Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules
Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.
2016-01-01
Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. PMID:27278711
Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.
2016-07-01
The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.
Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance
Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.
2016-01-01
The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance. PMID:27396294
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Xiaoling
2017-03-01
We study the interplay of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and strong p -wave interactions to the scattering property of spin-1/2 ultracold Fermi gases. Based on a two-channel square-well potential generating p -wave resonance, we show that the presence of an isotropic SOC, even for its length being much longer than the potential range, can greatly modify the p -wave short-range boundary condition (BC). As a result, the conventional p -wave BC cannot predict the induced molecules near p -wave resonances, which can be fully destroyed due to strong interference between the s - and p -wave channels. By analyzing the intrinsic reasons for the breakdown of the conventional BC, we propose a p -wave BC that can excellently reproduce the exact molecule solutions and also equally apply for a wide class of single-particle potentials besides SOC. This work reveals the significant effect of SOC on both the short- and long-range properties of fermions near p -wave resonances, paving the way for future explorations of interesting few- and many-body physics in such systems.
Center of Mass Demonstration on the Fly
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hazelrigg, Conner; Baker, Blane
2015-01-01
Center of mass (CM) is an important concept in physics, especially when studying extended bodies. For example, general motion of an extended body can be considered as the sum of the translational motion of the CM plus other types of motion about that CM. CM also can be regarded as a "balance point" so that a system supported at its CM…
Center of mass demonstration on the fly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazelrigg, Conner; Baker, Blane
2015-01-01
Center of mass (CM) is an important concept in physics, especially when studying extended bodies.1 For example, general motion of an extended body can be considered as the sum of the translational motion of the CM plus other types of motion about that CM. CM also can be regarded as a "balance point" so that a system supported at its CM remains in static equilibrium. In the context of Newton's laws of motion, acceleration of CM is determined by the ratio of the net external force acting on a system to the system's total mass. Given the usefulness of CM in analyzing numerous motions, knowing concepts associated with CM is helpful for students of physics. Within the physics community, previous workers have discussed centers of mass of various toys2 and described experiments to determine centers of mass.3,4 Here we describe a quickly assembled demonstration to show static equilibrium of an object when it is supported along a line of action through its CM.
Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrara (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)
2006-01-01
An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.
Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)
2005-01-01
An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.
Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)
2002-01-01
An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuster, Andrea; Pabst, Cornelia
2016-11-01
In this work we present Finsler gravitational waves. These are a Finslerian version of the well-known p p -waves, generalizing the very special relativity line element. Our Finsler p p -waves are an exact solution of Finslerian Einstein's equations in vacuum and describe gravitational waves propagating in an anisotropic background.
The Center of Mass of a Soft Spring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh
2011-01-01
This article uses calculus to find the center of mass of a soft, vertically suspended, cylindrical helical spring, which necessarily is stretched non-uniformly by the action of gravity. A general expression for the vertical position of the center of mass is obtained and compared with other results in the literature.
Where Is the Center of Mass of Florida?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
2007-01-01
An attention-grabbing center-of-mass demonstration uses the map of a state mounted on a sheet of heavy cardboard and cut out along the boundaries. The two-dimensional object is hung from a hole punched into a city near the edge, and a string with a pendulum bob attached to it passes through the center of mass. The process is repeated with a…
Planning Paths Through Singularities in the Center of Mass Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doggett, William R.; Messner, William C.; Juang, Jer-Nan
1998-01-01
The center of mass space is a convenient space for planning motions that minimize reaction forces at the robot's base or optimize the stability of a mechanism. A unique problem associated with path planning in the center of mass space is the potential existence of multiple center of mass images for a single Cartesian obstacle, since a single center of mass location can correspond to multiple robot joint configurations. The existence of multiple images results in a need to either maintain multiple center of mass obstacle maps or to update obstacle locations when the robot passes through a singularity, such as when it moves from an elbow-up to an elbow-down configuration. To illustrate the concepts presented in this paper, a path is planned for an example task requiring motion through multiple center of mass space maps. The object of the path planning algorithm is to locate the bang- bang acceleration profile that minimizes the robot's base reactions in the presence of a single Cartesian obstacle. To simplify the presentation, only non-redundant robots are considered and joint non-linearities are neglected.
Anomalous center of mass shift: gravitational dipole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Eue Jin
1997-02-01
The anomalous, energy dependent shift of the center of mass of an idealized, perfectly rigid, uniformly rotating hemispherical shell which is caused by the relativistic mass increase effect is investigated in detail. It is shown that a classical object on impact which has the harmonic binding force between the adjacent constituent particles has the similar effect of the energy dependent, anomalous shift of the center of mass. From these observations, the general mode of the linear acceleration is suggested to be caused by the anomalous center of mass shift whether it's due to classical or relativistic origin. The effect of the energy dependent center of mass shift perpendicular to the plane of rotation of a rotating hemisphere appears as the non zero gravitational dipole moment in general relativity. Controlled experiment for the measurement of the gravitational dipole field and its possible links to the cylindrical type line formation of a worm hole in the extreme case are suggested. The jets from the black hole accretion disc and the observed anomalous red shift from far away galaxies are considered to be the consequences of the two different aspects of the dipole gravity.
Viewing Events in the Center-of-Mass System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruby, Lawrence
2010-02-01
In elementary physics, collisions are usually studied by employing the conservation of momentum, and sometimes also the conservation of kinetic energy. However, in nuclear reactions, changes of mass that complicate the situation often occur. To illustrate the latter, we shall cite two examples of endoergic nuclear reactions, i.e., those for which energy must be supplied to make the reaction proceed. A typical situation is given by the equation A + B → C + D + Q, (1) where particles A, B, C, and D are expressed in terms of the energy-equivalent of the particle masses, according to the Einstein relation E = mc2, and where Q is a negative energy quantity, corresponding to the excess of mass of (C + D) over that of (A + B). Equation (1) is just an alternate statement of the conservation of total energy. Typically, in the lab system (L), energy is supplied as kinetic energy "T" of particle A, and particle B is at rest. Thus, to conserve momentum, particles C and D must compensate for the momentum corresponding to T. Often, it is desirable to know the minimum value of T that will conserve both energy and momentum, i.e., the threshold value of T, known as Tth, that will just allow the reaction to proceed. At threshold, the particles C and D will have their minimum possible kinetic energies. In the center-of-mass system of coordinates (Z) in which the input momentum is zero, at threshold, the products C and D are each stationary, and this requirement will allow us to calculate the corresponding Tth in the lab system (L). The Z system is often termed the "center-of-mass" system, but it is more properly termed the "zero-momentum" system.
Impacts of Center of Mass Shifts on Messenger Spacecraft Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
O'Shaughnessy, D. J.; Vaughan, R. M.; Chouinard, T. L., III; Jaekle, D. E.
2007-01-01
The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) has successfully completed its first three years of flight operations following launch on August 3, 2004. As part of NASA s Discovery Program, MESSENGER will observe Mercury during flybys in 2008 and 2009, as well as from orbit beginning in March 2011. This paper discusses the impact that center of mass (CM) location changes have had on many mission activities, particularly angular momentum management and maneuver execution. Momentum trends were altered significantly following the first deep-space maneuver, and these changes were related to a change in the CM. The CM location also impacts maneuver execution, and uncertainties in its location led to the significant direction errors experienced at trajectory correction maneuver 11. Because of the spacecraft sensitivity to CM location, efforts to estimate its position are important to momentum and maneuver prediction. This paper summarizes efforts to estimate the CM from flight data, as well as the operational strategy to handle CM uncertainties and their impact on momentum trends and maneuver execution accuracy.
p-Wave Cold Collisions in an Optical Lattice Clock
Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.
2011-09-02
We study ultracold collisions in fermionic ytterbium by precisely measuring the energy shifts they impart on the atoms' internal clock states. Exploiting Fermi statistics, we uncover p-wave collisions, in both weakly and strongly interacting regimes. With the higher density afforded by two-dimensional lattice confinement, we demonstrate that strong interactions can lead to a novel suppression of this collision shift. In addition to reducing the systematic errors of lattice clocks, this work has application to quantum information and quantum simulation with alkaline-earth atoms.
Venus' center of figure-center of mass offset
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bindschadler, Duane L.; Schubert, Gerald; Ford, Peter G.
1994-01-01
Magellan altimetry data reveal that the center of figure (CF) of Venus is displaced approximately 280 m from its center of mass (CM) toward 4.4 deg S, 135.8 deg E, a location in Aphrodite Terra. This offset is smaller than those of other terrestrial planets but larger than the estimated error, which is no more than a few tens of meters. We examine the possibility that the CF-CM offset is related to specific geologic provinces on Venus by deriving three simple models for the offset: a thick-crust model, a hotspot model, and a thick-lithosphere model. The offset caused by a region of thick crust depends upon the region's extent, the crust-mantle density contrast, and the thickness of excess crust. A hotspot-related offset depends on the extent of the thermally anomalous region and the magnitude of the thermal anomaly. Offset due to a region of thick lithosphere depends upon the extent of the region, the average temperature contrast across the lithosphere, and the amount of excess lithosphere. We apply the three models to Venus plateau-shaped highlands, volcanic rises, and lowlands, respectively, in an attempt to match the observed CF-CM offset location and magnitude. The influence of most volcanic rises and of Ishtar Terra on the CF-CM offset must be quite small if we are to explain the direction of the observed offset. The lack of influence of volcanic rises can be explained if the related thermal anomalies are limited to a few hundred degrees or less and are plume-shaped (i.e., characterized by a flattened sublithospheric `head' with a narrow cylindrical feeder `tail'). The unimportance of Ishtar Terra is most easily explained if it lies atop a significant mantle downwelling.
Development of Visual Center of Mass Localization for Grasp Point Selection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duemmler, Thomas; Schoeberl, Petra; Schwarzer, Gudrun
2008-01-01
Adults assess precisely the center of mass (CM) of single-bodied objects and choose grasping points that span an axis through or close to the center of mass when lifting them. The present study examined how children and adults assess the CM when lifting two-bodied objects (barbells) and how this ability develops. Four- to five-year olds, 6- to…
The Perception of Limb Orientation Depends on the Center of Mass
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van de Langenberg, Rolf; Kingma, Idsart; Beek, Peter J.
2008-01-01
Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the perception of limb orientation depends on inertial eigenvectors against the alternative that it depends on the center of mass. In all experiments, each participant pointed at visible targets with his or her occluded right arm while center-of-mass and inertial eigenvectors were…
Kondo resonance from p-wave hybridization in graphene.
Jafari, S A; Tohyama, T
2014-10-15
The p-wave hybridization in graphene present a distinct class of Kondo problem in pseudogap Fermi systems with bath density of states (DOS) ρ₀(ε) ∝ |ε|. The peculiar geometry of substitutional and hollow-site ad-atoms, and effectively the vacancies allow for a p-wave form of momentum dependence in the hybridization of the associated local orbital with the Dirac fermions of the graphene host which results in a different picture than the s-wave momentum independent hybridization. For the p-wave hybridization function, away from the Dirac point we find closed-form formulae for the Kondo temperature TK which in contrast to the s-wave case is non-zero for any value of hybridization strength V of the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM). At the Dirac point where the DOS vanishes, we find a conceivably small value of Vmin above which the Kondo screening takes place even in the presence of particle-hole symmetry. We also show that the non-Lorentzian line shape of the local spectrum arising from anomalous hybridization function leads to much larger TK in vacant graphene compared to a metallic host with similar bandwidth and SIAM parameters.
On the Center of Mass of Asymptotically Hyperbolic Initial Data Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cederbaum, Carla; Cortier, Julien; Sakovich, Anna
2016-06-01
We define the (total) center of mass for suitably asymptotically hyperbolic time-slices of asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in general relativity. We do so in analogy to the picture that has been consolidated for the (total) center of mass of suitably asymptotically Euclidean time-slices of asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes (isolated systems). In particular, we unite -- an altered version of -- the approach based on Hamiltonian charges with an approach based on CMC-foliations near infinity. The newly defined center of mass transforms appropriately under changes of the asymptotic coordinates and evolves in the direction of an appropriately defined linear momentum under the Einstein evolution equations.
Detecting π -phase superfluids with p -wave symmetry in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent
2016-09-01
We propose an experimental protocol to study p -wave superfluidity in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s -wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p -wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π -phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states, and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup with a shallow trap. The π -phase p -wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially varying phases of the superfluid gap provide an approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p -wave pairing, first discovered in 3He liquids.
Center-of-mass energy for the Plebanski-Demianski black hole
Sharif, M. Haider, Nida
2013-07-15
We study the center-of-mass energy of the particles colliding in the vicinity of acceleration and event horizons of the Plebanski and Demianski class of black holes. We calculate the collision energy of uncharged particles in the center-of-mass frame that are freely falling along the equatorial plane of a charged accelerating and rotating black hole with an NUT parameter. This energy turns out to be infinite in the non-extremal case, while in the extremal case, it becomes infinitely large near the event horizon only if the particle has the critical angular momentum. We conclude that the center-of-mass energy depends on the rotation and the NUT parameter.
The effect of center-of-mass motion on photon statistics
Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui
2015-10-15
We analyze the photon statistics of a weakly driven cavity quantum electrodynamics system and discuss the effects of photon blockade and photon-induced tunneling by effectively utilizing instead of avoiding the center-of-mass motion of a two-level atom trapped in the cavity. With the resonant interaction between atom, photon and phonon, it is shown that the bunching and anti-bunching of photons can occur with properly driving frequency. Our study shows the influence of the imperfect cooling of atom on the blockade and provides an attempt to take advantage of the center-of-mass motion.
A center-of-mass principle for the multiparticle Schroedinger equation
Mohlenkamp, Martin J.
2010-02-15
The center-of-mass principle is the key to the rapid computation of the interaction of a large number of classical particles. Electrons governed by the multiparticle Schroedinger equation have a much more complicated interaction mainly due to their spatial extent and the antisymmetry constraint on the total wave function of the combined electron system. We present a center-of-mass principle for quantum particles that accounts for this spatial extent, the antisymmetry constraint, and the potential operators. We use it to construct an algorithm for computing a size-consistent approximate wave function for large systems with simple geometries.
ETALON-1,-2 center of mass correction and array reflectivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mironov, N. T.; Emetz, A. I.; Zaharov, A. N.; Tchebotarev, V. E.
1993-01-01
Center of mass correction to be applied to measured ranges to the ETALON 1 and 2 satellites is considered. Numerical values of the correction and reflectivity from the retroreflector array are computed. The variations of these values with satellite orientation are investigated.
Large-momentum distribution of a polarized Fermi gas and p -wave contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Shi-Guo; Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui
2016-12-01
We present a derivation of the adiabatic energy relations as well as the large momentum distribution of a polarized Fermi gas near p -wave Feshbach resonances. The leading asymptotic behavior k-2 and subleading behavior k-4 of the large momentum distribution have recently been predicted by Z. Yu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 135304 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.135304] and by M. Y. He et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 045301 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.045301] using two different approaches. Here, we show that the subleading asymptotic behavior (˜k-4 ) cannot fully be captured by the contact defined from the adiabatic energy relation related to the p -wave effective range, and there should be an extra term resulting from the center-of-mass motion of the pairs. The omission of this extra term is perhaps a reasonable approximation at zero temperature. However, it should be taken into account at finite temperature and should have significant importance to understand the recently measured momentum distribution in a resonant p -wave Fermi gas of ultracold 40K atoms [C. Luciuk et al., Nat. Phys. 12, 599 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3670].
Shifts and widths of p-wave confinement induced resonances in atomic waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saeidian, Shahpoor; Melezhik, Vladimir S.; Schmelcher, Peter
2015-08-01
We develop and analyze a theoretical model to study p-wave Feshbach resonances of identical fermions in atomic waveguides by extending the two-channel model of Lange et al (2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 013622) and Saeidian et al (2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 062713). The experimentally known parameters of Feshbach resonances in free space are used as input of the model. We calculate the shifts and widths of p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance of 40K atoms emerging in harmonic waveguides as p-wave confinement induced resonance (CIR). Particularly, we show a possibility to control the width and shift of the p-wave CIR by the trap frequency and the applied magnetic field which could be used in corresponding experiments. Our analysis also demonstrates the importance of the inclusion of the effective range in the computational schemes for the description of the p-wave CIRs contrary to the case of s-wave CIRs where the influence of this term is negligible.
Multiplicity Distributions from Antiproton-Proton Collisions at 1.8 Tev Center of Mass Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chi-Ho.
Charged-particle multiplicity distributions from antiproton-proton collisions at 1800 GeV center of mass energy, obtained with the E735 detector multiplicity hodoscope, are presented and discussed. A simple iteration method is used for conversion from number of observed hodoscope hits to true charged-particle multiplicity. The first four moments of the distribution are compared with distributions from lower energies. The distributions are also fit to KNO-G and negative binomial functions.
Age-related changes in the center of mass velocity control during walking.
Chong, Raymond K Y; Chastan, Nathalie; Welter, Marie-Laure; Do, Manh-Cuong
2009-07-10
During walking, the body center of mass oscillates along the vertical plane. Its displacement is highest at mid-swing and lowest at terminal swing during the transition to double support. Its vertical velocity (CoMv) has been observed to increase as the center of mass falls between mid- and late swing but is reduced just before double support. This suggests that braking of the center of mass is achieved with active neural control. We tested whether this active control deteriorates with aging (Experiment 1) and during a concurrent cognitive task (Experiment 2). At short steps of <0.4m, CoMv control was low and similar among all age groups. All groups braked the CoMv at longer steps of >0.4m but older subjects did so to a lesser extent. During the cognitive task, young subjects increased CoMv control (i.e. increase in CoMv braking) while maintaining step length and walking speed. Older subjects on the other hand, did not increase CoMv control but rather maintain it by reducing both step length and walking speed. These results suggest that active braking of the CoM during the transition to double support predominates in steps >0.4m. It could be a manifestation of the balance control system, since the braking occurs at late stance where body weight is being shifted to the contralateral side. The active braking mechanism also appears to require some attentional resource. In aging, reducing step length and speed are strategic to maintaining effective center of mass control during the transition to double support. However, the lesser degree of control in older adults indicates a true age-related deficit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strecker, Kevin; Truscott, Andrew; Partridge, Guthrie; Chen, Ying-Cheng
2003-01-01
Dual evaporation gives 50 million fermions at T = 0.1 T(sub F). Demonstrated suppression of interactions by coherent superposition - applicable to atomic clocks. Looking for evidence of Cooper pairing and superfluidity.
Impact of Center-of-Mass Acceleration on the Performance of Ultramarathon Runners
Lin, Shun-Ping; Sung, Wen-Hsu; Kuo, Fon-Chu; Kuo, Terry B.J.; Chen, Jin-Jong
2014-01-01
Ultramarathon races are rapidly gaining popularity in several countries, raising interest for the improvement of training programs. The aim of this study was to use a triaxial accelerometer to compare the three-dimensional center-of-mass accelerations of two groups of ultramarathon runners with distinct performances during different running speeds and distances. Ten runners who participated in the 12-h Taipei International Ultramarathon Race underwent laboratory treadmill testing one month later. They were divided into an elite group (EG; n = 5) and a sub-elite group (SG; n = 5). The triaxial center-of-mass acceleration recorded during a level-surface progressive intensity running protocol (3, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 km/h; 5 min each) was used for correlation analyses with running distance during the ultramarathon. The EG showed negative correlations between mediolateral (ML) acceleration (r = −0.83 to −0.93, p < 0.05), and between anterior–posterior (AP) acceleration and running distance (r = −0.8953 to −0.9653, p < 0.05), but not for vertical control of the center of mass. This study suggests that runners reduce stride length to minimize mediolateral sway and the effects of braking on the trunk; moreover, cadence must be increased to reduce braking effects and enhance impetus. Consequently, the competition level of ultramarathons can be elevated. PMID:25713664
A highly accurate method for the determination of mass and center of mass of a spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, E. Y.; Trubert, M. R.; Egwuatu, A.
1978-01-01
An extremely accurate method for the measurement of mass and the lateral center of mass of a spacecraft has been developed. The method was needed for the Voyager spacecraft mission requirement which limited the uncertainty in the knowledge of lateral center of mass of the spacecraft system weighing 750 kg to be less than 1.0 mm (0.04 in.). The method consists of using three load cells symmetrically located at 120 deg apart on a turntable with respect to the vertical axis of the spacecraft and making six measurements for each load cell. These six measurements are taken by cyclic rotations of the load cell turntable and of the spacecraft, about the vertical axis of the measurement fixture. This method eliminates all alignment, leveling, and load cell calibration errors for the lateral center of mass determination, and permits a statistical best fit of the measurement data. An associated data reduction computer program called MASCM has been written to implement this method and has been used for the Voyager spacecraft.
Wakou, Jun'ichi; Isobe, Masaharu
2012-06-01
We investigated the validity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in the nonequilibrium stationary state of fluidized granular media under gravity by two independent approaches, based on theory and numerical simulations. A phenomenological Langevin-type theory describing the fluctuation of center of mass height, which was originally constructed for a one-dimensional granular gas on a vibrating bottom plate, was generalized to any dimensionality, even for the case in which the vibrating bottom plate is replaced by a thermal wall. The theory predicts a fluctuation-dissipation relation known to be satisfied at equilibrium, with a modification that replaces the equilibrium temperature by an effective temperature defined by the center of mass kinetic energy. To test the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, we performed extensive and accurate event-driven molecular dynamics simulations for the model system with a thermal wall at the bottom. The power spectrum and response function of the center of mass height were measured and closely compared with theoretical predictions. It is shown that the fluctuation-dissipation relation for the granular system is satisfied, especially in the high-frequency (short time) region, for a wide range of system parameters. Finally, we describe the relationship between systematic deviations in the low-frequency (long time) region and the time scales of the driven granular system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, Frank
1987-01-01
A simple heuristic proof of the Nielsen-Ninomaya theorem is given. A method is proposed whereby the multiplication of fermion species on a lattice is reduced to the minimal doubling, in any dimension, with retention of appropriate chiral symmetries. Also, it is suggested that use of spatially thinned fermion fields is likely to be a useful and appropriate approximation in QCD - in any case, it is a self-checking one.
P-wave superfluid in a quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Fermi quantum gas mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong
2013-03-01
The p-wave (px + ipy) superfluid has attracted significant attention in recent years mainly because its vortex core supports a Majorana fermion which, due to its non-Abelian statistics, can be explored for implementing topological quantum computation (TQC). Mixing in bosons may lead to p-wave pairing in a Fermi gas. In a dipolar condensate, the dipole-dipole interaction represents a control knob inaccessible to nondipolar Bosons. Thus, mixing dipolar bosons with fermions opens up new possibilities. We consider a mixture of a spin-polarized Fermi gas and a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a quasi-two-dimensional trap setting. We take the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field approach and develop a theory for studying the stability of the mixture and estimating the critical temperature of the p-wave superfluid. We use this theory to identify the experimentally accessible parameter space in which the mixture is stable against phase separation and the p-wave superfluid pairing can be resonantly enhanced. An enhanced p-wave superfluid order parameter can make the fault tolerant TQC less susceptible to thermal fluctuations. This work aims to stimulate experimental activity in creating dipolar Bose-Fermi mixtures. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation and the US Army Research Office
Detecting π-phase superfluids with p-wave symmetry in a quasi-1D optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent
2016-05-01
We propose an experimental protocol to create a p-wave superfluid in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s-wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add an anisotropic 3D optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p-wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π-phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup. The π-phase p-wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π-state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially-varying phases of the superfluid gap provide a novel approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p-wave pairing, first discovered in He-3 liquids. Work supported in part by U.S. ARO, AFOSR, NSF, ONR, Charles E. Kaufman Foundation, and The Pittsburgh Foundation, LPS-MPO-CMTC, JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, the Welch Foundation, ARO-MURI and NSF of China.
Simulated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases P-Wave Duration and P-Wave Dispersion
Wons, Annette M.; Rossi, Valentina; Bratton, Daniel J.; Schlatzer, Christian; Schwarz, Esther I.; Camen, Giovanni; Kohler, Malcolm
2016-01-01
Background A high P-wave duration and dispersion (Pd) have been reported to be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), a condition linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis of whether a short-term increase of P-wave duration and Pd can be induced by respiratory manoeuvres simulating OSA in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Methods 12-lead-electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded continuously in 24 healthy subjects and 33 patients with PAF, while simulating obstructive apnea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM), obstructive hypopnea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH), central apnea (AP), and during normal breathing (BL) in randomized order. The P-wave duration and Pd was calculated by using dedicated software for ECG-analysis. Results P-wave duration and Pd significantly increased during MM and ITH compared to BL in all subjects (+13.1ms and +13.8ms during MM; +11.7ms and +12.9ms during ITH; p<0.001 for all comparisons). In MM, the increase was larger in healthy subjects when compared to patients with PAF (p<0.05). Conclusion Intrathoracic pressure swings through simulated obstructive sleep apnea increase P-wave duration and Pd in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Our findings imply that intrathoracic pressure swings prolong the intra-atrial and inter-atrial conduction time and therefore may represent an independent trigger factor for the development for PAF. PMID:27071039
P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhtia, Anand
2012-01-01
A variational wave function incorporating short range correlations via Hylleraas type functions plus long-range polarization terms of the polarized orbital type but with smooth cut-off factors has been used to calculate P-wave phase shifts for electron-hydrogen scattering. This approach gives the direct r(exp -4) potential and a non-local optical potential which is definite. The resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the convergence is much faster than those obtained without the modification of the target function. Final results will be presented at the conference.
Measurements of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; C. Ai, X.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, Ferroli R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Y. Deng, Z.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Q. Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Cheng, Li; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Fang, Liu; Feng, Liu; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. Y.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A. A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, B. K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, A. Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; , S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration
2016-06-01
From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb-1 data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process e+e- → γISR/FSRμ+μ-, the center-of-mass energies of the data samples are measured with a precision of 0.8 MeV. The center-of-mass energy is found to be stable for most of the time during data taking. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, Y61137005C), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Research Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).
De Conti, C.; Barbero, C.; Galeão, A. P.; Krmpotić, F.
2014-11-11
In this work we compute the one-nucleon-induced nonmesonic hypernuclear decay rates of {sub Λ}{sup 5}He, {sub Λ}{sup 12}C and {sub Λ}{sup 13}C using a formalism based on the independent particle shell model in terms of laboratory coordinates. To ascertain the correctness and precision of the method, these results are compared with those obtained using a formalism in terms of center-of-mass coordinates, which has been previously reported in the literature. The formalism in terms of laboratory coordinates will be useful in the shell-model approach to two-nucleon-induced transitions.
The main properties and peculiarities of the Earth's motion relative to the center of mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimov, D. M.; Akulenko, L. D.; Kumakshev, S. A.
2014-10-01
The methods of theoretical and celestial mechanics and mathematical statistics have been used to prove that the Earth's motion relative to the center of mass, the polar wobble, in the principal approximation is a combination of two circumferences with a slow trend in the mean position corresponding to the annual and Chandler components. It has been established that the parameters (amplitude and phase shift) of the annual wobble are stable, while those of the Chandler component are less stable and undergo significant variations over the observed time intervals. It has been proven that the behavior of these polar motion parameters is attributable to the gravitational-tidal mechanisms of their excitation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.; Walls, D. M.
1974-01-01
Laser and camera data taken during the International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) were used in dynamical solutions to obtain center-of-mass coordinates for the Astro-Soviet camera sites at Helwan, Egypt, and Oulan Bator, Mongolia, as well as the East European camera sites at Potsdam, German Democratic Republic, and Ondrejov, Czechoslovakia. The results are accurate to about 20m in each coordinate. The orbit of PEOLE (i=15) was also determined from ISAGEX data. Mean Kepler elements suitable for geodynamic investigations are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.
1992-01-01
Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.
The 'extrapolated center of mass' concept suggests a simple control of balance in walking.
Hof, At L
2008-02-01
Next to position x and velocity v of the whole body center of mass (CoM) the 'extrapolated center of mass' (XcoM) can be introduced: xi = chi + nu/omega 0, where omega 0 is a constant related to stature. Based on the inverted pendulum model of balance, the XcoM enables to formulate the requirements for stable walking in a relatively simple form. In a very simple walking model, with the effects of foot roll-over neglected, the trajectory of the XcoM is a succession of straight lines, directed in the line from center of pressure (CoP) to the XcoM at the time of foot contact. The CoM follows the XcoM in a more sinusoidal trajectory. A simple rule is sufficient for stable walking: at foot placement the CoP should be placed at a certain distance behind and outward of the XcoM at the time of foot contact. In practice this means that a disturbance which results in a CoM velocity change Deltav can be compensated by a change in foot position (CoP) equal to Deltav/omega 0 in the same direction. Similar simple rules could be formulated for starting and stopping and for making a turn.
Center of mass velocity during diffusion: Comparisons of fluid and kinetic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vold, Erik; Yin, Lin; Taitano, William; Molvig, Kim; Albright, B. J.
2016-11-01
We examine the diffusion process between two ideal gases mixing across an initial discontinuity by comparing fluid and kinetic model results and find several similarities between ideal gases and plasma transport. Binary diffusion requires a net zero species mass flux in the Lagrange frame to assure momentum conservation in collisions. Diffusion between ideal gases is often assumed to be isobaric and isothermal which requires constant molar density. We show this condition exists only in the lab frame at late times (many collision times) after a pressure transient relaxes. The sum of molar flux across an initial discontinuity is non-zero for species of differing atomic masses resulting in a pressure perturbation. The results show three phases of mixing: a pressure discontinuity forms across the initial interface (times of a few collisions), pressure perturbations propagate away from the mix region (time scales of an acoustic transit) and at late times characteristic of the diffusion process, the pressure relaxes leaving a non-zero center of mass flow velocity. The center of mass velocity associated with the outward propagating pressure waves is required to conserve momentum in the rest frame. Implications are considered in multi-species diffusion numerics and in applications. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program.
Peng Shiguo; Li Shiqun; Drummond, Peter D.; Liu Xiaji
2011-06-15
We theoretically investigate the high-temperature thermodynamics of a strongly interacting trapped Fermi gas near either s-wave or p-wave Feshbach resonances, using a second-order quantum virial expansion. The second virial coefficient is calculated based on the energy spectrum of two interacting fermions in a harmonic trap. We consider both isotropic and anisotropic harmonic potentials. For the two-fermion interaction, either s-wave or p-wave, we use a pseudopotential parametrized by a scattering length and an effective range. This turns out to be the simplest way of encoding the energy dependence of the low-energy scattering amplitude or phase shift. This treatment of the pseudopotential can be easily generalized to higher partial-wave interactions. We discuss how the second virial coefficient and thermodynamics are affected by the existence of these finite-range interaction effects. The virial expansion result for a strongly interacting s-wave Fermi gas has already been proved very useful. In the case of p-wave interactions, our results for the high-temperature equation of state are applicable to future high-precision thermodynamic measurements for a spin-polarized Fermi gas near a p-wave Feshbach resonance.
Estimation of Center of Mass Trajectory using Wearable Sensors during Golf Swing.
Najafi, Bijan; Lee-Eng, Jacqueline; Wrobel, James S; Goebel, Ruben
2015-06-01
This study suggests a wearable sensor technology to estimate center of mass (CoM) trajectory during a golf swing. Groups of 3, 4, and 18 participants were recruited, respectively, for the purpose of three validation studies. Study 1 examined the accuracy of the system to estimate a 3D body segment angle compared to a camera-based motion analyzer (Vicon®). Study 2 assessed the accuracy of three simplified CoM trajectory models. Finally, Study 3 assessed the accuracy of the proposed CoM model during multiple golf swings. A relatively high agreement was observed between wearable sensors and the reference (Vicon®) for angle measurement (r > 0.99, random error <1.2° (1.5%) for anterior-posterior; <0.9° (2%) for medial-lateral; and <3.6° (2.5%) for internal-external direction). The two-link model yielded a better agreement with the reference system compared to one-link model (r > 0.93 v. r = 0.52, respectively). On the same note, the proposed two-link model estimated CoM trajectory during golf swing with relatively good accuracy (r > 0.9, A-P random error <1cm (7.7%) and <2cm (10.4%) for M-L). The proposed system appears to accurately quantify the kinematics of CoM trajectory as a surrogate of dynamic postural control during an athlete's movement and its portability, makes it feasible to fit the competitive environment without restricting surface type. Key pointsThis study demonstrates that wearable technology based on inertial sensors are accurate to estimate center of mass trajectory in complex athletic task (e.g., golf swing)This study suggests that two-link model of human body provides optimum tradeoff between accuracy and minimum number of sensor module for estimation of center of mass trajectory in particular during fast movements.Wearable technologies based on inertial sensors are viable option for assessing dynamic postural control in complex task outside of gait laboratory and constraints of cameras, surface, and base of support.
Estimation of Center of Mass Trajectory using Wearable Sensors during Golf Swing
Najafi, Bijan; Lee-Eng, Jacqueline; Wrobel, James S.; Goebel, Ruben
2015-01-01
This study suggests a wearable sensor technology to estimate center of mass (CoM) trajectory during a golf swing. Groups of 3, 4, and 18 participants were recruited, respectively, for the purpose of three validation studies. Study 1 examined the accuracy of the system to estimate a 3D body segment angle compared to a camera-based motion analyzer (Vicon®). Study 2 assessed the accuracy of three simplified CoM trajectory models. Finally, Study 3 assessed the accuracy of the proposed CoM model during multiple golf swings. A relatively high agreement was observed between wearable sensors and the reference (Vicon®) for angle measurement (r > 0.99, random error <1.2° (1.5%) for anterior-posterior; <0.9° (2%) for medial-lateral; and <3.6° (2.5%) for internal-external direction). The two-link model yielded a better agreement with the reference system compared to one-link model (r > 0.93 v. r = 0.52, respectively). On the same note, the proposed two-link model estimated CoM trajectory during golf swing with relatively good accuracy (r > 0.9, A-P random error <1cm (7.7%) and <2cm (10.4%) for M-L). The proposed system appears to accurately quantify the kinematics of CoM trajectory as a surrogate of dynamic postural control during an athlete’s movement and its portability, makes it feasible to fit the competitive environment without restricting surface type. Key points This study demonstrates that wearable technology based on inertial sensors are accurate to estimate center of mass trajectory in complex athletic task (e.g., golf swing) This study suggests that two-link model of human body provides optimum tradeoff between accuracy and minimum number of sensor module for estimation of center of mass trajectory in particular during fast movements. Wearable technologies based on inertial sensors are viable option for assessing dynamic postural control in complex task outside of gait laboratory and constraints of cameras, surface, and base of support. PMID:25983585
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhijun; Alexandradinata, A.; Cava, Robert J.; Bernevig, B. Andrei
Spatial symmetries in crystals are distinguished by whether they preserve the spatial origin. We show how this basic geometric property gives rise to a new topology in band insulators. We study spatial symmetries that translate the origin by a fraction of the lattice period, and find that these nonsymmorphic symmetries protect a novel surface fermion whose dispersion is shaped like an hourglass; surface bands connect one hourglass to the next in an unbreakable zigzag pattern. These exotic fermions are materialized in the large-gap insulators: KHg X (X = As,Sb,Bi), which we propose as the first material class whose topology relies on nonsymmorphic symmetries. Beside the hourglass fermion, a different surface of KHg X manifests a 3D generalization of the quantum spin Hall effect. To describe the bulk topology of nonsymmorphic crystals, we propose a non-Abelian generalization of the geometric theory of polarization. Our nontrivial topology originates not from an inversion of the parity quantum numbers, but rather of the rotational quantum numbers, which we propose as a fruitful in the search for topological materials. Finally, KHg X uniquely exemplifies a cohomological insulator, a concept that we will introduce in a companion work.
Absence of center of mass control for leg abduction in long-term weightlessness in humans.
Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Baroni, Guido; Mouchnino, Laurence; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedotti, Antonio; Massion, Jean
2002-02-22
The present investigation describes for the first time leg lateral abduction performance during long-term microgravity exposure. Two astronauts took part in the experiments, starting 2 weeks into the mission and lasting for 5 months. Results on joint angles kinematics confirm previous investigations on parabolic flights, showing good task fulfillment for both subjects. Special interest was focused on whole body center of mass (CM) positioning. As in short-term microgravity, no initial CM lateral shift toward the 'supporting' leg was observed. In contrast with short-term microgravity and ground-based experiments, no stabilization of the CM medio-lateral position was found but a significant shift of CM toward the moving leg was observed. This suggests that the adaptation to sustained weightlessness might have led to a microgravity-specific motor strategy for leg abduction, which was not focused on CM strategy.
Slota, Gregory P.; Suh, Moon Suk; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.
2012-01-01
The objective of this study was to observe how the digits of the hand adjust to varying location of the center of mass (CoM) above/below the grasp and rotational inertia (RI) of a hand held object. Such manipulations do not immediately affect the equilibrium equations while stability control is affected. Participants were instructed to hold a handle, instrumented with five force/torque transducers and a 3-D rotational tilt sensor, while either the location of the CoM or the RI values were adjusted. On the whole, people use two mechanisms to adjust to the changed stability requirements; they increase the grip force and redistribute the total moment between the normal and tangential forces offsetting internal torques. The increase in grip force, an internal force, and offsetting internal torques allows for increases in joint and hand rotational apparent stiffness while not creating external forces/torques which would unbalance the equations of equilibrium. PMID:22456054
Xiong, Grace; Lauder, George V
2014-08-01
Studies of center of mass (COM) motion are fundamental to understanding the dynamics of animal movement, and have been carried out extensively for terrestrial and aerial locomotion. But despite a large amount of literature describing different body movement patterns in fishes, analyses of how the center of mass moves during undulatory propulsion are not available. These data would be valuable for understanding the dynamics of different body movement patterns and the effect of differing body shapes on locomotor force production. In the present study, we analyzed the magnitude and frequency components of COM motion in three dimensions (x: surge, y: sway, z: heave) in three fish species (eel, bluegill sunfish, and clown knifefish) swimming with four locomotor modes at three speeds using high-speed video, and used an image cross-correlation technique to estimate COM motion, thus enabling untethered and unrestrained locomotion. Anguilliform swimming by eels shows reduced COM surge oscillation magnitude relative to carangiform swimming, but not compared to knifefish using a gymnotiform locomotor style. Labriform swimming (bluegill at 0.5 body lengths/s) displays reduced COM sway oscillation relative to swimming in a carangiform style at higher speeds. Oscillation frequency of the COM in the surge direction occurs at twice the tail beat frequency for carangiform and anguilliform swimming, but at the same frequency as the tail beat for gymnotiform locomotion in clown knifefish. Scaling analysis of COM heave oscillation for terrestrial locomotion suggests that COM heave motion scales with positive allometry, and that fish have relatively low COM oscillations for their body size.
Effects of constrained arm swing on vertical center of mass displacement during walking.
Yang, Hyung Suk; Atkins, Lee T; Jensen, Daniel B; James, C Roger
2015-10-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of constraining arm swing on the vertical displacement of the body's center of mass (COM) during treadmill walking and examine several common gait variables that may account for or mask differences in the body's COM motion with and without arm swing. Participants included 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 female; age: 27.8 ± 6.8 years). The body's COM displacement, first and second peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs), and lowest VGRF during mid-stance, peak summed bilateral VGRF, lower extremity sagittal joint angles, stride length, and foot contact time were measured with and without arm swing during walking at 1.34 m/s. The body's COM displacement was greater with the arms constrained (arm swing: 4.1 ± 1.2 cm, arm constrained: 4.9 ± 1.2 cm, p < 0.001). Ground reaction force data indicated that the COM displacement increased in both double limb and single limb stance. However, kinematic patterns visually appeared similar between conditions. Shortened stride length and foot contact time also were observed, although these do not seem to account for the increased COM displacement. However, a change in arm COM acceleration might have contributed to the difference. These findings indicate that a change in arm swing causes differences in vertical COM displacement, which could increase energy expenditure.
Center-of-mass motion as a sensitive convergence test for variational multimode quantum dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosme, Jayson G.; Weiss, Christoph; Brand, Joachim
2016-10-01
Multimode expansions in computational quantum dynamics promise convergence toward exact results upon increasing the number of modes. Convergence is difficult to ascertain in practice due to the unfavorable scaling of required resources for many-particle problems and therefore a simplified criterion based on a threshold value for the least occupied mode function is often used. Here we show how the separable quantum motion of the center of mass can be used to sensitively detect unconverged numerical multiparticle dynamics in harmonic potentials. Based on an experimentally relevant example of attractively interacting bosons in one dimension, we demonstrate that the simplified convergence criterion fails to assure qualitatively correct results. Furthermore, the numerical evidence for the creation of two-hump fragmented bright soliton-like states presented by A. I. Streltsov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 130401 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.130401] is shown to be inconsistent with exact results. Implications for understanding dynamical fragmentation in attractive boson systems are briefly discussed.
Validity of Ski Skating Center-of-Mass Displacement Measured by a Single Inertial Measurement Unit.
Myklebust, Håvard; Gløersen, Øyvind; Hallén, Jostein
2015-12-01
In regard to simplifying motion analysis and estimating center of mass (COM) in ski skating, this study addressed 3 main questions concerning the use of inertial measurement units (IMU): (1) How accurately can a single IMU estimate displacement of os sacrum (S1) on a person during ski skating? (2) Does incorporating gyroscope and accelerometer data increase accuracy and precision? (3) Moreover, how accurately does S1 determine COM displacement? Six world-class skiers roller-ski skated on a treadmill using 2 different subtechniques. An IMU including accelerometers alone (IMU-A) or in combination with gyroscopes (IMU-G) were mounted on the S1. A reflective marker at S1, and COM calculated from 3D full-body optical analysis, were used to provide reference values. IMU-A provided an accurate and precise estimate of vertical S1 displacement, but IMU-G was required to attain accuracy and precision of < 8 mm (root-mean-squared error and range of displacement deviation) in all directions and with both subtechniques. Further, arm and torso movements affected COM, but not the S1. Hence, S1 displacement was valid for estimating sideways COM displacement, but the systematic amplitude and timing difference between S1 and COM displacement in the anteroposterior and vertical directions inhibits exact calculation of energy fluctuations.
