Science.gov

Sample records for center water distribution

  1. Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodden, Lee; Pease, Phil; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Rosen, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC V0 DAAC) is being developed to enhance and improve scientific research and productivity by consolidating access to remote sensor earth science data in the pre-EOS time frame. In cooperation with scientists from the science labs at GSFC, other NASA facilities, universities, and other government agencies, the DAAC will support data acquisition, validation, archive and distribution. The DAAC is being developed in response to EOSDIS Project Functional Requirements as well as from requirements originating from individual science projects such as SeaWiFS, Meteor3/TOMS2, AVHRR Pathfinder, TOVS Pathfinder, and UARS. The GSFC V0 DAAC has begun operational support for the AVHRR Pathfinder (as of April, 1993), TOVS Pathfinder (as of July, 1993) and the UARS (September, 1993) Projects, and is preparing to provide operational support for SeaWiFS (August, 1994) data. The GSFC V0 DAAC has also incorporated the existing data, services, and functionality of the DAAC/Climate, DAAC/Land, and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Systems.

  2. International Water Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  3. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  4. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  5. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  6. Kansas Water Science Center bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2017-03-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey Kansas Water Science Center has collected and interpreted hydrologic information in Kansas since 1895. Data collected include streamflow and gage height, reservoir content, water quality and water quantity, suspended sediment, and groundwater levels. Interpretative hydrologic studies are completed on national, regional, statewide, and local levels and cooperatively funded through more than 40 partnerships with these agencies. The U.S. Geological Survey provides impartial scientific information to describe and understand the health of our ecosystems and environment; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. These collected data are in the National Water Information System https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ks/nwis/rt, and all results are documented in reports that also are online at https://ks.water.usgs.gov/. Follow the USGS Kansas Water Science Center on Twitter for the most recent updates and other information: https://twitter.com/USGS_KS.

  7. The Hydrologic Cycle Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Danny M.; Goodman, H. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Huntsville, Alabama supports the acquisition, production, archival and dissemination of data relevant to the study of the global hydrologic cycle. This paper describes the Hydrologic Cycle DAAC, surveys its principle data holdings, addresses future growth, and gives information for accessing the data sets.

  8. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  9. Mobile Centers For Secondary Power Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Concept for distribution of 60-Hz ac power in large building devoted to assembly and testing of equipment improves safety, reduces number of outlets and lengthy cables, and readily accommodates frequent changes in operations and configuration. Power from floor recess fed via unobtrusive cable to portable power management center. A cart containing variety of outlets and circuit breakers, wheeled to convenient location near equipment to be assembled or tested. Power distribution system presents larger range of operational configurations than fixed location. Meets tighter standards to feed computers and delicate instruments. Industrial-grade power suitable for power tools and other hardware. Three-phase and single-phase outlets available from each.

  10. Water--The New Fitness Center!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spannuth, John

    1989-01-01

    This article presents an explanation of the benefits of exercises done in the water and describes several water fitness programs implemented by an Oklahoma YMCA center. Water walking is described, and guidelines and cautions are given to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this form of exercise. (IAH)

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  12. USGS Colorado Water Science Center bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center conducts its water-resources activities primarily in Colorado in cooperation with more than 125 different entities. These activities include extensive data-collection efforts and studies of streamflow, water quality, and groundwater to address many specific issues of concern to Colorado water-management entities and citizens. The collected data are provided in the National Water Information System, and study results are documented in reports and information served on the Internet.

  13. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  14. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  15. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Support Centersthat were established under the Technical Support Project (TSP). The GWTSC provides technical support on issues related to groundwater. Specifically, the GWTSC provides technical support to U.S. EPA and State regulators for issues and problems related to:1. subsurface contamination (contaminants in ground water, soils and sediments),2. cross-media transfer (movement of contaminants from the subsurface to other media such as surface water or air), and3. restoration of impacted ecosystems.The GWTSC works with Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and other decision makers to solve specific problems at Superfund, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), Brownfields sites, and ecosystem restoration sites. The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Suppo

  16. EPA'S GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose and the services provided by EPA's Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) will be presented. In 1987 the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Regional Waste Management Offices, and ORD established the Technical Support Project (TSP)

    The purpos...

  17. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  18. USGS California Water Science Center water programs in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shulters, Michael V.

    2005-01-01

    California is threatened by many natural hazards—fire, floods, landslides, earthquakes. The State is also threatened by longer-term problems, such as hydrologic effects of climate change, and human-induced problems, such as overuse of ground water and degradation of water quality. The threats and problems are intensified by increases in population, which has risen to nearly 36.8 million. For the USGS California Water Science Center, providing scientific information to help address hazards, threats, and hydrologic issues is a top priority. To meet the demands of a growing California, USGS scientific investigations are helping State and local governments improve emergency management, optimize resources, collect contaminant-source and -mobility information, and improve surface- and ground-water quality. USGS hydrologic studies and data collection throughout the State give water managers quantifiable and detailed scientific information that can be used to plan for development and to protect and more efficiently manage resources. The USGS, in cooperation with state, local, and tribal agencies, operates more than 500 instrument stations, which monitor streamflow, ground-water levels, and surface- and ground-water constituents to help protect water supplies and predict the threats of natural hazards. The following are some of the programs implemented by the USGS, in cooperation with other agencies, to obtain and analyze information needed to preserve California's environment and resources.

  19. 75 FR 9343 - Nomenclature Change Relating to the Network Distribution Center Transition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... 111 and 121 Nomenclature Change Relating to the Network Distribution Center Transition AGENCY: Postal... to the ongoing transition of USPS bulk mail centers (BMC) to network distribution centers (NDC), by... Distribution Center. BMC NDC. Destination Bulk Mail Center Destination Network Distribution Center. DBMC...

  20. BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

  1. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  2. 2. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, LOOKING WEST. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Visitor's Center, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. 3. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, LOOKING EAST. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Visitor's Center, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. Logistics distribution centers location problem and algorithm under fuzzy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lixing; Ji, Xiaoyu; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Keping

    2007-11-01

    Distribution centers location problem is concerned with how to select distribution centers from the potential set so that the total relevant cost is minimized. This paper mainly investigates this problem under fuzzy environment. Consequentially, chance-constrained programming model for the problem is designed and some properties of the model are investigated. Tabu search algorithm, genetic algorithm and fuzzy simulation algorithm are integrated to seek the approximate best solution of the model. A numerical example is also given to show the application of the algorithm.

  5. Silver disinfection in water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestry Rodriguez, Nadia

    Silver was evaluated as disinfectant to maintain water quality in water distribution system. It was used to inhibit growth of two opportunistic bacteria in planktonik form and in biofilm formation in Robbins devices with stainless steel and PVC surfaces. The results of this work show that silver is a potential secondary disinfectant to be used in water distribution systems.

  6. Transparent exopolymer particle removal in different drinking water production centers.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, Sam; Hennebel, Tom; De Beuf, Kristof; Du Laing, Gijs; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-07-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have recently gained interest in relation to membrane fouling. These sticky, gel-like particles consist of acidic polysaccharides excreted by bacteria and algae. The concentrations, expressed as xanthan gum equivalents L⁻¹ (μg X(eq) L⁻¹), usually reach hundred up to thousands μg X(eq) L⁻¹ in natural waters. However, very few research was performed on the occurrence and fate of TEP in drinking water, this far. This study examined three different drinking water production centers, taking in effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP), surface water and groundwater, respectively. Each treatment step was evaluated on TEP removal and on 13 other chemical and biological parameters. An assessment on TEP removal efficiency of a diverse range of water treatment methods and on correlations between TEP and other parameters was performed. Significant correlations between particulate TEP (>0.4 μm) and viable cell concentrations were found, as well as between colloidal TEP (0.05-0.4 μm) and total COD, TOC, total cell or viable cell concentrations. TEP concentrations were very dependent on the raw water source; no TEP was detected in groundwater but the STP effluent contained 1572 μg X(eq) L⁻¹ and the surface water 699 μg X(eq) L⁻¹. Over 94% of total TEP in both plants was colloidal TEP, a fraction neglected in nearly every other TEP study. The combination of coagulation and sand filtration was effective to decrease the TEP levels by 67%, while the combination of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis provided a total TEP removal. Finally, in none of the installations TEP reached the final drinking water distribution system at significant concentrations. Overall, this study described the presence and removal of TEP in drinking water systems.

  7. The application of fuzzy neural network in distribution center location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongpan; Liu, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the establishment of the fuzzy neural network model for logistics distribution center location applied the fuzzy method to the input value of BP algorithm and took the experts' evaluation value as the expected output. At the same time, using the network learning to get the optimized selection and furthermore get a more accurate evaluation to the programs of location.

  8. 7. View north of facade of Whitney Water Center. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north of facade of Whitney Water Center. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Lake Whitney Dam, East side of Whitney Avenue near intersection with Armory Street, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Fanto, Susan V.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  10. Energy optimization of water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Energy costs associated with pumping treated water into the distribution system and boosting water pressures where necessary is one of the largest expenditures in the operating budget of a municipality. Due to the size and complexity of Detroit`s water transmission system, an energy optimization project has been developed to better manage the flow of water in the distribution system in an attempt to reduce these costs.

  11. Human-centered design of a distributed knowledge management system.

    PubMed

    Rinkus, Susan; Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane T; Turley, James P; Smith, Jack W; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-02-01

    Many healthcare technology projects fail due to the lack of consideration of human issues, such as workflow, organizational change, and usability, during the design and implementation stages of a project's development process. Even when human issues are considered, the consideration is typically on designing better user interfaces. We argue that human-centered computing goes beyond a better user interface: it should include considerations of users, functions and tasks that are fundamental to human-centered computing. From this perspective, we integrated a previously developed human-centered methodology with a Project Design Lifecycle, and we applied this integration in the design of a complex distributed knowledge management system for the Biomedical Engineer (BME) domain in the Mission Control Center at NASA Johnson Space Center. We analyzed this complex system, identified its problems, generated systems requirements, and provided specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We demonstrated the value provided by our human-centered approach and described the unique properties, structures, and processes discovered using this methodology and how they contributed in the design of the prototype.

  12. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  13. Octanol-water distribution of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Westerhoff, Paul K; Posner, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of pH and ionic strength on octanol-water distribution of five model engineered nanomaterials. Distribution experiments resulted in a spectrum of three broadly classified scenarios: distribution in the aqueous phase, distribution in the octanol, and distribution into the octanol-water interface. Two distribution coefficients were derived to describe the distribution of nanoparticles among octanol, water and their interface. The results show that particle surface charge, surface functionalization, and composition, as well as the solvent ionic strength and presence of natural organic matter, dramatically impact this distribution. Distributions of nanoparticles into the interface were significant for nanomaterials that exhibit low surface charge in natural pH ranges. Increased ionic strengths also contributed to increased distributions of nanoparticle into the interface. Similarly to the octanol-water distribution coefficients, which represent a starting point in predicting the environmental fate, bioavailability and transport of organic pollutants, distribution coefficients such as the ones described in this study could help to easily predict the fate, bioavailability, and transport of engineered nanomaterials in the environment.

  14. Center Hill Reservoir Fishery Study--Water Level Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    The pH and the range of its variations are dependent upon the buffering capacity within a lake . In water containing a bicarbonate in solution, for...WORDS (Continue on reverse aide It noc.esr anidmt ntby block mbi’) Center Hill Lake , TN, Water Levels, Fisheries, Water Quality, Trends. 12A4, C -gvr...water level fluctuation is not a&p~ropriate at Center Hill Lake The graphical analysis of the relationship between the rate of water level change in feet

  15. Mercury in waters, soils, and sediments of the New Jersey Coastal Plain: A comparison of regional distribution and mobility with the mercury contamination at the William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury in soils, surface water, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center , Atlantic County, New Jersey, has been found at levels that exceed established background concentrations in Coastal Plain waters, and, in some cases, New Jersey State standards for mercury in various media. As of 2012, it is not known whether this mercury is part of regional mercury contamination or whether it is related to former military activities. Regionally, groundwater supplying about 700 domestic wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain is contaminated with mercury that appears to be derived from anthropogenic inputs, such as agricultural pesticide use and atmospheric deposition. High levels of mercury occasionally are found in Coastal Plain soils, but disturbance during residential development on former agricultural land is thought to have mobilized any mercury applied during farming, a hypothesis borne out by experiments leaching mercury from soils. In the unsewered residential areas with mercury-contaminated groundwater, septic-system effluent is believed to create reducing conditions in which mercury sorbed to subsoils is mobilized to groundwater. In comparing the levels of mercury found in soils, sediments, streamwater, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site with those found regionally, mercury concentrations in groundwater in the region are, in some cases, substantially higher than those found in groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site. Nevertheless, concentrations of mercury in streamwater at the site are, in some instances, higher than most found regionally. The mercury contents in soils and sediment at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site are substantially higher than those found to date (2012) in the region, indicating that a source other than regional sources may be present at the site.

  16. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  17. The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golon, Danielle K.

    2016-10-03

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) operates as a partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey and is 1 of 12 DAACs within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The LP DAAC ingests, archives, processes, and distributes NASA Earth science remote sensing data. These data are provided to the public at no charge. Data distributed by the LP DAAC provide information about Earth’s surface from daily to yearly intervals and at 15 to 5,600 meter spatial resolution. Data provided by the LP DAAC can be used to study changes in agriculture, vegetation, ecosystems, elevation, and much more. The LP DAAC provides several ways to access, process, and interact with these data. In addition, the LP DAAC is actively archiving new datasets to provide users with a variety of data to study the Earth.

  18. Optimal irrigation water allocation for a center pivot using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Esfahani, L.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Efficient irrigation can help avoid crop water stress, undesirable leaching of nutrients, and yield reduction due to water shortage, and runoff and soil erosion due to over irrigation. Gains in water use efficiency can be achieved when water application is precisely matched to the spatially distributed crop water demand. This is important to produce high quality crops and otherwise conserve water for greatest efficiency of use. Irrigation efficiency is a term which defines irrigation performance based on indicators such as irrigation uniformity, crop production, economic return and water resources sustainability. The present paper introduces a modeling approach for optimal water allocation to a center pivot irrigation unit in consideration of these types of indicators. Landsat images, weather data and field measurements were used to develop a soil water balance model using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The model includes two main modules, one for soil water forecasting and one for optimization of water allocation. The optimization module uses Genetic Algorithms (GA) to identify optimal crop water application rates based on the crop type, growing stage and sensitivity to water stress. The forecasting module allocates water through time across the area covered by the center pivot considering the results from the previous period of irrigation and the operational limitations of the center pivot irrigation system. The model was tested for a farm equipped with a modern sprinkler irrigation system in Scipio, Utah. The solution obtained from the model used up to 30 percent less water without reducing the benefits realized by the irrigator than traditional operating procedures.

  19. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  20. Architecture and evolution of Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Rosen, Wayne; Sherman, Mark; Pease, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been developed to enhance Earth Science research by improved access to remote sensor earth science data. Building and operating an archive, even one of a moderate size (a few Terabytes), is a challenging task. One of the critical components of this system is Unitree, the Hierarchical File Storage Management System. Unitree, selected two years ago as the best available solution, requires constant system administrative support. It is not always suitable as an archive and distribution data center, and has moderate performance. The Data Archive and Distribution System (DADS) software developed to monitor, manage, and automate the ingestion, archive, and distribution functions turned out to be more challenging than anticipated. Having the software and tools is not sufficient to succeed. Human interaction within the system must be fully understood to improve efficiency to improve efficiency and ensure that the right tools are developed. One of the lessons learned is that the operability, reliability, and performance aspects should be thoroughly addressed in the initial design. However, the GSFC DAAC has demonstrated that it is capable of distributing over 40 GB per day. A backup system to archive a second copy of all data ingested is under development. This backup system will be used not only for disaster recovery but will also replace the main archive when it is unavailable during maintenance or hardware replacement. The GSFC DAAC has put a strong emphasis on quality at all level of its organization. A Quality team has also been formed to identify quality issues and to propose improvements. The DAAC has conducted numerous tests to benchmark the performance of the system. These tests proved to be extremely useful in identifying bottlenecks and deficiencies in operational procedures.

  1. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the USGS Georgia Water Science Center, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey requires that each Water Science Center prepare a surface-water quality-assurance plan to describe policies and procedures that ensure high quality surface-water data collection, processing, analysis, computer storage, and publication. The Georgia Water Science Center's standards, policies, and procedures for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, computer storage, and publication of surface-water data are documented in this Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan for 2010.

  2. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  3. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  4. BIOFILMS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtually anywhere a surface comes into contact with the water in a distribution system, one can find biofilms. Biofilms are formed in distribution system pipelines when microbial cells attach to pipe surfaces and multiply to form a film or slime layer on the pipe. Probably withi...

  5. Constraint based scheduling for the Goddard Space Flight Center distributed Active Archive Center's data archive and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nick, Jr.; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Beane, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational since October 1, 1993. Its mission is to support the Earth Observing System (EOS) by providing rapid access to EOS data and analysis products, and to test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) design concepts. One of the challenges is to ensure quick and easy retrieval of any data archived within the DAAC's Data Archive and Distributed System (DADS). Over the 15-year life of EOS project, an estimated several Petabytes (10(exp 15)) of data will be permanently stored. Accessing that amount of information is a formidable task that will require innovative approaches. As a precursor of the full EOS system, the GSFC DAAC with a few Terabits of storage, has implemented a prototype of a constraint-based task and resource scheduler to improve the performance of the DADS. This Honeywell Task and Resource Scheduler (HTRS), developed by Honeywell Technology Center in cooperation the Information Science and Technology Branch/935, the Code X Operations Technology Program, and the GSFC DAAC, makes better use of limited resources, prevents backlog of data, provides information about resources bottlenecks and performance characteristics. The prototype which is developed concurrently with the GSFC Version 0 (V0) DADS, models DADS activities such as ingestion and distribution with priority, precedence, resource requirements (disk and network bandwidth) and temporal constraints. HTRS supports schedule updates, insertions, and retrieval of task information via an Application Program Interface (API). The prototype has demonstrated with a few examples, the substantial advantages of using HTRS over scheduling algorithms such as a First In First Out (FIFO) queue. The kernel scheduling engine for HTRS, called Kronos, has been successfully applied to several other domains such as space shuttle mission scheduling, demand flow manufacturing, and avionics communications

  6. Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan for the USGS Wisconsin Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    This surface-water quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Wisconsin Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Discipline, for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, management, and publication of surface-water data. The roles and responsibilities of Water Science Center personnel in following these policies and procedures including those related to safety and training are presented.

  7. 76 FR 2711 - Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Valley Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Labor Ready Southwest, Inc. and Select... Southwest, Inc., and Select Remedy Staffing Services, Simi Valley, California. The notice was published in... workers from Labor Ready Southwest, Inc., and Select Remedy Staffing Services, Simi Valley,...

  8. GHRC: NASAs Hazardous Weather Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2016-01-01

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC; ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov) is one of NASA's twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers responsible for providing access to NASA's Earth science data to users worldwide. Each of NASA's twelve DAACs focuses on a specific science discipline within Earth science, provides data stewardship services and supports its research community's needs. Established in 1991 as the Marshall Space Flight Center DAAC and renamed GHRC in 1997, the data center's original mission focused on the global hydrologic cycle. However, over the years, data holdings, tools and expertise of GHRC have gradually shifted. In 2014, a User Working Group (UWG) was established to review GHRC capabilities and provide recommendations to make GHRC more responsive to the research community's evolving needs. The UWG recommended an update to the GHRC mission, as well as a strategic plan to move in the new direction. After a careful and detailed analysis of GHRC's capabilities, research community needs and the existing data landscape, a new mission statement for GHRC has been crafted: to provide a comprehensive active archive of both data and knowledge augmentation services with a focus on hazardous weather, its governing dynamical and physical processes, and associated applications. Within this broad mandate, GHRC will focus on lightning, tropical cyclones and storm-induced hazards through integrated collections of satellite, airborne, and in-situ data sets. The new mission was adopted at the recent 2015 UWG meeting. GHRC will retain its current name until such time as it has built substantial data holdings aligned with the new mission.

  9. Fiscal Year 1986 program report (Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center)

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The FY86 Water Resources Research Center program focused on state and regional research priorities: acid-deposition impacts and drinking-water quality. Water Resources Institute Program (WRIP) support was supplemented by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, and the University of Massachusetts. Four WRIP projects were completed: studies of natural mitigation of acid deposition via sulfate reduction in lakes, the effect of ozone and acid deposition on tree seedlings, corrosion impacts on water quality, and creation of potentially hazardous chlorinated organics by drinking-water treatment. The state Cooperative Aquatic Research Program funded 5 projects. An Aquatic Toxicology Program addressed research, training, and information transfer for the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Other information transfer included a monthly water resources center newsletter, a quarterly Acid Rain Monitoring Project newsletter, and acid-rain reports to the media and general public.

  10. Contents of the JPL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive, version 2-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A. (Editor); Lassanyi, Ruby A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea surface height, surface wind vector, sea surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and surface pigment concentration. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and will be the United States distribution site for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  11. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  12. Surface water quality-assurance plan, U.S. Geological Survey, Kentucky Water Science Center, water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    This Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Kentucky Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data.

  13. [Bacterial regrowth in drinking water. II. Drinking water distribution systems].

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, N E; Schmidt-Lorenz, W

    1988-08-01

    Five chromium steel dead-end water pipes were installed over a distance of 12 km along the Zurich city drinking water distribution system. Cell counts were determined in two series of four samplings in fresh water and stagnating water using three different methods. The colony counts of oligocarbon tolerant bacteria (1:10 diluted plate count agar, 20 degrees C, 14 d) in the fresh water was increasing along the distribution line. Initially there were counts around 1 CFU ml-1 and after 12 km between 120 and 1100 CFU ml-1. Water taken from house tabs showed higher colony counts than water taken after reservoirs. After a stagnating time of 14 d all 40 water samples showed aftergrowth from 10(3) up to 10(4) CFU ml-1. Water from the two sampling locations with the longest distance from the treatment plant showed less regrowth tendency. Epifluorescence microscopy and the INT-method for determining the electron transport system positive bacteria (ETS+) were less useful for monitoring bacterial regrowth. However, in the stagnating water there occurred a significantly higher percentage of ETS+ units as compared to the colony forming units (CFU) with growing distance from the treatment plant.

  14. Data Information for Global Change Studies: NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers and Cooperating Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). ESE is a long-term global change research program designed to improve our understanding of the Earth's interrelated processes involving the atmosphere, oceans, land surfaces, and polar regions. Data from EOS instruments and other Earth science measurement systems are useful in understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a structure for data management and user services for products derived from EOS satellite instruments and other NASA Earth science data. Within the EOSDIS framework, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) have been established to provide expertise in one or more Earth science disciplines. The DAACs and cooperating data centers provide data and information services to support the global change research community. Much of the development of the DAACs has been in anticipation of the enormous amount of data expected from EOS instruments to be launched within the next two decades. Terra, the EOS flagship launched in December 1999, is the first of a series of EOS satellites to carry several instruments with multispectral capabilities. Some data products from these instruments are now available from several of the DAACs. These and other data products can be ordered through the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) and DAAC-specific online ordering systems.

  15. Data catalog for JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory contains satellite data sets and ancillary in-situ data for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Geophysical parameters available from the archive include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, surface-wind speed, surface-wind stress vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, integrated water vapor, phytoplankton pigment concentration, heat flux, and in-situ data. PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System and is the United States distribution site for TOPEX/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  16. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  17. COST FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge for the society in the twenty-first century will be design, rehabilitation, replacement, and optimal management of drinking water distribution systems. A recent survey conducted by the USEPA found that $138B will be needed to maintain and replace existing drinki...

  18. Development of Secondary Archive System at Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Mark; Kodis, John; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Wacker, Chris; Woytek, Joanne; Lynnes, Chris

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been developed to support existing and pre Earth Observing System (EOS) Earth science datasets, facilitate the scientific research, and test EOS data and information system (EOSDIS) concepts. To ensure that no data is ever lost, each product received at GSFC DAAC is archived on two different media, VHS and digital linear tape (DLT). The first copy is made on VHS tape and is under the control of UniTree. The second and third copies are made to DLT and VHS media under a custom built software package named 'Archer'. While Archer provides only a subset of the functions available with commercial software like UniTree, it supports migration between near-line and off-line media and offers much greater performance and flexibility to satisfy the specific needs of a data center. Archer is specifically designed to maximize total system throughput, rather than focusing on the turn-around time for individual files. The commercial off the shelf software (COTS) hierarchical storage management (HSM) products evaluated were mainly concerned with transparent, interactive, file access to the end-user, rather than a batch-orientated, optimizable (based on known data file characteristics) data archive and retrieval system. This is critical to the distribution requirements of the GSFC DAAC where orders for 5000 or more files at a time are received. Archer has the ability to queue many thousands of file requests and to sort these requests into internal processing schedules that optimize overall throughput. Specifically, mount and dismount, tape load and unload cycles, and tape motion are minimized. This feature did not seem to be available in many COTS pacages. Archer also uses a generic tar tape format that allows tapes to be read by many different systems rather than the proprietary format found in most COTS packages. This paper discusses some of the specific requirements at GSFC DAAC, the

  19. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under §§ 25.23 through...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under §§ 25.23 through...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under §§ 25.23 through...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under §§ 25.23 through...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under §§ 25.23 through...

  4. Distribution of Water Vapor in Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Snell, Ronald L.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Hollenbach, David J.; Kaufman, Michael J.; Li, Di; Neufeld, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a large-area study of water vapor along the Orion Molecular Cloud ridge, the purpose of which was to determine the depth-dependent distribution of gas-phase water in dense molecular clouds. We find that the water vapor measured toward 77 spatial positions along the face-on Orion ridge, excluding positions surrounding the outflow associated with BN/KL and IRc2, display integrated intensities that correlate strongly with known cloud surface tracers such as CN, C2H, 13CO J = 5-4, and HCN, and less well with the volume tracer N2H+. Moreover, at total column densities corresponding to A V< 15 mag, the ratio of H2O to C18O integrated intensities shows a clear rise approaching the cloud surface. We show that this behavior cannot be accounted for by either optical depth or excitation effects, but suggests that gas-phase water abundances fall at large A V. These results are important as they affect measures of the true water-vapor abundance in molecular clouds by highlighting the limitations of comparing measured water-vapor column densities with such traditional cloud tracers as 13CO or C18O. These results also support cloud models that incorporate freeze out of molecules as a critical component in determining the depth-dependent abundance of water vapor.

  5. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  6. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  7. Cyber Graph Queries for Geographically Distributed Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Collins, Michael; Kearns, Aaron; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Saia, Jared

    2015-05-01

    We present new algorithms for a distributed model for graph computations motivated by limited information sharing we first discussed in [20]. Two or more independent entities have collected large social graphs. They wish to compute the result of running graph algorithms on the entire set of relationships. Because the information is sensitive or economically valuable, they do not wish to simply combine the information in a single location. We consider two models for computing the solution to graph algorithms in this setting: 1) limited-sharing: the two entities can share only a polylogarithmic size subgraph; 2) low-trust: the entities must not reveal any information beyond the query answer, assuming they are all honest but curious. We believe this model captures realistic constraints on cooperating autonomous data centers. We have algorithms in both setting for s - t connectivity in both models. We also give an algorithm in the low-communication model for finding a planted clique. This is an anomaly- detection problem, finding a subgraph that is larger and denser than expected. For both the low- communication algorithms, we exploit structural properties of social networks to prove perfor- mance bounds better than what is possible for general graphs. For s - t connectivity, we use known properties. For planted clique, we propose a new property: bounded number of triangles per node. This property is based upon evidence from the social science literature. We found that classic examples of social networks do not have the bounded-triangles property. This is because many social networks contain elements that are non-human, such as accounts for a business, or other automated accounts. We describe some initial attempts to distinguish human nodes from automated nodes in social networks based only on topological properties.

  8. SWAG: Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Jürgen; Meier, David S.; Krieger, Nico; Rickert, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    SWAG (``Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center'') is a multi-line interferometric survey toward the Center of the Milky Way conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The survey region spans the entire ~400 pc Central Molecular Zone and comprises ~42 spectral lines at pc spatial and sub-km/s spectral resolution. In addition, we deeply map continuum intensity, spectral index, and polarization at the frequencies where synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust sources emit. The observed spectral lines include many transitions of ammonia, which we use to construct maps of molecular gas temperature, opacity and gas formation temperature (see poster by Nico Krieger et al., this volume). Water masers pinpoint the sites of active star formation and other lines are good tracers for density, radiation field, shocks, and ionization. This extremely rich survey forms a perfect basis to construct maps of the physical parameters of the gas in this extreme environment.

  9. GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Cabrera, David; Herrera, Manuel; Izquierdo, Joaquín; Ocaña-Levario, Silvia J.; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of leakage in water distribution systems through the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive method. Laboratory tests are performed to extract features of water leakage from the obtained GPR images. Moreover, a test in a real-world urban system under real conditions is performed. Feature extraction is performed by interpreting GPR images with the support of a pre-processing methodology based on an appropriate combination of statistical methods and multi-agent systems. The results of these tests are presented, interpreted, analyzed and discussed in this paper.

  10. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  11. Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles in a cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovic, Pavol

    2015-05-01

    Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles with spray plates used to distribute cooling water to the cooling fills in a cooling tower is one of the important parameters for the selection of nozzles. Water distribution characteristic describes the distribution of water from the axis of the nozzle along a fill. One of the parameters affecting the water distribution characteristic of the nozzle is airflow velocity of counter flow airstream. Water distribution characteristics are commonly measured using by a set of containers. The problem with this method of the measurement of characteristics is block of the airflow with collections of containers. Therefore, this work is using the visualization method.

  12. Subantarctic mode water: distribution and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraiz-Borreguero, Laura; Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    2011-01-01

    The subduction and export of subantarctic mode water (SAMW) as part of the overturning circulation play an important role in global heat, freshwater, carbon and nutrient budgets. Here, the spatial distribution and export of SAMW is investigated using Argo profiles and a climatology. SAMW is identified by a dynamical tracer: a minimum in potential vorticity. We have found that SAMW consists of several modes with distinct properties in each oceanic basin. This conflicts with the previous view of SAMW as a continuous water mass that gradually cools and freshens to the east. The circulation paths of SAMW were determined using (modified) Montgomery streamlines on the density surfaces corresponding with potential vorticity minima. The distribution of the potential vorticity minima revealed "hotspots" where the different SAMW modes subduct north of the Subantarctic Front. The subducted SAMWs follow narrow export pathways into the subtropical gyres influenced by topography. The export of warmer, saltier modes in these "hotspots" contributes to the circumpolar evolution of mode water properties toward cooler, fresher and denser modes in the east.

  13. Epidemiology of urban water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardet, Jean-Pierre; Little, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Urban water distribution systems worldwide contain numerous old and fragile pipes that inevitably break, flood streets and damage property, and disrupt economic and social activities. Such breaks often present dramatically in temporal clusters as occurred in Los Angeles during 2009. These clustered pipe breaks share many characteristics with human mortality observed during extreme climatological events such as heat waves or air pollution. Drawing from research and empirical studies in human epidemiology, a framework is introduced to analyze the time variations of disruptive pipe breaks that can help water agencies better understand clustered pipe failures and institute measures to minimize the disruptions caused by them. It is posited that at any time, a cohort of the pipes comprising the water distribution system will be in a weakened state due to fatigue and corrosion. This frail cohort becomes vulnerable during normal operations and ultimately breaks due to rapid increase in crack lengths induced by abnormal stressors. The epidemiological harvesting model developed in this paper simulates an observed time series of monthly pipe breaks and has both explanatory and predictive power. It also demonstrates that models from nonengineering disciplines such as medicine can provide improved insights into the performance of infrastructure systems.

  14. Hydrology and tree-distribution patterns of karst wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Flooding regimes, ground-water interactions, and tree distribution patterns were determined in seasonally flooded sinkhole wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center near Manchester, Tennessee. The wetlands are ecologically significant because they support coastal-plain plants and animals far from their typical ranges. Surface-water stage, ground-water levels, rainfall, and streamflow were monitored at or near five wetland sites. Sinking Pond, Willow Oak Swamp, and Westall Swamp are compound sinks with depths greater than 2.5 meters, visible internal drains, and complex bottom topography dominated by coalesced sinkholes and connecting channels. Tupelo Swamp and Goose Pond are karst pans with depths less than 1.5 meters, flat bottoms, and without visible internal drains. Stage rose and fell abruptly in the compound sinks. Maximum water depths ranged from 2.6 meters in Westall Swamp to 3.5 meters in Sinking Pond. Water levels in wells adjacent to Sinking Pond and Westall Swamp rose and fell abruptly, corresponding closely to surface-water stage throughout periods of high water. The two karst pans filled and drained more gradually, but remained flooded longer than the compound sinks. The maximum recorded water depths were 1.1 meters in Tupelo Swamp and 0.7 meter in Goose Pond. Water levels in nearby wells remained lower than the stage in the pans throughout the study period. Tree species were identified and the elevations and diameters of individual trees were measured along 10 transects. Two transects crossed Sinking Pond, two crossed Tupelo Swamp, and one crossed Willow Oak Swamp. The remaining five transects crossed intermittent drainageways that carry flow into or out of Sinking Pond. Transects through ponds had fewer trees but more basal area per unit area of land surface than did transects through channels. Water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) dominated the interior of Tupelo Swamp and had minimal overlap in terms of elevation and flooding duration with other

  15. Evaluation of potential human health risk and investigation of drinking water quality in Isparta city center (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Varol, Simge; Davraz, Aysen

    2016-06-01

    Isparta city center is selected as a work area in this study because the public believes that the tap water is dirty and harmful. In this study, the city's drinking water in the distribution system and other spring waters which are used as drinking water in this region were investigated from the point of water quality and health risk assessment. Water samples were collected from major drinking water springs, tap waters, treatment plants and dam pond in the Isparta province center. Ca-Mg-HCO3, Mg-Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 are dominant water types. When compared to drinking water guidelines established by World Health Organization and Turkey, much greater attention should be paid to As, Br, Fe, F, NH4, PO4 through varied chemicals above the critical values. The increases of As, Fe, F, NH4 and PO4 are related to water-rock interaction. In tap waters, the increases of As and Fe are due to corrosion of pipes in drinking water distribution systems. The major toxic and carcinogenic chemicals within drinking water are As and Br for both tap water and spring water. Also, F is the non-carcinogenic chemical for only spring waters in the study area.

  16. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resistant materials. The containers shall be marked with the words “Drinking Water.” ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in...

  17. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resistant materials. The containers shall be marked with the words “Drinking Water.” ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in...

  18. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resistant materials. The containers shall be marked with the words “Drinking Water.” ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in...

  19. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  20. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  1. The Impact of Wireless Technology on Order Selection Audits at an Auto Parts Distribution Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Audits of store order pallets or totes performed by auditors at five distribution centers (two experimental and three comparison distribution centers) were used to check for picking accuracy prior to being loaded onto a truck for store delivery. Replacing the paper audits with wireless handheld computers that included immediate auditory and visual…

  2. 75 FR 66795 - Enesco, LLC, Gund Division, Distribution Center, Edison, NJ; Notice of Affirmative Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Enesco, LLC, Gund Division, Distribution Center, Edison, NJ; Notice of... workers and former workers of Enesco, LLC, Gund Division, Distribution Center, Edison, New Jersey...

  3. [Third World cities: points of accumulation, centers of distribution].

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W R; Mcgee, T G

    1985-01-01

    Attention was called over 3 decades ago to the very rapid growth of Third World cities and the significance of the differences between their patterns of urbanization and those of industrialized countries. Their demographic growth occurred much faster and depended much more heavily on high fertility, their economies were geared more to export of raw materials than to manufacturing and were unable to create massive numbers of jobs to absorb the growing labor force except in the unproductive tertiary sector, and it appeared unlikely that they would be able to produce entrepreneurial classes of their own. Several economic developments during the 1970s affected the world economy and the patterns of urbanization of the Third World: the decline of the principal capitalist economies and the multiple increases in the price of oil, the floating exchange rate, the considerable increase in consumer goods, and the increasing costs of labor in industrialized countries, among others, created new conditions. World economic interdependence, international control of investment and exchange, and volume and mobility of capital increased at a time of rapid economic growth in some Third World countries, especially those whose governments took an aggressive role in promoting growth and investment. Some Third World cities now seem to be developing according to a more western model, but the same cannot be said of all Third World countries, and international economic evolution appears to have led to increasing polarization between countries as well as within them. The 1 domain where a certain convergence has occurred is consumption, beginning with the privileged classes and filtering to the lower income groups. Consumption of collective and individual consumer goods, which is concentrated in the largest cities, increases dependence on imports, technology, knowledge, and usually debt. The modern productive sector and its distribution activities become implanted in the cities to such a degree

  4. Global resilience analysis of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Diao, Kegong; Sweetapple, Chris; Farmani, Raziyeh; Fu, Guangtao; Ward, Sarah; Butler, David

    2016-12-01

    Evaluating and enhancing resilience in water infrastructure is a crucial step towards more sustainable urban water management. As a prerequisite to enhancing resilience, a detailed understanding is required of the inherent resilience of the underlying system. Differing from traditional risk analysis, here we propose a global resilience analysis (GRA) approach that shifts the objective from analysing multiple and unknown threats to analysing the more identifiable and measurable system responses to extreme conditions, i.e. potential failure modes. GRA aims to evaluate a system's resilience to a possible failure mode regardless of the causal threat(s) (known or unknown, external or internal). The method is applied to test the resilience of four water distribution systems (WDSs) with various features to three typical failure modes (pipe failure, excess demand, and substance intrusion). The study reveals GRA provides an overview of a water system's resilience to various failure modes. For each failure mode, it identifies the range of corresponding failure impacts and reveals extreme scenarios (e.g. the complete loss of water supply with only 5% pipe failure, or still meeting 80% of demand despite over 70% of pipes failing). GRA also reveals that increased resilience to one failure mode may decrease resilience to another and increasing system capacity may delay the system's recovery in some situations. It is also shown that selecting an appropriate level of detail for hydraulic models is of great importance in resilience analysis. The method can be used as a comprehensive diagnostic framework to evaluate a range of interventions for improving system resilience in future studies.

  5. Water-Pressure Distribution on Seaplane Float

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1929-01-01

    The investigation presented in this report was conducted for the purpose of determining the distribution and magnitude of water pressures likely to be experienced on seaplane hulls in service. It consisted of the development and construction of apparatus for recording water pressures lasting one one-hundredth second or longer and of flight tests to determine the water pressures on a UO-1 seaplane float under various conditions of taxiing, taking off, and landing. The apparatus developed was found to operate with satisfactory accuracy and is suitable for flight tests on other seaplanes. The tests on the UO-1 showed that maximum pressures of about 6.5 pounds per square inch occur at the step for the full width of the float bottom. Proceeding forward from the step the maximum pressures decrease in magnitude uniformly toward the bow, and the region of highest pressures narrows toward the keel. Immediately abaft the step the maximum pressures are very small, but increase in magnitude toward the stern and there once reached a value of about 5 pounds per square inch. (author)

  6. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water distribution systems. 3280....609 Water distribution systems. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73986, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Water supply—(1) Supply piping. Piping systems shall be sized to provide an adequate quantity of water to...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water distribution systems. 3280....609 Water distribution systems. (a) Water supply—(1) Supply piping. Piping systems shall be sized to provide an adequate quantity of water to each plumbing fixture at a flow rate sufficient to keep...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water distribution systems. 3280....609 Water distribution systems. (a) Water supply—(1) Supply piping. Piping systems shall be sized to provide an adequate quantity of water to each plumbing fixture at a flow rate sufficient to keep...

