Emburry-Hyatt, Carissa; Hooper-McGreevy, Kathleen; Kasloff, Samantha; Dalman, Brett; Bystrom, Jan; Alexandersen, Soren; Li, Yan; Pasick, John

    2010-03-01

    Since its initial identification in Mexico and the United States, concerns have been raised that the novel H1N1 influenza virus might cause a pandemic of severity comparable to that of the 1918 pandemic. In late April 2009, viruses phylogenetically related to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus were isolated from an outbreak on a Canadian pig farm. This outbreak also had epidemiological links to a suspected human case. Experimental infections carried out in pigs using one of the swine isolates from this outbreak and the human isolate A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009 showed differences in virus recovery from the lower respiratory tract. Virus was consistently isolated from the lungs of pigs infected with A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009, while only one pig infected with A/swine/Alberta/OTH-33-8/2008 yielded live virus from the lung, despite comparable amounts of viral RNA and antigen in both groups of pigs. Clinical disease resembled other influenza virus infections in swine, albeit with somewhat prolonged virus antigen detection and delayed viral-RNA clearance from the lungs. There was also a noteworthy amount of genotypic variability among the viruses isolated from the pigs on the farm. This, along with the somewhat irregular pathobiological characteristics observed in experimentally infected animals, suggests that although the virus may be of swine origin, significant viral evolution may still be ongoing.

  20. Antigenically intact hemagglutinin in circulating avian and swine influenza viruses and potential for H3N2 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Tharakaraman, Kannan; Raman, Rahul; Stebbins, Nathan W; Viswanathan, Karthik; Sasisekharan, Viswanathan; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza, though antigenically novel to the population at the time, was antigenically similar to the 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza, and consequently was considered to be "archived" in the swine species before reemerging in humans. Given that the H3N2 is another subtype that currently circulates in the human population and is high on WHO pandemic preparedness list, we assessed the likelihood of reemergence of H3N2 from a non-human host. Using HA sequence features relevant to immune recognition, receptor binding and transmission we have identified several recent H3 strains in avian and swine that present hallmarks of a reemerging virus. IgG polyclonal raised in rabbit with recent seasonal vaccine H3 fail to recognize these swine H3 strains suggesting that existing vaccines may not be effective in protecting against these strains. Vaccine strategies can mitigate risks associated with a potential H3N2 pandemic in humans.

  1. Serological Evidence and Risk Factors for Swine Influenza Infections among Chinese Swine Workers in Guangdong Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mengmeng; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Wang, Tao; Chen, Yingan; Zhang, Dingmei; Gray, Gregory C.; Lu, Jiahai

    2015-01-01

    During July to September 2014, we performed a controlled, cross-sectional, seroepidemiologic study among 203 swine workers and 115 control subjects in Guangdong Province. Sera were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against locally-isolated swine H3N2 and H1N1 viruses and commercially-obtained human influenza viral antigens. We found swine workers had a greater prevalence and odds of seropositivity against the swine H3N2 virus (17.3% vs. 7.0%; adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1 -10.7). Younger age, self-report of a respiratory illness during the last 12 months, and seropositivity against seasonal H3N2 virus were identified as significant risk factors for seropositivity against swine H3N2 virus. As swine workers in China may be exposed to novel influenza viruses, it seems prudent for China to conduct special surveillance for such viruses among them. It also seems wise to offer such workers seasonal influenza vaccines with a goal to reduce cross-species influenza virus transmission. PMID:26016740

  2. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  3. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization of both biol...

  4. Transgenic swine for biomedicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S; Hawley, R J; Carter, D B; Lai, L; Greenstein, J L

    2003-01-01

    Initial technologies for creating transgenic swine only permitted random integration of the construct. However, by combining the technology for homologous recombination in fetal somatic cells with that of nuclear transfer (NT), it is now possible to create specific modifications to the swine genome. The first such example is that of knocking out a gene that is responsible for hyperacute rejection (HAR) when organs from swine are transferred to primates. Because swine are widely used as models of human diseases, there are opportunities for genetic modification to alter these models or to create additional models of human disease. Unfortunately, some of the offspring resulting from NT have abnormal phenotypes. However, it appears that these abnormal phenotypes are a result of epigenetic modifications and, thus, are not transmitted to the offspring of the clones. Although the technique of producing animals with specific genetic modifications by NT has been achieved, improvements to the NT technique as well as improvements in the culture conditions for somatic cells and the techniques for genetic modification are still needed.

  5. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Swine Production Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document contains 52 Occupational Skill Standards for the swine production occupational cluster, as required for the state of Illinois. Skill Standards, which were developed by committees that included educators, business, industry, and labor, are intended to promote education and training investment and ensure that students and workers are…

  6. Swine Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a swine producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability skills…

  7. Flu virus continues to evolve in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine can be infected with human- and avian-adapted influenza viruses, which has labeled pigs as "mixing vessels" for generating novel, genetically diverse viruses that may have epidemic or pandemic potential. However, it has been documented that humans, some species of birds and other mammals may a...

  8. AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FROM SWINE FINISHING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from two new studies at swine finishing facilities. (NOTE: Concentrated anaimal feeding operations (CAFOs) are being examined in several regions of the U.S. as major sources of ammonia and particulate matter precursors. EPA's National Risk Management Re...

  9. Source chemical characterization of swine odor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from swine production have been linked to a host of issues affecting quality of life, property values and potentially human health. Typical compounds and classes of compounds include: sulfides, thiols, acids, phenols, indoles, ammonia and amines. The wide range of compounds assoicated with swi...

  10. Children's Difficulty with Raising: A Performance Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Jinsun; Deen, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    This article explores English-speaking children's acquisition of raising structures with an experiencer (e.g.," John seems to Mary to be happy"). We review and address previously unnoticed issues in the methodologies of existing studies testing the acquisition of raising, thus providing a more reliable picture of children's abilities…

  11. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  12. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  13. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  14. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  15. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  16. Raising Sensitive Issues in a Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindoerfer, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how to deal with a sensitive issue within your team? For example, how do you raise the issue that the women rarely get listened to? How do you bring up your observation that the team members from Marketing always dominate the meetings? This guidebook focuses on ways to determine whether to raise such an issue in a team…

  17. Advances in gender preselection in swine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L A

    1997-01-01

    Gender preselection using isolated populations of X- and Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa that have been separated on the basis of DNA content is currently possible in swine and other farm animals, as well as in humans. Semen from most livestock species can now be successfully separated into predominantly X or Y sperm populations before their use for intra-tubal insemination, deep-uterine insemination or for in vitro fertilization (IVF) to produce sexed offspring. Birth of progeny of the desired sex in cattle, sheep and swine under semi-practical conditions has successfully validated the sexing technology. Spermatozoa are separated on the basis of inherent differences in DNA content in the X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm population using modified flow cytometry/cell sorting technology. Spermatozoa are stained with Hoechst 33342 which binds to the DNA in an amount proportional to the amount of DNA present in the individual spermatozoa. Over 300 animals from various species at several locations have been born using the USDA-Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology for separating X and Y spermatozoa. Sex ratios are shifted from the normal 50:50 to 85 to 90% of one sex or the other. In swine, offspring have been born as the result of surgical intratubal insemination of separated spermatozoa and also from IVF and embryo transfer. At the present time, standard swine artificial insemination techniques are not optimized for use with the small numbers of flow cytometrically separated X or Y sperm populations. Cattle, swine and rabbit offspring have been reproduced through the second generation with normal morphology and reproductive function. Numerous improvements have been made in the sexing technology since it was first reported in 1989. Increasing the speed of the sexing process to make the application of the technology available to a larger segment of the livestock industry is paramount, even with insemination technology designed for small numbers of spermatozoa. PMID

  18. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  19. Preventive Health Behaviors Among Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We examined differential preventive health behavior among grandmothers who recently began raising a grandchild, grandmothers raising a grandchild for at least 2 years, and grandmothers not raising a grandchild. Methods Data came from the 2000, 2002, and 2004 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. We ran multivariate logistic regression models to assess receipt of influenza vaccination, cholesterol screening, monthly breast self-exam, mammography, and Papanicolaou (Pap) tests among grandmothers aged 50 to 75. Results Grandmothers who recently began raising a grandchild were significantly less likely to report influenza vaccination and cholesterol screening than grandmothers not raising grandchildren, even after we controlled for increased emotional and financial strains within the household. We also observed this association for Pap tests, although this finding was only marginally significant. Grandmothers who had been raising a grandchild for at least 2 years were significantly more likely to report influenza vaccination and monthly breast self-exam than grandmothers not raising grandchildren. Discussion The enhancement of preventive behavior seen among long-term grandparent caregivers does not fully offset the suppression of preventive behavior during the transition into care; support groups should target a range of interventions toward the promotion of healthy behavior among new grandparent caregivers. PMID:18818451

  20. Fund Raising. The Guide to Raising Money from Private Sources. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broce, Thomas E.

    A basic guide and reference to raising funds from private sources is presented that is designed primarily for professional personnel or the administrator employing fund-raising personnel. The first edition of the guide has also been used as a textbook for university courses in fund-raising. This revised edition includes new materials on: capital…

  1. H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu Planning & Preparedness Business Planning Community Planning School ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H1N1 - originally referred to as Swine Flu ...

  2. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

  3. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    PubMed

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  4. A swine SINE (PRE-1 sequence) distribution in swine-related animal species and its phylogenetic analysis in swine genome.

    PubMed

    Yasue, H; Wada, Y

    1996-04-01

    The distribution of PRE-1 sequence (a swine SINE) among the animal species related to Sus scrofa, i.e. Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, was examined by dot-blot analysis using PRE-1 sequences as a probe. This revealed that Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu contained PRE-1 sequences, amounts of which in their genomes are almost the same as that in the swine genome, indicating that these species separated after PRE-1 sequences proliferated to diversify in the genome. In order to estimate the time when the PRE-1 started to diversify in the swine genome, PRE-1 sequences were extracted from GenBank DNA database by homology analysis using the PRE-1 consensus sequence as a probe. The 22 PRE-1 sequences obtained were aligned and their phylogenetic relation was calculated by the neighbour-joining method. The result of the calculation combined with the mutation rate of the pseudogenes (r = 4.6 x 10(-9)) indicated that the PRE-1 sequence diversified at least 43.2 million years ago. Taken together, the period of time since the separation of the three species, Sus scrofa, Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, is currently estimated to be less than 43.2 million years. PMID:8856898

  5. Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159815.html Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence: Study Doctors should explore alternatives for pain ... have an elevated risk of growing dependent on opioid painkillers, a new study finds. These prescription painkillers ...

  6. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  7. Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160033.html Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction Men and younger people had higher odds of ... had a 41 percent higher risk of opioid addiction than those with no pain. That increased risk ...

  8. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third ... now linked to 11 types of cancer and alcohol links to six," she said in an institute ...

  9. Raised replacement heifers: some economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Harlan

    2013-11-01

    This article lays out the recommended procedure for determining the economic cost of developing a proposed set of replacement heifers. In particular, a 6-step process that calculates the economic cost of developing a raised pregnant replacement heifer is described.

  10. Preparation of swine for the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison C; Swindle, M Michael

    2006-01-01

    Swine are an important model in many areas of biomedical research. These animals have been used predominantly as preclinical models involving surgical and interventional protocols. The systems most commonly studied include cardiovascular, integumentary, digestive, and urological. Swine are intelligent social animals and require species-specific socialization and handling techniques. It is important to acclimate the animals to the facility and to personnel before they are placed on chronic protocols. Gentle handling techniques instead of forceful procedures are essential to their socialization. They require sturdy caging with specific construction standards, and toys for environmental enrichment. Because the species is covered by both the Animal Welfare Act and the US Department of Agriculture, interstate transport requires a health certificate with destination state-specific disease screening standards. This manuscript provides an overview of best practices that have been utilized in the authors' facility.

  11. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  12. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus by swine and poultry farm workers in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sabino, R; Faísca, V M; Carolino, E; Veríssimo, C; Viegas, C

    2012-01-01

    associated with their occupational exposure. Some of the fungi, namely, the Aspergillus species detected in this study, are known to induce hypersensitivity reactions in humans. This study confirmed the presence and distribution of Aspergillus in Portuguese poultry and swine farms, suggesting a possible occupational health problem and raising the need for preventive and protective measures to apply to avoid exposure in both occupational settings. PMID:23095156

  13. Rapid genotyping of swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Mak, Polly W Y; Wong, Chloe K S; Li, Olive T W; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheung, Chung Lam; Ma, Edward S; Webby, Richard J; Guan, Yi; Malik Peiris, Joseph S; Poon, Leo L M

    2011-04-01

    The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse-transcription PCR-based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages.