Behavioral effect of knee joint motion on body's center of mass during human quiet standing.
Yamamoto, Akio; Sasagawa, Shun; Oba, Naoko; Nakazawa, Kimitaka
2015-01-01
The balance control mechanism during upright standing has often been investigated using single- or double-link inverted pendulum models, involving the ankle joint only or both the ankle and hip joints, respectively. Several studies, however, have reported that knee joint motion during quiet standing cannot be ignored. This study aimed to investigate the degree to which knee joint motion contributes to the center of mass (COM) kinematics during quiet standing. Eight healthy adults were asked to stand quietly for 30s on a force platform. Angular displacements and accelerations of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were calculated from kinematic data obtained by a motion capture system. We found that the amplitude of the angular acceleration was smallest in the ankle joint and largest in the hip joint (ankle < knee < hip). These angular accelerations were then substituted into three biomechanical models with or without the knee joint to estimate COM acceleration in the anterior-posterior direction. Although the "without-knee" models greatly overestimated the COM acceleration, the COM acceleration estimated by the "with-knee" model was similar to the actual acceleration obtained from force platform measurement. These results indicate substantial effects of knee joint motion on the COM kinematics during quiet standing. We suggest that investigations based on the multi-joint model, including the knee joint, are required to reveal the physiologically plausible balance control mechanism implemented by the central nervous system.
Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britavskiy, Nikolay; Pancino, Elena; Romano, Donatella; Tsymbal, Vadim
2015-08-01
We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to analyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (± 1 km/s) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 km/s even with a low number of high-resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.
Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.
2016-05-01
We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.
Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.
2013-01-01
The potential efficacy of total body center of mass (COM) acceleration for feedback control of standing balance by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) following spinal cord injury (SCI) was investigated. COM acceleration may be a viable alternative to conventional joint kinematics due to its rapid responsiveness, focal representation of COM dynamics, and ease of measurement. A computational procedure was developed using an anatomically-realistic, three-dimensional, bipedal biomechanical model to determine optimal patterns of muscle excitations to produce targeted effects upon COM acceleration from erect stance. The procedure was verified with electromyographic data collected from standing able-bodied subjects undergoing systematic perturbations. Using 16 muscle groups targeted by existing implantable neuroprostheses, data were generated to train an artificial neural network (ANN)-based controller in simulation. During forward simulations, proportional feedback of COM acceleration drove the ANN to produce muscle excitation patterns countering the effects of applied perturbations. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the clinical case of maximum constant excitation, the controller reduced UE loading by 43% in resisting external perturbations and by 51% during simulated one-arm reaching. Future work includes performance assessment against expected measurement errors and developing user-specific control systems. PMID:22773529
Coupled motion of rigid bodies about their center of mass. [Shuttle/payload system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jezewski, D. J.; Donaldson, J. D.
1979-01-01
Nontrivial analytical solutions for the coupled motion of two rigid bodies about their center of mass are obtained on the assumptions that the rigid bodies are coupled by a massless rigid boom and that no external forces are acting on the system. Both relative rotational and translational motions of the two bodies are considered. General equations of motion are derived by regarding the two bodies as consisting of two distinct systems of particles and by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum. It is shown that a basic nontrivial solution can be obtained for the translational problem if an assumption is made concerning the relative orientation of one principal axis of inertia of each body and that fundamental nontrivial solutions are readily obtained for the rotational problem if an additional assumption is made with respect to the symmetry of one body. Certain stability criteria are found for some of these motions by defining regions of constraint for the relative translational and rotational elements.
Estimating the center of mass of a free-floating body in microgravity.
Lejeune, L; Casellato, C; Pattyn, N; Neyt, X; Migeotte, P-F
2013-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of estimating the position of the center of mass (CoM) of a free-floating object of unknown mass distribution in microgravity using a stereoscopic imaging system. The method presented here is applied to an object of known mass distribution for validation purposes. In the context of a study of 3-dimensional ballistocardiography in microgravity, and the elaboration of a physical model of the cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, the hypothesis that the fluid shift towards the head of astronauts induces a significant shift of their CoM needs to be tested. The experiments were conducted during the 57th parabolic flight campaign of the European Space Agency (ESA). At the beginning of the microgravity phase, the object was given an initial translational and rotational velocity. A 3D point cloud corresponding to the object was then generated, to which a motion-based method inspired by rigid body physics was applied. Through simulations, the effects of the centroid-to-CoM distance and the number of frames of the sequence are investigated. In experimental conditions, considering the important residual accelerations of the airplane during the microgravity phases, CoM estimation errors (16 to 76 mm) were consistent with simulations. Overall, our results suggest that the method has a good potential for its later generalization to a free-floating human body in a weightless environment.
Comparison of three methods to estimate the center of mass during balance assessment.
Lafond, D; Duarte, M; Prince, F
2004-09-01
Evaluation of postural control is generally based on the interpretation of the center of pressure (COP) and the center of mass (COM) time series. The purpose of this study is to compare three methods to estimate the COM which are based on different biomechanical considerations. These methods are: (1) the kinematic method; (2) the zero-point-to-zero-point double integration technique (GLP) and (3) the COP low-pass filter method (LPF). The COP and COM time series have been determined using an experimental setup with a force plate and a 3D kinematic system on six healthy young adult subjects during four different 30 s standing tasks: (a) quiet standing; (b) one leg standing; (c) voluntary oscillation about the ankles and (d) voluntary oscillation about the ankles and hips. To test the difference between the COM trajectories, the root mean square (RMS) differences between each method (three comparisons) were calculated. The RMS differences between kinematic-LPF and GLP-LPF are significantly larger than kinematic-GLP. Our results show that the GLP method is comparable to the kinematic method. Both agree with the unified theory of balance during upright stance. The GLP method is attractive in the clinical perspective because it requires only a force plate to determine the COP-COM variable, which has been demonstrated to have a high reliability.
Center of Mass Estimation for a Spinning Spacecraft Using Doppler Shift of the GPS Carrier Frequency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sedlak, Joseph E.
2016-01-01
A sequential filter is presented for estimating the center of mass (CM) of a spinning spacecraft using Doppler shift data from a set of onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. The advantage of the proposed method is that it is passive and can be run continuously in the background without using commanded thruster firings to excite spacecraft dynamical motion for observability. The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is used as a test case for the CM estimator. The four MMS spacecraft carry star cameras for accurate attitude and spin rate estimation. The angle between the spacecraft nominal spin axis (for MMS this is the geometric body Z-axis) and the major principal axis of inertia is called the coning angle. The transverse components of the estimated rate provide a direct measure of the coning angle. The coning angle has been seen to shift slightly after every orbit and attitude maneuver. This change is attributed to a small asymmetry in the fuel distribution that changes with each burn. This paper shows a correlation between the apparent mass asymmetry deduced from the variations in the coning angle and the CM estimates made using the GPS Doppler data. The consistency between the changes in the coning angle and the CM provides validation of the proposed GPS Doppler method for estimation of the CM on spinning spacecraft.
The Categorification of Fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Na; Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie; Yang, Zi-Feng
2015-02-01
In this paper, we lift Fermions to functors acting on some homotopy category by the Boson-Fermion correspondence and get the categorified relations of Fermions. In this way, both the categorified Bosons and the categorified Fermions can be viewed as functors on the same category. We also give actions of these functors on the charged Young diagrams (or equivalently Maya diagrams), so that the classical theory of Boson-Fermion correspondence is very well recovered as a result of such a categorification.
Center of mass control and multi-segment coordination in children during quiet stance.
Wu, Jianhua; McKay, Sandra; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa
2009-07-01
This study aimed to apply an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to investigate how children utilize the variability of multiple body segment movement to facilitate the center of mass (COM) control during quiet stance. Three groups of participants were included in this study: younger children (YC, mean age 6.3 years), older children (OC, mean age 10.3 years), and young adults (YA, mean age 20.5 years). Participants stood on a force platform with their hands on the iliac crests for 40 s in each trial. Two visual conditions were examined including eyes-open and eyes-closed and three trials were collected for each condition. Results showed that all three groups partitioned more variability of multi-segment movement into the UCM subspace (maintaining the mean COM position) than into the ORT subspace (a subspace orthogonal to the UCM subspace, causing the deviation of the COM from its mean position) in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Furthermore, both the YC and OC groups partitioned a significantly higher percentage of variability into the UCM subspace than the YA group regardless of visual condition. In addition, results of conventional COM variables indicated that only the YC group produced significantly faster sway velocity and greater standard deviation than the YA group. All the results together suggest that children at 6-10 years of age use a similar variability-partitioning strategy (a greater V(UCM) and a smaller V(ORT)) like young adults in quiet stance to facilitate the COM control, but it takes more than 10 years for children to refine this strategy and achieve an adult-like variability-partitioning capability (i.e., UCM ratio). It also suggests that postural development may include two phases in which children learn to regulate the position and movement of multiple body segments and the COM first and gain an adult-like variability-partitioning capability later.
The effect of cane use method on center of mass displacement during stair ascent.
Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin
2010-10-01
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of forward and lateral cane placement on displacement of whole body center of mass (COM) and spatial relationship between COM and the cane during stair ascent (SA) in healthy adults. The data were obtained using three-dimensional motion analysis while ascending stairs non-reciprocally with following methods: (1) dominant foot stepped up first, then the opposite foot without a cane (NC); (2) forward placement of a quadricane followed by the ipsilateral foot, then contralateral foot (FCI); (3) forward cane placement followed by the contralateral foot, then ipsilateral foot (FCC); (4) ipsilateral foot stepping up first, followed by the contralateral foot, then the cane (LCI); (5) contralateral foot stepping up, followed by the ipsilateral foot, then the cane (LCC). The results indicated that the cane placement had significant effect on the medial-lateral (ML) COM displacement and the kinematics of the trunk. Lateral cane placement requires greater trunk extension and side-flexion. The major differences between ipsilateral and contralateral cane use are the motions at frontal and transverse planes in which the COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral cane use. The COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral use of cane (LCI and FCI). The results of this study may help clinicians better understand the possible nature of balance control in patients who ascend stairs with a cane, and suggest that the method of cane placement should be taken into consideration by clinicians when teaching the cane user to ascend stairs.
Estimating Subglacial Structure Using P-Wave Receiver Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chai, C.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.
2017-02-01
Reverberations of teleseismic compressional (P-) waves within a glacier or ice sheet may mask signals associated with crustal structure beneath the ice. We remove the signal associated with the ice from teleseismic P-waves using a wavefield downward continuation and decomposition technique that depends on known ice layer properties such as ice thickness, velocity, and attenuation. We test the method using data from nine stations in Antarctica and one station in Greenland. We deconvolve the downward-continued seismic wave vectors to create P-wave receiver functions that minimize the ice-layer reverberations in order to better measure signals from deeper structures. The subsurface P-wave receiver functions have similar sensitivities to crustal structure as those calculated from stations installed on bedrock. Synthetic experiments indicate subsurface P-wave receiver functions can constrain crustal structure more tightly than surface P-wave receiver functions when ice layer properties are known. We model the subsurface P-wave receiver functions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion and constrain the product of crustal thickness and the column-average crustal-slowness beneath the stations. Our subglacial shear-speed and thickness estimates are consistent with previous investigations at most stations. At station SUMG in south-central Greenland, our results suggest a thicker crust than from previous estimates.
Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang
2015-04-01
We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang-Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang-Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.
Black Hole Window into p-Wave Dark Matter Annihilation.
Shelton, Jessie; Shapiro, Stuart L; Fields, Brian D
2015-12-04
We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross sections potentially visible in γ-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi Large Area Telescope is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC.
P-wave dispersion: What we know till now?
Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali
2016-01-01
P-wave dispersion is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different-surface ECG leads. It has been known that increased P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time and the inhomogeneous propagation of sinus impulses, which are well-known electrophysiologic characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Extensive clinical evaluation of P-wave dispersion has been performed in the assessment of the risk for atrial fibrillation in patients without apparent heart disease, in hypertensives, in patients with coronary artery disease, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, in patients with congenital heart diseases, as well as in other groups of patients suffering from various cardiac or non-cardiac diseases. In this paper, we aimed to summarize the measurement methods, current use in different clinical situations, strengths and limitations of the of P-wave dispersion. PMID:27081484
Ray-theoretical modeling of secondary microseism P waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farra, V.; Stutzmann, E.; Gualtieri, L.; Schimmel, M.; Ardhuin, F.
2016-09-01
Secondary microseism sources are pressure fluctuations close to the ocean surface. They generate acoustic P waves that propagate in water down to the ocean bottom where they are partly reflected and partly transmitted into the crust to continue their propagation through the Earth. We present the theory for computing the displacement power spectral density of secondary microseism P waves recorded by receivers in the far field. In the frequency domain, the P-wave displacement can be modeled as the product of (1) the pressure source, (2) the source site effect that accounts for the constructive interference of multiply reflected P waves in the ocean, (3) the propagation from the ocean bottom to the stations and (4) the receiver site effect. Secondary microseism P waves have weak amplitudes, but they can be investigated by beamforming analysis. We validate our approach by analysing the seismic signals generated by typhoon Ioke (2006) and recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. Backprojecting the beam onto the ocean surface enables to follow the source motion. The observed beam centroid is in the vicinity of the pressure source derived from the ocean wave model WAVEWATCH IIIR. The pressure source is then used for modeling the beam and a good agreement is obtained between measured and modeled beam amplitude variation over time. This modeling approach can be used to invert P-wave noise data and retrieve the source intensity and lateral extent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firmansyah; Feranie, S.; Tohari, Adrin; Latief, F. D. E.
2016-01-01
Mitigation of landslide hazard requires the knowledge of landslide run-out distance. This paper presents the application of slope stability analysis and center of mass approach to predict the run-out distance of a rotational landslide model with different soil types. The Morgenstern-Price method was used to estimate the potential sliding zone and volume of landslide material. The center of mass approach used a simple Coulomb friction model to determine the run-out distance. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that the soil unit weight can influence the depth of sliding zone, and the volume of unstable material. The slope model of silty sand and gravel would have the largest volume of unstable mass. From the Coulomb friction analysis, this slope model has higher run-out distance and velocity than other slope models. Thus, the run-out distance will be influenced by soil type and the dimension of unstable soil mass.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Born, George H.
2000-01-01
Shortly after launch of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) spacecraft (s/c), the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas, discovered residual along-track accelerations, which were unexpected. Here, we describe the analysis of radiation pressure forces acting on the T/P s/c for the purpose of understanding and providing an explanation for the anomalous accelerations. The radiation forces acting on the T/P solar army, which experiences warping due to temperature gradients between the front and back surfaces, are analyzed and the resulting along-track accelerations are determined. Characteristics similar to those of the anomalous acceleration are seen. This analysis led to the development of a new radiation form model, which includes solar array warping and a solar array deployment deflection of as large as 2 deg. As a result of this new model estimates of the empirical along-track acceleration are reduced in magnitude when compared to the GSFC tuned macromodel and are less dependent upon beta(prime), the location of the Sun relative to the orbit plane. If these results we believed to reflect the actual orientation of the T/P solar array then motion of the solar array must influence the location of the s/c center of mass. Preliminary estimates indicate that the center of mass can vary by as much as 3 cm in the radial component of the s/c's position due to rotation of the deflected, warped solar array panel .The altimeter measurements rely upon accurate knowledge of the center of mass location relative to the s/c frame of reference. Any radial motion of the center of mass directly affects the altimeter measurements.
QT dispersion and P wave dispersion in patients with fibromyalgia
Yolbaş, Servet; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Düzenci, Deccane; Karakaya, Bülent; Dağlı, Mustafa Necati; Koca, Süleyman Serdar
2016-01-01
Objective Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain. Somatic complaints associated with the cardiovascular system, such as chest pain and palpitations, are frequently seen in FM patients. P and QT dispersions are simple and inexpensive measurements reflecting the regional heterogeneity of atrial and ventricular repolarization, respectively. QT dispersion can cause serious ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to evaluate QT dispersion and P wave dispersion in patients with FM. Material and Methods The study involved 48 FM patients who fulfilled the established criteria and 32 healthy controls (HC). A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed on all participants. QT dispersion was defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest QT intervals. Similarly, the differences between the shortest and longest P waves were defined as P wave dispersion. Results The QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion were shorter in the FM group compared with the HC group (p<0.001 for both). In terms of the P wave dispersion value, there was no significant difference between the FM and HC groups (p=0.088). Conclusion Longer QT and P wave dispersions are not problems in patients with FM. Therefore, it may be concluded that fibromyalgia does not include an increased risk of atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:28149660
Harber, D.M.; Obrecht, J.M.; McGuirk, J.M.; Cornell, E.A.
2005-09-15
We have performed a measurement of the Casimir-Polder force using a magnetically trapped {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. By detecting perturbations of the frequency of center-of-mass oscillations of the condensate perpendicular to the surface, we are able to detect this force at a distance {approx}5 {mu}m, significantly farther than has been previously achieved, and at a precision approaching that needed to detect the modification due to thermal radiation. Additionally, this technique provides a limit for the presence of non-Newtonian gravity forces in the {approx}1 {mu}m range.
Study of quark flow in exclusive reactions at 90 degrees in the center of mass (AGS E838)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appel, R.; White, C.; Courant, H.; Fang, G.; Heller, K. J.; Johns, K.; Marshak, M. L.; Shupe, M.; Barton, D. S.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A. S.; Gushue, S.; Kmit, M.; Lowenstein, D. I.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Heppelmann, S.; Ma, X.; Russell, J. J.
1995-07-01
We report a study of quark flow in 20 exclusive reactions measured at Brookhaven National Laboratory's AGS with a beam momentum of 5.9 GeV/c at 90° in the center of mass. This experiment confirms the strong quark flow reaction mechanism dependence of two-body hadron scattering at large angles seen at 9.9 GeV/c. Large differences in cross sections for different reactions are consistent with the dominance of quark interchange in these 90° reactions, and indicate that pure gluon exchange and quark/antiquark annihilation diagrams are less important.
Uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran
Chen, C.; Chen, W.; Molnar, P.
1980-01-01
The uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran were estimated by applying the conventional travel time-distance relation method to arrival times of well located earthquakes recorded at a few stations. The average uppermost mantle P wave velocity under Turkey is estimated from two stations of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN), Istanbul and Tabriz. The data are consistent with a crust of uniform, but poorly determined, thickness and an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 7.73 +- 0.08 km/s. This velocity is very similar to that for the Aegean Sea and suggests that its structure could be closely related to that beneath Turkey. For Iran, the results calculated from travel times to three WWSSN stations, Meshed, Shiraz, and Tabriz, can be explained by a crust dipping toward the south-southeast at about 1/sup 0/ with an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 8.0 +- 0.1 km/s. If the crustal thickness were 34 km in the north it would reach about 49 km in the south. Based on these uppermost mantle velocities, the temperature at Moho beneath Turkey is probably close to the melting temperature of peridotite but that beneath Iran is probably lower.
Laboratory monitoring of P-waves in partially saturated sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrière, J.; Bordes, C.; Brito, D.; Sénéchal, P.; Perroud, H.
2011-12-01
Seismic data depends on a variety of hydrogeological properties of the prospected porous media such as porosity, permeability and fluid saturation. We have performed a laboratory experiment in the kiloHertz range in order to analyze the role of partial saturation on direct propagating P-waves phase velocity and attenuation. The experiment consists of a sand-filled tank 107 cm x 34 cm x 35cm equipped with accelerometers and water capacitance probes. The P-waves seismic propagation is generated by hitting a steel ball on a granite plate on the one lateral side of the container. Several imbibition/drainage cycles are performed between the water residual saturation and the gas residual saturation. The laboratory seismic data are processed by two Continuous Wavelet Transforms using one real mother wavelet (Mexican hat) and one complex (Morlet) to recover velocity and attenuation as a function of frequency. Phase velocity of direct P-wave decreases with an increase of water content and is quite consistent with the low frequency limit of the Biot's theory both for imbibition and drainage. The interpretation of the P-waves attenuation needs to go beyond the macroscopic fluid flow of Biot's theory and to introduce a viscoelastic contribution linked to the grain to grain overall losses which are described by a constant Q-model. A strong hysteresis between imbibition and drainage is observed and explained by introducing an effective permeability depending on water and gas relative permeabilities (Van Genuchten model).
Heavy fermion quantum criticality.
Nazario, Zaira; Santiago, David I
2008-09-26
During the last few years, investigations of rare-earth materials have made clear that heavy fermion quantum criticality exhibits novel physics not fully understood. In this work, we write for the first time the effective action describing the low energy physics of the system. The f fermions are replaced by a dynamical scalar field whose nonzero expected value corresponds to the heavy fermion phase. The effective theory is amenable to numerical studies as it is bosonic, circumventing the fermion sign problem. Via effective action techniques, renormalization group studies, and Callan-Symanzik resummations, we describe the heavy fermion criticality and predict the heavy fermion critical dynamical susceptibility and critical specific heat. The specific heat coefficient exponent we obtain (0.39) is in excellent agreement with the experimental result at low temperatures (0.4).
Slave fermion formalism for the tetrahedral spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohan, Priyanka; Rao, Sumathi
2016-09-01
We use the SU(2) slave fermion approach to study a tetrahedral spin 1/2 chain, which is a one-dimensional generalization of the two dimensional Kitaev honeycomb model. Using the mean field theory, coupled with a gauge fixing procedure to implement the single occupancy constraint, we obtain the phase diagram of the model. We then show that it matches the exact results obtained earlier using the Majorana fermion representation. We also compute the spin-spin correlation in the gapless phase and show that it is a spin liquid. Finally, we map the one-dimensional model in terms of the slave fermions to the model of 1D p-wave superconducting model with complex parameters and show that the parameters of our model fall in the topological trivial regime and hence does not have edge Majorana modes.
Haluk Denizli; James Mueller; Steven Dytman; M.L. Leber; R.D. Levine; J. Miles; Kui Kim; Gary Adams; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; Burin Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; Steve Barrow; V. Batourine; Marco Battaglieri; Kevin Beard; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Mehmet Bektasoglu; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Nicola Bianchi; Angela Biselli; Billy Bonner; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Catalina Cetina; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Alan Coleman; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Dieter Cords; Pietro Corvisiero; Donald Crabb; Volker Crede; John Cummings; Natalya Dashyan; Raffaella De Vita; Enzo De Sanctis; Pavel Degtiarenko; Lawrence Dennis; Alexandre Deur; Kalvir Dhuga; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Lamiaa Elfassi; Latifa Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; Paul Eugenio; Laurent Farhi; Renee Fatemi; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Robert Feuerbach; Tony Forest; Valera Frolov; Herbert Funsten; Sally Gaff; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Pascal Girard; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Matthieu Guillo; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Kawtar Hafidi; Hayk Hakobyan; Rafael Hakobyan; John Hardie; David Heddle; F. Hersman; Kenneth Hicks; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Jingliang Hu; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; Yordanka Ilieva; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; J.H. Kelley; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; K. Kim; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Mike Klusman; Mikhail Kossov; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu; K. Lukashin; Marion MacCormick; Joseph Manak; Nikolai Markov; Simeon McAleer; Bryan McKinnon; John McNabb; Bernhard Mecking; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Tsutomu Mibe; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Ralph Minehart; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; M. Moteabbed; Valeria Muccifora; Gordon Mutchler; Pawel Nadel-Turonski; James Napolitano; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Steve Nelson; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Grant O'Rielly; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; Kijun Park; Evgueni Pasyuk; Craig Paterson; Gerald Peterson; Sasha Philips; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Dinko Pocanic; Oleg Pogorelko; Ermanno Polli; S. Pozdniakov; Barry Preedom; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Liming Qin; Brian Raue; Gregory Riccardi; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Barry Ritchie; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; David Rowntree; Philip Rubin; Franck Sabatie; Konstantin Sabourov; Julian Salamanca; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Aziz Shafi; Youri Sharabian; Jeremiah Shaw; Nikolay Shvedunov; Sebastio Simionatto; Alexander Skabelin; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; Daria Sokhan; M. Spraker; Aleksey Stavinskiy; Samuel Stepanyan; Stepan Stepanyan; Burnham Stokes; Paul Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; Simon Taylor; David Tedeschi; Ulrike Thoma; R. Thompson; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Kebin Wang; Daniel Watts; Lawrence Weinstein; Henry Weller; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; Michael Wood; Amrit Yegneswaran; Junho Yun; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang; Bo Zhao; Zhiwen Zhao
2007-07-01
New cross sections for the reaction $ep \\to e'\\eta p$ are reported for total center of mass energy $W$=1.5--2.3 GeV and invariant squared momentum transfer $Q^2$=0.13--3.3 GeV$^2$. This large kinematic range allows extraction of new information about response functions, photocouplings, and $\\eta N$ coupling strengths of baryon resonances. A sharp structure is seen at $W\\sim$ 1.7 GeV. The shape of the differential cross section is indicative of the presence of a $P$-wave resonance that persists to high $Q^2$. Improved values are derived for the photon coupling amplitude for the $S_{11}$(1535) resonance. The new data greatly expands the $Q^2$ range covered and an interpretation of all data with a consistent parameterization is provided.
P-wave autodissociating resonant states of positronium hydride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zong-Chao; Ho, Y. K.
1998-05-01
P-wave autodissociating resonances in positronium-hydrogen scattering are calculated using the method of complex-coordinate rotation. The two lowest P-wave resonance energies and widths are determined by employing extensive Hylleraas-type wave functions, with the sizes of basis sets up to N=2513 terms. The calculated energy and width for the lowest P-state are E_r=-0.59253± 0.00005 a.u. and Γ=0.00160± 0.00010 a.u. We will show the details of our calculations, as well as a comparison with the published values. Results for S- and D-waves will also be presented.
Teleseismic P-wave Velocity Tomography Beneath The Arabian Peninsula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.
2004-12-01
We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P-waves. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and three permanent stations (RAYN, EIL and MRNI). The KACST network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period) spread throughout most of western Saudi Arabia. P wave travel time residuals were obtained for 131 earthquakes in the distance range from 30\\deg to 90\\deg, resulting in 1716 rays paths. We find a pronounced low velocity anomaly beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and southern Red Sea that likely represents a northward continuation of the Afar hotspot. We also image smaller low velocity anomalies beneath the Dead Sea Transform, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the northeastern corner of the Arabian Shield. The origin of these low velocity anomalies is uncertain.
Skyrmion-induced bound states in a p -wave superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pöyhönen, Kim; Westström, Alex; Pershoguba, Sergey S.; Ojanen, Teemu; Balatsky, Alexander V.
2016-12-01
In s -wave systems, it has been theoretically shown that a ferromagnetic film hosting a skyrmion can induce a bound state embedded in the opposite-spin continuum. In this work, we consider a case of skyrmion-induced state in a p -wave superconductor. We find that the skyrmion induces a bound state that generally resides within the spectral gap and is isolated from all other states, in contrast to the case of conventional superconductors. To this end, we derive an approximate expression for the T matrix, through which we calculate the spin-polarized local density of states which is observable in scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We find the unique spectroscopic features of the skyrmion-induced bound state and discuss how our predictions could be employed as experimental probes for p -wave superconducting states.
Holographic p-wave superconductors from Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Cai Ronggen; Nie Zhangyu; Zhang Haiqing
2010-09-15
We study the holographic p-wave superconductors in a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity with an SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge field. In the probe approximation, we find that when the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient grows, the condensation of the vector field becomes harder, both the perpendicular and parallel components, with respect to the direction of the condensation, of the anisotropic conductivity decrease. We also study the mass of the quasiparticle excitations, the gap frequency and the DC conductivities of the p-wave superconductor. All of them depend on the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient. In addition, we observe a strange behavior for the condensation and the relation between the gap frequency and the mass of quasiparticles when the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is larger than 9/100, which is the upper bound for the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient from the causality of the dual field theory.
Long range p -wave proximity effect into a disordered metal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keser, Aydin Cem; Stanev, Valentin; Galitski, Victor
2015-03-01
We use quasiclassical methods of superconductivity to study the superconducting proximity effect from a topological p -wave superconductor into a disordered quasi-one-dimensional metallic wire. We demonstrate that the corresponding Eilenberger equations with disorder reduce to a closed nonlinear equation for the superconducting component of the matrix Green's function. Remarkably, this equation is formally equivalent to a classical mechanical system (i.e., Newton's equations), with the Green function corresponding to a coordinate of a fictitious particle and the coordinate along the wire corresponding to time. This mapping allows us to obtain exact solutions in the disordered nanowire in terms of elliptic functions. A surprising result that comes out of this solution is that the p -wave superconductivity proximity induced into the disordered metal remains long range, decaying as slowly as the conventional s -wave superconductivity. It is also shown that impurity scattering leads to the appearance of a zero-energy peak.
Kramer Pesch Effect in Chiral p-Wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Yusuke; Hayashi, Nobuhiko
2001-11-01
The pair-potential and current density around a single vortex of the two-dimensional chiral p-wave superconductor with \\mbi{d}=\\hat{\\mbi{z}}(px ± i py) are determined self-consistently within the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. Shrinking of the vortex core at low temperatures are considered numerically and analytically. Temperature-dependences of the spatial variation of pair-potential and circular current around the core and density of states at zero energy are the same as those in the isotropic s-wave case. When the senses of vorticity and chirality are opposite, however, we find two novel results; 1) the scattering rate due to non-magnetic impurities is considerably suppressed, compared to that in the s-wave vortex. From this observation, we expect that the chiral p-wave superconductors provide the best chance to observe the shrinking of the vortex (“Kramer Pesch effect”) experimentally. 2) The pair-potential of chiral p-wave superconductors inside vortex core recovers a combined time-reversal-Gauge symmetry, although this symmetry is broken in the region far from the vortex core. This local recovery of symmetry leads to the suppression of the impurity effect inside vortex core.
Entanglement in fermionic systems
Banuls, Mari-Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Wolf, Michael M.
2007-08-15
The anticommuting properties of fermionic operators, together with the presence of parity conservation, affect the concept of entanglement in a composite fermionic system. Hence different points of view can give rise to different reasonable definitions of separable and entangled states. Here we analyze these possibilities and the relationship between the different classes of separable states. The behavior of the various classes when taking multiple copies of a state is also studied, showing that some of the differences vanish in the asymptotic regime. In particular, in the case of only two fermionic modes all the classes become equivalent in this limit. We illustrate the differences and relations by providing a complete characterization of all the sets defined for systems of two fermionic modes. The results are applied to Gibbs states of infinite chains of fermions whose interaction corresponds to a XY Hamiltonian with transverse magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
H Goldsztein, Guillermo
2015-10-01
The use of inverted pendulum models to study the bio-mechanics of biped walkers is a common practice. In its simplest form, the inverted pendulum consists of a point mass, which models the center of mass of the biped, attached to two straight mass-less legs. Most works using the simplest inverted pendulum model constrain the mass and the legs to the sagittal plane (the plane that contains the direction perpendicular to the ground and the direction toward the biped is walking). In this article, we remove this constrain and use this unconstrained inverted pendulum model to study the oscillations the mass experiences in the direction perpendicular to the sagittal plane as the biped walks. While small, these oscillations are unavoidable and of importance in the understanding of balance and stability of walkers, as well as walkers induced oscillations in pedestrian bridges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajulu, Sudhakar; Blackledge, Christopher; Ferrer, Mike; Margerum, Sarah
2009-01-01
The designers of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) utilize an intensive simulation program in order to predict the launch and landing characteristics of the Crew Impact Attenuation System (CIAS). The CIAS is the energy absorbing strut concept that dampens loads to levels sustainable by the crew during landing and consists of the crew module seat pallet that accommodates four to six seated astronauts. An important parameter required for proper dynamic modeling of the CIAS is knowledge of the suited center of mass (COM) variations within the crew population. Significant center of mass variations across suited crew configurations would amplify the inertial effects of the pallet and potentially create unacceptable crew loading during launch and landing. Established suited, whole-body, and posture-based mass properties were not available due to the uncertainty of the final CEV seat posture and suit hardware configurations. While unsuited segmental center of mass values can be obtained via regression equations from previous studies, building them into a model that was posture dependent with custom anthropometry and integrated suit components proved cumbersome and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of posture, suit components, and the expected range of anthropometry on the center of mass of a seated individual. Several elements are required for the COM calculation of a suited human in a seated position: anthropometry; body segment mass; suit component mass; suit component location relative to the body; and joint angles defining the seated posture. Anthropometry and body segment masses used in this study were taken from a selection of three-dimensional human body models, called boundary manikins, which were developed in a previous project. These boundary manikins represent the critical anthropometric dimension extremes for the anticipated astronaut population. Six male manikins and 6 female manikins, representing a
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...
2016-03-17
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-17
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C_{T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
P -wave coupled channel effects in electron-positron annihilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Meng-Lin; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Qian
2016-11-01
P -wave coupled channel effects arising from the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds in e+e- annihilations are systematically studied. We provide an exploratory study by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with short-ranged contact potentials obtained in the heavy quark limit. These contact potentials can be extracted from the P -wave interactions in the e+e- annihilations, and then be employed to investigate possible isosinglet P -wave hadronic molecules. In particular, such an investigation may provide information about exotic candidates with quantum numbers JPC=1-+ . In the mass region of the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds, there are two quark model bare states, i.e. the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ), which are assigned as (13D1) and (31S1) states, respectively. By an overall fit of the cross sections of e+e-→D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , D*D¯*, we determine the physical coupling constants to each channel and extract the pole positions of the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ). The deviation of the ratios from that in the heavy quark spin symmetry (HQSS) limit reflects the HQSS breaking effect due to the mass splitting between the D and the D*. Besides the two poles, we also find a pole a few MeV above the D D¯ *+c .c . threshold which can be related to the so-called G (3900 ) observed earlier by BABAR and Belle. This scenario can be further scrutinized by measuring the angular distribution in the D*D¯* channel with high luminosity experiments.
Observability of surface currents in p-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakurskiy, S. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Golubov, A. A.
2017-04-01
A general approach is formulated to describe spontaneous surface current distribution in a chiral p-wave superconductor. We use the quasiclassical Eilenberger formalism in the Ricatti parametrization to describe various types of the superconductor surface, including arbitrary roughness and metallic behavior of the surface layer. We calculate angle resolved distributions of the spontaneous surface currents and formulate the conditions of their observability. We argue that local measurements of these currents by muon spin rotation technique may provide an information on the underlying pairing symmetry in the bulk superconductor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wan-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Chun; Xiang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Qiang-Hua
2016-07-01
We investigate the electronic instabilities in a kagome lattice with Rashba spin-orbital coupling by the unbiased singular-mode functional renormalization group. At the parent 1 /3 filling, the normal state is a quantum spin Hall system. Since the bottom of the conduction band is near the van Hove singularity, the electron-doped system is highly susceptible to competing orders upon electron interactions. The topological nature of the parent system enriches the complexity and novelty of such orders. We find 120∘-type intra-unit-cell antiferromagnetic order, f -wave superconductivity, and chiral p -wave superconductivity with increasing electron doping above the van Hove point. In both types of superconducting phases, there is a mixture of comparable spin singlet and triplet components because of the Rashba coupling. The chiral p -wave superconducting state is characterized by a Chern number Z =1 , supporting a branch of Weyl fermion states on each edge. The model bares close relevance to the so-called s d2 graphenes proposed recently.
A Novel Route to Reach a p-Wave Superfluid Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Tokitake; Inotani, Daisuke; Ohashi, Yoji
2017-01-01
We theoretically propose an idea to realize a p-wave superfluid Fermi gas. To overcome the experimental difficulty that a p-wave pairing interaction to form p-wave Cooper pairs damages the system before the condensation growth, we first prepare a p-wave pair amplitude (Φp) in a spin-orbit coupled s-wave superfluid Fermi gas, without any p-wave interaction. Then, by suddenly changing the s-wave interaction with a p-wave one (Up) by using a Feshbach resonance, we reach the p-wave superfluid phase with the p-wave superfluid order parameter being symbolically written as Δp ˜ UpΦp. In this letter, we assess this scenario within the framework of a time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Our results would contribute to the study toward the realization of unconventional pairing states in an ultracold Fermi gas.
p-Wave superconductors in D-brane systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Yanyan
2012-11-01
In this work we take the intersecting D-brane models to explore some properties of p-wave superconductor at strong coupling. Our studies are focused on four-dimensional spacetime, which is not completely researched as in planar case. Optimistically, the AdS/CFT approach to superconductor, or more precisely superconducting-like phase transition, can give us some intuitions about mysterious high Tc superconductors. Concretely, we use defect D4/D6 and D4/D4 (noncritical) models to carry out comparative investigations. To make the system in the finite temperature bath, we assume that the superconducting phase is in the deconfined and chiral symmetry restoring phase for black D4-brane geometry. For the background fields, we use both analytical and numerical methods to solve the coupled nonlinear equations of motion. Near the phase transition, both methods give the mean filed behavior for the superconducting condensate. We then study gauge field perturbations of the systems to probe the AC conductivity. Similar to previous results, there comes out a gap in low frequency regime and the conductivity gets exponentially small as the condensation is enhanced. In contrast to previous investigations, we also compute the AC conductivity along the x direction, which needs to study a coupled sets of fluctuation modes. This shows us the anisotropic feature of p-wave superconductors.
Anatomy of a Periodically Driven p-Wave Superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Erhai
2016-10-01
The topological properties of periodically driven many-body systems often have no static analogs and defy a simple description based on the effective Hamiltonian. To explore the emergent edge modes in driven p-wave superconductors in two dimensions, we analysed a toy model of Kitaev chains (one-dimensional spinless p-wave superconductors with Majorana edge states) coupled by time-periodic hopping. We showed that with proper driving, the coupled Kitaev chains can turn into a fully gapped superconductor, which is analogous to the px+ipy state but has two, rather than one, chiral edge modes. A different driving protocol turns it into a gapless superconductor with isolated point nodes and completely flat edge states at quasienergy ω=0 or π/T, with T as the driving period. The time evolution operator U(kx, ky, t) of the toy model is computed exactly to yield the phase bands. And the "topological singularities" of the phase bands are exhausted and compared to those of a periodically driven Hofstadter model, which features counter-propagating chiral edge modes. These examples demonstrate the unique edge states in driven superconducting systems and suggest driving as a potentially fruitful route to engineer new topological superconductors.
Skyrmion Flux Lattices in p,-wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich
2007-03-01
In p,-wave superconductors, topological excitations known as skyrmions are allowed, in addition to the usual vortices. In strongly type-II materials in an external magnetic field, a skyrmion flux lattice is expected to be energetically favored compared to a vortex flux lattice [1]. We analytically calculate the energy, magnetization curves (B(H)), and elasticity of skyrmion flux lattices in p,-wave superconductors near the lower critical field Hc1, and use these results with the Lindemann criterion to predict their melting curve [2]. In striking contrast to vortex flux lattices, which always melt at an external field H > Hc1, skyrmion flux lattices never melt near Hc1. This provides a simple and unambiguous test for the presence of skyrmions. In addition, the internal magnetic field distributions (which are measurable by muon spin rotation techniques [3]) of skyrmion and vortex lattices are very different. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, cond-mat/0607391 [3] J.E. Sonier, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, S4499 (2004)
Canonical gravity with fermions
Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam
2008-09-15
Canonical gravity in real Ashtekar-Barbero variables is generalized to allow for fermionic matter. The resulting torsion changes several expressions in Holst's original vacuum analysis, which are summarized here. This in turn requires adaptations to the known loop quantization of gravity coupled to fermions, which is discussed on the basis of the classical analysis. As a result, parity invariance is not manifestly realized in loop quantum gravity.
Tall P waves associated with severe hypokalemia and combined electrolyte depletion.
Kishimoto, Chiharu; Tamaru, Kosaku; Kuwahara, Hiroyasu
2014-01-01
A 32-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa showing tall P waves on electrocardiogram (ECG) was reported. Her ECG showed tall P waves (5.5mm in voltage, lead II) at 2.2mEq/L of serum potassium. After the treatment, P waves decreased in voltage with the normalization of serum potassium. Tall P waves may be considered to be the so-called pseudo-P pulmonale, and added to the criteria of hypokalemia on ECG.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajulu, Sudhakar; Blackledge, Christopher; Ferrer, Mike; Margerum, Sarah
2009-01-01
The designers of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) utilize an intensive simulation program in order to predict the launch and landing characteristics of the Crew Impact Attenuation System (CIAS). The CIAS is the energy absorbing strut concept that dampens loads to levels sustainable by the crew during landing and consists of the crew module seat pallet that accommodates four to six seated astronauts. An important parameter required for proper dynamic modeling of the CIAS is knowledge of the suited center of mass (COM) variations within the crew population. Significant center of mass variations across suited crew configurations would amplify the inertial effects of the pallet and potentially create unacceptable crew loading during launch and landing. Established suited, whole-body, and posture-based mass properties were not available due to the uncertainty of the final CEV seat posture and suit hardware configurations. While unsuited segmental center of mass values can be obtained via regression equations from previous studies, building them into a model that was posture dependent with custom anthropometry and integrated suit components proved cumbersome and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of posture, suit components, and the expected range of anthropometry on the center of mass of a seated individual. Several elements are required for the COM calculation of a suited human in a seated position: anthropometry; body segment mass; suit component mass; suit component location relative to the body; and joint angles defining the seated posture. Anthropometry and body segment masses used in this study were taken from a selection of three-dimensional human body models, called boundary manikins, which were developed in a previous project. These boundary manikins represent the critical anthropometric dimension extremes for the anticipated astronaut population. Six male manikins and 6 female manikins, representing a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sala, Simon; Saenz, Alejandro
2016-08-01
A detailed study of the anharmonicity-induced resonances caused by the coupling of center-of-mass and relative motion is presented for a system of two ultracold atoms in single-well potentials. As has been confirmed experimentally, these inelastic confinement-induced resonances are of interest since they can lead to coherent molecule formation, losses, and heating in ultracold atomic gases. A perturbative model is introduced to describe the resonance positions and the coupling strengths. The validity of the model and the behavior of the resonances for different confinement geometries are analyzed in comparison with exact numerical ab initio calculations. While such resonances have so far only been detected for large positive values of the s -wave scattering length, it is found that they are present also for negative s -wave scattering lengths, i.e., for attractive interactions. The possibility to coherently tune the resonances by a variation of the external confinement geometry might pave the way for coherent molecule association where magnetic Feshbach resonances are inaccessible.
Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Morimoto, Hiroki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin
2015-08-01
Multiple joint movements during human quiet standing exhibit characteristic inter-joint coordination, shortly referred to as reciprocal relationship, in which angular acceleration of the hip joint is linearly and negatively correlated with that of the ankle joint (antiphase coordination) and, moreover, acceleration of the center of mass (CoM) of the double-inverted-pendulum (DIP) model of the human body is close to zero constantly. A question considered in this study is whether the reciprocal relationship is established by active neural control of the posture, or rather it is a biomechanical consequence of non-actively controlled body dynamics. To answer this question, we consider a DIP model of quiet standing, and show that the reciprocal relationship always holds by Newton's second law applied to the DIP model with human anthropometric dimensions, regardless of passive and active joint torque patterns acting on the ankle and hip joints. We then show that characteristic frequencies included in experimental sway trajectories with the reciprocal relationship match with harmonics of the eigenfrequency of the stable antiphase eigenmode of the non-actively controlled DIP-like unstable body dynamics. The results suggest that non-actively controlled DIP-like mechanical dynamics is a major cause of the minimization of the CoM acceleration during quiet standing, which is consistent with a type of control strategy that allows switching off active neural control intermittently for suitable periods of time during quiet standing.
Pairing instabilities of Dirac composite fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milovanović, M. V.; Ćirić, M. Dimitrijević; Juričić, V.
2016-09-01
Recently, a Dirac (particle-hole symmetric) description of composite fermions in the half-filled Landau level (LL) was proposed [D. T. Son, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031027 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031027], and we study its possible consequences on BCS (Cooper) pairing of composite fermions (CFs). One of the main consequences is the existence of anisotropic states in single-layer and bilayer systems, which was previously suggested in Jeong and Park [J. S. Jeong and K. Park, Phys. Rev. B 91, 195119 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195119]. We argue that in the half-filled LL in the single-layer case the gapped states may sustain anisotropy, because isotropic pairings may coexist with anisotropic ones. Furthermore, anisotropic pairings with the addition of a particle-hole symmetry-breaking mass term may evolve into rotationally symmetric states, i.e., Pfaffian states of Halperin-Lee-Read (HLR) ordinary CFs. On the basis of the Dirac formalism, we argue that in the quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor 1, with decreasing distance between the layers, weak pairing of p -wave paired CFs is gradually transformed from Dirac to ordinary, HLR-like, with a concomitant decrease in the CF number. Global characterization of low-energy spectra based on the Dirac CFs agrees well with previous calculations performed by exact diagonalization on a torus. Finally, we discuss features of the Dirac formalism when applied in this context.
Systematics of S- and P-wave radiation widths
Moore, M.S.
1980-09-22
The question of calculating differences in s- and p-wave radiation widths as a valid evaluation tool is explored. A purely statistical approach such as that provided by the Brink-Axel formula depends upon two factors: 1) an adequate description of the giant dipole resonance shape at energies well below the resonance, and 2) an adequate description of the level densities between the ground state and the excitation of the compound nucleus near the neutron separation energy. Some success has been obtained in certain regions of the periodic table with this simple approach, e.g., in the actinides where all nuclei exhibit similar rigid permanent deformations. However, if the method is to be used as a general evaluation procedure throughout the periodic table and particularly in regions where the radiative transition probabilities are enhanced by direct processes, it appears that much more nuclear structure information needs to be incorporated into the calculations.
Holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shancheng; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang
2017-02-01
We construct the holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss-Bonnet gravity via a Maxwell complex vector field model and investigate the effect of the curvature correction on the superfluid phase transition in the probe limit. We obtain the rich phase structure and find that the higher curvature correction hinders the condensate of the vector field but makes it easier for the appearance of translating point from the second-order transition to the first-order one or for the emergence of the Cave of Winds. Moreover, for the supercurrents versus the superfluid velocity, we observe that our results near the critical temperature are independent of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter and agree well with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction.
P wave velocity structure beneath Greenland using teleseismic events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Y.; Lee, W.; Yoo, H.
2013-12-01
A three-dimensional P-wave velocity model was inverted with 3032 ray paths from 416 events observed on the GLISN network from 2009 to 2013. The relative travel times were computed with respect to the IASP91 global reference model using the multi-channel cross correlation method (MCCC) by VanDecar and Crosson {, 1990 #1}. Our model space was parameterized laterally with 1°×1° from 55°N to 85°N in latitude and from 20°W to 80°W in longitude. This high latitude model space causes spatial distortion in the model parameters on the spherical coordinate for the teleseismic body wave tomography. To minimize a distortion in the model parameters the spherical coordinate system was rotated as the referent stations SUMG and SCO, located on the middle of Greenland, to equator, and all stations and seismic events were converted to this new coordinate system. All ray paths were computed by a three dimensional ray tracing algorithm developed with pseudobending technique and Snell's law {Zhao, 1992 #1}, and travel times were corrected by ice and crustal thicknesses for each observed station as well. Our inverted model shows a broad low velocity anomaly ( -1.5%) in the mid-eastern parts of Greenland, which is connected to the low velocity anomaly beneath Iceland. Another low velocity anomaly was observed below 300km in the middle of Greenland where the Icelandic mantle plume was located in 60Ma. P wave velocity anomaly depth slices from 150 km to 400 km on the rotated coordinate from the center of Green land to the equator.
Clock Spectroscopy of Interacting Fermions in a Harmonic Trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koller, Andrew; Rey, Ana
2013-05-01
We investigate the dynamics during Ramsey interrogation of interacting fermions in a harmonic trap. We consider the effect of both s-wave and p-wave collisions during the dynamics, including processes that change the spatial modes of particles. Prior theoretical treatments utilize the so-called spin model,, which includes processes that change the internal states of atoms, but leave the vibrational modes unchanged. We discuss how the inclusion of these mode-changing processes modifies the predicted density-dependent frequency shifts and contrast of Ramsey fringes, both of which are relevant for the precision of optical lattice clocks using fermionic alkaline-earth atoms. We also discuss how the frequency shifts and contrast depend on the pulse areas, interaction strength, and temperature - and how these dependences are affected by the inclusion of mode-changing collisions in the calculations. Supported by AFOSR, DARPA-OLE, NSF, and NDSEG.
Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Minetti, Alberto E.
2017-01-01
The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used by the literature on the estimation of BCoM. Despite the specific pros and cons of both methods, FD is less biased and considered as the golden standard, while ID estimates strongly depend on the segmental model adopted to schematically represent the moving body. In these experiments a single subject walked, ran, (uni- and bi-laterally) skipped, and race-walked at a wide range of speeds on a treadmill with force sensors underneath. In all conditions a simultaneous motion capture (8 cameras, 36 markers) took place. 3D BCoM trajectories computed according to five marker set models of ID have been compared to the one obtained by FD on the same (about 2,700) strides. Such a comparison aims to check the validity of the investigated models to capture the “true” dynamics of gaits in terms of distance between paths, mechanical external work and energy recovery. Results allow to conclude that: (1) among gaits, race walking is the most critical in being described by ID, (2) among the investigated segmental models, those capturing the motion of four limbs and trunk more closely reproduce the subtle temporal and spatial changes of BCoM trajectory within the strides of most gaits, (3) FD-ID discrepancy in external work is speed dependent within a gait in the most unsuccessful models, and (4) the internal work is not affected by the difference in BCoM estimates. PMID:28337148
2012-01-01
Background The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of feedback control systems for maintaining standing balance based on joint kinematics or total body center of mass (COM) acceleration, and assess their clinical practicality for standing neuroprostheses after spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods In simulation, controller performance was measured according to the upper extremity effort required to stabilize a three-dimensional model of bipedal standing against a variety of postural disturbances. Three cases were investigated: proportional-derivative control based on joint kinematics alone, COM acceleration feedback alone, and combined joint kinematics and COM acceleration feedback. Additionally, pilot data was collected during external perturbations of an individual with SCI standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS), and the resulting joint kinematics and COM acceleration data was analyzed. Results Compared to the baseline case of maximal constant muscle excitations, the three control systems reduced the mean upper extremity loading by 51%, 43% and 56%, respectively against external force-pulse perturbations. Controller robustness was defined as the degradation in performance with increasing levels of input errors expected with clinical deployment of sensor-based feedback. At error levels typical for body-mounted inertial sensors, performance degradation due to sensor noise and placement were negligible. However, at typical tracking error levels, performance could degrade as much as 86% for joint kinematics feedback and 35% for COM acceleration feedback. Pilot data indicated that COM acceleration could be estimated with a few well-placed sensors and efficiently captures information related to movement synergies observed during perturbed bipedal standing following SCI. Conclusions Overall, COM acceleration feedback may be a more feasible solution for control of standing with FNS given its superior robustness and small
Leib, Raz; Karniel, Amir
2012-09-01
Daily interaction with the environment consists of moving with or without objects. Increasing interest in both types of movements drove the creation of computational models to describe reaching movements and, later, to describe a simplified version of object manipulation. The previously suggested models for object manipulation rely on the same optimization criteria as models for reaching movements, yet there is no single model accounting for both tasks that does not require reminimization of the criterion for each environment. We suggest a unified model for both cases: minimum acceleration with constraints for the center of mass (MACM). For point-to-point reaching movement, the model predicts the typical rectilinear path and bell-shaped speed profile as previous criteria. We have derived the predicted trajectories for the case of manipulating a mass-on-spring and show that the predicted trajectories match the observations of a few independent previous experimental studies of human arm movement during a mass-on-spring manipulation. Moreover, the previously reported "unusual" trajectories are also well accounted for by the proposed MACM. We have tested the predictions of the MACM model in 3 experiments with 12 subjects, where we demonstrated that the MACM model is equal or better (Wilcoxon sign-rank test, P < 0.001) in accounting for the data than three other previously proposed models in the conditions tested. Altogether, the MACM model is currently the only model accounting for reaching movements with or without external degrees of freedom. Moreover, it provides predictions about the intermittent nature of the neural control of movements and about the dominant control variable.
Meson Production in Proton-Proton and Antiproton - Interactions at Center of Mass Energy = 24.3 GEV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Vinay Mohan
Experiment UA6 measured the inclusive production cross section of pi^0, eta, and omega mesons in the p_{T} range 3.5 to 6.1 GeV/c in the reactions;eqalignno {p + p&to M + Xcrnoalign{hbox {rm and}}|{p} + p& to M + Xcr}where M represents a meson and X any other associated particles, at center of mass energy sqrt{s} = 24.3 GeV. The experiment was located at the CERN SppS collider and utilized a fixed hydrogen gas jet as the target in oppositely circulating proton and antiproton beams of momenta 315 GeV/c. The apparatus could be rotated to select either proton-proton or antiproton-proton interactions. The meson production cross section results were obtained from the analysis of 3.7 inverse picobarns (pb ^{-1}) of pp data collected in 1988 and 3.2 pb^{-1} of pp data collected in 1989. The eta/pi ^0 production ratio is measured to be 0.61 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.07 for pp and 0.62 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.07 for pp. The omega/ pi^0 production ratio is measured to be 0.87 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.13 for pp and 0.84 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.13 for pp. The inclusive pi^0 cross section is determined as a function of p_{T} averaged over the rapidity range 0.6 <= y <= 1.2. Comparison of the production between pp and pp reveals no significant difference. The cross section and production ratios are also compared with results from other experiments and found to be in agreement.
2015-01-01
Small wireless trunk accelerometers have become a popular approach to unobtrusively quantify human locomotion and provide insights into both gait rehabilitation and sports performance. However, limited evidence exists as to which trunk accelerometry measures are suitable for the purpose of detecting movement compensations while running, and specifically in response to fatigue. The aim of this study was therefore to detect deviations in the dynamic center of mass (CoM) motion due to running-induced fatigue using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty runners aged 18–25 years completed an indoor treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion at speeds equivalent to their 3.2 km time trial performance. The following dependent measures were extracted from tri-axial trunk accelerations of 20 running steps before and after the treadmill fatigue protocol: the tri-axial ratio of acceleration root mean square (RMS) to the resultant vector RMS, step and stride regularity (autocorrelation procedure), and sample entropy. Running-induced fatigue increased mediolateral and anteroposterior ratios of acceleration RMS (p < .05), decreased the anteroposterior step regularity (p < .05), and increased the anteroposterior sample entropy (p < .05) of trunk accelerometry patterns. Our findings indicate that treadmill running-induced fatigue might reveal itself in a greater contribution of variability in horizontal plane trunk accelerations, with anteroposterior trunk accelerations that are less regular from step-to-step and are less predictable. It appears that trunk accelerometry parameters can be used to detect deviations in dynamic CoM motion induced by treadmill running fatigue, yet it is unknown how robust or generalizable these parameters are to outdoor running environments. PMID:26517261
Investigations of Standard Model and Exotic Monophoton Signatures at Center of Mass Energy = 7 TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miceli, Tia Marie
This dissertation describes the search for large extra dimensions. Such extra dimensions could solve the hierarchy problem, one of the greatest puzzles in the field of particle physics. The hierarchy problem is the mystery of why gravity is significantly weaker than the electromagnetic, strong, and weak forces. A solution would unify the strength of gravity with the strength of the other forces. There are many possible tests for extra dimensions. Presented is the analysis of proton-proton collisions with final states in which a single photon recoils from an invisible particle. These data were collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector during the 2011 Large Hadron Collider run at CERN, in Geneva, Switzerland, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. Backgrounds are estimated using data driven techniques for those due to W → nue, hadronic jets, and non-collision backgrounds such as beam remnants faking a photon, and anomalous energy deposits in the electromagnetic calorimeter. The less significant backgrounds are estimated using Monte Carlo simulation, Wgamma, dijet, and jet + gamma. The irreducible Z(nunu)+ gamma background was estimated in Monte Carlo for the extra dimension search, but in later studies this component should be estimated by using a ratio of the measured Zgamma → mumugamma cross section. The results are consistent with the predicted Standard Model cross section of Z bosons decaying to neutrino pairs. Subsequently, the worlds best limits are placed on the monophoton topology of large extra dimensions. The same analysis provides a measurement of the Z(nunu)+gamma cross section consistent with next to leading order predictions.
González, Alejandro; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Bonnet, Vincent; Fraisse, Philippe
2014-01-01
The trajectory of the whole body center of mass (CoM) is useful as a reliable metric of postural stability. If the evaluation of a subject-specific CoM were available outside of the laboratory environment, it would improve the assessment of the effects of physical rehabilitation. This paper develops a method that enables tracking CoM position using low-cost sensors that can be moved around by a therapist or easily installed inside a patient's home. Here, we compare the accuracy of a personalized CoM estimation using the statically equivalent serial chain (SESC) method and measurements obtained with the Kinect to the case of a SESC obtained with high-end equipment (Vicon). We also compare these estimates to literature-based ones for both sensors. The method was validated with seven able-bodied volunteers for whom the SESC was identified using 40 static postures. The literature-based estimation with Vicon measurements had a average error 24.9 ± 3.7 mm; this error was reduced to 12.8 ± 9.1 mm with the SESC identification. When using Kinect measurements, the literature-based estimate had an error of 118.4 ± 50.0 mm, while the SESC error was 26.6 ± 6.0 mm. The subject-specific SESC estimate using low-cost sensors has an equivalent performance as the literature-based one with high-end sensors. The SESC method can improve CoM estimation of elderly and neurologically impaired subjects by considering variations in their mass distribution. PMID:25215943
Zelik, Karl E; Collins, Steven H; Adamczyk, Peter G; Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K; Morgenroth, David C; Hahn, Michael E; Orendurff, Michael S; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Kuo, Arthur D
2011-08-01
Lower-limb amputees expend more energy to walk than non-amputees and have an elevated risk of secondary disabilities. Insufficient push-off by the prosthetic foot may be a contributing factor. We aimed to systematically study the effect of prosthetic foot mechanics on gait, to gain insight into fundamental prosthetic design principles. We varied a single parameter in isolation, the energy-storing spring in a prototype prosthetic foot, the controlled energy storage and return (CESR) foot, and observed the effect on gait. Subjects walked on the CESR foot with three different springs. We performed parallel studies on amputees and on non-amputees wearing prosthetic simulators. In both groups, spring characteristics similarly affected ankle and body center-of-mass (COM) mechanics and metabolic cost. Softer springs led to greater energy storage, energy return, and prosthetic limb COM push-off work. But metabolic energy expenditure was lowest with a spring of intermediate stiffness, suggesting biomechanical disadvantages to the softest spring despite its greater push-off. Disadvantages of the softest spring may include excessive heel displacements and COM collision losses. We also observed some differences in joint kinetics between amputees and non-amputees walking on the prototype foot. During prosthetic push-off, amputees exhibited reduced energy transfer from the prosthesis to the COM along with increased hip work, perhaps due to greater energy dissipation at the knee. Nevertheless, the results indicate that spring compliance can contribute to push-off, but with biomechanical trade-offs that limit the degree to which greater push-off might improve walking economy.
Zelik, Karl E.; Collins, Steven H.; Adamczyk, Peter G.; Segal, Ava D.; Klute, Glenn K.; Morgenroth, David C.; Hahn, Michael E.; Orendurff, Michael S.; Czerniecki, Joseph M.; Kuo, Arthur D.
2014-01-01
Lower-limb amputees expend more energy to walk than non-amputees and have an elevated risk of secondary disabilities. Insufficient push-off by the prosthetic foot may be a contributing factor. We aimed to systematically study the effect of prosthetic foot mechanics on gait, to gain insight into fundamental prosthetic design principles. We varied a single parameter in isolation, the energy-storing spring in a prototype prosthetic foot, the Controlled Energy Storage and Return (CESR) foot, and observed the effect on gait. Subjects walked on the CESR foot with three different springs. We performed parallel studies on amputees and on non-amputees wearing prosthetic simulators. In both groups, spring characteristics similarly affected ankle and body center-of-mass (COM) mechanics and metabolic cost. Softer springs led to greater energy storage, energy return and prosthetic limb COM push-off work. But metabolic energy expenditure was lowest with a spring of intermediate stiffness, suggesting biomechanical disadvantages to the softest spring despite its greater push-off. Disadvantages of the softest spring may include excessive heel displacements and COM collision losses. We also observed some differences in joint kinetics between amputees and non-amputees walking on the prototype foot. During prosthetic push-off, amputees exhibited reduced energy transfer from the prosthesis to the COM along with increased hip work, perhaps due to greater energy dissipation at the knee. Nevertheless, the results indicate that spring compliance can contribute to push-off, but with biomechanical trade-offs that limit the degree to which greater push-off might improve walking economy. PMID:21708509
Schütte, Kurt H; Maas, Ellen A; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Berckmans, Daniel; Venter, Rachel E; Vanwanseele, Benedicte
2015-01-01
Small wireless trunk accelerometers have become a popular approach to unobtrusively quantify human locomotion and provide insights into both gait rehabilitation and sports performance. However, limited evidence exists as to which trunk accelerometry measures are suitable for the purpose of detecting movement compensations while running, and specifically in response to fatigue. The aim of this study was therefore to detect deviations in the dynamic center of mass (CoM) motion due to running-induced fatigue using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty runners aged 18-25 years completed an indoor treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion at speeds equivalent to their 3.2 km time trial performance. The following dependent measures were extracted from tri-axial trunk accelerations of 20 running steps before and after the treadmill fatigue protocol: the tri-axial ratio of acceleration root mean square (RMS) to the resultant vector RMS, step and stride regularity (autocorrelation procedure), and sample entropy. Running-induced fatigue increased mediolateral and anteroposterior ratios of acceleration RMS (p < .05), decreased the anteroposterior step regularity (p < .05), and increased the anteroposterior sample entropy (p < .05) of trunk accelerometry patterns. Our findings indicate that treadmill running-induced fatigue might reveal itself in a greater contribution of variability in horizontal plane trunk accelerations, with anteroposterior trunk accelerations that are less regular from step-to-step and are less predictable. It appears that trunk accelerometry parameters can be used to detect deviations in dynamic CoM motion induced by treadmill running fatigue, yet it is unknown how robust or generalizable these parameters are to outdoor running environments.
Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Minetti, Alberto E
2017-01-01
The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used by the literature on the estimation of BCoM. Despite the specific pros and cons of both methods, FD is less biased and considered as the golden standard, while ID estimates strongly depend on the segmental model adopted to schematically represent the moving body. In these experiments a single subject walked, ran, (uni- and bi-laterally) skipped, and race-walked at a wide range of speeds on a treadmill with force sensors underneath. In all conditions a simultaneous motion capture (8 cameras, 36 markers) took place. 3D BCoM trajectories computed according to five marker set models of ID have been compared to the one obtained by FD on the same (about 2,700) strides. Such a comparison aims to check the validity of the investigated models to capture the "true" dynamics of gaits in terms of distance between paths, mechanical external work and energy recovery. Results allow to conclude that: (1) among gaits, race walking is the most critical in being described by ID, (2) among the investigated segmental models, those capturing the motion of four limbs and trunk more closely reproduce the subtle temporal and spatial changes of BCoM trajectory within the strides of most gaits, (3) FD-ID discrepancy in external work is speed dependent within a gait in the most unsuccessful models, and (4) the internal work is not affected by the difference in BCoM estimates.
O'Neill, Matthew C; Schmitt, Daniel
2012-05-15
Most primates, including lemurs, have a broad range of locomotor capabilities, yet much of the time, they walk at slow speeds and amble, canter or gallop at intermediate and fast speeds. Although numerous studies have investigated limb function during primate quadrupedalism, how the center of mass (COM) moves is not well understood. Here, we examined COM energy, work and power during walking, cantering and galloping in ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta (N=5), over a broad speed range (0.43-2.91 m s(-1)). COM energy recoveries were substantial during walking (35-71%) but lower during canters and gallops (10-51%). COM work, power and collisional losses increased with speed. The positive COM works were 0.625 J kg(-1) m(-1) for walks and 1.661 J kg(-1) m(-1) for canters and gallops, which are in the middle range of published values for terrestrial animals. Although some discontinuities in COM mechanics were evident between walking and cantering, there was no apparent analog to the trot-gallop transition across the intermediate and fast speed range (dimensionless v>0.75, Fr>0.5). A phenomenological model of a lemur cantering and trotting at the same speed shows that canters ensure continuous contact of the body with the substrate while reducing peak vertical COM forces, COM stiffness and COM collisions. We suggest that cantering, rather than trotting, at intermediate speeds may be tied to the arboreal origins of the Order Primates. These data allow us to better understand the mechanics of primate gaits and shed new light on primate locomotor evolution.
Chvatal, Stacie A; Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy; Safavynia, Seyed A; Ting, Lena H
2011-08-01
We investigated muscle activity, ground reaction forces, and center of mass (CoM) acceleration in two different postural behaviors for standing balance control in humans to determine whether common neural mechanisms are used in different postural tasks. We compared nonstepping responses, where the base of support is stationary and balance is recovered by returning CoM back to its initial position, with stepping responses, where the base of support is enlarged and balance is recovered by pushing the CoM away from the initial position. In response to perturbations of the same direction, these two postural behaviors resulted in different muscle activity and ground reaction forces. We hypothesized that a common pool of muscle synergies producing consistent task-level biomechanical functions is used to generate different postural behaviors. Two sets of support-surface translations in 12 horizontal-plane directions were presented, first to evoke stepping responses and then to evoke nonstepping responses. Electromyographs in 16 lower back and leg muscles of the stance leg were measured. Initially (∼100-ms latency), electromyographs, CoM acceleration, and forces were similar in nonstepping and stepping responses, but these diverged in later time periods (∼200 ms), when stepping occurred. We identified muscle synergies using non-negative matrix factorization and functional muscle synergies that quantified correlations between muscle synergy recruitment levels and biomechanical outputs. Functional muscle synergies that produce forces to restore CoM position in nonstepping responses were also used to displace the CoM during stepping responses. These results suggest that muscle synergies represent common neural mechanisms for CoM movement control under different dynamic conditions: stepping and nonstepping postural responses.
Redirection of center-of-mass velocity during the step-to-step transition of human walking
Adamczyk, Peter G.; Kuo, Arthur D.
2009-01-01
Summary Simple dynamic walking models based on the inverted pendulum predict that the human body's center of mass (COM) moves along an arc during each step, with substantial work performed to redirect the COM velocity in the step-to-step transition between arcs. But humans do not keep the stance leg perfectly straight and need not redirect their COM velocity precisely as predicted. We therefore tested a pendulum-based model against a wide range of human walking data. We examined COM velocity and work data from normal human subjects (N=10) walking at 24 combinations of speed (0.75 to 2.0 m s–1) and step length. These were compared against model predictions for the angular redirection of COM velocity and the work performed on the COM during redirection. We found that the COM is redirected through angular changes increasing approximately linearly with step length (R2=0.68), with COM work increasing with the squared product of walking speed and step length (R2=0.82), roughly in accordance with a simple dynamic walking model. This model cannot, however, predict the duration of COM redirection, which we quantified with two empirical measures, one based on angular COM redirection and the other on work. Both indicate that the step-to-step transition begins before and ends after double support and lasts about twice as long – approximately 20–27% of a stride. Although a rigid leg model can predict trends in COM velocity and work, the non-rigid human leg performs the step-to-step transition over a duration considerably exceeding that of double support. PMID:19648412
Vieira, Marcus Fraga; de Brito, Ademir Alves; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa
2017-02-27
This study analyzed gait initiation (GI) on inclined surfaces with 68 young adult subjects of both sexes. Ground reaction forces and moments were collected using two AMTI force platforms, of which one was in a horizontal position and the other was inclined by 8% in relation to the horizontal plane. Departing from a standing position, each participant executed three trials in the following conditions: horizontal position (HOR), inclined position at ankle dorsi-flexion (UP), and inclined position at ankle plantar-flexion (DOWN). Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed over the entire center of pressure (COP) and center of mass (COM) time series. COP excursion did not show significant differences in the medial-lateral (ML) direction in both inclined conditions, but it was greater in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction for both inclined conditions. COP velocities are smaller in discrete portions of GI for the UP and DOWN conditions. COM displacement was greater in the ML direction during anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) in the UP condition, and COM moves faster in the ML direction during APA in the UP condition but slower at the end of GI for both the UP and the DOWN conditions. The COP-COM vector showed a greater angle in the DOWN condition. We observed changes for COP and COM in GI in both the UP and the DOWN conditions, with the latter showing changes for a great extent of the task. Both the UP and the DOWN conditions showed increased COM displacement and velocity. The predominant characteristic during GI on inclined surfaces, including APA, appears to be the displacement of the COM.
Scattering of fermions by gravitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulhoa, S. C.; Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2017-04-01
The interaction between gravitons and fermions is investigated in the teleparallel gravity. The scattering of fermions and gravitons in the weak field approximation is analyzed. The transition amplitudes of M\\varnothing ller, Compton and new gravitational scattering are calculated.
Bell's Inequality and Universal Quantum Gates in a Cold-Atom Chiral Fermionic p-Wave Superfluid
Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.
2007-11-30
We propose and analyze a probabilistic scheme to entangle two spatially separated topological qubits in a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid using controlled collisions between atoms in movable dipole traps and unpaired atoms inside vortex cores in the superfluid. We discuss how to test the violation of Bell's inequality with the generated entanglement. A set of universal quantum gates is shown to be implementable deterministically using the entanglement despite the fact that the entangled states can be created only probabilistically.
Bipartite Composite Fermion States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreejith, G. J.; Tőke, C.; Wójs, A.; Jain, J. K.
2011-08-01
We study a class of ansatz wave functions in which composite fermions form two correlated “partitions.” These “bipartite” composite fermion states are demonstrated to be very accurate for electrons in a strong magnetic field interacting via a short-range 3-body interaction potential over a broad range of filling factors. Furthermore, this approach gives accurate approximations for the exact Coulomb ground state at 2+3/5 and 2+4/7 and is thus a promising candidate for the observed fractional quantum Hall states at the hole conjugate fractions at 2+2/5 and 2+3/7.
Bipartite composite fermion States.
Sreejith, G J; Toke, C; Wójs, A; Jain, J K
2011-08-19
We study a class of ansatz wave functions in which composite fermions form two correlated "partitions." These "bipartite" composite fermion states are demonstrated to be very accurate for electrons in a strong magnetic field interacting via a short-range 3-body interaction potential over a broad range of filling factors. Furthermore, this approach gives accurate approximations for the exact Coulomb ground state at 2+3/5 and 2+4/7 and is thus a promising candidate for the observed fractional quantum Hall states at the hole conjugate fractions at 2+2/5 and 2+3/7.
Hammering Yucca Flat, Part One: P-Wave Velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, D. G.; Abbott, R. E.; Preston, L. A.; Hampshire, J. B., II
2015-12-01
Explosion-source phenomenology is best studied when competing signals (such as instrument, site, and propagation effects), are well understood. The second phase of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is moving from granite geology to alluvium geology at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site. To improve subsurface characterization of Yucca Flat (and therefore better understand propagation and site effects), an active-source seismic survey was conducted using a novel 13,000-kg impulsive hammer source. The source points, spaced 200 m apart, covered a N-S transect spanning 18 km. Three component, 2-Hz geophones were used to record useable signals out to 10 km. We inverted for P-wave velocity by computing travel times using a finite-difference 3D eikonal solver, and then compared that to the picked travel times using a linearized iterative inversion scheme. Preliminary results from traditional reflection processing methods are also presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Threshold effects in P -wave bottom-strange mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Pablo G.; Segovia, Jorge; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco
2017-02-01
Using a nonrelativistic constituent quark model in which the degrees of freedom are quark-antiquark and meson-meson components, we have recently shown that the D(*)K thresholds play an important role in lowering the mass of the c s ¯ states associated with the physical Ds0 *(2317 ) and Ds 1(2460 ) mesons. This observation is also supported by other theoretical approaches such as lattice-regularized QCD or chiral unitary theory in coupled channels. Herein, we extend our computation to the lowest P -wave Bs mesons, taking into account the corresponding JP=0+, 1+ and 2+ bottom-strange states predicted by the naive quark model and the B K and B*K thresholds. We assume that mixing with Bs(*)η and isospin-violating decays to Bs(*)π are negligible. This computation is important because there is no experimental data in the b s ¯ sector for the equivalent jqP=1 /2+ (Ds0 *(2317 ), Ds 1(2460 )) heavy-quark multiplet and, as it has been seen in the c s ¯ sector, the naive theoretical result can be wrong by more than 100 MeV. Our calculation allows us to introduce the coupling with the D -wave B*K channel and to compute the probabilities associated with the different Fock components of the physical state.
P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Baikal Rift Axis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazier, R. A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Boman, E. C.
2001-12-01
Over 100 p wave travel times from the 1500 km en echelon Baikal Rift system are used in this study.The events range 3 to 13 degrees from Talaya, Russia (TLY) along the axis of southwest northeast trending rift in East Siberia. A Herglotz Wiechert inversion of these events resolved a crust of 6.4 km/s and a gradient in the mantle starting at 35 km depth and 7.7 km/s down to 200 km depth and 8.2 km/s. This is compatible with Gao et al,1994 cross sectional structure which cuts the rift at about 400km from TLY. The Baikal Rift hosts the deepest lake and is the most seismically active rift in the world. It is one of the few continental rifts, it separates the Siberian craton and the Syan-Baikal mobile fold belt. Two events, the March 21 1999 magnitude 5.7 earthquake 638 km from TLY and the November 13th 1995 magnitude 5.9 earthquake 863 km from TLY were modeled for there PnL wave structure using the discrete wavenumber method and the Harvard CMT solutions with adjusted depths from p-pP times. The PnL signals match well. A genetic algorithm will used to perturb the velocity structure and compare to a selection of the events between 3 and 13 degrees many will require moment tensor solutions.
Golyski, Pawel R; Hendershot, Brad D
2017-01-30
Transient changes in direction during ambulation are typically performed using a step (outside) or spin (inside) turning strategy, often identified through subjective and time-consuming visual rating. Here, we present a computational, marker-based classification method utilizing pelvic center of mass (pCOM) trajectory and time-distance parameters to quantitatively identify turning strategy. Relative to visual evaluation by three independent raters, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the pCOM-based classification method were evaluated for 90-degree turns performed by 3 separate populations (5 uninjured controls, 5 persons with transtibial amputation, and 5 persons with transfemoral amputation); each completed turns using two distinct cueing paradigms (i.e., laser-guided "freeform" and verbally-guided "forced" turns). Secondarily, we compared the pCOM-based turn classification method to adapted versions of two existing computational turn classifiers which utilize trunk and shank angular velocities (AV). Among 366 (of 486 total) turns with unanimous intra- and inter-rater agreement, the pCOM-based classification algorithm was 94.5% accurate, with 96.6% sensitivity (accuracy of spin turn classification), and 93.5% specificity (accuracy of step turn classification). The pCOM-based algorithm (vs. both AV-based methods) was more accurate (94.5% vs. 81.1-80.6%; P<0.001) overall, as well as specifically in freeform (92.9 vs. 80.4-76.8%; P<0.003) and forced (96.0 vs. 83.8-81.8%; P<0.001) cueing, and among individuals with (92.4 vs. 80.2-78.8%; P<0.001) and without (99.1 vs. 86.2-80.8%; P<0.001) amputation. The pCOM-based algorithm provides an efficient and objective method to accurately classify 90-degree turning strategies using optical motion capture in a laboratory setting, and may be extended to various cueing paradigms and/or populations with altered gait.
Increased P-wave dispersion a risk for atrial fibrillation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
Ertuğrul, İlker; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Karagöz, Tevfik; Kanbur, Nuray
2016-01-01
Studies have shown that a prolonged P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-wave dispersion in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis. We evaluated electrocardiographic findings, particularly the P-wave dispersion, at initial assessment in 47 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Comparison of P-wave dispersion between adolescents with anorexia nervosa and controls showed a statistically significant higher P-wave dispersion in patients with anorexia nervosa (72 ± 16.3 msec) when compared to the control group (43.8 ± 9.5 msec). Percent of body weight lost, lower body mass index, and higher weight loss rate in the patients with anorexia nervosa had no effect on P-wave dispersion. Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate we believe that cardiac pathologies such as atrial fibrillation must also be considered in the medical evaluation.
Measurement of multi-jet cross sections in proton-proton collisions at a 7 TeV center-of-mass energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouanère, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V. J.; Guest, D.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadley, D. R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G. A.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, K.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayden, D.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernandez, C. 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T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Price, M. J.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Randrianarivony, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Renkel, P.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, M.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schneider, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, H. S.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.
2011-11-01
Inclusive multi-jet production is studied in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, using the ATLAS detector. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.4 pb-1. Results on multi-jet cross sections are presented and compared to both leading-order plus parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions and to next-to-leading-order QCD calculations.
Unconventional fermionic pairing states in a monochromatically tilted optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nocera, A.; Polkovnikov, A.; Feiguin, A. E.
2017-02-01
We study the one-dimensional attractive fermionic Hubbard model under the influence of periodic driving with the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. We show that the system can be driven into an unconventional pairing state characterized by a condensate made of Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum similar to a Fulde-Ferrell state. We obtain results both in the laboratory and the rotating reference frames demonstrating that the momentum of the condensate can be finely tuned by changing the ratio between the amplitude and the frequency of the driving. In particular, by quenching this ratio to the value corresponding to suppression of the tunneling and the Coulomb interaction strength to zero, we are able to "freeze" the condensate. We finally study the effects of different initial conditions and compare our numerical results to those obtained from a time-independent Floquet theory in the large frequency regime. Our work offers the possibility of engineering and controlling unconventional pairing states in fermionic condensates.
Unconventional fermionic pairing states in a monochromatically tilted optical lattice
Nocera, Alberto; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Feiguin, Adrian E.
2017-02-01
We study the one-dimensional attractive fermionic Hubbard model under the influence of periodic driving with the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. We show that the system can be driven into an unconventional pairing state characterized by a condensate made of Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum similar to a Fulde-Ferrell state. We obtain results both in the laboratory and the rotating reference frames demonstrating that the momentum of the condensate can be finely tuned by changing the ratio between the amplitude and the frequency of the driving. In particular, by quenching this ratio to the value corresponding tomore » suppression of the tunneling and the Coulomb interaction strength to zero, we are able to “freeze” the condensate. We finally study the effects of different initial conditions and compare our numerical results to those obtained from a time-independent Floquet theory in the large frequency regime. Lastly, our work offers the possibility of engineering and controlling unconventional pairing states in fermionic condensates.« less
Fermionic T-duality in fermionic double space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, B.; Sazdović, B.
2017-04-01
In this article we offer the interpretation of the fermionic T-duality of the type II superstring theory in double space. We generalize the idea of double space doubling the fermionic sector of the superspace. In such doubled space fermionic T-duality is represented as permutation of the fermionic coordinates θα and θbarα with the corresponding fermionic T-dual ones, ϑα and ϑbarα, respectively. Demanding that T-dual transformation law has the same form as initial one, we obtain the known form of the fermionic T-dual NS-R and R-R background fields. Fermionic T-dual NS-NS background fields are obtained under some assumptions. We conclude that only symmetric part of R-R field strength and symmetric part of its fermionic T-dual contribute to the fermionic T-duality transformation of dilaton field and analyze the dilaton field in fermionic double space. As a model we use the ghost free action of type II superstring in pure spinor formulation in approximation of constant background fields up to the quadratic terms.
P-wave Receiver Functions reveal the Bohemian Massif crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kampfova Exnerova, Hana; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek
2015-04-01
In this study we present initial results of P-wave Receiver Functions (RF) calculated from broad-band waveforms of teleseismic events recorded by temporary and permanent stations in the Bohemian Massif (BM, Central Europe). Temporary arrays BOHEMA I (2001-2003), BOHEMA II (2004-2005) and BOHEMA III (2005-2006) operated during passive seismic experiments oriented towards studying velocity structure of the lithosphere and the upper mantle. Receiver Functions show relative response of the Earth structure under a seismic station and nowadays represent frequently-used method to retrieve structure of the crust, whose knowledge is needed in various studies of the upper mantle. The recorded waveforms are composites of direct P and P-to-S converted waves that reverberate in the structure beneath the receiver (Ammon, 1997). The RFs are sensitive to seismic velocity contrast and are thus suited to identifying velocity discontinuities in the crust, including the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho). Relative travel-time delays of the converted phases detected in the RFs are transformed into estimates of discontinuity depths assuming external information on the vp/vs and P velocity. To evaluate RFs we use the Multiple-taper spectral correlation (MTC) method (Park and Levin, 2000) and process signals from teleseismic events at epicentral distances of 30 - 100° with magnitude Mw > 5.5. Recordings are filtered with Butterworth band-pass filter of 2 - 8 s. To select automatically signals which are strong enough, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) in two steps. In the first step we calculate SNR for signals from intervals (-1s, 3s)/(-10s, -2s), where P-arrival time represent time zero. In the second step we broaden the intervals and calculate SNR for (-1s, 9s)/(-60s, -2s). We also employ forward modelling of the RFs using Interactive Receiver Functions Forward Modeller (IRFFM) (Tkalčić et al., 2010) to produce, in the first step, one-dimensional velocity models under
Observation of P-Wave Capture Strength in the Deuterium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramer, Laird Hayman
The ^2H(d,gamma) ^4He reaction is expected to be dominated by electric quadrupole (E2) s-wave (l = 0) capture to the D-state (l = 2) of ^4He below E _{rm d}(lab) = 500 keV, where the centrifugal barrier should suppress the electric quadrupole (E2) d-wave (l = 2) capture to the S-state (l = 0). Enhancement of the total cross section below E_{ rm d}(lab) = 500 keV has been attributed to this mechanism, although no direct evidence exists to support this claim. To investigate this issue, we have measured the vector and tensor analyzing powers of the ^2 H(vec{rm d}{, }gamma)^4He reaction using an 80 keV beam of polarized deuterons. We present results for the vector and tensor analyzing powers A_ {rm y}(theta) and A _{rm yy}(theta) and the differential cross section sigma(theta) /A_0 for E_ {rm d}(lab) = 80 - 0 keV at theta_{rm c.m. } = 0^circ, 45^ circ, and 82^circ. A model-independent transition matrix element analysis of the data finds that a major portion of the capture strength results from electric dipole (E1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) p-wave capture (l = 1). The data are also compared to a recent microscopic coupled -channel resonating group model calculation which includes electric quadrupole (E2), electric dipole (E1), magnetic quadrupole (M2), and magnetic dipole (M1) transitions and the coupled deuteron-deuteron, proton-triton, and neutron -^3He channels. The model produces fair agreement with the experimental data when a semi-realistic force is used.
Fermion number anomaly with the fluffy mirror fermion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okumura, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2016-12-01
Quite recently, Grabowska and Kaplan presented a 4-dimensional lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories based on the chiral overlap operator. We study this formulation from the perspective of the fermion number anomaly and possible associated phenomenology. A simple argument shows that the consistency of the formulation implies that the fermion with the opposite chirality to the physical one, the "fluffy mirror fermion" or "fluff", suffers from the fermion number anomaly in the same magnitude (with the opposite sign) as the physical fermion. This immediately shows that if at least one of the fluff quarks is massless, the formulation provides a simple viable solution to the strong CP problem. Also, if the fluff interacts with gravity essentially in the same way as the physical fermion, the formulation can realize the asymmetric dark matter scenario.