  9. EQUITY EVALUATION OF PADDY IRRIGATION WATER DISTRIBUTION BY SOCIETY-JUSTICE-WATER DISTRIBUTION RULE HYPOTHESIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanji, Hajime; Kiri, Hirohide; Kobayashi, Shintaro

    When total supply is smaller than total demand, it is difficult to apply the paddy irrigation water distribution rule. The gap must be narrowed by decreasing demand. Historically, the upstream served rule, rotation schedule, or central schedule weight to irrigated area was adopted. This paper proposes the hypothesis that these rules are dependent on social justice, a hypothesis called the "Society-Justice-Water Distribution Rule Hypothesis". Justice, which means a balance of efficiency and equity of distribution, is discussed under the political philosophy of utilitarianism, liberalism (Rawls), libertarianism, and communitarianism. The upstream served rule can be derived from libertarianism. The rotation schedule and central schedule can be derived from communitarianism. Liberalism can provide arranged schedule to adjust supply and demand based on "the Difference Principle". The authors conclude that to achieve efficiency and equity, liberalism may provide the best solution after modernization.

  10. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  11. Rack Distribution Effects on MPLM Center of Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tester, John T.

    2005-01-01

    This research was in support of exploring the need for more flexible "center of gravity (CG) specifications than those currently established by NASA for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The MPLM is the cargo carrier for International Space Station (ISS) missions. The MPLM provides locations for 16 standard racks, as shown in Figure 1; not all positions need to be filled in any given flight. The MPLM coordinate system (X(sub M), Y(sub M), Z(sub M)) is illustrated as well. For this project, the primary missions of interest were those which supply the ISS and remove excess materials on the return flights. These flights use a predominate number of "Resupply Stowage Racks" (RSR) and "Resupply Stowage Platforms" (RSP). In these two types of racks, various smaller items are stowed. Hence, these racks will exhibit a considerable range of mass values as well as a range as to where their individual CG are located.

  12. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-02

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation.

  13. Evolution of the dark matter distribution at the galactic center.

    PubMed

    Merritt, David

    2004-05-21

    Annihilation radiation from neutralino dark matter at the Galactic center (GC) would be greatly enhanced if the dark matter were strongly clustered around the supermassive black hole (SBH). The existence of a dark matter "spike" is made plausible by the observed, steeply rising stellar density near the GC SBH. Here the time-dependent equations describing gravitational interaction of the dark matter with the stars are solved. Scattering of dark matter particles by stars would substantially lower the dark matter density near the GC SBH over 10 Gyr, due both to kinetic heating and to capture of dark matter particles by the SBH. This evolution implies a decrease by several orders of magnitude in the observable flux of annihilation products compared with models that associate a steep, dark matter spike with the SBH.

  14. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation. PMID:26729135

  15. The NASA Lewis Research Center Water Tunnel Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    A water tunnel facility specifically designed to investigate internal fluid duct flows has been built at the NASA Research Center. It is built in a modular fashion so that a variety of internal flow test hardware can be installed in the facility with minimal facility reconfiguration. The facility and test hardware interfaces are discussed along with design constraints for future test hardware. The inlet chamber flow conditioning approach is also detailed. Instrumentation and data acquisition capabilities are discussed. The incoming flow quality has been documented for about one quarter of the current facility operating range. At that range, there is some scatter in the data in the turbulent boundary layer which approaches 10 percent of the duct radius leading to a uniform core.

  16. Science center capabilities to monitor and investigate Michigan’s water resources, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesen, Julia A.; Givens, Carrie E.

    2016-09-06

    Michigan faces many challenges related to water resources, including flooding, drought, water-quality degradation and impairment, varying water availability, watershed-management issues, stormwater management, aquatic-ecosystem impairment, and invasive species. Michigan’s water resources include approximately 36,000 miles of streams, over 11,000 inland lakes, 3,000 miles of shoreline along the Great Lakes (MDEQ, 2016), and groundwater aquifers throughout the State.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as tribes and universities, to provide scientific information used to manage the water resources of Michigan. To effectively assess water resources, the USGS uses standardized methods to operate streamgages, water-quality stations, and groundwater stations. The USGS also monitors water quality in lakes and reservoirs, makes periodic measurements along rivers and streams, and maintains all monitoring data in a national, quality-assured, hydrologic database.The USGS in Michigan investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface water and groundwater statewide. Water-resource monitoring and scientific investigations are conducted statewide by USGS hydrologists, hydrologic technicians, biologists, and microbiologists who have expertise in data collection as well as various scientific specialties. A support staff consisting of computer-operations and administrative personnel provides the USGS the functionality to move science forward. Funding for USGS activities in Michigan comes from local and State agencies, other Federal agencies, direct Federal appropriations, and through the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds, which allows the USGS to partially match funding provided by local and State partners.This fact sheet provides an overview of the USGS current (2016) capabilities to monitor and study Michigan’s vast water resources. More

  17. The Role of Distributed Generation and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems in Data Centers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report reviews how distributed generation (DG) resources such as fuel cells, reciprocating engines, and gas turbines can offer powerful energy efficiency savings in data centers, particularly when configured in combined heat and power (CHP) mode.

  18. Multiplicity Distributions from Antiproton-Proton Collisions at 1.8 Tev Center of Mass Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi-Ho.

    Charged-particle multiplicity distributions from antiproton-proton collisions at 1800 GeV center of mass energy, obtained with the E735 detector multiplicity hodoscope, are presented and discussed. A simple iteration method is used for conversion from number of observed hodoscope hits to true charged-particle multiplicity. The first four moments of the distribution are compared with distributions from lower energies. The distributions are also fit to KNO-G and negative binomial functions.

  19. Optimizing Mexico’s Water Distribution Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    distribution of federal subsidies to the states and municipalities.13 The principal financial lender for Mexican infrastructure projects is the...S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT For Example: Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited...and projected needs. Central to the current problem is insufficient financial capital to fully implement strategic modernization plans. This

  20. NASA Langley Research Center's distributed mass storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, Juliet Z.; Humes, D. Creig

    1993-01-01

    There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at NASA LaRC is building such a system and expects to put it into production use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in its development and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: (1) workstation class file servers running UniTree software; (2) third party I/O; (3) HIPPI network; (4) HIPPI/IPI3 disk array systems; (5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; (6) CRAY Research Incorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; (7) file server redundancy provision; and (8) a transition mechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.

  1. Distributed information system (water fact sheet)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    During 1982-85, the Water Resources Division (WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed over 70 large minicomputers in offices across the country to support its mission in the science of hydrology. These computers are connected by a communications network that allows information to be shared among computers in each office. The computers and network together are known as the Distributed Information System (DIS). The computers are accessed through the use of more than 1500 terminals and minicomputers. The WRD has three fundamentally different needs for computing: data management; hydrologic analysis; and administration. Data management accounts for 50% of the computational workload of WRD because hydrologic data are collected in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific trust territories. Hydrologic analysis consists of 40% of the computational workload of WRD. Cost accounting, payroll, personnel records, and planning for WRD programs occupies an estimated 10% of the computer workload. The DIS communications network is shown on a map. (Lantz-PTT)

  2. The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The functionality of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) which are significant elements of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is discussed. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. The EOSDIS DAACs are expected to improve the access to earth science data set needed for global change research.

  3. Vertical Water Vapor Distribution at Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Phoenix SSI camera data along with radiative transfer modeling are used to retrieve the vertical water vapor profile. Preliminary results indicate that water vapor is often confined near the surface.

  4. Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellen J; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2005-06-01

    Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing, stressed or poorly maintained distribution systems can cause the quality of piped drinking water to deteriorate below acceptable levels and pose serious health risks. This review will outline distribution system deficiencies in developing countries caused by: the failure to disinfect water or maintain a proper disinfection residual; low pipeline water pressure; intermittent service; excessive network leakages; corrosion of parts; inadequate sewage disposal; and inequitable pricing and usage of water. Through improved research, monitoring and surveillance, increased understanding of distribution system deficiencies may focus limited resources on key areas in an effort to improve public health and decrease global disease burden.

  5. THE EPANET WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPANET is a Windows program that performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water-quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks. It tracks the flow of water in each pipe, the pressure at each node, the height of water in each tank, and the concentration of a chemica...

  6. Quality-assurance plan for ground-water activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey's Washington Water Science Center, for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of ground-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all Washington Water Science Center personnel involved in ground-water activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the Washington Water Science Center and Discipline change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process.

  7. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  8. GROWTH OF HETROTROPHIC BIOFILMS IN A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has designed and constructed a distribution system simulator (DSS) to evaluate factors which influence water quality within water distribution systems. Six individual 25 meter lengths of 15 cm diameter ductile iron pipe are arranged into loop configurations. Each lo...

  9. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  10. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  11. EVALUATION OF WATER MONITORING INSTRUMENTATION AT EPA'S WATER AWARENESS TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION RESEARCH SECURITY CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The safety and security of distribution systems has come under reassessment in the past year. Several chemical and biological agents have been identified that might constitute a credible threat against water supply systems. There have also been a few reported threats against wate...

  12. Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, B.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the chemical quality of ground water in the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer beneath a major urban center (Denver, Colorado, USA) was performed in 1993 with the objective of characterizing the quality of shallow ground-water in the urban area and relating water quality to land use. Thirty randomly selected alluvial wells were each sampled once for a broad range of dissolved constituents. The urban land use at each well site was sub- classified into one of three land-use settings: residential, commercial, and industrial. Shallow ground-water quality was highly variable in the urban area and the variability could be related to these land-use setting classifications. Sulfate (SO4) was the predominant anion in most samples from the residential and commercial land-use settings, whereas bicarbonate (HCO3) was the predominant anion in samples from the industrial land-use setting, indicating a possible shift in redox conditions associated with land use. Only three of 30 samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the US national drinking-water standard of 10 mg l-1 as nitrogen, indicating that nitrate contamination of shallow ground water may not be a serious problem in this urban area. However, the highest median nitrate concentration (4.2 mg l-1) was in samples from the residential setting, where fertilizer application is assumed to be most intense. Twenty-seven of 30 samples had detectable pesticides and nine of 82 analyzed pesticide compounds were detected at low concentrations, indicating that pesticides are widely distributed in shallow ground water in this urban area. Although the highest median total pesticide concentration (0.17 ??g l-1) was in the commercial setting, the herbicides prometon and atrazine were found in each land-use setting. Similarly, 25 of 29 samples analyzed had detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicating these compounds are also widely distributed in this urban area. The total VOC concentrations in sampled wells

  13. WATER QUALITY IN SOURCE WATER, TREATMENT, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most drinking water utilities practice the multiple-barrier concept as the guiding principle for providing safe water. This chapter discusses multiple barriers as they relate to the basic criteria for selecting and protecting source waters, including known and potential sources ...

  14. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  15. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, George

    1986-01-01

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  16. [Case study of red water phenomenon in drinking water distribution systems caused by water source switch].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; Pan, An-jun; Xu, Yang; Liao, Ping-an; Zhang, Su-xia; Gu, Jun-nong

    2009-12-01

    Red water phenomenon occurred in some communities of a city in China after water source switch in recent days. The origin of this red water problem and mechanism of iron release were investigated in the study. Water quality of local and new water sources was tested and tap water quality in suffered area had been monitored for 3 months since red water occurred. Interior corrosion scales on the pipe which was obtained from the suffered area were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and EDS. Corrosion rates of cast iron under the conditions of two source water were obtained by Annular Reactor. The influence of different source water on iron release was studied by pipe section reactor to simulate the distribution systems. The results indicated that large increase of sulfate concentration by water source shift was regarded as the cause of red water problem. The Larson ratio increased from about 0.4 to 1.7-1.9 and the red water problem happened in the taps of some urban communities just several days after the new water source was applied. The mechanism of iron release was concluded that the stable shell of scales in the pipes had been corrupted by this kind of high-sulfate-concentration source water and it was hard to recover soon spontaneously. The effect of sulfate on iron release of the old cast iron was more significant than its effect on enhancing iron corrosion. The rate of iron release increased with increasing Larson ratio, and the correlation of them was nonlinear on the old cast-iron. The problem remained quite a long time even if the water source re-shifted into the blended one with only small ratio of the new source and the Larson ratio reduced to about 0.6.

  17. OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF BOOSTER DISINFECTION IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster disinfection is the addition of disinfectant at locations distributed throughout a water distribution system. Such a strategy can reduce the mass of disinfectant required to maintain a detectable residual at points of consumption in the distribution system, which may lea...

  18. A second generation distributed point polarizable water model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Revati; Wang, Fang-Fang; Jenness, Glen R; Jordan, Kenneth D

    2010-01-07

    A distributed point polarizable model (DPP2) for water, with explicit terms for charge penetration, induction, and charge transfer, is introduced. The DPP2 model accurately describes the interaction energies in small and large water clusters and also gives an average internal energy per molecule and radial distribution functions of liquid water in good agreement with experiment. A key to the success of the model is its accurate description of the individual terms in the n-body expansion of the interaction energies.

  19. Water distribution in dentin matrices: bound vs. unbound water

    PubMed Central

    Agee, Kelli A.; Prakki, Anuradha; Abu-Haimed, Tariq; Naguib, Ghada H.; Nawareg, Manar Abu; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Scheffel, Debora L.S.; Chen, Chen; Jang, Seung Soon; Hwang, Hyea; Brackett, Martha; Grégoire, Geneviéve; Tay, Franklin R.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work measured the amount of bound versus unbound water in completely-demineralized dentin. Methods Dentin beams prepared from extracted human teeth were completely demineralized, rinsed and dried to constant mass. They were rehydrated in 41% relative humidity (RH), while gravimetrically measuring their mass increase until the first plateau was reached at 0.064 (vacuum) or 0.116 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite). The specimens were then exposed to 60% RH until attaining the second plateau at 0.220 (vacuum) or 0.191 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite), and subsequently exposed to 99% RH until attaining the third plateau at 0.493 (vacuum) or 0.401 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite). Results Exposure of the first layer of bound water to 0% RH for 5 min produced a −0.3% loss of bound water; in the second layer of bound water it caused a −3.3% loss of bound water; in the third layer it caused a −6% loss of bound water. Immersion in 100% ethanol or acetone for 5 min produced a 2.8 and 1.9% loss of bound water from the first layer, respectively; it caused a −4 and −7% loss of bound water in the second layer, respectively; and a −17 and −23% loss of bound water in the third layer.. Bound water represented 21–25% of total dentin water. Chemical dehydration of water-saturated dentin with ethanol/acetone for 1 min only removed between 25 to 35% of unbound water, respectively. Significance Attempts to remove bound water by evaporation were not very successful. Chemical dehydration with 100% acetone was more successful than 100% ethanol especially the third layer of bound water. Since unbound water represents between 75–79% of total matrix water, the more such water can be removed, the more resin can be infiltrated. PMID:25612786

  20. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  1. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  2. WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS: FIELD STUDIES, MODELING AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The user‘s guide entitled “Water Distribution System Analysis: Field Studies, Modeling and Management” is a reference guide for water utilities and an extensive summarization of information designed to provide drinking water utility personnel (and related consultants and research...

  3. Particulate Arsenic Release in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace contaminants, such as arsenic, have been shown to accumulate in solids found in drinking water distribution systems. The obvious concern is that the contaminants in these solids could be released back into the water resulting in elevated levels in a consumer’s tap water. Th...

  4. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report Fiscal Year 2014 (FY14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA's National Risk Management...

  5. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report FY 2012: October 2011 – September 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA's National Risk Management...

  6. Data and spatial studies of the USGS Texas Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burley, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologists, geographers, geophysicists, and geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TXWSC) work in the USGS Water Mission Area on a diverse range of projects built on a foundation of spatial data. The TXWSC has developed sophisticated data and spatial-studies-related capabilities that are an integral part of the projects undertaken by the Center.

  7. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Manag...

  8. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mertz Jason Cardon Mike Salmon

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10{sup -3} that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  9. Effects of the proposed Prosperity Reservoir on ground water and water quality in lower Center Creek basin, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, Wayne R.; Barks, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of the proposed Prosperity Reservoir on groundwater and water quality in lower Center Creek basin, Mo., depend partly on the effectiveness of Grove Creek as a hydrologic boundary between the reservoir site and the Oronogo-Duenweg mining belt. Results of two dye traces indicate that Grove Creek probably is not an effective boundary. Therefore, higher water levels near the reservoir could cause more groundwater to move into the mining belt and cause a greater discharge of zinc-laden mine water into Center Creek. Fertilizer industry wastes discharged into Grove Creek resulted in significant increases of nitrogen and phosphorus in lower Center Creek. Results of seepage runs confirm that mine-water discharge and seepage account for the increased zinc concentrations in Center Creek during base flow. The nutrient and zinc concentrations in Center Creek, after the completion of the proposed reservoir, would depend upon the release schedule. (USGS)

  10. LOCATING MONITORING STATIONS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water undergoes changes in quality between the time it leaves the treatment plant and the time it reaches the customer's tap, making it important to select monitoring stations that will adequately monitor these changers. But because there is no uniform schedule or framework for ...

  11. Designing a knowledge management system for distributed activities: a human centered approach.

    PubMed

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables re-searchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment.

  12. Designing a Knowledge Management System for Distributed Activities: A Human Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables researchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment. PMID:14728235

  13. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  14. Distribution of dissolved silver in marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriada, J. L.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tappin, A.; Truscott, J.

    2003-04-01

    Silver is one of the most toxic heavy metals, surpassed only by mercury [1-3]. Monitoring of dissolved silver concentrations in natural waters is therefore of great importance. The determination of dissolved silver in waters is not without challenges, because of its low (picomolar) concentrations. Consequently, there are only a few reported studies in marine waters, which have been performed in USA [4-6] and Japan [7]. The analytical techniques used in the reported studies for the determination of silver in seawater were Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS) after solvent extraction [2,4,5], and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after solvent extraction or solid phase extraction [7,8]. In this contribution, we will present an optimised Magnetic Sector (MS) ICP-MS technique for the determination of dissolved silver in marine waters. The MS-ICP-MS method used anion exchange column to preconcentrate silver from saline waters, and to remove the saline matrix. The ICP-MS method has been used successfully to determine total dissolved silver in estuarine and oceanic samples. Bibliography 1. H. T. Ratte, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999, 18: p. 89-108. 2. R. T. Herrin, A. W. Andren and D. E. Armstrong, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001, 35: 1953-1958. 3. D. E. Schildkraut, P. T. Dao, J. P. Twist, A. T. Davis and K. A. Robillard, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1998, 17: 642-649. 4. E. Breuer, S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy and R. C. Aller, Estuaries. 1999, 22:603-615. 5. A. R. Flegal, S. A. Sanudowilhelmy and G. M. Scelfo, Mar. Chem. 1995, 49: 315-320. 6. S. N. Luoma, Y. B. Ho and G. W. Bryan, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1995, 31: 44-54. 7. Y. Zhang, H. Amakawa and Y. Nozaki, Mar. Chem. 2001, 75: 151-163. 8. L. Yang and R. E. Sturgeon, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2002, 17: 88-93.

  15. Final technical report for CENTER FOR ENABLING DISTRIBUTED SCIENCE (CEDS) project

    SciTech Connect

    Livny, Miron

    2004-04-10

    An overview of the main activities performed by the UW-Madison in support of the CENTER FOR ENABLING DISTRIBUTED SCIENCE (CEDS). The main contribution of the team were in the area of storage management support for GridFTP, integartion of Globus online services with Condor and using NetLogger to record events about Condor jobs.

  16. Implementation and evaluation of a virtual learning center for distributed education.

    PubMed Central

    Caton, K. A.; Hersh, W.; Williams, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    A number of tools are required to support a distributed education program. This paper will relate experiences in the development and implementation of a web-based Virtual Learning Center. Initial evaluation offers direction for further development, necessary university support, and faculty and student preparation. Images Figure 3 PMID:10566407

  17. Gasoline-Water Distribution Coefficients of Xylidines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-06-01

    sample calculated. The extinction (absorption) of light is related to the concentration of the absorbing group by the Beer - Lambert law. It was neceaaar...the use of a Beckman quartz spectrophotometer . Data obtained 1dth the spectzrograph were checzed with the spectrophotom- eter and were reproducible to...within 5 percent of the value of the distribution coefficient given, The use of the spectrophotometer greatly enhanced the speed with which the

  18. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Empowering scientists to discover, use, store, and share water data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, A. L.; Hooper, R. P.; Arrigo, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The proposed CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) will provide production-quality water data resources based upon the successful large-scale data services prototype developed by the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project. The WDC, using the HIS technology, concentrates on providing time series data collected at fixed points or on moving platforms from sensors primarily (but not exclusively) in the medium of water. The WDC's missions include providing simple and effective data discovery tools useful to researchers in a variety of water-related disciplines, and providing simple and cost-effective data publication mechanisms for projects that do not desire to run their own data servers. The WDC's activities will include: 1. Rigorous curation of the water data catalog already assembled during the CUAHSI HIS project, to ensure accuracy of records and existence of declared sources. 2. Data backup and failover services for "at risk" data sources. 3. Creation and support for ubiquitously accessible data discovery and access, web-based search and smartphone applications. 4. Partnerships with researchers to extend the state of the art in water data use. 5. Partnerships with industry to create plug-and-play data publishing from sensors, and to create domain-specific tools. The WDC will serve as a knowledge resource for researchers of water-related issues, and will interface with other data centers to make their data more accessible to water researchers. The WDC will serve as a vehicle for addressing some of the grand challenges of accessing and using water data, including: a. Cross-domain data discovery: different scientific domains refer to the same kind of water data using different terminologies, making discovery of data difficult for researchers outside the data provider's domain. b. Cross-validation of data sources: much water data comes from sources lacking rigorous quality control procedures; such sources can be compared against others with rigorous quality

  19. Optimization of Water Distribution and Water Quality by Genetic Algorithm and Nonlinear Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, M.; Tsai, F. T.; Yeh, W. W.

    2001-12-01

    When managing a regional water distribution system, it is not only important to optimize water allocation but also to meet the desired water quality requirements. This paper develops a multicommodity flow model that can be used to optimize water distribution and water quality in a regional water supply system. Waters from different sources with different quality are considered as distinct commodities, which concurrently share a single water distribution system. Volumetric water blend is used to represent water quality in the proposed model. The multicommodity model is capable of handling two-way flow pipes, as represented undirectional arcs, and the perfect mixing condition. Additionally, blending requirements are specified at certain control nodes within the water distribution system to ensure that downstream users receive the desired water quality. The developed multicommodity flow model is imbedded in a nonlinear optimization model. To reduce nonlinearity and to improve convergence, GA is combined with a gradient-based-algorithm to solve the nonlinearly constrained optimization model in that GA is used to search for the optimal direction for all undirectional arcs in the system and iteratively linked with a nonlinear programming solver. The proposed methodology was first tested and verified on a simplified hypothetical system and then applied to the regional water distribution system of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. The results obtained indicate that the optimization model can efficiently allocate waters from different sources with different quality to satisfy the blending requirements, the perfect mixing and two-way flow conditions.

  20. Overview of EPA Research on Drinking Water Distribution System Nitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from USEPA research investigating drinking water distribution system nitrification will be presented. The two research areas include: (1) monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea using Propidium Monoazide Quantitative Real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR) and (2...

  1. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types across Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWB), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological processes; yet the spatial distributions of various SWB types are often unknown. Usi...

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA INHABITING A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of chlorination and chloramination treatments on heterotrophic bacteria (HB) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) inhabiting a water distribution system simulator was investigated. Notable changes in bacterial densities were observed during this monitoring study. For e...

  3. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types in Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Using updated National Wetland Inventory data, we describe the spatial distribution o...

  4. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  5. Earth Science Data Archive and Access at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    The Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), as an integral part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), is the official source of data for several important earth remote sensing missions. These include the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) launched in August 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) launched in November 1997, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) scheduled for launch in mid 1999 as part of the EOS AM-1 instrumentation package. The data generated from these missions supports a host of users in the hydrological, land biosphere and oceanographic research and applications communities. The volume and nature of the data present unique challenges to an Earth science data archive and distribution system such as the DAAC. The DAAC system receives, archives and distributes a large number of standard data products on a daily basis, including data files that have been reprocessed with updated calibration data or improved analytical algorithms. A World Wide Web interface is provided allowing interactive data selection and automatic data subscriptions as distribution options. The DAAC also creates customized and value-added data products, which allow additional user flexibility and reduced data volume. Another significant part of our overall mission is to provide ancillary data support services and archive support for worldwide field campaigns designed to validate the results from the various satellite-derived measurements. In addition to direct data services, accompanying documentation, WWW links to related resources, support for EOSDIS data formats, and informed response to inquiries are routinely provided to users. The current GDAAC WWW search and order system is being restructured to provide users with a simplified, hierarchical access to data. Data Browsers have been developed for several data sets to aid users in ordering data. These Browsers allow users to specify

  6. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  7. A Geology-Based Estimate of Connate Water Salinity Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-XI-3 September 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Geology -Based Estimate of Connate Water Salinity...of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to document a geology -based interpolation method developed to estimate the...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Geology -Based Estimate of Connate Water Salinity Distribution 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition.

  9. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  10. Distribution of Turbidity in Australian Tropical Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    south of 11°S and within 20 to 25 n.miles of the coast of the Cape York Peninsula. Approaches to Darwin (Map 8) Secchi depths less than 5 m have been...found around the south-west corner of Bathurst Island, and in the south-east of Beagle Gulf (the gulf between Bathurst/’Melville Islands and Darwin ...Within 20 n.miles of Darwin Secchi depths as low as 2 m are common. LANDSAT satellite imagery indicates that waters are highly turbid out to

  11. Fiscal Year 1988 program report: Alaska Water Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The contents of this study includes: water problems and issues of Alaska; program goals and priorities; research project synopses are: radium levels in, and removal from, ground waters of interior alaska; assessment of stream-flow sediment transport for engineering projects; productivity within deep glacial gravels under subarctic Alaska rivers; nitrogen-cycle dynamics in a subarctic lake; and the use of peat mounds for treatment of household waste water.

  12. The distribution of water frost on Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Shriver, Scott K.

    1994-01-01

    We present high-spatial-resolution imaging observations of the Pluto-Charon system taken with ProtoCAM on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Our dataset consists of measurements from eight nights at widely separated rotational longitudes and covering five wavelengths -- standard J, H, and K, plus two special narrow band filters at 1.5 and 1.75 microns. The relative flux contributions of Pluto and Charon were extracted, when possible, by fitting a two-source Gaussian image model to the observed images. At K, we find the Charon-Pluto magnitude difference to be on average 1.8 mag, somewhat less than the value of 2.2 mag found by Bosh et al. (1992). The average differential magnitude at 1.5 and 1.75 microns is 2.0 and 1.6, respectively. The larger magnitude difference at 1.5 microns is due to a water-frost absorption band on the surface of Charon. Our observations are consistent with a surface of Charon dominated by water frost at all longitudes.

  13. The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM): The United States' Contribution to UNESCO IHP's Global Network of Water Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a "category 2 center"—i.e., one that is closely affiliated with UNESCO, but not legally part of UNESCO—dates back many decades. However, only in the last decade has the concept been fully developed. Within UNESCO, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has led the way in creating a network of regional and global water-related centers.ICIWaRM—the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management—is one member of this network. Approved by UNESCO's General Conference, the center has been operating since 2009. It was designed to fill a niche in the system for a center that was backed by an institution with on-the-ground water management experience, but that also had strong connections to academia, NGOs and other governmental agencies. Thus, ICIWaRM is hosted by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources (IWR), but established with an internal network of partner institutions. Three main factors have contributed to any success that ICIWaRM has achieved in its global work: A focus on practical science and technology which can be readily transferred. This includes the Corps' own methodologies and models for planning and water management, and those of our university and government partners. Collaboration with other UNESCO Centers on joint applied research, capacity-building and training. A network of centers needs to function as a network, and ICIWaRM has worked together with UNESCO-affiliated centers in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Japan, China, and elsewhere. Partnering with and supporting existing UNESCO-IHP programs. ICIWaRM serves as the Global Technical Secretariat for IHP's Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands (G-WADI). In addition to directly supporting IHP, work through G-WADI helps the center to frame, prioritize and integrate its activities. With the recent release of the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is clear that

  14. Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment of water transmission and distribution mains is the collection of data and information through direct and/or indirect methods, followed by analysis of the data and information, to make a determination of the current and/or future structural, water quality, an...

  15. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  16. Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

  17. Corrosion manual for internal corrosion of water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singley, J.E.; Beaudet, B.A.; Markey, P.H.

    1984-04-01

    Corrosion of distribution piping and of home plumbing and fixtures has been estimated to cost the public water supply industry more than $700 million per year. Two toxic metals that occur in tap water, almost entirely because of corrosion, are lead and cadmium. Three other metals, usually present because of corrosion, cause staining of fixtures, or metallic taste, or both. These are copper (blue stains and metallic taste), iron (red-brown stains and metallic taste), and zinc (metallic taste). Since the Safe Drinking Water Act (P.L. 93-523) makes the supplying utility responsible for the water quality at the customer's tap, it is necessary to prevent these metals from getting into the water on the way to the tap. This manual was written to give the operators of potable water treatment plants and distribution systems an understanding of the causes and control of corrosion.

  18. Biofilms from a Brazilian water distribution system include filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, V M; Oliveira, H M B; Santos, C; Paterson, R R M; Gusmão, N B; Lima, N

    2013-03-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water can block water pipes, can cause organoleptic biodeterioration, and are a source of pathogens. There are increasing reports of the involvement of the organisms in biofilms. This present study describes a sampling device that can be inserted directly into pipes within water distribution systems, allowing biofilm formation in situ. Calcofluor White M2R staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with morphological analyses using epifluorescent microscopy were used to analyse biofilms for filamentous fungi, permitting direct observation of the fungi. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was applied to detect bacteria. Filamentous fungi were detected in biofilms after 6 months on coupons exposed to raw water, decanted water and at the entrance of the water distribution system. Algae, yeast, and bacteria were also observed. The role of filamentous fungi requires further investigations.

  19. Water Reclamation Technology Development at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pickering, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Who We Are: A staff of approximately 14 BS, MS, and PhD-Level Engineers and Scientists with experience in Aerospace, Civil, Environmental, and Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Physical Science and Water Pollution Microbiology. Our Primary Objective: To develop the next generation water recovery system technologies that will support NASA's long duration missions beyond low-earth orbit.

  20. A Virtual Geophysical Network: Using Industry Standard Technology to Link Geographically Distributed Sensors and Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Crotwell, H. P.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management System has long supported distributed data centers as a method of providing scientific researchers access to data from seismological networks around the world. For nearly a decade, the NetDC system used email as the method through which users could access data centers located around the globe in a seamless fashion. More recently the IRIS DMC has partnered with the University of South Carolina to develop a new method through which a virtual data center can be created. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology is an industry standard distributed computing architecture. Traditionally used by major corporations, IRIS has developed a Data Handling Interface (DHI) system that is capable of connecting services at participating data centers (servers) to applications running on end-users computing platforms (clients). For seismology we have identified three services. 1) A network service that provides information about geophysical observatories around the world such as where the sensors exist, what types of information are recorded on the sensors, and calibration information that allows proper use of the data, 2) an event service that allows applications to access information about earthquakes and seismological events and 3) waveform services that allow users to gain access to seismograms or time series data from other geophysical sensors. Seismological Data Centers operate the servers thereby allowing a variety of client applications to directly access the information at these data centers. Currently IRIS, the U. of South Carolina, UC Berkeley, and a European Data Center (ORFEUS) have been involved in the DHI project. This talk will highlight some of the DHI enabled clients that allow geophysical information to be directly transferred to the clients. Since the data center servers appear with the same interface specification (Interface Definition Language) a client that can talk to one DHI server can talk to any DHI enabled

  1. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  2. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  3. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  4. Distribution of Fullerene Nanoparticles between Water and Solid Supported Lipid Membranes: Thermodynamics and Effects of Membrane Composition on Distribution.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yeonjeong; Katz, Lynn E; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2015-12-15

    The distribution coefficient (Klipw) of fullerene between solid supported lipid membranes (SSLMs) and water was examined using different lipid membrane compositions. Klipw of fullerene was significantly higher with a cationic lipid membrane compared to that with a zwitterionic or anionic lipid membrane, potentially due to the strong interactions between negative fullerene dispersions and positive lipid head groups. The higher Klipw for fullerene distribution to ternary lipid mixture membranes was attributed to an increase in the interfacial surface area of the lipid membrane resulting from phase separation. These results imply that lipid composition can be a critical factor that affects bioconcentration of fullerene. Distribution of fullerene into zwitterionic unsaturated lipid membranes was dominated by the entropy contribution (ΔS) and the process was endothermic (ΔH > 0). This result contrasts the partitioning thermodynamics of highly and moderately hydrophobic chemicals indicating that the lipid-water distribution mechanism of fullerene may be different from that of molecular level chemicals. Potential mechanisms for the distribution of fullerene that may explain these differences include adsorption on the lipid membrane surfaces and partitioning into the center of lipid membranes (i.e., absorption).

  5. Potential for biofilm development in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, D

    1998-12-01

    Regrowth of micro-organisms in drinking water distribution systems is caused by the utilisation of biodegradable compounds which are either present in treated water or originate from materials in contact with drinking water. In the Netherlands most drinking water is distributed without disinfectant residual and regrowth is limited by achieving biostable drinking water. A combination of methods is used to assess the biostability of drinking water. These methods are: (1) determination of the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC); and (2) assessment of the biofilm formation rate (BFR). Assimilated organic carbon concentrations in drinking water in the Netherlands range from a few μg C/l in slow sand filtrates and in ground water supplies to values of ∼ 50 μg C/l in supplies using ozonation in water treatment. Biofilm formation rate values were found to range from < 1 pg ATP/cm(2)/d in supplies using anaerobic ground water as the source. Increase of heterotrophic plate counts is limited at AOC values below 10 μg C/l. At BFR values below 10 pg ATP/cm(2)/d the risk of exceeding the guideline value for aeromonads (90 percentile < 200 c.f.u./100 ml) is less than 20%. Calculations based on the decrease of the AOC concentration observed in distributions systems confirm that very low concentrations of AOC can cause considerable biofilm formation on the pipe wall. The methods for assessing the biostability of drinking water combine with the assessment of the Biofilm Formation Potential of materials in contact with drinking water, thus providing a framework, the Unified Biofilm Approach, for evaluating the biostability of drinking water and materials.

  6. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales.

  7. Direct Imaging of the Spatial and Energy Distribution of Nucleation Centers in Ferroelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Rodriguez, Brian J; Choudhury, S; Baddorf, Arthur P; Vrejoiu, I.; Hesse, D.; Alexe, M.; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Zhang, J; Chen, L. Q.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2008-01-01

    Macroscopic ferroelectric polarization switching, similar to other first order phase transitions, is controlled by nucleation centers. Despite 50 years of extensive theoretical and experimental effort, the microstructural origins of the Landauer paradox, i.e. the experimentally observed low values of coercive fields in ferroelectrics corresponding to implausibly large nucleation activation energies, are still a mystery. In this letter, we develop an approach to visualize the nucleation centers controlling polarization switching processes with nanometer resolution, determine their spatial and energy distribution, and correlate them to local microstructure. The random bond and random field components of the disorder potential are extracted from positive and negative nucleation biases. Observation of enhanced nucleation activity at the 90 domain wall boundaries and intersections combined with phase-field modeling identifies them as a class of nucleation centers that control switching in structural-defect free materials.

  8. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio

  9. The EOSDIS Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center for physical oceanography and air-sea interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Collins, Donald J.; Nichols, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will support scientists specializing in physical oceanography and air-sea interaction. As part of the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System Version 0 the DAAC will build on existing capabilities to provide services for data product generation, archiving, distribution and management of information about data. To meet scientist's immediate needs for data, existing data sets from missions such as Seasat, Geosat, the NOAA series of satellites and the Global Positioning Satellite system will be distributed to investigators upon request. In 1992, ocean topography, wave and surface roughness data from the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter mission will be archived and distributed. New data products will be derived from Topex/Poseidon and other sensor systems based on recommendations of the science community. In 1995, ocean wind field measurements from the NASA Scatterometer will be supported by the DAAC.

  10. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    PubMed

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3) cells mL(-1) to 4.66×10(5) cells mL(-1) in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4) cells mL(-1) in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5) cells mL(-1). This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  11. KDD Services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Mack, Robert; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) processes, stores and distributes earth science data from a variety of remote sensing satellites. End users of the data range from instrument scientists to global change and climate researchers to federal agencies and foreign governments. Many of these users apply data mining techniques to large volumes of data (up to 1 TB) received from the GES DAAC. However, rapid advances in processing power are enabling increases in data processing that are outpacing tape drive performance and network capacity. As a result, the proportion of data that can be distributed to users continues to decrease. As mitigation, we are migrating more data mining and mining preparation activities into the data center in order to reduce the data volume that needs to be distributed and to offer the users a more useful and manageable product. This migration of activities faces a number of technical and human-factor challenges. As data reduction and mining algorithms are normally quite specific to the user's research needs, the user's algorithm must be integrated virtually unchanged into the archive environment. Also, the archive itself is busy with everyday data archive and distribution activities and cannot be dedicated to, or even impacted by, the mining activities. Therefore, we schedule KDD 'campaigns' (similar to reprocessing campaigns), during which we schedule a wholesale retrieval of specific data products, offering users the opportunity to extract information from the data being retrieved during the campaign.

  12. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  13. Visualization of Water Distribution in the Facial Epidermal Layers of Skin Using High-Sensitivity Near-Infrared (NIR) Imaging.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Mariko; Yanai, Motohiro; Maruyama, Nao; Fukaya, Yukitaka; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-04-01

    Skin moisturization is an important function of cosmetics in dermatology, and acquisition of two-dimensional information about the water content of facial skin is of great interest. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging using the water OH band centered near 1460 nm has been applied to the evaluation of water in skin. However, detection of small changes in the water content of skin water is difficult using this band because of the low absorption coefficient of water at that wavelength and inadequate optical units. We developed a high-sensitivity water imaging system using strong water bands centered near 1920 nm. This system can be used for the entire face. With the water imaging system, time-dependent changes in the water content of moisturizer-treated skin and hair were visualized with high sensitivity. In this study, we performed a water distribution analysis, with the aim of understanding the water distribution in facial skin under different environmental conditions. The water imaging system combines a diffuse illumination unit and an extended-range indium-gallium arsenide NIR camera with a detection range of 1100-2200 nm. The skin water distributions for multiple subjects with different facial shapes and sizes were compared using averaged NIR image data and a mesh partition analysis using a developed algorithm. Changes in the facial skin water content with season and humidity were visualized by the algorithm. The water content decreased in autumn, especially near the eyes and upper-cheek. Compared to other areas on the face, the water content around the eyes decreased more during an 85 min stay in a room at 10% relative humidity. The proposed method for water distribution analysis provides a powerful tool for facial skin hydration research in dermatological and cosmetics fields.