  14. Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Polly W.Y.; Wong, Chloe K.S.; Li, Olive T.W.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheung, Chung Lam; Ma, Edward S.; Webby, Richard J.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. Malik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse–transcription PCR–based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages. PMID:21470462

  15. Microbial perspective on fiber utilization by swine.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Yen, J T

    1997-10-01

    Dietary fiber may contribute up to 30% of the maintenance energy needs of growing pigs. Higher energy contributions may be obtained from dietary fiber fed to sows, along with some improvements in reproduction, health, and well-being. As long as cereal grain supplies and high-quality protein supplements are abundant, the use of fibrous feeds for swine most likely will be limited. However, as the human demand for cereal grains increases, swine producers, especially those with reproductive animals, may be economically forced to incorporate alternative feedstuffs. These feedstuffs might include lignified plant cell wall material such as grasses and legumes, and feed-milling and distillery by-products that contain a high level of fiber residues. The microflora in swine large intestine will be able to adapt to these lignified forages and by-product feeds much better than the microflora in humans. Swine microflora contain highly active ruminal cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial species, which include Fibrobacter succinogenes (intestinalis), Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio spp., and Prevotella ruminicola. Additionally, a new highly active cellulolytic bacterium, Clostridium herbivorans, has been recently isolated from pig large intestine. The populations of these microorganisms are known to increase in response to the ingestion of diets high in plant cell wall material. The numbers of cellulolytic bacteria from adult animals are approximately 6.7 times greater than those found in growing pigs. None of these highly active cellulolytic bacterial species are found in the human large intestine. Thus, the pig large intestinal fermentation of fiber seems to more closely resemble that of ruminants than that of humans.

  16. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  17. Serological and bacteriological study of swine brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, V R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G

    1997-01-01

    A serological and bacteriological study was performed with sera taken from 2,228 swine from six states in Venezuela. None of the animals were vaccinated against brucellosis, and the prevalence of the disease varied from 5 to 89% on farms located in these states. Our studies indicated that the animals could be categorized into four groups depending on the degree of reactivity in serological tests. Brucella suis biovar 1 was isolated from the lymph nodes, spleens, and semen samples of seropositive animals and identified by oxidative metabolic techniques. B. suis could not be isolated from tissues of seronegative swine even from farms with cases of the disease (detected by serology). Results suggest that, although the immunodiffusion assay using Brucella melitensis B115 polysaccharide B or B. abortus 1119-3 O-polysaccharide could be useful in the detection of active infections, it is perhaps not as sensitive as some of the other standard serological tests used in this study for the detection of swine brucellosis. PMID:8968931

  18. Serological and bacteriological study of swine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Lord, V R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G

    1997-01-01

    A serological and bacteriological study was performed with sera taken from 2,228 swine from six states in Venezuela. None of the animals were vaccinated against brucellosis, and the prevalence of the disease varied from 5 to 89% on farms located in these states. Our studies indicated that the animals could be categorized into four groups depending on the degree of reactivity in serological tests. Brucella suis biovar 1 was isolated from the lymph nodes, spleens, and semen samples of seropositive animals and identified by oxidative metabolic techniques. B. suis could not be isolated from tissues of seronegative swine even from farms with cases of the disease (detected by serology). Results suggest that, although the immunodiffusion assay using Brucella melitensis B115 polysaccharide B or B. abortus 1119-3 O-polysaccharide could be useful in the detection of active infections, it is perhaps not as sensitive as some of the other standard serological tests used in this study for the detection of swine brucellosis.

  19. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  20. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  1. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  2. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  3. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  4. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719

  5. Turning schedules influence final composition of composted swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure is a high-moisture, low-nutrient product that limits economical transport to areas in proximity of its source, possibly contributing to localized high soil nutrient levels. Composting swine manure converts liquid slurries to solids at lower moisture conten...

  6. Global transmission of influenza viruses from humans to swine

    PubMed Central

    Gramer, Marie R.; Vincent, Amy L.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the extent to which influenza viruses jump between human and swine hosts, we undertook a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of pandemic A/H1N1/09 (H1N1pdm09) influenza virus genome sequence data. From this, we identified at least 49 human-to-swine transmission events that occurred globally during 2009–2011, thereby highlighting the ability of the H1N1pdm09 virus to transmit repeatedly from humans to swine, even following adaptive evolution in humans. Similarly, we identified at least 23 separate introductions of human seasonal (non-pandemic) H1 and H3 influenza viruses into swine globally since 1990. Overall, these results reveal the frequency with which swine are exposed to human influenza viruses, indicate that humans make a substantial contribution to the genetic diversity of influenza viruses in swine, and emphasize the need to improve biosecurity measures at the human–swine interface, including influenza vaccination of swine workers. PMID:22791604

  7. Quantifying the global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled wit...

  8. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  9. Fertilizing cotton with recovered P from swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from liquid swine manure. Our objective was to compare P availability and leaching distribution in soils using the recovered P from swine wastewater (31% P2O5) compared with triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and broiler litter (2.6% P...

  10. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... be the lead Federal agency in the development of the EIS in cooperation with other Federal, State... implement a nationally coordinated swine damage management program in cooperation with Tribes, agencies, and... swine conflicts. Methods that would be evaluated for potential use and/or recommendation by APHIS...

  11. Lysozyme as an alternative to antibiotics in swine feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics have been fed at subtherapeutic levels to swine as growth promoters for more than 60 years, and the majority of swine produced in the U.S. receive antibiotics in their feed at some point in their production cycle. These compounds benefit the producers by minimizing production losses by ...

  12. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  13. PREVALENCE OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN AN INTEGRATED SWINE OPERATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Isolation of C. difficile was performed u...

  14. Varied prevalence of Clostridium difficile in an integrated swine operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Preliminary results are based on 131 C. d...

  15. An automated scraper system for swine confinement facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odor and air emissions released by some commercial, large swine operations can be a nuisance. Research has shown that some swine confinement buildings can emit significant amounts of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other gases, especially from deep pit buildings with long-term manure storage. A m...

  16. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  17. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  18. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  19. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  20. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  1. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States,...

  2. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  3. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine. 93.520 Section 93.520 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Central America and West Indies 8 § 93.520 Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of...

  4. 9 CFR 93.516 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine. 93.516 Section 93.516 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.516 Import permit and declaration for swine. (a) For swine intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall first apply...

  5. 9 CFR 93.516 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine. 93.516 Section 93.516 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.516 Import permit and declaration for swine. (a) For swine intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall first apply...

  6. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  7. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  8. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  9. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  10. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  11. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from a..., collection point, or slaughter facility, must remain segregated from noncertified swine at all times...

  12. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine. 93.520 Section 93.520 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Central America and West Indies 8 § 93.520 Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of...

  13. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  14. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine. 93.520 Section 93.520 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Central America and West Indies 8 § 93.520 Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of...

  15. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine. 93.520 Section 93.520 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Central America and West Indies 8 § 93.520 Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of...

  16. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine. 93.520 Section 93.520 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Central America and West Indies 8 § 93.520 Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of...

  17. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  18. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  19. 9 CFR 93.516 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine. 93.516 Section 93.516 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.516 Import permit and declaration for swine. (a) For swine intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall first apply...

  20. 9 CFR 93.516 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine. 93.516 Section 93.516 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.516 Import permit and declaration for swine. (a) For swine intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall first apply...

  1. 9 CFR 93.516 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine. 93.516 Section 93.516 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.516 Import permit and declaration for swine. (a) For swine intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall first apply...

  2. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  3. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. 166.3 Section 166.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from...

  4. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. 166.3 Section 166.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from...

  5. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... restrictions on the interstate movement of breeding swine from Texas. DATES: This interim rule is effective on... herd testing, market swine testing, or statistical analysis. Breeding swine originating from a... interstate movement of breeding swine from Texas. Immediate Action Immediate action is warranted to...

  6. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  11. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    PubMed

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  12. Raising a gender non-conforming child.

    PubMed

    Wisnowski, Deborah L

    2011-10-01

    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  13. Swine influenza A (H1N1) strikes a potential for global disaster

    PubMed Central

    Galwankar, Sagar; Clem, Angela

    2009-01-01

    As of April 25th2009, 11.00 AM, eight human cases of swine influenza A virus infection have been identified in the United States in California and Texas. There is also established evidence of similar cases across the United States border in Mexico. Experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in cooperation with World Health Organization and public health experts from Canada and Mexico are leading an exhaustive investigation to find the source of infection and infected people. We present a profile of this illness from the available literature. PMID:19561969

  14. Cataglyphis desert ants improve their mobility by raising the gaster.

    PubMed

    McMeeking, Robert M; Arzt, Eduard; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2012-03-21

    We analyze theoretically the moment of inertia of the desert ant Cataglyphis (C. bicolor and C. fortis) around a vertical axis through its own center of mass when the animal raises its gaster to a vertical position. Compared to the value when the gaster is horizontal, the moment of inertia is reduced to one half; this implies that when increasing its angular acceleration the ant need apply only half the level of torque when the gaster is raised, compared to when the gaster is lowered. As an example, we analyze the cases of an ant running on circular and sinusoidal paths. In both cases, the ant must apply a sideways thrust, anti-roll and anti-pitch torques to avoid toppling, and, on the circular path when accelerating and throughout the sinusoidal trajectory, a torque to enable turning as the path curves. When the ant is accelerating in a very tight circle or running on a very narrow sinusoidal path, in which the amplitude of the sinusoid is less than the length of the ant's body, the forces required for the turning torque can equal and exceed those required for the sideways thrust, and can be reduced significantly by the ant raising the gaster, whereas the foot-thrust for the anti-roll and anti-pitch torques rises only modestly when the gaster is up. This suggests that there may be an evolutionary advantage for employing the gaster-raising mode of locomotion, since this habit will allow desert ants to use lower forces and less energy, and perhaps run faster on more tortuous paths.

  15. Classical Swine Fever Virus p7 protein is a viroporin involved in virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The non-structural protein p7 of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is a hydrophobic polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 7 kDa. The protein contains two hydrophobic stretches of amino acids interrupted by a short charged segment that are predicted to form transmembrane helices and a cytos...

  16. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potential of soils amended with raw swine manure, dry and wet pyrolyzed swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solid and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture of...

  17. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... importation of animals and animal products to add Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that..., live swine, and swine semen from the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for CSF (currently.... On May 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 28910- 28913, Docket No....

  18. Detection and molecular characterization of swine hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine herds and their faecal wastes.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Correa, Maria T; Sobsey, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Recent findings of almost genetically indistinguishable swine and human strains, have suggested swine play a role in the transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The extent to which HEV may be present and persist in the faecal waste generated from intensive swine operations is largely unknown. The fate of swine waste liquid is often land application, possibly resulting in unintentional seepage into groundwater or run-off into surface waters, hence validating concerns of human exposure risks. Freshly passed swine faeces, barn flush liquid waste, and lagoon liquid from production sites in North Carolina were surveyed periodically for HEV using RT-PCR primers located in ORF2. On three farms where HEV RNA was detected in swine faeces, it was also found in stored liquid waste on several occasions. HEV presence was related to swine age but not to animal management and waste management procedures, which varied amongst the farms. Seasonal patterns of HEV prevalence could not be established as viral RNA was isolated at all time points from two farms. Phylogenetic analysis of 212 bases of the genomic RNA indicated that isolates resembled the known US swine and human strains (percentage nucleic acid homology 91 to 94%), with one amino acid substitution. PMID:19240360

  19. Grammatical Consciousness-Raising and the Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Susan Kesner

    A role is proposed for the lexicon in the grammatical consciousness-raising (GCR) framework for second language teaching outlined by W. Rutherford and M. Sharwood Smith (1987, 1988). First, a lexical framework that offers a series of questions to help teachers discover the relevant semantic and pragmatic information associated with grammatical…

  20. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Help from Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocoll, Caroline E.

    2004-01-01

    Grandparents raising grandchildren face many challenges including dealing with the complicated systems of child welfare, education, healthcare, and the aging network. They must contend with maintaining financial resources for their grandchildren, enrolling the children in school, accessing healthcare and insurance, and obtaining safe, affordable…

  1. Raising Happy Kids on a Reasonable Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Patricia C.

    This guide shows parents how to cut expenses and save on the cost of raising a family. Chapter 1 offers many ways to stretch food dollars and discusses buying in bulk, eating out, using coupons, buying wholesale, and gardening. Cost-cutting clothing ideas covered in chapter 2 include buying at secondhand stores and consignment shops, outlet…

  2. Infant Botulism and Raised Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Matthew D; Uber, Ian; Kieling, Christopher R; Birdsong, Richard H

    2009-11-01

    Infant botulism is an exceedingly rare disease. Because confirmatory laboratory testing is not available for several days after time of presentation, infant botulism remains a clinical diagnosis. The authors demonstrate how raised intraocular pressure may provide an additional clinical clue to making the diagnosis.