P Wave Indices: Derivation of Reference Values from the Framingham Heart Study
Magnani, Jared W.; Johnson, Victor M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.
2012-01-01
Background P wave indices, an electrocardiographic phenotype reflecting atrial electrophysiology and morphology, may be altered in multiple disease states or by cardiovascular risk factors. Reference values for P wave indices, providing cut points for their classification and interpretation, have not yet been established and are essential towards facilitating clinical application and comparison between studies. Methods We randomly selected 20 men and 20 women from 10-year age intervals between <25 years to 76–85 years from the Framingham Heart Study Original and Offspring Cohorts, excluding subjects with prevalent cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes or obesity. The total included 295 subjects; eligibility in women >75 years was limited by exclusion criteria. We used a digital measurement technique with demonstrated intrarater reproducibility to determine P wave indices. P wave indices examined included the maximum, mean, lead II and PR durations, dispersion, and the standard deviation of duration. Results All P wave indices were significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with advancing age. Means of all P wave indices were lower in women as compared to men. PR interval duration was strongly correlated with maximum, mean, and lead II mean P wave durations. In multivariable models adjusting for significant anthropometric and clinical associations risk factors, significant differences persisted by age and sex in P wave indices. Conclusions In our healthy sample without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes or obesity, men and older subjects had longer mean P wave indices. Our description of P wave indices establishes reference values for future comparative studies and facilitates the classification of P wave indices. PMID:20946557
The correlations between the saturated and dry P-wave velocity of rocks.
Kahraman, S
2007-11-01
Sometimes engineers need to estimate the wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity. An estimation equation embracing all rock classes will be useful for the rock engineers. To investigate the predictability of wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity, P-wave velocity measurements were performed on 41 different rock types, 11 of which were igneous, 15 of which were sedimentary and 15 of which was metamorphic. In addition to the dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocity measurements, the P-wave velocity changing as a function of saturation degree was studied. Moreover, dry-rock S-wave velocity measurements were conducted. The test results were modeled using Gassmann's and Wood's theory and it was seen that the measured data did not fit the theories. The unconformity is due to the fact that the theories are valid for high-porosity unconsolidated sediments at low frequencies. Gassmann's equation was modified for the rocks except high-porosity unconsolidated sediments. The dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocity values were evaluated using regression analysis. A strong linear correlation between the dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocities was found. Regression analyses were repeated for the rock classes and it was shown that correlation coefficients were increased. Concluding remark is that the derived equations can be used for the prediction of wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity.
P-wave seismic imaging through dipping transversely isotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leslie, Jennifer Meryl
2000-10-01
P-wave seismic anisotropy is of growing concern to the exploration industry. The transmissional effects through dipping anisotropic strata, such as shales, cause substantial depth and lateral positioning errors when imaging subsurface targets. Using anisotropic physical models the limitations of conventional isotropic migration routines were determined to be significant. In addition, these models were used to validate both anisotropic depth migration routines and an anisotropic, numerical raytracer. In order to include anisotropy in these processes, one must be able to quantify the anisotropy using two parameters, epsilon and delta. These parameters were determined from headwave velocity measurements on anisotropic strata, in the parallel-, perpendicular- and 45°-to-bedding directions. This new method was developed using refraction seismic techniques to measure the necessary velocities in the Wapiabi Formation shales, the Brazeau Group interbedded sandstones and shales, the Cardium Formation sandstones and the Palliser Formation limestones. The Wapiabi Formation and Brazeau Group rocks were determined to be anisotropic with epsilon = 0.23 +/- 0.05, delta = --0.05 +/- 0.07 and epsilon = 0.11 +/- 0.04, delta = 0.42 +/- 0.06, respectively. The sandstones and limestones of the Cardium and Palliser formations were both determined to be isotropic, in these studies. In a complementary experiment, a new procedure using vertical seismic profiling (VSP) techniques was developed to measure the anisotropic headwave velocities. Using a multi-offset source configuration on an appropriately dipping, uniform panel of anisotropic strata, the required velocities were measured directly and modelled. In this study, the geologic model was modelled using an anisotropic raytracer, developed for the experiment. The anisotropy was successfully modelled using anisotropic parameters based on the refraction seismic results. With a firm idea of the anisotropic parameters from the
Tripartite composite fermion states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreejith, G. J.; Wu, Ying-Hai; Wójs, A.; Jain, J. K.
2013-06-01
The Read-Rezayi wave function is one of the candidates for the fractional quantum Hall effect at filling fraction ν=2+⅗, and thereby also its hole conjugate at 2+⅖. We study a general class of tripartite composite fermion wave functions, which reduce to the Rezayi-Read ground state and quasiholes for appropriate quantum numbers, but also allow a construction of wave functions for quasiparticles and neutral excitations by analogy to the standard composite fermion theory. We present numerical evidence in finite systems that these trial wave functions capture well the low energy physics of a four-body model interaction. We also compare the tripartite composite fermion wave functions with the exact Coulomb eigenstates at 2+⅗, and find reasonably good agreement. The ground state as well as several excited states of the four-body interaction are seen to evolve adiabatically into the corresponding Coulomb states for N=15 particles. These results support the plausibility of the Read-Rezayi proposal for the 2+⅖ and 2+⅗ fractional quantum Hall effect. However, certain other proposals also remain viable, and further study of excitations and edge states will be necessary for a decisive establishment of the physical mechanism of these fractional quantum Hall states.
(Strongly interacting fermion system)
Not Available
1990-01-01
Research has been concentrated primarily in three areas: heavy fermions, physics of high-temperature superconductivity, and electronic properties. In heavy fermions a peak in the attenuation coefficient of ultrasound just below the superconducting transition temperature can be explained in the context of conventional (BCS) superconductivity theory by recognizing how profoundly that theory is reorganized in heavy fermion systems in which the sound velocity is comparable to electron Fermi velocity. In high-temperature superconductors there have been development of a model for magnetism in one alloy which shows unusual first-order phase transitions in a magnetic field, a possible mechanism for high-temperature superconductivity based on an electric quadrupole moment of Cu in tetragonal crystal geometry, and a neat resolution of a paradox between a theory connecting gaps in spectrum with the degeneracy of the system and a prominent current theoretical view that there is a gap and no degeneracy. It turns out there is a topological degeneracy that had not been previously recognized. In electronic structure we have shown that the finite element approach can be used for electronic systems with an efficient code using more than a half-million local basis functions. In addition, we have developed a variational principle for determining optimal meshes for solving differential equations --- such as the Schroedinger equation.
Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave.
Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan
2015-08-05
We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell's law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.
Influence of water saturation on ultrasonic P-wave velocity in weakly compacted sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fikri Niyartama, Thaqibul; Fauzi, Umar; Fatkhan
2017-01-01
Laboratory measurements of Ultrasonic P-wave velocities were conducted in weakly compacted sandstone with varying degree of water saturations. We used P wave transducer at frequency 63 kHz and imbibition technique in order to study the influence of water saturation on the P-wave velocity. Our experiment showed that the P-wave velocity (Vp) was reduced significantly at the beginning of the imbibition process. The variations on travel times and the amplitude changes were detected at any degree of saturation. The first and second amplitude of P wave decreased as water saturation (Sw ) increased in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 in B5 sample, the amplitude increased again afterward. The shifting peaks of the signal that indicated attenuation were also observed in the experimental.
Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan
2015-08-01
We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.
Fermion mass without symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catterall, Simon
2016-01-01
We examine a model of reduced staggered fermions in three dimensions interacting through an SO (4) invariant four fermion interaction. The model is similar to that considered in a recent paper by Ayyer and Chandrasekharan [1]. We present theoretical arguments and numerical evidence which support the idea that the system develops a mass gap for sufficiently strong four fermi coupling without producing a symmetry breaking fermion bilinear condensate. Massless and massive phases appear to be separated by a continuous phase transition.
Hadron Properties with FLIC Fermions
James Zanotti; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anthony Williams; J Zhang
2003-07-01
The Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action provides a new form of nonperturbative O(a)-improvement in lattice fermion actions offering near continuum results at finite lattice spacing. It provides computationally inexpensive access to the light quark mass regime of QCD where chiral nonanalytic behavior associated with Goldstone bosons is revealed. The motivation and formulation of FLIC fermions, its excellent scaling properties and its low-lying hadron mass phenomenology are presented.
Increased P-wave dispersion in patients with newly diagnosed lichen planus
Sahin, Musa; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Simsek, Hakki; Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali; Yaman, Mehmet; Bayram, Yasemin; Karadag, Ayse Serap
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. Recent research has emphasized the strong association between inflammation and both P-wave dispersion and dyslipidemia. The difference between the maximum and minimum P-wave durations on an electrocardiogram is defined as P-wave dispersion. The prolongation of P-wave dispersion has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for developing atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to investigate P-wave dispersion in patients with lichen planus. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with lichen planus and 37 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. We obtained electrocardiographic recordings from all participants and used them to calculate the P-wave variables. We also assessed the levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, which is an inflammatory marker, and the lipid levels for each group. The results were reported as the means ± standard deviations and percentages. RESULTS: The P-wave dispersion was significantly higher in lichen planus patients than in the control group. Additionally, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in lichen planus patients compared to the controls. There was a significant positive correlation between highly sensitive C-reactive protein and P-wave dispersion (r = 0.549, p<0.001) in lichen planus patients. CONCLUSIONS: P-wave dispersion increased on the surface electrocardiographic measurements of lichen planus patients. This result may be important in the early detection of subclinical cardiac involvement. Increased P-wave dispersion, in terms of the tendency for atrial fibrillation, should be considered in these patients. PMID:23778479
Cloaking two-dimensional fermions
Lin, De-Hone
2011-09-15
A cloaking theory for a two-dimensional spin-(1/2) fermion is proposed. It is shown that the spinor of the two-dimensional fermion can be cloaked perfectly through controlling the fermion's energy and mass in a specific manner moving in an effective vector potential inside a cloaking shell. Different from the cloaking of three-dimensional fermions, the scaling function that determines the invisible region is uniquely determined by a nonlinear equation. It is also shown that the efficiency of the cloaking shell is unaltered under the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
p{sub x}+ip{sub y} Superfluid from s-Wave Interactions of Fermionic Cold Atoms
Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.
2008-10-17
Two-dimensional (p{sub x}+ip{sub y}) superfluids or superconductors offer a playground for studying intriguing physics such as quantum teleportation, non-Abelian statistics, and topological quantum computation. Creating such a superfluid in cold fermionic atom optical traps using p-wave Feshbach resonance is turning out to be challenging. Here we propose a method to create a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid directly from an s-wave interaction making use of a topological Berry phase, which can be artificially generated. We discuss ways to detect the spontaneous Hall mass current, which acts as a diagnostic for the chiral p-wave superfluid.
Majorana Fermions in Disordered Quasi-One-Dimensional Topological Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potter, Andrew; Lee, Patrick
2012-02-01
Majorana fermions have long been predicted to emerge in certain quantum Hall states and other naturally occurring p-wave superconductors. However, these materials are quite delicate and consequently the experimental realization of Majorana fermions remains elusive. The possibility of engineering 1D networks of topological superconducting wires from conventional materials offers a promising alternative route to realize Majorana fermions and probe their predicted non-Abelian statistics. In practice, it is impossible to fabricate perfectly clean and strictly one-dimensional structures; how do these non-idealities affect the proposed Majorana states? This talk will show that Majorana end states are robust away from the strict 1D limit, so long as the sample width is not much larger than the superconducting coherence length. The effects of disorder are potentially more severe, as impurity scattering is generally pair-breaking and tends to suppress the gap protecting the Majorana modes. Finally, we propose new candidate materials and geometries that greatly simplify the experimental setup and mitigate the harmful effects of disorder.
Mitchell, J. T.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; ...
2016-05-23
Here, several methods of generating three constituent quarks in a nucleon are evaluated which explicitly maintain the nucleon's center of mass and desired radial distribution and can be used within Monte Carlo Glauber frameworks. The geometric models provided by each method are used to generate distributions over the number of constituent quark participants (Nqp) in p+p,d+Au, and Au+Au collisions. The results are compared with each other and to a previous result of Nqp calculations, without this explicit constraint, used in measurements of √SNN = 200 GeV p+p,d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, J. T.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Stankus, P. W.
2016-05-01
Several methods of generating three constituent quarks in a nucleon are evaluated which explicitly maintain the nucleon's center of mass and desired radial distribution and can be used within Monte Carlo Glauber frameworks. The geometric models provided by each method are used to generate distributions over the number of constituent quark participants (Nqp) in p +p ,d +Au , and Au +Au collisions. The results are compared with each other and to a previous result of Nqp calculations, without this explicit constraint, used in measurements of √{sNN}=200 GeV p +p ,d +Au , and Au +Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.
1995-02-22
A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.
Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen
2015-07-01
Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.
Study of acceleration of center of mass during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in patients with stroke
Na, Eunjin; Hwang, Hyesun; Woo, Youngkeun
2016-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the center of mass during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit activities in the timed up and go test between healthy subjects and patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy participants and thirty patients with stroke volunteered for this study. Acceleration of the center of mass was measured using a wireless tri-axial accelerometer during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit activities in the timed up and go test. Accelerometer data were analyzed using BTS G-studio software. [Results] The phase duration was significantly longer and the anterior-posterior, mediolateral, and vertical acceleration ranges were significantly lower during sit-to-stand for patients with stroke than for healthy controls. Further, phase duration and the mediolateral acceleration range during stand-to-sit differed significantly between healthy controls and subjects with stroke. [Conclusions] During training for the sit-to-stand activity, the focus should be all three balance dimensions, but during training for the stand-to-sit activity, the focus should be on improving mediolateral balance and asymmetrical foot positioning should be recommended. PMID:27799669
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guragain, Hari
2015-04-01
One of the major objectives of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) spin program at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the measurement of the gluon helicity contribution to the proton spin via measuring the double longitudinal spin asymmetry (ALL) in various channels. In PHENIX (Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment) we measure ALL in π0 production. The π0 is reconstructed through its diphoton decay channel. The photons are detected by the PHENIX Electromagnetic calorimeter, which consists of lead glass and lead scintillator detectors and covers rapidity of | η | < 0.35 and azimuthal angle of 180& circ; . We present a preliminary results for 180& circ; in π0 production from the data collected in the year 2013 at center of mass energy (√{ s }) = 510 GeV. In year 2013, the total integrated luminosity was 150 pb-1 which is almost ten times the total luminosity recorded in the year 2009 at √{ s } = 200 GeV. Due to increase in the center of mass energy and integrated luminosity, the new measurements can cover the Bjorken x range down to 0.01. We found a non-zero ALL result which is consistent with positive gluon polarization at the probed kinematics.
Rubinov, Paul Michael
1995-12-01
The study of center-of-mass angular distribution of direct photons produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8TeV with the D0 detector is described. The photons are detected and identified using a liquid argon calorimeter, with charged particle rejection provided by tracking chambers. The photons are restricted to the central region (n ≤ 0.75), but center-of-mass system for the hard scattering is reconstructed using the information from reconstructed jets. A method for avoiding possible bias due to edges of the calorimeter is presented. The background, due mainly to rare fragmentations of a jet into a leading neutral meson, are subtracted statistically using the expected variation in the longitudinal profile of the electromagnetic shower. The angular distribution in the range of η* from 0 to 1.5 (cos θ* from 0 to 0.9) is compared to next-to-leading order QCD predictions, and found to be in good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Resham; Kim, May E.; Fang, Renpeng; Tu, Yanfei; Shahriar, Selim M.
2015-09-01
We investigate the behavior of an ensemble of ? non-interacting, identical atoms excited by a laser. In general, the ?-th atom sees a Rabi frequency ?, an initial position dependent laser phase ?, and a motion induced Doppler shift of ?. When ? or ? is distinct for each atom, the system evolves into a superposition of ? intercoupled states, of which there are ? symmetric and ? asymmetric collective states. For a collective state atomic interferometer (COSAIN), we recently proposed, it is important to understand the behavior of all the collective states under various conditions. In this paper, we show how to formulate the properties of these states under various non-idealities, and use this formulation to understand the dynamics thereof. We also consider the effect of treating the center of mass degree of freedom of the atoms quantum mechanically on the description of the collective states, illustrating that it is indeed possible to construct a generalized collective state, as needed for the COSAIN, when each atom is assumed to be in a localized wave packet. The analysis presented in this paper is important for understanding the dynamics of the COSAIN, and will help advance the analysis and optimization of spin squeezing in the presence of practically unavoidable non-idealities as well as in the domain where the center of mass motion of the atoms is quantized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilger, E.; Beron, B. L.; Carrington, R. L.; Ford, R. L.; Hill, W. T.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Liberman, A. D.; Martin, T. W.; Oneill, L. H.
1977-01-01
The cross section for the pair-annihilation reaction e(+)e(-) yields gamma-gamma were measured at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2-7.4 GeV and at production angles close to 90 deg. The experimental apparatus consisted of two identical spectrometers which were set to view the luminous region at SPEAR-II from opposite directions at an azimuthal angle of 45 deg. In each spectrometer there was a NaI(TI) crystal 20 radiation lengths thick and 30 in. in diameter to measure the gamma-ray energies. Annihilation events were detected by an electronic trigger which required only the observation in coincidence of more than 0.2 GeV in each NaI(TI) crystal within + or - 15 nsec of the crossing beams. The observed rates of pair-annihilation events were found to be in agreement with those expected from quantum electrodynamics (QED) at all the center-of-mass energies used.
Breakdown of QCD factorization for P-wave quarkonium production at low transverse momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, J. P.; Wang, J. X.; Zhao, S.
2014-10-01
Quarkonium production at low transverse momentum in hadron collisions can be used to extract Transverse-Momentum-Dependent (TMD) gluon distribution functions, if TMD factorization holds there. We show that TMD factorization for the case of P-wave quarkonium with JPC =0++ ,2++ holds at one-loop level, but is violated beyond one-loop level. TMD factorization for other P-wave quarkonium is also violated already at one-loop level.
Contact Tensor in a p-Wave Fermi Gas with Anisotropic Feshbach Resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Ueda, Masahito
2016-05-01
Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have revealed that a Fermi gas with a p-wave Feshbach resonance has universal relations between the system's high-momentum behavior and thermodynamics. A new feature introduced by the p-wave interaction is anisotropy in the Feshbach resonances; three degenerate p-wave resonances split according to the magnetic quantum number of the closed-channel molecules | m | due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we investigate the consequences of the anisotropy. We show that the momentum distribution has a high-momentum asymptote nk ~k-2 ∑ m, m' = - 1 1 >Cm, m'Y1m * (\\kcirc)Y1m' (\\kcirc) , in which we introduce the p-wave contact tensor Cm ,m'. In contrast to the previous studies, it has nine components. We identify them as the number, angular momentum, and nematicity of the closed-channel molecules. We also discuss two examples, the anisotropic p-wave superfluid and a gas confined in a cigar-shaped trap, which exhibit a nematicity component in the p-wave contact tensor.
Experimental study of the stress effect on attenuation of normally incident P-wave through coal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Junjun; Wang, Enyuan; Chen, Liang; Li, Xuelong; Xu, Zhaoyong; Li, Guoai
2016-09-01
The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the stress effect on normally incident P-wave attenuation through coal specimens. Laboratory tests were carried out using a Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system, and a modified method was proposed to determine the quality factor (Q) of P-waves through coal specimens. Larger quality factor denotes less energy attenuated during P-wave propagating through coal. Experimental results indicate that the quality factor and stress (σ) within coal specimens are positively correlated. The P-wave propagation through coal specimens causes crack closure at the beginning of the coal fracture process in SHPB tests, an innovative model was thus proposed to describe the relationship between the crack closure length and the dynamic stress induced by P-wave. Finally, the stress effect on P-wave attenuation through coal was quantitatively represented by a power function Q = a(c-bσ)- 6, and the material constants a, b, and c were determined as 1.227, 1.314, and 0.005, respectively. The results obtained in this study would be helpful for engineers to estimate seismic energy attenuation and coal mass instability in coal mines.
Strongly interacting p -wave Fermi gas in two dimensions: Universal relations and breathing mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yi-Cai; Zhang, Shizhong
2017-02-01
The contact is an important concept that characterizes the universal properties of a strongly interacting quantum gas. It appears in both thermodynamic (energy, pressure, etc.) and dynamic quantities (radio-frequency and Bragg spectroscopies, etc.) of the system. Very recently, the concept of contact was extended to higher partial waves; in particular, the p -wave contacts have been experimentally probed in recent experiments. So far, discussions on p -wave contacts have been limited to three dimensions. In this paper, we generalize the p -wave contacts to two dimensions and derive a series of universal relations, including the adiabatic relations, high-momentum distribution, virial theorem, and pressure relation. At the high-temperature and low-density limit, we calculate the p -wave contacts explicitly using virial expansion. A formula which directly connects the shift of the breathing-mode frequency and the p -wave contacts is given in a harmonically trapped system. Finally, we also derive the relationships between interaction parameters in three- and two-dimensional Fermi gases and discuss possible experimental realization of a two-dimensional Fermi gas with p -wave interactions.
Dynamical symmetries for fermions
Guidry, M.
1989-01-01
An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E{sub 2}) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Baojie; Sugino, Osamu; Liu, Ro-Ya; Zhang, Jin; Yukawa, Ryu; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Iimori, Takushi; Kim, Howon; Hasegawa, Yukio; Li, Hui; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Komori, Fumio; Chiang, Tai-Chang; Meng, Sheng; Matsuda, Iwao
2017-03-01
Honeycomb structures of group IV elements can host massless Dirac fermions with nontrivial Berry phases. Their potential for electronic applications has attracted great interest and spurred a broad search for new Dirac materials especially in monolayer structures. We present a detailed investigation of the β12 sheet, which is a borophene structure that can form spontaneously on a Ag(111) surface. Our tight-binding analysis revealed that the lattice of the β12 sheet could be decomposed into two triangular sublattices in a way similar to that for a honeycomb lattice, thereby hosting Dirac cones. Furthermore, each Dirac cone could be split by introducing periodic perturbations representing overlayer-substrate interactions. These unusual electronic structures were confirmed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and validated by first-principles calculations. Our results suggest monolayer boron as a new platform for realizing novel high-speed low-dissipation devices.
Quantum phase transition and entanglement of one-dimensional spinless fermion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Sheng De; Mi, Xian Wu; Zhou, Yue Bing; Chen, Xiong Wen; Song, Ke Hui
2016-09-01
Motivated by recent developments in the field of 1D topological superconductors (TSCs), we investigate the phase transition properties of p-wave superconductor with 50 sites. In this paper, we first map the p-wave fermion model into the transverse XY model with an incommensurate modulated transverse field. We study the phase transition from TSC phase to Anderson localization phase by using imaginary time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm. By calculating the correlation function Cij = <σixσ jx>, we numerically calculate the average correlation function in different p-wave pairing amplitude Δ. By plotting the average correlation function versus the strength of incommensurate V for Δ = 0.5 and Δ = 1.5, we identify the phase transition from TSC phase to Anderson localization phase [X. M. Cai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 176403 (2013)]. Last but not least, we give an average measure of the entanglement of a single site with the rest of the system and von Neumann entropy of two boundary sites for the same parameters showing that the system possesses very strong entanglement at the critical point. The finite size effect and Majorana fermions are discussed in this paper.
Composite fermion-boson mapping for fermionic lattice models.
Zhao, J; Jiménez-Hoyos, C A; Scuseria, G E; Huerga, D; Dukelsky, J; Rombouts, S M A; Ortiz, G
2014-11-12
We present a mapping of elementary fermion operators onto a quadratic form of composite fermionic and bosonic cluster operators. The mapping is an exact isomorphism as long as the physical constraint of one composite particle per cluster is satisfied. This condition is treated on average in a composite particle mean-field approach, which consists of an ansatz that decouples the composite fermionic and bosonic sectors. The theory is tested on the 1D and 2D Hubbard models. Using a Bogoliubov determinant for the composite fermions and either a coherent or Bogoliubov state for the bosons, we obtain a simple and accurate procedure for treating the Mott insulating phase of the Hubbard model with mean-field computational cost.
Pairing symmetry and vortex zero mode for superconducting Dirac fermions
Lu, C.-K.; Herbut, Igor F.
2010-10-01
We study vortex zero-energy bound states in presence of pairing between low-energy Dirac fermions on the surface of a topological insulator. The pairing symmetries considered include the s-wave, p-wave, and, in particular, the mixed-parity symmetry, which arises in absence of the inversion symmetry on the surface. The zero mode is analyzed within the generalized Jackiw-Rossi-Dirac Hamiltonian that contains a momentum-dependent mass term, and includes the effects of the electromagnetic gauge field and the Zeeman coupling as well. At a finite chemical potential, as long as the spectrum without the vortex is fully gapped, the presence of a single Fermi surface with a definite helicity always leads to one Majorana zero mode, in which both electron's spin projections participate. In particular, the critical effects of the Zeeman coupling on the zero mode are discussed.
Spontaneous compactification and chiral fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, Paul H.; Yamamoto, Katsuji
The question is addressed of which chiral fermions survive in spontaneously compactified solutions of the generalized Einstein-Yang-Mills field equations for higher even space-time dimensions. First, we study the allowed fermion representations of SU( N) which have no gauge or gravitational chiral anomalies in arbitrary even dimension and show how to find all such representations for the case of totally antisymmetric SU( N) tensors. Second, we look explicitly at monopole-induced spontaneous compactification in six dimensions; here, interesting chiral fermions in four dimensions do not occur easily but instead require highly artificial assignments of quantum numbers under the U(1) gauge group associated with the monopole. Finally, we consider instanton-induced spontaneous compactification in eight dimensions; for this case, we may readily obtain acceptable chiral fermions in four dimensions, including Georgi's three-family SU(11) model.
Model Parameterization and P-wave AVA Direct Inversion for Young's Impedance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao
2017-03-01
AVA inversion is an important tool for elastic parameters estimation to guide the lithology prediction and "sweet spot" identification of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The product of the Young's modulus and density (named as Young's impedance in this study) is known as an effective lithology and brittleness indicator of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Density is difficult to predict from seismic data, which renders the estimation of the Young's impedance inaccurate in conventional approaches. In this study, a pragmatic seismic AVA inversion approach with only P-wave pre-stack seismic data is proposed to estimate the Young's impedance to avoid the uncertainty brought by density. First, based on the linearized P-wave approximate reflectivity equation in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, the P-wave approximate reflectivity equation in terms of the Young's impedance is derived according to the relationship between P-wave modulus, S-wave modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson ratio. This equation is further compared to the exact Zoeppritz equation and the linearized P-wave approximate reflectivity equation in terms of P- and S-wave velocities and density, which illustrates that this equation is accurate enough to be used for AVA inversion when the incident angle is within the critical angle. Parameter sensitivity analysis illustrates that the high correlation between the Young's impedance and density render the estimation of the Young's impedance difficult. Therefore, a de-correlation scheme is used in the pragmatic AVA inversion with Bayesian inference to estimate Young's impedance only with pre-stack P-wave seismic data. Synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to predict the Young's impedance stably even with moderate noise and the field data examples verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach in Young's impedance estimation and "sweet spots" evaluation.
Evaluation of the P Wave Axis in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Acar, Rezzan Deniz; Bulut, Mustafa; Acar, Şencan; Izci, Servet; Fidan, Serdar; Yesin, Mahmut; Efe, Suleyman Cagan
2015-01-01
Introduction: P wave axis is one of the most practical clinical tool for evaluation of cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the P wave axis in electrocardiogram (ECG), left atrial function and association between the disease activity score in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: Standard 12-lead surface ECGs were recorded by at a paper speed of 25 m/s and an amplifier gain of 10 mm/mV. The heart rate (HR), the duration of PR, QRS, QTd (dispersion), the axis of P wave were measured by ECG machine automatically. Results: The P wave axis was significantly increased in patients with SLE (49 ± 20 vs. 40 ± 18, P = 0.037) and the disease activity score was found positively correlated with P wave axis (r: 0.382, P = 0.011). The LA volume and the peak systolic strain of the left atrium (LA) were statistically different between the groups (P = 0.024 and P = 0.000). The parameters of the diastolic function; E/A and E/e’ were better in the control group than the patients with SLE (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3, P = 0.041 and 6.6 ± 2.8 vs. 5.4 ± 1.4, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusion: P wave axis was found significantly increased in patients with SLE and positively correlated with SELENA-SLEDAI score. As the risk score increases in patients with SLE, P wave axis changes which may predict the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26702344
Mitchell, J. T.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Stankus, P. W.
2016-05-23
Here, several methods of generating three constituent quarks in a nucleon are evaluated which explicitly maintain the nucleon's center of mass and desired radial distribution and can be used within Monte Carlo Glauber frameworks. The geometric models provided by each method are used to generate distributions over the number of constituent quark participants (N_{qp}) in p+p,d+Au, and Au+Au collisions. The results are compared with each other and to a previous result of N_{qp} calculations, without this explicit constraint, used in measurements of √S_{NN} = 200 GeV p+p,d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
Observation of e+e-→η'J /ψ at center-of-mass energies between 4.189 and 4.600 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration
2016-08-01
The process e+e-→η'J /ψ is observed for the first time with a statistical significance of 8.6 σ at center-of-mass energy √{s }=4.226 GeV and 7.3 σ at √{s }=4.258 GeV using data samples collected with the BESIII detector. The Born cross sections are measured to be (3.7 ±0.7 ±0.3 ) and (3.9 ±0.8 ±0.3 ) pb at √{s }=4.226 and 4.258 GeV, respectively, where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. Upper limits at the 90% confidence level of the Born cross sections are also reported at other 12 energy points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, E.; Ford, W. T.; Qi, N.; Read, A. L.; Smith, J. G.; Camporesi, T.; de Sangro, R.; Marini, A.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Ronga, F.; Blume, H. T.; Hurst, R. B.; Sleeman, J. C.; Venuti, J. P.; Wald, H. B.; Weinstein, Roy; Band, H. R.; Gettner, M. W.; Goderre, G. P.; Gottschalk, B.; Meyer, O. A.; Moromisato, J. H.; Shambroom, W. D.; von Goeler, E.; Ash, W. W.; Chadwick, G. B.; Clearwater, S. H.; Coombes, R. W.; Kaye, H. S.; Lau, K. H.; Leedy, R. E.; Lynch, H. L.; Messner, R. L.; Michalowski, S. J.; Muller, F.; Moss, L. J.; Nelson, H. N.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D. M.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Wiser, D. E.; Zdarko, R. W.; Groom, D. E.; Lee, Hoyun; Loh, E. C.; Delfino, M. C.; Heltsley, B. K.; Johnson, J. R.; Lavine, T. L.; Maruyama, T.; Prepost, R.
1985-04-01
We report a high-precision measurement of the ratio R of the total cross section for e+e--->hadrons to that for e+e--->μ+μ-, at a center-of-mass energy of 29.0 GeV using the MAC detector. The result is R=3.96+/-0.09. This value of R is used to determine a value of the strong coupling constant αs of 0.23+/-0.06, nearly independent of fragmentation models. Two different analysis methods having quite different event-selection criteria have been used and the results are in agreement. Particular attention has been given to the study of systematic errors. New higher-order QED calculations are used for the luminosity determination and the acceptance for hadrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; CMS Collaboration Collaboration
2017-01-01
Presented here is the analysis of prompt J/Psi meson pairs produced in 8 TeV center of mass energy proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. The J/psi are reconstructed from their decay to muons. The analyzed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20 inverse fb measured by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. The acceptance region is defined in intervals of the single J/Psi transverse momentum and rapidity. The differential cross section distributions in the J/Psi pair invariant mass, transverse momentum, and rapidity are presented and compared to production models. Of particular interest is the contribution of double parton scattering to the production of this final state and potential resonant J/psi pair production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Ueda, Masahito
2015-09-01
We investigate universal relations in a spinless Fermi gas near a p -wave Feshbach resonance, and show that the momentum distribution nk has an asymptote proportional to k-2 with the proportionality constant—the p -wave contact—scaling with the number of closed-channel molecules. We prove the adiabatic sweep theorem for a p -wave resonance which reveals the thermodynamic implication of the p -wave contact. In contrast to the unitary Fermi gas in which Tan's contact is universal, the p -wave contact depends on the short-range details of the interaction.
Observing remnants by fermions' tunneling
Chen, D.Y.; Wu, H.W.; Yang, H. E-mail: iverwu@uestc.edu.cn
2014-03-01
The standard Hawking formula predicts the complete evaporation of black holes. In this paper, we introduce effects of quantum gravity into fermions' tunneling from Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes. The quantum gravity effects slow down the increase of Hawking temperatures. This property naturally leads to a residue mass in black hole evaporation. The corrected temperatures are affected by the quantum numbers of emitted fermions. Meanwhile, the temperature of the Kerr black hole is a function of θ due to the rotation.
Fermions as generalized Ising models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetterich, C.
2017-04-01
We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.
Study of e+e-→ω χc J at Center of Mass Energies from 4.21 to 4.42 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Li, Cheng; Li, C. H.; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration
2015-03-01
Based on data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider at nine center of mass energies from 4.21 to 4.42 GeV, we search for the production of e+e-→ω χc J (J =0 , 1, 2). The process e+e-→ω χc 0 is observed for the first time, and the Born cross sections at √{s }=4.23 and 4.26 GeV are measured to be (55.4 ±6.0 ±5.9 ) and (23.7 ±5.3 ±3.5 ) pb , respectively, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. The ω χc 0 signals at the other seven energies and the e+e-→ω χc 1 and ω χc 2 signals are not significant, and the upper limits on the cross sections are determined. By examining the ω χc 0 cross section as a function of center of mass energy, we find that it is inconsistent with the line shape of the Y (4260 ) observed in e+e-→π+π-J /ψ . Assuming the ω χc 0 signals come from a single resonance, we extract the mass and width of the resonance to be (4230 ±8 ±6 ) MeV /c2 and (38 ±12 ±2 ) MeV , respectively, and the statistical significance is more than 9 σ .
Gómez, Facundo A.; O’Shea, Brian W.; Besla, Gurtina; Carpintero, Daniel D.; Villalobos, Álvaro; Bell, Eric F.
2015-04-01
Motivated by recent studies suggesting that the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) could be significantly more massive than previously thought, we explore whether the approximation of an inertial Galactocentric reference frame is still valid in the presence of such a massive LMC. We find that previous estimates of the LMC’s orbital period and apocentric distance derived assuming a fixed Milky Way (MW) are significantly shortened for models where the MW is allowed to move freely in response to the gravitational pull of the LMC. Holding other parameters fixed, the fraction of models favoring first infall is reduced. Due to this interaction, the MW center of mass within the inner 50 kpc can be significantly displaced in phase-space in a very short period of time that ranges from 0.3 to 0.5 Gyr by as much as 30 kpc and 75 km s{sup −1}. Furthermore, we show that the gravitational pull of the LMC and response of the MW are likely to significantly affect the orbit and phase space distribution of tidal debris from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). Such effects are larger than previous estimates based on the torque of the LMC alone. As a result, Sgr deposits debris in regions of the sky that are not aligned with the present-day Sgr orbital plane. In addition, we find that properly accounting for the movement of the MW around its common center of mass with the LMC significantly modifies the angular distance between apocenters and tilts its orbital pole, alleviating tensions between previous models and observations. While these models are preliminary in nature, they highlight the central importance of accounting for the mutual gravitational interaction between the MW and LMC when modeling the kinematics of objects in the MW and Local Group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.
2017-03-01
Motivated by potential applications to ultracold matter, we perform a theoretical study of Majorana fermions confined to a finite volume, whose boundary conditions are characterized by self-adjoint extension parameters. While the boundary conditions for Dirac fermions in (1 +1 )-d are characterized by a 1-parameter family, λ =-λ*, of self-adjoint extensions, for Majorana fermions λ is restricted to ±i . Based on this result, we compute the frequency spectrum of Majorana fermions confined to a 1-d interval. The boundary conditions for Dirac fermions confined to a 3-d region of space are characterized by a 4-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions, which is reduced to two distinct 1-parameter families for Majorana fermions. We also consider the problems related to the quantum mechanical interpretation of the Majorana equation as a single-particle equation. Furthermore, the equation is related to a relativistic Schrödinger equation that does not suffer from these problems. Here we restrict ourselves to theoretical considerations without yet focusing on concrete cold matter applications.
Anisotropic P-wave velocity analysis and seismic imaging in onshore Kutch sedimentary basin of India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behera, Laxmidhar; Khare, Prakash; Sarkar, Dipankar
2011-08-01
The long-offset P-wave seismic reflection data has observable non-hyperbolic moveout, which depend on two parameters such as normal moveout velocity ( Vnmo) and the anisotropy parameter( η). Anisotropy (e.g., directional dependence of velocity at a fixed spatial location in a medium) plays an important role in seismic imaging. It is difficult to know the presence of anisotropy in the subsurface geological formations only from P-wave seismic data and special analysis is required for this. The presence of anisotropy causes two major distortions of moveout in P-wave seismic reflection data. First, in contrast to isotropic media, normal-moveout (NMO) velocity differs from the vertical velocity; and the second is substantial increase of deviations in hyperbolic moveout in an anisotropic layer. Hence, with the help of conventional velocity analysis based on short-spread moveout (stacking) velocities do not provide enough information to determine the true vertical velocity in a transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axis (VTI media). Therefore, it is essential to estimate the single anisotropic parameter ( η) from the long-offset P-wave seismic data. It has been demonstrated here as a case study with long-offset P-wave seismic data acquired in onshore Kutch sedimentary basin of western India that suitable velocity analysis using Vnmo and η can improve the stacking image obtained from conventional velocity analysis.
Detection of seismic events triggered by P-waves from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazawa, Masatoshi
2012-12-01
Large-amplitude surface waves from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake triggered many seismic events across Japan, while the smaller amplitude P-wave triggering remains unclear. A spectral method was used to detect seismic events triggered by the first arriving P-waves over Japan. This method uses a reference event to correct for source and propagation effects, so that the local response near the station can be examined in detail. P-wave triggering was found in the regions where triggered non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been observed, and some seismic and volcanic regions. The triggering strain due to P-waves is of the order of 10-8 to 10-7, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the triggering strain necessary for the surface wave triggering. In the regions of NVT, the triggered event was not identified with slow events, but with other seismic events such as tectonic earthquakes. The sequence of triggering in the regions started with P-wave arrivals. The subsequent surface waves contributed to triggering of NVT, possibly together with slow slip, which resulted in the large amplitude of the NVT.
Fermions and gravitational gyrotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helfer, Adam D.
2016-12-01
In conventional general relativity without torsion, high-frequency gravitational waves couple to the chiral number density of spin one-half quanta: the polarization of the waves is rotated by 2 π N5ℓPl2, where N5 is the chiral column density and ℓPl is the Planck length. This means that if a primordial distribution of gravitational waves with E-E or B-B correlations passed through a chiral density of fermions in the very early Universe, an E-B correlation will be generated. This in turn will give rise to E-B and T-B correlations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Less obviously but more primitively, the condition Albrecht called "cosmic coherence" would be violated, changing the restrictions on the class of admissible cosmological gravitational waves. This altered class of waves would, generally speaking, probe earlier physics than do the conventional waves; their effects on the CMB would be most pronounced for low (≲100 ) multipoles. Rough estimates indicate that if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is less than about 10-2, it will be hard to constrain a spatially homogeneous primordial N5 by present data.
Holographic p-Wave Superconductors in Quintessence AdS Black Hole Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Song-Bai; Pan, Qi-Yuan
2013-10-01
We construct a holographic p-wave superconductor model in the background of quintessence AdS black hole with an SU(2) Yang—Mills gauge field and then probe the effects of quintessence on the holographic p-wave superconductor. We investigate the relation between the critical temperature and the state parameter of quintessence, and present the numerical results for electric conductivity. It is shown that the condensation of the vector field becomes harder as the absolute value of the state parameter increases. Unlike the scalar condensate in the s-wave model, the condensation of the vector field in p-wave model can occur in the total value range of the state parameter wq of quintessence. These results could help us know more about holographic superconductor and dark energy.
Studying fermionic ghost imaging with independent photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jianbin; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo
2016-12-01
Ghost imaging with thermal fermions is calculated based on two-particle interference in Feynman's path integral theory. It is found that ghost imaging with thermal fermions can be simulated by ghost imaging with thermal bosons and classical particles. Photons in pseudothermal light are employed to experimentally study fermionic ghost imaging. Ghost imaging with thermal bosons and fermions is discussed based on the point-to-point (spot) correlation between the object and image planes. The employed method offers an efficient guidance for future ghost imaging with real thermal fermions, which may also be generalized to study other second-order interference phenomena with fermions.
Observation of broad p -wave Feshbach resonances in ultracold 85Rb-87Rb mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Shen; Cui, Yue; Shen, Chuyang; Wu, Yewei; Tey, Meng Khoon; You, Li; Gao, Bo
2016-12-01
We observe Feshbach resonances in ultracold mixtures of 85Rb and 87Rb atoms in the 85Rb|2 ,+2 >+87Rb|1 ,+1 > and 85Rb|2 ,-2 >+87Rb|1 ,-1 > scattering channels. The positions and properties of the resonances are predicted and characterized using the semianalytic multichannel quantum-defect theory by Gao. Of particular interest, a number of broad entrance-channel-dominated p -wave resonances are identified, implicating exciting opportunities for studying a variety of p -wave interaction-dominated physics.
Finite-momentum superfluidity and phase transitions in a p-wave resonant Bose gas
Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo
2011-10-15
We study a degenerate two-species gas of bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance as, for example, realized in a {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture. We show that, in addition to a conventional atomic and a p-wave molecular spinor-1 superfluidity at large positive and negative detunings, respectively, the system generically exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluidity at intermediate detuning around the unitary point. We analyze the detailed nature of the corresponding phases and the associated quantum and thermal phase transitions.