  14. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  15. Bacterial dynamics in the drinking water distribution system of Brussels.

    PubMed

    Niquette, P; Servais, P; Savoir, R

    2001-03-01

    Water samples and pipe coupons were collected from the Brussel's drinking water distribution system (DS). A treated surface water and various groundwaters feed this DS. Parameters related to bacterial regrowth have been measured on these samples: temperature, concentrations of free residual chlorine, concentration of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), abundance of suspended bacteria, densities of fixed bacteria and levels of bacterial activity. Results showed that groundwaters were less susceptible to favor bacterial regrowth in the DS pipes. Treated surface water and mixed waters had the highest potential of bacterial regrowth in the DS dead ends. Results also showed that the potential regrowth induced by the distribution of a treated surface water could be reduced if: (1) the BDOC levels were below 0.25 mg C/l at the outlet of the surface water treatment plant; (2) a significant free chlorine residual was present within the whole DS. Second-stage biological filtration using granular activated carbon is now under construction at the surface water treatment plant feeding a part of this DS. This treatment implementation should reduce BDOC levels and chlorine demand of the treated surface water and will further reduce the slight regrowth phenomena observed in this DS.

  16. WASH (Water and Sanitation for Health) Rainwater Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development to provide short-term technical assistance (general, technology transfer, institutional development and training, information support) to rural and urban fringe water supply and sanitation projects. Initial steps, special collection, and future components of rainwater network…

  17. Bacterial Composition in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System Utilizing Different Source Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial community structure was investigated from bulk phase water samples of multiple collection sites from two service areas within the Cincinnati drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Each area is associated with a different primary source of water (i.e., groundwat...

  18. Elevated Natural Source Water Ammonia and Nitrification in the Distribution Systems of Four Water Utilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a concern of many drinking water systems. Although chloramination as a source of nitrification (i.e., addition of excess ammonia or breakdown of chloramines) has drawn the most attention, many source waters contain signific...

  19. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks -journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  20. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  1. Influence of Water Age on Reclaimed Water Quality in Distribution Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated chemical and microbial water quality changes in two reclaimed waters as a function of residence time within distribution systems or storage time in tanks. Here we report the microbial water quality changes with particular focus on the incidence of waterborne and waterbased patho...

  2. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-03-19

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects.

  3. The Distribution of Water in a Viscous Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, F. J.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of water in the solar nebula is important to understand for a number of reasons. Firstly, in the inner regions of the solar nebula, the concentration of water vapor is expected to have played a major role in determining its oxidation state, and therefore would control which minerals would form there. Secondly, in the outer nebula, water would be a major condensable, making up nearly 50% of the mass of the solids and thus possibly playing a role in determining where giant planets formed. Lastly, liquid water is important for forming and sustaining life, and therefore understanding where and how water was transported to the habitable zone of a a star is critical to understanding how common life may be in the galaxy. Because of its importance, the distribution of water in the solar nebula has been studied by a number of authors. The main transport mechanisms which would determine the distribution of water would be diffusion and gas drag migration. Water vapor and small solids would diffuse in the nebula, moving away from areas of high concentrations. Larger bodies, while also subject to diffusion, though to a lesser extent, would experience gas drag migration, causing them to move inwards with time. The bodies most affected by this transport mechanism would be on the order of 1 meter in size. As objects continued to grow larger, their inertia would also grow, making them nearly immobile to gas drag. While efforts have been made to understand how water would be distributed in a protoplanetary disk, none of the published models simultaneously consider the effects of nebular evolution, transport of material throughout the nebula, and the existence of solids of various sizes at a given location of the nebula. We are currently developing a model which allows for these effects and is consistent with models for the accretion of bodies in the solar nebula.

  4. Bacterial communities associated with an occurrence of colored water in an urban drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui Ting; Mi, Zi Long; Zhang, Jing Xu; Chen, Chao; Xie, Shu Guang

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate bacterial community in an urban drinking water distribution system (DWDS) during an occurrence of colored water. Variation in the bacterial community diversity and structure was observed among the different waters, with the predominance of Proteobacteria. While Verrucomicrobia was also a major phylum group in colored water. Limnobacter was the major genus group in colored water, but Undibacterium predominated in normal tap water. The coexistence of Limnobacter as well as Sediminibacterium and Aquabacterium might contribute to the formation of colored water.

  5. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Mountain and Volcanic Center Distributions on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchoff, M. R.; McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P.

    2003-12-01

    Mountains and volcanic centers on Io are broadly zonally concentrated and the two distributions are anticorrelated (e.g., Schenk et al. 2001, JGR 106, 33,201-33,222). The mountains are tectonic in origin and the interplay between volcanism and tectonism is key to understanding their origin (McKinnon et al. 2001, Geology 29, 103-106; McEwen et al. 2003, in press in Jupiter - The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere). Here we extend previous analyses of these distributions beyond simple (but informative!) smoothing by means of counting circles. We initially assign equal weighting to each mountain (n = 115) and volcanic center (n = 541) in the global data sets. Spectral power analysis for the mountains shows a strong peak at l = 2 and a smaller one at l = 1, little power at l = 3, and the rest of the spectrum is "white" (flat). The volcanic center distribution shows an even stronger l = 2 peak, a modest peak at l = 1, and low spectral power for l >3. The result is that two concentrations of mountains are located at ˜ 30° N, 80° W and 30° S, 260° W, with the first being substantially larger. The two volcanic center concentrations are more nearly equatorial and quite close to the sub- and antijovian points, at ˜ 5° N, 170° W and 15° S, 345° W, again with the first being larger. We also weighted the mountains by mountain length, length x width, polygonal area (footprint), and area x height (a proxy for volume). For weighting by length, the peak at l = 1 increased slightly and the peak at l = 2 decreased, but both remained statistically significant compared with a random distribution. Power spectra of the distributions weighted by length x width or polygonal area lose much of their statistical significance at l = 1 and 2, however, due to several mountains of large areal extent outside the regions of concentration above. Nevertheless, mountain concentration positions (summing low degree terms) remain virtually the same for all weightings. Volume weighting is

  6. Dynamics of Biofilm Regrowth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Husband, S.; Loza, V.; Boxall, J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of biomass within water distribution systems is in the form of attached biofilm. This is known to be central to drinking water quality degradation following treatment, yet little understanding of the dynamics of these highly heterogeneous communities exists. This paper presents original information on such dynamics, with findings demonstrating patterns of material accumulation, seasonality, and influential factors. Rigorous flushing operations repeated over a 1-year period on an operational chlorinated system in the United Kingdom are presented here. Intensive monitoring and sampling were undertaken, including time-series turbidity and detailed microbial analysis using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results show that bacterial dynamics were influenced by differences in the supplied water and by the material remaining attached to the pipe wall following flushing. Turbidity, metals, and phosphate were the main factors correlated with the distribution of bacteria in the samples. Coupled with the lack of inhibition of biofilm development due to residual chlorine, this suggests that limiting inorganic nutrients, rather than organic carbon, might be a viable component in treatment strategies to manage biofilms. The research also showed that repeat flushing exerted beneficial selective pressure, giving another reason for flushing being a viable advantageous biofilm management option. This work advances our understanding of microbiological processes in drinking water distribution systems and helps inform strategies to optimize asset performance. IMPORTANCE This research provides novel information regarding the dynamics of biofilm formation in real drinking water distribution systems made of different materials. This new knowledge on microbiological process in water supply systems can be used to optimize the performance of the distribution network and to guarantee safe and good-quality drinking water to consumers. PMID:27208119

  7. Consistency check for radial distribution functions of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, George C.

    1986-12-01

    From a relation between the thermal compressibility and radial distribution function, it is shown that the accuracy of the generally accepted Narten and Levy's experimental radial distribution functions (RDFs) for water is very low, compared with newer experimental results. The most recent experimental RDFs obtained by Soper and Phillips not only pass the consistency check derived, but also have the best overall agreement with the simulated results of Lie and Clementi.

  8. [Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents in Brazil: geographic distribution and user profile].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Grey Yuliet Ceballos; Santos, Darci Neves; Machado, Daiane Borges

    2015-12-01

    Few Brazilian studies have addressed the use of mental health services for children and adolescents. This study aimed to characterize the national distribution of Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents (CAPSi) and describe the patient profile in this age group between 2008 and 2012. An ecological study was carried out, using records from the Authorizations for High-Complexity Procedures (APAC) system and the Brazilian National Registry of Healthcare Organizations (CNES). Socio-demographics and disease profile were analyzed. In 2014, 208 CAPSi were recorded in the CNES, distributed across 23 of Brazil's 27 states. Treatments included predominantly behavioral disorders (29.7%), developmental disorders (23.6%), and mental retardation (12.5%). CAPSi are insufficient and unequally distributed. The disease profile suggests the need for linkage between specialized mental health services and primary care, in addition to the inclusion of inter-sector work.

  9. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2010-05-01

    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  10. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively.

  11. Catchment travel time distributions and water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, A.; Beven, K. J.; Bertuzzo, E.; Nicotina, L.; Davies, J.; Fiori, A.; Russo, D.; Botter, G.

    2011-07-01

    Many details about the flow of water in soils in a hillslope are unknowable given current technologies. One way of learning about the bulk effects of water velocity distributions on hillslopes is through the use of tracers. However, this paper will demonstrate that the interpretation of tracer information needs to become more sophisticated. The paper reviews, and complements with mathematical arguments and specific examples, theory and practice of the distribution(s) of the times water particles injected through rainfall spend traveling through a catchment up to a control section (i.e., "catchment" travel times). The relevance of the work is perceived to lie in the importance of the characterization of travel time distributions as fundamental descriptors of catchment water storage, flow pathway heterogeneity, sources of water in a catchment, and the chemistry of water flows through the control section. The paper aims to correct some common misconceptions used in analyses of travel time distributions. In particular, it stresses the conceptual and practical differences between the travel time distribution conditional on a given injection time (needed for rainfall-runoff transformations) and that conditional on a given sampling time at the outlet (as provided by isotopic dating techniques or tracer measurements), jointly with the differences of both with the residence time distributions of water particles in storage within the catchment at any time. These differences are defined precisely here, either through the results of different models or theoretically by using an extension of a classic theorem of dynamic controls. Specifically, we address different model results to highlight the features of travel times seen from different assumptions, in this case, exact solutions to a lumped model and numerical solutions of the 3-D flow and transport equations in variably saturated, physically heterogeneous catchment domains. Our results stress the individual characters of the

  12. Soil water monitoring using heated distributed temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegl, A. M.; Loheide, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally, soil water measurements could only be obtained as point-in-time and point-in-space samples. These methods result in uncertainty in understanding the soil water dynamics of a site because of issues of scale, soil and vegetation spatial heterogeneity, and temporal variability of climatic conditions. Previous researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining distributed soil water content measurements using the heat pulse method with fiber optic temperature sensing. Numerical simulations of multiple proposed hybrid cable cross-sections guided the design and fabrication of a custom bundle of fiber optics, resistance heating conductors, and protective coatings for soil water monitoring. The conductors introduce a heat pulse to the surrounding soil, while temperature rise versus time is monitored with a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system using the fiber optics in the bundle. The temperature rise versus time response is related to the matric potential and water content of the soil surrounding the cable. In order to monitor the near-surface hydrology of a recently restored southwestern Wisconsin floodplain, the cable was buried at a depth of 20cm along a transect perpendicular to the Upper East Branch of the Pecatonica River near Barneveld, Wisconsin. Spatial variations of soil water can be readily observed with this technology as the cable spans various vegetation communities, soil types, and moisture conditions at this site. This new technology will help bridge the existing gaps of scale in soil water monitoring networks by providing high resolution, continuous measurements over large spatial scales.

  13. Better understanding of water quality evolution in water distribution networks using data clustering.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Pierre; Maurel, Marie; Chenu, Damien

    2015-12-15

    The complexity of water distribution networks raises challenges in managing, monitoring and understanding their behavior. This article proposes a novel methodology applying data clustering to the results of hydraulic simulation to define quality zones, i.e. zones with the same dynamic water origin. The methodology is presented on an existing Water Distribution Network; a large dataset of conductivity measurements measured by 32 probes validates the definition of the quality zones. The results show how quality zones help better understanding the network operation and how they can be used to analyze water quality events. Moreover, a statistical comparison with 158,230 conductivity measurements validates the definition of the quality zones.

  14. An empirical study on the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Conglin; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Haijuan

    The relationship among the population, economy and water resources is complex, and the contradictions and conflicts will appear and aggravate with the rapid development of economy and society in Northeast China. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, this paper depicted the static distribution characteristics of the population, economy and water resources of Northeast China in 2011. It was found that the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources was unbalanced in Northeast China. The water resources mismatched with the population and economy. The population and economy were relatively dense and developed in the southwestern part of Northeast China respectively, while the water resources was relatively scarce. However, the situations in the northern part of Northeast China were opposite to those in the southwestern part. The population-economy inconsistence indexes of the cities in northern part of Northeast China showed a significant trend of spatial aggregation and heterogeneity. The cities with lower (<1.5) and higher (>1) inconsistence indexes all faced the problem of water resources shortage. Applying geometric gravity center method and grey correlation model, the result indicated that there was relatively high spatial relevance and the relative deviation among the spatial dynamic distributions of the population, economy and water resources was large. The gravity centers of economy and per capita average annual total water resources moved westward, while the gravity center of population gravity center moved eastward in the period of 1997-2011 in Northeast China. It must be noted that, the migration trend of the economy gravity center was more significant than those of the population and water resources.

  15. Monitoring Design for Source Identification in Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of sensor networks for the purpose of monitoring for contaminants in water distribution systems is currently an active area of research. Much of the effort has been directed at the contamination detection problem and the expression of public health protection objective...

  16. Metagenomic Analysis of Water Distribution System Bacterial Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of different dis...

  17. EFFECT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SDWA and its amendments has focused interest on the factors that cause the deterioration of water between the treatment plant and the consumer. The distribution system itself can contribute to this deterioration. Numerous examples of waterborne outbreaks have demonstrated the...

  18. URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

  19. Impact of Arsenic Treatment Techniques on Distribution Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will summarize the results of the distribution water quality studies (arsenic, lead, and copper) of the demonstration program. The impact of the treatment systems by type of system (adsorptive media, coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, etc) will be shown by co...

  20. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

  1. Distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Veber, N.V.; Khisamotdinova, A.I.; Tabachova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    This paper studies the distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate, which has a comparatively low solubility in water (0.5 g in 100 ml of water), forming a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture. Butyl acetate is capable of giving a hydrogen bond at the carbonyl oxygen with hydroxyl compounds, which serves as the basis for its use as an extraction reagent. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate was studied without salting out agents, and also in the presence of sodium chloride. The experiments were conducted with model solutions of freshly redistilled furfuryl alcohol by shaking equal volumes of the phases in a separatory funnel at 18-20 C. An analysis of furfuryl alcohol in experiments without salting out was performed by a titrimetric method. The results of the distribution of furfuryl alcohol without salting out agents are presented in a table. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol in butyl acetate in the presence of sodium chloride was studied in a smaller range of concentrations.

  2. Online Toxicity Monitors (OTM) for Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution systems in the U.S. are vulnerable to episodic contamination events (both unintentional and intentional). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research to investigate the use of broad-spectrum online toxicity monitors (OTMs) in ...

  3. THE EPANET PROGRAMMER'S TOOLKIT FOR ANALYSIS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPANET Programmer's Toolkit is a collection of functions that helps simplify computer programming of water distribution network analyses. the functions can be used to read in a pipe network description file, modify selected component properties, run multiple hydraulic and wa...

  4. Monitoring Water Resources Status with Distributed Snowmelt Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artan, G.; Dwyer, J.; Verdin, J.; Budde, M.

    2005-12-01

    A large amount of the Afghanistan water supply comes from reservoirs fed by snowmelt runoff, therefore, monitoring the status of snow cover in key areas during the winter and spring is very import to the water resources and disaster management entities of the country. In this study we investigated the utility of monitoring the status of the snow over Afghanistan by employing a spatially distributed snow accumulation and ablation model forced solely with remotely sensed data, weather model assimilation fields, and globally available near-real time meteorological data. The snowmelt model we used was a spatially distributed version of the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model. A fundamental input variable that went into the model was a dynamic MODIS-based albedo. The MODIS-based snow albedo we used was an integrated 8-days running average value calculated for areas that were established to be cloud-free by the MODIS cloud mask and snow covered by the MODIS snow algorithm (Klein and Stroeve, 2002). The modeled spatial distribution of snow water equivalent provided a good early indication of the relative magnitude of the water available in spring of 2005 for irrigation. The modeled snow water maps were also useful in mapping of basins that were likely to experience a higher risk for floods after the spring snow melts.

  5. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  6. Light saturation curves show competence of the water splitting complex in inactive Photosystem II reaction centers.

    PubMed

    Nedbal, L; Gibas, C; Whitmarsh, J

    1991-12-01

    Photosystem II complexes of higher plants are structurally and functionally heterogeneous. While the only clearly defined structural difference is that Photosystem II reaction centers are served by two distinct antenna sizes, several types of functional heterogeneity have been demonstrated. Among these is the observation that in dark-adapted leaves of spinach and pea, over 30% of the Photosystem II reaction centers are unable to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol at physiologically meaningful rates. Several lines of evidence show that the impaired reaction centers are effectively inactive, because the rate of oxidation of the primary quinone acceptor, QA, is 1000 times slower than in normally active reaction centers. However, there are conflicting opinions and data over whether inactive Photosystem II complexes are capable of oxidizing water in the presence of certain artificial electron acceptors. In the present study we investigated whether inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidizing system in spinach thylakoid membranes by measuring the flash yield of water oxidation products as a function of flash intensity. At low flash energies (less that 10% saturation), selected to minimize double turnovers of reaction centers, we found that in the presence of the artificial quinone acceptor, dichlorobenzoquinone (DCBQ), the yield of proton release was enhanced 20±2% over that observed in the presence of dimethylbenzoquinone (DMBQ). We argue that the extra proton release is from the normally inactive Photosystem II reaction centers that have been activated in the presence of DCBQ, demonstrating their capacity to oxidize water in repetitive flashes, as concluded by Graan and Ort (Biochim Biophys Acta (1986) 852: 320-330). The light saturation curves indicate that the effective antenna size of inactive reaction centers is 55±12% the size of active Photosystem II centers. Comparison of the light saturation dependence of steady state oxygen evolution

  7. Non-Gaussian center-of-pressure velocity distribution during quiet stance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, E. S. D.; Picoli, S.; Deprá, P. P.; Mendes, R. S.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigate patterns in the postural sway that characterize the static balance in human beings. To measure the postural sway, sixteen healthy young subjects performed quiet stance tasks providing the center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories. From these trajectories, we obtained the COP velocities. We verified that the velocity distributions exhibit non-normal behavior and can be approximated by generalized Gaussians with fat tails. We also discuss possible implications of modeling COP velocity by using generalized Fokker-Planck equations related to Tsallis statistics and Richardson anomalous diffusion.

  8. Voltage profile program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center voltage profile program computes voltages at all busses greater than 1 Kv in the network under various conditions of load. The computation is based upon power flow principles and utilizes a Newton-Raphson iterative load flow algorithm. Power flow conditions throughout the network are also provided. The computer program is designed for both steady state and transient operation. In the steady state mode, automatic tap changing of primary distribution transformers is incorporated. Under transient conditions, such as motor starts etc., it is assumed that tap changing is not accomplished so that transformer secondary voltage is allowed to sag.

  9. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water pumping in the Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California resulted in water-level declines of about 30 feet from 1941 to 1996. Since 1992, artificial recharge from wastewater-effluent infiltration and irrigation-return flow has stabilized water levels, but there is concern that future water demands associated with expansion of the base may cause a resumption of water-level declines. To address these concerns, a ground-water flow model of the Irwin Basin was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Historical data show that ground-water-level declines in the Irwin Basin between 1941 and 1996, caused the formation of a pumping depression near the pumped wells, and that recharge from the wastewater-treatment facility and disposal area caused the formation of a recharge mound. There have been two periods of water-level recovery in the Irwin Basin since the development of ground water in this basin; these periods coincide with a period of decreased pumpage from the basin and a period of increased recharge of water imported from the Bicycle Basin beginning in 1967 and from the Langford Basin beginning in 1992. Since 1992, artificial recharge has exceeded pumpage in the Irwin Basin and has stabilized water-level declines. A two-layer ground-water flow model was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity, altitude of the bottom of the layers, vertical conductance, storage coefficient, recharge, and discharge were determined using existing geohydrologic data. Rates and distribution of recharge and discharge were determined from

  10. Distribution system water age can create premise plumbing corrosion hotspots.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Cumulative changes in chemical and biological properties associated with higher "water age" in distribution systems may impact water corrosivity and regulatory compliance with lead and copper action levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of water age and chemistry on corrosivity of various downstream premise plumbing pipe materials and configurations using a combination of controlled laboratory studies and a field survey. Examination of lead pipe, copper pipe with lead solder, and leaded brass materials in a replicated lab rig simulating premise plumbing stagnation events indicated that lead or copper release could increase as much as ∼440 % or decrease as much as 98 % relative to water treatment plant effluent. In field studies at five utilities, trends in lead and copper release were highly dependent on circumstance; for example, lead release increased with water age in 13 % of cases and decreased with water age in 33 % of conditions tested. Levels of copper in the distribution system were up to 50 % lower and as much as 30 % higher relative to levels at the treatment plant. In many cases, high-risks of elevated lead and copper did not co-occur, demonstrating that these contaminants will have to be sampled separately to identify "worst case" conditions for human exposure and monitoring.

  11. Water Distribution in the Continental and Oceanic Upper Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate tens to hundreds of ppm H2O in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Although in seemingly small amounts, this water can significantly alter chemical and physical properties of the minerals and rocks. Water in particular can modify their rheological properties and its distribution in the mantle derives from melting and metasomatic processes and lithology repartition (pyroxenite vs peridotite). These effects will be examined here using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) water analyses on minerals from mantle xenoliths from cratons, plume-influenced cratons and oceanic settings. In particular, our results on xenoliths from three different cratons will be compared. Each craton has a different water distribution and only the mantle root of Kaapvaal has evidence for dry olivine at its base. This challenges the link between olivine water content and survival of Archean cratonic mantle, and questions whether xenoliths are representative of the whole cratonic mantle. We will also present our latest data on Hawaii and Tanzanian craton xenoliths which both suggest the intriguing result that mantle lithosphere is not enriched in water when it interacts with melts from deep mantle upwellings (plumes).

  12. Predicting the Distribution of Yellowfin Tuna in Philippine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Leonardo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippines is considered as a major tuna producer in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, both for domestic consumption and on industrial scale. However, with the ever-increasing demand of growing population, it has always been a challenge to achieve sustainable fishing. The creation of satellite-derived potential fishing zone maps is a technology that has been adopted by advanced countries for almost three decades already and has led to reduction in search times by up to 40%. In this study, a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is developed to predict the distribution of the Yellowfin tuna species in seas surrounding the Philippines based on the Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) index. Level 3 gridded chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the main input parameters of the model. Chlorophyll-a is linked with the presence of phytoplankton, which indicates primary productivity and suggests potential regions of fish aggregation. Fish also prefers to stay in regions where the temperature is stable, thus the sea surface temperature fronts serve as a guide to locate concentrations of fish school. Historical monthly tuna catch data from Western and Central Pacific Commissions (WCPFC) is used to train the model. The resulting predictions are converted to potential fishing zone maps and are evaluated within and beyond the historical time range of the training data used. Diagnostic tests involving adjusted R2 value, GAM residual plots and root mean square error value are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The generated maps were able to confirm locations of known tuna fishing grounds in Mindanao and other parts of the country, as well us detect their seasonality and interannual variability. To improve the performance of the model, ancillary data such as surface winds reanalysis from National Centers for

  13. [Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan desert under saline water drip-irrigation].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xin-yuan; Zhou, Zhi-bin; Xu, Xin-wen; Lei, Jia-qiang; Lu, Jing-jing; Ma, Xue-xi; Feng, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of the soil water characteristics during four irrigating cycles of months from April to July for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan Desert under saline water drip-irrigation had been analyzed by timely measuring the soil water content in horizontal and vertical distances 60 cm and 120 cm away from the irrigating drips, respectively. Periodic spatial and temporal variations of soil water content were observed. When the precipitation effect was not considered, there were no significant differences in the characteristics of soil water among the irrigation intervals in different months, while discrepancies were obvious in the temporal and spatial changes of soil moisture content under the conditions of rainfall and non-rainfall. When it referred to the temporal changes of soil water, it was a little higher in April but a bit lower in July, and the soil water content in June was the highest among four months because some remarkable events of precipitation happened in this month. However, as a whole, the content of soil moisture was reduced as months (from April to July) went on and it took a decreasing tendency along with days (1-15 d) following a power function. Meanwhile, the characteristics of soil water content displayed three changeable stages in an irrigation interval. When it referred to the spatial distributions of soil water, the average content of soil moisture was reduced along with the horizontal distance following a linear regression function, and varied with double peaks along with the vertical distance. In addition, the spatial distribution characteristics of the soil water were not influenced by the factors of precipitation and irrigating time but the physical properties of soil.

  14. Exterior Distribution of Utility Steam, High Temperature Water (HTW), Chilled Water (CHW), Fuel Gas, and Compressed Air.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    A~r-AIIO 408 NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND ALEXANDRIA VA FIG 13/11 EXTERIOR DISTRIBUTION OF UTILITY STEAM. HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER -ETC(U...PUBUC RELEASE JOF EXTERIOR DISTRIBUTION OF O UTILITY STEAM, HIGH 0 TEMPERATURE WATER (HTW), , CHILLED WATER (CHW), FUEL GAS, AND COMPRESSED AIR DESIGN...distribution piping system for supplying utility steam, high temperature water (HTW), chilled water (CRW), cooling or condensing water, fuel gas, and

  15. Modeling of heterotrophic bacteria counts in a water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Francisque, Alex; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Sadiq, Rehan; Proulx, François

    2009-03-01

    Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) constitutes a common indicator for monitoring of microbiological water quality in distribution systems (DS). This paper aims to identify factors explaining the spatiotemporal distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and model their occurrence in the distribution system. The case under study is the DS of Quebec City, Canada. The study is based on a robust database resulting from a sampling campaign carried out in about 50 DS locations, monitored bi-weekly over a three-year period. Models for explaining and predicting HPC levels were based on both one-level and multi-level Poisson regression techniques. The latter take into account the nested structure of data, the possible spatiotemporal correlation among HPC observations and the fact that sampling points, months and/or distribution sub-systems may represent clusters. Models show that the best predictors for spatiotemporal occurrence of HPC in the DS are: free residual chlorine that has an inverse relation with the HPC levels, water temperature and water ultraviolet absorbance, both having a positive impact on HPC levels. A sensitivity analysis based on the best performing model (two-level model) allowed for the identification of seasonal-based strategies to reduce HPC levels.

  16. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive review of published information on the distribution and behavior of pesticides and their transformation products in ground water indicates that pesticides from every chemical class have been detected in ground waters of the United States. Many of these compounds are commonly present at low concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural land. Little information is available on their occurrence beneath non-agricultural land, although the intensity of their use in such areas (on lawns, golf courses, rights of way, timberlands, etc.) is often comparable to, or greater than agricultural use. Information on pesticides in ground water is not sufficient to provide either a statistically representative view of pesticide occurrence in ground water across the United States, or an indication of long-term trends or changes in the severity or extent of this contamination over the past three decades. This is largely due to wide variations in analytical detection limits, well selection procedures, and other design features among studies conducted in different areas or at different times. Past approaches have not been well suited for distinguishing "point source" from "nonpoint source" pesticide contamination. Among the variety of natural and anthropogenic factors examined, those that appear to be most strongly associated with the intensity of pesticide contamination of ground water are the depth, construction and age of the sampled wells, the amount of recharge (by precipitation or irrigation), and the depth of tillage. Approaches commonly employed for predicting pesticide distributions in the subsurface--including computer simulations, indicator solutes (e.g., nitrate or tritium), and ground-water vulnerability assessments--generally provide unreliable predictions of pesticide occurrence in ground water. Such difficulties may arise largely from a general failure to account for the preferential transport of pesticides in the subsurface. Significant

  17. Coexistence of solvated electron and benzene-centered valence anion in the negatively charged benzene-water clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhou, Lianwen; Bu, Yuxiang

    2013-01-07

    We present a combined M06 functional calculation and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of an excess electron (EE) in a microhydrated aromatic complex (modeled by benzene (Bz)-water binary clusters, Bz(H(2)O)(n)). Calculated results illustrate that Bz ring and water clusters are indeed linked through the π···HO interactions in the neutral Bz(H(2)O)(n) (n = 1-8) clusters, and the size of the water cluster does not influence the nature of its interaction with the π system for the oligo-hydrated complexes. The states and the dynamics of an EE trapped in such Bz-water clusters were also determined. All of possible localized states for the EE can be roughly classified into two types: (i) single, ring-localized states (the Bz-centered valence anions) in which an EE occupies the LUMO of the complexes originating from the LUMO (π*) of the Bz ring, and the π···HO interactions are enhanced for increase of electron density of the Bz ring. In this mode, the carbon skeleton of the Bz part is significantly deformed due to increase of electron density and nonsymmetric distribution of electron density induced by the interacting H-O bonds; (ii) solvated states, in which an EE is trapped directly as a surface state by the dangling hydrogen atoms of water molecules or as a solvated state in a mixed cavity formed by Bz and water cluster. In the latter case, Bz may also participate in capturing an EE using its C-H bonds in the side edge of the aromatic ring as a part of the cavity. In general, a small water cluster is favorable to the Bz-centered valence anion state, while a large one prefers a solvated electron state. Fluctuations and rearrangement of water molecules can sufficiently modify the relative energies of the EE states to permit facile conversion from the Bz-centered to the water cluster-centered state. This indicates that aromatic Bz can be identified as a stepping stone in electron transfer and the weak π···HO interaction plays an important role as

  18. Transmission of specific groups of bacteria through water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Grabińska-Łoniewska, Anna; Wardzyńska, Grazyna; Pajor, Elzbieta; Korsak, Dorota; Boryń, Krystyna

    2007-01-01

    Microbial contamination of a water distribution system was examined. The number and the taxonomy of non-pigmented and pigmented heterotrophic bacteria (HB), number of bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus sp., Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp., representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and C. pefringens) in the bulk water phase, biomass of zoogloeal aggregates of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and rotifers (ZABFAPR) (separated from the above on 5 microm pore size filters) and in pipe sediments was determined. An increased number of HB occurred at the sampling sites situated as close as 4.2 km to the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), and was especially significant at 10.3 km. It was shown that the main reservoir of hygienically relevant bacteria did not occur in the water phase which is monitored in routine control analyses carried out by the WTP laboratories, but in the ZABFAPR biomass not monitored so far.

  19. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  20. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Piparo, Nicoló; Razavi, Mohsen; Munro, William J.

    2017-02-01

    Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) has recently been proposed as a possible intermediate step towards the realization of quantum repeaters. Despite its relaxing some of the requirements on quantum memories, the choice of memory in relation to the layout of the setup and the protocol has a stark effect on our ability to beat existing no-memory systems. Here, we investigate the suitability of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, as quantum memories, in MA-MDI-QKD. We particularly show that moderate cavity enhancement is required for NV centers if we want to outperform no-memory QKD systems. Using system parameters mostly achievable by today's state of the art, we then anticipate some total key rate advantage in the distance range between 300 and 500 km for cavity-enhanced NV centers. Our analysis accounts for major sources of error including the dark current, the channel loss, and the decoherence of the quantum memories.

  1. Sentinel-1 Data System at the Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC) has a long history of supporting international collaborations between NASA and foreign flight agencies to promote access to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for US science research. Based on the agreement between the US and the EC, data from the Sentinel missions will be distributed by NASA through archives that mirror those established by ESA. The ASF DAAC is the designated archive and distributor for Sentinel-1 data. The data will be copied from the ESA archive to a rolling archive at the NASA Goddard center, and then pushed to a landing area at the ASF DAAC. The system at ASF DAAC will take the files as they arrive and put them through an ingest process. Ingest will populate the database with the information required to enable search and download of the data through Vertex, the ASF DAAC user interface. Metadata will be pushed to the NASA Common Metadata Repository, enabling data discovery through clients that utilize the repository. Visual metadata will be pushed to the NASA GIBS system for visualization through clients linked to that system. Data files will be archived in the DataDirect Networks (DDN) device that is the primary storage device for the ASF DAAC. A backup copy of the data will be placed in a second DDN device that serves as the disaster recovery solution for the ASF DAAC.

  2. High-resolution subsurface water-ice distributions on Mars.

    PubMed

    Bandfield, Joshua L

    2007-05-03

    Theoretical models indicate that water ice is stable in the shallow subsurface (depths of <1-2 m) of Mars at high latitudes. These models have been mainly supported by the observed presence of large concentrations of hydrogen detected by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The models and measurements are consistent with a water-ice table that steadily increases in depth with decreasing latitude. More detailed modelling has predicted that the depth at which water ice is stable can be highly variable, owing to local surface heterogeneities such as rocks and slopes, and the thermal inertia of the ground cover. Measurements have, however, been limited to the footprint (several hundred kilometres) of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite, preventing the observations from documenting more detailed water-ice distributions. Here I show that by observing the seasonal temperature response of the martian surface with the Thermal Emission Imaging System on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, it is possible to observe such heterogeneities at subkilometre scale. These observations show significant regional and local water-ice depth variability, and, in some cases, support distributions in the subsurface predicted by atmospheric exchange and vapour diffusion models. The presence of water ice where it follows the depth of stability under current climatic conditions implies an active martian water cycle that responds to orbit-driven climate cycles. Several regions also have apparent deviations from the theoretical stability level, indicating that additional factors influence the ice-table depth. The high-resolution measurements show that the depth to the water-ice table is highly variable within the potential Phoenix spacecraft landing ellipses, and is likely to be variable at scales that may be sampled by the spacecraft.

  3. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making.

  4. Heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water distribution system: a review.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2012-10-01

    The microbiological quality of drinking water in municipal water distribution systems (WDS) depends on several factors. Free residual chlorine and/or chloramines are typically used to minimize bacterial recontamination and/or regrowth in WDS. Despite such preventive measures, regrowth of heterotrophic (HPC) and opportunistic bacteria in bulk water and biofilms has yet to be controlled completely. No approach has shown complete success in eliminating biofilms or HPC bacteria from bulk water and pipe surfaces. Biofilms can provide shelter for pathogenic bacteria and protect these bacteria from disinfectants. Some HPC bacteria may be associated with aesthetic and non-life threatening diseases. Research to date has achieved important success in understanding occurrence and regrowth of bacteria in bulk water and biofilms in WDS. To achieve comprehensive understanding and to provide efficient control against bacteria regrowth, future research on bacteria regrowth dynamics and their implications is warranted. In this study, a review was performed on the literature published in this area. The findings and limitations of these papers are summarized. Occurrences of bacteria in WDS, factors affecting bacteria regrowth in bulk water and biofilms, bacteria control strategies, sources of nutrients, human health risks from bacterial exposure, modelling of bacteria regrowth and methods of bacteria sampling and detection and quantification are investigated. Advances to date are noted, and future research needs are identified. Finally, research directions are proposed to effectively control HPC and opportunistic bacteria in bulk water and biofilms in WDS.

  5. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  6. Fiscal Year 1990 program report: New Hampshire Water Resources Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestero, T.P.

    1991-08-01

    The report covers the activities of the New Hampshire Water Resource Research Center for the period July 1, 1990 through June 30, 1991. The projects include: effects of the forest land application of municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge, the analysis of how contaminants attach to lake sediments, oil spill response plans on the Piscataqua River, literature review of motor boat and personal water craft on environmental quality, performance evaluation of point-of-entry treatment units for gasoline-contaminated ground waters and automation of a portable pressure filtration system for community water supplies.

  7. Helicobacter sp. recovered from drinking water biofilm sampled from a water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Park, S R; Mackay, W G; Reid, D C

    2001-04-01

    Workers examining the transmission route(s) and reservoir(s) of infection for Helicobacter pylori have postulated several environmental reservoirs for the organism, including water. Such work has, to date, concentrated on the bulk liquid in drinking water systems rather than on biofilms. Previous investigations by the authors have suggested biofilms in water distribution systems are a possible reservoir of infection. This current study comprised of an analysis of a section of cast iron mains distribution pipe removed from an urban environment in the north-east of Scotland during routine maintenance work. Immediately upon removal of the pipe section, the interior lumen was swabbed to remove the biofilm layer. Subsequent analysis for the presence of Helicobacter DNA using a nested PCR approach produced a positive result. This data provides the first evidence for the existence of Helicobacter in biofilms found in water distribution systems anywhere in the world.

  8. The DIAS/CEOS Water Portal, distributed system using brokering architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Satoko; Sekioka, Shinichi; Kuroiwa, Kaori; Kudo, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    The DIAS/CEOS Water Portal is a one of the DIAS (Data Integration and Analysis System, http://www.editoria.u-tokyo.ac.jp/projects/dias/?locale=en_US) systems for data distribution for users including, but not limited to, scientists, decision makers and officers like river administrators. This portal has two main functions; one is to search and access data and the other is to register and share use cases which use datasets provided via this portal. This presentation focuses on the first function, to search and access data. The Portal system is distributed in the sense that, while the portal system is located in Tokyo, the data is located in archive centers which are globally distributed. For example, some in-situ data is archived at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, USA. The NWP station time series and global gridded model output data is archived at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPIM) in cooperation with the World Data Center for Climate in Hamburg, Germany. Part of satellite data is archived at DIAS storage at the University of Tokyo, Japan. This portal itself does not store data. Instead, according to requests made by users on the web page, it retrieves data from distributed data centers on-the-fly and lets them download and see rendered images/plots. Although some data centers have unique meta data format and/or data search protocols, our portal's brokering function enables users to search across various data centers at one time, like one-stop shopping. And this portal is also connected to other data brokering systems, including GEOSS DAB (Discovery and Access Broker). As a result, users can search over thousands of datasets, millions of files at one time. Our system mainly relies on the open source software GI-cat (http://essi-lab.eu/do/view/GIcat), Opensearch protocol and OPeNDAP protocol to enable the above functions. Details on how it works will be introduced during the

  9. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  10. Application of Procedures for Testing and Evaluating Water Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    patches welded *Break type: 1= break in pipe ; 2= joint leak; 3 hydrant leak; 4 other; 5 unknown.- L1 Breakage trends 17. Before analyzing the...Springfield, Va. 22161. 19. KEY WORDS (Cantlnue an rere ide if nocesary ad Identify by block number) Infrastructure Pipe network models Manometer...Pitot tube Pipe flow Water distribution 2L ASTRAC? T(Cae - ,emeatre N OMPd Identfy by block number) This report is made up of eight individual papers

  11. Soil Water Characteristics of Cores from Low- and High-Centered Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Graham, David; Moon, Ji-Won

    2016-08-22

    This dataset includes soil water characteristic curves for soil and permafrost in two representative frozen cores collected from a high-center polygon (HCP) and a low-center polygon (LCP) from the Barrow Environmental Observatory. Data include soil water content and soil water potential measured using the simple evaporation method for hydrological and biogeochemical simulations and experimental data analysis. Data can be used to generate a soil moisture characteristic curve, which can be fit to a variety of hydrological functions to infer critical parameters for soil physics. Considering the measured the soil water properties, the van Genuchten model predicted well the HCP, in contrast, the Kosugi model well fitted LCP which had more saturated condition.