  3. Raising Minority Achievement in Science and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabowski, Freeman A., III

    2003-01-01

    Describes the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science and mathematics. Provides advice to parents, educators, and students on how to raise minority-group achievement. Describes the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, which recruits and supports minority students who excel in…

  4. Raise Your Profile: Build Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Gaspar, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    To raise the library's profile within the campus community, it is critical to create a strategic plan and align library goals with those of the university. At George Washington University's Gelman Library, the instruction librarians gained internal and external support to hire two new instruction librarians to better support collaboration with the…

  5. Liberation Therapeutics: Consciousness Raising as a Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasch-Quinn, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Questions the content and form of consciousness raising as a mode of purveying knowledge or bringing about change by considering its emergence in the civil rights movement. Examines such books as "Black Rage" (William Grierand Price Cobbs), "Triumph of the Therapeutic" (Philip Reiff), "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?" (Martin Luther…

  6. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  7. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  8. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  9. Fund Raising in ARL Libraries. Kit 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    In January 1983 the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) surveyed its members regarding their fund raising programs. A response rate of 85% (95 out of 113 libraries surveyed) was obtained. It was found that 85% of ARL member libraries had been involved in university-wide fund campaigns; that over 75% of the respondents had also conducted…

  10. Raising Money Through an Institutionally Related Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilley, Timothy A., Ed.

    The creation of foundations for fund raising at public colleges and new ideas and techniques for established foundations are discussed in 13 chapters. The relationship of the foundation and the institution is described from the viewpoint of the institution and also that of the foundation. Article titles and authors include: "How the Foundation…

  11. Guidelines Manual for Fund Raising and Donations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidewater Community Coll. Educational Foundation, Inc., Portsmouth, VA.

    Guidelines and procedures for fund raising and the acceptance of gifts at Tidewater Community College (TCC) are presented in this manual. First, general information is provided on the acceptance of gifts of cash, securities, real estate, insurance, personal property, equipment, and gifts requiring the expenditure of funds. Next, general procedures…

  12. Raising Academic Achievement through Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackfelner, Carol; Ranallo, Barbara

    Research has demonstrated that parent involvement has many beneficial effects for students. This action research project designed and implemented a program to raise the academic achievement of second-grade students by increasing parent involvement. The students attended two second-grade classrooms in a west-central Illinois school. The problem of…

  13. The Fundamentals of Community College Fund Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumbach, Mary A.; Bumphus, Walter G.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a guide for community college fund raising. Discusses organizational principles and structural models; operational concerns such as stewardship of funds, information dissemination, and donor research; and the importance of presidential support, institutional reputation and environment, and experienced grants managers. Includes practical…

  14. National Organizations Raising Public Consciousness. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Statements of seven national organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, Spina Bifida Association of America, National Easter Seal Society, International Association of Parents of the Deaf, American Foundation for the Blind, Down's Syndrome Congress, and the National Society for Autistic Children) about raising community awareness of issues…

  15. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  16. Parents Matter: Tips for Raising Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Washington, DC.

    It is easy for parents to feel that they have lost their influence over their children once children reach adolescence. Several organizations with different focuses but with the same goal of helping parents raise their teenagers banded together to develop this publication. Their message is that parents can do many things to foster their children's…

  17. Winning Techniques for Athletic Fund Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberger, Patti, Ed.

    Techniques are presented from successful athletic fund-raisers on how to structure a fund-raising program through an independent booster club, as part of the athletic department or as part of the total institutional development program. The handbook offers advice on building a program from scratch; organizing successful campaigns, involving…

  18. Children Seem to Know Raising: Raising and Intervention in Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Jinsun

    2012-01-01

    English-speaking children exhibit difficulty in their comprehension of raising patterns, such as (1), in which the NP the boy is semantically linked to the VP in the embedded clause, but is syntactically realized as the subject of the matrix clause. (1) Raising pattern: [s "The boy" seems to the girl [s _ to be happy

  19. Swine Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A Virus on a Canadian Research Farm Supports Human-to-Swine Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Keenliside, Julia; Wilkinson, Craig; Webby, Richard; Lu, Patricia; Sorensen, Ole; Fonseca, Kevin; Barman, Subrata; Rubrum, Adam; Stigger, Evelyn; Marrie, Thomas J.; Marshall, Frank; Spady, Donald W.; Hu, Jia; Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L.; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Swine outbreaks of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) suggest human introduction of the virus into herds. This study investigates a pH1N1 outbreak occurring on a swine research farm with 37 humans and 1300 swine in Alberta, Canada, from 12 June through 4 July 2009. Methods. The staff was surveyed about symptoms, vaccinations, and livestock exposures. Clinical findings were recorded, and viral testing and molecular characterization of isolates from humans and swine were performed. Human serological testing and performance of the human influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition were also studied. Results. Humans were infected before swine. Seven of 37 humans developed ILI, and 2 (including the index case) were positive for pH1N1 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Swine were positive for pH1N1 by RT-PCR 6 days after contact with the human index case and developed symptoms within 24 h of their positive viral test results. Molecular characterization of the entire viral genomes from both species showed minor nucleotide heterogeneity, with 1 amino acid change each in the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes. Sixty-seven percent of humans with positive serological test results and 94% of swine with positive swab specimens had few or no symptoms. Compared with serological testing, the human ILI case definition had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 33.3%. The only factor associated with seropositivity was working in the swine nursery. Conclusions. Epidemiologic data support human-to-swine transmission, and molecular characterization confirms that virtually identical viruses infected humans and swine in this outbreak. Both species had mild illness and recovered without sequelae. PMID:21148514

  20. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3-4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1-2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  1. DNA Vaccines: Experiences in the Swine Model.

    PubMed

    Accensi, Francesc; Rodríguez, Fernando; Monteagudo, Paula L

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccination is one of the most fascinating vaccine-strategies currently in development. Two of the main advantages of DNA immunization rely on its simplicity and flexibility, being ideal to dissect both the immune mechanisms and the antigens involved in protection against a given pathogen. Here, we describe several strategies used to enhance the immune responses induced and the protection afforded by experimental DNA vaccines tested in swine and provide with very basic protocol describing the generation and in vivo application of a prototypic DNA vaccine. Only time will tell the last word regarding the definitive implementation of DNA vaccination in the field.

  2. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. PMID:27611027

  3. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks.

  4. Environmental source of mycobacteriosis in a California swine herd.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, I A; Hird, D W

    1989-01-01

    Between July 1985 and April 1986, mycobacterial lymphadenitis was recorded in six of 2407 slaughter pigs from a commercial swine herd in which the majority of pigs were raised in confinement. Records showed that all six affected pigs had access to dirt-floored pens at least 81 days prior to slaughter. The mycobacteriosis lesion rate for pigs exposed to dirt pens was 9.4% while in nonexposed pigs the lesion rate was zero. The risk associated with movement of pigs from concrete floored pens to dirt pens was evaluated by a field trial. In the field trial, two litters (5 of 15 pigs) exposed to dirt pens at 12-24 days of age but none of nine nonexposed litters (39 pigs) developed lesions. Mycobacterium avium-complex bacteria were recovered from both exposed litters (9 of 15 pigs) but from none of nine nonexposed litters. Serovars of M. avium-complex isolated from trial pigs included 1, 4, 8, 9, the dual serovar 4/8, and an untypable serovar. Incense-cedar bark (Calocedrus decurrens) used as a flooring material in the pens was demonstrated to be a potential source of M. avium-complex serovar 9. The dual serovar 4/8 and an untypable M. avium-complex were isolated from the dirt-floored pens. No evidence of cross-transmission of M. avium-complex infection was detected. The sporadic pattern of mycobacteriosis observed in the herd probably resulted from infrequent exposure to a common environmental source. PMID:2914225

  5. Potential effects of raising Medicare's eligibility age.

    PubMed

    Waidmann, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recent fiscal pressures on Medicare and an already enacted increase in Social Security's normal retirement age have generated discussion of raising Medicare's age of entitlement. This DataWatch examines potential impacts of raising Medicare's eligibility age to sixty-seven on public-sector health spending and individual insurance coverage. The proposed increase would affect a substantial fraction of beneficiaries without having a commensurate effect on expenditures, even in the long run. It is estimated that if the eligibility age were sixty-seven, upwards of 500,000 persons ages sixty-five and sixty-six would be left without any insurance, and even more would not be able to afford coverage with benefits similar to those of Medicare. PMID:9558794

  6. Transcription analysis on response of swine lung to H1N1 swine influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As a mild, highly contagious, respiratory disease, swine influenza always damages the innate immune systems, and increases susceptibility to secondary infections which results in considerable morbidity and mortality in pigs. Nevertheless, the systematical host response of pigs to swine influenza virus infection remains largely unknown. To explore it, a time-course gene expression profiling was performed for comprehensive analysis of the global host response induced by H1N1 swine influenza virus in pigs. Results At the early stage of H1N1 swine virus infection, pigs were suffering mild respiratory symptoms and pathological changes. A total of 268 porcine genes showing differential expression (DE) after inoculation were identified to compare with the controls on day 3 post infection (PID) (Fold change ≥ 2, p < 0.05). The DE genes were involved in many vital functional classes, mainly including signal transduction, immune response, inflammatory response, cell adhesion and cell-cell signalling. Noticeably, the genes associated with immune and inflammatory response showed highly overexpressed. Through the pathway analysis, the significant pathways mainly concerned with Cell adhesion molecules, Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that the host took different strategies to activate these pathways so as to prevent virus infections at the early stage. However, on PID 7, the predominant function classes of DE genes included signal transduction, metabolism, transcription, development and transport. Furthermore, the most significant pathways switched to PPAR signaling pathway and complement and coagulation cascades, showing that the host might start to repair excessive tissue damage by anti-inflammatory functions. These results on PID 7 demonstrated beneficial turnover for host to prevent excessive inflammatory damage and recover the normal state by activating these clusters of genes

  7. Comparative studies of atherosclerosis in swine

    PubMed Central

    Bijlenga, G.; Dahme, E.; Detweiler, D. K.; Gresham, G. A.; Grünberg, W.; Howard, A. N.; Kagan, A. R.; Kaplan, M. M.; van Nie, C. J.; Rubarth, S.; Sternby, N. H.; Stünzi, H.; Uemura, K.; Whitney, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    A survey of spontaneously occurring fatty streaks and fibrous plaques, considered as atherosclerosis, in 1637 swine in different European countries and the USA, using a standardized procedure, was undertaken to determine whether significant differences exist in the occurrence and extent of the disease in various groups of animals. At the same time a preliminary study on the possible relation of any differences observed in atherosclerosis to certain environmental and constitutional factors was carried out with the ultimate goal of contributing to the understanding of analogous problems in man. Statistically significant increases of fatty streaks and fibrous plaques were noted in relation to: (a) increasing age, starting at 6 to 7 months, the earliest age period studied; (b) geographical locality; and (c) considerable as compared with moderate or slight physical activity at 1 year of age. Although not statistically significant, there was also a suggestive trend towards more atherosclerosis in pigs consuming soft water as compared with those consuming hard water. While these correlations may represent contributory factors to the increases of the changes noted in the abdominal aortas, it is not possible to pinpoint the importance of individual components because of the limited data and the large number of variables involved in this preliminary study. Studies in swine and other animals are being encouraged in which all variables but one are being kept constant to determine their possible role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:5299676

  8. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  9. Strategies to improve fiber utilization in swine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Application of feed processing methods and use of exogenous feed additives in an effort to improve nutrient digestibility of plant-based feed ingredients for swine has been studied for decades. The following review will discuss several of these topics, including: fiber characterization, impact of dietary fiber on gastrointestinal physiology, energy, and nutrient digestibility, mechanical processing of feed on fiber and energy digestibility, and the use of exogenous enzymes in diets fed to growing pigs. Taken together, the diversity and concentration of chemical characteristics that exists among plant-based feed ingredients, as well as interactions among constituents within feed ingredients and diets, suggests that improvements in nutrient digestibility and pig performance from mechanical processing or adding exogenous enzymes to diets fed to swine depends on a better understanding of these characteristics, but also relating enzyme activity to targeted substrates. It may be that an enzyme must not only match a target substrate(s), but there may also need to be a ′cocktail′ of enzymes to effectively breakdown the complex matrixes of fibrous carbohydrates, such that the negative impact of these compounds on nutrient digestibility or voluntary feed intake are alleviated. With the inverse relationship between fiber content and energy digestibility being well described for several feed ingredients, it is only logical that development of processing techniques or enzymes that degrade fiber, and thereby improve energy digestibility or voluntary feed intake, will be both metabolically and economically beneficial to pork production. PMID:23497595

  10. Swine influenza viruses: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ki; Pascua, Phillippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory viral pathogens of pigs that are capable of causing serious global public health concerns in human. Because of their dual susceptibility to mammalian and avian influenza A viruses, pigs are the leading intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission and serve as reservoirs of antigenically divergent human viruses from which zoonotic stains with pandemic potential may arise. Pandemic influenza viruses emerging after the 1918 Spanish flu have originated in asia. Although distinct lineages of North American and European SIVs of the H1N1, H3N2, and HiN2 subtypes have been widely studied, less is known about the porcine viruses that are circulating among pig populations throughout Asia. The current review understanding of Contemporary viruses, human infection with SIVs, and the potential threat of novel pandemic strains are described, Furthermore, to best use the limited resources that are available for comprehensive genetic assessment of influenza, consensus efforts among Asian nations to increase epidemiosurveillance of swine herds is also strongly promoted.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the U.S. swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera and data on swine management practices was collected during the voluntary survey of 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for >90% of U.S. swine production . A total of 6,238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay; all posit...