Real Space Renormalization of Majorana Fermions in Quantum Nano-Wire Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, R.; Langari, A.; Akbari, Alireza; Kim, Ki-Seok
2017-02-01
We develop the real space quantum renormalization group (QRG) approach for majorana fermions. As an example we focus on the Kitaev chain to investigate the topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) in the one-dimensional spinless p-wave superconductor. Studying the behaviour of local compressibility and ground-state fidelity, show that the TQPT is signalled by the maximum of local compressibility at the quantum critical point tuned by the chemical potential. Moreover, a sudden drop of the ground-state fidelity and the divergence of fidelity susceptibility at the topological quantum critical point are used as proper indicators for the TQPT, which signals the appearance of Majorana fermions. Finally, we present the scaling analysis of ground-state fidelity near the critical point that manifests the universal information about the TQPT, which reveals two different scaling behaviors as we approach the critical point and thermodynamic limit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bucher, Manfred; And Others
1991-01-01
Described is a baton that consists of an unbreakable transparent tube with three inserted light-emitting diodes (LED) and terminal impact buffers that hold batteries and counterweights. The concepts of projectile motion and parabolic paths can be shown by analyzing the path of a thrown baton. (KR)
Fermion localization on thick branes
Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David
2006-02-15
We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.
Local spin operators for fermion simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitfield, James D.; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Troyer, Matthias
2016-09-01
Digital quantum simulation of fermionic systems is important in the context of chemistry and physics. Simulating fermionic models on general purpose quantum computers requires imposing a fermionic algebra on qubits. The previously studied Jordan-Wigner and Bravyi-Kitaev transformations are two techniques for accomplishing this task. Here, we reexamine an auxiliary fermion construction which maps fermionic operators to local operators on qubits. The local simulation is performed by relaxing the requirement that the number of qubits should match the number of single-particle states. Instead, auxiliary sites are introduced to enable nonconsecutive fermionic couplings to be simulated with constant low-rank tensor products on qubits. The additional number of auxiliary qubits required per fermionic degree of freedom depends only on the degree of connectivity of the Hamiltonian. We connect the auxiliary fermion construction to topological models and give examples of the construction.
Fermion production during and after axion inflation
Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.
2015-11-11
We study derivatively coupled fermions in axion-driven inflation, specifically m{sub ϕ}{sup 2}ϕ{sup 2} and monodromy inflation, and calculate particle production during the inflationary epoch and the post-inflationary axion oscillations. During inflation, the rolling axion acts as an effective chemical potential for helicity which biases the gravitational production of one fermion helicity over the other. This mechanism allows for efficient gravitational production of heavy fermion states that would otherwise be highly suppressed. Following inflation, the axion oscillates and fermions with both helicities are produced as the effective frequency of the fermion field changes non-adiabatically. For certain values of the fermion mass and axion-fermion coupling strength, the two helicity states are produced asymmetrically, resulting in unequal number-densities of left- and right-helicity fermions.
Correlating P-wave Velocity with the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Different Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khandelwal, Manoj
2013-04-01
In mining and civil engineering projects, physico-mechanical properties of the rock affect both the project design and the construction operation. Determination of various physico-mechanical properties of rocks is expensive and time consuming, and sometimes it is very difficult to get cores to perform direct tests to evaluate the rock mass. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationships between the different physico-mechanical properties of the various rock types with the P-wave velocity. Measurement of P-wave velocity is relatively cheap, non-destructive and easy to carry out. In this study, representative rock mass samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were collected from the different locations of India to obtain an empirical relation between P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, punch shear, density, slake durability index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, impact strength index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. A very strong correlation was found between the P-wave velocity and different physico-mechanical properties of various rock types with very high coefficients of determination. To check the sensitivity of the empirical equations, Students t test was also performed, which confirmed the validity of the proposed correlations.
P-wave holographic superconductor/insulator phase transitions affected by dark matter sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.
2016-03-01
The holographic approach to building the p-wave superconductors results in three different models: the Maxwell-vector, the SU(2) Yang-Mills and the helical. In the probe limit approximation, we analytically examine the properties of the first two models in the theory with dark matter sector. It turns out that the effect of dark matter on the Maxwell-vector p-wave model is the same as on the s-wave superconductor studied earlier. For the non-Abelian model we study the phase transitions between p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor and metal/superconductor. Studies of marginally stable modes in the theory under consideration allow us to determine features of p-wave holographic droplet in a constant magnetic field. The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on the coupling constant α to the dark matter sector is affected by the dark matter density ρD . For ρ D > ρ the transition temperature is a decreasing function of α. The critical chemical potential μ c for the quantum phase transition between insulator and metal depends on the chemical potential of dark matter μ D and for μ D = 0 is a decreasing function of α.
Diffusive Thermal Conductivity of Superfluid Fermi Gas in p-Wave State at Low Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M. Khademi, Dehkordi; Nasirimoghadam, S.; Nabipoor, F.; M. A., Shahzamanian
2012-12-01
The diffusive thermal conductivity tensor of p-wave superfluid at low temperatures is calculated by using the Boltzmann equation approach. We use the Sykes and Brooker procedure and show that Kxx is equal to Kyy and these are related to T-1, also Kzz is proporated to T-3.
A detailed three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure in Italy from local earthquake tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Stefano, Raffaele; Castello, Barbara; Chiarabba, Claudio; Grazia Ciaccio, Maria
2010-05-01
We here present an updated high resolution tomographic P-wave velocity model of the lithosphere in Italy, obtained by adding about 296,600 P-wave arrival observations from ~7.200 earthquakes, from the preliminary update of the CSI 2.0, recorded in the period 2003-2007, to the previously inverted dataset (165,000 P-wave arrivals).Additional events have been strictly selected for location quality (azimuthal gap < 135°; horizontal error <= 2km; vertical error <= 4km; rms < 1s) and a number of P-wave observations >= 8. Our results confirm the main structural features in the best resolved parts of the inverted volume and show a much better resolution in some of the previously less resolved areas, due to both the larger number of inverted phases and the more even distribution of seismic stations. Surface basins and relationships between the Adriatic, Tyrrhenian, and European plates are better imaged. The integrated analysis of 20 years of seismicity and the high resolution tomographic images obtained, allows us to add new constraints to the kynematics and the geodynamics of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in this region. We also present preliminary results obtained by thickening the nodes spacing from 15km x15km to 10km x 10km and we finally compare the complex velocity structures imaged by the inversion of the two different grid spacing.
Stanchits, S.A.; Lockner, D.A.; Ponomarev, A.V.
2003-01-01
Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.
P-wave dispersion in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Demirci, Seden; Arslan, Akif; Yürekli, Vedat Ali; Kutluhan, Süleyman; Koyuncuoğlu, Hasan Rifat; Demirci, Serpil
2017-03-01
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction assessed by the presence of arrhythmia, by the methods, such as heart rate variability or blood pressure variability, and by the electrocardiographic abnormalities is common in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The goal of present study was to analyze the P-wave dispersion (PWD), which is the non-invasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in GBS patients and to compare those with healthy individuals. Thirty-five patients with GBS (mean age 53.6 ± 15.5 years) and 35 healthy controls (mean age 49.2 ± 14.1 years) were included to this study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients with GBS were assessed retrospectively. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram was acquired from all participants. Minimum and maximum P-wave duration and PWD were measured in the patients with GBS and healthy controls. Maximum P-wave duration and PWD were significantly longer, and minimum P-wave duration was significantly lower in the patients with GBS rather than the control group (p = 0.037, p < 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively). GBS disability scores were positively correlated with the maximum P-wave duration (p = 0.015, r = 0.406) and PWD (p = 0.001, r = 0.525). We found that PWD was significantly prolonged in GBS patients compared with the controls. The increased PWD which is cheap, quick, non-invasive and feasible electrocardiographic marker may be related to increased risk for atrial fibrillation in patients with GBS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lizurek, Grzegorz; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Wiszniowski, Jan
2017-03-01
Bucharest, with a population of approximately 2 million people, has suffered damage from earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone, which is located about 170 km from Bucharest, at a depth of 80-200 km. Consequently, an earthquake early warning system (Bucharest Rapid earthquake Early Warning System or BREWS) was constructed to provide some warning about impending shaking from large earthquakes in the Vrancea zone. In order to provide quick estimates of magnitude, seismic moment was first determined from P-waves and then a moment magnitude was determined from the moment. However, this magnitude may not be consistent with previous estimates of magnitude from the Romanian Seismic Network. This paper introduces the algorithm using P-wave spectral levels and compares them with catalog estimates. The testing procedure used waveforms from about 90 events with catalog magnitudes from 3.5 to 5.4. Corrections to the P-wave determined magnitudes according to dominant intermediate depth events mechanism were tested for November 22, 2014, M5.6 and October 17, M6 events. The corrections worked well, but unveiled overestimation of the average magnitude result of about 0.2 magnitude unit in the case of shallow depth event ( H < 60 km). The P-wave spectral approach allows for the relatively fast estimates of magnitude for use in BREWS. The average correction taking into account the most common focal mechanism for radiation pattern coefficient may lead to overestimation of the magnitude for shallow events of about 0.2 magnitude unit. However, in case of events of intermediate depth of M6 the resulting M w is underestimated at about 0.1-0.2. We conclude that our P-wave spectral approach is sufficiently robust for the needs of BREWS for both shallow and intermediate depth events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Bryan R.
For the process e+e/sp-/rightarrow μ+/mu/sp- (nγ), the cross section and forward-backward charge asymmetry are measured at the highest ever center of mass energies which ranged from 130 to 183GeV. The data originates from 85pb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the L3 detector at LEP. The measured muon pair cross section and forward-backward asymmetry agree with the Standard Model prediction with a χ SM2/N =.61 with 10 degrees of freedom. A mass limit on an additional heavy, neutral gauge boson of M Z' > 315GeV is set using muon pair production alone, rising to M Z' > 805GeV when all final states are considered. A search for an excited lepton decaying via /mu*/rightarrow/mu/gamma excludes such objects with electromagnetic coupling up to 183GeV. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, RM. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Bouffard, Vicky; Nantel, Julie; Therrien, Marc; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Lavigne, Martin; Prince, François
2011-01-01
Objective. To compare center of mass (COM) compensation in the frontal and sagittal plane during gait in patients with large diameter head total hip arthroplasty (LDH-THA) and hip resurfacing (HR). Design. Observational study. Setting. Outpatient biomechanical laboratory. Participants. Two groups of 12 patients with LDH-THA and HR recruited from a larger randomized study and 11 healthy controls. Interventions. Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures. To compare the distance between the hip prosthetic joint center (HPJC) and the COM. The ratio (RHPJC-COM) and the variability (CVHPJC-COM) were compared between groups. Hip flexor, abductor, and adductor muscle strength was also correlated between groups while radiographic measurements were correlated with the outcome measures. Results. In the frontal plane, HR shows less variability than healthy controls at push-off and toe-off and RHPJC-COM is correlated with the muscle strength ratios (FRABD) at heel contact, maximal weight acceptance, and mid stance. In the sagittal plane, LDH-THA has a higher RHPJC-COM than healthy controls at push-off, and CVHPJC-COM is significantly correlated with FRFLEX. Conclusions. One year after surgery, both groups of patients, LDH-THA and HR, demonstrate minor compensations at some specific instant of the gait cycle, in both frontal and sagittal planes. However, their locomotion pattern is similar to the healthy controls. PMID:22110976
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burow, Burkhard Dietrich
The thesis is a complete presentation of a total photon-proton (gamma p) cross section measurement using the ZEUS detector at the recently commissioned HERA electron-proton (ep) collider. A measurement of gamma p interactions using the exchanged virtual photon of ep collisions is shown to be justified and the correct flux of photons is determined. HERA and ZEUS are introduced, with an emphasis on the components used in the measurement. The data was collected during the fall of 1992 for which the experimental conditions are described, including the determination of the 13 nb ^{-1} of integrated ep luminosity which provided the event sample. The treatment of background events is described, as are event losses due to inefficiencies in their identification by the trigger and in their subsequent analysis. The observed number of events is corrected for the acceptance of the experiment using Monte Carlo simulations of gamma p interactions tuned to match characteristics of the observed events. Radiative corrections to the measurement are shown to be small and the calculation is corroborated by a measurement of the number of radiative events. In the gamma p center of mass energy range 167 < W < 194 GeV, the total gamma p cross section is sigma _sp{rm tot}{gamma p} = 143 +/- 3 (stat.) +/- 18 (syst.) mub.
Evidence for e+e - to gammaetac(1S) at center-of-mass energies between 4.01 and 4.60 GeV at BESIII
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lara, Manuel
This dissertation shows the first evidence of the process e +e- → gammaeta c(1S) using data collected by the BESIII experiment operating at BEPCII. This process can be used as a probe to study the nature of recently discovered charmonium-like Y states between 4.0 and 4.6 GeV, including the Y(4260) and Y(4360). Data collected at six center-of-mass energies are analyzed, namely: 4.01, 4.23, 4.26, 4.36, 4.42, and 4.60 GeV, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb-1. We measure the Born cross section, sigma E(e+e - → gammaetac(1 S)), at each energy using a combination of twelve eta c(1S) decay channels. Because the significance of the signal is marginal at each energy (≤ 3.0sigma), we also combine all six energies under various assumptions for the energy-dependence of the cross section. If a Y(4260) is assumed, we measure sigma4 .26(e+e- → gammaetac(1S)) = 2.11 +/- 0.49 (stat.) +/- 0.33 (syst.) pb with a significance of 4.2sigma. With our current statistics we are unable to distinguish the Y(4260) process from others.
Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.
2011-08-01
Jet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV was studied with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 inverse microbarns. Jets are reconstructed using the energy deposited in the CMS calorimeters and studied as a function of collision centrality. With increasing collision centrality, a striking imbalance in dijet transverse momentum is observed, consistent with jet quenching. The observed effect extends from the lower cut-off used in this study (jet transverse momentum = 120 GeV/c) up to the statistical limit of the available data sample (jet transverse momentum approximately 210 GeV/c). Correlations of charged particle tracks with jets indicate that the momentum imbalance is accompanied by a softening of the fragmentation pattern of the second most energetic, away-side jet. The dijet momentum balance is recovered when integrating low transverse momentum particles distributed over a wide angular range relative to the direction of the away-side jet.
Observation of e⁺e⁻→ηJ/ψ at center-of-mass energy √s=4.009 GeV
Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; ...
2012-10-01
Using a 478 pb⁻¹ data sample collected with the BESIII detector operating at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider storage ring at a center-of-mass energy of s√=4.009 GeV, the production of e⁺e⁻→ηJ/ψ is observed for the first time with a statistical significance of greater than 10σ. The Born cross section is measured to be (32.1±2.8±1.3) pb, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. Assuming the ηJ/ψ signal is from a hadronic transition of the ψ(4040), the fractional transition rate is determined to be B(ψ(4040)→ηJ/ψ)=(5.2±0.5±0.2±0.5)×10⁻³, where the first, second, and third errors are statistical, systematic, and the uncertainty frommore » the ψ(4040) resonant parameters, respectively. The production of e⁺e⁻→π0J/ψ is searched for, but no significant signal is observed, and B(ψ(4040)→π⁰J/ψ)<2.8×10⁻⁴ is obtained at the 90% confidence level.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiglieri, Jacopo
We report on a search for new physics in a final state with two same sign leptons, missing transverse energy, and significant hadronic activity at a center of mass energy sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.98 inverse femtobarns. Data-driven methods are developed to estimate the dominant Standard Model backgrounds. No evidence for new physics is observed. The dominant background to the analysis comes from failures of lepton identification in Standard Model ttbar events. The ttbar production cross section in the dilepton final state is measured using 3.1 inverse picobarns of data. The cross section is measured to be 194 +/- 72 (stat) +/- 24 (syst) +/- 21 (lumi) pb. An algorithm is developed that uses tracking information to improve the reconstruction of missing transverse energy. The reconstruction of missing transverse energy is commissioned using the first collisions recorded at 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV data. Events with abnormally large values of missing transverse energy are identified as arising from anomalous signals in the calorimeters. Tools are developed to identify and remove these anomalous signals.
Rott, Carsten
2004-12-01
The authors have performed a search for the scalar bottom quark ($\\tilde{b}$_{1}) from gluino ($\\tilde{g}$) decays in an R-parity conserving SUSY scenario with m_{$\\tilde{g}$} > m_{$\\tilde{b}1$}, by investigating a final state of large missing transverse energy, with three or more jets, and some of them from the hadronization of b-quarks. A data sample of 156 pb^{-1} collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV was used. For the final selection, jets containing secondary displaced vertices were required. This analysis has been performed ''blind'', in that the inspection of the signal region was only made after the Standard Model prediction was finalized. Comparing data with SUSY predictions, they can exclude masses of the gluino and sbottom of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c^{2} respectively.
Golf, Frank, III
2012-01-01
We report on a search for new physics in a final state with two same sign leptons, missing transverse energy, and significant hadronic activity at a center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.98 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. Data--driven methods are developed to estimate the dominant Standard Model backgrounds. No evidence for new physics is observed. The dominant background to the analysis comes from failures of lepton identification in Standard Model $t\\bar{t}$ events. The $t\\bar{t}$ production cross section in the dilepton final state is measured using 3.1 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of data. The cross section is measured to be 194 $\\pm$ 72 (stat) $\\pm$ 24 (syst) $\\pm$ 21 (lumi) pb. An algorithm is developed that uses tracking information to improve the reconstruction of missing transverse energy. The reconstruction of missing transverse energy is commissioned using the first collisio ns recorded at 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV data. Events with abnormally large values of missing transverse energy are identified as arising from anomalous signals in the calorimeters. Tools are developed to identify and remove these anomalous signals.
Wittmer, J P; Polińska, P; Meyer, H; Farago, J; Johner, A; Baschnagel, J; Cavallo, A
2011-06-21
By Monte Carlo simulations of a variant of the bond-fluctuation model without topological constraints, we examine the center-of-mass (COM) dynamics of polymer melts in d = 3 dimensions. Our analysis focuses on the COM displacement correlation function C(N)(t)≈∂(t) (2)h(N)(t)/2, measuring the curvature of the COM mean-square displacement h(N)(t). We demonstrate that C(N)(t) ≈ -(R(N)∕T(N))(2)(ρ∗/ρ) f(x = t/T(N)) with N being the chain length (16 ≤ N ≤ 8192), R(N) ∼ N(1/2) is the typical chain size, T(N) ∼ N(2) is the longest chain relaxation time, ρ is the monomer density, ρ(*)≈N/R(N) (d) is the self-density, and f(x) is a universal function decaying asymptotically as f(x) ∼ x(-ω) with ω = (d + 2) × α, where α = 1/4 for x ≪ 1 and α = 1/2 for x ≫ 1. We argue that the algebraic decay NC(N)(t) ∼ -t(-5/4) for t ≪ T(N) results from an interplay of chain connectivity and melt incompressibility giving rise to the correlated motion of chains and subchains.
Lee, Eun Sin
2010-05-01
This dissertation presents the results of a search for supersymmetry in protonantiproton collisions with a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV studied with the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Our strategy is to select collisions with two photons in the nal state that have the properties of being the decays of very massive supersymmetric particles. This includes looking for large total energy from the decayed particles as well as for the presence of particles that leave the detector without interacting. We nd no events using 2.6 fb^{-1} of data collected during the 2004-2008 collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron which is consistent with the background estimate of 1.4 0.4 events. Since there is no evidence of new particles we set cross section limits in a gaugemediated supersymmetry model with X^{$\\tilde{o}$}_{1}→ eG, where the X^{$\\tilde{o}$}_{1} and eG are the lightest neutralino and the gravitino (the lightest supersymmetric particle), respectively. We set limits on models as a function of the X^{$\\tilde{o}$}_{1} mass and lifetime, producing the world's most sensitive search for X^{$\\tilde{o}$}_{1} by excluding masses up to 149 GeV=c^{2} for X^{$\\tilde{o}$}_{1} lifetimes much less than 1 ns.
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...
2011-09-20
Jets are identified and their properties studied in center-of-mass energy √s=7 TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider using charged particles measured by the ATLAS inner detector. Events are selected using a minimum bias trigger, allowing jets at very low transverse momentum to be observed and their characteristics in the transition to high-momentum fully perturbative jets to be studied. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-kt algorithm applied to charged particles with two radius parameter choices, 0.4 and 0.6. An inclusive charged jet transverse momentum cross section measurement from 4 GeV to 100 GeV is shown for four ranges inmore » rapidity extending to 1.9 and corrected to charged particle-level truth jets. The transverse momenta and longitudinal momentum fractions of charged particles within jets are measured, along with the charged particle multiplicity and the particle density as a function of radial distance from the jet axis. Comparison of the data with the theoretical models implemented in existing tunings of Monte Carlo event generators indicates reasonable overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo. These comparisons are sensitive to Monte Carlo parton showering, hadronization, and soft physics models.« less
Haruna, Hirokazu; Sugihara, Shunichi; Kon, Keisuke; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki; Nosaka, Toshiya; Kimura, Kazuyuki
2013-11-01
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mechanical energy due to continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) of subjects with chronic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 5 hemiplegic patients using AFOs without a plantar flexion resistive function in their daily lives. We analyzed the gait of the subjects using a 3D motion capture system under three conditions: patients' use of their own AFOs; after being fitted with a plantar flexion resistive AFO; and after continuous use of the device. The gait efficiency was determined by calculating the mutual exchange of kinetic and potential energy of the center of mass. [Results] An increased exchange rate of the kinetic and potential energy was found for all subjects. A larger increase of energy exchange was shown on the non-paralyzed side, and after continuous use of the plantar flexion resistive AFO. [Conclusion] We found that continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive AFO increased the rate of mutual exchange between kinetic energy and potential energy. The change in the rate was closely related to the role of the non-paretic side, showing that the subjects needed a certain amount of time to adapt to the plantar flexion resistive AFO.
Avery, R.E.
1989-01-13
Measurements of two- and three-particle correlations between like-sign pions produced in e/sup +/e/sup minus/ annihilation at 29 GeV center-of-mass energy are presented. The analysis is based on data taken during the period 1982--1986 using the TPC/2..gamma.. detector at PEP. Two-particle correlations are studied as a function of Q, the momentum difference as measured in the rest frame of the pion pair, and as a function of q/sub 0/, the energy difference as measured in the lab frame. The Bose-Einstein enhancement is observed when Q is small even when the energy difference, q/sub 0/, is substantial. This observation provides evidence that the Bose-Einstein correlations are best described by a model that correctly accounts for the relativistic motion of the particle sources. Three-pion correlations are measured both by using a standard three-pion correlation function, and also by using a correlation function for which the correlations between the pairs of pions within the triplet have been subtracted. The observation of three-pion correlations after pair correlations have been subtracted supports the interpretation that the observed correlations are due to Bose-Einstein interference. 56 refs.
Wada, Osamu; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2014-01-01
Body rotation is associated with many activities. The concomitant movement of the center of mass (COM) is essential for effective body rotation. This movement is considered to be influenced by kinematic changes in the spine, pelvis, and hip joints. However, there is no research on the association between COM movement and kinematic changes during body rotation. We aimed to investigate the association between COM movement and the kinematics of the spine, pelvis, and hip joints during body rotation in standing. Twenty-four healthy men were included in the study. COM movement during active body rotation in a standing position was measured. We evaluated pelvic shift and changes in the angles of the spine, pelvis, and hip joints. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficients to analyze the relationship between COM movement and kinematic changes in the spine, pelvis, and hip joints. There were significant correlations between lateral COM movement to the rotational side and pelvic shift to the rotational side, and between posterior COM movement and pelvic shift to the posterior side. In addition, lateral COM movement to the rotational side showed significant and negative correlation with spinal flexion and was significantly and positively correlated with the change in anterior pelvic tilt. Clinicians need to take particular note of both spinal and pelvic motion in the sagittal plane, as well as the pelvic shift, to speculate COM movement during body rotation in standing.
Constructing entanglement measures for fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Markus; Raissi, Zahra
2016-10-01
In this paper we describe a method for finding polynomial invariants under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) for a system of delocalized fermions shared between different parties, with global particle-number conservation as the only constraint. These invariants can be used to construct entanglement measures for different types of entanglement in such a system. It is shown that the invariants, and the measures constructed from them, take a nonzero value only if the state of the system allows for the observation of Bell-nonlocal correlations. Invariants of this kind are constructed for systems of two and three spin-1/2 fermions and examples of maximally entangled states are given that illustrate the different types of entanglement distinguished by the invariants. A general condition for the existence of SLOCC invariants and their associated measures is given as a relation between the number of fermions, their spin, and the number of spatial modes of the system. In addition, the effect of further constraints on the system, including the localization of a subset of the fermions, is discussed. Finally, a hybrid Ising-Hubbard Hamiltonian is constructed for which the ground state of a three-site chain exhibits a high degree of entanglement at the transition between a regime dominated by on-site interaction and a regime dominated by Ising interaction. This entanglement is well described by a measure constructed by the introduced method.
Nonlinear fermions and coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trifonov, D. A.
2012-06-01
Nonlinear fermions of degree n (n-fermions) are introduced as particles with creation and annihilation operators obeying the simple nonlinear anticommutation relation AA† + A†nAn = 1. The (n + 1)th-order nilpotency of these operators follows from the existence of unique A-vacuum. Supposing appropriate (n + 1)th-order nilpotent para-Grassmann variables and integration rules the sets of n-fermion number states, ‘right’ and ‘left’ ladder operator coherent states (CS) and displacement-operator-like CS are constructed. The (n + 1) × (n + 1) matrix realization of the related para-Grassmann algebra is provided. General (n + 1)th-order nilpotent ladder operators of finite-dimensional systems are expressed as polynomials in terms of n-fermion operators. Overcomplete sets of (normalized) ‘right’ and ‘left’ eigenstates of such general ladder operators are constructed and their properties are briefly discussed. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
Wilson fermions at finite temperature
Creutz, M.
1996-09-17
The author conjectures on the phase structure expected for lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Wilson fermions, concentrating on large values of the hopping parameter. Numerous phases are expected, including the conventional confinement and deconfinement phases, as well as an Aoki phase with spontaneous breaking of flavor and parity and a large hopping phase corresponding to negative quark masses.
Changes in P-wave velocity with different full waveform sonic transmitter centre frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almalki, Majed; Harris, Brett; Dupuis, J. Christian
2015-05-01
Full waveform sonic logging, with the transmitter set at different centre frequencies, often provides different compressional wave velocities over the same interval. There may be several reasons why these velocity differences are recovered where the source has different frequency content. Examples include: intrinsic dispersion, scattering dispersion, geometric dispersion, processing artefacts and acquisition artefacts. We acquired and analysed multifrequency monopole full waveform sonic logging data from the cored drill hole intersecting a high-permeability sandy aquifer in the Northern Gnangara Mound, Perth Basin, Western Australia. A key interval of the shallow, sand-dominated Yarragadee Formation was selected and logged four times with transmitter centre frequencies set to 1, 3, 5 and 15 kHz. We compute apparent velocity dispersion as the percentage velocity differences in the P-wave velocity recovered from full waveform sonic logs completed at different dominant transmitter centre frequencies. We find that high-permeability sediments could be placed into broad groups: cross-bedded and non-cross-bedded sandstones. We find a distinctly different relationship between apparent P-wave velocity dispersion and permeability for cross-bedded and non-cross-bedded sandstones. Cross plots for the two sediment types show a general trend of increasing apparent dispersion with increasing permeability. Grouping the sandstone layers based on sediment type, as observed from core samples, illustrates different but positive correlation between the apparent P-wave velocity dispersion and permeability in these shallow, weakly-consolidated sandstones. The cross-bedded sandstone, for its part, has a wider range of permeability than the non-cross-bedded sandstone but a smaller range of apparent P-wave velocity dispersion. Given these results, our hypothesis is that while permeability plays a role, other factors such as geometric dispersion or scattering dispersion likely contribute the
Spectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices
Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Rey, Ana Maria; Gorshkov, Alexey V.
2011-09-15
Motivated by ongoing measurements at JILA, we calculate the recoil-free spectra of dipolar interacting fermions, for example ultracold heteronuclear molecules, in a one-dimensional lattice of two-dimensional layers or ''pancakes'', spectroscopically probing transitions between different internal (e.g., rotational) states. We additionally incorporate p-wave interactions and losses, which are important for reactive molecules such as KRb. Moreover, we consider other sources of spectral broadening: interaction-induced quasiparticle lifetimes and the different polarizabilities of the rotational states used for the spectroscopy. Although our main focus is molecules, some of the calculations are also useful for optical lattice atomic clocks. For example, understanding the p-wave shifts between identical fermions and small dipolar interactions coming from the excited clock state is necessary to reach future precision goals. Finally, we consider the spectra in a deep three-dimensional lattice and show how they give a great deal of information about static correlation functions, including all the moments of the density correlations between nearby sites. The range of correlations measurable depends on spectroscopic resolution and the dipole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Shin-Chan
2016-10-01
As atmosphere, ocean, ice, and terrestrial water are redistributed, the center of mass (CM) of the Earth's system moves and the accompanying loading yields global surface deformation. In Australia, when GPS surface displacements were corrected for local mass change (hydrology, atmosphere, and ocean) with Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, the residual GPS data reveal a peculiar seasonal mode of continental deformation. During the southern summer, the entire continent coherently shifts northwest by 1 mm and the southeastern part is uplifted, while the northwestern part is subsided by 2-3 mm and the opposite patterns of deformation are observed during the southern winter. Such characteristic deformation could be understood to be a result of the Earth's elastic response to globally averaged surface mass load, generally heavier in Europe during southern summer and in the South Pacific Ocean during southern winter. It was found that such deformation is even larger than local hydrology-induced loading effects in horizontal motion over Australia. A simple method of determining locations of the CM was developed by combining GPS and GRACE data; the latter being insensitive to the CM motion but sufficiently accurate to remove the local hydrologic and atmospheric effects in GPS data. The CM signals are pronounced over systematic errors in GPS and GRACE data. The CM coordinates estimated by inversion of the Australian GPS data set and GRACE agree with the geocenter motions determined by satellite tracking analysis. This study suggests an independent way of monitoring the CM motion entirely based on two distinct geodetic measurements of GPS and GRACE.
Caron, Robert R; Wagenaar, Robert C; Lewis, Cara L; Saltzman, Elliot; Holt, Kenneth G
2013-01-04
Maintaining the normal shape and amplitude of the vertical trajectory of the center of mass (COM) during stance has been shown to maximize the efficiency of unloaded gait. Kinematic adaptations to load carriage, such as forward lean have yet to be understood in relation to COM movement. The purpose of this study is to better understand how load impacts the vertical COM(TSYS) trajectory and to clarify the impact of forward lean as it relates to the dynamics of sagittal plane COM(TSYS) movement during stance with changing load. 17 subjects walked on treadmill at a constant preferred walking velocity while nine different loads ranging from 12.5% to 40% bodyweight were systematically added and removed from a backpack. Kinematic data were collected using an Optotrak, three-dimensional motion analysis system and used to estimate position of the COM as well as segment and COM-to-joint vector orientation angles. The shape and amplitude of the COM vertical trajectory was maintained across all loaded conditions. The orientations of COM-to-ankle and -knee vectors were maintained in all loaded conditions except the heaviest load (40% BW). Results suggest that forward lean changed linearly with changes in load to maintain the COM-to-ankle and -knee vector orientations. COM vertical trajectory was maintained by a combination of invariants including lower-limb segment angles and a constant direction of toe-off impulse vector. The kinematic invariants found suggest a simplified control mechanism by which the system limits degrees of freedom and potentially minimizes torque about lower-extremity joints with added load.
Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A; Smith, Neal A
2012-05-01
The aim of this study was to compare measures of power output applied to the center of mass of the barbell and body system (CM) obtained by multiplying ground reaction force (GRF) by (a) the velocity of the barbell; (b) the velocity of the CM derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole-body motion analysis, and (c) the velocity of the CM derived from GRF during lower-body resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men performed 3 maximal-effort single back squats with 60% 1 repetition maximum while GRF and whole-body motion were captured using synchronized Kistler force platforms and a Vicon Motus motion analysis system. Repeated measures analysis of variance of time-normalized kinematic and kinetic data obtained using the different methods showed that the barbell was displaced 13.4% (p < 0.05) more than the CM, the velocity of the barbell was 16.1% (p < 0.05) greater than the velocity of the CM, and power applied to the CM obtained by multiplying GRF by the velocity of the barbell was 18.7% (p < 0.05) greater than power applied to the CM obtained by multiplying the force applied to the CM by its resultant velocity. Further, the velocity of the barbell was significantly greater than the velocity of the trunk, upper leg, lower leg, and foot (p < 0.05), indicating that a failure to consider the kinematics of body segments during lower-body resistance exercise can lead to a significant overestimation of power applied to the CM. Strength and conditioning coaches and investigators are urged to obtain measures of power from the force applied to and the velocity of either the barbell (using inverse dynamics) or CM (GRF or 3D motion analysis). Failure to apply these suggestions could result in continued overestimation of CM power, compromising methodological integrity.
Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael
2014-01-01
Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.
Properties of skyrmions and multi-quanta vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors
Garaud, Julien; Babaev, Egor
2015-01-01
Chiral p-wave superconducting state supports a rich spectrum of topological excitations different from those in conventional superconducting states. Besides domain walls separating different chiral states, chiral p-wave state supports both singular and coreless vortices also interpreted as skyrmions. Here, we present a numerical study of the energetic properties of isolated singular and coreless vortex states as functions of anisotropy and magnetic field penetration length. In a given chiral state, single quantum vortices with opposite winding have different energies and thus only one kind is energetically favoured. We find that with the appropriate sign of the phase winding, two-quanta (coreless) vortices are always energetically preferred over two isolated single quanta (singular) vortices. We also report solutions carrying more flux quanta. However those are typically more energetically expensive/metastable as compared to those carrying two flux quanta. PMID:26631985
Determination of basic physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks from P-wave velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karakuş, Askeri; Akatay, Mahmut
2013-12-01
Physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks used as main building material in historical buildings in Diyarbakir show great diversity depending on the place of origin. Especially, earthquake studies as well as restoration jobs and civil engineers and architects who work on building dynamics need to know basic material properties of basaltic rocks that are the main building material. In this study, the basalt samples obtained from 18 different locations of the Diyarbakir area were tested in order to estimate the main material properties of basalts used in historical buildings without collecting samples from them. Subsequently, statistical relationships between the nondestructive P-wave velocity and other properties of basalts were investigated. Consequently, highly correlated models (R2 = 0.717-0.890) were obtained between P-wave velocity and density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio.
Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth
Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.
2016-01-01
We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.
Dynamics of skyrmions and edge states in the resistive regime of mesoscopic p-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández Becerra, V.; Milošević, M. V.
2017-02-01
In a mesoscopic sample of a chiral p-wave superconductor, novel states comprising skyrmions and edge states have been stabilized in out-of-plane applied magnetic field. Using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations we shed light on the dynamic response of such states to an external applied current. Three different regimes are obtained, namely, the superconducting (stationary), resistive (non-stationary) and normal regime, similarly to conventional s-wave superconductors. However, in the resistive regime and depending on the external current, we found that moving skyrmions and the edge state behave distinctly different from the conventional kinematic vortex, thereby providing new fingerprints for identification of p-wave superconductivity.
Properties of skyrmions and multi-quanta vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors.
Garaud, Julien; Babaev, Egor
2015-12-03
Chiral p-wave superconducting state supports a rich spectrum of topological excitations different from those in conventional superconducting states. Besides domain walls separating different chiral states, chiral p-wave state supports both singular and coreless vortices also interpreted as skyrmions. Here, we present a numerical study of the energetic properties of isolated singular and coreless vortex states as functions of anisotropy and magnetic field penetration length. In a given chiral state, single quantum vortices with opposite winding have different energies and thus only one kind is energetically favoured. We find that with the appropriate sign of the phase winding, two-quanta (coreless) vortices are always energetically preferred over two isolated single quanta (singular) vortices. We also report solutions carrying more flux quanta. However those are typically more energetically expensive/metastable as compared to those carrying two flux quanta.
Effects of vorticity and impurity on NMR relaxation rate in chiral p-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro
2016-11-01
In order to study site-selective NMR in chiral p-wave superconductors, we calculate local nuclear relaxation rate T1-1 in the vortex lattice state by Eilenberger theory with and without non-magnetic impurity scattering in the Born limit and unitary limit. The local T1-1 in the NMR resonance line shape is different between two chiral states p±, depending on whether the chirality is parallel or anti-parallel to the vorticity. In the p--wave, anomalous suppression of local T1-1 occurs around the vortex core due to the negative coherence term coming from odd-frequency s-wave Cooper pair induced around the vortex. We especially examine the site dependence of the anomalous suppression of local T1-1, including the applied magnetic field dependence and the impurity effects.
Q for P waves in the sediments of the Virginia Coastal Plain
Chapman, M.C.; Beale, J.N.; Catchings, R.D.
2008-01-01
The seismic quality factor Q for P waves in Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments is estimated using data from the 2004 U.S. Geological Survey seismic survey in eastern Virginia. The estimates are based on spectral ratios derived from reflections and sediment-guided P waves in Late Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments within the annular trough of the Late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The estimates of Q for the frequency range of 10-150 Hz are from 75 to 100, with the best estimate of 80 based on multichannel stacking of spectral ratios from receivers in the offset range of 200-2000 m. This result is approximately a factor of 2 larger than the results previously reported for the Charleston, South Carolina, area, and it is approximately one-half of that recently reported for the Mississippi Embayment.
Fermion fractionalization to Majorana fermions in a dimerized Kitaev superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakatsuki, Ryohei; Ezawa, Motohiko; Tanaka, Yukio; Nagaosa, Naoto
2014-07-01
We study theoretically a one-dimensional dimerized Kitaev superconductor model which belongs to BDI class with time-reversal, particle-hole, and chiral symmetries. There are two sources of the particle-hole symmetry, i.e., the sublattice symmetry and superconductivity. Accordingly, we define two types of topological numbers with respect to the chiral indices of normal and Majorana fermions, which offers an ideal laboratory to examine the interference between the two different physics within the same symmetry class. Phase diagram, zero-energy bound states, and conductance at normal metal/superconductor junction of this model are unveiled from this viewpoint. Especially, the electron fractionalization to the Majorana fermions showing the splitting of the local density of states is realized at the soliton of the dimerization in this model.
Fermion Fractionalization to Majorana Fermions in Dimerized Kitaev Superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakatsuki, Ryohei; Ezawa, Motohiko; Tanaka, Yukio; Nagaosa, Naoto
2015-03-01
We study theoretically a one-dimensional dimerized Kitaev superconductor model which belongs to BDI class with time-reversal, particle-hole, and chiral symmetries. There are two sources of the particle-hole symmetry, i.e., the sublattice symmetry and superconductivity. Accordingly, we define two types of topological numbers with respect to the chiral indices of normal and Majorana fermions, which offers an ideal laboratory to examine the interference between the two different physics within the same symmetry class. Phase diagram, zero-energy bound states, and conductance at normal metal/superconductor junction of this model are unveiled from this viewpoint. Especially, the electron fractionalization to the Majorana fermions showing the splitting of the local density of states is realized at the soliton of the dimerization in this model.
Quantum electron plasma, visible and ultraviolet P-wave and thin metallic film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yushkanov, A. A.; Zverev, N. V.
2017-02-01
The interaction of the visible and ultraviolet electromagnetic P-wave with the thin flat metallic film localized between two dielectric media is studied numerically in the framework of the quantum degenerate electron plasma approach. The reflectance, transmittance and absorptance power coefficients are chosen for investigation. It is shown that for the frequencies in the visible and ultraviolet ranges, the quantum power coefficients differ from the ones evaluated in framework of both the classical spatial dispersion and the Drude-Lorentz approaches.
ECG Segmentation and P-Wave Feature Extraction: Application to Patients Prone to Atrial Fibrillation
2007-11-02
detection of patients prone to atrial fibrillation (AF), one of the most frequent arrhythmias. It focuses first on the segmentation of the...Keywords : atrial fibrillation , ECG segmentation, P-wave, hidden Markov model, wavelets, ECG database I. INTRODUCTION Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very... atrial thrombosis, with the subsequent risk of a stroke. The aim of this study is to try to automatically detect patients prone to atrial fibrillation (AF
3D P-wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Eastern Canadian Shield and Northern Appalachian Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villemaire, M.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.
2010-12-01
Previous seismic studies of the upper mantle of the Canadian Shield have indicated some low-velocity anomalies within the cratonic lithosphere in the Abitibi-Grenville region. The lack of seismograph station coverage to the east and south-east of the studied area prevented definition of the 3D geometry of these anomalies. Adding new stations from the province of Quebec and from the northeastern United States allows us to carry out new studies of the P-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle, in order to better understand the complexity of the region and the interaction of the lithosphere with possible thermal anomalies in the underlying mantle. We analysed teleseismic P wave arrivals from almost 200 earthquakes, recorded at 45 stations deployed across the provinces of Quebec and Ontario and across the northeastern US. The relative arrival times of teleseismic P waves across the array were measured using the cross-correlation method of VanDecar & Crosson (1990). The travel time data were then inverted to estimate the 3D P-wave velocity structure beneath the region, using the least-squares tomographic inversion code of VanDecar (1991). The model shows some interesting features. We see a diffuse low-velocity structure beneath New-England that extends to at least 500 km depth, and that may be related to the Appalachian Mountain belt. There is also a linear low-velocity structure, flanked by higher velocities, perpendicular to the Grenville Front, and along the Ottawa Valley. We interpret this feature as a mantle signature of the Great Meteor Hotspot track. We have looked for systematic differences between the mantle underlying the Archean Superior craton and the Proterozoic Grenville Province but did not find a significant difference in the upper mantle. We investigate the role of thermal and compositional effects to interpret the velocity models and to relate the patterns of the anomalies to past and present tectonic structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gitterman, Yefim; Kim, So Gu; Hofstetter, Abraham
2014-05-01
Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by the Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced coherent minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P-waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth (relatively to an earthquake), this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. A similar effect was observed at ISN stations for the Pakistan nuclear explosion at a different frequency 1.7 Hz indicating a source and not site-effect. Similar spectral minima with about the same frequency were observed in teleseismic P-waves of all three North Korea explosions (including the 2006 test) recorded at network stations and arrays in Kazakhstan (KURK), Norway (NORESS, ARCESS), Australia (Alice Springs, Warramunga) and Canada (Yellowknife), covering a broad azimuthal range. Data of the 2013 test at Warramunga array showed harmonic spectral modulation with several minima, evidencing a clear interference effect. These observations support the above-mentioned interpretation. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of the North Korea tests was estimated as ~2 km (different from the value ~1 km reported by USGS for the third test). This unusual depth estimation needs an additional validation based on more stations and verification by other methods.