  12. Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, K.A.; Willmott, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5?? ?? 0.5?? grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 8??6 cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant-extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

  13. Sampling and quantifying invertebrates from drinking water distribution mains.

    PubMed

    van Lieverloo, J Hein M; Bosboom, Dick W; Bakker, Geo L; Brouwer, Anke J; Voogt, Remko; De Roos, Josje E M

    2004-03-01

    Water utilities in the Netherlands aim at controlling the multiplication of (micro-) organisms by distributing biologically stable water through biologically stable materials. Disinfectant residuals are absent or very low. To be able to assess invertebrate abundance, methods for sampling and quantifying these animals from distribution mains were optimised and evaluated. The presented method for collecting invertebrates consists of unidirectionally flushing a mains section with a flow rate of 1 ms(-1) and filtering the flushed water in two separate flows with 500 microm and 100 microm mesh plankton gauze filters. Removal efficiency from mains was evaluated in nine experiments by collecting the invertebrates removed from the mains section by intensive cleaning immediately subsequent to sampling. Of 12 taxa distinguished, all except case-building Chironomidae larvae (2%) and Oligochaeta (30%) were removed well (51-75%). Retention of invertebrates in 100 microm filters was evaluated by filtering 39 filtrates using 30 microm filters. Except for flexible and small invertebrates such as Turbellaria (13%), Nematoda (11%) and Copepoda larvae (24%), most taxa were well retained in the 100 microm filters (53-100%). During sample processing, the method for taking sub-samples with a 10 ml pipette from the suspension of samples with high sediment concentrations was found to perform well in 75% of the samples. During a 2-year national survey in the Netherlands and consecutive investigations, the method appeared to be very suitable to assess the abundance of most invertebrate taxa in drinking water distribution systems and to be practicable for relatively inexperienced sampling and lab technicians. Although the numbers of small, less abundant or sessile taxa were not accurately assessed using the method, these taxa probably should not be the primary focus of monitoring by water utilities, as consumer complaints are not likely to be caused by these invertebrates. The accuracy of

  14. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    PubMed

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  15. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers’ taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies. PMID:28282914

  16. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  17. Corrosion behaviour and biocorrosion of galvanized steel water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, F; Tosar, F; Vitry, V

    2014-06-01

    Galvanized steel tubes are a popular mean for water distribution systems but suffer from corrosion despite their zinc or zinc alloy coatings. First, the quality of hot-dip galvanized (HDG) coatings was studied. Their microstructure, defects, and common types of corrosion were observed. It was shown that many manufactured tubes do not reach European standard (NBN EN 10240), which is the cause of several corrosion problems. The average thickness of zinc layer was found at 41μm against 55μm prescribed by the European standard. However, lack of quality, together with the usual corrosion types known for HDG steel tubes was not sufficient to explain the high corrosion rate (reaching 20μm per year versus 10μm/y for common corrosion types). Electrochemical tests were also performed to understand the corrosion behaviours occurring in galvanized steel tubes. Results have shown that the limiting step was oxygen diffusion, favouring the growth of anaerobic bacteria in steel tubes. EDS analysis was carried out on corroded coatings and has shown the presence of sulphur inside deposits, suggesting the likely bacterial activity. Therefore biocorrosion effects have been investigated. Actually sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce sulphate contained in water to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), causing the formation of metal sulphides. Although microbial corrosion is well-known in sea water, it is less investigated in supply water. Thus, an experimental water main was kept in operation for 6months. SRB were detected by BART tests in the test water main.

  18. Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Okladinikov, Igor; Prusevich, Alex; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Description and first results of the cooperative project "Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes" recently started by SCERT IMCES and ESRC UNH are reported. The project is aimed at development of hardware and software platform prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes over the areas of mutual interest and demonstration the benefits of such collaboration that complements skills and regional knowledge across the northern extratropics. In the framework of the project, innovative approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platforms of two U.S. and Russian leading institutions involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research centers focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies by international research teams. DRC under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed by the cooperating teams' information-computational systems RIMS (http://rims.unh.edu) and CLIMATE(http://climate.scert.ru/), which are widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The project includes several major directions of research (Tasks) listed below. 1. Development of architecture and defining major hardware and software components of DRC for monitoring and projecting of regional environmental changes. 2. Development of an information database and computing software suite for distributed processing and analysis of large geospatial data hosted at ESRC and IMCES SB RAS. 3. Development of geoportal, thematic web client and web services providing international research teams with an access to "cloud" computing resources at DRC; two options will be executed: access through a basic graphical web browser and

  19. Global Navigation Satellite Systems Data Handling, Archiving, Preservation, and Distribution Through the UNAVCO Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boler, F.; Stolte, C.; Riley, J.; Davis, J.; Estey, L.; Beldyk, M.

    2007-12-01

    The UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, archives for preservation and distributes freely accessible high- precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data and products to the scientific and education community. The data, which are useful for geodesy, tectonic, volcanological, ice mass, glacial isostatic adjustment, meteorological and other studies, come from 1500 continuously operating stations and 8000 survey- mode observation points around the globe that are operated by over 100 U.S. and international members of the UNAVCO Consortium. These data represent the efforts of individual investigator research projects, large networks such as the NASA Global GNSS Network, the U.S. Geological Survey southern California network, and the very large EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory that is funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. By policy, all permanent GNSS station data from UNAVCO are freely available. The Data Center archives, catalogs, and delivers millions of GNSS data products annually. The Data Center also archives for preservation and distributes spaceborne SAR data that are in many ways complementary to the GNSS data collection. SAR data holdings are being acquired in concert with the WInSAR Consortium activities and the GeoEarthScope project and are subject to data distribution restrictions. The metadata for UNAVCO's GNSS data holdings are stored in an Oracle database that supports a rich set of web-based interactions to allow data search, access, and delivery. A metadata exchange with other GNSS data archives has been in place for nearly ten years allowing participants to show each other's holdings as a seamless archive. Efforts are underway to expand and modernize this type of data and metadata exchange through webservices, Open Geospatial Consortium WFS/WMS services, and to maximize the utilization of freely available spatial display technologies such as GoogleEarth. Many users access the UNAVCO GNSS data archives through automated

  20. Assessing mechanical vulnerability in water distribution networks under multiple failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Luigi; Ugarelli, Rita; Røstum, Jon; Giustolisi, Orazio

    2014-03-01

    Understanding mechanical vulnerability of water distribution networks (WDN) is of direct relevance for water utilities since it entails two different purposes. On the one hand, it might support the identification of severe failure scenarios due to external causes (e.g., natural or intentional events) which result into the most critical consequences on WDN supply capacity. On the other hand, it aims at figure out the WDN portions which are more prone to be affected by asset disruptions. The complexity of such analysis stems from the number of possible scenarios with single and multiple simultaneous shutdowns of asset elements leading to modifications of network topology and insufficient water supply to customers. In this work, the search for the most disruptive combinations of multiple asset failure events is formulated and solved as a multiobjective optimization problem. The higher vulnerability failure scenarios are detected as those causing the lower supplied demand due to the lower number of simultaneous failures. The automatic detection of WDN topology, subsequent to the detachments of failed elements, is combined with pressure-driven analysis. The methodology is demonstrated on a real water distribution network. Results show that, besides the failures causing the detachment of reservoirs, tanks, or pumps, there are other different topological modifications which may cause severe WDN service disruptions. Such information is of direct relevance to support planning asset enhancement works and improve the preparedness to extreme events.

  1. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure high-quality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  2. Distribution of chaetognaths (Aphragmophora: Sagittidae) in Korean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Wongyu

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of chaetognaths was investigated at 10 stations in the southern part of Korean waters (line S), at six stations in the eastern part of Korean waters (line E) and at 8 stations in the western part of Korean waters (line W). Ten species were present at the stations at line S and Flaccisagitta enflata and Zonosagitta bedoti were dominant among these species. Mean densities at line S ranged from 7 inds.m-3 to 27 inds.m-3. Five chaetognath species were found at the stations at line E and Zonosagitta nagae and Parasagitta elegans were the most abundant. Mean densities ranged from 1 to 10 inds.m-3. Four chaetognath species were present at line W and Aidanosagitta crassa and chaetognath juveniles were dominant in this line. Mean densities ranged from 21 to 199 inds.m-3. The density of chaetognaths was highest at line W while the diversity of chaetognaths was highest at line S. Individuals of chaetognaths were divided into two groups, a group of line E and a mixed group of lines W and E. This study suggests that F. enflata is a warm water species; Z. nagae is a mixed water species; P. elegans is a cold water species; and A. crassa is a less saline water species. The mtCOI of F. enflata, which was a dominant species in the sampling area, was analyzed. F. enflata that are present in waters around Korean were genetically divided into two groups, which may be influenced by various oceanic factors.

  3. The level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers.

    PubMed

    Skarupskienė, Inga; Bumblytė, Inga Arūnė; Tamošaitis, Donatas; Venterienė, Jūratė; Kuzminskis, Vytautas

    2010-01-01

    The composition and quality of the dialysis fluid play an important role in the modulation of dialysis-related complications. During hemodialysis, patient's blood has a contact with dialysate through a semipermeable membrane. Bacterial endotoxins can pass through the membrane pores into the patient's blood and cause a silent chronic microinflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers. Dialysis water (n=50) and dialysate (n=50) were collected from 91% (n=50) of all hemodialysis centers. The presence of bacterial endotoxins was evaluated using a sensitive Limulus amebocyte lysate test, which detects intact lipopolysaccharides. The level of endotoxins was lower than 0.25 EU/mL in 43 (86%) dialysis water samples and in 46 (92%) dialysate samples, and complied with the recommendations of the European Pharmacopoeia and the European Best Practice Guidelines for pure dialysis fluid. The dialysate of 39 (78%) Lithuanian hemodialysis centers complied with the definition of an ultrapure dialysis fluid. The water and dialysate were of insufficient quality in 14% and in 8% of Lithuanian hemodialysis centers, respectively, and this could be improved by the establishment of routine investigation of endotoxins.

  4. From Policy to Practice: Implementation of Water Policies in Child Care Centers in Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Ann E.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child care policies may contribute to healthy beverage consumption patterns. This study documented availability and accessibility of water and correspondence with state and federal policy and accreditation standards in child care centers. Design: One-day observations were conducted in a random sample of 40 Child and Adult Care Food…

  5. Challenges of Watering Plants in Space: Water Retention and Distribution---What Have we Learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinse, Robert; Jones, Scott; Or, Dani; Tuller, Markus; Topham, T. Shane; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail

    The distribution of water controls directly or indirectly the management of water, air and nutrients in coarse-textured porous plant-growth substrates. With the motivation to involve plants in future life support systems in space, the question arises whether fluid behavior in porous substrates is altered when subjected to microgravitational accelerations. Central to unraveling this question is the water retention characteristic; an often used control parameter for managing water supply to plants in space. In order to differentiate between changes in water content, water configuration, and pore-scale restrictions, we developed experiments which allowed for distinctions in retention characteristics to be made based on measurements in parabolic flight and on the ISS. These measurements highlight an important feature of capillary dominated water configuration: the non-homogeneity of water contents with no gravity gradients remaining. We found this non-homogeneity to be dependent on whether a pore was draining or imbibing prior to the induced change. This dependence results in significant water content gradients maintained at separations of only a few pore lengths. One result of this altered distribution at the root-module scale is the abridged existence and increased length of continuous gas-filled pathways for diffusive transport. These pathways represent, in part, the hypothesized limitation for the exchange of respiratory gases, and therefore record the changes in capillary dominated processes that affect the configuration and transport of fluids in porous media.

  6. System Analysis for the Huntsville Operation Support Center, Distributed Computer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Massey, D.

    1985-01-01

    HOSC as a distributed computing system, is responsible for data acquisition and analysis during Space Shuttle operations. HOSC also provides computing services for Marshall Space Flight Center's nonmission activities. As mission and nonmission activities change, so do the support functions of HOSC change, demonstrating the need for some method of simulating activity at HOSC in various configurations. The simulation developed in this work primarily models the HYPERchannel network. The model simulates the activity of a steady state network, reporting statistics such as, transmitted bits, collision statistics, frame sequences transmitted, and average message delay. These statistics are used to evaluate such performance indicators as throughout, utilization, and delay. Thus the overall performance of the network is evaluated, as well as predicting possible overload conditions.

  7. Mass Spectrometry Data from the Biological MS Data and Software Distribution Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Gordon

    The mass spectrometry capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are primarily applied to biological research, with an emphasis on proteomics and metabolomics. Many of these cutting-edge mass spectrometry capabilities and bioinformatics methods are housed in the Department of Energy's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility operated by PNNL. These capabilities have been developed and acquired through cooperation between the EMSL national scientific user program and PNNL programmatic research. At the website of the Biological MS Data and Software Distribution Center, the following resources are made available: PNNL-developed software tools and source code, PNNL-generated raw data and processed results, links to publications that used the data and results available on this site, and tutorials and user manuals. [taken from http://omics.pnl.gov/

  8. System analysis for the Huntsville Operational Support Center distributed computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Mauldin, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a distributed computer system used to provide real time data acquisition, analysis and display during NASA space missions and to perform simulation and study activities during non-mission times. The primary purpose is to provide a HOSC system simulation model that is used to investigate the effects of various HOSC system configurations. Such a model would be valuable in planning the future growth of HOSC and in ascertaining the effects of data rate variations, update table broadcasting and smart display terminal data requirements on the HOSC HYPERchannel network system. A simulation model was developed in PASCAL and results of the simulation model for various system configuraions were obtained. A tutorial of the model is presented and the results of simulation runs are presented. Some very high data rate situations were simulated to observe the effects of the HYPERchannel switch over from contention to priority mode under high channel loading.

  9. Distributed Scheduling Architecture for Multi-Center Time-Based Metering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Steven; Farley, Todd; Foster, John; Green, Steve; Hoang, Ty; Wong, Gregory L.

    2003-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is an air traffic control automation system currently in use in seven Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) to enable time based metering to busy airports within their airspace. However, this system is limited to operation within a single ARTCC, within about a 200 nautical mile radius of the airport, and on relatively simple streams of traffic. The need for coordinated metering within a greater (300+ nautical mile) radius of an airport, on streams of traffic with significant branching, and across ARTCC boundaries, has been identified. Early tests revealed that TMA could not simply be scaled up to handle such a problem. Instead, a loosely coupled hierarchy of schedules, in which constraints from downstream schedules are passed upstream, is required. Such an architecture reduces the reliance on distant projections of arrival times, making schedules robust to changes in sequence and to additions of aircraft (such as aircraft departing inside the system s scheduling horizon). This architecture is also scaleable, easily reconfigurable, and can be networked together. As such, it can be adapted for use in any size or configuration of airspace and with any number of airports delivering restrictions. An implementation of this distributed scheduling architecture is currently undergoing testing in the TMA-Multi Center system. This paper describes the architecture and its motivation.

  10. Development of Distributed Research Center for analysis of regional climatic and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E.; Shiklomanov, A.; Okladnikov, I.; Prusevich, A.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach and first results of a collaborative project being carried out by a joint team of researchers from the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia and Earth Systems Research Center UNH, USA. Its main objective is development of a hardware and software platform prototype of a Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes in the Northern extratropical areas. The DRC should provide the specialists working in climate related sciences and decision-makers with accurate and detailed climatic characteristics for the selected area and reliable and affordable tools for their in-depth statistical analysis and studies of the effects of climate change. Within the framework of the project, new approaches to cloud processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets (big geospatial data) inherent to climate change studies are developed and deployed on technical platforms of both institutions. We discuss here the state of the art in this domain, describe web based information-computational systems developed by the partners, justify the methods chosen to reach the project goal, and briefly list the results obtained so far.

  11. Market hub technology in the domestic natural gas distribution system. [Natural gas market center or hub

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, J.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes a panel discussion held on March 18, 1992 as part of a conference entitled Market Hub Technology'' . The purpose of the conference was to stimulate dialogue among various segments of the natural gas industry on the technology limits of an economic policy issue that has the potential to significantly alter the structure and functioning of the natural gas industry. Attendees included key US gas industry representatives, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) commissioners, and others. The conference explored the concept of market centers, or hubs, and related technologies. It covered the technology currently available for the establishment of an integrated system of physical market hubs, and explored technology requirements for the further development of useful and efficient hubs. The discussion identified two primary barriers to the acceptance and implementation of a market center distribution system for natural gas. The first barrier is the potential change in the configuration of the market such a system would introduce and the resistance various industry segments would mount to such change. The second is the lack of industry standardization in the physical and business infrastructures.

  12. Water distribution in traditionally irrigated valleys under different scenarios of water availability in Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. J.; Fernald, A.; Gutierrez, K. Y.; Ochoa, C. G.; Guldan, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Population growth and water scarcity are factors that increase pressures on water resources of the semiarid southwestern United States. In these areas, groundwater recharge and delayed return flow to rivers are hydrological benefits of traditional irrigation systems. A broad spatial-temporal analysis of the dynamics of surface water and groundwater interactions is necessary to improve water planning and management. Our study at three northern New Mexico agricultural valleys with low to high water availability was carried out to characterize surface water and groundwater interactions and to quantify different water budget components. The study sites were instrumented to collect weather data, water flows from rivers and acequias, shallow groundwater level fluctuations, soil physical properties and irrigation and crop management on irrigated lands. From one crop field of our study sites, results showed up to 38 cm of water level response after the beginning of an irrigation event. Other results in our study sites, showed water level response up to 80 cm after canal flow started and ditch seepage of 12% of the total valley surface water flow. Preliminary field scale results from our three study sites showed that deep percolation from irrigation is the major component of the total water budget with 43, 46 and 52% from low, medium and high water availability sites respectively. This farm scale study revealed that, water availability drives the amount of applied water and the irrigation schedule on the farms that in turn drive deep percolation and shallow aquifer recharge. It appears that traditional irrigation is an important source of groundwater recharge in our study valleys. From the ongoing study, we expect to get detailed information about the water distribution over larger spatial scales using field measurements and geographic information systems-based land use classification.

  13. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Londquist, Clark J.

    1997-01-01

    Geohydrologic data were collected from Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center in the Mojave Desert of southern California by the U.S. Geological Survey during 199296 to deter mine the quantity and quality of ground water available in this basin. In addition to data collected from existing wells and test holes, 17 monitoring sites were constructed in Irwin Basin to provide data on subsurface geology, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Eleven of these sites were multiple-well monitoring sites that were constructed to provide depth-dependent geohydrologic data in the aquifer system. The aquifer system of Irwin Basin, defined on the basis of hydrologic data collected from wells in Irwin Basin, consists of an upper and a lower aquifer. A 1994 water-table contour map shows that a cone of depression beneath Irwin Basin well field has developed as a result of ground-water development. Water-quality samples collected from Irwin Basin wells to determine potential sources of ground-water degradation indicate that water in three areas in the basin contains high nitrate and dissolved-solids concentrations. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate that present-day precipitation is not a major source of recharge in this basin. Tritium and carbon-14 data indicate that most of the basin was recharged before 1953 and that this water may be more than 14,000 years old.

  14. Geometry-dependent distributed polarizability models for the water molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Loboda, Oleksandr; Ingrosso, Francesca; Ruiz-López, Manuel F.; Millot, Claude; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-21

    Geometry-dependent distributed polarizability models have been constructed by fits to ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with up to noniterative triple excitations in an augmented triple-zeta quality basis set for the water molecule in the field of a point charge. The investigated models include (i) charge-flow polarizabilities between chemically bonded atoms, (ii) isotropic or anisotropic dipolar polarizabilities on oxygen atom or on all atoms, and (iii) combinations of models (i) and (ii). For each model, the polarizability parameters have been optimized to reproduce the induction energy of a water molecule polarized by a point charge successively occupying a grid of points surrounding the molecule. The quality of the models is ascertained by examining their ability to reproduce these induction energies as well as the molecular dipolar and quadrupolar polarizabilities. The geometry dependence of the distributed polarizability models has been explored by changing bond lengths and HOH angle to generate 125 molecular structures (reduced to 75 symmetry-unique ones). For each considered model, the distributed polarizability components have been fitted as a function of the geometry by a Taylor expansion in monomer coordinate displacements up to the sum of powers equal to 4.

  15. Two and three-dimensional quantitative neutron imaging of the water distribution during ponded infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Jan; Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira

    2016-04-01

    sample. Tomography images were reconstructed from the both corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of water content within the sample. Without the correction the beam hardening and scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the sample perimeter and underestimated the values close to the center of the sample, however the total water content of whole sample was the same in both cases.

  16. Water Pressure Distribution on a Twin-Float Seaplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1930-01-01

    This is the second of a series of investigations to determine water pressure distribution on various types of seaplane floats and hulls, and was conducted on a twin-float seaplane. It consisted of measuring water pressures and accelerations on a TS-1 seaplane during numerous landing and taxiing maneuvers at various speeds and angles. The results show that water pressures as great as 10 lbs. per sq. in.may occur at the step in various maneuvers and that pressures of approximately the same magnitude occur at the stern and near the bow in hard pancake landings with the stern way down. At the other parts of the float the pressures are less and are usually zero or slightly negative for some distance abaft the step. A maximum negative pressure of 0.87 lb. Per square inch was measured immediately abaft the step. The maximum positive pressures have a duration of approximately one-twentieth to one-hundredth second at any given location and are distributed over a very limited area at any particular instant.

  17. Water-containing hydrogen-bonding network in the active center of channelrhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shota; Kato, Hideaki E; Taniguchi, Reiya; Iwata, Tatsuya; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-03-05

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) functions as a light-gated ion channel in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Passive transport of cations by ChR is fundamentally different from the active transport by light-driven ion pumps such as archaerhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, and halorhodopsin. These microbial rhodopsins are important tools for optogenetics, where ChR is used to activate neurons by light, while the ion pumps are used for neural silencing. Ion-transport functions by these rhodopsins strongly depend on the specific hydrogen-bonding networks containing water near the retinal chromophore. In this work, we measured protein-bound water molecules in a chimeric ChR protein of ChR1 (helices A to E) and ChR2 (helices F and G) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy at 77 K. We found that the active center of ChR possesses more water molecules (9 water vibrations) than those of other microbial (2-6 water vibrations) and animal (6-8 water vibrations) rhodopsins. We conclude that the protonated retinal Schiff base interacts with the counterion (Glu162) directly, without the intervening water molecule found in proton-pumping microbial rhodopsins. The present FTIR results and the recent X-ray structure of ChR reveal a unique hydrogen-bonding network around the active center of this light-gated ion channel.

  18. Model for determining logistic distribution center: case study of Mount Merapi eruption disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, T. J.; Wigati, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most active volcano in the earth, Mount Merapi is periodically erupted and it is considered as a natural disaster for the surrounding area. Kabupaten Sleman as one of the nearest location to this mount has to be always prepared to this disaster. The local government already set three different groups of region, in which potentially affected by Mount Merapi eruption, called KRB I, KRB II, and KRB III. Region KRB III is the closest area to the mount crater and most often affected by the eruption disaster. Whenever KRB III is affected, people live in that area usually being transfer to the next region set that is KRB II. The case presented in this paper is located at the KRB II region, which is the second closest region to the mount crater. A humanitarian distribution system has to be set in this region, since usually this region is became the location of shelters for KRB III population whenever a ‘big’ eruption is happened. A mathematical model is proposed in this paper, for determining the location of distribution center, vehicle route, and the amount of goods delivered to each customer. Some numerical illustration are presented in order to know the behavior of the proposed model.

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Mainside, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow, G.E.; Bell, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Lithologic and geophysical logs of boreholes at 29 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the Mainside of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, consists of un-consolidated sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The upper 220 feet of these sediments are divided into five hydrogeologic units, including the (1) Columbia (water-table) aquifer, (2) upper confining unit, (3) upper confined aquifer, (4) Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit, and (5) Aquia aquifer. The Columbia aquifer in the study area is a local system that is not affected by regional pumping. Ground-water recharge occurs at topographic highs in the northern part of the Mainside, and ground-water discharge occurs at topographic lows associated with adjacent surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of ground-water flow in the upper confined and Aquia aquifers is toward the southwest and southeast, respectively. A downward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers in the shallow system, and stresses on the Aquia aquifer are indicated by heads that range between 2 and 12 feet below sea level. The ratio of median horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Columbia aquifer to median vertical hydraulic con-ductivity of the upper confining unit, however, is approximately 2,600:1; therefore, under natural- flow conditions, most water in the Columbia aquifer probably discharges to adjacent surface- water bodies. The composition and distribution of major ions vary in the Columbia aquifer. In general, water samples from wells located along the inland perimeter roads of the study area have chloride or a combination of chloride and sulfate as the dominant anions, and water samples from wells located in the interior of the study area have bicarbonate or a combination of bicarbonate and sulfate as the dominant anions. Sodium and calcium were the dominant cations in most samples. Dissolved solids and four inorganic constituents are present in water from the

  20. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    SciTech Connect

    Chempath, Shaji; Pratt, Lawrence R

    2008-01-01

    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  1. Distribution System Water Quality Affects Responses of Opportunistic Pathogen Gene Markers in Household Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Masters, Sheldon; Falkinham, Joseph O; Edwards, Marc A; Pruden, Amy

    2015-07-21

    Illustrative distribution system operation and management practices shaped the occurrence and persistence of Legionella spp., nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two amoebae host (Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis) gene markers in the effluent of standardized simulated household water heaters (SWHs). The interplay between disinfectant type (chlorine or chloramine), water age (2.3-5.7 days) and materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement or iron) in upstream simulated distribution systems (SDSs) profoundly influenced levels of pathogen gene markers in corresponding SWH bulk waters. For example, Legionella spp. were 3-4 log higher in SWHs receiving water from chloraminated vs chlorinated SDSs, because of disinfectant decay from nitrification. By contrast, SWHs fed with chlorinated PVC SDS water not only harbored the lowest levels of all pathogen markers, but effluent from the chlorinated SWHs were even lower than influent levels in several instances (e.g., 2 log less Legionella spp. and NTM for PVC and 3-5 log less P. aeruginosa for cement). However, pathogen gene marker influent levels correlated positively to effluent levels in the SWHs (P < 0.05). Likewise, microbial community structures were similar between SWHs and the corresponding SDS feed waters. This study highlights the importance and challenges of distribution system management/operation to help control opportunistic pathogens.

  2. Assessment of Nitrification in Distribution Systems of Waters with Elevated Ammonia Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to monitor ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in drinking water from the distribution systems of four drinking water utilities in Illinois. A monthly drinking water distribution system water quality monitoring protocol for each water utility in Illinois h...

  3. Rapid detection of Naegleria fowleri in water distribution pipeline biofilms and drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Puzon, Geoffrey J; Lancaster, James A; Wylie, Jason T; Plumb, Iason J

    2009-09-01

    Rapid detection of pathogenic Naegleria fowler in water distribution networks is critical for water utilities. Current detection methods rely on sampling drinking water followed by culturing and molecular identification of purified strains. This culture-based method takes an extended amount of time (days), detects both nonpathogenic and pathogenic species, and does not account for N. fowleri cells associated with pipe wall biofilms. In this study, a total DNA extraction technique coupled with a real-time PCR method using primers specific for N. fowleri was developed and validated. The method readily detected N. fowleri without preculturing with the lowest detection limit for N. fowleri cells spiked in biofilm being one cell (66% detection rate) and five cells (100% detection rate). For drinking water, the detection limit was five cells (66% detection rate) and 10 cells (100% detection rate). By comparison, culture-based methods were less sensitive for detection of cells spiked into both biofilm (66% detection for <10 cells) and drinking water (0% detection for <10 cells). In mixed cultures of N. fowleri and nonpathogenic Naegleria, the method identified N. fowleri in 100% of all replicates, whereastests with the current consensus primers detected N. fowleri in only 5% of all replicates. Application of the new method to drinking water and pipe wall biofilm samples obtained from a distribution network enabled the detection of N. fowleri in under 6 h, versus 3+ daysforthe culture based method. Further, comparison of the real-time PCR data from the field samples and the standard curves enabled an approximation of N. fowleri cells in the biofilm and drinking water. The use of such a method will further aid water utilities in detecting and managing the persistence of N. fowleri in water distribution networks.

  4. First experimental-based characterization of oxygen ion beam depth dose distributions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, C.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, the application of proton and heavy-ion beams to external beam radiotherapy has rapidly increased. Due to the favourable lateral and depth dose profile, the superposition of narrow ion pencil beams may enable a highly conformal dose delivery to the tumour, with better sparing of the surrounding healthy tissue in comparison to conventional radiation therapy with photons. To fully exploit the promised clinical advantages of ion beams, an accurate planning of the patient treatments is required. The clinical treatment planning system (TPS) at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) is based on a fast performing analytical algorithm for dose calculation, relying, among others, on laterally integrated depth dose distributions (DDDs) simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Important input parameters of these simulations need to be derived from a comparison of the simulated DDDs with measurements. In this work, the first measurements of 16O ion DDDs at HIT are presented with a focus on the determined Bragg peak positions and the understanding of factors influencing the shape of the distributions. The measurements are compared to different simulation approaches aiming to reproduce the acquired data at best. A simplified geometrical model is first used to optimize important input parameters, not known a priori, in the simulations. This method is then compared to a more realistic, but also more time-consuming simulation approach better accounting for the experimental set-up and the measuring process. The results of this work contributed to a pre-clinical oxygen ion beam database, which is currently used by a research TPS for corresponding radio-biological cell experiments. A future extension to a clinical database used by the clinical TPS at HIT is foreseen. As a side effect, the performed investigations showed that the typical water equivalent calibration approach of experimental data acquired with water column systems leads to slight

  5. The inventory and distribution of water on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Terrain softening, fretted channels, debris flows, and closed depressions indicate that at least the upper 2 km of the cratered uplands at high latitudes (>30??) contain ice in amounts that exceed the porosity, estimated to be 10-20 percent. Theoretical studies, and lack of these features in the cratered uplands at low latitudes, suggest that the upper 1 km of the uplands at low latitudes is ice poor. However, valley networks indicate that water was present near the surface early in the planet's history, although in amounts smaller than at high latitudes. On the basis of these observations, the entire upper 1 km, planet-wide is estimated to have contained 75-125 meters of water at the end of heavy bombardment. From the volume of water needed to cut the circum-Chryse channels, and assuming uniform planet-wide distribution of water, the deep megaregolith is estimated to have contained at least 350 meters of water at the end of heavy bombardment, thereby giving a total minimum inventory of 425-475 meters planet-wide. Most of the water lost from the low latitude uplands by diffusion and in cutting the valley networks is now believed to be in the polar layered terrains. Most of the water involved in cutting the outflow channels is in the low-lying northern plains where a variety of features that have been attributed to ground ice is present. Since the end of heavy bombardment, a large fraction of the planet's surface has been overplated with water-poor volcanics, of which we have samples in the SNC meteorites. The younger volcanics have reacted extensively with the old volatile-rich basement. Part of the 10-20 bars of CO2 and 0.1 to 0.3 bars of N2 outgassed with the water was lost during heavy bombardment by impact erosion of the atmosphere and other processes. The remaining was fixed carbonates and nitrates and folded deep into the megaregolith during heavy bombardment. ?? 1987.

  6. Distribution of guidance models for cardiac resynchronization therapy in the setting of multi-center clinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajchl, Martin; Abhari, Kamyar; Stirrat, John; Ukwatta, Eranga; Cantor, Diego; Li, Feng P.; Peters, Terry M.; White, James A.

    2014-03-01

    Multi-center trials provide the unique ability to investigate novel techniques across a range of geographical sites with sufficient statistical power, the inclusion of multiple operators determining feasibility under a wider array of clinical environments and work-flows. For this purpose, we introduce a new means of distributing pre-procedural cardiac models for image-guided interventions across a large scale multi-center trial. In this method, a single core facility is responsible for image processing, employing a novel web-based interface for model visualization and distribution. The requirements for such an interface, being WebGL-based, are minimal and well within the realms of accessibility for participating centers. We then demonstrate the accuracy of our approach using a single-center pacemaker lead implantation trial with generic planning models.

  7. Signatures of present and past melt distribution along fast and intermediate spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanovic, Milena

    The work presented in this dissertation depicts past and present signatures of melt distribution at fast and intermediate spreading centers. The primary goal of the studies included in this thesis is to provide better understanding of melt distribution and variation in melt physical properties within and at the base of oceanic crust formed at these spreading centers. Furthermore, this work examines effects that melt presence might have on formation and structural characteristics of oceanic crust. To explore the above we use geophysical data collected during two expeditions conducted along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (intermediate) and the East Pacific Rise (fast). The major part of the thesis is based on the work conducted on high resolution reflection seismic data that investigate present day intracrustal melt distribution along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis extending between 8°20' and 10°10'N. Here, the character of the melt reservoir is examined from different aspects and by using different seismic data analysis methods. By systematic analysis of the seismic reflection data, we show that the axial melt lens (AML) is segmented at different segment scales. Locations of the mapped disruptions in the AML correspond to previously identified tectonic discontinuities well expressed in the seafloor bathymetry. The above result corroborates genetic relationship between tectonic and magmatic segmentation. To examine melt distribution along the EPR, here for the first time we use amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) crossplotting technique that was developed by oil and gas industry experts to look for presence of hydrocarbons. Further data examination for the first time for the mid-ocean ridges show presence of deeper lenses (lenses that are present below the AML). Presence of gaps in these sub-events and their collocation with what is believed to be the location of origin of the last documented eruption occurred in 2005--06, may shed light on the mechanisms

  8. IMPACT ON WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM BIOFILM DENSITIES FROM REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE TREATMENT OF SUPPLY WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of potable water is such that the concentration of nutrients available for growth of microorganisms within distribution systems is limited. In such systems carbon is often the growth limiting nutrient. Research conducted in the Netherlands has indicated that low level...

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collec...

  10. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  11. A Single-Center Review of Radiologically Diagnosed Maxillofacial Fractures: Etiology and Distribution.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Jordan N; Hoppe, Ian C; Granick, Mark S; Lee, Edward S

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton varies among studies, with motor vehicle accidents and assaults oftentimes the most common. The number of males outnumbers females throughout most studies. Fractures of the zygoma, orbit, and mandible are usually cited as most common fracture types. This study examines a single center's experience with regards to etiology and distribution of fractures. A retrospective review of all radiologically confirmed facial fractures in a level 1 trauma center in an urban environment was performed for the years 2000 to 2012. Patient demographics, etiology of injury, and location of fractures were collected. During this time period, 2,998 patients were identified as having sustained a fracture of the facial skeleton. The average age was 36.9 years, with a strong male predominance (81.5%). The most common etiologies of injury were assault (44.9%) and motor vehicle accidents (14.9%). Throughout the study period, the number of fractures as a result of assault remained relatively constant, whereas the number as a result of motor vehicle accidents decreased slightly. The most common fracture observed was of the orbit, followed by mandible, nasal bones, zygoma, and frontal sinus. Patients sustaining a fracture as a result of assault were more likely to have a mandible fracture. Patients in motor vehicle accidents were more likely to suffer fractures of the maxilla, orbit, and frontal sinus. Mandible fractures are more common in cases of assault. Motor vehicle accidents convey a large force, which, when directed at the craniofacial skeleton, can cause a variety of fracture patterns. The decreasing number of fractures as a result of motor vehicle accidents may represent improved safety devices such as airbags.

  12. A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

  13. Methane Distribution In Plumes Of The South Mariana Back-arc Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, T.; Hirota, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nakamura, K.; Noguchi, T.; Taira, N.; Oomori, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Utsumi, M.

    2004-12-01

    In the South Mariana Back-arc Spreading Center, two methane plumes were observed in water column based on analysis of methane in seawater samples collected during the R/V Thompson expeditions in 2003 around water depth of 2,700 m over the Fryer site on the ridge-axis seamount (12\\deg57.22N, 143\\deg37.16E, depth: 2,850 m). The estimated end-member isotopic compositions of methane in the two plumes are \\delta13C_{CH4} = -5‰ PDB and -50‰ PDB. These values indicated that the two plumes were originated from the different sources. During YK03-09 cruise using the submersible Shinkai 6500 from October to November in 2003, detailed seafloor observation discovered sulfide chimneys emitting black and clear hydrothermal fluid on the off-axis seamount at Pika site (12°55.15N, 143°36.96E, depth: 2,773 m). The result of analysis of isotopic composition of methane in the hydrothermal fluids recovered from the off-axis hydrothermal vents using WHATS (Water and Hydrothermal Atsuryoku Tight Sampler) was averaged value of -4‰ PDB (standard deviation = 1‰ PDB, n = 3). Hydrothermal fluids from the Fryer site were also sampled and were measured: average value = -6.7‰ PDB, standard deviation = 0.3‰ PDB, n = 3. During the R/V Thompson expeditions in March 2004 using ROV ROPOS, 11 ROPOS dives and CTD-RMS plume surveys were conducted, and newly discovered a huge hydrothermal structure with active fluid venting at Achaean site on the ridge skirt (12°56.37N, 143°37.92E, depth: 2,990 m). The δ ^{13}C_{CH4} value of the fluid sample from the site using ROCS (Rotary Clean Seawater sampler) was -14.7‰ PDB. Analysis of isotopic composition of methane in the plume samples collected using the CTD-hydrocast at water depth of 2,500 m over the Archaean site showed -45‰ PDB. Source of methane (δ ^{13}C_{CH4} = -50‰ PDB), however, in the two plumes of the South Mariana Back-arc Spreading Center has been missing. The δ ^{13}C of methane cannot be considered in sediment

  14. Streamflow, groundwater, and water-quality monitoring by USGS Nevada Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gipson, Marsha L.; Schmidt, Kurtiss

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity and quality of our Nation's streams and aquifers since its inception in 1879. Today, the USGS provides hydrologic information to aid in the evaluation of the availability and suitability of water for public and domestic supply, agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, mining, and energy development. Although the USGS has no responsibility for the regulation of water resources, the USGS hydrologic data complement much of the data collected by state, county, and municipal agencies, tribal nations, U.S. District Court Water Masters, and other federal agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency, which focuses on monitoring for regulatory compliance. The USGS continues its mission to provide timely and relevant water-resources data and information that are available to water-resource managers, non-profit organizations, industry, academia, and the public. Data collected by the USGS provide the science needed for informed decision-making related to resource management and restoration, assessment of flood and drought hazards, ecosystem health, and effects on water resources from land-use changes.