  12. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  13. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  14. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  15. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  16. Stress and Coping in African American Grandparents Who Are Raising Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mary Ellen Trail; Aday, Lu Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the degree of stress in 50 African American grandparents ("M" = 63.12 years) who are raising their grandchildren and identified the importance of caregiver characteristics, the caregiving situation, and specific coping strategies that influence stress. Data were collected via interview at senior centers and churches in…

  17. Boyz in the 'Burbs: Parental Negotiation of Race and Class in Raising Black Males in Suburbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the outlooks of black parents raising sons in a suburban school setting in a town that I call Rolling Acres. Dominant narratives about black males center on urban environments where hazards of violence, failing schools, and socially disorganized neighborhoods are prevalent. However, black parents in suburban settings are not…

  18. Welfare reform: challenges for grandparents raising grandchildren.

    PubMed

    Copen, Casey E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) on a growing constituency that may require welfare assistance: grandparents raising grandchildren. A brief review of the demographics of grandparent caregivers is followed by an exploration of welfare reform legislation, including work requirements and the Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI). The importance of state-level policies in assisting grandparent-headed households, particularly health care, school enrollment, and housing policies, are also discussed. The paper concludes by offering implications for welfare policies in terms of their impact on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.

  19. Successful Proposals, Fund Raising, and Project Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Cassidy, Amy; Downey, Frances; Hartline, Beverly K.; Lin, J. Grace; McCray, Christophe; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2009-04-01

    A brief description of the Fundraising, Grant Writing, and Project Leadership workshop at the Third IUPAP International Conference of Women in Physics is presented. The workshop's purpose was to assist delegates in developing skills in successful proposal writing, fund raising, and project leadership. Handouts and talks were given with information on funding sources in different regions. Talks on grant writing and leadership by Beverly Hartline and J. Grace Lin led to active participation and brainstorming discussions. Based on the discussions a list of recommendations is outlined in this paper. This information is also available at the IUPAP Working Group of Women in Physics website (http://wgwip.df.uba.ar).

  20. Swine production impact on residential ambient air quality.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Stéphane; Lemay, Stéphane P; Duchaine, Caroline; Pelletier, Frédéric; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Belzile, Martin; Feddes, John J R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous residents in agricultural areas are concerned about the impact that the swine industry may have on the ambient air quality. They assume there is a risk because there is limited information on the airborne contaminant that may originate from these facilities. The objective of the project was to assess the impact of swine production on ambient air quality related to public health in farming communities. Of the six chosen communities, three were considered not to be in a swine production area, whereas the three others were considered to be within a swine production area. Data were collected during three periods in spring and summer 2006. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were monitored on a continuous basis whereas odor concentrations and intensities were monitored twice a week. Odor concentrations were measured by dynamic olfactometry and odor intensities were determined by trained odor assessors. Public health was evaluated by survey questionnaires sent to a sample of residents in each of the six communities. Average NH(3) concentrations ranged from 6.9 to 12.6 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 8.9 to 18.3 ppb for exposed communities. Average H(2)S concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 1.1 to 1.6 ppb for exposed communities. For a community in a swine production area, ambient NH(3) and H(2)S concentrations were found to be higher than those communities not in a swine production area; however, that difference was not significant and they were within air quality standards for public health and safety. Odor concentrations showed no significant difference between the nonexposed and exposed communities and between evening and morning periods. Odor intensities were found to be significantly higher in the communities within swine production areas. More research will be required to fully understand the correlation between specific physical symptoms from residents and the presence of odors from swine production.

  1. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  2. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  3. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  4. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  5. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  6. Occurrence of tylosin in swine wastewater in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Liliana; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; Buelna, Gerardo; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela Eleonora; Noyola, Adalberto; Avilez-Flores, Martha; Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B

    2013-01-01

    This study determined a tylosin concentration in swine wastewater located in a Mexican pig farm, during different stages of the pigs' growth. The detection of antibiotics in swine wastewater is complex due to its high concentration of solids. Analytical method was developed for detection of tylosin in swine wastewater and swine slurry. Average recoveries of tylosin in the liquid and solid phase were greater than 51 and 44%, respectively, with a greater total recovery of 95%. The results indicated the presence of tylosin in swine wastewater and slurry at concentrations greater than the ones reported in the literature. In grab samples of swine wastewater, the tylosin detected showed concentrations of 56, 72 and 8.6 μg L(-1), in breeding-gestation, nursery pigs, and grow-finishing area, respectively. In composite samples, the concentration of tylosin was 11.8 μg L(-1) for the breeding-gestation area and 2.4 μg L(-1) for the grow-finishing area. For slurry, the concentration of tylosin was 20.6 and 17.8 μg L(-1), for the breeding-gestation and grow-finishing area, respectively. This study presents the detection of a high concentration of tylosin in breeding-gestation and nursery pigs. Traces of tylosin in wastewater from grow-finishing stage were found although the animals were not receiving antibiotics.

  7. Ixodid ticks associated with feral swine in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David M; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, P Wesley; Strey, Otto F; Blankenship, Terry L; Teel, Pete D

    2013-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from feral swine in eight Texas ecoregions from 2008-2011. Sixty-two percent of 806 feral swine were infested with one or more of the following species: Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, Dermacentor albipictus, D. halli, D. variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. Juvenile and adult feral swine of both sexes were found to serve as host to ixodid ticks. Longitudinal surveys of feral swine at four geographic locations show persistent year-round tick infestations of all gender-age classes for tick species common to their respective geographic locations and ecoregions. Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum and D. variabilis were collected from 66% of feral swine harvested through an abatement program in seven ecoregions from March to October in 2009. These results indicate westward geographic expansion of D. variabilis. Summary results show feral swine are competent hosts for ixodid species responsible for the transmission of pathogens and diminished well-being in livestock, wildlife, and humans.

  8. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  9. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  10. Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lester J; Perera, Carmen Laura; Coronado, Liani; Rios, Liliam; Vega, Armando; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Díaz de Arce, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with both animal and public health risks. PMID:25745869

  11. Assessment of nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions in swine mortality composts of sawdust, broiler litter, and swine lagoon effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially large sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations preclude incineration and high costs make rendering impractical. Swine CAFOs in the Mid-South US practice mortality composting w...

  12. Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lester J; Perera, Carmen Laura; Coronado, Liani; Rios, Liliam; Vega, Armando; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Díaz de Arce, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with both animal and public health risks.

  13. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride.

  14. [Detection and typing for swine leukocyte antigen].

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Luo, Huai-Rong; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Qiu, Xiang-Pin; Ye, Chun

    2004-03-01

    Traditionally the cluster of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) was typed by serological, cytological and biochemical methods. Many special molecular typing methods have been developed with the progress of molecular biological technology, such as PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP , MS and DNA sequencing. Here we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of each method based on the polymorphic and conservative (from the functional aspect, such as supertype and supermotif) characteristics of SLA, and illustrated the development of typing for SLA in the future. In addition, we pointed out the editorial mistakes about the serological haplotype of SLA in reference book and emphasized that the accurate polymorphism of SLA-DQB gene must be based on the cloning sequencing. PMID:15639990

  15. Studies on Transmissible Gastroenteritis of Swine

    PubMed Central

    McClurkin, A W.; Norman, James O.

    1966-01-01

    Five cell culture isolates from transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) of swine have been studied. There is a cytopathogenic virus common to all of these isolates. Some of the characteristics of this virus, such as its size, approximately 100 mµ, its relative sensitivity to ether, lability at pH 2, pH 3, and pH 10, and its heat lability suggest that it may be a member of the myxovirus class. Concurrent research in this laboratory indicates that this cytopathogenic virus is not the only virus involved in the etiology of TGE, but it appears to be associated with many of the outbreaks of TGE which have been studied by this laboratory. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 11. PMID:4224292

  16. Geo-heat center

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Fornes, A.O.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is presented of the Geo-Heat Center from its origin in 1974. The GHC has been involved in a number of studies and projects. A few of these are: construction of a greenhouse based on geothermal applications, an aquaculture project raising freshwater Malaysian prawns, an investigation of ground water characteristics and corrosion problems associated with the use of geothermal waters, and the assessment of the potential utilization of direct-heat applications of geothermal energy for an agribusiness.

  17. Modeling risk of occupational zoonotic influenza infection in swine workers.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Jones, Rachael M; Gibbs, Shawn; Kane, Michael J; Torremorell, Montserrat; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Zoonotic transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) between swine and workers in swine production facilities may play a role in the emergence of novel influenza strains with pandemic potential. Guidelines to prevent transmission of influenza to swine workers have been developed but there is a need for evidence-based decision-making about protective measures such as respiratory protection. A mathematical model was applied to estimate the risk of occupational IAV exposure to swine workers by contact and airborne transmission, and to evaluate the use of respirators to reduce transmission.  The Markov model was used to simulate the transport and exposure of workers to IAV in a swine facility. A dose-response function was used to estimate the risk of infection. This approach is similar to methods previously used to estimate the risk of infection in human health care settings. This study uses concentration of virus in air from field measurements collected during outbreaks of influenza in commercial swine facilities, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction.  It was found that spending 25 min working in a barn during an influenza outbreak in a swine herd could be sufficient to cause zoonotic infection in a worker. However, this risk estimate was sensitive to estimates of viral infectivity to humans. Wearing an excellent fitting N95 respirator reduced this risk, but with high aerosol levels the predicted risk of infection remained high under certain assumptions.  The results of this analysis indicate that under the conditions studied, swine workers are at risk of zoonotic influenza infection. The use of an N95 respirator could reduce such risk. These findings have implications for risk assessment and preventive programs targeting swine workers. The exact level of risk remains uncertain, since our model may have overestimated the viability or infectivity of IAV. Additionally, the potential for partial immunity in swine workers associated with repeated low

  18. Evaluation of Two PCR-Based Swine-Specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the specificity and distribution of these targets have not been adequately assessed. Consequently, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination...

  19. Ethical and practical challenges raised by an adult day program's caregiver satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Anica; Feld, Sheila; Spencer, Beth

    2008-01-01

    A consumer satisfaction survey was completed by 21 caregivers to persons with dementia, who participated in Silver Club, a person-centered Adult Day Service program. Two themes emerged: caregivers expressed high program satisfaction based on joint benefits to members and caregivers, and they desired more information about the nature of the members' daily participation. These findings raised two important issues for program staff. First, Adult Day Service programs are often referred to and marketed as providing caregiver respite. This approach does not acknowledge caregivers' interest in programs that meet the needs of their loved ones, and may lead to reluctance to use programs that only stress the value of respite. Second, caregivers' desires for detailed feedback about members' program participation raise ethical and practical challenges within person-centered models of care. Collecting feedback from both participants and their caregivers can help monitor and improve services provided by person-centered Adult Day Service programs.

  20. [Classical Swine Fever in wild boar in Rhineland-Palatinate: evaluation of the official control measures from 2005-2011].