Lithospheric structure of the Illinois Basin from teleseismic P-wave tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, B.; Gilbert, H. J.; Hamburger, M. W.; Merrell, T.; Pavlis, G. L.; Sherrill, E.
2013-12-01
We examine heterogeneity of the crust and upper mantle associated with a major intracratonic basin, using arrival time data from a regional EarthScope experiment extending across the western margin of the Illinois Basin. We measured 24,062 P-wave residuals associated with 399 teleseismic events recorded from January 2012 to March 2013 by 122 stations in the Illinois Basin region. We used data from the Ozark Illinois INdiana Kentucky (OIINK) Flexible Array, the permanent New Madrid Seismic Network, and a portion of the Earthscope Transportable Array. Precise relative arrival times were determined using array cross-correlation methods. We plotted the measured arrivals as residual maps to identify first order patterns of velocity heterogeneity and to fix outliers. These data were then inverted for P-wave velocity using non-linear tomography code developed by Steven Roecker. Our preliminary results indicate the upper 200 km of the mantle can be characterized by two blocks with a transition zone centered roughly parallel to the Ohio River boundary of Illinois and Kentucky. Estimated P-wave velocities are higher in Kentucky, located southeast of the transition zone compared to Missouri and Illinois, located northwest. We caution that at this stage our tomography model may be biased as we have not accounted for variations in crustal structure or applied corrections associated with the Illinois Basin. Parallel work with receiver functions by our group and the known geometry of the Illinois Basin will be used to calculate these corrections and modify the tomographic model accordingly.
P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropy of the Hokkaido subduction zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Xiongwei; Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Jiabiao; Ruan, Aiguo
2016-04-01
We present the first three-dimensional P wave radial anisotropy tomography of the Hokkaido subduction zone, as well as P wave azimuthal anisotropy and S wave tomography, which are determined by inverting 298,430 P wave and 233,934 S wave arrival times from 14,245 local earthquakes recorded by 344 seismic stations. Our results reveal significant velocity heterogeneity, seismic anisotropy, and upwelling flows beneath the study region. In the mantle wedge, prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exhibit trench-normal fast-velocity directions (FVDs) and a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., vertical velocity > horizontal velocity), which may reflect upwelling mantle flows. Fan-shaped FVDs are found at depths of 65-90 km, and a detailed 3-D mantle flow pattern is revealed, which may be caused by a combination of oblique subduction of the Pacific plate and collision of the Kuril arc with the Honshu arc beneath southern Hokkaido. The radial anisotropy changes at ~100 km depth, which may reflect variations in temperature and fluid conditions there. The subducting Pacific slab exhibits a positive radial anisotropy (i.e., horizontal velocity > vertical velocity), which may reflect the original fossil anisotropy when the Pacific plate formed at the mid-ocean ridge.
Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region
Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono
2015-04-24
The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.
Prolonged P-Wave and QT Dispersion in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Remission
Yılmaz, Nuh; Kutluk, Günsel; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Öztarhan, Kazım; Tulunoğlu, Aras; Şap, Fatih
2017-01-01
Objectives. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) with unclear underlying aetiologies. Severe cardiac arrhythmias have been emphasised in a few studies on adult IBD patients. This study aimed to investigate the alteration of the P-wave and QT interval dispersion parameters to assess the risk of atrial conduction and ventricular repolarisation abnormalities in pediatric IBD patients. Patients and Methods. Thirty-six IBD patients in remission (UC: 20, CD: 16) aged 3–18 years and 36 age- and sex-matched control patients were enrolled in the study. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were used to determine durations of P-wave, QT, and corrected QT (QTc) interval dispersion. Transthoracic echocardiograms and 24-hour rhythm Holter recordings were obtained for both groups. Results. The P-wave dispersion, QT dispersion, and QTc interval dispersion (Pdisp, QTdisp, and QTcdisp) were significantly longer in the patient group. The mean values of Pminimum, Pmaximum, and QTcminimum were significantly different between the two groups. The echocardiography and Holter monitoring results were not significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, no differences in these parameters were detected between the CD and UC groups. Conclusion. Results suggest that paediatric IBD patients may carry potential risks for serious atrial and ventricular arrhythmias over time even during remission. PMID:28316985
Stafford, P. J.; Cooper, J.; de Bono, D. P.; Vincent, R.; Garratt, C. J.
1995-01-01
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of low dose sotalol on the signal averaged surface P wave in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. DESIGN--A longitudinal within patient crossover study. SETTING--Cardiac departments of a regional cardiothoracic centre and a district general hospital. PATIENTS--Sixteen patients with documented paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The median (range) age of the patients was 65.5 (36-70) years; 11 were men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Analysis of the signal averaged P wave recorded from patients not receiving antiarrhythmic medication and after 4-6 weeks' treatment with sotalol. P wave limits were defined automatically by a computer algorithm. Filtered P wave duration and energies contained in frequency bands from 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 to 150 Hz of the P wave spectrum expressed as absolute values (P20, P30, etc) and as ratios of high to low frequency energy (PR20, PR30, etc) were measured. RESULTS--No difference in P wave duration was observed between the groups studied (mean (SEM) 149 (4) without medication and 152 (3) ms with sotalol). Significant decreases in high frequency P wave energy (for example P60: 4.3 (0.4) v 3.3 (0.3) microV2.s, P = 0.003) and energy ratio (PR60: 5.6 (0.5) v 4.7 (0.6), P = 0.03) were observed during sotalol treatment. These changes were independent of heart rate. CONCLUSIONS--Treatment with low dose sotalol reduces high frequency P wave energy but does not change P wave duration. These results are consistent with the class III effect of the drug and suggest that signal averaging of the surface P wave may be a useful non-invasive measure of drug induced changes in atrial electrophysiology. PMID:8541169
Teleseismic P-wave polarization analysis at the Gräfenberg array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristiano, L.; Meier, T.; Krüger, F.; Keers, H.; Weidle, C.
2016-12-01
P-wave polarization at the Gräfenberg array (GRF) in southern Germany is analysed in terms of azimuthal deviations and deviations in the vertical polarization using 20 yr of broad-band recordings. An automated procedure for estimating P-wave polarization parameters is suggested, based on the definition of a characteristic function, which evaluates the polarization angles and their time variability as well as the amplitude, linearity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the P wave. P-wave polarization at the GRF array is shown to depend mainly on frequency and backazimuth and only slightly on epicentral distance indicating depth-dependent local anisotropy and lateral heterogeneity. A harmonic analysis is applied to the azimuthal anomalies to analyse their periodicity as a function of backazimuth. The dominant periods are 180° and 360°. At low frequencies, between 0.03 and 0.1 Hz, the observed fast directions of azimuthal anisotropy inferred from the 180° periodicity are similar across the array. The average fast direction of azimuthal anisotropy at these frequencies is N20°E with an uncertainty of about 8° and is consistent with fast directions of Pn-wave propagation. Lateral velocity gradients determined for the low-frequency band are compatible with the Moho topography of the area. A more complex pattern in the horizontal fast axis orientation beneath the GRF array is observed in the high-frequency band between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz, and is attributed to anisotropy in the upper crust. A remarkable rotation of the horizontal fast axis orientation across the suture between the geological units Moldanubicum and Saxothuringicum is observed. In contrast, the 360° periodicity at high frequencies is rather consistent across the array and may either point to lower velocities in the upper crust towards the Bohemian Massif and/or to anisotropy dipping predominantly in the NE-SW direction. Altogether, P-wave polarization analysis indicates the presence of layered lithospheric
Crustal thickness estimation in the Maule Region (Chile) from P-wave receiver function analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dannowski, A.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thorwart, M. M.; Rabbel, W.; Flueh, E. R.
2010-12-01
A temporary passive seismic network of 31 broad-band stations was deployed in the region around Talca and Constitución between 35°S to 36°S latitude and 71°W to 72.5°W longitude. The network was operated between March and October 2008. Thus, we recorded data prior the magnitude Mw=8.8 earthquake of 27 February 2010 at a latitude of the major slip and surface uplift. The experiment was conducted to address fundamental questions on deformation processes, crustal and mantle structures, and fluid flow. We present first results of a teleseismic P receiver function study that covers the coastal region and reaches to the Andes. The aim is to determine the structure and thickness of the continental crust and constrain the state of hydration of the mantle wedge. The P-wave receiver function technique requires large teleseismic earthquakes from different distances and backazimuths. A few percent of the incident P-wave energy from a teleseismic event will be converted into S-wave (Ps) at significant and relatively sharp discontinuities beneath the station. A small converted S phase is produced that arrives at the station within the P wave coda directly after the direct P-wave. The converted Ps phase and their crustal multiples contain information about crustal properties, such as Moho depth and the crustal vp/vs ratio. We use teleseismic events with magnitudes mb > 5.5 at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° to examine P-to-S converted seismic phases. Our preliminary results provide new information about the thickness of the continental crust beneath the coastal region in Central Chile. At most of the stations we observed significant energy from P to S converted waves between 4 and 5 s after the direct P-wave within a positive phase interpreted as the Moho, occurring at 35 to 40 km. Thus, the great Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 nucleated up-dip of the continental Moho and hence ruptured along a plate contact between subducted sediments and continental crust
Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries
Wu, Cheng-Li . Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN )
1990-01-01
In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU{sub 3} of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU{sub 3} fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU{sub 3} symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting {gamma}-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.
Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A
2002-04-01
Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the
Voutilainen, Mikko Antero
2008-07-01
This thesis studies the high-energy collisions of protons and antiprotons. The data used in the measurement were collected during 2004-2005 with the D0 detector at the Tevatron Collider of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and correspond to 0.7 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity. High energy hadron collisions usually produce collimated sprays of particles called jets. The energy of the jets is measured using a liquid Argon-Uranium calorimeter and the production angle is determined with the help of silicon microstrip and scintillating fiber trackers. The inclusive jet cross section in proton-antiproton collisions is measured as a function of jet transverse momentum p_{T} in six bins of jet rapidity at the center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. The measurement covers jet transerve momenta from 50 GeV up to 600 GeV and jet rapidities up to |y| = 2.4. The data are collected using a set of seven single jet triggers. Event and jet cuts are applied to remove non-physical backgrounds and cosmic-ray interactions. The data are corrected for jet energy calibration, cut and trigger efficiencies and finite jet p_{T} resolution. The corrections are determined from data and the methods are tested with Monte Carlo simulation. The main experimental challenges in the measurement are the calibration of jet energies and the determination of the jet p_{T} resolution. New methods are developed for the jet energy calibration that take into account physical differences between the {gamma}+jet and dijet calibration samples arising from quark and gluon jet differences. The uncertainty correlations are studied and provided as a set of uncertainty sources. The production of particle jets in hadron collisions is described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). When the transverse jet momentum is large, the contributions from long-distance physics processes are small and the production rates of jets can be predicted by perturbative QCD. The
Multipartite concurrence for identical-fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majtey, A. P.; Bouvrie, P. A.; Valdés-Hernández, A.; Plastino, A. R.
2016-03-01
We study the problem of detecting multipartite entanglement among indistinguishable fermionic particles. A multipartite concurrence for pure states of N identical fermions, each one having a d -dimensional single-particle Hilbert space, is introduced. Such an entanglement measure, in particular, is optimized for maximally entangled states of three identical fermions that play a role analogous to the usual (qubit) Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. In addition, it is shown that the fermionic multipartite concurrence can be expressed as the mean value of an observable, provided two copies of the composite state are available.
Spin Tqfts and Fermionic Phases of Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton
We study lattice constructions of gapped fermionic phases of matter. We show that the construction of fermionic Symmetry Protected Topological orders by Gu and Wen has a hidden dependence on a discrete spin structure on the Euclidean space-time. The spin structure is needed to resolve ambiguities which are otherwise present. An identical ambiguity is shown to arise in the fermionic analog of the string-net construction of 2D topological orders. We argue that the need for a spin structure is a general feature of lattice models with local fermionic degrees of freedom and is a lattice analog of the spinstatistics relation.
Aharonov-Bohm radiation of fermions
Chu Yizen; Mathur, Harsh; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2010-09-15
We analyze Aharonov-Bohm radiation of charged fermions from oscillating solenoids and cosmic strings. We find that the angular pattern of the radiation has features that differ significantly from that for bosons. For example, fermionic radiation in the lowest harmonic is approximately isotropically distributed around an oscillating solenoid, whereas for bosons the radiation is dipolar. We also investigate the spin polarization of the emitted fermion-antifermion pair. Fermionic radiation from kinks and cusps on cosmic strings is shown to depend linearly on the ultraviolet cutoff, suggesting strong emission at an energy scale comparable to the string energy scale.
P wave and far-field R wave detection in pacemaker patient atrial electrograms.
Theres, H; Sun, W; Combs, W; Panken, E; Mead, H; Baumann, G; Stangl, K
2000-04-01
This study was undertaken to develop and test a morphology-based adaptive algorithm for real-time detection of P waves and far-field R waves (FFRWs) in pacemaker patient atrial electrograms. Cardiac event discrimination in right atrial electrograms has been a problem resulting in improper atrial sensing in implantable devices; potentially requiring clinical evaluation and device reprogramming. A morphology-based adaptive algorithm was first evaluated with electrograms recorded from 25 dual chamber pacemaker implant patients. A digital signal processing (DSP) system was designed to implement the algorithm and test real-time detection. In the second phase, the DSP implementation was evaluated in 13 patients. Atrial and ventricular electrograms were processed in real-time following algorithm training performed in the first few seconds for each patient. Electrograms were later manually annotated for comparative analysis. The sensitivity for FFRW detection in the atrial electrogram during off-line analysis was 92.5% (+/- 10.9) and the positive predictive value was 99.1% (+/- 1.8). Real-time P wave detection using a DSP system had a sensitivity of 98.9% (+/- 1.3) and a positive predictivity of 97.3% (+/- 3.5). FFRW detection had a sensitivity of 91.0% (+/- 12.4) and a positive predictivity of 97.1% (+/- 4.2) in atrial electrograms. DSP algorithm tested can accurately detect both P waves and FFRWs in right atrium real-time. Advanced signal processing techniques can be applied to arrhythmia detection and may eventually improve detection, reduce clinician interventions, and improve unipolar and bipolar lead sensing.
Orienting ocean-bottom seismometers from P-wave and Rayleigh wave polarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Sigloch, Karin; Crawford, Wayne C.; Deen, Martha
2017-03-01
We present two independent, automated methods for estimating the absolute horizontal misorientation of seismic sensors. We apply both methods to 44 free-fall ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) of the RHUM-RUM experiment (http://www.rhum-rum.net/). The techniques measure the 3-D directions of particle motion of (1) P-waves and (2) Rayleigh waves of earthquake recordings. For P-waves, we used a principal component analysis to determine the directions of particle motions (polarizations) in multiple frequency passbands. We correct for polarization deviations due to seismic anisotropy and dipping discontinuities using a simple fit equation, which yields significantly more accurate OBS orientations. For Rayleigh waves, we evaluated the degree of elliptical polarization in the vertical plane in the time and frequency domain. The results obtained for the RHUM-RUM OBS stations differed, on average, by 3.1° and 3.7° between the methods, using circular mean and median statistics, which is within the methods' estimate uncertainties. Using P-waves, we obtained orientation estimates for 31 ocean-bottom seismometers with an average uncertainty (95 per cent confidence interval) of 11° per station. For 7 of these OBS, data coverage was sufficient to correct polarization measurements for underlying seismic anisotropy and dipping discontinuities, improving their average orientation uncertainty from 11° to 6° per station. Using Rayleigh waves, we obtained misorientation estimates for 40 OBS, with an average uncertainty of 16° per station. The good agreement of results obtained using the two methods indicates that they should also be useful for detecting misorientations of terrestrial seismic stations.
Application of scattering theory to P-wave amplitude fluctuations in the crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimoto, Kazuo; Takemura, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Manabu
2015-12-01
The amplitudes of high-frequency seismic waves generated by local and/or regional earthquakes vary from site to site, even at similar hypocentral distances. It had been suggested that, in addition to local site effects (e.g., variable attenuation and amplification in surficial layers), complex wave propagation in inhomogeneous crustal media is responsible for this observation. To quantitatively investigate this effect, we performed observational, theoretical, and numerical studies on the characteristics of seismic amplitude fluctuations in inhomogeneous crust. Our observations of P-wave amplitude for small to moderately sized crustal earthquakes revealed that fluctuations in P-wave amplitude increase with increasing frequency and hypocentral distance, with large fluctuations showing up to ten-times difference between the largest and the smallest P-wave amplitudes. Based on our theoretical investigation, we developed an equation to evaluate the amplitude fluctuations of time-harmonic waves that radiated isotropically from a point source and propagated spherically in acoustic von Kármán-type random media. Our equation predicted relationships between amplitude fluctuations and observational parameters (e.g., wave frequency and hypocentral distance). Our numerical investigation, which was based on the finite difference method, enabled us to investigate the characteristics of wave propagation in both acoustic and elastic random inhomogeneous media using a variety of source time functions. The numerical simulations indicate that amplitude fluctuation characteristics differ a little between medium types (i.e., acoustic or elastic) or source time function durations. These results confirm the applicability of our analytical equation to practical seismic data analysis.
P wave anisotropic tomography of the Nankai subduction zone in Southwest Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jian; Zhao, Dapeng
2012-05-01
The active subduction of the young Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and the old Pacific plate has resulted in significant seismic heterogeneity and anisotropy in Southwest (SW) Japan. In this work we determined a detailed 3-D P wave anisotropic tomography of the crust and upper mantle beneath SW Japan using ˜540,000 P wave arrival times from 5,249 local earthquakes recorded by 1095 stations. The PHS slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly which exhibits considerable lateral variations. Significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed above and below the PHS slab. The low-V anomalies above the PHS slab may reflect the upwelling flow in the mantle wedge and the PHS slab dehydration, and they form the source zone of the arc volcanoes in SW Japan. The low-V zones under the PHS slab may reflect the upwelling flow in the big mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle is complex. In Kyushu, the P wave fast velocity direction (FVD) is generally trench-normal in the mantle wedge under the back-arc, which is consistent with the corner flow driven by the PHS slab subduction. The FVD is trench-parallel in the subducting PHS slab under Kyushu. We think that the intraslab seismicity is a potential indicator to the slab anisotropy. That is, the PHS slab with seismicity has kept its original fossil anisotropy formed at the mid-ocean ridge, while the aseismic PHS slab has reproduced the anisotropy according to its current deformation.
Orienting Ocean-Bottom Seismometers from P-wave and Rayleigh wave polarisations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Sigloch, Karin; Crawford, Wayne; Deen, Martha
2016-11-01
We present two independent, automated methods for estimating the absolute horizontal misorientation of seismic sensors from their recorded data. We apply both methods to 44 free-fall ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) of the RHUM-RUM experiment (http://www.rhum-rum.net/). The techniques measure the three-dimensional directions of particle motion of (1) P-waves and (2) Rayleigh waves of earthquake recordings. For P-waves, we used a principal component analysis to determine the directions of particle motions (polarisations) in multiple frequency passbands. We correct for polarisation deviations due to seismic anisotropy and dipping discontinuities using a simple fit equation, which yields significantly more accurate OBS orientations. For Rayleigh waves, we evaluated the degree of elliptical polarisation in the vertical plane in the time and frequency domain. The results obtained for the RUM-RHUM OBS stations differed, on average, by 3.1° and 3.7° between the methods, using circular mean and median statistics, which is within the methods' estimate uncertainties. Using P-waves, we obtained orientation estimates for 31 ocean-bottom seismometers with an average uncertainty (95% confidence interval) of 11° per station. For 7 of these OBS, data coverage was sufficient to correct polarisation measurements for underlying seismic anisotropy and dipping discontinuities, improving their average orientation uncertainty from 11° to 6° per station. Using Rayleigh waves, we obtained misorientation estimates for 40 OBS, with an average uncertainty of 16° per station. The good agreement of results obtained using the two methods indicates that they should also be useful for detecting misorientations of terrestrial seismic stations.
Crustal P-wave velocity model for the central-western region of Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa, J.; Escudero, C. R.; Perez, O. G.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.
2012-12-01
Several studies require a p-wave velocity model to obtain accurate results moreover such models could provide an insight of the tectonic structure of the study area. Accordingly, in this study we estimate the crustal 3D p-wave velocity model for the Jalisco Block located at the central-western region of Mexico. The Jalisco Block is limited on its eastern side by the Colima and Tepic-Zacoalcos Rifts, and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; while on its western side it is limited by the Mesoamerican Trench. Cocos and Rivera plates are subducting beneath the Jalisco Block conforming a tectonically complex region. We used earthquakes occurring within the limits of lithosphere volume from which we want to estimate the velocity model. Such events were registered by the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone experiment (MARS) and the Seismic and Acelerometric Network of Jalisco (RESAJ). During MARS experiment 51broadband stations active from January 2006 to June 2007 were deployed while RESAJ by July of 2012consists of nine active stations however more stations will be deployed until reach 30 stations. The velocity model is estimated using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) software. FMTOMO uses the Fast Marching Method (FMM) in order to solve the forward problem; the FMM is a numerical algorithm that tracks the interfaces evolution along a nodes narrow band, and travel times are updated solving the eikonal equation. Finally , the inverse problem is about adjusting the model parameters (interface depth, velocity, hypocenter location) in order to try to satisfy the observed data (travel times). We perform a resolution test using several events that show good resolution results up to a 60 km depth. We present a 3D p-wave velocity model, we compare our results within the MARS data with previous results for greater depths, approximately the upper mantle, finally we also present studies towards the northern portion of the Jalisco Block using the RESAJ data.
Improved P-wave Tomography of the Lowermost Mantle and Consequences for Mantle and Core Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkalcic, H.; Young, M. K.; Muir, J. B.
2014-12-01
The core mantle boundary (CMB) separates the liquid iron core from the slowly-convecting solid mantle. The ~300 km thick barrier above the boundary has proven to be far more than a simple dividing layer; rather it is a complex region with a range of proposed phenomena such as thermal and compositional heterogeneity, partial melting and anisotropy. Characterizing the heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle through seismic tomography will prove crucial to accurately understanding key geodynamical processes within our planet, not just in the mantle above, but also a possible "mapping" onto the inner core boundary (ICB) through a thermochemical convection in the outer core, which in turn might control the growth of the inner core (e.g. Aubert et al., 2008; Gubbins et al., 2011). Here we obtain high-resolution compressional wave (P-wave) velocity images and uncertainty estimates for the lowermost mantle using travel time data collected by waveform cross-correlation. Strikingly, independent datasets of seismic phases that "see" the lowermost mantle in a different way yield similar P-wave velocity distributions at lower harmonic degrees. We also consider the effect of CMB topography. The images obtained are void of explicit model parameterization and regularization (through transdimensional Bayesian tomography) and contain features on multiple spatial scales. Subsequent spectral analyses reveal a power of heterogeneity three times larger than previous estimates. The P-wave tomograms of the lowermost mantle contain the harmonic degree 2-structure, similar to tomographic images derived from S-wave data (e.g. Ritsema et al. 2011), but with additional higher harmonic degrees (notably, 3-7). In other words, the heterogeneity size is uniformly distributed between about 500 and 6000 km. Inter alia, the resulting heterogeneity spectrum provides a bridge between the long-wavelength features of most global models and the very short-scale dimensions of scatterers mapped in independent
Condensates of p-Wave Pairs Are Exact Solutions for Rotating Two-Component Bose Gases
Papenbrock, T; Kavoulakis, G. M.
2012-01-01
We derive exact analytical results for the wave functions and energies of harmonically trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with weakly repulsive interactions under rotation. The isospin symmetric wave functions are universal and do not depend on the matrix elements of the two-body interaction. The comparison with the results from numerical diagonalization shows that the ground state and low-lying excitations consist of condensates of p-wave pairs for repulsive contact interactions, Coulomb interactions, and the repulsive interactions between aligned dipoles.
Condensates of p-wave pairs are exact solutions for rotating two-component Bose gases.
Papenbrock, T; Reimann, S M; Kavoulakis, G M
2012-02-17
We derive exact analytical results for the wave functions and energies of harmonically trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with weakly repulsive interactions under rotation. The isospin symmetric wave functions are universal and do not depend on the matrix elements of the two-body interaction. The comparison with the results from numerical diagonalization shows that the ground state and low-lying excitations consist of condensates of p-wave pairs for repulsive contact interactions, Coulomb interactions, and the repulsive interactions between aligned dipoles.
Effective field theory for a p -wave superconductor in the subgap regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansson, T. H.; Kvorning, T.; Nair, V. P.; Sreejith, G. J.
2015-02-01
We construct an effective field theory for the 2 d spinless p -wave paired superconductor that faithfully describes the topological properties of the bulk state, and also provides a model for the subgap states at vortex cores and edges. In particular, it captures the topologically protected zero modes and has the correct ground-state degeneracy on the torus. We also show that our effective field theory becomes a topological field theory in a well defined scaling limit and that the vortices have the expected non-Abelian braiding statistics.
A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.
2013-12-01
On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4
Holographic s-wave and p-wave Josephson junction with backreaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Shuai
2016-11-01
In this paper, we study the holographic models of s-wave and p-wave Josephoson junction away from probe limit in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, respectively. With the backreaction of the matter, we obtained the anisotropic black hole solution with the condensation of matter fields. We observe that the critical temperature of Josephoson junction decreases with increasing backreaction. In addition to this, the tunneling current and condenstion of Josephoson junction become smaller as backreaction grows larger, but the relationship between current and phase difference still holds for sine function. Moreover, condenstion of Josephoson junction deceases with increasing width of junction exponentially.
STOUT SMEARING FOR TWISTED FERMIONS.
SCHOLZ,W.; JANSEN, K.; McNEILE, C.; MONTVAY, I.; RICHARDS, C.; URBACH, C.; WENGER, U.
2007-07-30
The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 12{sup 3} x 24, 16{sup 3} x 32 and 24{sup 3} x 48 lattices at lattice spacings a {approx_equal} 0.1-0.125 fm. The phase structure of Wilson fermions with twisted mass ({mu}) has been investigated in [1,2]. As it is explained there, the observed first order phase transition limits the minimal pion mass which can be reached in simulations at a given lattice spacing: m{sub k}{sup min} {approx_equal} {theta}(a). The phase structure is schematically depicted in the left panel of Fig. I . The phase transition can be observed in simulations with twisted mass fermions, for instance, as a ''jump'' or even metastabilities in the average plaquette value as a function of the hopping parameter ({kappa}). One possibility to weaken the phase transition and therefore allow for lighter pion masses at a given lattice spacing is to use an improved gauge action like the DBW2, Iwasaki, or tree-level Symanzik (tlSym) improved gauge action instead of the simple Wilson gauge action. This has been successfully demonstrated in [3,4,5]. Here we report on our attempts to use a smeared gauge field in the fermion lattice Dirac operator to further reduce the strength of the phase transition. This is relevant in simulations with N{sub f} = 2 + 1 + 1 (u,d,s,c) quark flavors [6] where the first order phase transition becomes stronger compared to N{sub f} = 2 simulations. The main impact of the above mentioned improved gauge actions on the gauge fields occurring in simulations is to suppress short range fluctuations (''dislocations'') and the associated ''exceptionally small'' eigenvalues of the fermion matrix. The same effect is expected from smearing the gauge field links in the fermion action. The cumulated effect of the improved gauge action and smeared links should allow for a smaller pion mass at a given lattice spacing and volume. Our
Dipole oscillations in fermionic mixtures
Chiacchiera, S.; Macri, T.; Trombettoni, A.
2010-03-15
We study dipole oscillations in a general fermionic mixture. Starting from the Boltzmann equation, we classify the different solutions in the parameter space through the number of real eigenvalues of the small oscillations matrix. We discuss how this number can be computed using the Sturm algorithm and its relation with the properties of the Laplace transform of the experimental quantities. After considering two components in harmonic potentials having different trapping frequencies, we study dipole oscillations in three-component mixtures. Explicit computations are done for realistic experimental setups using the classical Boltzmann equation without intraspecies interactions. A brief discussion of the application of this classification to general collective oscillations is also presented.
Fermion dipole moment and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Rahman, Rakibur
2015-12-01
In the background of a charged AdS black hole, we consider a Dirac particle endowed with an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment. For non-zero charge and dipole coupling of the bulk fermion, we find that the dual boundary theory can be plagued with superluminal modes. Requiring consistency of the dual CFT amounts to constraining the strength of the dipole coupling by an upper bound. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the physics of holographic non-Fermi liquids.
Preliminary Results for Crustal Structure in Southeastern Africa from P-wave Receiver Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Mulowezi, A.; Kunkuta, E.; De Magalhães, V.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Julia, J.
2013-12-01
The crustal structure of southeastern Africa is investigated by modeling P-wave receiver functions using H-k stacking and joint inversion methods. P-wave receiver functions are analyzed for 29 broadband seismic stations in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. Estimates for the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio are determined from H-k stacking, and estimates for the shear wave velocity are determined by the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. Preliminary results show that Moho depths beneath southeastern Africa range from 32 km to 51 km. Thicker crust is found in Proterozoic terrains, such as the Irumide Belt, while thinner crust is found in reworked Archean terrains, such as the Bangweulu Block. These results are consistent with previous studies and global averages for Precambrian terrains. The preliminary results also show a range of Poisson's ratios from 0.2 to 0.3. These new results for southeastern Africa are being combined with similar results from elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa to improve our understanding of African crustal structure.
Depth variations of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy beneath Mainland China
Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Jiandong; Zhou, Bengang; Shi, Yaolin
2016-01-01
A high-resolution model of P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Mainland China and surrounding regions is determined using a large number of arrival-time data recorded by the China seismic network, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results provide important new insights into the subducted Indian plate and mantle dynamics in East Asia. Our tomographic images show that the northern limit of the subducting Indian plate has reached the Jinsha River suture in eastern Tibet. A striking variation of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the Indian lithosphere: the fast velocity direction (FVD) is NE-SW beneath the Indian continent, whereas the FVD is arc parallel beneath the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, which may reflect re-orientation of minerals due to lithospheric extension, in response to the India-Eurasia collision. There are multiple anisotropic layers with variable FVDs in some parts of the Tibetan Plateau, which may be the cause of the dominant null splitting measurements in these regions. A circular pattern of FVDs is revealed around the Philippine Sea slab beneath SE China, which reflects asthenospheric strain caused by toroidal mantle flow around the edge of the subducting slab. PMID:27432744
Depth variations of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy beneath Mainland China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Jiandong; Zhou, Bengang; Shi, Yaolin
2016-07-01
A high-resolution model of P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Mainland China and surrounding regions is determined using a large number of arrival-time data recorded by the China seismic network, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results provide important new insights into the subducted Indian plate and mantle dynamics in East Asia. Our tomographic images show that the northern limit of the subducting Indian plate has reached the Jinsha River suture in eastern Tibet. A striking variation of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the Indian lithosphere: the fast velocity direction (FVD) is NE-SW beneath the Indian continent, whereas the FVD is arc parallel beneath the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, which may reflect re-orientation of minerals due to lithospheric extension, in response to the India-Eurasia collision. There are multiple anisotropic layers with variable FVDs in some parts of the Tibetan Plateau, which may be the cause of the dominant null splitting measurements in these regions. A circular pattern of FVDs is revealed around the Philippine Sea slab beneath SE China, which reflects asthenospheric strain caused by toroidal mantle flow around the edge of the subducting slab.
Depth variations of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy beneath Mainland China.
Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Jiandong; Zhou, Bengang; Shi, Yaolin
2016-07-19
A high-resolution model of P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Mainland China and surrounding regions is determined using a large number of arrival-time data recorded by the China seismic network, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results provide important new insights into the subducted Indian plate and mantle dynamics in East Asia. Our tomographic images show that the northern limit of the subducting Indian plate has reached the Jinsha River suture in eastern Tibet. A striking variation of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the Indian lithosphere: the fast velocity direction (FVD) is NE-SW beneath the Indian continent, whereas the FVD is arc parallel beneath the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, which may reflect re-orientation of minerals due to lithospheric extension, in response to the India-Eurasia collision. There are multiple anisotropic layers with variable FVDs in some parts of the Tibetan Plateau, which may be the cause of the dominant null splitting measurements in these regions. A circular pattern of FVDs is revealed around the Philippine Sea slab beneath SE China, which reflects asthenospheric strain caused by toroidal mantle flow around the edge of the subducting slab.
P-Wave to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients for wedge corners; model experiments
Gangi, A.F.; Wesson, R.L.
1978-01-01
An analytic solution is not available for the diffraction of elastic waves by wedges; however, numerical solutions of finite-difference type are available for selected wedge angles. The P- to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients at wedge tips have been measured on two-dimensional seismic models for stress-free wedges with wedge angles, ??0, of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120??. The conversion coefficients show two broad peaks and a minimum as a function of the angle between the wedge face and the direction of the incident P-wave. The minimum occurs for the P wave incident parallel to the wedge face and one maximum is near an incidence angle of 90?? to the wedge face. The amplitude of this maximum, relative to the other, decreases as the wedge angle increases. The asymmetry of the conversion coefficients, CPR(??; ??0), relative to parallel incidence (?? = 0) increases as the wedge angle increases. The locations of the maxima and the minimum as well as the asymmetry can be explained qualitatively. The conversion coefficients are measured with an accuracy of ??5% in those regions where there are no interfering waves. A comparison of the data for the 10?? wedge with the theoretical results for a half plane (0?? wedge) shows good correlation. ?? 1978.
Line nodes and surface Majorana flat bands in static and kicked p -wave superconducting Harper model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Huai-Qiang; Chen, M. N.; Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin; Xing, D. Y.
2017-02-01
We investigate the effect of introducing nearest-neighbor p -wave superconducting pairing to both the static and kicked extended Harper model with two periodic phase parameters acting as artificial dimensions to simulate three-dimensional systems. It is found that in both the static model and the kicked model, by varying the p -wave pairing order parameter, the system can switch between a fully gapped phase and a gapless phase with point nodes or line nodes. The topological property of both the static and kicked model is revealed by calculating corresponding topological invariants defined in the one-dimensional lattice dimension. Under open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, Majorana flat bands at energy zero (quasienergy zero and π ) emerge in the static (kicked) model at the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone. For certain values of pairing order parameter, (Floquet) Su-Schrieffer-Heeger-like edge modes appear in the form of arcs connecting different (Floquet) Majorana flat bands. Finally, we find that in the kicked model, it is possible to generate two controllable Floquet Majorana modes, one at quasienergy zero and the other at quasienergy π , at the same parameter values.
Rupture history of the 1997 Cariaco, Venezuela, earthquake from teleseismic P waves
Mendoza, C.
2000-01-01
A two-step finite-fault waveform inversion scheme is applied to the broadband teleseismic P waves recorded for the strike-slip, Cariaco, Venezuela, earthquake of 9 July 1997 to recover the distribution of mainshock slip. The earthquake is first analyzed using a long narrow fault with a maximum rise time of 20 sec. This line-source analysis indicates that slip propagated to the west with a constant rupture velocity and a relatively short rise time. The results are then used to constrain a second inversion of the P waveforms using a 60-km by 20-km two-dimensional fault. The rupture shows a zone of large slip (1.3-m peak) near the hypocenter and a second, broader source extending updip and to the west at depths shallower than 5 km. The second source has a peak slip of 2.1 meters and accounts for most of the moment of 1.1 × 1026 dyne-cm (6.6 Mww) estimated from the P waves. The inferred rupture pattern is consistent with macroseismic effects observed in the epicentral area.
The P-wave boundary of the Large-Low Shear Velocity Province beneath the Pacific
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frost, Daniel A.; Rost, Sebastian
2014-10-01
The Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) in the lower mantle represent volumetrically significant thermal or chemical or thermo-chemical heterogeneities. Their structure and boundaries have been widely studied, mainly using S-waves, but much less is known about their signature in the P-wavefield. We use an extensive dataset recorded at USArray to create, for the first time, a high-resolution map of the location, shape, sharpness, and extent of the boundary of the Pacific LLSVP using P(Pdiff)-waves. We find that the northern edge of the Pacific LLSVP is shallow dipping (26° relative to the horizontal) and diffuse (∼120 km wide transition zone) whereas the eastern edge is steeper dipping (70°) and apparently sharp (∼40 km wide). We trace the LLSVP boundary up to ∼500 km above the CMB in most areas, and 700 km between 120° and 90°W at the eastern extent of the boundary. Apparent P-wave velocity drops are ∼1-3% relative to PREM, indicating a strong influence of LLSVPs on P-wave velocity, at least in the high-frequency wavefield, in contrast to previous studies. A localised patch with a greater velocity drop of ∼15-25% is detected, defined by large magnitude gradients of the travel-time residuals. We identify this as a likely location of an Ultra-Low Velocity Zone (ULVZ), matching the location of a previously detected ULVZ in this area. The boundary of a separate low velocity anomaly, of a similar height to the LLSVP, is detected in the north-west Pacific, matching tomographic images. This outlier appears to be connected to the main LLSVP through a narrow channel close to the CMB and may be in the process of joining or splitting from the main LLSVP. We also see strong velocity increases in the lower mantle to the east of the LLSVP, likely detecting subducted material beneath central America. The LLSVP P-wave boundary is similar to that determined in high-resolution S-wave studies and follows the -0.4% ΔVS iso-velocity contour in the S40RTS
Barold, S S; Stroobandt, R X; Herweg, B; Kucher, A
2012-06-01
Electrical desynchronization in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) occurs when sinus P waves are continually locked in the postventricular atrial refractory period (PVARP). This process is characterized by sequences of a P wave as an atrial event in the PVARP followed by a conducted and sensed ventricular event. Such sequences are more common in patients with a prolonged PR interval, often initiated by premature ventricular complexes (PVC) and terminated by PVCs or slowing of the sinus rate. Specific algorithms automatically identify a recurring pattern of P wave locking in the PVARP, whereupon they shorten the PVARP temporarily until atrial tracking is restored with the programmed sensed AV interval. The Biotronik family of Lumax CRT devices use an AV control window which is not an algorithm that "unlocks" P waves trapped in the PVARP. Rather, it prevents P waves from becoming trapped in the PVARP. A ventricular sensed event occurring within the AV control interval does not start a PVARP so that P wave locking cannot occur when the AV conduction time is shorter than the AV control interval.
Quantum electrodynamics with complex fermion mass
McKellar, B.J.H. . School of Physics); Wu, D.D. . School of Physics Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ . Inst. of High Energy Physics Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX )
1991-08-01
The quantum electrodynamics (QED) with a complex fermion mass -- that is, a fermion mass with a chiral phase -- is restudied, together with its chirally rotated version. We show how fake electric dipole moment can be obtained and how to avoid it. 10 refs.
Mass-induced transition in fermion number
Aragao de Carvalho, C.; Pureza, J. M.
1989-05-15
We show that if we increase the mass of fermions in interaction with a topological (kink) scalar background in 1+1 dimensions, the fractional fermion number of the system will eventually vanish. The transition is sharp and corresponds to the disappearance of localized states from the spectrum of a Dirac operator which is exactly solvable. Possible applications to different physical systems are discussed.
Coherent states in the fermionic Fock space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oeckl, Robert
2015-01-01
We construct the coherent states in the sense of Gilmore and Perelomov for the fermionic Fock space. Our treatment is from the outset adapted to the infinite-dimensional case. The fermionic Fock space becomes in this way a reproducing kernel Hilbert space of continuous holomorphic functions.
Superalgebra and fermion-boson symmetry
Miyazawa, Hironari
2010-01-01
Fermions and bosons are quite different kinds of particles, but it is possible to unify them in a supermultiplet, by introducing a new mathematical scheme called superalgebra. In this article we discuss the development of the concept of symmetry, starting from the rotational symmetry and finally arriving at this fermion-boson (FB) symmetry. PMID:20228617
Tunable Dirac fermion dynamics in topological insulators.
Chen, Chaoyu; Xie, Zhuojin; Feng, Ya; Yi, Hemian; Liang, Aiji; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyang; Peng, Qinjun; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shenjin; Yang, Feng; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Zhou, X J
2013-01-01
Three-dimensional topological insulators are characterized by insulating bulk state and metallic surface state involving relativistic Dirac fermions which are responsible for exotic quantum phenomena and potential applications in spintronics and quantum computations. It is essential to understand how the Dirac fermions interact with other electrons, phonons and disorders. Here we report super-high resolution angle-resolved photoemission studies on the Dirac fermion dynamics in the prototypical Bi2(Te,Se)3 topological insulators. We have directly revealed signatures of the electron-phonon coupling and found that the electron-disorder interaction dominates the scattering process. The Dirac fermion dynamics in Bi2(Te3-xSex) topological insulators can be tuned by varying the composition, x, or by controlling the charge carriers. Our findings provide crucial information in understanding and engineering the electron dynamics of the Dirac fermions for fundamental studies and potential applications.
Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy
Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni
2014-12-31
We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first andmore » second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. Furthermore, we discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification.« less
Cosmology of fermionic dark matter
Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen
2007-11-15
We explore a model for a fermionic dark matter particle family which decouples from the rest of the particles when at least all standard model particles are in equilibrium. We calculate the allowed ranges for mass and chemical potential to be compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculations and WMAP data for a flat universe with dark energy ({omega}{sub {lambda}}{sup 0}=0.72, {omega}{sub M}{sup 0}=0.27, h=0.7). Futhermore we estimate the free streaming length for fermions and antifermions to allow comparison to large scale structure data (LSS). We find that for dark matter decoupling when all standard model particles are present even the least restrictive combined BBN calculation and WMAP results allow us to constrain the initial dark matter chemical potential to a highest value of 6.3 times the dark matter temperature. In this case, the resulting mass range is at most 1.8 eV{<=}m{<=}53 eV, where the upper bound scales linearly with g{sub eff}{sup s}(T{sub Dec}). From LSS we find that, similar to ordinary warm dark matter models, the particle mass has to be larger than {approx}500 eV [meaning g{sub eff}{sup s}(T{sub Dec})>10{sup 3}] to be compatible with observations of the Ly {alpha} forest at high redshift, but still the dark matter chemical potential over temperature ratio can exceed unity.
Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy
Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni
2014-12-31
We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. Furthermore, we discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification.
Thermalization of Fermionic Quantum Walkers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamza, Eman; Joye, Alain
2017-03-01
We consider the discrete time dynamics of an ensemble of fermionic quantum walkers moving on a finite discrete sample, interacting with a reservoir of infinitely many quantum particles on the one dimensional lattice. The reservoir is given by a fermionic quasifree state, with free discrete dynamics given by the shift, whereas the free dynamics of the non-interacting quantum walkers in the sample is defined by means of a unitary matrix. The reservoir and the sample exchange particles at specific sites by a unitary coupling and we study the discrete dynamics of the coupled system defined by the iteration of the free discrete dynamics acting on the unitary coupling, in a variety of situations. In particular, in absence of correlation within the particles of the reservoir and under natural assumptions on the sample's dynamics, we prove that the one- and two-body reduced density matrices of the sample admit large times limits characterized by the state of the reservoir which are independent of the free dynamics of the quantum walkers and of the coupling strength. Moreover, the corresponding asymptotic density profile in the sample is flat and the correlations of number operators have no structure, a manifestation of thermalization.
Uniqueness of modeling results from teleseismic P-Wave tomography in Project Tor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregersen, S.; Voss, P.; Nielsen, L. V.; Achauer, U.; Busche, H.; Rabbel, W.; Shomali, Z. H.
2010-01-01
Within Project Tor, which is about Teleseismic Tomography across the Tornquist Zone in Germany-Denmark-Sweden, we have confirmed very significant deep lithosphere differences. And modeling is substantiated via completely independent methods. In 1996-1997 our 130 seismographs constituted the largest seismic antenna ever in Europe. The Tor area was chosen along a well studied crustal profile of an earlier project, and the modeling efforts were concentrated on the deep lithosphere and asthenosphere differences to depths around 300 km. The Tor data have been subjected to P-wave travel time tomography, surface wave and receiver function analysis as well as anisotropy and scattering measurements. An important goal of the project was to make several independent inversions of the tomography data, and compare the results in an attempt to evaluate uniqueness, resolution and accuracy of these inversions. The comparisons of this paper involve more diversity in methods than any previous comparison. The geological outcome is a substantiation of earlier statements that: "The transition is interpreted to be sharp and steep in two places. It goes all through the lithosphere at the northern rim of the Tornquist Zone near the border between Sweden and Denmark, and here the lithosphere difference is large to depths more than 200 km. The other lithosphere difference, of smaller scale, is found near the southern edge of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High near the border between Denmark and Germany. Also this transition is sharp and steep, and goes all through the lithosphere to depths around 120 km. These two sharp transitions divide the Tor region into 3 different lithosphere structures distinguishable in P-wave travel time tomography, surface wave dispersion, P- and S-wave anisotropy and partly in P-wave scattering". The mentioned broad-scale features are judged to be unambiguously determined, with well-described resolution and accuracy. Unfortunately a detail like the slope of the subcrustal
On the Nambu fermion-boson relations for superfluid 3He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauls, J. A.; Mizushima, Takeshi
2017-03-01
Superfluid 3He is a spin-triplet (S =1 ), p -wave (L =1 ) BCS condensate of Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J =0 in the ground state. In addition to the breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry, separate spin or orbital rotation symmetry is broken to the maximal subgroup SO (3) S×SO (3) L→SO(3 ) J . The fermions acquire mass mF≡Δ , where Δ is the BCS gap. There are also 18 bosonic excitations: 4 Nambu-Goldstone modes and 14 massive amplitude Higgs modes. The bosonic modes are labeled by the total angular momentum J ∈{0 ,1 ,2 } , and parity under particle-hole symmetry c =±1 . For each pair of angular momentum quantum numbers J ,Jz , there are two bosonic partners with c =±1 . Based on this spectrum, Nambu proposed a sum rule connecting the fermion and boson masses for BCS-type theories, which for 3He-B is MJ,+ 2+MJ,- 2=4 mF2 for each family of bosonic modes labeled by J , where MJ ,c is the mass of the bosonic mode with quantum numbers (J ,c ) . The Nambu sum rule (NSR) has recently been discussed in the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models for physics beyond the standard model to speculate on possible partners to the recently discovered Higgs boson at higher energies. Here, we point out that the Nambu fermion-boson mass relations are not exact. Corrections to the bosonic masses from (i) leading-order strong-coupling corrections to BCS theory, and (ii) polarization of the parent fermionic vacuum lead to violations of the sum rule. Results for these mass corrections are given in both the T →0 and T →Tc limits. We also discuss experimental results, and theoretical analysis, for the masses of the Jc=2± Higgs modes and the magnitude of the violation of the NSR.
Alcaraz, Raúl; Martínez, Arturo; Rieta, José J
2015-04-01
A normal cardiac activation starts in the sinoatrial node and then spreads throughout the atrial myocardium, thus defining the P-wave of the electrocardiogram. However, when the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) approximates, a highly disturbed electrical activity occurs within the atria, thus provoking fragmented and eventually longer P-waves. Although this altered atrial conduction has been successfully quantified just before PAF onset from the signal-averaged P-wave spectral analysis, its evolution during the hours preceding the arrhythmia has not been assessed yet. This work focuses on quantifying the P-wave spectral content variability over the 2h preceding PAF onset with the aim of anticipating as much as possible the arrhythmic episode envision. For that purpose, the time course of several metrics estimating absolute energy and ratios of high- to low-frequency power in different bands between 20 and 200Hz has been computed from the P-wave autoregressive spectral estimation. All the analyzed metrics showed an increasing variability trend as PAF onset approximated, providing the P-wave high-frequency energy (between 80 and 150Hz) a diagnostic accuracy around 80% to discern between healthy subjects, patients far from PAF and patients less than 1h close to a PAF episode. This discriminant power was similar to that provided by the most classical time-domain approach, i.e., the P-wave duration. Furthermore, the linear combination of both metrics improved the diagnostic accuracy up to 88.07%, thus constituting a reliable noninvasive harbinger of PAF onset with a reasonable anticipation. The information provided by this methodology could be very useful in clinical practice either to optimize the antiarrhythmic treatment in patients at high-risk of PAF onset and to limit drug administration in low risk patients.
Proposed Aharonov-Casher interferometry of non-Abelian vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosfeld, Eytan; Seradjeh, Babak; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2011-03-01
We propose a two-path vortex interferometry experiment based on the Aharonov- Casher effect for detecting the non-Abelian nature of vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The effect is based on observing vortex interference patterns upon enclosing a finite charge of externally controllable magnitude within the interference path. We predict that when the interfering vortices enclose an odd number of identical vortices in their path, the interference pattern disappears only for non-Abelian vortices. When pairing involves two distinct spin species, we derive the mutual statistics between half quantum and full quantum vortices and show that, remarkably, our predictions still hold for the situation of a full quantum vortex enclosing a half quantum vortex in its path. We discuss the experimentally relevant conditions under which these effects can be observed. Work supported by ICMT at UIUC, NSERC of Canada, CAS fellowship at UIUC, and the U.S. Department of Energy.
Concu, Giovanna; De Nicolo, Barbara; Valdes, Monica
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic P-wave velocity as a feature for predicting some physical and mechanical properties that describe the behavior of local building limestone. To this end, both ultrasonic testing and compressive tests were carried out on several limestone specimens and statistical correlation between ultrasonic velocity and density, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity was studied. The effectiveness of ultrasonic velocity was evaluated by regression, with the aim of observing the coefficient of determination r(2) between ultrasonic velocity and the aforementioned parameters, and the mathematical expressions of the correlations were found and discussed. The strong relations that were established between ultrasonic velocity and limestone properties indicate that these parameters can be reasonably estimated by means of this nondestructive parameter. This may be of great value in a preliminary phase of the diagnosis and inspection of stone masonry conditions, especially when the possibility of sampling material cores is reduced.
Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of Mt. Etna, Italy
Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.M.; Filippi, L.; De Luca, G.; Scarpa, R.; Patane, G.; Vinciguerra, S.
1998-01-01
The three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of Mt. Etna is determined to depths of 15 km by tomographic inversion of first arrival times from local earthquakes recorded by a network of 29 permanent and temporary seismographs. Results show a near-vertical low-velocity zone that extends from beneath the central craters to a depth of 10 km. This low-velocity region is coincident with a band of steeply-dipping seismicity, suggesting a magmatic conduit that feeds the summit eruptions. The most prominent structure is an approximately 8-km-diameter high-velocity body located between 2 and 12 km depth below the southeast flank of the volcano. This high-velocity body is interpreted as a remnant mafic intrusion that is an important structural feature influencing both volcanism and east flank slope stability and faulting.
Magnetic-field effects on p-wave phase transition in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Jin, Yong-Yi; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Si-Yu; Wang, Cui
2014-07-01
In the probe limit, we study the holographic p-wave phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity via numerical and analytical methods. Concretely, we study the influences of the external magnetic field on the Maxwell complex vector model in the five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole and soliton backgrounds, respectively. For the two backgrounds, the results show that the magnetic field enhances the superconductor phase transition in the case of the lowest Landau level, while the increasing Gauss-Bonnet parameter always hinders the vector condensate. Moreover, the Maxwell complex vector model is a generalization of the SU(2) Yang-Mills model all the time. In addition, the analytical results backup the numerical results. Furthermore, this model might provide a holographic realization for the QCD vacuum instability.
Concu, Giovanna; De Nicolo, Barbara; Valdes, Monica
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic P-wave velocity as a feature for predicting some physical and mechanical properties that describe the behavior of local building limestone. To this end, both ultrasonic testing and compressive tests were carried out on several limestone specimens and statistical correlation between ultrasonic velocity and density, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity was studied. The effectiveness of ultrasonic velocity was evaluated by regression, with the aim of observing the coefficient of determination r2 between ultrasonic velocity and the aforementioned parameters, and the mathematical expressions of the correlations were found and discussed. The strong relations that were established between ultrasonic velocity and limestone properties indicate that these parameters can be reasonably estimated by means of this nondestructive parameter. This may be of great value in a preliminary phase of the diagnosis and inspection of stone masonry conditions, especially when the possibility of sampling material cores is reduced. PMID:24511286
Holographic phase transitions of p-wave superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with backreaction
Cai Ronggen; Nie Zhangyu; Zhang Haiqing
2011-03-15
We investigate the phase transitions of holographic p-wave superconductors in (4+1)-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet theories, in a grand canonical ensemble. Turning on the backreaction of the Yang-Mills field, it is found that the condensations of vector order parameter become harder if the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient grows up or the backreaction becomes stronger. In particular, the vector order parameter exhibits the features of first order and second order phase transitions, while only the second order phase transition is observed in the probe limit. We discuss the roles that the Gauss-Bonnet term and the backreaction play in changing the order of phase transition.
P-wave attenuation anisotropy in TI media and its application in fracture parameters inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yi-Yuan; Hu, Tian-Yue; He, Chuan; Tan, Yu-Yang
2016-12-01
The existence of aligned fractures in fluid-saturated rocks leads to obvious attenuation anisotropy and velocity anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy analysis can be applied to estimate fracture density and scale, which provide important information for reservoir identification. This paper derives P-wave attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media where the symmetry axis is in the arbitrary direction theoretically and modifies the spectral ratio method to measure attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media, thus avoiding a large measurement error when applied to wide azimuth or full azimuth data. Fracture dip and azimuth can be estimated through attenuation anisotropy analysis. For small-scale fractures, fracture scale and fracture density can be determined with enhanced convergence if velocity and attenuation information are both used. We also apply the modified spectralratio method to microseismic field data from an oilfield in East China and extract the fracture dip through attenuation anisotropy analysis. The result agrees with the microseismic monitoring.
Formation and Propagation of Love Waves in a Surface Layer with a P-Wave Source
1990-04-01
AD- A225 559 GL-TR-90-0100 Formation and Propagation of Love Waves in a Surface Layer with a P-Wave Source A. L. Florence S. A. Miller PTh FILE COP...describing outgoing waves is (p(r,t) = - f(s) s = t - (r- a)/ cr (27) In terms of the function f(s), the displacement, velocity, and stresses are cr r2...28) cr r2 (29) CyrpC2 - +2(1- 2,0) ’ + = 1 -1 (r2 (30) ce P21 - I -M I= I$ C(2r )x + ) (31) in which 1) is Poisson’s ratio. For a given cavity wall
Triplet p-wave pairing correlation in low-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Tianxing; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing
2017-02-01
We reveal an edge spin triplet p–wave superconducting pairing correlation in slightly doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons. By employing a method that combines random-phase approximation, the finite-temperature determinant quantum Monte Carlo approach, and the ground-state constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown that such a spin-triplet pairing is mediated by the ferromagnetic fluctuations caused by the flat band at the edge. The spin susceptibility and effective pairing interactions at the edge strongly increase as the on-site Coulomb interaction increases, indicating the importance of electron-electron correlations. It is also found that the doping-dependent ground-state p-wave pairing correlation bears some similarity to the famous superconducting dome in the phase diagram of a high-temperature superconductor, while the spin correlation at the edge is weakened as the system is doped away from half filling.
Triplet p-wave pairing correlation in low-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons
Ma, Tianxing; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing
2017-01-01
We reveal an edge spin triplet p–wave superconducting pairing correlation in slightly doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons. By employing a method that combines random-phase approximation, the finite-temperature determinant quantum Monte Carlo approach, and the ground-state constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown that such a spin-triplet pairing is mediated by the ferromagnetic fluctuations caused by the flat band at the edge. The spin susceptibility and effective pairing interactions at the edge strongly increase as the on-site Coulomb interaction increases, indicating the importance of electron-electron correlations. It is also found that the doping-dependent ground-state p-wave pairing correlation bears some similarity to the famous superconducting dome in the phase diagram of a high-temperature superconductor, while the spin correlation at the edge is weakened as the system is doped away from half filling. PMID:28186185
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil R.; Lumley, David
2017-01-01
We autocorrelate the continuously recorded seismic wavefield across a dense network of seismometers to map the P wave reflectivity response of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia. The proximity of this mega city to known active faults and the subduction of the Australian plate, especially when the predominance of masonry construction and thick sedimentary basin fill are considered, suggests that it is a hot spot for seismic risk. In order to understand the type of ground motion that earthquakes might cause in the basin, it is essential to obtain reliable information on its seismic velocity structure. The body wave reflections are sensitive to the sharp velocity contrasts, which makes them useful in seismic imaging. Results show autocorrelograms at different seismic stations with reflected-wave travel time variations, which reflect the variation in basement depth across the thick sedimentary basin. We also confirm the validity of the observed autocorrelation waveforms by conducting a 2-D full waveform modeling.
Minimum 1-D P-wave velocity reference model for Northern Iran
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezaeifar, Meysam; Diehl, Tobias; Kissling, Edi
2016-04-01
Uniform high-precision earthquake location is of importance in a seismically active area like northern Iran where the earthquake catalogue is a prerequisite for seismic hazard assessment and tectonic interpretation. We compile a complete and consistent local earthquake data set for the northern Iran region, using information from two independently operating seismological networks, Iran Seismological Center (IRSC) network, administered by the Geophysical Institute of Tehran University, and Iran Broadband network administered by International Institute of Engineering Earthquake and Seismology (IIEES). Special care is taken during the merging process to reduce the number of errors in the data, including station parameters, event pairing, phase identification, and to the assessment of quantitative observation uncertainties. The derived P-wave 1D-velocity model for Northern Iran may serve for consistent routine high-precision earthquake location and as initial reference model for 3D seismic tomography.
Spatial variations of P wave attenuation in the mantle beneath North America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Yong Keun; Ritsema, Jeroen; Goes, Saskia
2009-06-01
We estimate the spatial variation of the seismic parameter t* using teleseismic (epicentral distance = 30°-85°) P wave spectra of about 200 deep (focal depths > 200 km) earthquakes recorded by 378 broadband seismometers in the United States and Canada. Relative P wave spectral ratios up to 1 Hz for about 63,000 station pairs with high signal-to-noise ratio and impulsive P waveforms are inverted for t*P by least squares inversion. The continental-scale t*P pattern correlates to the age of geological terrains and the seismic, heat flow, gravity, and magnetic variations across North America. Predominantly low values of t*P are obtained in stable central North America (SNA), and high t*P values are obtained for stations in the tectonically active western part of the continent (TNA). This variation is similar to that observed previously in short-period amplitude anomalies, spectral ratio variations, and ScS reverberations. On average, we resolve a contrast in t*P between SNA and TNA of about 0.2 s. We resolve regional variations in t*P, which correlate with tectonics. Relatively low t*P is associated with currently active subduction below Alaska. Relatively high t*P is found in SNA below the Appalachians and the Gulf Coast. The consistency between t*P and tectonics suggests that the observed variations in t*P are, on the scale of around 200-500 km, predominantly due to intrinsic attenuation. The similar patterns in t*P and predicted values for a recent global attenuation model confirm this further. The compatibility with the t*P computed for attenuation estimated via a thermal interpretation of shear wave velocity anomalies illustrates that variations in seismic velocity are predominantly due to physical effects with a strong attenuation signature, most likely temperature or a combination of temperature and water content.
Regional P wave velocity structure of the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone
Ramachandran, K.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.
2006-01-01
This paper presents the first regional three-dimensional, P wave velocity model for the Northern Cascadia Subduction. Zone (SW British Columbia and NW Washington State) constructed through tomographic inversion of first-arrival traveltime data from active source experiments together with earthquake traveltime data recorded at permanent stations. The velocity model images the structure of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, megathrust, and the fore-arc crust and upper mantle. Beneath southern Vancouver Island the megathrust above the Juan de Fuca plate is characterized by a broad zone (25-35 km depth) having relatively low velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s. This relative low velocity zone coincides with the location of most of the episodic tremors recently mapped beneath Vancouver Island, and its low velocity may also partially reflect the presence of trapped fluids and sheared lower crustal rocks. The rocks of the Olympic Subduction Complex are inferred to deform aseismically as evidenced by the lack of earthquakes withi the low-velocity rocks. The fore-arc upper mantle beneath the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound is characterized by velocities of 7.2-7.6 km/s. Such low velocities represent regional serpentinization of the upper fore-arc mantle and provide evidence for slab dewatering and densification. Tertiary sedimentary basins in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Lowland imaged by the velocity model lie above the inferred region of slab dewatering and densification and may therefore partly result from a higher rate of slab sinking. In contrast, sedimentary basins in the Strait of Juan de Fuca lie in a synclinal depression in the Crescent Terrane. The correlation of in-slab earthquake hypocenters M>4 with P wave velocities greater than 7.8 km/s at the hypocenters suggests that they originate near the oceanic Moho of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
The consequence of measured porosities and clay contents on P-wave AVO for shaly sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Othman, Adel A. A.
2004-12-01
The modified AVO (amplitude versus offset) equations presented in Othman (2003 Tecnologia de la Intrusión de Agua de Mar en Acuifros Costeros: Paises Mediterráneos—Coastal Acquifer Intrusion Technology: Mediterranean Countries (Madrid: IGME) pp 295-302) are confirmed by application of our data. About 26 layers composed mainly of shales and sandstones encountered in an oil well in the Gulf of Suez are utilized in the present study. P-wave velocity, density, porosity and the clay content of these rocks are principal feedback parameters in this investigation. The attributes of the assessed AVO coefficient (Ra) are studied with reference to several parameter ratios in the AVO case. These ratios include the porosity ratio (phgr1/phgr2), Poisson's ratio (σ1/σ2), density ratio (ρ1/ρ2), clay content ratio (C1/C2) and P-wave velocity ratio (α1/α2). Subscripts 1 and 2 respectively refer to the upper and lower layers relative to the interface. The applied data reveal linear relationships between the velocity ratio, α1/α2, and the porosity ratio, phgr1/phgr2. α1/α2 is found to decrease with increasing phgr1/phgr2. The clay content ratio C1/C2 increases linearly with increasing phgr1/phgr2 as well as with increasing Poisson's ratio, σ1/σ2. The density ratio, ρ1/ρ2, demonstrates a weak decrease proportional to phgr1/phgr2. Ra generally increases with increasing phgr1/phgr2, C1/C2 and σ1/σ2. On the other hand, Ra decreases with increasing ρ1/ρ2 and α1/α2. These relations are valid for the offset condition according to our data.
Pseudo 3-D P wave refraction seismic monitoring of permafrost in steep unstable bedrock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krautblatter, Michael; Draebing, Daniel
2014-02-01
permafrost in steep rock walls can cause hazardous rock creep and rock slope failure. Spatial and temporal patterns of permafrost degradation that operate at the scale of instability are complex and poorly understood. For the first time, we used P wave seismic refraction tomography (SRT) to monitor the degradation of permafrost in steep rock walls. A 2.5-D survey with five 80 m long parallel transects was installed across an unstable steep NE-SW facing crestline in the Matter Valley, Switzerland. P wave velocity was calibrated in the laboratory for water-saturated low-porosity paragneiss samples between 20°C and -5°C and increases significantly along and perpendicular to the cleavage by 0.55-0.66 km/s (10-13%) and 2.4-2.7 km/s (>100%), respectively, when freezing. Seismic refraction is, thus, technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity rocks that constitute steep rock walls. Ray densities up to 100 and more delimit the boundary between unfrozen and frozen bedrock and facilitate accurate active layer positioning. SRT shows monthly (August and September 2006) and annual active layer dynamics (August 2006 and 2007) and reveals a contiguous permafrost body below the NE face with annual changes of active layer depth from 2 to 10 m. Large ice-filled fractures, lateral onfreezing of glacierets, and a persistent snow cornice cause previously unreported permafrost patterns close to the surface and along the crestline which correspond to active seasonal rock displacements up to several mm/a. SRT provides a geometrically highly resolved subsurface monitoring of active layer dynamics in steep permafrost rocks at the scale of instability.
Finite-fault source inversion using teleseismic P waves: Simple parameterization and rapid analysis
Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.
2013-01-01
We examine the ability of teleseismic P waves to provide a timely image of the rupture history for large earthquakes using a simple, 2D finite‐fault source parameterization. We analyze the broadband displacement waveforms recorded for the 2010 Mw∼7 Darfield (New Zealand) and El Mayor‐Cucapah (Baja California) earthquakes using a single planar fault with a fixed rake. Both of these earthquakes were observed to have complicated fault geometries following detailed source studies conducted by other investigators using various data types. Our kinematic, finite‐fault analysis of the events yields rupture models that similarly identify the principal areas of large coseismic slip along the fault. The results also indicate that the amount of stabilization required to spatially smooth the slip across the fault and minimize the seismic moment is related to the amplitudes of the observed P waveforms and can be estimated from the absolute values of the elements of the coefficient matrix. This empirical relationship persists for earthquakes of different magnitudes and is consistent with the stabilization constraint obtained from the L‐curve in Tikhonov regularization. We use the relation to estimate the smoothing parameters for the 2011 Mw 7.1 East Turkey, 2012 Mw 8.6 Northern Sumatra, and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes and invert the teleseismic P waves in a single step to recover timely, preliminary slip models that identify the principal source features observed in finite‐fault solutions obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) from the analysis of body‐ and surface‐wave data. These results indicate that smoothing constraints can be estimated a priori to derive a preliminary, first‐order image of the coseismic slip using teleseismic records.
Xiao, Qiang; Li, Yuanmin; Guo, Huimei; Zhang, Ge
2015-01-01
Although red cell distribution width (RDW) and P-wave dispersion (Pwd) are strong independent predictors of atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATa), the association between these two factors in the occurrence of ATA has hitherto not been reported. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of ATa patients who underwent Holter monitoring at our hospital from October 2013 to August 2014. Clinical data including RDW and color doppler ultrasonography data were collected, and Pwd was calculated from synchronous recording of P-wave intervals of 12-lead electrocardiograms. Patients were categorized into three groups in ascending order of RDW values. Between-group comparisons yielded significant differences in Pwd, left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDD), and left atrial diameter (LAD; P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the RDW level positively correlated with the Kleiger grade of atrial arrhythmia (r = 0.280, P < 0.001), Pwd (r = 0.148, P = 0.001), and LAD (r = 0.297, P < 0.001); Pwd positively correlated with the Kleiger grade of atrial arrhythmia (r = 0.257, P < 0.001), aortic root diameter (r = 0.143, P < 0.002), and LAD (r = 0.201, P < 0.001). Binary logistic multiple regression analysis with ATa as the dependent variable revealed that Pwd [odds ratio (OR) = 1.024], RDW [OR = 1.215], and aortic root diameter [OR = 1.030] were significant risk factors for ATa occurrence. This is the first study to establish a correlation between RDW and Pwd in the occurrence of ATa; however, further prospective studies using large cohorts are required to validate the correlation. PMID:26221382
Noncommutativity Parameter and Composite Fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jellal, Ahmed
We determine some particular values of the noncommutativity parameter θ and show that the Murthy Shankar approach is in fact a particular case of a more general one. Indeed, using the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) experimental data, we give a measurement of θ. This measurement can be obtained by considering some values of the filling factor ν and other ingredients, magnetic field B and electron density ρ. Moreover, it is found that θ can be quantized either fractionally or integrally in terms of the magnetic length l0 and the quantization is exactly what Murthy and Shankar formulated recently for the FQHE. On the other hand, we show that the mapping of the FQHE in terms of the composite fermion basis has a noncommutative geometry nature and therefore there is a more general way than the Murthy Shankar method to do this mapping.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Brito, K. P. S.; da Rocha, Roldão
2016-10-01
The spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified according to the geometric Fierz identities, which involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification, which generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are hence found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish the realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of a 5-dimensional Kerr black hole. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at spatial infinity through a current 1-form density, constructed with the new derived spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the fünfbein component, assuming a condensed form.
Flavor symmetries and fermion masses
Rasin, Andrija
1994-04-01
We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V_{ub}/V_{cb} = √m_{u}/m_{c} and V_{td}/V_{ts} = √m_{d}/m_{s}, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanβ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.
Instantons and Massless Fermions in Two Dimensions
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Callan, C. G. Jr.; Dashen, R.; Gross, D. J.
1977-05-01
The role of instantons in the breakdown of chiral U(N) symmetry is studied in a two dimensional model. Chiral U(1) is always destroyed by the axial vector anomaly. For N = 2 chiral SU(N) is also spontaneously broken yielding massive fermions and three (decoupled) Goldstone bosons. For N greater than or equal to 3 the fermions remain massless. Realistic four dimensional theories are believed to behave in a similar way but the critical N above which the fermions cease to be massive is not known in four dimensions.
Fermion localization on a split brane
Chumbes, A. E. R.; Vasquez, A. E. O.; Hott, M. B.
2011-05-15
In this work we analyze the localization of fermions on a brane embedded in five-dimensional, warped and nonwarped, space-time. In both cases we use the same nonlinear theoretical model with a nonpolynomial potential featuring a self-interacting scalar field whose minimum energy solution is a soliton (a kink) which can be continuously deformed into a two-kink. Thus a single brane splits into two branes. The behavior of spin 1/2 fermions wave functions on the split brane depends on the coupling of fermions to the scalar field and on the geometry of the space-time.
Entanglement in fermion systems and quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.; Marzolino, U.
2014-03-01
Entanglement in fermion many-body systems is studied using a generalized definition of separability based on partitions of the set of observables, rather than on particle tensor products. In this way, the characterizing properties of nonseparable fermion states can be explicitly analyzed, allowing a precise description of the geometric structure of the corresponding state space. These results have direct applications in fermion quantum metrology: Sub-shot-noise accuracy in parameter estimation can be obtained without the need of a preliminary state entangling operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Sheldon; Dutta, Bhaskar
2011-10-01
We present a formalism for estimating the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays produced by dark matter annihilating with any general velocity-dependent cross section. The relevant density and velocity distribution of dark matter is modeled as an ensemble of smooth, universal, rigid, disjoint, spherical halos with distribution and universal properties constrained by simulation data. We apply this formalism to theories of dark matter with p-wave annihilation, for which the relative-velocity-weighted annihilation cross section is σv=a+bv2. We determine that this significantly increases the gamma-ray power if b/a≳106. The effect of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum is very similar for the sample of particle physics models we explored, suggesting that the important effect for a given b/a is largely determined by the cosmic dark matter distribution. If the dark matter relic from strong p-wave theories is thermally produced, the intensities of annihilation gamma-rays are strongly p-wave suppressed, making them difficult to observe. If an angular power spectrum consistent with a strong p wave were to be observed, it would likely indicate nonthermal production of dark matter in the early Universe.
Ucak, Alper; Temizkan, Veysel; Ugur, Murat; Selcuk, Arif; Yilmaz, Ahmet Turan; Yedekci, Ahmet Erturk; Uz, Omer
2016-01-01
Summary Introduction: In this study we compared the effects of two different surgical procedures for closure of adult atrial septal defect (ASD) on postoperative P-wave changes. Methods: Patients who underwent cardiac surgery for secundum type ASD closure were evaluated retrospectively. Seventy-two patients with primary repair of ASD and 29 patients with pericardial patch plasty repair were compared according to Pmax, Pmin and P-wave dispersions (Pd). Results: In each group, the increases in postoperative maximum P-wave duration (Pmax) and minimum P-wave duration (Pmin) were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between post- and pre-operative Pd values. In the comparison between group 1 and group 2 in terms of postoperative P-wave changes (Pmax, Pmin, Pd) there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Comparing patch plasty and primary repair for the surgical closure of ASD in the early to mid-postoperative period, no difference was found and both surgical procedures can be performed in adult ASDs. PMID:27149297
Two-dimensional fermionic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with massless Dirac fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, M. A.; Leuenberger, Michael N.
2014-08-01
We propose a two-dimensional Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) type interference experiment for massless Dirac fermions in graphene and 3D topological insulators. Since massless Dirac fermions exhibit linear dispersion, similar to photons in vacuum, they can be used to obtain the HOM interference intensity pattern as a function of the delay time between two massless Dirac fermions. We show that while the Coulomb interaction leads to a significant change in the angle dependence of the tunneling of two identical massless Dirac fermions incident from opposite sides of a potential barrier, it does not affect the HOM interference pattern. We apply our formalism to develop a massless Dirac fermion beam splitter (BS) for controlling the transmission and reflection coefficients. We calculate the resulting time-resolved correlation function for two identical massless Dirac fermions scattering off the BS.
Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh
2007-07-06
In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.
Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh
2007-07-06
In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.
Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh
2007-06-06
In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.
Muon spin relaxation in the heavy fermion system UPt sub 3
Luke, G.M.; Le, L.P.; Sternlieb, B.J.; Wu, W.D.; Uemura, Y.J. ); Dalichaouch, Y.; Lee, B.W.; Maple, M.B.; Seaman, C.L. . Dept. of Physics Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California ); Armstrong, P.E.; Ellis, R.W.; Fisk, Z. )
1991-11-15
We report muon spin rotation/relaxation ({mu}SR) measurements of the heavy fermion superconductor UPt{sub 3} in external fields {ital H}{sub ext}{parallel}{ital {cflx c}}. We find that the muon Knight shift is unchanged in the superconducting state, consistent with odd-parity pairing (such as {ital p} wave). The transverse field relaxation is observed to be strongly field dependent, decreasing with increasing field. Below {ital T}{sub {ital c}} the increase is barely detectable in an applied field of 4 kG{parallel}{ital {cflx c}}. On the basis of the high field measurements, we estimate the low temperature penetration depth to be {lambda}({ital T}{r arrow}0){ge} (R18)11 000 A.
Pairing of j=3/2 Fermions in Half-Heusler Superconductors.
Brydon, P M R; Wang, Limin; Weinert, M; Agterberg, D F
2016-04-29
We theoretically consider the superconductivity of the topological half-Heusler semimetals YPtBi and LuPtBi. We show that pairing occurs between j=3/2 fermion states, which leads to qualitative differences from the conventional theory of pairing between j=1/2 states. In particular, this permits Cooper pairs with quintet or septet total angular momentum, in addition to the usual singlet and triplet states. Purely on-site interactions can generate s-wave quintet time-reversal symmetry-breaking states with topologically nontrivial point or line nodes. These local s-wave quintet pairs reveal themselves as d-wave states in momentum space. Furthermore, due to the broken inversion symmetry in these materials, the s-wave singlet state can mix with a p-wave septet state, again with topologically stable line nodes. Our analysis lays the foundation for understanding the unconventional superconductivity of the half-Heuslers.
General form of the boson-fermion interaction in the interacting boson-fermion model-2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matus, F. A.; Barea, J.
2017-03-01
The boson-fermion interaction in the interacting boson-fermion model-2 (IBFM-2) is derived in a systematic and general form from a quadrupole-quadrupole force using several nondegenerate levels. The boson-fermion quadrupole operator employed is obtained from the boson-fermion image of the one nucleon transfer operator which in turn can be calculated following two alternative schemes: the Otsuka-Arima-Iachello and generalized Holstein-Primakoff schemes. Four different terms (two quadrupole and two exchange) were obtained. Application of the new expressions to a single-j model is studied and analyzed.
Di Bernardo, A.; Millo, O.; Barbone, M.; Alpern, H.; Kalcheim, Y.; Sassi, U.; Ott, A. K.; De Fazio, D.; Yoon, D.; Amado, M.; Ferrari, A. C.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.
2017-01-01
Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K. PMID:28102222
Di Bernardo, A; Millo, O; Barbone, M; Alpern, H; Kalcheim, Y; Sassi, U; Ott, A K; De Fazio, D; Yoon, D; Amado, M; Ferrari, A C; Linder, J; Robinson, J W A
2017-01-19
Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K.
Impurity effect on Kramer-Pesch core shrinkage in s-wave vortex and chiral p-wave vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Kato, Yusuke; Sigrist, Manfred
2005-04-01
The low-temperature shrinking of the vortex core (Kramer-Pesch effect) is studied for an isolated single vortex for chiral p-wave and s-wave superconducting phases. The effect of nonmagnetic impurities on the vortex core radius is numerically investigated in the Born limit by means of a quasiclassical approach. It is shown that in the chiral p-wave phase the Kramer-Pesch effect displays a certain robustness against impurities owing to a specific quantum effect, while the s-wave phase reacts more sensitively to impurity scattering. This suggests chiral p-wave superconductors as promising candidates for the experimental observation of the Kramer-Pesch effect.
Madias, John E
2013-01-01
Multiple pathologies in concert may lead to attenuation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) voltage. A case of a patient illustrating the above is presented, who showed marked attenuation of the ECG voltage. Automated values of the amplitude of the ECG QRS complexes, P-waves, and T-waves (in mm), duration of the QRS complexes, P-waves, and QT intervals (in ms), in 2 ECGs were compared. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who developed in the setting of a fatal illness, pleural and pericardial effusions, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, subcutaneous emphysema in the neck and chest, peripheral edema with weight gain of 43.4 lbs, marked hypoalbuminemia, abnormal liver tests, and renal failure. All the above pathologies led to a marked attenuation of the ECG voltage, and shortening of the mean P-wave, QRS complexes, and QTc interval durations. The postulated mechanism of the observed ECG phenomena is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Bernardo, A.; Millo, O.; Barbone, M.; Alpern, H.; Kalcheim, Y.; Sassi, U.; Ott, A. K.; de Fazio, D.; Yoon, D.; Amado, M.; Ferrari, A. C.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.
2017-01-01
Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K.
Magnetic-field-induced topological reorganization of a p -wave superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercaldo, Maria Teresa; Cuoco, Mario; Kotetes, Panagiotis
2016-10-01
In this work, we illustrate the detrimental impact of the Cooper pair's spin structure on the thermodynamic and topological properties of a spin-triplet superconductor in an applied Zeeman field. We particularly focus on the paradigmatic one-dimensional case (Kitaev chain) for which we self-consistently retrieve the energetically preferred Cooper pair spin state in terms of the corresponding spin d vector. The latter undergoes a substantial angular and amplitude reorganization upon the variation of the strength and the orientation of the field and results to a modification of the bulk topological phase diagram. Markedly, when addressing the open chain we find that the orientation of the d vector varies spatially near the boundary, affecting in this manner the appearance of Majorana fermions at the edge or even altering the properties of the bulk region. Our analysis reveals the limitations and breakdown of the bulk-boundary correspondence in interacting topological systems.
Thermostatistics of bosonic and fermionic Fibonacci oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Algin, Abdullah; Arik, Metin; Senay, Mustafa; Topcu, Gozde
2017-01-01
In this work, we first introduce some new properties concerning the Fibonacci calculus. We then discuss the thermostatistics of gas models of two-parameter deformed oscillators, called bosonic and fermionic Fibonacci oscillators, in the thermodynamical limit. In this framework, we analyze the behavior of two-parameter deformed mean occupation numbers describing the Fibonacci-type bosonic and fermionic intermediate-statistics particles. A virial expansion of the equation of state for the bosonic Fibonacci oscillators’ gas model is obtained in both two and three dimensions, and the first five virial coefficients are derived in terms of the real independent deformation parameters p and q. The effect of bosonic and fermionic p, q-deformation on the thermostatistical properties of Fibonacci-type p, q-boson and p, q-fermion gas models are also discussed. The results obtained in this work can be useful for investigating some exotic quasiparticle states encountered in condensed matter systems.
Majorana Fermions and Topology in Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Satoshi
2016-07-01
Topological superconductors are novel classes of quantum condensed phases, characterized by topologically nontrivial structures of Cooper pairing states. On the surfaces of samples and in vortex cores of topological superconductors, Majorana fermions, which are particles identified with their own anti-particles, appear as Bogoliubov quasiparticles. The existence and stability of Majorana fermions are ensured by bulk topological invariants constrained by the symmetries of the systems. Majorana fermions in topological superconductors obey a new type of quantum statistics referred to as non-Abelian statistics, which is distinct from bose and fermi statistics, and can be utilized for application to topological quantum computation. Also, Majorana fermions give rise to various exotic phenomena such as "fractionalization", non-local correlation, and "teleportation". A pedagogical review of these subjects is presented. We also discuss interaction effects on topological classification of superconductors, and the basic properties of Weyl superconductors.
Bilinear forms on fermionic Novikov algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhiqi; Zhu, Fuhai
2007-05-01
Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. Fermionic Novikov algebras correspond to a certain Hamiltonian super-operator in a super-variable. In this paper, we show that there is a remarkable geometry on fermionic Novikov algebras with non-degenerate invariant symmetric bilinear forms, which we call pseudo-Riemannian fermionic Novikov algebras. They are related to pseudo-Riemannian Lie algebras. Furthermore, we obtain a procedure to classify pseudo-Riemannian fermionic Novikov algebras. As an application, we give the classification in dimension <=4. Motivated by the one in dimension 4, we construct some examples in high dimensions.
Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity.
Meibohm, J; Pawlowski, J M
2016-01-01
We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions.
Quantum-Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Bakr, Waseem S.; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2015-05-01
We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic 40K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement.
Fermionic Orbital Optimization in Tensor Network States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krumnow, C.; Veis, L.; Legeza, Ö.; Eisert, J.
2016-11-01
Tensor network states and specifically matrix-product states have proven to be a powerful tool for simulating ground states of strongly correlated spin models. Recently, they have also been applied to interacting fermionic problems, specifically in the context of quantum chemistry. A new freedom arising in such nonlocal fermionic systems is the choice of orbitals, it being far from clear what choice of fermionic orbitals to make. In this Letter, we propose a way to overcome this challenge. We suggest a method intertwining the optimization over matrix product states with suitable fermionic Gaussian mode transformations. The described algorithm generalizes basis changes in the spirit of the Hartree-Fock method to matrix-product states, and provides a black box tool for basis optimization in tensor network methods.
Two-photon interactions with Majorana fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latimer, David C.
2016-11-01
Because Majorana fermions are their own antiparticles, their electric and magnetic dipole moments must vanish, leaving the anapole moment as their only static electromagnetic property. But the existence of induced dipole moments is not necessarily prohibited. Through a study of real Compton scattering, we explore the constraints that the Majorana fermion's self-conjugate nature has on induced moments. In terms of the Compton amplitude, we find no constraints if the interactions are separately invariant under charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal. However, if the interactions are odd under parity and even under time reversal, then these contributions to the Compton amplitude must vanish. We employ a simple model to confirm these general findings via explicit calculation of the Majorana fermion's polarizabilities. We then use these polarizabilities to estimate the cross section for s -wave annihilation of two Majorana fermions into photons. The cross section is larger than a naive estimate might suggest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Fujii, T.; Nagao, J.