  15. Automatic generation of water distribution systems based on GIS data.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    In the field of water distribution system (WDS) analysis, case study research is needed for testing or benchmarking optimisation strategies and newly developed software. However, data availability for the investigation of real cases is limited due to time and cost needed for data collection and model setup. We present a new algorithm that addresses this problem by generating WDSs from GIS using population density, housing density and elevation as input data. We show that the resulting WDSs are comparable to actual systems in terms of network properties and hydraulic performance. For example, comparing the pressure heads for an actual and a generated WDS results in pressure head differences of ±4 m or less for 75% of the supply area. Although elements like valves and pumps are not included, the new methodology can provide water distribution systems of varying levels of complexity (e.g., network layouts, connectivity, etc.) to allow testing design/optimisation algorithms on a large number of networks. The new approach can be used to estimate the construction costs of planned WDSs aimed at addressing population growth or at comparisons of different expansion strategies in growth corridors.

  16. Bacteriological challenges to asbestos cement water distribution pipelines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dunling; Cullimore, D Roy

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos cement (AC) pipes were commonly installed in the drinking water distribution systems from the mid 1920s to the late 1980s. In recent years, an increase in the number of water main breaks has occurred in the AC portions of some pipe networks, which can be partially attributed to the corrosion of the aged pipes. This study evaluated the potential role that microorganisms may have played in the degeneration and failure of AC pipes. In this study, a fresh AC pipe section was collected from the distribution network of the City of Regina, Canada and examined for microbiological activities and growth on inside surfaces of pipe sample. Black slime bacterial growths were found to be attached to inner pipe surfaces and a distinctively fibrous internal coating (patina) with iron oxides was formed over the time. The microbial populations inside the patina and the black slime were tested with BART testers. Heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB) and slime forming bacteria (SLYM) dominated in both the black growths and inside the patina. Iron related bacteria, denitrification bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria were also commonly present. Microbial challenge assays were conducted by submerging the cut segments of the AC pipe into selected bacterial cultures for a period of 10 days under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Weight changes were determined and the surface morphology was examined for each of the assayed pipe segments. Results indicated that acid producing bacteria, SLYM and HAB could facilitate the pipe weight loss under anaerobicenvironments.

  17. Using ant colony optimization on the quadratic assignment problem to achieve low energy cost in geo-distributed data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, Richard

    There are many problems associated with operating a data center. Some of these problems include data security, system performance, increasing infrastructure complexity, increasing storage utilization, keeping up with data growth, and increasing energy costs. Energy cost differs by location, and at most locations fluctuates over time. The rising cost of energy makes it harder for data centers to function properly and provide a good quality of service. With reduced energy cost, data centers will have longer lasting servers/equipment, higher availability of resources, better quality of service, a greener environment, and reduced service and software costs for consumers. Some of the ways that data centers have tried to using to reduce energy costs include dynamically switching on and off servers based on the number of users and some predefined conditions, the use of environmental monitoring sensors, and the use of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which enables processors to run at different combinations of frequencies with voltages to reduce energy cost. This thesis presents another method by which energy cost at data centers could be reduced. This method involves the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) on a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in assigning user request to servers in geo-distributed data centers. In this paper, an effort to reduce data center energy cost involves the use of front portals, which handle users' requests, were used as ants to find cost effective ways to assign users requests to a server in heterogeneous geo-distributed data centers. The simulation results indicate that the ACO for Optimal Server Activation and Task Placement algorithm reduces energy cost on a small and large number of users' requests in a geo-distributed data center and its performance increases as the input data grows. In a simulation with 3 geo-distributed data centers, and user's resource request ranging from 25,000 to 25,000,000, the ACO algorithm was able

  18. Kinematic mapping reveals different spatial distributions of center of pressure high-speed regions under somatosensory loss.

    PubMed

    Portela, Fellipe M; Ferreira, Arthur S

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of center-of-pressure speed during postural tasks and its changes due to somatosensory constraint (temporary ischemic hypoxia on ankle/feet) were investigated in young, healthy subjects (n = 13). A single high-speed region in the central region of the statokinesigram was observed during postural tasks with full sensory information. A significant increase in the quantity of high-speed regions was observed during ischemia and somatosensory constraint, whereas a significant increase in the quantity of high-speed regions localized more distant to the center of center-of-pressure area occurred under somatosensory constraints, suggesting a redirection of center-of-pressure trajectory to adjust the position of the center of mass with respect to the egocentric reference of balance.

  19. Correlation between fish distribution and water qualities in the Kaname river, Japan: application of multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsumi, M.; terada, K.; Tajima, F.; Kitano, T.

    2012-12-01

    In order to find physical and chemical environment factors which relate to the fish fauna distribution, we investigated the temporal and spatial change of water qualities and fish distributions in Kaname river, Japan. We investigated the fish distribution, physical water parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a and turbidity) and chemical water parameters (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphoric and suspended solids). We conducted the multivariate analyses using these observational data and discussed the relationship between water environment parameters and fish habitat distribution.

  20. Evaluation of a distributed catchment scale water balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.

  1. Water Vapour Abundance and Distribution in the Lower Venusian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, S.; Bailey, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present ground-based observations and modelling studies of water vapour abundance and distribution in the Venusian lower atmosphere through analysis of absorption band depths within the 1.18 μm window. The lower atmosphere of Venus is difficult to study by both in situ and remote instruments. This is due to the planet wide cloud cover that obscures visual wavelengths and surface pressures approaching 100 times that of the Earth. In 1984 ground based observations resulted in the discovery of atmospheric windows on the Venusian nightside (Allen and Crawford, 1984). Here, near infrared radiation originating at the surface and lower atmosphere, pass relatively unimpeded through the Venus clouds. This discovery enabled remote studies of the Venusian subcloud region. Determining the abundance and distribution of water vapour is key to understanding the development, maintenance and links between major radiative and dynamical features of the Venus atmosphere. Water vapour in the lower atmosphere plays an important role in heat transfer and is pertinent to the runaway greenhouse effect and dynamical superrotation observed on Venus. Detailed studies of water vapour abundance and distribution throughout the lower atmosphere of Venus are therefore needed in order to develop accurate chemical, radiative and dynamical models. Ground-based spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopic observations of the Venusian nightside have been obtained from Siding Spring Observatory at each inferior conjunction since 2002. Observations have been made using the IRIS2 instrument on the Anglo-Australian Telescope and CASPIR on the 2.3m ANU telescope. The model VSTAR (Bailey and Kedziora-Chudczer 2012) is used to simulate the observed Venus spectra as seen through the Earth's atmosphere and best fit water vapour abundances are found for approximately 300 locations across the Venus nightside disk. Recent improvements in ground-based near-infrared instruments allow a substantial improvement

  2. Factors controlling the regional distribution of vanadium in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although the ingestion of vanadium (V) in drinking water may have possible adverse health effects, there have been relatively few studies of V in groundwater. Given the importance of groundwater as a source of drinking water in many areas of the world, this study examines the potential sources and geochemical processes that control the distribution of V in groundwater on a regional scale. Potential sources of V to groundwater include dissolution of V rich rocks, and waste streams from industrial processes. Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical transformations control V concentrations in groundwater. Based on thermodynamic data and laboratory studies, V concentrations are expected to be highest in samples collected from oxic and alkaline groundwater. However, the extent to which thermodynamic data and laboratory results apply to the actual distribution of V in groundwater is not well understood. More than 8400 groundwater samples collected in California were used in this study. Of these samples, high (> or = 50 μg/L) and moderate (25 to 49 μg/L) V concentrations were most frequently detected in regions where both source rock and favorable geochemical conditions occurred. The distribution of V concentrations in groundwater samples suggests that significant sources of V are mafic and andesitic rock. Anthropogenic activities do not appear to be a significant contributor of V to groundwater in this study. High V concentrations in groundwater samples analyzed in this study were almost always associated with oxic and alkaline groundwater conditions, which is consistent with predictions based on thermodynamic data.

  3. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  4. Strategic plan for science-U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio Water Science Center, 2010-15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This Science Plan identifies specific scientific and technical programmatic issues of current importance to Ohio and the Nation. An examination of those issues yielded a set of five major focus areas with associated science goals and strategies that the Ohio Water Science Center will emphasize in its program during 2010-15. A primary goal of the Science Plan is to establish a relevant multidisciplinary scientific and technical program that generates high-quality products that meet or exceed the expectations of our partners while supporting the goals and initiatives of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Science Plan will be used to set the direction of new and existing programs and will influence future training and hiring decisions by the Ohio Water Science Center.

  5. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, V P; Snead, M C; Krusé, C W; Kawata, K

    1986-11-01

    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants--free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide--when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic pipe were added for circulation. The levels of residual disinfectants tested were 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L as available chlorine. In the absence of a disinfectant residual, microorganisms in the sewage contaminant were consistently recovered at high levels. The presence of any disinfectant residual reduced the microorganism level and frequency of occurrence at the consumer's tap. Free chlorine was the most effective residual disinfectant and may serve as a marker or flag in the distribution network. Free chlorine and chlorine dioxide were the least stable in the pipe network. The loss of disinfectant in the pipe network followed first-order kinetics. The half-life determined in static tests for free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and combined chlorine was 140, 93, and 1680 min.

  6. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Olivieri, V.P.; Snead, M.C.; Kruse, C.W.; Kawata, K.

    1986-11-01

    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants - free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide - when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic pipe were added for circulation. The levels of residual disinfectants tested were 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L as available chlorine. In the absence of a disinfectant residual, microorganisms in the sewage contaminant were consistently recovered at high levels. The presence of any disinfectant residual reduced the microorganism level and frequency of occurrence at the consumer's tap. Free chlorine was the most effective residual disinfectant and may serve as a marker or flag in the distribution network. Free chlorine and chlorine dioxide were the least stable in the pipe network. The loss of disinfectant in the pipe network followed first-order kinetics. The half-life determined in static tests for free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and combined chlorine was 140, 93, and 1680 min.

  7. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-02-01

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Water quality models developed so far apply spatial aggregation and temporal averaging techniques for hydraulic parameters by assigning hourly averaged water demands to the main nodes of the network. Although this practice has generally resulted in minimal loss of accuracy for the predicted disinfectant concentrations in main water transmission lines, this is not the case for the peripheries of the distribution network. This study proposes a new approach for simulating disinfectant residuals in dead end pipes while accounting for both spatial and temporal variability in hydraulic and transport parameters. A stochastic demand generator was developed to represent residential water pulses based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Dispersive solute transport was considered using highly dynamic dispersion rates. A genetic algorithm was used to calibrate the axial hydraulic profile of the dead-end pipe based on the different demand shares of the withdrawal nodes. A parametric sensitivity analysis was done to assess the model performance under variation of different simulation parameters. A group of Monte-Carlo ensembles was carried out to investigate the influence of spatial and temporal variations in flow demands on the simulation accuracy. A set of three correction factors were analytically derived to adjust residence time, dispersion rate and wall demand to overcome simulation error caused by spatial aggregation approximation. The current model results show better agreement with field-measured concentrations of conservative fluoride tracer and free chlorine disinfectant than the simulations of recent advection dispersion reaction models published in the literature. Accuracy of the simulated

  8. Water quality in the proposed Prosperity Reservoir area, Center Creek Basin, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, James H.; Berkas, Wayne R.

    1979-01-01

    Water in Center Creek basin, Mo., upstream from the proposed Prosperity Reservoir damsite is a calcium bicarbonate type that is moderately mineralized, hard, and slightly alkaline. Ammonia and organic nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and bacteria increased considerably during storm runoff, probably due to livestock wastes. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are probably high enough to cause the proposed lake to be eutrophic. Minor-element concentrations were at or near normal levels in Center and Jones Creeks. The only pesticides detected were 0.01 micrograms per liter of 2, 4, 5-T in one base-flow sample and 0.02 to 0.04 micrograms per liter of 2, 4, 5-T and 2, 4-D in all storm-runoff samples. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus densities ranged from 2 to 650 and 2 to 550 colonies per 100 milliliters, respectively, during base flow , but were 17,000 to 45,000 and 27,000 to 70,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, respectively, during storm runoff. Water in Center Creek about 2.5 miles downstream from the proposed damsite is similar in quality to that upstream from the damsite except for higher concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, nitrogen, and phosphorus. These higher concentrations are caused by fertilizer industry wastes that enter Center Creek about 1.0 mile downstream from the proposed damsite. (Woodard-USGS).

  9. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, James; LoVullo, David; Kandt, Alicen

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  10. Electron impact ionization of liquid and gaseous water: a single-center partial-wave approach.

    PubMed

    Champion, C

    2010-01-07

    In this work, we report a unified methodology to express the molecular wavefunctions of water in both vapor and liquid phases by means of a single-center approach. These latter are then used as input data in a theoretical treatment--previously published and successfully tested--for describing the water ionization process in the first Born approximation (Champion et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 012717). The multi-differential and total cross sections also obtained are reported for the two thermodynamical phases investigated and compared to the rare existing experimental and theoretical data.

  11. Testing contamination source identification methods for water distribution networks

    DOE PAGES

    Seth, Arpan; Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John D.; ...

    2016-04-01

    In the event of contamination in a water distribution network (WDN), source identification (SI) methods that analyze sensor data can be used to identify the source location(s). Knowledge of the source location and characteristics are important to inform contamination control and cleanup operations. Various SI strategies that have been developed by researchers differ in their underlying assumptions and solution techniques. The following manuscript presents a systematic procedure for testing and evaluating SI methods. The performance of these SI methods is affected by various factors including the size of WDN model, measurement error, modeling error, time and number of contaminant injections,more » and time and number of measurements. This paper includes test cases that vary these factors and evaluates three SI methods on the basis of accuracy and specificity. The tests are used to review and compare these different SI methods, highlighting their strengths in handling various identification scenarios. These SI methods and a testing framework that includes the test cases and analysis tools presented in this paper have been integrated into EPA’s Water Security Toolkit (WST), a suite of software tools to help researchers and others in the water industry evaluate and plan various response strategies in case of a contamination incident. Lastly, a set of recommendations are made for users to consider when working with different categories of SI methods.« less

  12. Testing contamination source identification methods for water distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Arpan; Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John D.; Haxton, Terranna; Laird, Carl D.

    2016-04-01

    In the event of contamination in a water distribution network (WDN), source identification (SI) methods that analyze sensor data can be used to identify the source location(s). Knowledge of the source location and characteristics are important to inform contamination control and cleanup operations. Various SI strategies that have been developed by researchers differ in their underlying assumptions and solution techniques. The following manuscript presents a systematic procedure for testing and evaluating SI methods. The performance of these SI methods is affected by various factors including the size of WDN model, measurement error, modeling error, time and number of contaminant injections, and time and number of measurements. This paper includes test cases that vary these factors and evaluates three SI methods on the basis of accuracy and specificity. The tests are used to review and compare these different SI methods, highlighting their strengths in handling various identification scenarios. These SI methods and a testing framework that includes the test cases and analysis tools presented in this paper have been integrated into EPA’s Water Security Toolkit (WST), a suite of software tools to help researchers and others in the water industry evaluate and plan various response strategies in case of a contamination incident. Lastly, a set of recommendations are made for users to consider when working with different categories of SI methods.

  13. Abundance and distribution of Legionellaceae in Puerto Rican waters.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Roque, C M; Hazen, T C

    1987-01-01

    Waters in marine and freshwater areas of Puerto Rico were analyzed for the presence of Legionella spp. by direct fluorescent antibody assay with guinea pig confirmation. Several species, including L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. longbeachae, L. micdadei, and L. pneumophila, were widely distributed among all sites. Legionellaceae, including L. pneumophila, were found in high densities in water collected in the rain forest from epiphytes in trees 30 ft. (about 9.25 m) above the ground. Both interspecific and intersite variations were significant. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species at all sites, with average densities of 10(4) cells ml-1, very close to the range which is potentially pathogenic for humans. Densities of L. pneumophila were highest in sewage-contaminated coastal waters. These are the highest densities of Legionella spp. ever reported for marine habitats. Densities of L. pneumophila were positively correlated with concentrations of sulfates, phosphates, and pH. A survey of 88 fatal atypical pneumonia cases at a Puerto Rico hospital showed that 15% of the patients had L. pneumophila infections. This study establishes L. pneumophila as a relatively common cause of atypical pneumonia in Puerto Rico and suggests natural aquatic habitats as possible sources or reservoirs of pathogenic Legionella spp. in the tropics. Images PMID:3314710

  14. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-22

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. Because MSFC was built in the 1960s, most of the buildings house outdated, inefficient restroom fixtures. The facility engineering team at MSFC developed an innovative efficiency model for replacing these older toilets and urinals.

  15. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  16. Nitric and nitrous oxide emissions and soil nitrate distribution in a center-pivot-irrigated cornfield

    SciTech Connect

    Guenzi, W.D.; Hutchinson, G.L.; Beard, W.E.

    1994-05-01

    Research on soil N loss mechanisms remains a high priority not only because of the need to increase agricultural N use efficiency, but also because of environmental concerns such as NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination of groundwater and increasing N oxide concentrations in the atmosphere. We measured NO and N{sub 2}O emissions and downward movement of NO{sub 3}{sup -} in an eastern Colorado corn (Zea mays L.) field irrigated with a modified center-pivot system that applied water to alternate furrows. One hour after infiltration of the irrigation water, emission rates measured by an enclosure method ranged from 0 to 6 g N ha{sup -1} d{sup -1}for NO and 0 to 26 g N ha{sup -1} d{sup -1} for N{sub 2}O. The emission rates wine largest after the first irrigation and much smaller following subsequent irrigations. Greater N oxide evolution from nonirrigated furrows than adjacent irrigated furrows probably resulted from lateral transport of gases produced in the wet soil. Analyses of soil cores taken after planting and after harvest provided no evidence that NO{sub 3}{sup -} moved below the root zone during the growing season, despite the presence of substantially more inorganic N than required for maximum corn yield. These data suggest that when the size and frequency of irrigations are efficiently managed, use of a low energy precision application (LEPA) irrigation system results in no loss to groundwater and no economically significant gaseous N oxide loss to the atmosphere. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Environmental Data from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) is a NASA-sponsored source for biogeochemical and ecological data and models useful in environmental research. Data have been collected on the ground, by aircraft, by satellite, and from computer models. The extent of data and model products ranges from site specific to global, and durations range from days to years. Data products and models are free, but users must typically register. Major field campaigns with available data include: • The Boreal Ecosystem - Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) • The First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) Project) • The Large-Scale Biosphere - Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) • The North American Carbon Program (NACP) • Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project • The SAFARI 2000 (S2K) Project in Africa • Superior National Forest(SNF)Project Validation projects with available data include: • BigFoot • The Accelerated Canopy Chemistry Program (ACCP) • The EOS Land Validation Project • FLUXNET • MODIS • The Prototype Validation Exercise (PROVE) The ORNL DAAC also provides access to data for many regional and global projects and to a model archive. (Specialized Interface)(Registration Required)

  18. Characterization of anthropogenic impacts in a large urban center by examining the spatial distribution of halogenated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane, bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane (DP) and hexabromobenzene. The sum concentrations of HFRs and PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.66-6500 and 0.37-5700 (mean: 290 and 250) ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively, around the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant compound likely due to the huge amounts of usage and its persistence. The concentrations of HFRs were greater in the land-use types of residency, industry and landfill than in agriculture, forestry and drinking water source, and were also greater in the central PRD than in its surrounding areas. The concentrations of HFRs were moderately significantly (r(2) = 0.32-0.57; p < 0.05) correlated with urbanization levels, population densities and gross domestic productions in fifteen administrative districts. The spatial distribution of DP isomers appeared to be stereoselective as indicated by the similarity in the spatial patterns for the ratio of anti-DP versus the sum of DP isomers (fanti-DP) and DP concentrations. Finally, the concentrations of HFRs sharply decreased with increasing distance from an e-waste recycling site, indicating that e-waste derived HFRs largely remained in local soil.

  19. Evaluation of Current Water Treatment and Distribution System Optimization to Provide Safe Drinking Water from Various Source Water Types and Conditions (Deliverable 5.2.C.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are being challenged by changes in the quality of their source waters and by their aging treatment and distribution system infrastructure. Individually or in combination, factors such as shrinking water and financial resources...

  20. Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

  1. Joint physical and numerical modeling of water distribution networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Adam; O'Hern, Timothy John; Orear, Leslie Jr.; Kajder, Karen C.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Wright, Jerome L.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Chwirka, J. Benjamin; Hartenberger, Joel David; McKenna, Sean Andrew; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and modeling effort undertaken to understand solute mixing in a water distribution network conducted during the last year of a 3-year project. The experimental effort involves measurement of extent of mixing within different configurations of pipe networks, measurement of dynamic mixing in a single mixing tank, and measurement of dynamic solute mixing in a combined network-tank configuration. High resolution analysis of turbulence mixing is carried out via high speed photography as well as 3D finite-volume based Large Eddy Simulation turbulence models. Macroscopic mixing rules based on flow momentum balance are also explored, and in some cases, implemented in EPANET. A new version EPANET code was developed to yield better mixing predictions. The impact of a storage tank on pipe mixing in a combined pipe-tank network during diurnal fill-and-drain cycles is assessed. Preliminary comparison between dynamic pilot data and EPANET-BAM is also reported.

  2. The Effects of Computerized Auditory Feedback on Electronic Article Surveillance Tag Placement in an Auto-Parts Distribution Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2008-01-01

    In this report from the field, computerized auditory feedback was used to inform order selectors and order selector auditors in a distribution center to add an electronic article surveillance (EAS) adhesive tag. This was done by programming handheld computers to emit a loud beep for high-priced items upon scanning the item's bar-coded Universal…

  3. Immediate Feedback on Accuracy and Performance: The Effects of Wireless Technology on Food Safety Tracking at a Distribution Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wireless ring scanners, which provided immediate auditory and visual feedback, were evaluated to increase the performance and accuracy of order selectors at a meat distribution center. The scanners not only increased performance and accuracy compared to paper pick sheets, but were also instrumental in immediate and accurate data…

  4. Business Activity Monitoring: Real-Time Group Goals and Feedback Using an Overhead Scoreboard in a Distribution Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.; Smith, Stuart M.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Companies operating large industrial settings often find delivering timely and accurate feedback to employees to be one of the toughest challenges they face in implementing performance management programs. In this report, an overhead scoreboard at a retailer's distribution center informed teams of order selectors as to how many tasks were…

  5. Aging Water Infrastructure Program at U.S. EPA: Rehabilitation of Water Distribution and Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several EPA projects are currently underway to encourage technology development and dissemination in key aspects of the condition assessment and rehabilitation of water and wastewater systems. The progress on one of these projects, "Rehabilitation of Water Distribution and Waste...

  6. Modified Rayleigh distribution of wave heights in transitional water depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-guang

    2016-06-01

    This paper concerns the calculation of wave height exceedance probabilities for nonlinear irregular waves in transitional water depths, and a Transformed Rayleigh method is first proposed for carrying out the calculation. In the proposed Transformed Rayleigh method, the transformation model is chosen to be a monotonic exponential function, calibrated such that the first three moments of the transformed model match the moments of the true process. The proposed new method has been applied for calculating the wave height exceedance probabilities of a sea state with the surface elevation data measured at the Poseidon platform. It is demonstrated in this case that the proposed new method can offer better predictions than those by using the conventional Rayleigh wave height distribution model. The proposed new method has been further applied for calculating the total horizontal loads on a generic jacket, and its accuracy has once again been substantiated. The research findings gained from this study demonstrate that the proposed Transformed Rayleigh model can be utilized as a promising alternative to the well-established nonlinear wave height distribution models.

  7. Discolouration in potable water distribution systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Vreeburg, J H G; Boxall, J B

    2007-02-01

    A large proportion of the customer contacts that drinking water supply companies receive stem from the occurrence of discoloured water. Currently, such complaints are dealt with in a reactive manner. However, water companies are being driven to implement planned activities to control discolouration prior to contacts occurring. Hence improved understanding of the dominant processes and predictive and management tools are needed. The material responsible for discolouration has a variety of origins and a range of processes and mechanisms may be associated with its accumulation within distribution systems. Irrespective of material origins, accumulation processes and mechanisms, discolouration events occur as a result of systems changes leading to mobilisation of the accumulations from within the network. Despite this conceptual understanding, there are very few published practicable tools and techniques available to aid water companies in the planned management and control of discolouration problems. Two recently developed and published, but different approaches to address this are reviewed here: the PODDS model which was developed to predict levels of turbidity as a result of change in hydraulic conditions, but which is semi-empirical and requires calibration; and the resuspension potential method which was developed to directly measure discolouration resulting from a controlled change in hydraulic conditions, providing a direct assessment of discolouration risk, although intrinsically requiring the limited generation of discoloured water within a live network. Both these methods support decision making on the need for maintenance operations. While risk evaluation and implementation of appropriate maintenance can be implemented to control discolouration risk, new material will continue to accumulate and hence an ongoing programme of maintenance is required. One sustainable measure to prevent such re-accumulation of material is the adoption of a self-cleaning threshold

  8. Influence of water quality on nitrifier regrowth in two full-scale drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Scott, Daniel B; Van Dyke, Michele I; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    The potential for regrowth of nitrifying microorganisms was monitored in 2 full-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution systems in Ontario, Canada, over a 9-month period. Quantitative PCR was used to measure amoA genes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and these values were compared with water quality parameters that can influence nitrifier survival and growth, including total chlorine, ammonia, temperature, pH, and organic carbon. Although there were no severe nitrification episodes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected at low concentrations in samples collected from both distribution systems. A culture-based presence-absence test confirmed the presence of viable nitrifiers. AOB were usually present in similar or greater numbers than AOA in both systems. As well, AOB showed higher regrowth potential compared with AOA in both systems. Statistically significant correlations were measured between several water quality parameters of relevance to nitrification. Total chlorine was negatively correlated with both nitrifiers and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, and ammonia levels were positively correlated with nitrifiers. Of particular importance was the strong correlation between HPC and AOB, which reinforced the usefulness of HPC as an operational parameter to measure general microbiological conditions in distribution systems.

  9. CO2 Data Distribution and Support from the Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Vollmer, Bruce; Albayrak, Arif; Theobald, Mike; Esfandiari, Ed; Wei, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This talk will describe the support and distribution of CO2 data products from OCO-2, AIRS, and ACOS, that are archived and distributed from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. We will provide a brief summary of the current online archive and distribution metrics for the OCO-2 Level 1 products and plans for the Level 2 products. We will also describe collaborative data sets and services (e.g., matchups with other sensors) and solicit feedback for potential future services.

  10. Electrical impedance imaging of water distribution in the root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newill, P.; Karadaglić, D.; Podd, F.; Grieve, B. D.; York, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes a technique that is proposed for imaging water transport in and around the root zone of plants using distributed measurements of electrical impedance. The technique has the potential to analyse sub-surface phenotypes, for instance drought tolerance traits in crop breeding programmes. The technical aim is to implement an automated, low cost, instrument for high-throughput screening. Ultimately the technique is targeted at in-field, on-line, measurements. For demonstration purposes the present work considers measurements on laboratory scale rhizotrons housing growing maize plants. Each rhizotron is fitted with 60 electrodes in a rectangular array. To reduce electrochemical effects the capacitively coupled contactless conductivity (C4D) electrodes have an insulating layer on the surface and the resistance of the bulk material is deduced from spectroscopic considerations. Electrical impedance is measured between pairs of electrodes to build up a two-dimensional map. A modified electrical model of such electrodes is proposed which includes the resistive and reactive components of both the insulating layer and the bulk material. Measurements taken on a parallel-plate test cell containing water confirm that the C4D technique is able to measure electrical impedance. The test cell has been used to explore the effects of water content, compaction and temperature on measurements in soil. Results confirm that electrical impedance measurements are very sensitive to moisture content. Impedance fraction changes up to 20% are observed due to compaction up to a pressure of 0.21 kg cm-2 and a temperature fraction sensitivity of about 2%/°C. The effects of compaction and temperature are most significant under dry conditions. Measurements on growing maize reveal the changes in impedance across the rhizotron over a period of several weeks. Results are compared to a control vessel housing only soil.

  11. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  12. Effects of vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature on total column water vapor retrieval error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jielun

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a test of the physically based total column water vapor retrieval algorithm of Wentz (1992) for sensitivity to realistic vertical distributions of temperature and water vapor. The ECMWF monthly averaged temperature and humidity fields are used to simulate the spatial pattern of systematic retrieval error of total column water vapor due to this sensitivity. The estimated systematic error is within 0.1 g/sq cm over about 70 percent of the global ocean area; systematic errors greater than 0.3 g/sq cm are expected to exist only over a few well-defined regions, about 3 percent of the global oceans, assuming that the global mean value is unbiased.

  13. Implications of organic carbon in the deterioration of water quality in reclaimed water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Lauren A; Jjemba, Patrick K; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W

    2010-10-01

    Changes in water quality in reclaimed water distribution systems are a major concern especially when considering the potential for growth of pathogenic microbes. A survey of 21 wastewater process configurations confirmed the high quality effluent produced using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, but suggests that other technologies can be operated to produce similar quality. Data from an intensive twelve-month sampling campaign in four reclaimed water utilities revealed the important trends for various organic carbon parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Of the four utilities, two were conventional wastewater treatment with open reservoir storage and two employed MBR technology with additional treatment including UV, ozone, and/or chlorine disinfection. Very high BDOC concentrations occurred in conventional systems, accounting for up to 50% of the TOC loading into the system. BDOC concentrations in two conventional plants averaged 1.4 and 6.3 mg/L and MBR plants averaged less than 0.6 mg/L BDOC. Although AOC showed wide variations, ranging from 100 to 2000 μg/L, the AOC concentrations in the conventional plants were typically 3-10 times higher than in the MBR systems. Pipe-loop studies designed to understand the impact of disinfection on the microbiology of reclaimed water in the distribution system revealed that chlorination will increase the level of biodegradable organic matter, thereby increasing the potential for microbial growth in the pipe network. This study concludes that biodegradable organic carbon is an important factor in the microbial quality and stability of reclaimed water and could impact the public health risk of reclaimed water at the point of use.

  14. Mycobacteria in Water and Loose Deposits of Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Lehtola, Markku J.; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Zacheus, Outi; Paulin, Lars; Katila, Marja-Leena; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems were analyzed for viable counts of mycobacteria by sampling water from waterworks and in different parts of the systems. In addition, loose deposits collected during mechanical cleaning of the main pipelines were similarly analyzed. The study covered 16 systems at eight localities in Finland. In an experimental study, mycobacterial colonization of biofilms on polyvinyl chloride tubes in a system was studied. The isolation frequency of mycobacteria increased from 35% at the waterworks to 80% in the system, and the number of mycobacteria in the positive samples increased from 15 to 140 CFU/liter, respectively. Mycobacteria were isolated from all 11 deposits with an accumulation time of tens of years and from all 4 deposits which had accumulated during a 1-year follow-up time. The numbers of mycobacteria were high in both old and young deposits (medians, 1.8 × 105 and 3.9 × 105 CFU/g [dry weight], respectively). Both water and deposit samples yielded the highest numbers of mycobacteria in the systems using surface water and applying ozonation as an intermediate treatment or posttreatment. The number and growth of mycobacteria in system waters correlated strongly with the concentration of assimilable organic carbon in the water leaving the waterworks. The densities of mycobacteria in the developing biofilms were highest at the distal sites of the systems. Over 90% of the mycobacteria isolated from water and deposits belonged to Mycobacterium lentiflavum, M. tusciae, M. gordonae, and a previously unclassified group of mycobacteria. Our results indicate that drinking water systems may be a source for recently discovered new mycobacterial species. PMID:15066787

  15. Mycobacteria in water and loose deposits of drinking water distribution systems in Finland.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Zacheus, Outi; Paulin, Lars; Katila, Marja-Leena; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-04-01

    Drinking water distribution systems were analyzed for viable counts of mycobacteria by sampling water from waterworks and in different parts of the systems. In addition, loose deposits collected during mechanical cleaning of the main pipelines were similarly analyzed. The study covered 16 systems at eight localities in Finland. In an experimental study, mycobacterial colonization of biofilms on polyvinyl chloride tubes in a system was studied. The isolation frequency of mycobacteria increased from 35% at the waterworks to 80% in the system, and the number of mycobacteria in the positive samples increased from 15 to 140 CFU/liter, respectively. Mycobacteria were isolated from all 11 deposits with an accumulation time of tens of years and from all 4 deposits which had accumulated during a 1-year follow-up time. The numbers of mycobacteria were high in both old and young deposits (medians, 1.8 x 10(5) and 3.9 x 10(5) CFU/g [dry weight], respectively). Both water and deposit samples yielded the highest numbers of mycobacteria in the systems using surface water and applying ozonation as an intermediate treatment or posttreatment. The number and growth of mycobacteria in system waters correlated strongly with the concentration of assimilable organic carbon in the water leaving the waterworks. The densities of mycobacteria in the developing biofilms were highest at the distal sites of the systems. Over 90% of the mycobacteria isolated from water and deposits belonged to Mycobacterium lentiflavum, M. tusciae, M. gordonae, and a previously unclassified group of mycobacteria. Our results indicate that drinking water systems may be a source for recently discovered new mycobacterial species.

  16. Pollutant intrusion modeling in water distribution networks using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Mohan; Rahul, Akhouri Ishan

    2011-07-01

    The development and implementation of water quality models for water distribution systems have been growing interest for both environment and hydraulic researchers. It is imperative that the system is able to distribute disinfectants and/or chemicals efficiently for specified quality standards and recover the actual quality of water in case of intrusion of a pollutant into the distribution network. The present work presents hydraulic and quality analysis in a typical water distribution system to obtain the concentration at the sources (pumping station or tanks) affected by typical pollutants utilizing water quality at monitoring points as inputs to artificial neural network (ANN) model. The universal function approximation property of the ANN architecture is being employed for inverse mapping to predict the water quality at the source using the water quality at arbitrary monitoring locations in the distribution system. The optimal monitoring points are identified by water age analysis. The performance evaluation results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential applicability of the methodology.

  17. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  18. Assessing microbiological water quality in drinking water distribution systems with disinfectant residual using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Simon; Lipphaus, Patrick; Green, James; Parsons, Simon; Weir, Paul; Juskowiak, Kes; Jefferson, Bruce; Jarvis, Peter; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Flow cytometry (FCM) as a diagnostic tool for enumeration and characterization of microorganisms is rapidly gaining popularity and is increasingly applied in the water industry. In this study we applied the method to obtain a better understanding of total and intact cell concentrations in three different drinking water distribution systems (one using chlorine and two using chloramines as secondary disinfectants). Chloramine tended to result in lower proportions of intact cells than chlorine over a wider residual range, in agreement with existing knowledge that chloramine suppresses regrowth more efficiently. For chlorinated systems, free chlorine concentrations above 0.5 mg L(-1) were found to be associated with relatively low proportions of intact cells, whereas lower disinfectant levels could result in substantially higher percentages of intact cells. The threshold for chlorinated systems is in good agreement with guidelines from the World Health Organization. The fact that the vast majority of samples failing the regulatory coliform standard also showed elevated proportions of intact cells suggests that this parameter might be useful for evaluating risk of failure. Another interesting parameter for judging the microbiological status of water, the biological regrowth potential, greatly varied among different finished waters providing potential help for investment decisions. For its measurement, a simple method was introduced that can easily be performed by water utilities with FCM capability.

  19. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  20. Water exchange in plant tissue studied by proton NMR in the presence of paramagnetic centers.

    PubMed

    Bacić, G; Ratković, S

    1984-04-01

    The proton NMR relaxation of water in maize roots in the presence of paramagnetic centers, Mn2+, Mn- EDTA2 -, and dextran-magnetite was measured. It was shown that the NMR method of Conlon and Outhred (1972, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 288:354-361) can be applied to a heterogenous multicellular system, and the water exchange time between cortical cells and the extracellular space can be calculated. The water exchange is presumably controlled by the intracellular unstirred layers. The Mn- EDTA2 - complex is a suitable paramagnetic compound for complex tissue, while the application of dextran-magnetite is probably restricted to studies of water exchange in cell suspensions. The water free space of the root and viscosity of the cells cytoplasm was estimated with the use of Mn- EDTA2 -. The convenience of proton NMR for studying the multiphase uptake of paramagnetic ions by plant root as well as their transport to leaves is demonstrated. A simple and rapid NMR technique (spin-echo recovery) for continuous measurement of the uptake process is presented.

  1. Near-line Archive Data Mining at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Mack, R.; Eng, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is generating immense volumes of data, in some cases too much to provide to users with data-intensive needs. As an alternative to moving the data to the user and his/her research algorithms, we are providing a means to move the algorithms to the data. The Near-line Archive Data Mining (NADM) system is the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center's (GES DAAC) web data mining portal to the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data pool, a 50-TB online disk cache. The NADM web portal enables registered users to submit and execute data mining algorithm codes on the data in the EOSDIS data pool. A web interface allows the user to access the NADM system. The users first develops personalized data mining code on their home platform and then uploads them to the NADM system. The C, FORTRAN and IDL languages are currently supported. The user developed code is automatically audited for any potential security problems before it is installed within the NADM system and made available to the user. Once the code has been installed the user is provided a test environment where he/she can test the execution of the software against data sets of the user's choosing. When the user is satisfied with the results, he/she can promote their code to the "operational" environment. From here the user can interactively run his/her code on the data available in the EOSDIS data pool. The user can also set up a processing subscription. The subscription will automatically process new data as it becomes available in the EOSDIS data pool. The generated mined data products are then made available for FTP pickup. The NADM system uses the GES DAAC-developed Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor (S4P) to automate tasks and perform the actual data processing. Users will also have the option of selecting a DAAC-provided data mining algorithm and using it to process the data of their choice.

  2. Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management Kick-off Meeting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    At this meeting, grantees from Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management and Sustainable Chesapeake: A Community-Based Approach to Stormwater Management Using Green Infrastructure

  3. Simultaneity of water demand from hydrants of distribution networks and operational irrigation-water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco V.

    2013-04-01

    In pressure irrigation-water distribution networks, applied water volume is usually controlled opening a valve during a calculated time interval, and assuming constant flow rate. In general, pressure regulating devices for controlling the discharged flow rate by irrigation units are needed due to the variability of pressure conditions. A pressure regulating valve PRV is the commonly used pressure regulating device in a hydrant, which, also, executes the open and close function. A hydrant feeds several irrigation units, requiring a wide range in flow rate. In addition, some flow meters are also available, one as a component of the hydrant and the rest are placed downstream. Every land owner has one flow meter for each group of field plots downstream the hydrant. Ideal PRV performance would maintain a constant downstream pressure. However, the true performance depends on both upstream pressure and the discharged flow rate. In this work the influence of the performance on the control of the applied volume during the whole irrigation events in an irrigation campaign has been assessed. Theoretical flow rates values have been introduced into a validated in laboratory PRV performance model coupled with a water distribution network. Variations on flow rate are simulated by taking into account the consequences of variations on climate conditions and also decisions in irrigation operation, such us duration and frequency application. The model comprises continuity, dynamic and energy equations of the components of both the PRV and the network.