    PubMed

    Romelt, Maria; Klingelhefer, Irene; Konig, Astrid; Braun, Bettina; Reiner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the control strategy for fighting Classical Swine Fever in wild boar in Rhineland-Palatinate from 2005 to 2011 and evaluates its effectiveness. The official control measures were based on the following three main pillars:--Serological and virological monitoring: By means of serological monitoring Classical Swine Fever outbreaks could be detected very early. Increasing antibody prevalences indicated an imminent Classical Swine Fever outbreak. This could be confirmed by the virological investigations. The geographical evaluations of the virological investigations showed that the outbreaks occurred only in localized areas and a spreading of the virus had not taken place yet or could be prevented.--Oral immunization: After virological detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus oral immunization was started immediately. This oral immunization achieved antibody prevalence rates of 57% on an average. The analysis of the distribution of the antibodies in the vaccination areas concerning the different age groups in the vaccination areas showed that 41% of the young animals, 66% of animals from one to two years and 77% of the adult animals were immunized.--Hunting measures: For the reduction of the wild boar population an all-year, intensive hunt with special attention to the young animals and the female animals was carried out. The hunting bag increased on more than 80 000 wild boar per hunting season. Out of the total 108,772 hunted wild boar were 47% of young animals, 40% of animals from one to two years and 13% of adult animals. Concerning the gender distribution on an average 53% female and 47% male animals were shot. in summary, the current control strategy was effective because there had been no further proof of Classical Swine Fever in wild boar in Rhineland-Palatinate since 2009. Nevertheless, the fight strategy can be optimized even further. For an optimum monitoring the development of a marker vaccine which allows a differentiation of

  1. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306) or pen and paper (n = 56) questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity), intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications. PMID:21211000

  2. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  3. Fund-Raising While You Shop: A Look at Fund-Raising Sites on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Angela

    2000-01-01

    Explains how school fund-raising can be done over the Internet through electronic commerce. Discusses online retailers who donate percentage of sales to schools who have registered; Web sites that coordinate online retailers for schools, who also take a percentage of the sales; loss of revenue for local businesses; and marketing. (LRW)

  4. Pandemic swine influenza virus (H1N1): A threatening evolution.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Madhu; Kumar, Binod; Gupta, Neha; Kumar, Prashant; Gupta, Ankit; Vijayan, V K; Kaur, Harpreet

    2009-12-01

    "Survival of the fittest" is an old axiom laid down by the great evolutionist Charles Darwin and microorganisms seem to have exploited this statement to a great extent. The ability of viruses to adapt themselves to the changing environment has made it possible to inhabit itself in this vast world for the past millions of years. Experts are well versed with the fact that influenza viruses have the capability to trade genetic components from one to the other within animal and human population. In mid April 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization had recognized a dramatic increase in number of influenza cases. These current 2009 infections were found to be caused by a new strain of influenza type A H1N1 virus which is a re-assortment of several strains of influenza viruses commonly infecting human, avian, and swine population. This evolution is quite dependent on swine population which acts as a main reservoir for the reassortment event in virus. With the current rate of progress and the efforts of heath authorities worldwide, we have still not lost the race against fighting this virus. This article gives an insight to the probable source of origin and the evolutionary progress it has gone through that makes it a potential threat in the future, the current scenario and the possible measures that may be explored to further strengthen the war against pandemic.

  5. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-25

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd - either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic is predicted to vary from 1 to 76days. Substantial economic damages are predicted, with median direct costs and export losses of €12 and €349 million, respectively, when epidemics were initiated in multiple herds. Each infectious herd resulted in 0 to 2 new infected herds varying from 0 to 5 new infected herds, depending on the index herd type. PMID:27599924

  6. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  7. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  8. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  9. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  10. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  11. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section while it is in interstate commerce, except at the time of slaughter as provided in 9 CFR 309.16(e... tattoos, when used on swine moving to slaughter, when the use of the official swine tattoo has been... based on a determination that the tattoo will be retained and visible on the carcass of the swine...

  12. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. 166.3 Section 166.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION...

  13. Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Vegetative Buffer Effects on Air Flow near Swine Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concerns about generation and transport of swine odor constituents have substantiated wind tunnel simulation studies on air flow dynamics near swine production facilities. A possible odor mitigation strategy is a forest vegetative buffer as a windbreak barrier near swine facilities becaus...

  14. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine... ruminants or swine, originating in any region where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists,...

  15. Impact of dietary carbohydrate and protein source and content on swine manure foaming properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet ingredients are thought to contribute to foaming problems associated with swine deep-pit systems. Two experiments explored the impact of protein and carbohydrate sources in swine diets on the physicochemical properties, methane production potential, and foaming characteristics of swine manure. ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica Swine Isolate KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Bayles, Darrell O; Register, Karen B; Kingsley, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22. PMID:25013141

  17. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... test, an unlicensed Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a...: Requester: Harrisvaccines, Inc. Product: Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA. Field Test Locations: North...

  18. 9 CFR 93.506 - Declaration and other documents for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine. 93.506 Section 93.506 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.506 Declaration and other documents for swine. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in this part...

  19. 9 CFR 93.506 - Declaration and other documents for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine. 93.506 Section 93.506 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.506 Declaration and other documents for swine. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in this part...

  20. 9 CFR 93.506 - Declaration and other documents for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine. 93.506 Section 93.506 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.506 Declaration and other documents for swine. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in this part...

  1. 9 CFR 93.506 - Declaration and other documents for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine. 93.506 Section 93.506 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.506 Declaration and other documents for swine. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in this part...

  2. 9 CFR 93.506 - Declaration and other documents for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine. 93.506 Section 93.506 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.506 Declaration and other documents for swine. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in this part...

  3. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  4. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  5. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for... and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing... that breeding swine intended for exportation be tested for brucellosis prior to export. The...

  6. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE SWINE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX, THE SLA COMPLEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  7. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica Swine Isolate KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Bayles, Darrell O; Register, Karen B; Kingsley, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22.

  9. Antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiuchen; Yin, Xin; Rao, Baizhong; Xie, Chunfang; Zhang, Pengchao; Qi, Xian; Wei, Ping; Liu, Huili

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was first isolated in pigs in China. Recently, it was reported that a 3-year-old boy was infected with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) in Jiangsu Province, China. To investigate the prevalence of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection among swine farm residents in eastern China, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted on swine farms in this region from May 21, 2010 through April 22, 2012. A total of 1,162 participants were enrolled, including 1,136 persons from 48 pig farms, as well as 26 pig farm veterinarians. A total of 10.7% and 7.8% swine farm residents were positive for antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV by HI and NT assay, respectively, using 40 as the cut-off antibody titer. Meanwhile, all the serum samples collected from a control of healthy city residents were negative against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. As the difference in numbers of antibody positive samples between the swine farm residents and health city residents controls was statistically significant (P = 0.002), these data suggest that occupational exposure to pigs may increase swine farm residents' and veterinarians' risk of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection in eastern China. This study provides the first data on avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian-like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration.

  10. Identification of heterologous Torque Teno Viruses in humans and swine

    PubMed Central

    Ssemadaali, Marvin A.; Effertz, Karl; Singh, Pankaj; Kolyvushko, Oleksandr; Ramamoorthy, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Torque Teno Viruses (TTVs) are ubiquitous viruses which are highly prevalent in several mammalian species. Human TTV’s are epidemiologically associated with several human disease conditions such as respiratory illnesses, auto-immune disorders and hepatitis. Recently it was found that swine TTV’s (TTSuVs) can act as primary pathogens. The common occurrence of TTVs as environmental contaminants and the increasing interest in the use of swine organs for xenotransplantation lend importance to the question of whether TTV’s can cross-infect across species. In this study, we examined human and swine sera by swine or human TTV-specific PCRs, to determine whether swine TTVs (TTSuV) DNA can be detected in humans and vice versa. Surprisingly, both human and TTSuV DNA were present in a majority of the samples tested. Transfection of human PBMC’s with TTSuV1 genomic DNA resulted in productive viral infection which was sustained for the three serial passages tested. Lymphoproliferative responses in infected human PBMCs were diminished when compared to the controls. Furthermore, mild to moderate antibody responses against the TTSuV1 ORF2 protein was detected in 16 of the 40 human sera by ELISA. Therefore, these study findings provide initial and fundamental evidence for possible cross-species transmission of TTVs. PMID:27222164

  11. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Viboud, Cécile; Vincent, Amy L.; Culhane, Marie R.; Detmer, Susan E.; Wentworth, David E.; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A.; Holmes, Edward C.; Lemey, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs). Here we undertake an expansive phylogenetic analysis of swIAV sequence data and demonstrate that the global live swine trade strongly predicts the spatial dissemination of swIAVs, with Europe and North America acting as sources of viruses in Asian countries. In contrast, China has the world’s largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighboring Asian countries or globally. A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the US and China’s large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia. PMID:25813399

  12. Thermochemical conversion of livestock wastes: carbonization of swine solids.

    PubMed

    Ro, K S; Cantrell, K B; Hunt, P G; Ducey, T F; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A

    2009-11-01

    Slow pyrolysis or carbonization promotes the conversion of animal manures such as swine manure into charcoal. In this paper, the carbonizing kinetics of swine solids taken from different treatment stages were investigated with a thermogravimetric analyzer. Compared to their biologically stabilized counterpart (lagoon sludge) with an activation energy of 160 kJ mol(-1), the activation energies for fresh swine solid samples such as homogenized flushed manure and dewatered solids were much lower between 92 and 95 kJ mol(-1). Compared to the kinetics of first order decomposition of cellulose, the pyrolytic decomposition of the swine manures were more complex with the reaction orders varying at 3.7 and 5.0. The two different mathematical methods employed in this paper yielded the similar values of activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (A), confirming the validity of these methods. The results of this study provide useful information for development of farm-scale swine solid carbonization process. PMID:19442517

  13. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  14. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Viboud, Cécile; Vincent, Amy L; Culhane, Marie R; Detmer, Susan E; Wentworth, David E; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Holmes, Edward C; Lemey, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs). Here we undertake an expansive phylogenetic analysis of swIAV sequence data and demonstrate that the global live swine trade strongly predicts the spatial dissemination of swIAVs, with Europe and North America acting as sources of viruses in Asian countries. In contrast, China has the world's largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally. A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China's large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia. PMID:25813399

  15. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  16. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems. PMID:10736772

  17. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems.

  18. Odorous VOC emission following land application of swine manure slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David B.; Gilley, John; Woodbury, Bryan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Galvin, Geordie; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D.

    2013-02-01

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a nuisance to downwind populations if manure is not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions following land application of swine manure. Three land application methods were compared: surface application, incorporation 24 h after surface application, and injection. Emission rates were measured in field plots using a small wind tunnel and sorbent tubes. VOCs including eight volatile fatty acids, five aromatics, and two sulfur-containing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In most cases, a first order exponential decay model adequately described the flux versus time relationship for the 24 h period following land application, but the model sometimes overestimated flux in the 6-24 h range. The same model but with the time term squared adequately predicted flux over the entire 24 h period. Three compounds (4-methylphenol, skatole, and 4-ethylphenol) accounted for 93 percent of the summed odor activity value. First order decay constants (k) for these three compounds ranged from 0.157 to 0.996 h-1. When compared to surface application, injection of swine manure resulted in 80-95 percent lower flux for the most odorous aromatic compounds. These results show that VOC flux decreases rapidly following land application of swine manure, declining below levels of detection and near background levels after 4 to 8 h.

  19. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Viboud, Cécile; Vincent, Amy L; Culhane, Marie R; Detmer, Susan E; Wentworth, David E; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Holmes, Edward C; Lemey, Philippe

    2015-03-27

    The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs). Here we undertake an expansive phylogenetic analysis of swIAV sequence data and demonstrate that the global live swine trade strongly predicts the spatial dissemination of swIAVs, with Europe and North America acting as sources of viruses in Asian countries. In contrast, China has the world's largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally. A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China's large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia.

  20. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance.

  1. Visceral helminth communities of an insular population of feral swine.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Warren, R J; Ford, C R

    1988-01-01

    Nine species of helminths, all nematodes, were recovered from the viscera of 48 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from Cumberland Island, Georgia. Both the overdispersed frequency distributions and the abundances of the four common species of helminths (Stephanurus dentatus, Metastrongylus apri, M. pudendotectus and Gongylonema pulchrum) did not vary significantly across the main and interactive effects of host sex and/or seasons. Whether or not the present low population densities of feral swine on Cumberland Island has influenced the pattern of fluctuations in abundances of helminth species across seasons as often observed in helminth communities from other hosts was not resolved. The apparent recent decline in prevalences and abundances, and the loss of certain species from the helminth communities of feral swine on the island may be explained partially by the decreasing transmission potentials of direct life cycle species caused by a recent marked reduction of numbers of individuals in the host population. Conversely, the apparent increased prevalence and abundance of three species of helminths (S. dentatus, M. apri and M. pudendotectus) may be related to their common utilization of earthworms as paratenic or intermediate hosts. Gongylonema pulchrum was the only helminth in which abundances seemed to remain unchanged. This was the only species that was not strictly host specific to feral swine. We found no evidence that helminth infections were responsible for morbidity or mortality in this feral swine population.

  2. 12. MESSRS. MAUREK AND QUIST RAISING GATE TO ALLOW FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. MESSRS. MAUREK AND QUIST RAISING GATE TO ALLOW FIRST WATER TO PASS (IT TOOK SIX MEN 30 MINUTES TO RAISE THE GATE FIVE FEET) - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 96, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  3. Raising the visibility of school nursing services.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Laura; Pratten, Charlie; Pretty, Laura; Roberts, Sheila; Robinson, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    In an attempt to raise the visibility and profile of the school nursing service in the London boroughs of Hounslow and Richmond, school nurses sought to hear from the voices of the young people with whom they work. Ten focus groups in secondary educational provisions were held in a bid to look at young people's accessibility to technological devices, where they would go if they had a health problem and which health topics they would like more information on. This paper examines both national and local data and demographics, and discusses findings from the focus groups run with local young people. The results collected from the focus groups emphasised that technology is a fundamental aspect of many young people's lives and that a large number of young people access the internet to source information about their personal health and wellbeing. The data suggests that the school nursing service could use technologies, such as an interactive app, to support the physical and emotional health of young people. PMID:27443030

  4. Verb-raising and Numeral Classifiers in Japanese: Incompatible Bedfellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Examines verb raising in Japanese and looks at Koizumi's (2000) evidence for verb-raising based on data involving, among other things, numeral classifiers. Demonstrates that Koizumi's evidence based on numeral classifiers does not support his claim that verb-raising occurs in Japanese. (Author/VWL)

  5. 7 CFR 60.106 - Farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm-raised fish. 60.106 Section 60.106 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.106 Farm-raised fish. Farm-raised fish means fish or shellfish that have been harvested in controlled environments, including ocean-ranched...

  6. 7 CFR 60.106 - Farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm-raised fish. 60.106 Section 60.106 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.106 Farm-raised fish. Farm-raised fish means fish or shellfish that have been harvested in controlled environments, including ocean-ranched...

  7. 7 CFR 60.106 - Farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm-raised fish. 60.106 Section 60.106 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.106 Farm-raised fish. Farm-raised fish means fish or shellfish that have been harvested in controlled environments, including ocean-ranched...

  8. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  9. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  10. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  11. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  12. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  13. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  14. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  15. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  16. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  17. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  18. 5 CFR 2421.21 - Affected by issues raised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affected by issues raised. 2421.21 Section 2421.21 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... § 2421.21 Affected by issues raised. The phrase affected by issues raised, as used in part 2422,...

  19. 29 CFR 780.120 - Raising of “livestock.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... includes the following animals, among others: Cattle (both dairy and beef cattle), sheep, swine,...

  20. 29 CFR 780.120 - Raising of “livestock.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... includes the following animals, among others: Cattle (both dairy and beef cattle), sheep, swine,...

  1. 29 CFR 780.120 - Raising of “livestock.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... includes the following animals, among others: Cattle (both dairy and beef cattle), sheep, swine,...

  2. Swine manure fermentation for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Li, Yecong; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Biohydrogen fermentation using liquid swine manure as substrate supplemented with glucose was investigated in this project. Experiments were conducted using a semi-continuously-fed fermenter (8L in total volume and 4 L in working volume) with varying pHs from 4.7 through 5.9 under controlled temperature (35+/-1 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) tested include 16, 20, and 24h; however, in two pH conditions (5.0 and 5.3), an additional HRT of 12h was also tried. The experimental design combining HRT and pH provided insight on the fermenter performance in terms of hydrogen generation. The results indicated that both HRT and pH had profound influences on fermentative hydrogen productivity. A rising HRT would lead to greater variation in hydrogen concentration in the offgas and the best HRT was found to be 16 h for the fermenter in this study. The best pH value in correspondence to the highest hydrogen generation was revealed to be 5.0 among all the pHs studied. There was no obvious inhibition on hydrogen production by methanogenesis when methane content in the offgas was lower than 2%. Otherwise, an inverse linear relationship between hydrogen and methane content was observed with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. Therefore, to increase hydrogen content in the offgas, methane production has to be limited to below 2%.

  3. Some biochemical properties of swine uterus carnosinase.

    PubMed

    Wołos, A; Luberda, Z; Ciereszko, A; Babiński, R

    1985-01-01

    Carnosinase of swine uterus reacts strongly to Mn2+ ions with an increase of the activity: in the presence of 0.25 MnCl2 the activity increases over 5-fold, while at 1 and 2 mM--the increase is 8- and 10-fold respectively. The enzyme is characterized by low stability during storage, especially in the presence of manganese ions. Kinetic properties of uterus carnosinase change depending on a phase of the oestrous cycle of the sow. In the peak luteal phase (5th-13th day of the cycle) Km values were twice as high as in the follicular phase (zero day--beginning of the rut, and 19th day--preoestrus). Two molecular forms of carnosinase were found in the extracts from uterus in the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle, analysed with the method of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. These were A and B forms, with predominating content of the latter form. This form was characterised by a 2-fold higher Km value compared to the form A. PMID:4038478

  4. Lungworms of feral swine in Florida.

    PubMed

    Forrester, D J; Porter, J H; Belden, R C; Frankenberger, W B

    1982-12-01

    Metastrongylus apri, M salmi, and M pudendotectus were found in 94%, 76%, and 64%, respectively, of 90 feral swine from a study area in southern Florida. The mean number of worms per infected animal was 155, with a range of 1-1,980 (1 or more species). Metastrongylus apri was found singly or in combination with 1 or both of the other species. Single or concurrent infections of M salmi and M pudendotectus were not found. Male hogs had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher intensities of M apri infection. Juvenile animals were infected with M apri only, but subadults and adults were infected with all 3 species. Hogs examined during October, November, and December had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher intensities of infection of all 3 species, compared with hogs examined at other times of the year. There were significant (P less than 0.05) interactions between host sex, host age, and season for intensities of infection with M pudendotectus.

  5. Infiltration rates for a new swine building

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Barber, E.M.

    1995-08-01

    There is a lack of data on air leakage for livestock buildings and a need to normalize and standardize the air-tightness of these types of buildings for design engineers. In this paper, the infiltration rates of five different rooms in a large, newly built swine building are reported. The measurement was conducted at pressure differences from 0 to 50 Pa. Infiltration rates were measured and normalized for each individual component (e.g., structures and doors). Infiltration rates from this building were compared with existing air leakage data for other types of buildings. Although the newly built livestock building was much tighter than old buildings and even tighter than office buildings, infiltration rates still ranged from 1 to 1.4 air changes per hour (ACH) at a pressure difference of 20 Pa. This infiltration rate represented approximately 50% of the minimum ventilation requirement during a heating season. Air leakage reduces ventilation effectiveness. Special attention should be paid to minimize infiltration sources when designing a ventilation system for a livestock building.

  6. An Epizootic of Swine Influenza in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.; Key, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    A swine influenza virus (H1N1) was isolated for the first time in Ontario from pigs one week to one and one-half years old during an epizootic which occurred between January and May 1981. Each herd outbreak was characterized by the sudden onset of marked respiratory distress, usually affecting the entire herd, accompanied by paroxysmal coughing, anorexia, prostration and temperatures as high as 41.5°C and lasting for five to seven days. Morbidity was nearly 100%; mortality was less than 1%. Hematology, bacteriology and postmortem studies were conducted on 18 pigs from 11 farms. A lymphopenia and acute hematological inflammatory cellular responses characterized by neutrophilia with a left shift, hyperfibrinogenemia and a decreased plasma protein: fibrinogen ratio were found in 50% of the pigs. The cranial lobes of the lung were collapsed and red due to a bilateral cranioventral pneumonia which affected the cranial, middle, accessory and cranioventral aspects of the caudal lobes. Histologically, there was a necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with a neutrophilic cellular exudate. Pasteurella multocida was the species of bacterium most frequently isolated from the lung; however, mixed cultures of P. multocida frequently combined with Corynebacterium pyogenes and other species were usually identified in the lung and other organs of pigs submitted dead. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422266

  7. Swine manure fermentation for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Li, Yecong; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Biohydrogen fermentation using liquid swine manure as substrate supplemented with glucose was investigated in this project. Experiments were conducted using a semi-continuously-fed fermenter (8L in total volume and 4 L in working volume) with varying pHs from 4.7 through 5.9 under controlled temperature (35+/-1 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) tested include 16, 20, and 24h; however, in two pH conditions (5.0 and 5.3), an additional HRT of 12h was also tried. The experimental design combining HRT and pH provided insight on the fermenter performance in terms of hydrogen generation. The results indicated that both HRT and pH had profound influences on fermentative hydrogen productivity. A rising HRT would lead to greater variation in hydrogen concentration in the offgas and the best HRT was found to be 16 h for the fermenter in this study. The best pH value in correspondence to the highest hydrogen generation was revealed to be 5.0 among all the pHs studied. There was no obvious inhibition on hydrogen production by methanogenesis when methane content in the offgas was lower than 2%. Otherwise, an inverse linear relationship between hydrogen and methane content was observed with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. Therefore, to increase hydrogen content in the offgas, methane production has to be limited to below 2%. PMID:19157863

  8. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  9. Nitrogen potential recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure using electrodialysis coupled with air stripping.

    PubMed

    Ippersiel, D; Mondor, M; Lamarche, F; Tremblay, F; Dubreuil, J; Masse, L

    2012-03-01

    The practice of intensive animal production in certain areas has resulted in excessive manure production for the available regional land base. Consequently, there is a need to develop treatment technologies to recover the valuable nutrients that manure contains so that the resulting product can be transported and used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The project presented here used electrodialysis in a dilution/concentration configuration to transfer the manure ammonia in the diluate solution by electromigration to an adjacent solution separated by an ion-exchange membrane under the driving force of an electrical potential. Then, air stripping from the electrodialysis-obtained concentrate solution without pH modification was used to isolate the ammonia in an acidic solution. An optimal process operating voltage of 17.5 V was first determined on the basis of current efficiency and total energy consumption. During the process, the swine manure pH varied from 8.5 to 8.2, values favourable for NH(4)(+) electromigration. Total ammonia nitrogen reached 21,352 mg/L in the concentrate solution, representing approximately seven times the concentration in the swine manure. Further increases in concentration were limited by water transfer from the diluate solution due to electroosmosis and osmosis. Applying vacuum to the concentrate reservoir was found to be more efficient than direct concentrate solution aeration for NH(3) recuperation in the acid trap, given that the ammonia recuperated under vacuum represented 14.5% of the theoretical value of the NH(3) present in the concentrate solution as compared to 6.2% for aeration. However, an excessively low concentrate solution pH (8.6-8.3) limited NH(3)volatilization toward the acid trap. These results suggest that the concentrate solution pH needs to be raised to promote the volatile NH(3) form of total ammonia nitrogen.

  10. Fc receptors do not mediate African swine fever virus replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Alcamí, A; Viñuela, E

    1991-04-01

    Titration experiments in swine macrophages have shown that African swine fever virus infectivity was not enhanced in the presence of antiviral antibodies. The early viral protein synthesis and the viral DNA replication in swine macrophages infected with virus-antibody complexes were inhibited in the presence of high doses of uv-inactivated virus, which saturated specific virus receptors, but not when Fc receptors were saturated with antibodies. These results indicate that African swine fever virus does not infect swine macrophages through Fc receptors and that the normal entry pathway through virus receptors is not bypassed by the virus-antibody complexes.

  11. Fc receptors do not mediate African swine fever virus replication in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Alcami, A.; Vinuela, E. )

    1991-04-01

    Titration experiments in swine macrophages have shown that African swine fever virus infectivity was not enhanced in the presence of antiviral antibodies. The early viral protein synthesis and the viral DNA replication in swine macrophages infected with virus-antibody complexes were inhibited in the presence of high doses of uv-inactivated virus, which saturated specific virus receptors, but not when Fc receptors were saturated with antibodies. These results indicate that African swine fever virus does not infect swine macrophages through Fc receptors and that the normal entry pathway through virus receptors is not bypassed by the virus-antibody complexes.