  4. A Wireless Sensor Network approach for distributed in-line chemical analysis of water.

    PubMed

    Capella, J V; Bonastre, A; Ors, R; Peris, M

    2010-03-15

    In this work we propose the implementation of a distributed system based on a Wireless Sensor Network for the control of a chemical analysis system for fresh water. This implementation is presented by describing the nodes that form the distributed system, the communication system by wireless networks, control strategies, and so on. Nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are measured in-line using appropriate ion selective electrodes (ISEs), the results obtained being compared with those provided by the corresponding reference methods. Recovery analyses with ISEs and standard methods, study of interferences, and evaluation of major sensor features have also been carried out. The communication among the nodes that form the distributed system is implemented by means of the utilization of proprietary wireless networks, and secondary data transmission services (GSM or GPRS) provided by a mobile telephone operator. The information is processed, integrated and stored in a control center. These data can be retrieved--through the Internet--so as to know the real-time system status and its evolution.

  5. Supporting users through integrated retrieval, processing, and distribution systems at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.; Willems, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The LP DAAC is the primary archive for the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data; it is the only facility in the United States that archives, processes, and distributes data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission/Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft; and it is responsible for the archive and distribution of “land products” generated from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites.

  6. Is There a DDOC in the House?: An Analysis of the Deployment Distribution Operations Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    2005 analysis of the status of Department of Defense (DOD) supply distribution processes, the Government Accounting Office (GAO) summarized the... Government Accountability Office, Defense Logistics DOD Has Begun to Improve Supply Distribution Operations, but Further Actions Are Needed to Sustain...Defense Logistics Agency DOD – Department of Defense DPO – Distribution Process Owner GAO – Government Accounting Office GCC- Geographic

  7. Case study of hydrogen water chemistry implementation at the Duane Arnold Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, T.A.; Turley, D.S. ); Steen, A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) program implemented at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC). In 1985 various reactor recirculation system piping weld repairs and safe end replacements were performed at the DAEC. These weld repairs and safe-end replacements were required as a result of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). In 1986, the utility decided to implement a hydrogen water chemistry program as a means of suppressing IGSCC. The paper includes a discussion of the system design basis, a brief system description, and a discussion of plant system interactions. A description of methodology developed to verify and monitor the effectiveness of the HWC system is also included.

  8. Dynamic simulation of multicomponent reaction transport in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Munavalli, G R; Mohan Kumar, M S M S

    2004-04-01

    Given the presence of nutrients, regrowth of bacteria within a distribution system is possible. The bacterial growth phenomena, which can be studied by developing a multicomponent (substrate, biomass and disinfectant) reaction transport model, is governed by its relationship with the substrate (organic carbon) and disinfectant (chlorine). The multicomponent reaction transport model developed in the present study utilizes the simplified expressions for the basic processes (in bulk flow and at pipe wall) such as bacterial growth and decay, attachment to and detachment from the surface, substrate utilization and disinfectant action involved in the model. The usefulness of the model is further enhanced by the incorporation of an expression for bulk reaction parameter relating it with the organic carbon. The model is validated and applied to study the sensitive behavior of the components using a hypothetical network. The developed model is able to simulate the biodegradable organic carbon threshold in accordance with the values reported in the literature. The spread of contaminant intruded into the system at any location can also be simulated by the model. The multicomponent model developed is useful for water supply authorities in identifying the locations with high substrate concentrations, bacterial growth and lower chlorine residuals.

  9. Air/water subchannel measurements of the equilibrium quality and mass-flux distribution in a rod bundle. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Sterner, R.W.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    Subchannel measurements were performed in order to determine the equilibrium quality and mass flux distribution in a four rod bundle, using air/water flow. An isokinetic technique was used to sample the flow in the center, side and corner subchannels of this test section. Flow rates of the air and water in each sampled subchannel were measured. Experiments were performed for two test-section-average mass fluxes (0.333x10/sup 6/ and 0.666x10/sup 6/ lb/sub m//h-ft/sup 2/), and the test-section-average quality was varied from 0% to 0.54% for each mass flux. Single-phase liquid, bubbly, slug and churn-turbulent two-phase flow regimes were achieved. The observed data trends agreed with previous diabatic measurements in which the center subchannel had the highest quality and mass flux, while the corner subchannel had the lowest.

  10. ATRAZOME CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS UNDER DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water, along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals, will rea...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall be tagged or marked “Fresh Water Connection” (or marked “Fresh Water Fill”). A matching cap or... water piping shall be protected by means of matching threaded caps or plugs. (2) Prohibited connections...) A water heater, food waste disposal unit, evaporative cooler or ice maker shall not be counted as...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be tagged or marked “Fresh Water Connection” (or marked “Fresh Water Fill”). A matching cap or... water piping shall be protected by means of matching threaded caps or plugs. (2) Prohibited connections...) A water heater, food waste disposal unit, evaporative cooler or ice maker shall not be counted as...

  13. Water security: continuous monitoring of water distribution systems for chemical agents by SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Farquharson, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Ensuring safe water supplies requires continuous monitoring for potential poisons and portable analyzers to map distribution in the event of an attack. In the case of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) analyzers are needed that have sufficient sensitivity (part-per-billion), selectivity (differentiate the CWA from its hydrolysis products), and speed (less than 10 minutes) to be of value. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to meet these requirements by detecting CWAs and their hydrolysis products in water. The expected success of SERS is based on reported detection of single molecules, the one-to-one relationship between a chemical and its Raman spectrum, and the minimal sample preparation requirements. Recently, we have developed a simple sampling device designed to optimize the interaction of the target molecules with the SERS-active material with the goal of increasing sensitivity and decreasing sampling times. This sampling device employs a syringe to draw the water sample containing the analyte into a capillary filled with the SERS-active material. Recently we used such SERS-active capillaries to measure 1 ppb cyanide in water. Here we extend these measurements to nerve agent hydrolysis products using a portable Raman analyzer.

  14. Locations of Sampling Stations for Water Quality Monitoring in Water Distribution Networks.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Shweta; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-04-01

    Water quality is required to be monitored in the water distribution networks (WDNs) at salient locations to assure the safe quality of water supplied to the consumers. Such monitoring stations (MSs) provide warning against any accidental contaminations. Various objectives like demand coverage, time for detection, volume of water contaminated before detection, extent of contamination, expected population affected prior to detection, detection likelihood and others, have been independently or jointly considered in determining optimal number and location of MSs in WDNs. "Demand coverage" defined as the percentage of network demand monitored by a particular monitoring station is a simple measure to locate MSs. Several methods based on formulation of coverage matrix using pre-specified coverage criteria and optimization have been suggested. Coverage criteria is defined as some minimum percentage of total flow received at the monitoring stations that passed through any upstream node included then as covered node of the monitoring station. Number of monitoring stations increases with the increase in the value of coverage criteria. Thus, the design of monitoring station becomes subjective. A simple methodology is proposed herein which priority wise iteratively selects MSs to achieve targeted demand coverage. The proposed methodology provided the same number and location of MSs for illustrative network as an optimization method did. Further, the proposed method is simple and avoids subjectivity that could arise from the consideration of coverage criteria. The application of methodology is also shown on a WDN of Dharampeth zone (Nagpur city WDN in Maharashtra, India) having 285 nodes and 367 pipes.

  15. Uranium distribution in the coastal waters and pore waters of Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Baskaran, M.

    2006-01-01

    (JSGD) U flux of 112.9??mol d- 1. In Tampa Bay, the estuarine distribution of U indicates a strong natural, geologic control that may also be influenced by enhanced fluid transport processes across the sediment/water interface. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Injection of Contaminants into a Simulated Water Distribution System Equipped with Continuous Multi-Parameter Water Monitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Multi-parameter water monitors for distributions systems have been evaluated as such a water security techn...

  17. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from non-disinfected drinking water distribution systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...

  18. Investigation of sensitizer ions tunable-distribution in fluoride nanoparticles for efficient accretive three-center energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hui; Yu, Hua Lao, Aiqing; Chang, Lifen; Gao, Shaohua; Zhang, Haoxiong; Zhou, Taojie; Zhao, Lijuan

    2014-09-14

    Cooperative upconversion luminescence of Yb³⁺-Yb³⁺ couples and three-center energy transfer mechanisms have been deeply investigated in Yb³⁺ doped and Yb³⁺-Tb³⁺ co-doped β-PbF₂ nanoparticles. As sensitizer ions, the distribution of Yb³⁺ ions, which is a key factor that affects the cooperative upconversion luminescence and three-center energy transfer processes, can be tuned by the structure of nanoparticles. Based on the three-center distributions in tetragonal PbYb{sub x}Tb{sub 1–x}F₅ nanoparticles, two different energy transfer models, Cooperative Energy Transfer (CET) and Accretive Energy Transfer (AET) mechanisms were established. Especially, AET model is observed and verified in this work for the first time. Experimental results obtained from photoluminescence spectroscopy study are in agreement with the theoretical calculations by applying rate equations in these models, strongly supporting the proposed three-center energy transfer mechanisms. The sensitization between Yb³⁺ ions only existing in AET process can greatly improve the energy transfer rates, further to enhance the quantum efficiency. The results that the calculated luminescence quantum efficiency in AET quantum cutting process is much higher than that in CET process (134% and 104%, respectively), can benefit for further increasing the conversion efficiency of c-Si solar cells.

  19. Assessment of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Correction of Above-Water and Satellite Water-Leaving Radiance in Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlaing, Soe; Gilerson, Alexander; Harmal, Tristan; Tonizzo, Alberto; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be corrected for the bidirectional properties of the measured light in order to standardize the data and make them comparable with each other. The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multispectral and hyperspectral radiometers, which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with average improvement of 2.4% over the spectral range. LISCO's time series data have also been used to evaluate improvements in match-up comparisons of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data when the proposed BRDF correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It is shown that the discrepancies between coincident in-situ sea-based and satellite data decreased by 3.15% with the use of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Distribution of nitrate in ground water, Redlands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1977-01-01

    Wells producing water with nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in excess of 10 milligrams per liter are common throughout the Redlands, Calif., area. Nitrite as nitrogen concentrations in water from the saturated part of the aquifer ranged from much greater than 20 milligrams per liter at the water table to less than 5 milligrams per liter at depths of 300 feet below the water table. This depth dependence suggests that the major source of nitrate is a generalized area-wide infiltration of high-nitrate water downward from the surface through the unsaturated zone. The nitrate concentration in water from individual wells is dependent primarily upon depth and well construction--particularly aquifer seal and aquifer penetration--and secondarily upon well location. Nitrate concentrations of water in wells are increased by heavy pumping which causes high-nitrate water near the water table to be pulled deeper. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

  2. USE OF NETWORK MODELS FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE OF CONSUMERS TO CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of contaminants in a drinking water distribution system can result in exposure of consumers to contaminated water. Whether the contaminants result from waterborne outbreaks that accidentally enter the system or through purposeful acts, the movement of the resulting ...

  3. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  4. From honeybees to Internet servers: biomimicry for distributed management of Internet hosting centers.

    PubMed

    Nakrani, Sunil; Tovey, Craig

    2007-12-01

    An Internet hosting center hosts services on its server ensemble. The center must allocate servers dynamically amongst services to maximize revenue earned from hosting fees. The finite server ensemble, unpredictable request arrival behavior and server reallocation cost make server allocation optimization difficult. Server allocation closely resembles honeybee forager allocation amongst flower patches to optimize nectar influx. The resemblance inspires a honeybee biomimetic algorithm. This paper describes details of the honeybee self-organizing model in terms of information flow and feedback, analyzes the homology between the two problems and derives the resulting biomimetic algorithm for hosting centers. The algorithm is assessed for effectiveness and adaptiveness by comparative testing against benchmark and conventional algorithms. Computational results indicate that the new algorithm is highly adaptive to widely varying external environments and quite competitive against benchmark assessment algorithms. Other swarm intelligence applications are briefly surveyed, and some general speculations are offered regarding their various degrees of success.

  5. Hydrothermal Plume Distributions Along the Valu Fa Ridge and East Lau Spreading Center, Lau Backarc Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E. T.; Walker, S. L.; Resing, J. A.; Massoth, G. J.; Martinez, F.; Taylor, B.; de Ronde, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Extensive studies along midocean ridges (MORs) from ultraslow- to superfast-spreading find a robust correlation, at the multi-segment scale, between the incidence of hydrothermal plumes (ph) and the spreading rate, a proxy for the long-term melt supply. On the segment and sub-segment scales, these studies likewise find a good correlation between ph and cross-axial inflation, a proxy for higher frequency variability in the melt supply. To test the validity of these correlations in a backarc setting, where complex tectonics may weaken the connection between spreading rate and melt supply, we conducted multiple surveys of the hydrothermal plume distribution along three geophysically and morphologically distinct ridge sections in the Lau backarc basin: Valu Fa Ridge (VFR, 22.7-21.43° S), southern East Lau Spreading Center (S-ELSC, 21.43-20.53° S), and N-ELSC (20.53-19.3° S). On the TELVE cruise in March 2003 we used an optical sensor on CTDO tow-yos to map plumes on the southern 88 km of the VFR. In April 2004, on the initial cruise of the RIDGE ISS Lau project, we used both CTDO tow-yos and a vertical array of optical/temperature sensors (MAPRs) on the DSL-120 sidescan vehicle to conduct multiple surveys of the entire VFR/ELSC. The VFR/ELSC complex is distinctly different than typical MORs in several ways: (1) spreading rate more than doubles from 39 to 96 mm/yr over just 400 km between the southern end of the VFR and the northern end of the ELSC; (2) cross-axial inflation and axial depth are inversely correlated with spreading rate, decreasing northward from +5 km2 and ˜1800 m, respectively, to -5 km2 and ˜3000 m; and (3) geophysical studies suggest that melt production is also inversely correlated with spreading rate, owing to increasing distance from the melt-rich arc front from south to north along the ridge complex. Our surveys found >20 hydrothermal plume areas, ranging from <1 km to >20 km in axial extent, and rising as high as 500 m above the seafloor

  6. Elimination of Naegleria fowleri from bulk water and biofilm in an operational drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Miller, Haylea C; Morgan, Matthew J; Wylie, Jason T; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David; Braun, Kalan; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2017-03-01

    Global incidence of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis cases associated with domestic drinking water is increasing. The need for understanding disinfectant regimes capable of eliminating the causative microorganism, Naegleria fowleri, from bulk water and pipe wall biofilms is critical. This field study demonstrated the successful elimination of N. fowleri from the bulk water and pipe wall biofilm of a persistently colonised operational drinking water distribution system (DWDS), and the prevention of further re-colonisation. A new chlorination unit was installed along the pipe line to boost the free chlorine residual to combat the persistence of N. fowleri. Biofilm and bulk water were monitored prior to and after re-chlorination (RCl), pre-rechlorination (pre-RCl) and post-rechlorination (post-RCl), respectively, for one year. A constant free chlorine concentration of > 1 mg/L resulted in the elimination of N. fowleri from both the bulk water and biofilm at the post-RCl site. Other amoeba species were detected during the first two months of chlorination, but all amoebae were eliminated from both the bulk water and biofilm at post-RCl after 60 days of chlorination with free chlorine concentrations > 1 mg/L. In addition, a dynamic change in the biofilm community composition and a four log reduction in biofilm cell density occurred post-RCl. The pre-RCl site continued to be seasonally colonised by N. fowleri, but the constant free chlorine residual of > 1 mg/L prevented N. fowleri from recolonising the bulk and pipe wall biofilm at the post-RCl site. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate successful removal of N. fowleri from both the bulk and pipe wall biofilm and prevention of re-colonisation of N. fowleri in an operational DWDS. The findings of this study are of importance to water utilities in addressing the presence of N. fowleri and other amoeba in susceptible DWDSs.

  7. Study On Burst Location Technology under Steady-state in Water Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianpin; Li, Shuping; Wang, Shaowei; He, Fang; He, Zhixun; Cao, Guodong

    2010-11-01

    According to the characteristics of hydraulic information under the state of burst in water distribution system, to get the correlation of monitoring values and burst location and locate the position of burst on time by mathematical fitting. This method can effectively make use of the information of SCADA in water distribution system to active locating burst position. A new idea of burst location in water distribution systems to shorten the burst time, reduce the impact on urban water supply, economic losses and waste of water resources.

  8. Origin and Distribution of Water Contents in Continental and Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    The water content distribution of the upper mantle will be reviewed as based on the peridotite record. The amount of water in cratonic xenoliths appears controlled by metasomatism while that of the oceanic mantle retains in part the signature of melting events. In both cases, the water distribution is heterogeneous both with depth and laterally, depending on localized water re-enrichments next to melt/fluid channels. The consequence of the water distribution on the rheology of the upper mantle and the location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary will also be discussed.

  9. Distribution of indications and procedures within the framework of centers participating in the WAA apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, B; Mörtzell Henriksson, M; Newman, E; Witt, V; Derfler, K; Leitner, G; Eloot, S; Dhondt, A; Deeren, D; Rock, G; Ptak, J; Blaha, M; Lanska, M; Gasova, Z; Bhuiyan-Ludvikova, Z; Hrdlickova, R; Ramlow, W; Prophet, H; Liumbruno, G; Mori, E; Griskevicius, A; Audzijoniene, J; Vrielink, H; Rombout-Sestrienkova, E; Aandahl, A; Sikole, A; Tomaz, J; Lalic, K; Bojanic, I; Strineholm, V; Brink, B; Berlin, G; Dykes, J; Toss, F; Nilsson, T; Knutson, F; Ramsauer, B; Wahlstrom, A

    2017-01-04

    The WAA apheresis registry was established in 2003 and an increasing number of centers have since then included their experience and data of their procedures. The registry now contains data of more than 74,000 apheresis procedures in more than 10,000 patients. This report shows that the indications for apheresis procedures are changing towards more oncological diagnoses and stem cell collections from patients and donors and less therapeutic apheresis procedures. In centers that continue to register, the total extent of apheresis procedures and patients treated have expanded during the latest years.

  10. Detection of aquatic colloids in drinking water during its distribution via a water pipeline network.

    PubMed

    Wagner, T; Bundschuhb, T; Schick, R; Köster, R

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced Breakdown Detection (LIBD) is a highly sensitive method for the direct detection of nano-particles (colloids). During the detection process plasmas are generated on single particles by a focused laser beam, the resulting plasma light emissions are detected optically. The method is based on the difference in breakdown thresholds of liquid and solid matter, it is lower for solid material. The laser pulse energy is adjusted precisely so that in the pure liquid no breakdown events occur, and only in the presence of colloids is the breakdown threshold in the focal volume exceeded. The spatial distribution of several thousand recorded plasma flashes within the focal volume reveals the mean particle diameter. The evaluation of the number of breakdown events per number of laser pulses results in a breakdown probability, together with the particle size the concentration is calculated using specially-designed computer software. Compared to conventional laser light scattering methods the LIBD is approximately 6 orders of magnitude more sensitive for particles smaller than ca. 0.05 pm. Together with laser light obscuration the LIBD technique has been used successfully for the quantification of aquatic nano-particles during drinking water processing and its distribution via a pipeline network of nearly 1,700 km total length. In addition, the particulate content of several brands of mineral water has been investigated.

  11. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    PubMed

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  12. Public water supply and distribution at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, C.

    1997-10-01

    On February 17th, 1996, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a former Department of Energy uranium processing facility near the rural town of Fernald, Ohio, became a ``user`` instead of a ``producer``, of potable water by tying into the Cincinnati Water Works new Public Water Supply System. This satisfied the future site needs of potable water and nullified the need to follow the sampling requirements set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Safe Drinking Water Act for potable water producers. This transformation into a customer also reduced the long water transmission time from the Cincinnati Water Works station to the small community that would have occurred without a large user such as the FEMP being on line.

  13. Identification of water-bearing fractures by the use of geophysical logs, May to July 1998, former Naval Air Warfare Center, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    1999-01-01

    Between May and July 1998, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground water in shallow and intermediate water-bearing fractures. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources. Three boreholes were drilled on the property at 960 Jacksonville Road, at the northwestern side of NAWC, along strike from Area A; seven boreholes were drilled in Area B in the southeastern corner of NAWC. Depths range from 40.5 to 150 feet below land surface. Borehole geophysical logging and video surveys were used to identify water-bearing fractures so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Video surveys were obtained at three monitor wells in the southeastern corner of the NAWC property. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures. Inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing fractures in each monitor well.

  14. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  15. Water Pressure Distribution on a Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1931-01-01

    This is the third in a series of investigations of the water pressures on seaplane floats and hulls, and completes the present program. It consisted of determining the water pressures and accelerations on a Curtiss H-16 flying boat during landing and taxiing maneuvers in smooth and rough water.

  16. The EGI-Engage EPOS Competence Center - Interoperating heterogeneous AAI mechanisms and Orchestrating distributed computational resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Daniele; Scardaci, Diego; Spinuso, Alessandro; Sterzel, Mariusz; Schwichtenberg, Horst; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EGI-Engage project [1] is to accelerate the implementation of the Open Science Commons vision, where researchers from all disciplines have easy and open access to the innovative digital services, data, knowledge and expertise they need for collaborative and excellent research. The Open Science Commons is grounded on three pillars: the e-Infrastructure Commons, an ecosystem of services that constitute the foundation layer of distributed infrastructures; the Open Data Commons, where observations, results and applications are increasingly available for scientific research and for anyone to use and reuse; and the Knowledge Commons, in which communities have shared ownership of knowledge, participate in the co-development of software and are technically supported to exploit state-of-the-art digital services. To develop the Knowledge Commons, EGI-Engage is supporting the work of a set of community-specific Competence Centres, with participants from user communities (scientific institutes), National Grid Initiatives (NGIs), technology and service providers. Competence Centres collect and analyse requirements, integrate community-specific applications into state-of-the-art services, foster interoperability across e-Infrastructures, and evolve services through a user-centric development model. One of these Competence Centres is focussed on the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) [2] as representative of the solid earth science communities. EPOS is a pan-European long-term plan to integrate data, software and services from the distributed (and already existing) Research Infrastructures all over Europe, in the domain of the solid earth science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better

  17. Reductions in bacterial microorganisms by filtration and ozonation of the surface water supply at the USFWS Northeast Fishery Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water filtration and ozonation system was recently installed to treat creek water used to culture species of concern at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center, Lamar National Fish Hatchery (NFH). Past experience with fish culture indicates that the following bacterial pathog...

  18. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Validation Data Management at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, M. C.; Paserba, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) validation activity. NSIDC has designed and developed a web portal to data and information collected during NASA's AMSR-E Validation Program: (http://nsidc.org/data/amsr_validation/.) The AMSR-E validation experiments address three disciplines: soil moisture, rainfall and cryospheric validation campaigns. This poster describes all these experiments (past, present and future). NSIDC provides documentation, e.g., user guides, as well as metadata documents (DIFS) submitted to the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), for all the AMSR-E validation experiments. NSIDC further supports the validation activities by collaborating with the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) to provide scientists in the field (e.g., Arctic and Antarctic ship and flight campaigns) with quick, easy access to AMSR-E data for their validation experiments. NSIDC provides subsets of reformatted data in a manner most convenient to the validation scientists while they conduct their experiments. The AMSR-E is a mission instrument launched aboard NASA's Aqua Satellite on 4 May 2002. The Aqua mission provides a multi-disciplinary study of the Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and land processes and their relationship to global change. With six instruments aboard, the Aqua Satellite will travel in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit. NSIDC will archive and distribute all AMSR-E products, including Levels 1A, 2, and 3 data. Users can order Level-1A AMSR-E data beginning 19 June 2003 and Level-2A data beginning 01 September 2003. Other products will be available in March 2004.

  19. Massachusetts Water Resource Research Center: Annual program report, 1988 (FY 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center program for 1987-88 (Federal Fiscal Year FY87) focused on several research areas of high priority for the state and New England region: acid deposition impacts, the minimization of nitrate contamination of groundwater from on-site wastewater treatment, the pricing of drinking water to meet future infrastructure needs, and the proposed diversion of water from a ''Wild and Scenic'' river. Three WRIP Projects were begun in FY87. One evaluates cloud and fog acidity in central Massachusetts, another evaluates the use of peat in rural sewage disposal systems to minimize nitrate contamination of groundwater, and the third will determine the true cost of water so that utilities may appropriately plan for new sources or infrastructure renovation. The Cooperative Aquatic Research Program (CARP) funded five projects; four were acid deposition-related projects. Phase III of the Acid Rain Monitoring Project continued monitoring 500 randomly selected and 300 special interest surface waters quarterly and will continue into its fourth year of the ten year program. Investigation of the role of acid deposition in enhancing microorganisms in lake sediment that may play a role in methylating heavy metals such as mercury continued. Similarly, the study of mechanisms of control of aluminum mobility in watersheds subjected to acid deposition and the study of the impact of acid deposition on salamander communities were continued. Research on the role of sulfate reduction in lakes as a natural mechanism for neutralizing acidity funded in its first year by WRIP, has been continued. All but the Acid Rain Monitoring Project are to be completed in 1988.

  20. Unifying Water Data Sources: How the CUAHSI Water Data Center is Enabling and Improving Access to a Growing Catalog of over 100 Data Providers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Berry, K.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific data about water are collected and distributed by numerous sources which can differ tremendously in scale. As competition for water resources increases, increasing access to and understanding of information about water will be critical. The mission of the new CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) is to provide those researchers who collect data a medium to publish their datasets and give those wanting to discover data the proper tools to efficiently find the data that they seek. These tools include standards-based data publication, data discovery tools based upon faceted and telescoping search, and a data analysis tool HydroDesktop that downloads and unifies data in standardized formats. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a community developed and open source system for sharing water data. As a federated, web service oriented system it enables data publication for a diverse user population including scientific investigators (Research Coordination Networks, Critical Zone Observatories), government agencies (USGS, NASA, EPA), and citizen scientists (watershed associations). HydroDesktop is an end user application for data consumption in this system that the WDC supports. This application can be used for finding, downloading, and analyzing data from the HIS. It provides a GIS interface that allows users to incorporate spatial data that are not accessible via HIS, simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization, tools to export data to common file types, and provides an extensible architecture that developers can build upon. HydroDesktop, however, is just one example of a data access client for HIS. The web service oriented architecture enables data access by an unlimited number of clients provided they can consume the web services used in HIS. One such example developed at the WDC is the 'Faceted Search Client', which capitalizes upon exploratory search concepts to improve accuracy and precision during search. We highlight such

  1. Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamohana Rao, N. V.; Rao, N.; Surya Prakash Rao, K.; Schuiling, R. D.

    1993-04-01

    Geochemical and hydrochemical studies were conducted in Nalgonda District (A.P.), to explore the causes of high fluorine in waters, causing a widespread incidence of fluorosis in the local population. Samples of granitic rocks, soils, stream sediments, and waters were analyzed for F and other salient chemical parameters. Samples from the area of Hyderabad city were analyzed for comparison. The F content of waters in areas with endemic fluorosis ranges from 0.4 to 20 mg/l. The low calcium content of rocks and soils, and the presence of high levels of sodium bicarbonate in soils and waters are important factors favoring high levels of F in waters.

  2. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Enabling Data Publication, Discovery and Re-use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seul, M.; Pollak, J.

    2014-12-01

    The CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) supports a standards-based, services-oriented architecture for time-series data and provides a separate service to publish spatial data layers as shape files. Two new services that the WDC offers are a cloud-based server (Cloud HydroServer) for publishing data and a web-based client for data discovery. The Cloud HydroServer greatly simplifies data publication by eliminating the need for scientists to set up an SQL-server data base, a requirement that has proven to be a significant barrier, and ensures greater reliability and continuity of service. Uploaders have been developed to simplify the metadata documentation process. The web-based data client eliminates the need for installing a program to be used as a client and works across all computer operating systems. The services provided by the WDC is a foundation for big data use, re-use, and meta-analyses. Using data transmission standards enables far more effective data sharing and discovery; standards used by the WDC are part of a global set of standards that should enable scientists to access unprecedented amount of data to address larger-scale research questions than was previously possible. A central mission of the WDC is to ensure these services meet the needs of the water science community and are effective at advancing water science.

  3. Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.

    2004-03-31

    Residential building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include: the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy to reheat water that was already heated once before. A feasibility study and an action plan for a proposed research project involving residential hot water distribution systems is being developed. The feasibility study will use past work to estimate of hot water and energy loses caused by current hot water distribution systems in residences. Proposed research project, or roadmap, will develop recommendations for improvements to residential hot water distribution systems. The roadmap addresses the technical obstacles and gaps in our knowledge that prevent water and energy reductions and market adoption of water- and energy-efficient technologies. The initial results of the feasibility study are presented here along with a discussion of a roadmap to improve the efficiency of residential hot water distribution systems.

  4. Geohydrology and water quality of the Durham Center Area, Durham, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melvin, R.L.; Stone, J.R.; Craft, P.A.; Lane, J.W.; Davies, B. S.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated ground water is widespread and persistent beneath the Durham Center area in the town of Durham, Conn. Most of the contaminants are organic halides, usually trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. Less extensive chemical contamination of surface water, soil, and glacial sediments also has been detected. Two manufacturing companies, located at the northern and southern ends of this largely residential area, are believed to be the principal sources of the organic compounds detected in ground water. The contamination of water in the bedrock, the primary source of drinking water throughout the area, is the major environmental concern. Maximum concentrations of trichloroethene in three bed- rock wells range from 4,500 to about 5,500 mg/L (micrograms per liter). Concentrations of trichloroethene greater than 5 mg/L, the maximum contaminant level established for drinking water by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, have regularly been detected in water samples from many other bedrock wells for at least 9 years. The geohydrology of the area is highly complex. Compact lodgment till that is up to 30 feet thick and probably fractured, overlies the bedrock. The bedrock is lithologically heterogeneous, and con- sists mostly of red fluvial sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate; it is locally interbedded with black lacustrine shales and gray sandstones. Lithology and stratigraphy interpreted from borehole-geophysical logs at Durham Center are consistent with the Portland Formation subfacies described in earlier geologic studies. Beds strike nearly north-south and dip gently eastward. At least one high-angle normal fault transects the bedrock; it strikes northeast and dips northwest. Acoustic televiewer logs, measurements at out-crops, and azimuthal, square-array, resistivity data indicate a dominance of northeast-striking fractures that dip steeply northwest and southeast. Less prevalent strike directions are north to east-north-east. The

  5. A distributed model: redefining a robust research subject advocacy program at the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sabune J; Cagliero, Enrico; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center ("Harvard Catalyst") Research Subject Advocacy (RSA) Program has reengineered subject advocacy, distributing the delivery of advocacy functions through a multi-institutional, central platform rather than vesting these roles and responsibilities in a single individual functioning as a subject advocate. The program is process-oriented and output-driven, drawing on the strengths of participating institutions to engage local stakeholders both in the protection of research subjects and in advocacy for subjects' rights. The program engages stakeholder communities in the collaborative development and distributed delivery of accessible and applicable educational programming and resources. The Harvard Catalyst RSA Program identifies, develops, and supports the sharing and distribution of expertise, education, and resources for the benefit of all institutions, with a particular focus on the frontline: research subjects, researchers, research coordinators, and research nurses.

  6. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  7. Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J. X.; Luo, W. Y.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Wang, T. Y.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zeng, X. L.

    2010-02-15

    The formation and conversion processes of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical (LWPSM) fiber irradiated with gamma rays were investigated at room temperature using electron spin resonance. Germanium electron center (GEC) and self-trapped hole center (STH) occur when the fibers are irradiated with 1 and 5 kGy cumulative doses, respectively. With the increase in irradiation doses, the GEC defect centers disappear, and new defect centers such as E{sup '} centers (Si and Ge) and nonbridge oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs) generate. The generation of GEC and STH is attributed to the electron transfer, which is completely balanced. This is the main reason that radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of the LWPSM fiber is only 10 dB/km at communication window. The new defect centers come from the conversion of GEC and STH to E{sup '} centers and NBOHC, and the conversion processes cause bond cleavage, which is the root cause that the RIA of the LWPSM fiber significantly increases up to 180 dB/km at working window. Furthermore, the concentration of new defect centers is saturated easily even by increasing cumulative doses.

  8. "Ice Cubes" in the Center of the Milky Way: Water-ice and Hydrocarbons in the Central Parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moultaka, J.; Eckart, A.; Mužić, K.

    2015-06-01

    The close environment of the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy has been studied thoroughly for decades in order to shed light on the behavior of the central regions of galaxies in general and of active galaxies in particular. The Galactic center (GC) has shown a wealth of structures on different scales with a complicated mixture of early- and late-type stars, ionized and molecular gas, dust, and winds. Here we aim to study the distribution of water-ices and hydrocarbons in the central parsec, as well as along the line of sight. This study is made possible thanks to L-band spectroscopy. This spectral band, from 2.8 to 4.2 μm, hosts important signatures of the circumstellar medium and interstellar dense and diffuse media among which deep absorption features are attributed to water-ices and hydrocarbons. We observed the GC in the L band of the ISAAC spectrograph located on the UT1/VLT ESO telescope. By mapping the central half parsec using 27 slit positions, we were able to build the first data cube of the region in this wavelength domain. Thanks to a calibrator spectrum of the foreground extinction in the L band derived in a previous paper, we corrected our data cube for the line-of-sight extinction and validated our calibrator spectrum. The data show that a residual absorption due to water-ices and hydrocarbons is present in the corrected data cube. This suggests that the features are produced in the local environment of the GC, implying very low temperatures well below 80 K. This is in agreement with our finding of local CO ices in the central parsec described in Moultaka et al. Resulting from ESO VLT observations of program ID numbers 71.C-0192A and 077.C-0286A.

  9. “ICE CUBES” IN THE CENTER OF THE MILKY WAY: WATER-ICE AND HYDROCARBONS IN THE CENTRAL PARSEC

    SciTech Connect

    Moultaka, J.; Eckart, A.; Muzic, K. E-mail: eckart@ph1.uni-koeln.de

    2015-06-20

    The close environment of the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy has been studied thoroughly for decades in order to shed light on the behavior of the central regions of galaxies in general and of active galaxies in particular. The Galactic center (GC) has shown a wealth of structures on different scales with a complicated mixture of early- and late-type stars, ionized and molecular gas, dust, and winds. Here we aim to study the distribution of water-ices and hydrocarbons in the central parsec, as well as along the line of sight. This study is made possible thanks to L-band spectroscopy. This spectral band, from 2.8 to 4.2 μm, hosts important signatures of the circumstellar medium and interstellar dense and diffuse media among which deep absorption features are attributed to water-ices and hydrocarbons. We observed the GC in the L band of the ISAAC spectrograph located on the UT1/VLT ESO telescope. By mapping the central half parsec using 27 slit positions, we were able to build the first data cube of the region in this wavelength domain. Thanks to a calibrator spectrum of the foreground extinction in the L band derived in a previous paper, we corrected our data cube for the line-of-sight extinction and validated our calibrator spectrum. The data show that a residual absorption due to water-ices and hydrocarbons is present in the corrected data cube. This suggests that the features are produced in the local environment of the GC, implying very low temperatures well below 80 K. This is in agreement with our finding of local CO ices in the central parsec described in Moultaka et al.

  10. Hot Water Distribution System Program Documentation and Comparison to Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, Evelyn; Craddick, William G; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Wendt, Robert L; Woodbury, Professor Keith A.

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the California Energy Commission s (CEC s) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to create a computer program to analyze hot water distribution systems for single family residences, and to perform such analyses for a selection of houses. This effort and its results were documented in a report provided to CEC in March, 2004 [1]. The principal objective of effort was to compare the water and energy wasted between various possible hot water distribution systems for various different house designs. It was presumed that water being provided to a user would be considered suitably warm when it reached 105 F. Therefore, what was needed was a tool which could compute the time it takes for water reaching the draw point to reach 105 F, and the energy wasted during this wait. The computer program used to perform the analyses was a combination of a calculational core, produced by Dr. Keith A. Woodbury, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, University of Alabama, and a user interface based on LabVIEW, created by Dr. Roberto Lenarduzzi of ORNL. At that time, the computer program was in a relatively rough and undocumented form adequate to perform the contracted work but not in a condition where it could be readily used by those not involved in its generation. Subsequently, the CEC provided funding through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to improve the program s documentation and user interface to facilitate use by others, and to compare the program s results to experimental data generated by Dr. Carl Hiller. This report describes the program and provides user guidance. It also summarizes the comparisons made to experimental data, along with options built into the program specifically to allow these comparisons. These options were necessitated by the fact that some of the experimental data required options and features not originally included in the program

  11. Design for Corrosion Control of Potable Water Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    plastic composites as a substitute for metals. Problem areas such as galvanic corrosion, proper surface preparation and techniques for application of...Corrosion Surveys A -orrosion survey consists of the determination of soil and water composition , resistivity, pH, water table level, and for existing...conditions also play a role in corrosion design require- ments. Factors such as ambient temperature, chemical composition of the water, and frequency

  12. CHANGES IN BACTERIAL COMPOSITION OF BIOFILM IN A METROPOLITAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the development of bacterial biofilms within a metropolitan distribution system. The distribution system is fed with different source water (i.e., groundwater, GW and surface water, SW) and undergoes different treatment processes in separate facilities. The b...

  13. Water Distribution System Operation and Maintenance. A Field Study Training Program. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerri, Kenneth D.; And Others

    Proper installation, inspection, operation, maintenance, repair and management of water distribution systems have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance cost and effectiveness of the systems. The objective of this manual is to provide water distribution system operators with the knowledge and skills required to operate and maintain…

  14. Strontium Adsorption and Desorption Reactions in Model Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-04-2014 Journal Article Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model... strontium (Sr2+) adsorption to and desorption from iron corrosion products were examined in two model drinking water distribution systems (DWDS...used to control Sr2; desorption. calcium carbonate; drinking water distribution system; α-FeOOH; iron; strontium ; XANES Unclassified

  15. PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON TUBERCULATION FROM A SINGLE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion of iron pipes in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) contributes to the formation of tubercles whose physio-chemical properties are influenced by the composition of the waters in the distribution system. Thus the objective of this study was to assess the extent o...

  16. Distributed sensor for water and pH measurements using fiber optics and swellable polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michie, W. C.; Culshaw, B.; McKenzie, I.; Konstantakis, M.; Graham, N. B.; Moran, C.; Santos, F.; Bergqvist, E.; Carlstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and test of a generic form of sensor for making distributed measurements of a range of chemical parameters. The technique combines optical time-domain reflectometry with chemically sensitive water-swellable polymers (hydrogels). Initial experiments have concentrated on demonstrating a distributed water detector; however, gels have been developed that enable this sensor to be

  17. Spatial Description of Drinking Water Bacterial Community Structures in Bulk Water Samples Collected in a Metropolitan Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The description of microorganisms inhabiting drinking water distribution systems has commonly been performed using techniques that are biased towards easy to culture bacterial populations. As most environmental microorganisms cannot be grown on artificial media, our understanding...