  12. Analysis of air pollution from swine production by using air dispersion model and GIS in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Joachim H; Goïta, Kalifa; Desmarais, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Swine production, the second most important contributor to Quebec's agricultural revenue, faces many problems. Intensive piggeries, with up to 599 animal units, are used to raise finishing pigs for slaughter. Among the great number of gaseous species emitted to the atmospheric environment from livestock buildings and manure storage units is NH3, which is one of the most important and most offensive with respect to human health. Under appropriate meteorological and topographical conditions, gaseous contaminants can spread and cause a public nuisance--up to a 1-km radius around the farm. To mitigate these effects, the Quebec Government adopted regulations that set minimum buffer distances to be observed by any expansion of an existing or new pig farm. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficiency of the current buffer distance prescriptions in Quebec in mitigating effects of air pollution from swine units and (ii) to identify potential areas for establishing pig farm operations that will not be offensive to people. The air dispersion American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) with receptors distributed at 1.6 km around each source was used first, followed by a spatial geographic information system (GIS) model. Results from the dispersion model showed that the highest hourly concentration with a 99.5% compliance frequency for a single farm was 3078.1 microg/m3 and exceeded the NH3 odor criterion hourly standard set by the Quebec Government at 183.4 microg/m3. Thus, for public safety, densely populated areas like housing developments must be located >1300 m from a pig farm. This distance is in the range of setback distances (723 to 1447 m) obtained by using abacuses defined in the L'Erable Regional County Municipality. That is why we can say the current rules established by the Quebec Government, if rigorously applied, can prevent odor nuisance, due to NH3 emission, from swine farms. In the spatial model

  13. Anti-Human H1N1pdm09 and swine H1N1 Virus Antibodies among Swine Workers in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Yi, Lina; Ni, Hanzhong; Zou, Lirong; Zhang, Hongbin; Zeng, Xianqiao; Liang, Lijun; Li, Laiqing; Zhong, Haojie; Zhang, Xin; Lin, Jin-yan; Ke, Changwen

    2015-01-01

    To assess the potential transmission for zoonotic influenza, sero-antibodies against two kinds of influenza viruses—classical swine H1N1 and human H1N1pdm09 virus were detected in persons whose profession involved contact with swine in Guangdong province, China. Compared to the non-exposed control group, a significantly higher proportion of subjects with occupational contact to pigs exhibited positive seroreaction against the classical H1N1 SIV. Participants aged 26–50 years were at high risk of classic swine H1N1 infections. Seropositive rate to 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus among swine workers was similar with controls. The major impact of age was apparent for younger populations. Our present study has documented evidence for swine influenza virus infection among persons with occupational swine exposures. The differences of seroreactivity for the two tested influenza subtypes emphasize the necessity of regular surveillance both in pigs and human. PMID:26205221

  14. Raising the estimate of functional human sequences.

    PubMed

    Pheasant, Michael; Mattick, John S

    2007-09-01

    While less than 1.5% of the mammalian genome encodes proteins, it is now evident that the vast majority is transcribed, mainly into non-protein-coding RNAs. This raises the question of what fraction of the genome is functional, i.e., composed of sequences that yield functional products, are required for the expression (regulation or processing) of these products, or are required for chromosome replication and maintenance. Many of the observed noncoding transcripts are differentially expressed, and, while most have not yet been studied, increasing numbers are being shown to be functional and/or trafficked to specific subcellular locations, as well as exhibit subtle evidence of selection. On the other hand, analyses of conservation patterns indicate that only approximately 5% (3%-8%) of the human genome is under purifying selection for functions common to mammals. However, these estimates rely on the assumption that reference sequences (usually ancient transposon-derived sequences) have evolved neutrally, which may not be the case, and if so would lead to an underestimate of the fraction of the genome under evolutionary constraint. These analyses also do not detect functional sequences that are evolving rapidly and/or have acquired lineage-specific functions. Indeed, many regulatory sequences and known functional noncoding RNAs, including many microRNAs, are not conserved over significant evolutionary distances, and recent evidence from the ENCODE project suggests that many functional elements show no detectable level of sequence constraint. Thus, it is likely that much more than 5% of the genome encodes functional information, and although the upper bound is unknown, it may be considerably higher than currently thought.

  15. Molecular beacon real-time PCR detection of swine viruses.

    PubMed

    McKillen, John; Hjertner, Bernt; Millar, Andrena; McNeilly, Francis; Belák, Sándor; Adair, Brian; Allan, Gordon

    2007-03-01

    Rapid and reliable detection of viral pathogens is critical for the management of the diseases threatening the economic competitiveness of the swine farming industry worldwide. Molecular beacon assays are one type of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology capable of fast, specific, sensitive, and reliable viral detection. In this paper, the development of molecular beacon assays as novel tools for the rapid detection of Aujeszky's disease virus, African swine fever virus, porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus is described. The assays are capable of rapidly detecting 2 x 10(1) copies of target and are linear between 2 x 10(9) and 2 x 10(2) copies. They can detect virus specifically in clinical samples such as whole blood, serum and tissue. In comparison to conventional PCR they are either as sensitive or more sensitive. As such these molecular beacon assays represent a powerful tool for the detection of these viruses in swine.

  16. Evaluation of swine-specific PCR assays used for fecal source tracking and analysis of molecular diversity of swine-specific "bacteroidales" populations.

    PubMed

    Lamendella, Regina; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Yannarell, Anthony C; Ghosh, Shreya; Di Giovanni, George; Mackie, Roderick I; Oerther, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the specificity, distribution, and sensitivity of Prevotella strain-based (PF163 and PigBac1) and methanogen-based (P23-2) PCR assays proposed to detect swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. The assays were tested against 222 fecal DNA extracts derived from target and nontarget animal hosts and against 34 groundwater and 15 surface water samples from five different sites. We also investigated the phylogenetic diversity of 1,340 "Bacteroidales" 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from swine feces, swine waste lagoons, swine manure pits, and waters adjacent to swine operations. Most swine fecal samples were positive for the host-specific Prevotella-based PCR assays (80 to 87%), while fewer were positive with the methanogen-targeted PCR assay (53%). Similarly, the Prevotella markers were detected more frequently than the methanogen-targeted assay markers in waters historically impacted with swine fecal contamination. However, the PF163 PCR assay cross-reacted with 23% of nontarget fecal DNA extracts, although Bayesian statistics suggested that it yielded the highest probability of detecting pig fecal contamination in a given water sample. Phylogenetic analyses revealed previously unknown swine-associated clades comprised of clones from geographically diverse swine sources and from water samples adjacent to swine operations that are not targeted by the Prevotella assays. While deeper sequencing coverage might be necessary to better understand the molecular diversity of fecal Bacteroidales species, results of sequence analyses supported the presence of swine fecal pollution in the studied watersheds. Overall, due to nontarget cross amplification and poor geographic stability of currently available host-specific PCR assays, development of additional assays is necessary to accurately detect sources of swine fecal pollution.

  17. African swine fever virus infection in Ornithodoros ticks.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Thomas G

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is an arbovirus which is vectored by soft ticks of the Ornithodoros spp. and in the sylvatic cycle infects wart hogs and bush pigs. ASFV infection of domestic swine causes a high mortality disease. On the other hand, ASFV infection of the tick can result in a high-titered and persistent infection depending upon the ASFV isolate and the tick combination. Recently, morphological, classical virology (titration) and recombinant ASFV have been used to study the cellular, molecular and genetic interactions that occur between ASFV and its host tick.

  18. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  19. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full. PMID:25932349

  20. Prevalence of Influenza A Virus in Exhibition Swine during Arrival at Agricultural Fairs.

    PubMed

    Bliss, N; Nelson, S W; Nolting, J M; Bowman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The exhibition swine at agricultural fairs provides a critical human-swine interface that allows for the bidirectional transmission of influenza A virus (IAV). Previous IAV surveillance at the end of fairs has resulted in frequent detection of IAV-infected swine; little is known, however, about the frequency with which swine arrive at fairs already infected with IAV. We investigated the IAV prevalence among exhibition swine entering fairs to better understand the epidemiology of IAV in this unique human-swine interface. In 2014, snout wipes were collected from 3547 swine during the first day of nine agricultural exhibitions in Indiana and Ohio. Samples were screened for IAV using rRT-PCR and positive samples were inoculated into cultured cells for virus isolation. The overall IAV prevalence detected among swine arriving at exhibitions was 5.3% (188/3547) via rRT-PCR and 1.5% (53/3547) via virus isolation, with IAV being detected and recovered from swine at 5 of the 9 exhibitions. Within the fairs with IAV-positive swine, the individual exhibition IAV prevalence ranged from 0.2% (1/523) to 34.4% (144/419) using rRT-PCR and 0.2% (1/523) to 10.3% (43/419) with virus isolation. Single IAV subtypes were detected at three of the fairs but subtype diversity was detected among the pigs at two fairs as both H1N1 and H3N2 were recovered from incoming swine. At two of the exhibitions, a temporal relationship was observed between the order of the individual swine in sampling and the associated IAV rRT-PCR results, indicating the fomite transmission of IAV through common contact surfaces may occur. With the knowledge that a small proportion of swine arrive at fairs shedding IAV, resources should be directed towards preventive strategies focused on limiting transmission during fairs to protect swine and humans during exhibitions. PMID:26750204

  1. Introductions and Evolution of Human-Origin Seasonal Influenza A Viruses in Multinational Swine Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, David E.; Culhane, Marie R.; Vincent, Amy L.; Viboud, Cecile; LaPointe, Matthew P.; Lin, Xudong; Holmes, Edward C.; Detmer, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity of influenza A viruses to cross species barriers presents a continual threat to human and animal health. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. We sequenced the genomes of 141 influenza viruses collected from North American swine during 2002 to 2011 and identified a swine virus that possessed all eight genome segments of human seasonal A/H3N2 virus origin. A molecular clock analysis indicates that this virus—A/sw/Saskatchewan/02903/2009(H3N2)—has likely circulated undetected in swine for at least 7 years. For historical context, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of an additional 1,404 whole-genome sequences from swine influenza A viruses collected globally during 1931 to 2013. Human-to-swine transmission occurred frequently over this time period, with 20 discrete introductions of human seasonal influenza A viruses showing sustained onward transmission in swine for at least 1 year since 1965. Notably, human-origin hemagglutinin (H1 and H3) and neuraminidase (particularly N2) segments were detected in swine at a much higher rate than the six internal gene segments, suggesting an association between the acquisition of swine-origin internal genes via reassortment and the adaptation of human influenza viruses to new swine hosts. Further understanding of the fitness constraints on the adaptation of human viruses to swine, and vice versa, at a genomic level is central to understanding the complex multihost ecology of influenza and the disease threats that swine and humans pose to each other. IMPORTANCE The swine origin of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscored the importance of understanding how influenza A virus evolves in these animals hosts. While the importance of reassortment in generating genetically diverse influenza viruses in swine is well documented, the role of human-to-swine transmission has not been as

  2. Network, cluster and risk factor analyses for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome using data from swine sites participating in a disease control program.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Poljak, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe networks of Ontario swine sites and their service providers (including trucking, feed, semen, gilt and boar companies); to categorize swine sites into clusters based on site-level centrality measures, and to investigate risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) using information gathered from the above-mentioned analyses. All 816 sites included in the current study were enrolled in the PRRS area regional control and elimination projects in Ontario. Demographics, biosecurity and network data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and PRRS status was determined on the basis of available diagnostic tests and assessment by site veterinarians. Two-mode networks were transformed into one-mode dichotomized networks. Cluster and risk factor analyses were conducted separately for breeding and growing pig sites. In addition to the clusters obtained from cluster analyses, other explanatory variables of interest included: production type, type of animal flow, use of a shower facility, and number of neighboring swine sites within 3km. Unadjusted univariable analyses were followed by two types of adjusted models (adjusted for production systems): a generalizing estimation equation model (GEE) and a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results showed that the gilt network was the most fragmented network, followed by the boar and truck networks. Considering all networks simultaneously, approximately 94% of all swine sites were indirectly connected. Unadjusted risk factor analyses showed significant associations between almost all predictors of interest and PRRS positivity, but these disappeared once production system was taken into consideration. Finally, the vast majority of the variation on PRRS status was explained by production system according to GLMM, which shows the highly correlated nature of the data, and raises the point that interventions at this level could potentially have high

  3. Swine hybrid aneurysm model for endovascular surgery training.

    PubMed

    Namba, K; Mashio, K; Kawamura, Y; Higaki, A; Nemoto, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technically simple swine aneurysm-training model by inserting a silicone aneurysm circuit in the cervical vessels. A silicone aneurysm circuit was created by designing multiple aneurysms in size and configuration on a silicone vessel. Five swine underwent surgical implantation of this circuit in the cervical vessels: one end in the common carotid artery and the other in the external jugular vein. Using this model, an aneurysm coiling procedure was simulated under fluoroscopic guidance, roadmapping and digital subtraction angiography. Creating an aneurysm model for training purposes by this method was technically simple and enabled the formation of a wide variety of aneurysms in a single procedure. The quality of the model was uniform and the model was reproducible. Coiling training using this model resembled a realistic clinical situation. The swine hybrid aneurysm-training model was advantageous from the standpoint of technical simplicity in the creation and variety of aneurysms it provided. The swine hybrid aneurysm model may be an additional option for aneurysm coiling training. PMID:23693037

  4. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  5. Lessons learned from influenza in swine and poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza is naturally carried by wild birds, however it does occasionally transmit to domestic animal populations. Poultry and swine are the two major food animal populations which may be infected by influenza A. This report reviews the historic impact of these disease incursions. The actions taken...

  6. Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Turner, Jasmine; Darnell, Daniel; Jeevan, Trushar; Kayali, Ghazi; Harding, Abbey; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012–September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID:26402228

  7. Safety of a live attenuated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine for swine.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eric J; Grinberg, Alex; Bonistalli, Kathryn N; Mack, Hamish J; Lehrbach, Philip R; Gibson, Nicole

    2009-03-30

    Infection with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has a significant economic impact on pig production systems worldwide. Both inactivated and attenuated vaccines are available to prevent development of clinical signs of swine erysipelas. The ability of a live attenuated E. rhusiopathiae strain to become persistently established in pigs after intranasal exposure and its potential to cause clinical signs consistent with swine erysipelas after being administered directly into the nasopharynx of healthy pigs was evaluated. Five, E. rhusiopathiae-negative pigs were vaccinated by deep intranasal inoculation then followed for 14 days. Nasal swabs were collected daily for 5 days and clinical observations were made daily for 14 days post-vaccination. Nasal swabs were cultured for E. rhusiopathiae with the intent of back-passaging any recovered organisms into subsequent replicates. No organism was recovered from nasal swabs in the first vaccination replicate. A second replicate including 10 pigs was initiated and followed in an identical manner to that described above. Again, no E. rhusiopathiae was recovered from any pigs. No pigs in either replicate showed any signs of clinical swine erysipelas. The live attenuated E. rhusiopathiae strain evaluated in this study did not appear to become persistently established in pigs post-vaccination, did not cause any local or systemic signs consistent with swine erysipelas, and was therefore unlikely to revert to a virulent state when used in a field setting.

  8. Isolation of unique butyrate-producing bacteria from swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate-producing bacteria in humans contribute to a healthy gastrointestinal tract and are known to be species from clostridial clusters IV, IX, XIVa, and XVI - with the community dominated by clusters XIVa and IV. However, the composition of the butyrate-producing bacterial community in swine is...

  9. Investigation of Methanogen Diversity in Stored Swine Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consolidated storage of swine manure is associated with the microbial production of a variety of odors and emissions, including ammonia, organic acids, alcohols, and hydrogen sulfide. Large quantities of methane are also produced from such facilities. In the United States, methane emissions from l...

  10. Fertilizing cotton with P recovered from swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from waste on swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms. Our objective was to compare this recovered P to triple superphosphate and broiler litter for soil availability, leaching, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant P concentration. A...

  11. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...

  12. Utilization of treated swine wastewater for greenhouse tomato production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J; Shearin, T E; Peet, M M; Willits, D H

    2004-01-01

    An integrated system has been developed to recycle waste organics and treated wastewater from a swine farm to make value-added products and to protect the environment from potential contamination. The farm is a farrow-to-wean swine operation with approximately 4,000 sows. A high-strength wastewater (chemical oxygen demand, 18,000 mg/l; total Khejdal nitrogen, 1,600 mg/l; total phosphorus, 360 mg/l) is produced from the swine operation. An ambient-temperature anaerobic digester has been used to treat the swine wastewater and to produce biogas (from an average 475 m3/day in winter to 950 m3/day in summer). The biogas is combusted in an engine to produce electricity (around 900 kW-hr/day). The digester effluent that is rich in nutrients (N, P, and minerals) is then utilized for fertigation for greenhouse tomato production. A trickling nitrification biofilter has been developed to convert ammonium in the effluent into nitrate. The nitrified anaerobic effluent is used as both fertilizer and irrigation water for approximately 14,400 tomato plants in greenhouses. Experimental data indicate that the tomato greenhouses have used approximately 12 m3 of the effluent and 3.84 kg nitrogen per day. At the same time, the greenhouses have a daily yield of 520 kg (37 g/plant) of marketable fruit. PMID:15344776

  13. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  14. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section 93.505 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Export, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 4700 River Road Unit...

  15. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section 93.505 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Export, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 4700 River Road Unit...

  16. Composting swine slurry to reduce indicators and antibiotic resistance genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  17. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  18. MicroRNA Transcriptome Profiles During Swine Skeletal Muscle Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNA (miR) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells,...

  19. Coinfection of Pigs with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  20. Coinfection with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  1. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Feral Swine Pseudorabies Virus Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Aujesky’s Disease or pseudorabies, is one of the oldest recognized swine diseases. It is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus that can induce respiratory disease, reproductive failure, and affect the central nervous system. PRV vaccines, in conjunction with serologi...

  2. Metabolic effects of carbohydrate-copper interactions in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Reiser, S.; Steele, N.; Darcey, S.; Richards, M.; Fields, M.; Smith, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Inadequate dietary copper(Cu) is known to elicit several undesirable metabolic changes in humans and rats. Abnormal cardiac function, including sudden death is a common finding in copper deficient (CuD) rats, especially those fed diets with a high fructose (FR) content. Swine were chosen as the animal model for this project since their circulatory system is morphologically similar to that of humans. In an effort to further study these dietary effects 12 male and 12 female swine were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 pigs each and fed CuD and Cu supplemented (CuS) diets with 20% of calories from either FR or glucose (GL) for a period of 10 weeks. In agreement with data from recent experiments, CuD swine exhibited anemia, decreased ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and serum Cu; however, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly when the animals were fed the CuD diets as compared to those fed CuS diets. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity was lowest for pigs fed the CuD FR diet compared to the CuS and CuD Gl groups during the study. SGPT activity usually increases when humans consume high FR diets. The results of these analyses indicate that swine are an acceptable model for the study of dietary CuD, although some indices give inverse results compared to those seen in rats and humans.

  3. Swine Confinement Management: A Curriculum Planning and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Walter D.; Spetz, Sally H.

    This curriculum resource guide, one of seven developed by the State of Illinois to present information on new and emerging curricula existing in the nation, can be used as a basis for local educators to determine the resources needed to offer swine confinement management curricula and to initiate curriculum development at the local level. Chapters…

  4. Swine Hybrid Aneurysm Model for Endovascular Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Namba, K.; Mashio, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Higaki, A.; Nemoto, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to develop a technically simple swine aneurysm-training model by inserting a silicone aneurysm circuit in the cervical vessels. A silicone aneurysm circuit was created by designing multiple aneurysms in size and configuration on a silicone vessel. Five swine underwent surgical implantation of this circuit in the cervical vessels: one end in the common carotid artery and the other in the external jugular vein. Using this model, an aneurysm coiling procedure was simulated under fluoroscopic guidance, roadmapping and digital subtraction angiography. Creating an aneurysm model for training purposes by this method was technically simple and enabled the formation of a wide variety of aneurysms in a single procedure. The quality of the model was uniform and the model was reproducible. Coiling training using this model resembled a realistic clinical situation. The swine hybrid aneurysm-training model was advantageous from the standpoint of technical simplicity in the creation and variety of aneurysms it provided. The swine hybrid aneurysm model may be an additional option for aneurysm coiling training. PMID:23693037

  5. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... such period has been entirely free from foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, contagious pleuropneumonia... freedom from the said diseases of the district of origin only: And provided further, That in the case of... disease of the district of origin only. For domestic swine, the certificate shall also show that...

  6. Antibiotics in Feed Induce Prophages in Swine Fecal Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Heather K.; Looft, Torey; Bayles, Darrell O.; Humphrey, Samuel; Levine, Uri Y.; Alt, David; Stanton, Thaddeus B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibiotics are a cost-effective tool for improving feed efficiency and preventing disease in agricultural animals, but the full scope of their collateral effects is not understood. Antibiotics have been shown to mediate gene transfer by inducing prophages in certain bacterial strains; therefore, one collateral effect could be prophage induction in the gut microbiome at large. Here we used metagenomics to evaluate the effect of two antibiotics in feed (carbadox and ASP250 [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin]) on swine intestinal phage metagenomes (viromes). We also monitored the bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. ASP250, but not carbadox, caused significant population shifts in both the phage and bacterial communities. Antibiotic resistance genes, such as multidrug resistance efflux pumps, were identified in the viromes, but in-feed antibiotics caused no significant changes in their abundance. The abundance of phage integrase-encoding genes was significantly increased in the viromes of medicated swine over that in the viromes of nonmedicated swine, demonstrating the induction of prophages with antibiotic treatment. Phage-bacterium population dynamics were also examined. We observed a decrease in the relative abundance of Streptococcus bacteria (prey) when Streptococcus phages (predators) were abundant, supporting the “kill-the-winner” ecological model of population dynamics in the swine fecal microbiome. The data show that gut ecosystem dynamics are influenced by phages and that prophage induction is a collateral effect of in-feed antibiotics. PMID:22128350

  7. Airborne Observations of Ammonia Emissions from North Carolina Swine Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Liao, J.; Welti, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant gas-phase base in the troposphere. As a consequence, NH3 abundance influences particle formation and composition. Anthropogenic emissions of NH3 can react with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3), photochemical oxidation products of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx (NO + NO2)), to form ammoniated particles that typically account for half or more of measured PM2.5 mass in the Eastern US. NH3 emissions are predominantly from agricultural sources, primarily livestock animal waste and crop fertilization. Accurate NH3 emissions estimates from these sources are necessary for developing effective particle control strategies. Swine facilities in North Carolina are one of the largest source of NH3 emissions in the Southeastern US. Airborne measurements of NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+) made aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft as part of the recent 2013 SENEX field campaign are used to quantify NH3 emissions from North Carolina swine facilities. The observed NH3 emissions are compared to swine facility emissions estimates from current emissions inventories. In addition, the NH3 emissions from swine facilities are placed in the broader context of NH3 sources through comparison to recent emissions observations from dairy facilities in California. The July 10 SENEX WP-3D flight track colored and sized by observed NH3 mixing ratios.

  8. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  9. Field study of earth tempered swine ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, W.D.; Peterson, W.H.; Muehling, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four earth-tube heat exchanger systems for heating and cooling the ventilation air for swine farrowing and nursery buildings were studied. Results show appreciable winter heating and summer cooling from the earth tubes with minimal variation in the temperature of the discharge air. 5 refs.

  10. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM IN VITRO SWINE MANURE USING MONENSIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of swine manure is associated with the generation of malodorous compounds and emissions. These are produced as a result of anaerobic degradation of materials present in manure and include sulfides, methane, organic acids, ammonia, and other volatile compounds. Because odor emission from li...

  11. Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

  12. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section 93.505 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka,...

  13. Excluding feral swine, javelina, and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a design, list of materials, and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to adm...

  14. Excluding feral swine, javelina and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present a design and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to administer acaricide treatm...

  15. Influenza A virus pathogenesis and vaccination in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs that is characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most preval...

  16. Health Wellness and Hospital Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Bonnie; And Others

    This paper describes activities conducted by an early childhood classroom in its health play center. A major purpose of this play center was to reduce children's fears and anxieties about medical personnel and emergency vehicles, and to raise awareness of the many aspects of health and wellness. The classroom environment contained a variety of…

  17. [Client centered psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Werthmann, H V

    1979-01-01

    In the discussion concerning which psychotherapeutic methods should come under the auspices of the medical health system in West Germany, the question is raised regarding the client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers. Can it be considered a distinct psychotherapeutic method? A review of the scientific literature dealing with this method shows that it provides neither a theory of mental illness nor a theory of clinical application based on individual cases or specific neurotic disturbances, Therefore it should be categorized as a useful method of communication in the field of psychology and not as a therapeutic method for treating mental illness.

  18. [Client centered psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Werthmann, H V

    1979-01-01

    In the discussion concerning which psychotherapeutic methods should come under the auspices of the medical health system in West Germany, the question is raised regarding the client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers. Can it be considered a distinct psychotherapeutic method? A review of the scientific literature dealing with this method shows that it provides neither a theory of mental illness nor a theory of clinical application based on individual cases or specific neurotic disturbances, Therefore it should be categorized as a useful method of communication in the field of psychology and not as a therapeutic method for treating mental illness. PMID:543319

  19. The expression of mitochondrial, cytoplasmic and extracellular superoxide dismutase in the colonic wall of pigs suffering from swine dysenteria.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, M; Łosiewicz, K; Podlasz, P; Wasowicz, K

    2013-01-01

    The expression of 3 types of peroxide dismutase (SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3) was studied with Real-Time PCR in the colonic wall of domestic pig suffering from swine dysentery. The expression of enzymes was studied separately in the mucosa and the muscular membrane. It was found that in the mucosa the expression of SOD1 (cytoplasmic) did not change, while the levels of expression of mitochondrial SOD2 and extracellular SOD3 were raised in inflamed colon. More dramatic changes were seen in the muscular mebrane where expression of SOD1 rose twice, this of SOD2 rose ca. 5-fold and the expression of SOD3 rose dramatically, even 30-fold. The obtained data are contradictory to findings in other types of colonic inflammation, which were studied either in the whole colonic wall, or in mucosa alone. The results show a very strong reaction of antioxidant systems in the muscular membrane in the enteritis. PMID:24195279

  20. Epidemiology, geographical distribution, and economic consequences of swine zoonoses: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Uddin Khan, Salah; Atanasova, Kalina R; Krueger, Whitney S; Ramirez, Alejandro; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs, poor human sanitation, and personal hygiene. Swine zoonoses often lead to severe economic consequences related to the threat of novel pathogens to humans, drop in public demand for pork, forced culling of swine herds, and international trade sanctions. Due to the complexity of swine-associated pathogen ecology, designing effective interventions for early detection of disease, their prevention, and mitigation requires an interdisciplinary collaborative "One Health" approach from veterinarians, environmental and public health professionals, and the swine industry.