  18. [Investigation of the distribution of water clusters in vegetables, fruits, and natural waters by flicker noise spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zubov, A V; Zubov, K V; Zubov, V A

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of water clusters in fresh rain water and in rain water that was aged for 30 days (North Germany, 53 degrees 33' N, 12 degrees 47' E, 293 K, rain on 25.06.06) as well as in fresh vegetables and fruits was studied by flicker noise spectroscopy. In addition, the development of water clusters in apples and potatoes during ripening in 2006 was investigated. A different distribution of water clusters in irrigation water (river and rain) and in the biomatrix of vegetables (potatoes, onions, tomatoes, red beets) and fruits (apples, bananas) was observed. It was concluded that the cluster structure of irrigation water differs from that of water of the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits and depends on drought and the biomatrix nature. Water clusters in plants are more stable and reproducible than water clusters in natural water. The main characteristics of cluster formation in materials studied were given. The oscillation frequencies of water clusters in plants (biofield) are given at which they interact with water clusters of the Earth hydrosphere. A model of series of clusters 16(H2O)100 <--> 4(H2O)402 <--> 2(H2O)903 <--> (H2O)1889 in the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits was discussed.

  19. Distribution of Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals during Metamorphic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals are a reservoir for water in otherwise dry rocks. This water may play a role in facilitating metamorphic reactions and enhancing deformation. In this study, we examined orthopyroxene-bearing granites from the Athabasca Granulite terrane in northern Saskatchewan. These rocks intruded the lower crust (pressures of 1 GPa) at circa 2.6 Ga at temperatures of > 900 ºC and were subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions (700 ºC and 1 GPa) in the Paleoproterozoic (Williams et al., 2000). One of the primary reactions recorded by these rocks is locally known as the "Mary" reaction and involves the anhydrous reaction: orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = clinopyroxene + garnet + Na-plagioclase. Measurements of water concentrations in both product and reactant assemblages were performed using a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and revealed that there is a slight excess of water in product minerals over reactant minerals. There are two possible explanations for this. The first is that water was derived from an external source, possibly hydrous, likely contemporaneous, mafic dikes. This interpretation is supported by higher concentrations of K, which is essentially absent from the reactant minerals, in the Na-rich rims of plagioclase. However, only modest amounts of external fluids could have been introduced, or amphiboles would have been stabilized at the expense of clinopyroxene (Moore & Carmichael, 1998). An alternative interpretation is that slightly more water-rich minerals reacted more readily, releasing water that was then incorporated into their products, whereas the water-poorer minerals failed to react. Support for this interpretation comes from very low water concentrations in orthopyroxene and plagioclase from an unreacted and undeformed sample. This interpretation suggests that water in anhydrous minerals may catalyze metamorphic reactions, and a lack of water may be critical for preserving metastable

  20. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  1. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  2. Numerical and experimental study on the flow distribution in a water manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Gwansik; Jong Lee, Pil; Kang, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    This study presents water distribution analysis of the device for spraying cooling water through specific nozzles numerically and experimentally. Numerical analysis was performed using the 3-D incompressible, multi-phase flow model, for different Reynolds numbers of 4 × 105, 8 × 105. Experimental analysis was performed at real-size, under the same conditions. The calculated results and the measured results for the distribution of flow were matched relatively well. The distribution of the nozzle flow depends on the Reynolds number.

  3. Realizing the potential of the CUAHSI Water Data Center to advance Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Seul, M.; Pollak, J.; Couch, A.

    2015-12-01

    The CUAHSI Water Data Center has developed a cloud-based system for data publication, discovery and access. Key features of this system are a semantically enabled catalog to discover data across more than 100 different services and delivery of data and metadata in a standard format. While this represents a significant technical achievement, the purpose of this system is to support data reanalysis for advancing science. A new web-based client, HydroClient, improves access to the data from previous clients. This client is envisioned as the first step in a workflow that can involve visualization and analysis using web-processing services, followed by download to local computers for further analysis. The release of the WaterML library in the R package CRAN repository is an initial attempt at linking the WDC services in a larger analysis workflow. We are seeking community input on other resources required to make the WDC services more valuable in scientific research and education.

  4. Distributed H2 Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  5. Mapping the ecological dimensions and potential distributions of endangered relic shrubs in western Ordos biodiversity center

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Geng-Ping; Li, Hui-Qi; Zhao, Li; Man, Liang; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Potential distributions of endemic relic shrubs in western Ordos were poorly mapped, which hindered our implementation of proper conservation. Here we investigated the applicability of ecological niche modeling for endangered relic shrubs to detect areas of priority for biodiversity conservation and analyze differences in ecological niche spaces used by relic shrubs. We applied ordination and niche modeling techniques to assess main environmental drivers of five endemic relic shrubs in western Ordos, namely, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, Amygdalus mongolica, Helianthemum songaricum, Potaninia mongolica, and Tetraena mongolica. We calculated niche overlap metrics in gridded environmental spaces and compared geographical projections of ecological niches to determine similarities and differences of niches occupied by relic shrubs. All studied taxa presented different responses to environmental factors, which resulted in a unique combination of niche conditions. Precipitation availability and soil quality characteristics play important roles in the distributions of most shrubs. Each relic shrub is constrained by a unique set of environmental conditions, the distribution of one species cannot be implied by the distribution of another, highlighting the inadequacy of one-fits-all type of conservation measure. Our stacked habitat suitability maps revealed regions around Yellow River, which are highly suitable for most species, thereby providing high conservation value. PMID:27199260

  6. Distribution of Water Use at Representative Fixed Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Vol 40, No. 2 (June 1979), pp 51-53. 11P. E. Searcy and T. deS. Furman , "Water Consumption by Institutions," Jour- nal American Water Works...Technical Report N-146 (U.S. Army Con- struction Engineering Research Laboratory [CERL], 1983). Search, P. E. and T. deS. Furman , "Water Consumption...36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 . Army Res. last. 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 US Army Air Def. Bd . 1113 1113 1113 1113 1113

  7. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, Thomas; Minor, Timothy; Pohll, Gregory

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during

  8. Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

  9. Diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Free-living amoebae are known to facilitate the growth of water associated pathogens. This study, for the first time, explored the diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system in Rouse Hill NSW, Australia. Water and biofilm samples w...

  10. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  11. Data documenting the potential distribution of Aedes aegypti in the center of Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Equihua, Miguel; Benítez, Griselda

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions" (M. Equihua, S. Ibáñez-Bernal, G. Benítez, I. Estrada-Contreras, C.A. Sandoval-Ruiz, F.S. Mendoza-Palmero, 2016) [1]. This article provides presence records in shapefile format used to generate maps of potential distribution of Aedes aegypti with different climate change scenarios as well as each of the maps obtained in raster format. In addition, tables with values of potential distribution of the vector as well as the average values of probability of presence including data of the mosquito incidence along the altitudinal range.

  12. Distribution, formation, and seasonal variability of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Sergey; Talley, Lynne; Kantakov, Gennady; Khen, Gennady; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2003-06-01

    Russian historical data and recently completed conductivity-temperature-depth surveys are used to examine the formation and spread in the deep Ohkotsk Sea of dense shelf water (DSW) produced in the Okhotsk Sea polynyas. Isopycnal analysis indicates that all of the main polynyas contribute to the ventilation at σθ < 26.80, including the Okhotsk Sea Mode Water (OSMW), which has densities σθ = 26.7-27.0. At densities greater than 26.9 σθ the northwest polynya is the only contributor to OSMW. (Although Shelikhov Bay polynyas produce the densest water with σθ > 27.1, vigorous tidal mixing leads to outflow of water with a density of only about 26.7 σθ). In the western Okhotsk Sea the East Sakhalin Current rapidly transports modified dense shelf water along the eastern Sakhalin slope to the Kuril Basin, where it is subject to further mixing because of the large anticyclonic eddies and tides. Most of the dense water flows off the shelves in spring. Their average flux does not exceed 0.2 Sv in summer and fall. The shelf water transport and water exchange with the North Pacific cause large seasonal variations of temperature at densities of 26.7-27.0 σθ (depths of 150-500 m) in the Kuril Basin, where the average temperature minimum occurs in April-May, and the average temperature maximum occurs in September, with a range of 0.2°-0.7°C. The average seasonal variations of salinity are quite small and do not exceed 0.05 psu. The Soya Water mixed by winter convection, penetrating to depths greater than 200 m, in the southern Kuril Basin also produces freezing water with density greater than 26.7 σθ. Using a simple isopycnal box model and seasonal observations, the OSMW production rate is seen to increase in summer up to 2.2 ± 1.7 Sv, mainly because of increased North Pacific inflow, and drops in winter to 0.2 ± 0.1 Sv. A compensating decrease in temperature in the Kuril Basin implies a DSW volume transport of 1.4 ± 1.1 Sv from February through May. The

  13. On the Spatial Distribution of High Velocity Al-26 Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We present results of simulations of the distribution of 1809 keV radiation from the decay of Al-26 in the Galaxy. Recent observations of this emission line using the Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) have indicated that the bulk of the AL-26 must have a velocity of approx. 500 km/ s. We have previously shown that a velocity this large could be maintained over the 10(exp 6) year lifetime of the Al-26 if it is trapped in dust grains that are reaccelerated periodically in the ISM. Here we investigate whether a dust grain velocity of approx. 500 km/ s will produce a distribution of 1809 keV emission in latitude that is consistent with the narrow distribution seen by COMPTEL. We find that dust grain velocities in the range 275 - 1000 km/ s are able to reproduce the COMPTEL 1809 keV emission maps reconstructed using the Richardson-Lucy and Maximum Entropy image reconstruction methods while the emission map reconstructed using the Multiresolution Regularized Expectation Maximization algorithm is not well fit by any of our models. The Al-26 production rate that is needed to reproduce the observed 1809 keV intensity yields in a Galactic mass of Al-26 of approx. 1.5 - 2 solar mass which is in good agreement with both other observations and theoretical production rates.

  14. Using and Distributing Spaceflight Data: The Johnson Space Center Life Sciences Data Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, J. A.; Buckey, J. C.; Turner, J. N.; White, T. S.; Havelka,J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Life sciences data collected before, during and after spaceflight are valuable and often irreplaceable. The Johnson Space Center Life is hard to find, and much of the data (e.g. Sciences Data Archive has been designed to provide researchers, engineers, managers and educators interactive access to information about and data from human spaceflight experiments. The archive system consists of a Data Acquisition System, Database Management System, CD-ROM Mastering System and Catalog Information System (CIS). The catalog information system is the heart of the archive. The CIS provides detailed experiment descriptions (both written and as QuickTime movies), hardware descriptions, hardware images, documents, and data. An initial evaluation of the archive at a scientific meeting showed that 88% of those who evaluated the catalog want to use the system when completed. The majority of the evaluators found the archive flexible, satisfying and easy to use. We conclude that the data archive effectively provides key life sciences data to interested users.

  15. The Distribution and Status of Bats at Fort Irwin National Training Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    seasonally occupies and vacates very large aggregated roosts in the Central Valley and is significant among mortalities in Sacramento Delta wind turbine ...O’Connell, M. D. Piorkowski and R. D. Tankersley. 2008. Patterns of bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America. Journal of Wildlife ...the very limited spring sites with surface water and localized mesic vegetation attract concentrations of wildlife , including bats. Resource

  16. On the vertical distribution of water vapor in the Martian tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Although measurements of the column abundance of atmospheric water vapor on Mars have been made, measurements of its vertical distribution have not. How water is distributed in the vertical is fundamental to atmosphere-surface exchange processes, and especially to transport within the atmosphere. Several lines of evidence suggest that in the lowest several scale heights of the atmosphere, water vapor is nearly uniformly distributed. However, most of these arguments are suggestive rather than conclusive since they only demonstrate that the altitude to saturation is very high if the observed amount of water vapor is distributed uniformly. A simple argument is presented, independent of the saturation constraint, which suggests that in tropical regions, water vapor on Mars should be very nearly uniformly mixed on an annual and zonally averaged basis.

  17. Temporal and spatial variations of water qualities and fish fauna distributions in the Kaname river, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, K.; Kitano, T.; Kutsumi, M.; Shimizu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Fish fauna distributions had been studied at many places and they indicated that the fish distributions were dramatically different depending on fish species and local environment such as water temperature, current, sediment parameters. But the relationships between water qualities and fish fauna distribution have not been understood well. In order to find physical and chemical environment factors which relate to the fish fauna distribution, we investigated the temporal and spatial change of water qualities and fish distributions in Kaname river, Japan. We measured both of physical (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a and turbidity) and chemical (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphoric and suspended solids) water parameters and surveyed the fish distribution. The field observations were conducted seasonally and check the season differences. Observation results showed that Gobiidae and Cyprinidae fishes live in the Kaname river and the distribution was clearly classified with the species. And also chemical water qualities were dramatically different by location. Especially the effects of sewage farms on water qualities were detected. This study will be contributory to reveal the relationships between fish fauna distribution and environmental parameters and it will lead to the ecological preservation.

  18. Pesticides in surface waters: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Capel, Paul D.; Majewski, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Pesticde use in agriculture and non-agriculture settings has increased dramatically over the last several decades. Concern about adverse effects on the environment and human health has spurred an enormous amount of research into their environmental behavior and fate. Pesticides in Surface Waters presents a comprehensive summary of this research. This book evaluates published studies that focus on measuring pesticide concentration. The studies chosen include peer reviewed scientific literature, government reports, laboratory studies, and those using microcosms and artificial streams and ponds. The authors used this information to develop their overview of pesticide contamination of surface waters. The exhaustive compilation of data along with the fundamental science make this book essential for those involved in pesticide use, environmental protection, water quality, and human or ecological risk assessment. Pesticides in Surface Waters covers the results of actual studies, sources of pesticides to surface water, fate and transport, and environmental significance. Hundreds of data-packed tables, maps, charts, and drawings illustrate the key points, making research and application easy and cost effective.

  19. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  20. Water quality in a rural river environment: distribution of metals among water and sediment compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A.; Parker, A.; Alencoao, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sediments have a significant influence on water quality, owing to their role both as a sink and a potential source of pollutants. In fluvial environments from mountainous catchments, the dynamics of sediment particles and particle-bound contaminants are still poorly understood. As stated by Symader et al. (2007), bottom sediments of small rivers in mountainous areas behave like a transport system of its own and show high temporal variation in their chemical composition. The transport of significant sedimentary loads, as suspended matter, in short periods of time, mainly in winter, poses some issues concerning monitoring and modelling approaches of the transport and fate of micro-pollutants at the catchment scale. On one hand, high stream-flow velocity peaks make it difficult or impossible to maintain suspended sediment samplers fixed in the river channel. On the other hand, the cycle of deposition and re-suspension of finer material, throughout the hydrological year, leads to temporal changes of sediment properties. Our contribution reports some results of an investigation on the water quality in a mountainous rural meso-scale catchment, located in the NE of Portugal. The study integrates the examination of metal contents in the sediments and the water body. The river-bottom sediments and water were simply collected in a planned sampling network, in two different periods of the hydrological year (high and low flow). The finer and most recently deposited sediment was preferentially sampled, and the <63µm granulometric class analysed for the potentially bioavailable fraction. Three metals were considered to illustrate the observations resulting from the combination of data on its dissolved and particulate contents. These are Cu, Pb and Zn, which show similar spatial and temporal distributions at the catchment scale. In the main streams a general increase of metal contents in the potentially bioavailable fraction is observed downstream. The residual fraction

  1. Developing physical exposure-based back injury risk models applicable to manual handling jobs in distribution centers.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Marras, William S; Ferguson, Sue A; Splittstoesser, Riley E; Yang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Using our ultrasound-based "Moment Monitor," exposures to biomechanical low back disorder risk factors were quantified in 195 volunteers who worked in 50 different distribution center jobs. Low back injury rates, determined from a retrospective examination of each company's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 300 records over the 3-year period immediately prior to data collection, were used to classify each job's back injury risk level. The analyses focused on the factors differentiating the high-risk jobs (those having had 12 or more back injuries/200,000 hr of exposure) from the low-risk jobs (those defined as having no back injuries in the preceding 3 years). Univariate analyses indicated that measures of load moment exposure and force application could distinguish between high (n = 15) and low (n = 15) back injury risk distribution center jobs. A three-factor multiple logistic regression model capable of predicting high-risk jobs with very good sensitivity (87%) and specificity (73%) indicated that risk could be assessed using the mean across the sampled lifts of the peak forward and or lateral bending dynamic load moments that occurred during each lift, the mean of the peak push/pull forces across the sampled lifts, and the mean duration of the non-load exposure periods. A surrogate model, one that does not require the Moment Monitor equipment to assess a job's back injury risk, was identified although with some compromise in model sensitivity relative to the original model.

  2. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  3. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  4. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  5. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  6. Spatial Distribution of CO Isotopologue Abundance Ratios in the Center of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, A.; Kohno, K.; Tamura, Y.; Izumi, T.; Takano, S.; Nakajima, T.; Tosaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present an initial result of the spatial distribution of [12CO]/[13CO] and [C16O]/[C18O] abundance ratios in the central ˜1 kpc region of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 observed with ALMA Cycle 0. With non-LTE analyses, both ratios are found to be different between the central circumnuclear disk (CND) and surrounding starburst ring (the Ring). The very high (˜300-1000) value may reflects the difference of chemical evolution and environment at the Ring.

  7. Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, V. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to TriNet consists primarily of short-period, 100-samples-per-second waveforms from the SCSN. The addition of the TriNet array added continuous recordings of 155 broadband stations (20 samples per second or less), and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet use the same Oracle database system, new earthquake data are available to the seismological community in near real-time. Primary access to the database and waveforms is through the Seismogram Transfer Program (STP) interface. The interface enables users to search the database for earthquake information, phase picks, and continuous and triggered waveform data. Output is available in SAC, miniSEED, and other formats. Both the raw counts format (V0) and the gain-corrected format (V1) of COSMOS (Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems) are now supported by STP. EQQuest is an interface to prepackaged waveform data sets for select earthquakes in Southern California stored at the SCEDC. Waveform data for large-magnitude events have been prepared and new data sets will be available for download in near real-time following major events. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9.2.0.1 database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. The DISC optical-disk system (the "jukebox") that currently serves as the mass-storage for the SCEDC is in the process of being replaced

  8. MONOCHLORAMINE DECAY IN MODEL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WATER. (R826832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Chloramines have long been used to provide a disinfecting residual in distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain a free chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product (DBP) formation is of concern. While chloramines are generally considered les...

  9. State of Technology for Rehabilitation of Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact that the lack of investment in water infrastructure will have on the performance of aging underground infrastructure over time is well documented and the needed funding estimates range as high as $325 billion over the next 20 years. With the current annual replacement...

  10. URBAN WATER SYSTEM PATHOGEN ASSESSMENTS: SIGNIFICANCE OF DISTRIBUTION BIOFILMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), while not new to science is now providing a fundamental role in framing water guidelines internationally as well as identifying research gaps to be filled. Professor Ashbolt has been instrumental in working QMRA concepts into WHO gui...

  11. URBAN WATER SYSTEM PATHOGEN ASSESSMENT: SIGNIFICANCE OF DISTRIBUTION BIOFILMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), while not new to science is now providing a fundamental role in framing water guidelines internationally as well as identifying research gaps to be filled. Professor Ashbolt has been instrumental in working QMRA concepts into WHO gui...

  12. Identification, distribution, and toxigenicity of obligate anaerobes in polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, O P; Joseph, S W; Gillmore, J D; Colwell, R R; Seidler, R J

    1981-01-01

    A seasonal occurrence of obligately anaerobic bacteria, predominantly of the genera Bacteroides and Clostridium, in a polluted water site has been observed. The number of anaerobes varied from 1.8 X 10(3) cells/ml in the warmer months to 10 cells/ml in winter. Several isolates were toxigenic, indicating a potential human health hazard. PMID:7235706

  13. Rehabilitation of Wastewater Collection and Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation’s 54,000 drinking water systems and 16,000 wastewater systems are nearing the end of their useful life and need to be replaced/repaired to comply with federal regulations. Rehabilitation includes a broad spectrum of approaches, from repair to replacement that attempt ...

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  15. Vortex distribution in amorphous Mo80Ge20 plates with artificial pinning center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Huy, Ho Thanh; Miyoshi, Hiroki; Okamoto, Takuto; Dang, Vu The; Kato, Masaru; Ishida, Takekazu

    2016-11-01

    Vortices in superconductor give rise to a rich variety of phenomena because they interact with shielding currents, temperature gradients, sample defects, boundaries, and other neighboring vortices. It would be very important to understand particular features of vortex states in a downsized system. Our study focuses on vortex states in small star-shaped Mo80Ge20 plates with and without an artificial pin at the plate center. Vortex states are greatly influenced by the sample geometry, the temperature and the magnetic field, and they can be occasionally exotic compared to the bulk case. We use the amorphous Mo80Ge20 films due to the nature of weak pinning in studying vortex configurations. We applied scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy because it enables us to see vortex states directly and it is the most sensitive instrument for mapping tiny local current flows or magnetic moments without damaging the sample. We interpreted that vortex configurations had essentially the nature of mirror reflection symmetry in both cases with an artificial pin and without an artificial pin and pinned cases while the influence of disorder was seen in our observation on the specimen without an artificial pin.

  16. Ozone and Water Vapor Distributions and Variability in the Vicinity of a Midlatitude Upper Tropospheric Front and Jet Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, M. A.; Barrick, J. D.; Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Diskin, G.; Podolske, J.

    2002-05-01

    Measurements of in situ ozone, remote and in situ water vapor, and meteorological variables were performed from the NASA DC-8 in the upper troposphere and tropopause region over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (SGP CART) site in Lamont, Oklahoma. These DC-8 flights occurred in November and December of 2000 during an intensive operating period of the ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX). Although the main goal of this intensive period of the AFWEX experiment was to characterize the accuracy of several remote and in situ water vapor measurements, flight patterns predominantly located in the upper troposphere, near the tropopause, provided an opportunity to collect a rich data set for mapping ozone and water vapor distributions and variability near an active midlatitude wintertime jet. We present a detailed mapping and analysis of a pronounced upper tropospheric trough and windspeed maximum in the wintertime mid-latitude jet that occurred over Oklahoma on December 9 and 10 of 2000, using both Cartesian and jet-centered coordinates. Ozone and water vapor correlations and variability during the previous several days before this event are compared to measurements taken during the more dynamically active period. We also estimate the local, irreversible cross-tropopause ozone and water vapor fluxes from the DC-8 aircraft data, and we compare the observed upper tropospheric frontal structure with the classical model and theoretical predictions.

  17. Effect of pH and KCl concentration on the octanol-water distribution of methylanilines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.A.; Westall, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    The distributions of aniline, 4-methylaniline, 3,4-dimethylaniline, and 2,4,5-trimethylaniline between octanol and water were determined as a function of pH and KCl concentration in the aqueous phase. The data were interpreted in terms of a multicomponent equilibrium model with anilinium in the water-saturated octanol as free ions and ion pairs. The implications of these results to the use of the octanol-water reference system for organic bases and to the sorbent-water distribution of organic bases in the environment is discussed.

  18. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from nondisinfected drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Borchardt, Mark A; Kieke, Burney A; Spencer, Susan K; Loge, Frank J

    2012-09-04

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence from virus intrusions into the distribution systems of 14 nondisinfecting, groundwater-source, community water systems. Water samples for virus quantification were collected monthly at wells and households during four 12-week periods in 2006-2007. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was installed on the communities' wellheads during one study year; UV was absent the other year. UV was intended to eliminate virus contributions from the wells and without residual disinfectant present in these systems, any increase in virus concentration downstream at household taps represented virus contributions from the distribution system (Approach 1). During no-UV periods, distribution system viruses were estimated by the difference between well water and household tap virus concentrations (Approach 2). For both approaches, a Monte Carlo risk assessment framework was used to estimate AGI risk from distribution systems using study-specific exposure-response relationships. Depending on the exposure-response relationship selected, AGI risk from the distribution systems was 0.0180-0.0661 and 0.001-0.1047 episodes/person-year estimated by Approaches 1 and 2, respectively. These values represented 0.1-4.9% of AGI risk from all exposure routes, and 1.6-67.8% of risk related to drinking water exposure. Virus intrusions into nondisinfected drinking water distribution systems can contribute to sporadic AGI.

  19. Characterization of dissolved organic matter biodegradability in waters: Impact of water treatment and bacterial regrowth in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, S.; Patrick, L.; Dominique, G.

    1996-11-01

    Bacterial growth in distribution systems leading to the degradation of the bacteriological water quality is an actual problem for many water works. The increase in bacterial abundance can be at the origin of various problems for drinking producers and consumers, including heterotrophic plate counts higher than the recommendation values (in Europe, 100 cells/ml at 20 {degrees}C and 10 cells/ml at 37 {degrees}C), development of a trophic web with growth of higher organisms, modification of the water characteristics (turbidity, taste, odor, color), interference in the detection of sanitary indicators. In this context, several studies have been conducted in the last two years to investigate the role of various factors on bacterial dynamics in distribution systems. In order to prevent and control bacterial multiplication in distribution systems, most of the water utilities used chlorination of treated water. An alternative approach to control bacterial growth in distribution system is the limitation of the nutrient source required for the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, i.e. the biodegradable organic matter (BOM). This solution, in addition to reduce bacterial growth by limiting the nutrient sources, offers two additional advantages: removal of organic matter initially reduces the formation of undesirable disinfection by products as THM during chlorination and also increases the stability of the chlorine residual in the distribution system by reducing chlorine demand.

  20. Characteristics of service requests and service processes of fire and rescue service dispatch centers: analysis of real world data and the underlying probability distributions.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Ute; Schimmelpfeng, Katja

    2013-03-01

    A sufficient staffing level in fire and rescue dispatch centers is crucial for saving lives. Therefore, it is important to estimate the expected workload properly. For this purpose, we analyzed whether a dispatch center can be considered as a call center. Current call center publications very often model call arrivals as a non-homogeneous Poisson process. This bases on the underlying assumption of the caller's independent decision to call or not to call. In case of an emergency, however, there are often calls from more than one person reporting the same incident and thus, these calls are not independent. Therefore, this paper focuses on the dependency of calls in a fire and rescue dispatch center. We analyzed and evaluated several distributions in this setting. Results are illustrated using real-world data collected from a typical German dispatch center in Cottbus ("Leitstelle Lausitz"). We identified the Pólya distribution as being superior to the Poisson distribution in describing the call arrival rate and the Weibull distribution to be more suitable than the exponential distribution for interarrival times and service times. However, the commonly used distributions offer acceptable approximations. This is important for estimating a sufficient staffing level in practice using, e.g., the Erlang-C model.

  1. Virus contamination from operation and maintenance events in small drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Spencer, Susan K; Kieke, Burney A; Loge, Frank J; Borchardt, Mark A

    2011-12-01

    We tested the association of common events in drinking water distribution systems with contamination of household tap water with human enteric viruses. Viruses were enumerated by qPCR in the tap water of 14 municipal systems that use non-disinfected groundwater. Ultraviolet disinfection was installed at all active wellheads to reduce virus contributions from groundwater to the distribution systems. As no residual disinfectant was added to the water, any increase in virus levels measured downstream at household taps would be indicative of distribution system intrusions. Utility operators reported events through written questionnaires. Virus outcome measures were related to distribution system events using binomial and gamma regression. Virus concentrations were elevated in the wells, reduced or eliminated by ultraviolet disinfection, and elevated again in distribution systems, showing that viruses were, indeed, directly entering the systems. Pipe installation was significantly associated with higher virus levels, whereas hydrant flushing was significantly associated with lower virus levels. Weak positive associations were observed for water tower maintenance, valve exercising, and cutting open a water main. Coliform bacteria detections from routine monitoring were not associated with viruses. Understanding when distribution systems are most vulnerable to virus contamination, and taking precautionary measures, will ensure delivery of safe drinking water.

  2. Evaluating online data of water quality changes in a pilot drinking water distribution system with multivariate data exploration methods.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Satu M; Tissari, Soile; Huikko, Laura; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Lehtola, Markku J; Hirvonen, Arja

    2008-05-01

    The distribution of drinking water generates soft deposits and biofilms in the pipelines of distribution systems. Disturbances in water distribution can detach these deposits and biofilms and thus deteriorate the water quality. We studied the effects of simulated pressure shocks on the water quality with online analysers. The study was conducted with copper and composite plastic pipelines in a pilot distribution system. The online data gathered during the study was evaluated with Self-Organising Map (SOM) and Sammon's mapping, which are useful methods in exploring large amounts of multivariate data. The objective was to test the usefulness of these methods in pinpointing the abnormal water quality changes in the online data. The pressure shocks increased temporarily the number of particles, turbidity and electrical conductivity. SOM and Sammon's mapping were able to separate these situations from the normal data and thus make those visible. Therefore these methods make it possible to detect abrupt changes in water quality and thus to react rapidly to any disturbances in the system. These methods are useful in developing alert systems and predictive applications connected to online monitoring.

  3. NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER WATER JET PUMP TEST FACILITY IN TEST CELL SE-12 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER WATER JET PUMP TEST FACILITY IN TEST CELL SE-12 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB - ALKALI METAL LOW PRESSURE PUMP FACILITY AND ALKALI METAL HIGH PRESSURE PUMP FACILITY IN CELL W-6 OF THE COMPRESSOR & TURBINE WING C&T

  4. Targeted VLA Observations of 22 GHz Water Masers Towards the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickert, Matthew; Ott, Juergen; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Meier, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) has a unique environment with a large amount (5 x107 M⊙) of dense (104 cm-3) warm (75-200 K) molecular gas. To probe sites of ongoing star formation in this region, we carried out follow-up VLA observations targeting 22 GHz water masers detected by a recent Mopra survey of the inner 3° x 1° of the Galactic Center (Chambers et al. 2014, A&A 563, A68). We present preliminary results of these measurements with higher angular resolution (2" x 0.9"), spectral resolution (0.2 km s-1), and sensitivity (40 mJy beam-1) and a velocity coverage of -200 to 250 km s-1. A total of 32 maser positions are detected. Several sources display complex spectra with a number of new velocity components. From the 32 maser positions, over 200 spectral features have been identified, indicating clusters of masers. The complex spectra are indicative of young (< 105 years) star forming regions, with some of the components likely being produced from outflows. The brightest component is over 500 Jy beam-1 towards the HII region G359.14+0.03 with a vLSR of -9 km s-1. The most prominent location of water masers is the star forming region Sgr B2, where over 80 spectral components are identified from 9 different positions with peak flux densities ranging from 0.8 to 142 Jy beam-1. Three of these positions contain enhanced 4.5 μm green extended sources, indicating these masers are likely associated with outflows. Sgr C contains 3 separate maser positions with a total of 4 spectral components ranging from -70 to -66 km s-1 and peak flux densities of 4 to 15 Jy beam-1. One of these positions is also associated with a green source. We will compare the water maser positions with positions of radiatively pumped 6.7 GHz methanol masers and other green (3-8 μm) sources. This comparison will be used to verify that star formation is the underlying source of these masers and to identify masers associated with outlfows.

  5. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts.

  6. A Methodology for Optimal Design of Water Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    water supply system in which shortfalls are caused by random pump failures. An economic model is developed that allows the user to evaluate the...Reliability has an economic value. Perfect reliability is not necessarily the best economic solution as already has been mentioned. To be able to...compute the penalty due to imperfect reliability, one has to assign an economic loss function to shortfalls according to their magnitude and the time at

  7. Assessing soil water storage distribution under sprinkler irrigation by coupling 3D simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Uday; Shabeeb, Ahmed; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This work analyzed the variability of sprinkler irrigation application over a bare soil, both in terms of water application efficiency and uniformity, by integrating and comparing the information on the irrigation depth data (ID), as measured by catch cans, soil water storage in the upper root zone, as measured by TDR probes, and a 3D simulations of water flow in soils. Three irrigation tests were performed at three different pressures (2, 3 and 4 bar). A lateral water redistribution was observed and simulated after each irrigation event by comparing spatial distributions of site-specific water application efficiency (AEs), as well as ratios of site-specific actual water storage increase (SWEs) and irrigation depth (IDs) to the water content before irrigation. Because of soil water redistribution processes, distribution uniformity based on soil storages was systematically higher than the catch can uniformity. The obvious consequence of lateral water redistribution processes was that the soil smoothing action on non-uniformity observed at the surface increased both with depth and over time. At a given depth the uniformity of soil water storages always attained the same value, whatever the pressure considered and the catch can-based uniformity coefficient. It was concluded that, for the case of random distribution of ID, the uniformity of water storages is driven by the soil behavior rather than by the irrigation system.

  8. GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION, REDOX ZONATION, AND CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION AT A GROUNDWATER/SURFACE WATER INTERFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three transects along a groundwater/surface water interface were characterized for spatial distributions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and geochemical conditions to evaluate the natural bioremediation potential of this environmental system. Partly on the basis of ground p...

  9. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  10. Probing the water on chemically heterogeneous surface: interfacial-structural analysis for surface charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sucheol; Willard, Adam

    We introduce the novel method for predicting the charge distribution of chemically heterogeneous surface, but reconstructed from the perspective of the interfacial water molecules. Our approach is to analyze the response of water to a disordered surface and infer from that response the heterogeneous distribution of surface charge. We accomplish this using a framework that is based on a probabilistic description of water's interfacial molecular structure and maximum likelihood estimation. This framework allows to deduce the apparent charge that is most congruently represented by the set of water configurations over the particular region of a surface. We demonstrate that the estimated charge distribution is consistent to the actual distribution for a static model substrate and hence that our method can be applied to investigate a dynamic fluctuating substrate such as the surface of a hydrated protein. This novel technique provides the useful information that can reflect the influence of fluctuations in the structure of biomolecule.

  11. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-05

    In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  12. Data Access Tools And Services At The Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L. B.; Eng, E.; Sweatman, P.

    2003-12-01

    As one of the largest providers of Earth Science data from the Earth Observing System, GDAAC provides the latest data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) data products via GDAAC's data pool (50TB of disk cache). In order to make this huge volume of data more accessible to the public and science communities, the GDAAC offers multiple data access tools and services: Open Source Project for Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS/DODS) (GDS), Live Access Server (LAS), OpenGIS Web Map Server (WMS) and Near Archive Data Mining (NADM). The objective is to assist users in retrieving electronically a smaller, usable portion of data for further analysis. The OPeNDAP server, formerly known as the Distributed Oceanographic Data System (DODS), allows the user to retrieve data without worrying about the data format. OPeNDAP is capable of server-side subsetting of HDF, HDF-EOS, netCDF, JGOFS, ASCII, DSP, FITS and binary data formats. The GrADS/DODS server is capable of serving the same data formats as OPeNDAP. GDS has an additional feature of server-side analysis. Users can analyze the data on the server there by decreasing the computational load on their client's system. The LAS is a flexible server that allows user to graphically visualize data on the fly, to request different file formats and to compare variables from distributed locations. Users of LAS have options to use other available graphics viewers such as IDL, Matlab or GrADS. WMS is based on the OPeNDAP for serving geospatial information. WMS supports OpenGIS protocol to provide data in GIS-friendly formats for analysis and visualization. NADM is another access to the GDAAC's data pool. NADM gives users the capability to use a browser to upload their C, FORTRAN or IDL algorithms, test the algorithms, and mine data in the data pool. With NADM, the GDAAC provides an

  13. Data Access Tools And Services At The Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Long; Eng, Eunice; Sweatman, Paul

    2003-01-01

    As one of the largest providers of Earth Science data from the Earth Observing System, GDAAC provides the latest data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) data products via GDAAC's data pool (50TB of disk cache). In order to make this huge volume of data more accessible to the public and science communities, the GDAAC offers multiple data access tools and services: Open Source Project for Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS/DODS) (GDS), Live Access Server (LAS), OpenGlS Web Map Server (WMS) and Near Archive Data Mining (NADM). The objective is to assist users in retrieving electronically a smaller, usable portion of data for further analysis. The OPeNDAP server, formerly known as the Distributed Oceanographic Data System (DODS), allows the user to retrieve data without worrying about the data format. OPeNDAP is capable of server-side subsetting of HDF, HDF-EOS, netCDF, JGOFS, ASCII, DSP, FITS and binary data formats. The GrADS/DODS server is capable of serving the same data formats as OPeNDAP. GDS has an additional feature of server-side analysis. Users can analyze the data on the server there by decreasing the computational load on their client's system. The LAS is a flexible server that allows user to graphically visualize data on the fly, to request different file formats and to compare variables from distributed locations. Users of LAS have options to use other available graphics viewers such as IDL, Matlab or GrADS. WMS is based on the OPeNDAP for serving geospatial information. WMS supports OpenGlS protocol to provide data in GIs-friendly formats for analysis and visualization. NADM is another access to the GDAAC's data pool. NADM gives users the capability to use a browser to upload their C, FORTRAN or IDL algorithms, test the algorithms, and mine data in the data pool. With NADM, the GDAAC provides an

  14. Prediction of full-scale dewatering results of sewage sludges by the physical water distribution.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2001-01-01

    The dewaterability of sewage sludge can be described by the total solids concentration of the sludge cake and the polymer-demand for conditioning. The total solids concentration of the sludge cake depends on the physical water distribution. The various types of water in sewage sludge are mainly distinguished by the type and the intensity of their physical bonding to the solids. In a sewage sludge suspension four different types of water can be distinguished. These are the free water, which is not bound to the particles, the interstitial water, which is bound by capillary forces between the sludge flocs, the surface water, which is bound by adhesive forces and intracellular water. Only the share of free water can be separated during mechanical dewatering. It can be shown, that by thermo-gravimeteric measurement of the free water content, an exact prediction of full-scale dewatering results is possible. By separation of all free water during centrifugation the maximum dewatering result is reached. Polymer conditioning increases the velocity of the sludge water release, but the free water content is not influenced by this process. Furthermore it is not possible, to replace the measuring of the water distribution by other individual parameters such as ignition loss.

  15. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. [Retrieve of red tide distributions from MODIS data based on the characteristics of water spectrum].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhong-Feng; Cui, Ting-Wei; He, Yi-Jun

    2011-08-01

    After comparing the spectral differences between red tide water and normal water, we developed a method to retrieve red tide distributions from MODIS data based on the characteristics of red tide water spectrum. The authors used the 119 series of in situ observations to validate the method and found that only one observation has not been detected correctly. The authors then applied this method to MODIS data on April 4, 2005. In the research areas three locations of red tide water were apparently detected with the total areas about 2 000 km2. The retrieved red tide distributions are in good agreement with the distributions of high chlorophyll a concentrations. The research suggests that the method is available to eliminating the influence of suspended sediments and can be used to retrieve the locations and areas of red tide water.

  17. Water body distributions across scales: a comparison of three Arctic wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, S.; Heim, B.; Abnizova, A.; Boike, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water bodies are ubiquitous features in Arctic wetlands, ranging from very small polygonal ponds to very large thermokarst lakes. Ponds, i.e. waters with a surface area smaller than 1 ha, have been recognized as hotspots of biological activity and greenhouse gas emissions. Regional and global models, however, cannot resolve ponds due to the coarse resolution. The aims of this study were to identify common characteristics of Arctic wetlands regarding (1) water body size and abundance, and (2) Landsat subpixel fraction of water cover. We mapped water bodies in three Arctic wetlands, i.e. Polar Bear Pass on Bathurst Island in the Canadian High Arctic, Samoylov Island in the Lena River Delta in Siberia, Russia, and Barrow Peninsula on the Alaska Coastal Plain. High-resolution (0.3 to 4 m) water body maps were overlain on to Landsat albedo maps to extract the proportion of open water within a Landsat mixed pixel. At all three sites ponds occupied 95% of the total number of surface waters. Surface waters smaller than 0.1 ha, which cannot be detected with Landsat data, still contributed 60% and higher to the total number. All study areas showed similar rates of decline in water body abundance with increasing water surface area (Fig. 1). Previous studies have fitted abundance-size distributions of water bodies to the Pareto distribution, which appears linear on a log-log plot. Our data, however, shows paretian behavior only in the upper tail of the distribution so that the Pareto distribution strongly overestimates small water bodies. Landsat albedo increased with decreasing proportion of open water cover per Landsat pixel. Linear regressions for albedo values with a subpixel water cover between 100% and less than 5% showed r-square values larger than 0.8, which constitutes a better performance than other more complex unmixing methods. In conclusion, all three wetlands showed similar properties regarding size-abundance data of water bodies, scaling errors, and retrieval of

  18. Dissolved water distribution in vesicular magmatic glass records both decompressive bubble growth and quench resorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, I. M.; Llewellin, E.; Humphreys, M.; Nichols, A. R.; Burgisser, A.; Schipper, C.

    2013-12-01

    Water distribution in magma varies over the lifetime of an eruption due to a variety of processes, including decompressive degassing of the melt, cooling during the quench from melt to glass, and post-emplacement hydration under ambient conditions. Correct interpretation of water distributions in erupted pyroclasts can therefore offer crucial insights into the dynamics of eruption mechanisms and emplacement histories. Volcanic eruptions are driven by the nucleation and growth of bubbles in magma. Bubbles grow as volatile species in the melt, of which water is volumetrically the most important, diffuse down a concentration gradient towards and across the bubble wall. On cooling, the melt quenches to glass, preserving the spatial distribution of water concentration around the bubbles (now vesicles). We use Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (BSEM), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) to measure the spatial distribution of water around vesicles in experimentally-vesiculated samples. We find that, contrary to expectation, the total water concentration increases (by up to 2 wt.%) in the ~30 microns closest to the vesicle wall. Our samples record significant resorption of water back into the melt around bubbles during the quench process, a process which represents ';regassing' of the magma. We propose that the observed total water resorption profiles result from the increase in the equilibrium solubility of water as temperature decreases during the quench to glass, and that this resorption locally overprints the pre-existing concentration total water profile resulting from bubble growth during decompression. This resorption occurs over the very short timescales of rapid experimental quench (3-10 seconds) resulting in strongly disequilibrium water speciation. Water re-enters the melt as molecular water leading to enrichment in molecular water around vesicles, while the distribution of hydroxyl groups remains

  19. Observations of Water Ice Distribution in the HD169142 Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Icy grains play an important role on planetesimal/planet formation and related matters. Therefore, to reveal ice dust distribution within a protoplanetary disk is an important work for understanding planet formation. However, observations of icy grain IN THE DISK are scarce due to various observational limitations. Here we propose observations to trace the icy grains by making K, H_2O ice, and L' imaging photometric observations of disk scattered light to derive H_2O ice dust distribution in a disk surface via 3.1 mu m absorption. For the moment, only Gemini/NICI is capable of such observations. We have already demonstrated the effectiveness of such observing method toward Herbig Fe star HD142527. Since some theoretical studies suggest that there are no ice grains at the surface of the disk around A/B stars due to intense UV irradiation, we propose to observe disks around Herbig Ae star HD169142. When we fail to detect the ice feature, it supports the theoretical prediction that photodesorption is important. While the ice feature is detected, it requires reconsideration of the theories and provides an important constraint for the disk chemistry.

  20. Observations of Water Ice Distribution in the Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Icy grains play an important role on planetesimal/planet formation and related matters. Therefore, to reveal ice dust distribution within a protoplanetary disk is an important work for understanding planet formation. However, observations of icy grain IN THE DISK are scarce due to various observational limitations. Here we propose observations to trace the icy grains by making K, H_2O ice, and L' imaging photometric observations of disk scattered light to derive H_2O ice dust distribution in a disk surface via 3.1 mu m absorption. For the moment, only Gemini/NICI is capable of such observations. We have already demonstrated the effectiveness of such observing method toward Herbig Fe star HD142527. Since some theoretical studies suggest that there are no ice grains at the surface of the disk around A/B stars due to intense UV irradiation, we propose to observe disks around Herbig Be star HD100546. When we fail to detect the ice feature, it supports the theoretical prediction that photodesorption is important. While the ice feature is detected, it requires reconsideration of the theories and provides an important constraint for the disk chemistry.

  1. Water and soil biotic relations in Mercury distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.; Puerner, N.; Speitel, T.; Thorarinsson, F.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of Hg is considered both in terms of its availability in soil fractions and the relationship between Hg in plant samples and Hg in ambient soils or other supportive media. The plants were grouped by habitat into epipedic-epiphytic (mosses, lichens) and endopedic-aquatic-marine (Basidiomycetes and algae) samples; nonvascular and vascular forms were also distinguished. Sources included Alaska, Hawaii, New England and Iceland. Brief consideration was also given to Hg distribution in a plant-animal-soil community. Data were expressed in terms of plant Hg content and plant substratum concentration ratio. Average Hg contents and concentration ratios, and modal ranges for the ratios were determined. The results showed similar average Hg contents in all groups (126 to 199 ppb) but a low value (84 ppb) in the lichens; terrestrial forms had ratios of 3.5 to 7.6 whereas the marine algae yielded a figure of 78.7. A secondary mode in the range 0 to 0.1 appeared only in the Alaska-New England Group, over 500 km distant from active thermal sites. Evidence for both exclusion and concentration behavior was obtained.

  2. Investigation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wu, H; Wang, Z; Ong, S L; Hu, J Y; Ng, W J

    2002-02-01

    This paper investigated the variation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentrations in water from several typical water treatment plants and distribution systems in a northern city of China. It is concluded from this study that: (1) The AOC in most of the product water of the studied water treatment plants and the water from the associated distribution systems could not meet the biostability criteria of 50-100 microg/L. (2) Only 4% of the measured AOC concentrations were less than 100 microg/L. However, about half of the measured AOC values were less than 200 microg/L. (3) Better source water quality resulted in lower AOC concentrations. (4) The variation of AOC concentrations in distribution systems was affected by chlorine oxidation and bacterial activity: the former resulted in an increase of AOC value while the latter led to a reduction in AOC. (5) The variation of AOC concentration followed different patterns in different distribution systems or different seasons due to their respective operational characteristics. (6) Less than 30% of AOC could be removed by a conventional treatment process, whereas 30-60% with a maximum of 50-60% could be removed by granular activated carbon (GAC). (7) The observation via scanning electron microscope (SEM) on distribution pipe tubercle samples demonstrated that the pipe inner wall was not smooth and bacteria multiplied in the crevice as well as in the interior wall of distribution pipes.

  3. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Semenza, J C; Roberts, L; Henderson, A; Bogan, J; Rubin, C H

    1998-12-01

    Deteriorating water treatment facilities and distribution systems pose a significant public health threat, particularly in republics of the former Soviet Union. Interventions to decrease the disease burden associated with these water systems range from upgrading distribution networks to installing reverse osmosis technology. To provide insight into this decision process, we conducted a randomized intervention study to provide epidemiologic data for water policy decisions in Nukus, Uzbekistan, where drinking water quality is suboptimal. We interviewed residents of 240 households, 120 with and 120 without access to municipal piped water. Residents of 62 households without piped water were trained to chlorinate their drinking water at home in a narrow-necked water container with a spout. All study subjects (1583 individuals) were monitored biweekly for self-reported diarrheal illness over a period of 9.5 weeks. The home chlorination intervention group had the lowest diarrheal rate (28.8/1,000 subjects/month) despite lack of access to piped water in their homes. Compared with the two groups that did not receive the intervention this rate was one-sixth that of the group with no piped water (179.2/1,000 subjects/month) and one-third that of the households with piped water (75.5/1,000 subjects/month). More than 30% of the households with piped water lacked detectable levels of chlorine residues in their drinking water, despite two-stage chlorination of the source water, and were at increased risk of diarrhea. Forty-two percent of these municipal users reported that water pressure had been intermittent within the previous two days. The dramatic reduction in diarrheal rates in the home-chlorination intervention group indicates that a large proportion of diarrheal diseases in Nukus are water-borne. The home-chlorination group had less diarrhea than the group with piped water, implicating the distribution system as a source of disease transmission. Taken together, these

  4. Morphological and physicochemical characteristics of iron corrosion scales formed under different water source histories in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Gu, Junnong; Wang, Dongsheng; Yang, Min

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion scales on iron pipes could have great impact on the water quality in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Unstable and less protective corrosion scale is one of the main factors causing "discolored water" issues when quality of water entering into distribution system changed significantly. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of corrosion scales formed under different source water histories in duration of about two decades were systematically investigated in this work. Thick corrosion scales or densely distributed corrosion tubercles were mostly found in pipes transporting surface water, but thin corrosion scales and hollow tubercles were mostly discovered in pipes transporting groundwater. Magnetite and goethite were main constituents of iron corrosion products, but the mass ratio of magnetite/goethite (M/G) was significantly different depending on the corrosion scale structure and water source conditions. Thick corrosion scales and hard shell of tubercles had much higher M/G ratio (>1.0), while the thin corrosion scales had no magnetite detected or with much lower M/G ratio. The M/G ratio could be used to identify the characteristics and evaluate the performances of corrosion scales formed under different water conditions. Compared with the pipes transporting ground water, the pipes transporting surface water were more seriously corroded and could be in a relatively more active corrosion status all the time, which was implicated by relatively higher siderite, green rust and total iron contents in their corrosion scales. Higher content of unstable ferric components such as γ-FeOOH, β-FeOOH and amorphous iron oxide existed in corrosion scales of pipes receiving groundwater which was less corroded. Corrosion scales on groundwater pipes with low magnetite content had higher surface area and thus possibly higher sorption capacity. The primary trace inorganic elements in corrosion products were Br and heavy metals. Corrosion

  5. Removal of soft deposits from the distribution system improves the drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Markku J; Nissinen, Tarja K; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Martikainen, Pertti J; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2004-02-01

    Deterioration in drinking water quality in distribution networks represents a problem in drinking water distribution. These can be an increase in microbial numbers, an elevated concentration of iron or increased turbidity, all of which affect taste, odor and color in the drinking water. We studied if pipe cleaning would improve the drinking water quality in pipelines. Cleaning was arranged by flushing the pipes with compressed air and water. The numbers of bacteria and the concentrations of iron and turbidity in drinking water were highest at 9 p.m., when the water consumption was highest. Soft deposits inside the pipeline were occasionally released to bulk water, increasing the concentrations of iron, bacteria, microbially available organic carbon and phosphorus in drinking water. The cleaning of the pipeline decreased the diurnal variation in drinking water quality. With respect to iron, only short-term positive effects were obtained. However, removing of the nutrient-rich soft deposits did decrease the microbial growth in the distribution system during summer when there were favorable warm temperatures for microbial growth. No Norwalk-like viruses or coliform bacteria were detected in the soft deposits, in contrast to the high numbers of heterotrophic bacteria.

  6. Field test of a center pivot irrigation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniformity of water distribution of a variable rate center pivot irrigation system was evaluated. This 4-span center pivot system was configured with 10 water application zones along its 233 m-long lateral. Two experiments were conducted for the uniformity tests. In one test, a constant water applic...

  7. Evaluation of a center pivot variable rate irrigation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniformity of water distribution of a variable rate center pivot irrigation system was evaluated. This 4-span center-pivot system was configured with 10 water application zones along its 766 ft-long lateral. Two experiments were conducted for the uniformity tests. In one test, a constant water appli...

  8. PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY IN DRINKING WATER BACTERIA IN A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work was carried out to characterize the composition of microbial populations in a distribution system simulator (DSS) by direct sequence analysis of 16S rDNA clone libraries. Bacterial populations were examined in chlorinated distribution water and chloraminated DSS feed an...

  9. A Framework for Developing pH Guidance for Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, many agencies have historically limited the range of pH values of distributed water between 6.5 and 8.5. Although this range is not a regulatory limit, many jurisdictions have used it as one. In some cases, the range has been a barrier to optimizing distribution syste...

  10. A Framework for Developing pH Guidance for Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, many agencies have historically limited the range of pH values of distributed water between 6.5 and 8.5. Although this range is not a regulatory limit, many jurisdictions have used it as one. In some cases, the range has been a barrier to optimizing distribution syste...

  11. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  12. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  13. WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS FOR SOURCE WATER AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of probes for use in continuous monitoring of water quality exist. They range from single parameter chemical/physical probes to comprehensive screening systems based on whole organism responses. Originally developed for monitoring specific characteristics of water qua...

  14. Application of Normal Distribution Model to Estimate Root Water Uptake Profile by an Isotopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Matsuo, D.; Hirota, M.

    2008-12-01

    To confirm usefulness of a diagnostic model for estimating root water uptake profile by an isotopic approach, isotopic measurements of plant xylem water, soil water and groundwater were conducted at seven Japanese red pine forest sites and then the model was applied to the measured results. The model assumes that depth profile of relative uptake rate can be approximated by the normal distribution function, and xylem water isotopic composition is computed from interpolated depth profile of isotopic composition of subsurface waters. The peak depth and distribution range of water uptake zone for a given species at a given site are inversely determined by direct search method (assuming depth interval of 5 cm up to 2 m) so as to minimize root mean square error throughout observation period. Estimated water uptake profiles showed that in six sites the uptake zone of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) ranged from 5 to 60 cm depth, while it was changed to deeper depths in the other site where Quercus myrsinaefolia and Pleioblastus chino coexist. On the other hand, Populus sieboldi and Malus sieboldii take up water from depths deeper than those for Pinus densiflora within a community, although the two species are usually considered as shallow rooted plants. These results indicate water source partitioning under inter-species competition, and we conclude that the present model is capable of making clear the plant water use strategy. Estimated water uptake zone also provides useful information for improving/calibrating prognostic, physical models of root water uptake.

  15. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and surface water in Beijing.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao Q; Cheng, Li; Li, Wei; Xie, Xiang M; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zi J

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to survey on the presence and distribution of rotavirus in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and surface water samples in Beijing. Also, the rotavirus removal efficacies of wastewater treatment processes in three STPs were discussed. SiO2 was used to concentrate rotavirus particles from environmental water samples. A reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) method was used for detection of rotavirus. Rotavirus could be detected from almost all samples collected from STP waters (10/10 influents, 100%; 10/10 secondary effluents, 100%; 9/10 reclaimed effluents, 90%) and river waters (14/14 samples, 100%), and from some lake waters (37/45 samples, 82.2%), canal waters (7/22 samples, 31.8%), as well as wetland waters near drinking water resource (5/26 samples, 19.2%). Our results showed that rotaviruses were widely distributed in different types of waters in Beijing during sampling period. Sewage treatment processes in STPs were not efficient to eliminate rotavirus, which may lead to its spread to surface waters from August to January. This study highlights the interest to detect rotaviruses from water samples in big cities, where many gastroenteritis outbreaks occur each year in China and the results necessitate the further study on monitoring rotavirus in source drinking water.

  16. National Space Science Data Center data archive and distribution service (NDADS) automated retrieval mail system user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Charleen M.; Vansteenberg, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) has developed an automated data retrieval request service utilizing our Data Archive and Distribution Service (NDADS) computer system. NDADS currently has selected project data written to optical disk platters with the disks residing in a robotic 'jukebox' near-line environment. This allows for rapid and automated access to the data with no staff intervention required. There are also automated help information and user services available that can be accessed. The request system permits an average-size data request to be completed within minutes of the request being sent to NSSDC. A mail message, in the format described in this document, retrieves the data and can send it to a remote site. Also listed in this document are the data currently available.

  17. Clonal distribution and associated characteristics of Escherichia coli clinical and surveillance isolates from a military medical center.

    PubMed

    Manges, Amee R; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K; Johnston, Brian D; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Johnson, James R

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli are a concern for military health services. We studied 100 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-producing E. coli clinical and surveillance isolates from military personnel and civilians at Brooke Army Medical Center (2007-2011). Major E. coli lineages, most prominently ST10 (24%), ST131 (16%), and ST648 (8%), were distributed much as reported for other North American populations. ST131, represented mainly by its resistance-associated ST131-H30 clonal subset, was uniquely associated with a clinical origin, regardless of ESBL status. Thus, clonal background predicted resistance phenotype and clinical versus surveillance origin, and these findings could assist military clinicians and epidemiologists.

  18. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven major

  19. Preventing Water Loss in Water Distribution Systems: Money-Saving Leak Detection Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    computed by summing total water usage from individual customers’ meters and subtracting this total from the total water pumped into the system. However...observing the tank 15 minutes later. If the dye """" appears in the bowl, it indicates that water is leaking through the toilet tank plunger seal. All...86/05 Construction Engineering March 1986 Research Laboratory Closed-Loop Water Conservation/Supply Augmentation Techniques AD-A167 556 Preventing

  20. Angular distribution of electrons elastically scattered from water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyn, T. W.; Grafe, Alan

    1992-10-01

    The angular distributions of electrons elastically scattered from H2O have been measured by electron impact using a modulated crossed-beam method. The energy and angular range measured were from 30 to 200 eV and 12° to 156°, respectively. The present results show a high backward scattering for low incident energies, but this falls off for high incident energies. The present results are in qualitative agreement with the measurements of Danjo and Nishimura [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 54, 1224 (1985)] and in quantitative agreement with the measurements of Katase et al. [J. Phys. B 19, 2715 (1986)]. Agreement between the present results and the calculation of Jain, Tripathi, and Jain [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2893 (1988)] is good except at 200-eV impact.

  1. Imaging of water distribution in the rat brain by activation autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kogure, K.; Kawashima, K.; Iwata, R.; Ido, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Regional water distribution in the rat brain was obtained autoradiographically by activation analysis. The autoradiogram obtained for the normal rat brain showed high accumulation of water in the areas of sensory-motor cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdaloid cortex, whereas corpus callosum and internal capsule showed low water contents as expected. The estimated values of water content were 78.6 +/- 4.9 weight % for gray matter, and 73.5 +/- 4.9 weight % for white matter, respectively. The mean values of the water content were consistent with those obtained by a conventional drying-weighing method.

  2. THE OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN LEAD PIPE SCALES FROM DOMESTIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants, such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps, and current monitoring practices d...

  3. Sediment-water distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in a mixed use watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 15 contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in stream water and sediments in the Zumbro River watershed in Minnesota and compared these with sub-watershed land uses. Sixty pairs of sediment and water samples were collected across all seasons from...

  4. Microbial Community Dynamics of a Simulated Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Subjected to Episodes of Nitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial populations were examined in a simulated chloraminated drinking water distribution system (i.e. loop). The loop (BW-AB-I) received chlorinated municipal water (BW-C) amended with ammonia (2mg/L monochloramine). After six years of continuous operation, the operational ...

  5. A Comprehensive Investigation of Copper Pitting Corrosion in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper pipe pitting is a complicated corrosion process for which exact causes and solutions are uncertain. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of a cold water copper pitting corrosion problem in a drinking water distribution system, including a refi...

  6. Controlling Disinfection Residual Losses in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Results from Experimental Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall. These reactions may be physical, chemical and/or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of water quality...

  7. Controlling Disinfection Residual Losses in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Results from Experimental Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has become generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall. These reactions may be physical, chemical and/or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of water...

  8. Evaluation of Select Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Water Distribution Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Syreeta L.; Sinclair, Ryan G.; Riley, Mark R.; Pepper, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated real-time sensing of Escherichia coli as a microbial contaminant in water distribution systems. Most sensors responded to increased E. coli concentrations, showing that select sensors can detect microbial water quality changes and be utilized as part of a contaminant warning system. PMID:21357435

  9. The Benefit-Cost Relationship in Entry Job Training in Water Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, J. P. (Jim)

    The benefit-cost relationship analysis concerns the cost effectiveness of employment and training in the Water Distribution Division of the Dallas Water Utilities Department and deals specifically with 104 entry workers hired to become pipe fitters. Half of the entry workers were enrolled in the Public Service Careers (PSC) training program and…

  10. Second-Order Chlorine Decay and Trihalomethanes Formation in a Pilot-Scale Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well known that model-building of chlorine decay in real water distribution systems is difficult because chlorine decay is influenced by many factors (e.g., bulk water demand, pipe-wall demand, piping material, flow velocity, and residence time). In this paper, experiments ...

  11. Microbial community profile of a lead service line removed from a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A

    2011-08-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments.

  12. ALUMINUM-CONTAINING SCALES IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: PREVALENCE AND COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aluminum (Al) deposits in distribution systems can have important detrimental effects on tap water quality because they can increase turbidity and interfere with disinfection, and they can increase energy loss during water transport. There is also the possibility that they have ...

  13. Measurements of gas hydrate formation probability distributions on a quasi-free water droplet.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Nobuo

    2014-06-01

    A High Pressure Automated Lag Time Apparatus (HP-ALTA) can measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions from water in a glass sample cell. In an HP-ALTA gas hydrate formation originates near the edges of the sample cell and gas hydrate films subsequently grow across the water-guest gas interface. It would ideally be desirable to be able to measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions of a single water droplet or mist that is freely levitating in a guest gas, but this is technically challenging. The next best option is to let a water droplet sit on top of a denser, immiscible, inert, and wall-wetting hydrophobic liquid to avoid contact of a water droplet with the solid walls. Here we report the development of a second generation HP-ALTA which can measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions of a water droplet which sits on a perfluorocarbon oil in a container that is coated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane. It was found that the gas hydrate formation probability distributions of such a quasi-free water droplet were significantly lower than those of water in a glass sample cell.

  14. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  15. Breeding implications of boll distribution responses to water stress deficits in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify the impact of different water stress deficits on the boll distribution of elite Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars in the Texas High Plains, cultivars which represent the diverse gene-pools of the private sector were subjected to three different water deficit regimes. This s...

  16. Water Quality in Small Community Distribution Systems. A Reference Guide for Operators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed this reference guide to assist the operators and managers of small- and medium-sized public water systems. This compilation provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of the water distribution system network on dist...

  17. ASSESSING AND PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF CONTAMINANTS IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote monitoring data, field studies, and the modeling software ? EPANET, can be used by drinking water utilities and consulting engineers to predict flow dynamics and information on the spatial distribution and concentration of contaminants in a drinking water system. A field ...

  18. Effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Friedman, N; Shirazi, P; Ringelstein, J G; Keshavarzian, A

    1997-01-01

    Carbonated water has long been advocated to relieve dyspeptic symptoms, suggesting that it may alter gastric motility via gastric distension. This study aimed to determine the effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying of a radiolabeled mixed meal in eight healthy volunteers. Meal emptying and its distribution within the stomach were assessed with carbonated and still water in a crossover study. Emptying of both solid and liquid, including the duration of the lag phase, was identical for both drinks. However, the proximal stomach contained a greater proportion of solids (74 +/- 7% vs 56 +/- 8%, P < 0.05) and liquids (43 +/- 5% vs 27 +/- 4%, P < 0.05) with carbonated water as opposed to still water. Retention of the meal within the proximal stomach ended with the lag phase and was likely related to proximal distension. In conclusion, carbonated water did not alter overall gastric emptying but profoundly modified intragastric distribution of the meal.

  19. Impact of particles on sediment accumulation in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Vreeburg, J H G; Schippers, D; Verberk, J Q J C; van Dijk, J C

    2008-10-01

    Discolouration of drinking water is one of the main reasons customers complain to their water company. Though corrosion of cast iron is often seen as the main source for this problem, the particles originating from the treatment plant play an important and potentially dominant role in the generation of a discolouration risk in drinking water distribution systems. To investigate this thesis a study was performed in a drinking water distribution system. In two similar isolated network areas the effect of particles on discolouration risk was studied with particle counting, the Resuspension Potential Method (RPM) and assessment of the total accumulated sediment. In the 'Control Area', supplied with normal drinking water, the discolouration risk was regenerated within 1.5 year. In the 'Research Area', supplied with particle-free water, this will take 10-15 years. An obvious remedy for controlling the discolouration risk is to improve the treatment with respect to the short peaks that are caused by particle breakthrough.

  20. Earthquake hazards to domestic water distribution systems in Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  1. A Decision-Support System for Sustainable Water Distribution System Planning.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alina; Aydin, Nazli Yonca; Zeckzer, Dirk; Hagen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    An interactive decision-support system (DSS) can help experts prepare water resource management plans for decision makers and stakeholders. The design of the proposed prototype incorporates visualization techniques such as circle views, grid layout, small multiple maps, and node simplification to improve the data readability of water distribution systems. A case study with three urban water management and sanitary engineering experts revealed that the proposed DSS is satisfactory, efficient, and effective.

  2. [Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in surface water of Shenzhen reservoir groups].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Xuan; Zhang, Hong; He, Long; Shen, Jin-Can; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yan-Ping

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the concentrations of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in 25 surface water samples collected from 12 Shenzhen reservoirs in November of 2012 and January of 2013, high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was combined with solid phase extraction enrichment in this research. The results indicated that perfluorohexane sulfonate and long-chain (C > or = 11) PFCs were below the detection limit in all samples and perfluorooctane acid was the primary species. No significant difference in concentration was found between samples from the center of the reservoir and the outlet. Heavy precipitations diluted PFCs concentrations in surface water, but also led to PFOA input. PFCs concentrations in surface water of the reservoir were mainly affected by water inlet, source environment and geography. Although the water temperature had positive correlations with sigma PFCs concentration, the influence of heavy precipitations was stronger than that of water temperature.

  3. Evaluation of wetting area and water distribution on different soils in subsurface drip irrigation emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; Sohrabi, T.; Mirzaei, F.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.

    2012-04-01

    Growing pressure on the world's available water resources has led to an increase in the efficiency and productivity of water-use of irrigation systems in arid and semi-arid regions with water scarcity. In this context, sub-surface drip irrigation, where emitters discharge water underneath the soil surface, might help by saving water since soil evaporation, surface runoff, and deep percolation are greatly reduced or eliminated. In this paper, the wetting area and water distribution on light, medium and heavy texture homogeneous soils in subsurface drip irrigation emitters were evaluated. Experimental tests were carried out in a plexiglass lysimeter container with transparent walls. Emitters were buried at 15, 30 and 45 cm depths and discharge rates of 2 and 4 L/h were applied. Observations of wetting bulbs dimensions showed that water moved more laterally than downwards for higher emitter discharges. However, small emitter discharges enhanced water to move downwards. Likewise, higher emitter discharges also favored water to move upwards toward the soil surface. Water redistribution was affected by emitter depth. For the same emitter discharge, the deepest depth showed less water redistributed in the down vertical and horizontal directions but the contrary was observed for shallow depths. This could be explained considering the dry soil area above the emitter that is larger in the deepest emitters. Observations on wetting bulb dimensions and water distributions could aim at the selection of proper design variables (emitter depth), and/or operation variables (inlet head and irrigation time) in the studied soils under different scenarios of cropping patterns. Key Words: subsurface drip irrigation, wetting bulb, soil water distribution, water redistribution, optimum management

  4. Origins and distribution of saline ground waters in the Floridan Aquifer in coastal southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-three ground-water samples from the Floridan aquifer in coastal southwest Florida show that water quality deteriorates to the south and west. The waters grade from a fresh calcium magnesium bicarbonate sulfate type to a very saline sodium magnesium chloride type downgradient. Bromide-chloride and specific conductance ratios indicate that dilution of marine-like ground water is a signigicant mechanism in the evolution of the different water types found. Calcium, magnesium , and bicarbonate concentrations occur within a relatively narrow range and are primarily a function of mineral equilibria. Magnesium and strontium concentration distributions suggest several mineral-water interactions, including aragonite inversion, incongruent solution of magnesium calcite to a lower magnesian form, and dedolomitization. Sulfate concentrations increase downgradient and evince gypsum-anhydrite solution, particularly in the fresher waters. The extent to which each factor affects dissolved specie concentrations is a function of the location of the water in the flow system. (USGS)

  5. The temperature and size distribution of large water clusters from a non-equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect

    Gimelshein, N.; Gimelshein, S.; Pradzynski, C. C.; Zeuch, T.; Buck, U.

    2015-06-28

    A hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian approach is used to examine the properties of water clusters formed in neon-water vapor mixtures expanding through microscale conical nozzles. Experimental size distributions were reliably determined by the sodium doping technique in a molecular beam machine. The comparison of computed size distributions and experimental data shows satisfactory agreement, especially for (H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters with n larger than 50. Thus validated simulations provide size selected cluster temperature profiles in and outside the nozzle. This information is used for an in-depth analysis of the crystallization and water cluster aggregation dynamics of recently reported supersonic jet expansion experiments.

  6. Theory and calculation of water distribution in bentonite in a thermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1988-09-01

    Highly compacted bentonite is under consideration for use as a buffer material in geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. To assess the suitability of bentonite for this use, it is necessary to be able to predict the rate and spatial extent of water uptake and water distribution in highly compacted bentonite in the presence of thermal gradients. The ''Buffer Mass Test'' (BMT) was conducted by workers in Sweden as part of the Stripa Project. The BMT measured uptake and spatial distributions of water infiltrating annuli of compacted MX-80 sodium bentonite heated from within and surrounded by granite rock; the measurements provided a body of data very valuable for comparison to results of theoretical calculations. Results of experiments on adsorption of water by highly compacted MX-80 bentonite have been reported by workers in Switzerland. The experiments included measurements of heats of immersion and adsorption-desorption isotherms. These measurements provide the basis for prediction of water vapor pressures in equilibrium with bentonite having specified adsorbed water contents at various temperatures. The present work offers a phenomenological description of the processes influencing movement of water in compacted bentonite in the presence of a variable thermal field. The theory is applied to the bentonite buffer-water system in an assumed steady state of heat and mass transport, using critical data derived from the experimental work done in Switzerland. Results of the theory are compared to distributions of absorbed water in buffers observed in the Swedish BMT experiments. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  8. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  9. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  10. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    -efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world

  11. Poor efficacy of residual chlorine disinfectant in drinking water to inactivate waterborne pathogens in distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Payment, P

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the inactivating power of residual chlorine in a distribution system, test microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage phi-X 170, and poliovirus type 1) were added to drinking water samples obtained from two water treatment plants and their distribution system. Except for Escherichia coli, microorganisms remained relatively unaffected in water from the distribution systems tested. When sewage was added to the water samples, indigenous thermotolerant coliforms were inactivated only when water was obtained from sites very close to the treatment plant and containing a high residual chlorine concentration. Clostridium perfringens was barely inactivated, suggesting that the most resistant pathogens such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and human enteric viruses would not be inactivated. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a free residual concentration in a distribution system does not provide a significant inactivation of pathogens, could even mask events of contamination of the distribution, and thus would provide only a false sense of safety with little active protection of public health. Recent epidemiological studies that have suggested a significant waterborne level of endemic gastrointestinal illness could then be explained by undetected intrusions in the distribution system, intrusions resulting in the infection of a small number of individuals without eliciting an outbreak situation.

  12. A study on organotin levels in Canadian drinking water distributed through PVC pipes.

    PubMed

    Sadiki, A I; Williams, D T

    1999-03-01

    A study on organotin compounds in Canadian drinking water was carried out in winter-spring 1996 (28 sites) and autumn 1996 (21 sites). Approximately 29% and 40% of distribution waters supplied through PVC pipes installed recently (typically less than 6 months) contained organotin compounds in the winter-spring and autumn surveys respectively. Monomethyl-, dimethyl-, monobutyl- and dibutyltin levels ranged up to 291 ng Sn/L, 49.1 ng Sn/L, 28.5 ng Sn/L and 52.3 ng Sn/L, respectively. An additional study in summer 1996, of locations where the highest organotin levels were detected in the winter-spring survey, indicated that organotin levels had decreased in most distribution water samples. Samples of PVC pipe/tubing contained organotin compounds consistent with the organotin patterns found in the distribution water samples.

  13. Distribution of the brown recluse spider (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Georgia with comparison to poison center reports of envenomations.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Hinkle, Nancy C; Ames, Lisa M

    2009-01-01

    Georgia is on the southeastern margin of the native range of the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik. The brown recluse is not a common Georgia spider and has limited distribution in the state. Using recent submissions, previously published records, and examination of museum specimens, we document the spider's presence in 31 (19.5%) of Georgia's 159 counties, with almost all being found in the northern portion. The spider was collected almost exclusively north of the Fall Line (a transition zone separating the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain geological provinces). Only two locations in the southern Coastal Plain province produced L. reclusa specimens; these southern finds are considered spiders that were transported outside their range. There were six finds of the non-native world tramp species, L. rufescens (Dufour), three south of the Fall Line. In conspicuous contrast, over a 5-yr period, a Georgia poison center database recorded 963 reports of brown recluse spider bites from 103 counties. These figures greatly outnumber the historic verifications of brown recluses in the state for both specimen quantity and county occurrence, indicating improbable spider involvement and the overdiagnosis of bites. In the southern half of the state, medical diagnoses of brown recluse spider bites have virtually zero probability of being correct. Bite diagnoses should be made with caution in north Georgia given the spider's spotty distribution with low frequency of occurrence.

  14. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Ling, F. Q.; van der Mark, E. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Knezev, A.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; van der Meer, W. G. J.; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; van Dijk, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8–4.5 × 103 cells ml‑1 with a biological activity of 0.01–0.04 ng l‑1 ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers’ taps and be ingested.

  15. Release of accumulated arsenic from distribution pipes into tap water after arsenic treatment of source water- presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic arsenic (As) is known to incorporate from source well water onto the scales of distribution system pipes such as iron, copper, galvanized steel and even plastic containing internal buildup of iron coatings (Lytle et al., 2010, 2004; Schock, 2015; Reiber and Dostal, 2000). W...

  16. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Ling, F Q; van der Mark, E J; Zhang, X D; Knezev, A; Verberk, J Q J C; van der Meer, W G J; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; van Dijk, J C

    2016-02-02

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8-4.5 × 10(3) cells ml(-1) with a biological activity of 0.01-0.04 ng l(-1) ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers' taps and be ingested.

  17. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Ling, F. Q.; van der Mark, E. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Knezev, A.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; van der Meer, W. G. J.; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; van Dijk, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8–4.5 × 103 cells ml−1 with a biological activity of 0.01–0.04 ng l−1 ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers’ taps and be ingested. PMID:26832989

  18. The abundance and distribution of water vapor in Jupiter's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Larson, Harold P.; Kunde, Virgil G.

    1986-01-01

    The atmospheric transmission window between 1800 and 2250 cm(-1) in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and by the infrared spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager. The vertical distribution of H2O was derived for the 1 to 6 bar portion of Jupiter's troposphere. The spatial variation of H2O was measured using IRIS spectra of the Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts, the Equatorial Zone, and for an average of the North and South Tropical Zones. The H2O column abundance above the 4 bar level is the same in the zones as in the SEB Hot Spots, about 20 cm-amagat. The NEB Hot Spots are desiccated by a factor of 3 with respect to the rest of Jupiter. For an average between -40 to 40 deg latitude, the H2O mole fraction, qH2O, is saturated for P less than 2 bars, qH2O = 4x10 to the -6 in the 2 to 4 bar range and it increases to 3x10 to the -5 at 6 bars. A similar vertical profile applies to the spatially resolved zone and belt spectra, except that H2O falls off more rapidly at P less than 4 bars in the NEB Hot Spots. The massive H2O cloud at 5 bars, T = 273 K, proposed in solar composition models, is inconsistent with the observations. Instead, a thin H2O ice cloud would form at 2 bars, T = 200 K. The O/H ratio in Jupiter, inferred from H2O measurements in both belts and zones at 6 bars, is depleted by a factor of 50 with respect to the Sun. The implications for the origin of Jupiter of globally depleted O/H, but enhanced C/H and N/H, are discussed.

  19. The abundance and distribution of water vapor in Jupiter's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Larson, Harold P.; Kunde, Virgil G.

    1986-01-01

    The atmospheric transmission window between 1800 and 2250/cm in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and by the IR spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager. The vertical distribution of H2O was derived for the 1-6 bar portion of Jupiter's troposphere. The spatial variation of H2O was measured using IRIS spectra of the Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts (NEB, SEB) and the Equatorial Zone and for an average of the North and South Tropical Zones. The H2O column abundance above the 4 bar level is the same in the zones as in the SEB Hot Spots, about 20 cm amagats. The NEB Hot Spots are desiccated by a factor of 3 with respect to the rest of Jupiter. For an average between -40 and +40 deg latitude, the H2O mole fraction, qH2O, is saturated for P less than 2 bars, qH2O = 4 millionths in the 2-4 bar range, and it increases to 3/100,000 at 6 bars. A similar vertical profile applies to the spatially resolved zone and belt spectra, except that H2O falls off more rapidly at P less than 4 bars in the NEB Hot Spots. A massive H2O cloud at 5 bars, T = 273 K is inconsistent with the observations. Instead, a thin H2O ice cloud would form at 2 bars, T = 200 K. The O/H ratio in Jupiter, inferred from H2O measurements in both belts and zones at 6 bars, is depleted by a factor of 50 with respect to the sun.

  20. The IRIS Data Management Center: An international "network of networks", providing open, automated access to geographically distributed sensors of geophysical and environmental data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.; Ahern, T. K.; Trabant, C.

    2006-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management System has long supported international collaboration for seismology by both deploying a global network of seismometers and creating and maintaining an open and accessible archive in Seattle, WA, known as the Data Management Center (DMC). With sensors distributed on a global scale spanning more than 30 years of digital data, the DMC provides a rich repository of observations across broad time and space domains. Primary seismological data types include strong motion and broadband seismometers, conventional and superconducting gravimeters, tilt and creep meters, GPS measurements, along with other similar sensors that record accurate and calibrated ground motion. What may not be as well understood is the volume of environmental data that accompanies typical seismological data these days. This poster will review the types of time-series data that are currently being collected, how they are collected, and made freely available for download at the IRIS DMC. Environmental sensor data that is often co-located with geophysical data sensors include temperature, barometric pressure, wind direction and speed, humidity, insolation, rain gauge, and sometimes hydrological data like water current, level, temperature and depth. As the primary archival institution of the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN), the IRIS DMC collects approximately 13,600 channels of real-time data from 69 different networks, from close to 1600 individual stations, currently averaging 10Tb per year in total. A major contribution to the IRIS archive currently is the EarthScope project data, a ten-year science undertaking that is collecting data from a high-resolution, multi-variate sensor network. Data types include magnetotelluric, high-sample rate seismics from a borehole drilled into the San Andreas fault (SAFOD) and various types of strain data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In addition to the DMC, data centers located in other countries