2014-12-01
P-wave velocity is an important parameter to estimate gas hydrate saturation in sediments. In this study, the relationship between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity have been analyzed using natural hydrate-bearing-sediments obtained in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The sediment samples were collected by the Hybrid Pressure Coring System developed by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology during June-July 2012, aboard the deep sea drilling vessel CHIKYU. P-wave velocity was measured on board by the Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System developed by Geotek Ltd. The samples were maintained at a near in-situ pressure condition during coring and measurement. After the measurement, the samples were stored core storage chambers and transported to MHRC under pressure. The samples were manipulated and cut by the Pressure-core Non-destructive Analysis Tools or PNATs developed by MHRC. The cutting sections were determined on the basis of P-wave velocity and visual observations through an acrylic window equipped in the PNATs. The cut samples were depressurized to measure gas volume for saturation calculations. It was found that P-wave velocity correlates well with hydrate saturation and can be reproduced by the hydrate frame component model. Using pressure cores and pressure core analysis technology, nondestructive and near in-situ correlation between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity can be obtained. This study was supported by funding from the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan.
Identifying seismic noise sources and their amplitude from P wave microseisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neale, Jennifer; Harmon, Nicholas; Srokosz, Meric
2016-04-01
Understanding sources of seismic noise is important for a range of applications including seismic imagery, time-lapse, and climate studies. For locating sources from seismic data, body waves offer an advantage over surface waves because they can reveal the distance to the source as well as direction. Studies have found that body waves do originate from regions predicted by models (Obrebski et al., 2013), where wave interaction intensity and site effect combine to produce the source (Ardhuin & Herbers, 2013). Here, we undertake a quantitative comparison between observed body wave microseisms and modelled sources- in terms of location, amplitude, and spectral shape- with the aim of understanding how well sources are observed and potentially what they reveal about the underlying ocean wavefield. We used seismic stations from the Southern California Seismic Network, and computed beamformer output as a function of time, frequency, slowness and azimuth. During winter months (October - mid March) the dominant arrivals at frequencies 0.18-0.22 Hz were P waves that originated from the North Pacific, whilst arrivals from the North Atlantic dominated at slightly lower frequencies of 0.16-0.18 Hz. Based on this, we chose to focus on P waves during winter, and back-projected the beamformer energy onto a global grid using P wave travel timetables (following Gerstoft et al., 2008). We modelled the seismic sources using Wavewatch III and site effect coefficients calculated following Ardhuin and Herbers (2013). We output the beamformer and the modelled sources on a 2° global grid averaged over 6 hour periods from September 2012 to September 2014, at seismic frequencies of 0.06 to 0.3 Hz. We then integrated the spectra over the full frequency range. Here we focus on results from the first winter in the North Pacific. Preliminary results indicate that the logarithm of the modelled source and the logarithm of the beamformer output are well described by a two-term exponential model
The physics and chemistry of heavy fermions.
Fisk, Z; Sarrao, J L; Smith, J L; Thompson, J D
1995-01-01
The heavy fermions are a subset of the f-electron intermetallic compounds straddling the magnetic/nonmagnetic boundary. Their low-temperature properties are characterized by an electronic energy scale of order 1-10 K. Among the low-temperature ground states observed in heavy fermion compounds are exotic superconductors and magnets, as well as unusual semiconductors. We review here the current experimental and theoretical understanding of these systems. PMID:11607558
Evolution of boson-fermion stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdez-Alvarado, Susana; Palenzuela, Carlos; Alic, Daniela; Ureña-López, L. Arturo; Becerril, Ricardo
2012-08-01
The boson-fermion stars can be modeled with a complex scalar field coupled minimally to a perfect fluid (i.e., without viscosity and non-dissipative). We present a study of these solutions and their dynamical evolution by solving numerically the Einstein-Klein-Gordon-Hydrodynamic (EKGHD) system. It is shown that stable configurations exist, but stability of general configurations depends finely upon the number of bosons and fermions.
Canonical approach to Ginsparg-Wilson fermions
Matsui, Kosuke; Okamoto, Tomohito; Fujiwara, Takanori
2005-06-01
Based upon the lattice Dirac operator satisfying the Ginsparg-Wilson relation, we investigate canonical formulation of massless fermion on the spatial lattice. For free fermion system exact chiral symmetry can be implemented without species doubling. In the presence of gauge couplings the chiral symmetry is violated. We show that the divergence of the axial vector current is related to the chiral anomaly in the classical continuum limit.
Inhomogeneous state of few-fermion superfluids.
Bugnion, P O; Lofthouse, J A; Conduit, G J
2013-07-26
The few-fermion atomic gas is an ideal setting to explore inhomogeneous superfluid pairing analogous to the Larkin-Ovchinnikov state. Two up and one down-spin atom is the minimal configuration that displays an inhomogeneous pairing density, whereas imbalanced systems containing more fermions present a more complex pairing topology. With more than eight atoms trapped the system approaches the macroscopic superfluid limit. An oblate trap with a central barrier offers a direct experimental probe of pairing inhomogeneity.
Are high p-wave velocity sediments on thin Tethyan crust, deep-water carbonates?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutscher, Marc-Andre; Graindorge, David; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Dellong, David; Kopp, Heidrun; Sallares, Valenti; Bartolome, Rafael; Gallais, Flora
2016-04-01
Seismic reflection profiles from the Central Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz regions indicate the widespread presence of a seismic unit, marked by strong continuous reflectors, directly overlying the basement. Seismic velocity analysis from seismic reflection and refraction studies indicate high p-wave velocities of 3.5 - 4.5 km/s in this layer. These same seismic studies image a thin crust, typically 6-9 km thick, in most cases thought to be oceanic in nature and related to the Tethys oceanic domain separating Africa (Gondwana) from Laurussia. We interpret this 2-3 km thick reflective layer to be carbonates, deposited in the late Triassic, Jurassic and early Cretaceous in the Tethys Ocean, in deep marine basins. Few drilling studies have penetrated into this layer. In one case (DSDP site 135, drilled at 4152 m water depth on Coral Patch Ridge in the western Gulf of Cadiz), Aptian (early Cretaceous) marls and limestone were drilled (560-689 m sub-seafloor depth). The Calcite compensation depth during the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous was about 4000 m to 3500 m according to compilations from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and is consistent with deposition of deep-water carbonates. For the NW Moroccan margin (Mazagan transect near El Jadida) there is a 2 km thick sedimentary layer with p-wave velocities of 4.0 - 4.5 km/s at the base of a 4 - 6 km thick sedimentary section. This layer extends from seafloor thought to be oceanic crust (west of the West African Coast magnetic anomaly) across a domain of thin/transitional crust with abundant Triassic salt diapirs to the foot of the margin. This reflective basal layer is also observed in reflection and refraction profiles from the Seine abyssal plain, below the toe of the Cadiz accretionary wedge (S. Algarve margin), in the Ionian abyssal plain and below the toe of the Calabrian accretionary wedge, all regions floored by this thin Tethyan crust. Work is in progress to determine the exact nature of this crust.
Hu, Xiaoliang; Jiang, Jingzhou; Ma, Yuedong; Tang, Anli
2016-01-01
Background Circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) is a widely used treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Several P wave duration (PWD) parameters have been suggested to predict post-ablation recurrence, but their use remains controversial. This study aimed to identify novel P wave indices that predict post-ablation AF recurrence. Material/Methods We selected 171 consecutive patients undergoing CPVI for paroxysmal AF. Electrocardiography (ECG) recordings were obtained at the beginning and the end of ablation. PWD was measured in all 12 leads. The PWD variation was calculated by subtracting the pre-ablation PWD from the post-ablation PWD. Results PWD was significantly shortened in leads II, III, aVF, and V1 after ablation. During a mean follow-up of 19.96±4.32 months, AF recurrence occurred in 32 (18.7%) patients. No significant differences in baseline characteristics or pre- or post-ablation PWD were observed between the AF recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Patients with AF recurrence exhibited a smaller PWD variation in leads II (1.21(−0.56, 2.40) vs. −5.77(−9.10, −4.06) ms, P<0.001), III (−5.92(−9.87, 3.27) vs. −9.44(−11.89, −5.57) ms, P=0.001) and V1 (−4.43(−6.64, −3.13) vs. −6.33(−8.19,−4.59) ms, P=0.003). Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that smaller PWD variations in lead II and III were independent risk factors for AF recurrence. PWD variation ≥−2.21 ms in lead II displayed the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (85.29% and 83.94%, respectively) for predicting post-ablation AF recurrence. A PWD variation ≥0 ms displayed the best practical value in predicting AF recurrence. Conclusions PWD variation in lead II is an effective predictor of post-ablation AF recurrence. PMID:27450644
P wave velocity of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Asia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyblade, Andrew A.; Vogfjord, Kristin S.; Langston, Charles A.
1996-05-01
P wave velocity structure of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Africa was investigated by forward modeling of Pnl waveforms from four moderate size earthquakes. The source-receiver path of one event crosses central Africa and lies outside the African superswell while the source-receiver paths for the other events cross Proterozoic lithosphere within southern Africa, inside the African superswell. Three observables (Pn waveshape, PL-Pn time, and Pn/PL amplitude ratio) from the Pnl waveform were used to constrain upper mantle velocity models in a grid search procedure. For central Africa, synthetic seismograms were computed for 5880 upper mantle models using the generalized ray method and wavenumber integration; synthetic seismograms for 216 models were computed for southern Africa. Successful models were taken as those whose synthetic seismograms had similar waveshapes to the observed waveforms, as well as PL-Pn times within 3 s of the observed times and Pn/PL amplitude ratios within 30% of the observed ratio. Successful models for central Africa yield a range of uppermost mantle velocity between 7.9 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 8.3 and 8.5 km s-1 at a depth of 200 km, and velocity gradients that are constant or slightly positive. For southern Africa, successful models yield uppermost mantle velocities between 8.1 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 7.9 and 8.4 km s-1 at a depth of 130 km, and velocity gradients between -0.001 and 0.001 s-1. Because velocity gradients are controlled strongly by structure at the bottoming depths for Pn waves, it is not easy to compare the velocity gradients obtained for central and southern Africa. For central Africa, Pn waves turn at depths of about 150-200 km, whereas for southern Africa they bottom at ˜100-150 km depth. With regard to the origin of the African superswell, our results do not have sufficient resolution to test hypotheses that invoke simple lithospheric reheating. However, our models are not
Segmented African Lithosphere Beneath Anatolia Imaged by Teleseismic P-Wave Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biryol, Cemal; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan; Ozacar, Atilla
2010-05-01
Anatolia, a part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, is shaped by a variety of complex tectonic processes that define the major tectonic provinces across which different deformation regimes exist. Collision related plateau formation dominates the present lithospheric deformation to the east and slab roll-back related back-arc extension takes place in the west. The two zones are connected at the northern part of the region by strike-slip faulting along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault Zone. Recent seismological studies show that the Eastern Anatolian Plateau (EAP) is supported by hot asthenosphereric material that was emplaced beneath the plateau following the detachment of subducted Arabian lithosphere. The westward continuation of the deeper structure of Anatolia was previously less well constrained due to the lack of geophysical observations. In order to study the deeper lithosphere and mantle structure beneath Anatolia, we used teleseismic P-wave tomography and data from several temporary and permanent seismic networks deployed in the region. A major part of the data comes from the North Anatolian Fault passive seismic experiment (NAF) that consists of 39 broadband seismic stations operated at the north central part of Anatolia between 2005 and 2008. We also used data collected from permanent seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) and stations from the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE). Approximately 34,000 P-wave travel time residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, are inverted using approximate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. Our tomograms reveal a fast anomaly that corresponds to the subducted portion of the African lithosphere along the Cyprean Arc. This fast anomaly dips northward beneath central Anatolia with an angle of approximately 45 degrees. However, the anomaly disappears rather sharply to the east beneath the western margin of the EAP and to the west beneath the Isparta Angle. The western
Finite Frequency Measurements of Conventional and Core-diffracted P-waves (P and Pdiff)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, K.; Sigloch, K.; Stähler, S. C.
2014-12-01
Core-diffracted waves are body waves that dive deep enough to sense the core, and by interaction with this wave guide become dispersive. They sample the core-mantle boundary and the lower third of the mantle extensively. In ray theoretical modeling, the deepest part of the ray starts to graze the core at around 97 degrees distance, but ray theory is a very poor approximation to propagation of core-diffracted waves. In reality, finite-frequency waves with their spatially extend sensitivity regions start to sense the core at significantly smaller distances already. The actual, non-ray-like sensitivities have been difficult to model, as have been the associated synthetic seismograms. Core-diffracted waves have therefore not been used in tomography, despite abundant observations of these phases on modern broadband seismograms. Hence current global body-wave tomographies illuminate the lower third of the mantle much less well than the upper and especially the middle third. This study aims for broadband, global waveform tomography that seamlessly incorporates core-diffracted phases alongside conventional, teleseismic waves as well as regional body-waves. Here, we investigate the properties of P-diffracted waves in terms of waveform characteristics and travel-time measurements as compared to teleseismic P-wave measured by the same methods. Travel time anomalies, the primary data for tomography, are measured by waveform cross-correlation of data with synthetics, where the synthetics are calculated from fully numerical wave propagation in a spherically symmetric background model. These same numerical tools will be used to calculate the associated sensitivity kernels for tomography (figure, top). Demonstrating the extent to which waveform modeling can fit real data, we assemble and discuss a global data set of 851,905 Pdiff and 2,368,452 P-wave multi-frequency cross-correlation travel times. Findings are summarized in the Pdiff travel time map (figure, bottom) in which most
Mariscope: Observing P Waves (and much more) Everywhere in the Oceans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolet, G.; Hello, Y.; Bonnieux, S.; Sukhovich, A.; Simons, F. J.
2014-12-01
The lack of stations on islands or the ocean bottom deprives seismic tomographers of almost 2/3 of the information potentially available for global seismic tomography. The "Mermaid", developed at Geoazur, is an underwater seismograph, based on a TWR Apex float. P wave signals are automatically identified and transmitted using the detection algorithm from Sukhovich et al. (GRL, 2011), GPS is used to locate the sensor at the time of transmission. We have studied the performance of Mermaids under different noise conditions in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean and most recently near the Galapagos islands and will show a selection of observations. In the Mediterranean, we regularly detect P waves at teleseismic distances of earthquakes with magnitude 6, occasionally below that. Local and regional earthquakes of much lower magnitude, such as a M 4.9 earthquake near Barcelonette (figure), yield seismograms with a high signal to noise ratio.In the much noisier environment of the Indian Ocean the threshold for useful seismograms is close to magnitude 6.5. Yet we were also able to record 235 low magnitude events when a Mermaid was close to a swarm near the Indian Ocean triple junction, with the lowest magnitude estimated to be 2.1; this sequence also enabled us to put an upper limit of about 250 m to the error in sensor location at the time of recording. Preliminary data from the Galapagos indicate low noise conditions similar to those in the Mediterranean, with good recordings of events in the magnitude 5 range.A new prototype of a spherical "MultiMermaid" is currently being tested. It allows for multidisciplinary observations (seismic and kHz acoustics, magnetic field, temperature, bathymetry) and will function about five years with lithium batteries. A global deployment of such instruments in a five-year program is affordable: project MariScope aims for at least 300 floating seismometers in the world's oceans. At the time of writing of this abstract, a proposal is being
P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder
Izci, Filiz; Hocagil, Hilal; Izci, Servet; Izci, Vedat; Koc, Merve Iris; Acar, Rezzan Deniz
2015-01-01
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd), which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD). Patients and methods A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist. Results There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, P<0.001) and Beck Depression Scale scores (11.24±6.15 and 6.58±5.69, respectively, P<0.01) were significantly higher in CD patients. P-wave dispersion measurements did not show any significant differences between conversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156). Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416±10 vs 398±12, P<0.001, and 47±4.8 vs 20±6.1, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion A similar relation to that in literature between QTd and anxiety and somatoform disorders was also observed in CD patients. QTc and QTd were significantly increased compared to the control group in patients with CD. These results suggest a possibility of increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia resulting from QTd in CD patients. Larger samples are needed to evaluate the clinical course and prognosis in terms of arrhythmia risk in CD patients. PMID:25848293
Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okan, Melih; Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Lawrence, Katherine; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Strongly interacting fermions define the properties of complex matter throughout nature, from atomic nuclei and modern solid state materials to neutron stars. Ultracold atomic Fermi gases have emerged as a pristine platform for the study of many-fermion systems. In this poster we demonstrate the realization of a quantum gas microscope for fermionic 40 K atoms trapped in an optical lattice and the recent experiments which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high- resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single lattice site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. NSF, AFOSR-PECASE, AFOSR-MURI on Exotic Phases of Matter, ARO-MURI on Atomtronics, ONR, a Grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.
The p-wave superconductivity in the presence of Rashba interaction in 2DEG.
Weng, Ke-Chuan; Hu, C D
2016-07-26
We investigate the effect of the Rashba interaction on two dimensional superconductivity. The presence of the Rashba interaction lifts the spin degeneracy and gives rise to the spectrum of two bands. There are intraband and interband pairs scattering which result in the coupled gap equations. We find that there are isotropic and anisotropic components in the gap function. The latter has the form of cos φk where . The former is suppressed because the intraband and the interband scatterings nearly cancel each other. Hence, -the system should exhibit the p-wave superconductivity. We perform a detailed study of electron-phonon interaction for 2DEG and find that, if only normal processes are considered, the effective coupling strength constant of this new superconductivity is about one-half of the s-wave case in the ordinary 2DEG because of the angular average of the additional in the anisotropic gap function. By taking into account of Umklapp processes, we find they are the major contribution in the electron-phonon coupling in superconductivity and enhance the transition temperature Tc.
Crustal structure of Nigeria and Southern Ghana, West Africa from P-wave receiver functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akpan, Ofonime; Nyblade, Andrew; Okereke, Chiedu; Oden, Michael; Emry, Erica; Julià, Jordi
2016-04-01
We report new estimates of crustal thickness (Moho depth), Poisson's ratio and shear-wave velocities for eleven broadband seismological stations in Nigeria and Ghana. Data used for this study came from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° and with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5. P-wave receiver functions were modeled using the Moho Ps arrival times, H-k stacking, and joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The average crustal thickness of the stations in the Neoproterozoic basement complex of Nigeria is 36 km, and 23 km for the stations in the Cretaceous Benue Trough. The crustal structure of the Paleoproterozoic Birimian Terrain, and Neoproterozoic Dahomeyan Terrain and Togo Structural Unit in southern Ghana is similar, with an average Moho depth of 44 km. Poisson's ratios for all the stations range from 0.24 to 0.26, indicating a bulk felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The crustal structure of the basement complex in Nigeria is similar to the average crustal structure of Neoproterozoic terrains in other parts of Africa, but the two Neoproterozoic terrains in southern Ghana have a thicker crust with a thick mafic lower crust, ranging in thickness from 12 to 17 km. Both the thicker crust and thick mafic lower crustal section are consistent with many Precambrian suture zones, and thus we suggest that both features are relict from the collisional event during the formation of Gondwana.
The p-wave superconductivity in the presence of Rashba interaction in 2DEG
Weng, Ke-Chuan; Hu, C. D.
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of the Rashba interaction on two dimensional superconductivity. The presence of the Rashba interaction lifts the spin degeneracy and gives rise to the spectrum of two bands. There are intraband and interband pairs scattering which result in the coupled gap equations. We find that there are isotropic and anisotropic components in the gap function. The latter has the form of cos φk where . The former is suppressed because the intraband and the interband scatterings nearly cancel each other. Hence, −the system should exhibit the p-wave superconductivity. We perform a detailed study of electron-phonon interaction for 2DEG and find that, if only normal processes are considered, the effective coupling strength constant of this new superconductivity is about one-half of the s-wave case in the ordinary 2DEG because of the angular average of the additional in the anisotropic gap function. By taking into account of Umklapp processes, we find they are the major contribution in the electron-phonon coupling in superconductivity and enhance the transition temperature Tc. PMID:27459677
Hybrid Theory of P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, Anand
2012-01-01
We report on a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. The calculation is restricted to P waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. It is found that the phase shifts are not significantly affected by the modification of the target function by a method similar to the method of polarized orbitals and they are close to the phase shifts calculated earlier by Bhatia. This indicates that the correlation function is general enough to include the target distortion (polarization) in the presence of the incident electron. The important fact is that in the present calculation, to obtain similar results only 35-term correlation function is needed in the wave function compared to the 220-term wave function required in the above-mentioned previous calculation. Results for the phase shifts, obtained in the present hybrid formalism, are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts.
Generalized Aubry-André-Harper model with p -wave superconducting pairing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Qi-Bo; Chen, Shu; Lü, Rong
2016-09-01
We investigate a generalized Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model with p -wave superconducting pairing. Both the hopping amplitudes between the nearest-neighboring lattice sites and the on-site potentials in this system are modulated by a cosine function with a periodicity of 1 /α . In the incommensurate case [α =(√{5 }-1 )/2 ] , due to the modulations on the hopping amplitudes, the critical region of this quasiperiodic system is significantly reduced and the system becomes easier to be turned from extended states to localized states. In the commensurate case (α =1 /2 ), we find that this model shows three different phases when we tune the system parameters: Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH)-like trivial, SSH-like topological, and Kitaev-like topological phases. The phase diagrams and the topological quantum numbers for these phases are presented in this work. This generalized AAH model combined with superconducting pairing provides us with a useful test field for studying the phase transitions from extended states to Anderson localized states and the transitions between different topological phases.
Reactivation and mantle dynamics of North China Craton: insight from P-wave anisotropy tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng
2013-12-01
We determined the first 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the North China Craton (NCC) using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events, which reveals depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle down to 600 km depth. In the NCC western block, the fast velocity direction (FVD) varies from east-west in the southern part to northeast-southwest in the northern part, which may reflect either the interaction between the Yangtze block and NCC or fossil lithospheric fabrics in the craton. Under the NCC eastern block, a uniform northwest-southeast FVD is revealed in the lower part of the upper mantle (300-410 km depths) and the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depths), which may reflect horizontal and upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. The NCC central block exhibits a northeast-southwest FVD, consistent with the surface tectonic orientation there, suggesting that the cold and thick (>300 km) cratonic root of the NCC western block may obstruct the northwest-southeast trending mantle flow induced by the Pacific Plate subduction, resulting in a northeast-southwest trending mantle flow under the central block. Our present results indicate that the corner flow in the BMW associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific Plate is the main cause of NCC reactivation and mantle dynamics under East China.
Finite nuclear size and Lamb shift of p-wave atomic states
Milstein, A.I.; Sushkov, O.P.; Terekhov, I.S.
2003-06-01
We consider corrections to the Lamb shift of the p-wave atomic states due to the finite nuclear size (FNS). In other words, these are radiative corrections to the atomic isotope shift related to the FNS. It is shown that the structure of the corrections is qualitatively different to that for the s-wave states. The perturbation theory expansion for the relative correction for a p{sub 1/2} state starts with a {alpha} ln(1/Z{alpha}) term, while for the s{sub 1/2} states it starts with a Z{alpha}{sup 2} term. Here, {alpha} is the fine-structure constant and Z is the nuclear charge. In the present work, we calculate the {alpha} terms for that 2p states, the result for the 2p{sub 1/2} state reads (8{alpha}/9{pi}){l_brace}ln[1/(Z{alpha}){sup 2}]+0.710{r_brace}. Even more interesting are the p{sub 3/2} states. In this case the 'correction' is several orders of magnitude larger than the 'leading' FNS shift. However, absolute values of energy shifts related to these corrections are very small.
p-wave holographic superconductors and five-dimensional gauged supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aprile, Francesco; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Russo, Jorge G.
2011-01-01
We explore five-dimensional mathcal{N} = 4 SU(2) × U(1) and mathcal{N} = 8 SO(6) gauged supergravities as frameworks for condensed matter applications. These theories contain charged (dilatonic) black holes and 2-forms which have non-trivial quantum numbers with respect to U(1) subgroups of SO(6). A question of interest is whether they also contain black holes with two-form hair with the required asymptotic to give rise to holographic superconductivity. We first consider the mathcal{N} = 4 case, which contains a complex two-form potential A μν which has U(1) charge ±1. We find that a slight generalization, where the two-form potential has an arbitrary charge q, leads to a five-dimensional model that exhibits second-order superconducting transitions of p-wave type where the role of order parameter is played by A μν , provided q ≳ 5 .6. We identify the operator that condenses in the dual CFT, which is closely related to mathcal{N} = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory with chemical potentials. Similar phase transitions between R-charged black holes and black holes with 2-form hair are found in a generalized version of the mathcal{N} = 8 gauged supergravity Lagrangian where the two-forms have charge q ≳ 1 .8.
Imaging the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Oregon using teleseismic P wave residuals
Harris, R.A.; Iyer, H.M.; Dawson, P.B.
1991-01-01
Images the Juan de Fuca plate in southern Oregon using seismic tomography. P wave travel time residuals from a 366-km-long seismic array operated in southern Oregon in 1982 are inverted. The southeast striking array extended from the Coast ranges to the Modoc Plateau and crossed the High Cascades at Crater Lake, Oregon. Three features under the array were imaged: one high-velocity zone and two low-velocity zones. The high-velocity zone is 3-4% faster than the surrounding upper mantle. It dips steeply at 65?? to the east beneath the Cascade Range and extends down to at least 200 km. It is proposed that this high-velocity feature is subducted Juan de Fuca plate. Two low-velocity zones were also imaged, both of which are 3-4% slower than the surrounding earth structure. The southeastern low-velocity zone may be caused by partially molten crust underlying the Crater Lake volcano region. -from Authors
Iterants, Fermions and Majorana Operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauffman, Louis H.
Beginning with an elementary, oscillatory discrete dynamical system associated with the square root of minus one, we study both the foundations of mathematics and physics. Position and momentum do not commute in our discrete physics. Their commutator is related to the diffusion constant for a Brownian process and to the Heisenberg commutator in quantum mechanics. We take John Wheeler's idea of It from Bit as an essential clue and we rework the structure of that bit to a logical particle that is its own anti-particle, a logical Marjorana particle. This is our key example of the amphibian nature of mathematics and the external world. We show how the dynamical system for the square root of minus one is essentially the dynamics of a distinction whose self-reference leads to both the fusion algebra and the operator algebra for the Majorana Fermion. In the course of this, we develop an iterant algebra that supports all of matrix algebra and we end the essay with a discussion of the Dirac equation based on these principles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Mucciarelli, M.
2015-10-01
Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are potentially effective tools for risk mitigation in active seismic regions. The present study explores the possibility of predicting the macroseismic intensity within EEW timeframes using the squared velocity integral (IV2) measured on the early P wave signals, a proxy for the P wave radiated energy of earthquakes. This study shows that IV2 correlates better than the peak displacement measured on P waves with both the peak ground velocity and the Housner Intensity, with the latter being recognized by engineers as a reliable proxy for damage assessment. Therefore, using the strong motion recordings of the Italian Accelerometric Archive, a novel relationship between the parameter IV2 and the macroseismic intensity (IM) has been derived. The validity of this relationship has been assessed using the strong motion recordings of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Strong Motion Data and Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture databases, as well as, in the case of the MW 6, 29 May 2012 Emilia earthquake (Italy), comparing the predicted intensities with the ones observed after a macroseismic survey. Our results indicate that P wave IV2 can become a key parameter for the design of on-site EEWS, capable of proving real-time predictions of the IM at target sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis, L.; Henry, P.; Humbert, F.; Knuth, M.; Likos, W.; Scientists, I.
2008-12-01
We present results of electrical conductivity and P-wave velocity measurements in discrete samples processed onboard Chikyu during Nantroseize expeditions 315 and 316 in the Mega Splay fault and Frontal Thrust of the Nankai accretionary prism. Quasi cubes of 20 mm thickness nominally saturated with seawater were measured across the three parallel sets of faces, first for electrical conductivity, then for P-wave velocity. Average properties and their anisotropies appeared to show some sensitivity to both lithological and fault related features. Overall, strong transverse anisotropy due to sedimentary compaction was observed for both properties with minimum electrical conductivity and P-wave velocity along the vertical core axis direction. Within the horizontal plane perpendicular to the core axis, slight anisotropies were also measured, which are likely related to tectonically driven horizontal shortening, affecting noticeably the original compaction fabric. In order to get some structural insight, samples were reoriented in our laboratories using alternative field demagnetization technique and the in-plane (i.e. perpendicular to the core axis) data rotated accordingly. For the P-wave anisotropy, initial cubes were shaped into polyhedrons in order to get even more accurate estimates. These additional measurements allowed for retrieving for each sample the 3 principal values and vectors of the best fitting ellipsoidal function. Resulting stereoplots were then compared with electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and structural data.
Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.
2012-01-10
In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.
Chen, Hao; Yang, Shenglai; Huan, Kangning; Li, Fangfang; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Aiai; Zhang, Xing
2013-09-03
CO2 sequestration has been considered to be one of the most straightforward carbon management strategies for industrial CO2 emission. Monitoring of the CO2 injection process is one of the best ways to make sure the safety storage but is also a major challenge in CO2 geological sequestration. Previous field and laboratory researches have shown that seismic methods are among the most promising monitoring methods because of the obvious reduction in P-wave velocities caused by CO2 injection. However, as CO2 injection continues, the P-wave velocity becomes increasingly insensitive according to the pilot projects when CO2 saturation is higher than 20-40%. Therefore, the conventional seismic method needs improvement or replacement to solve its limitations. In this study, P-wave velocity and amplitude responses to supercritical CO2 injection in brine-saturated core samples from Jilin oilfield were tested using core displacement and an ultrasonic detection integrated system. Results showed that neither the P-wave velocity nor amplitude could simply be used to monitor the CO2 injection process because of the insensitive or nonmonotonous response. Consequently, a new index was established by synthetically considering these two parameters to invert and monitor the CO2 process, which can be thought of as a newer and more effective assessment criterion for the seismic method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Tian-You; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun
2015-04-01
We theoretically study two atoms with p -wave interaction in a one-dimensional waveguide, investigating how the transverse anisotropy of the confinement affects the two-body state, especially the properties of the resonance. For a bound-state solution, we find there are a total of three two-body bound states due to the richness of the orbital magnetic quantum number of the p -wave interaction, while only one bound state is supported by the s -wave interaction. Two of them become nondegenerate due to the breaking of the rotation symmetry under a transversely anisotropic confinement. For a scattering solution, the effective one-dimensional scattering amplitude and scattering length are derived. We find the position of the p -wave confinement-induced resonance shifts apparently versus the transverse anisotropy. In addition, a two-channel mechanism for the confinement-induced resonance in a one-dimensional waveguide is generalized to the p -wave interaction, which was previously proposed only for the s -wave interaction. All our calculations are based on the parametrization of the 40K-atom experiments and can thus be confirmed in future experiments.
Adams, David H.
2008-05-15
To investigate the viability of the 4th root trick for the staggered fermion determinant in a simpler setting, we consider a 2-taste (flavor) lattice fermion formulation with no taste mixing but with exact taste-nonsinglet chiral symmetries analogous to the taste-nonsinglet U(1){sub A} symmetry of staggered fermions. Creutz's objections to the rooting trick apply just as much in this setting. To counter them we show that the formulation has robust would-be zero modes in topologically nontrivial gauge backgrounds, and that these manifest themselves in a viable way in the rooted fermion determinant and also in the disconnected piece of the pseudoscalar meson propagator as required to solve the U(1) problem. Also, our rooted theory is heuristically seen to be in the right universality class for QCD if the same is true for an unrooted mixed fermion action theory.
Heavy fermion behavior explained by bosons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kallio, A.; Poykko, S.; Apaja, V.
1995-01-01
Conventional heavy fermion (HF) theories require existence of massive fermions. We show that heavy fermion phenomena can also be simply explained by existence of bosons with moderate mass but temperature dependent concentration below the formation temperature T(sub B), which in turn is close to room temperature. The bosons B(++) are proposed to be in chemical equilibrium with a system of holes h(+): B(++) = h(+) + h(+). This equilibrium is governed by a boson breaking function f(T), which determines the decreasing boson density and the increasing fermion density with increasing temperature. Since HF-compounds are hybridized from minimum two elements, we assume in addition existence of another fermion component h(sub s)(+) with temperature independent density. This spectator component is thought to be the main agent in binding the bosons in analogy with electronic or muonic molecules. Using a linear boson breaking function we can explain temperature dependence of the giant linear specific heat coefficient gamma(T) coming essentially from bosons. The maxima in resistivity, Hall coefficient, and susceptibility are explained by boson localization effects due to the Wigner crystallization. The antiferromagnetic transitions in turn are explained by similar localization of the pairing fermion system when their density n(sub h)(T(sub FL)) becomes lower than n(sub WC), the critical density of Wigner crystallization. The model applies irrespective whether a compound is superconducting or not. The same model explains the occurrence of low temperature antiferromagnetism also in high-T(sub c) superconductors. The double transition in UPt3 is proposed to be due to the transition of the pairing fermion liquid from spin polarized to unpolarized state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaobo; Dong, Liangguo; Zhao, Qun
2014-12-01
Seismic wave propagation in patchy-saturated porous media is studied by numerical simulation in time domain at the seismic frequency band (1-1000 Hz). The models consist of hundreds of representative elementary volumes (REVs), where the REV is partially saturated with water and gas pockets. Seismic modelling experiments are implemented in a traditional way, with ‘periodic’ boundary conditions applied to get rid of undrained boundary conditions at the outer edges of the REVs. The characteristics of confining pressure, induced pore pressure, solid particle velocities and Darcy filtration velocities are analysed. The snapshots show that strong pore pressure gradients are generated across the interface between gas and water phases, and significant fluid flow occurs. The conversion of a fast P-wave into a dissipating slow P-wave takes place at seismic frequencies, and the converted slow P-wave diffuses strongly in both gas- and water-saturated phases. These numerical results can help us to understand the loss mechanism at seismic frequencies. Then, P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion of a heterogeneous REV are calculated during traditional seismic modelling at seismic frequencies. The numerical results show good agreement with theoretical predictions obtained from patchy saturation theory. Furthermore, the effects of different fluid distributions on P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion are analysed numerically. A series of experiments are implemented by considering large, small and random gas-patchy inclusions. The decrease of gas pocket size makes the peak frequency move towards high frequencies. Random distribution of gas patches may affect both the peak attenuation and peak frequencies. Seismic attenuation caused by Biot global flow, elastic scattering and wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) associated with patchy saturation are computed numerically. The results show that the contribution of Biot’s global flow and scattering to the overall attenuation
Alteration of the P-wave non-linear dynamics near the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
Martínez, Arturo; Abásolo, Daniel; Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José J
2015-07-01
The analysis of P-wave variability from the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been suggested as an early predictor of the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Hence, a preventive treatment could be used to avoid the loss of normal sinus rhythm, thus minimising health risks and improving the patient's quality of life. In these previous studies the variability of different temporal and morphological P-wave features has been only analysed in a linear fashion. However, the electrophysiological alteration occurring in the atria before the onset of PAF has to be considered as an inherently complex, chaotic and non-stationary process. This work analyses the presence of non-linear dynamics in the P-wave progression before the onset of PAF through the application of the central tendency measure (CTM), which is a non-linear metric summarising the degree of variability in a time series. Two hour-length ECG intervals just before the arrhythmia onset belonging to 46 different PAF patients were analysed. In agreement with the invasively observed inhomogeneous atrial conduction preceding the onset of PAF, CTM for all the considered P-wave features showed higher variability when the arrhythmia was closer to its onset. A diagnostic accuracy around 80% to discern between ECG segments far from PAF and close to PAF was obtained with the CTM of the metrics considered. This result was similar to previous P-wave variability methods based on linear approaches. However, the combination of linear and non-linear methods with a decision tree improved considerably their discriminant ability up to 90%, thus suggesting that both dynamics could coexist at the same time in the fragmented depolarisation of the atria preceding the arrhythmia.
Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure beneath the Indonesian region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puspito, Nanang T.; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Miyatake, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kunihiko; Hirahara, Kazuro
1993-04-01
We present the P-wave seismic tomography image of the mantle to a depth of 1200 km beneath the Indonesian region. The ARTB inversion method is applied to a dataset of 118,203 P-wave travel times of local and teleseismic events taken from ISC bulletins. Although the resolution is sufficient for detailed discussion in only a limited part of the study region, the results clarify the general tectonic framework in this region and indicate a possible remnant seismic slab in the lower mantle. Structures beneath the Philippine Islands and the Molucca Sea region are well resolved and high-velocity zones corresponding to the slabs of the Molucca Sea and Philippine Sea plates are well delineated. Seismic zones beneath the Manila, Negros and Cotabato trenches are characterized by high-velocity anomalies, although shallow structures were not resolved. The Molucca Sea collision zone and volcanic zones of the Sangihe and Philippine arcs are dominated by low-velocity anomalies. The Philippine Sea slab subducts beneath the Philippine Islands at least to a depth of 200 km and may reach depths of 450 km. The southern end of the slab extends at least to about 6°N near southern Mindanao. In the south, the two opposing subducting slabs of the Molucca Sea plate are clearly defined by the two opposing high-velocity zones. The eastward dipping slab can be traced about 400 km beneath the Halmahera arc and may extend as far north as about 5°N. Unfortunately, resolution is not sufficient to reveal detailed structures at the boundary region between the Halmahera and Philippine Sea slabs. The westward dipping slab may subduct to the lower mantle although its extent at depth is not well resolved. This slab trends N-S from about 10°N in the Philippine Islands to northern Sulawesi. A NE-SW-trending high-velocity zone is found in the lower mantle beneath the Molucca Sea region. This high-velocity zone may represent a remnant of the former subduction zone which formed the Sulawesi arc during the
Charm and strange quark masses and fD s from overlap fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Alexandru, Andrei; Dong, Shao-Jing; Draper, Terrence; Gong, Ming; Lee, Frank X.; Li, Anyi; Liu, Keh-Fei; Liu, Zhaofeng; Lujan, Michael
2015-08-01
We use overlap fermions as valence quarks to calculate meson masses in a wide quark mass range on the 2 +1 -flavor domain-wall fermion gauge configurations generated by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations. The well-defined quark masses in the overlap fermion formalism and the clear valence quark mass dependence of meson masses observed from the calculation facilitate a direct derivation of physical current quark masses through a global fit to the lattice data, which incorporates O (a2) and O (mc4a4) corrections, chiral extrapolation, and quark mass interpolation. Using the physical masses of Ds, Ds* and J /ψ as inputs, Sommer's scale parameter r0 and the masses of charm quark and strange quark in the MS ¯ scheme are determined to be r0=0.465 (4 )(9 ) fm , mcMS ¯(2 GeV )=1.118 (6 )(24 ) GeV (or mcMS ¯(mc)=1.304 (5 )(20 ) GeV ), and msMS ¯(2 GeV )=0.101 (3 )(6 ) GeV , respectively. Furthermore, we observe that the mass difference of the vector meson and the pseudoscalar meson with the same valence quark content is proportional to the reciprocal of the square root of the valence quark masses. The hyperfine splitting of charmonium, MJ /ψ-Mηc , is determined to be 119(2)(7) MeV, which is in good agreement with the experimental value. We also predict the decay constant of Ds to be fDs=254 (2 )(4 ) MeV . The masses of charmonium P -wave states χc 0 , χc 1 and hc are also in good agreement with experiments.
P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography
Moran, S.C.; Lees, J.M.; Malone, S.D.
1999-01-01
We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ???10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California
Thurber, C.H.; Brocher, T.M.; Zhang, H.; Langenheim, V.E.
2007-01-01
A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ???15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ???6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
Seismic velocities at the core-mantle boundary inferred from P waves diffracted around the core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sylvander, Matthieu; Ponce, Bruno; Souriau, Annie
1997-05-01
The very base of the mantle is investigated with core-diffracted P-wave (P diff) travel times published by the International Seismological Centre (ISC) for the period 1964-1987. Apparent slownesses are computed for two-station profiles using a difference method. As the short-period P diff mostly sample a very thin layer above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a good approximation of the true velocity structure at the CMB can be derived from the apparent slownesses. More than 27000 profiles are built, and this provides an unprecedented P diff sampling of the CMB. The overall slowness distribution has an average value of 4.62 s/deg, which corresponds to a velocity more than 4% lower than that of most mean radial models. An analysis of the residuals of absolute ISC P and P diff travel times is independently carried out and confirms this result. It also shows that the degree of heterogeneities is significantly higher at the CMB than in the lower mantle. A search for lateral velocity variations is then undertaken; a first large-scale investigation reveals the presence of coherent slowness anomalies of very large dimensions of the order of 3000 km at the CMB. A tomographic inversion is then performed, which confirms the existence of pronounced (±8-10%) lateral velocity variations and provides a reliable map of the heterogeneities in the northern hemisphere. The influence of heterogeneity in the overlying mantle, of noise in the data and of CMB topography is evaluated; it seemingly proves minor compared with the contribution of heterogeneities at the CMB. Our results support the rising idea of a thin, low-velocity laterally varying boundary layer at the base of the D″ layer. The two principal candidate interpretations are the occurrence of partial melting, or the presence of a chemically distinct layer, featuring infiltrated core material.
Estimating Earthquake Source Parameters from P-wave Spectra: Lessons from Theory and Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shearer, P. M.; Denolle, M.; Kaneko, Y.
2015-12-01
Observations make clear that some earthquakes radiate relatively more high frequency energy that others of the same moment. But translating these differences into traditional source parameter measures, such as stress drop and radiated energy, can be problematic. Some of the issues include: (1) Because of directivity and other rupture propagation details, theoretical results show that recorded spectra will vary in shape among stations. Observational studies often neglect this effect or assume it will average out when multiple stations are used, but this averaging is rarely perfect, particularly considering the narrow range of takeoff angles used in teleseismic studies. (2) Depth phases for shallow events create interference in the spectra that can severely bias spectral estimates, unless depth phases are taken into account. (3) Corner frequency is not a well-defined parameter and different methods for its computation will yield different results. In addition, stress drop estimates inferred from corner frequencies rely on specific theoretical rupture models, and different assumed crack geometries and rupture velocities will yield different stress drop values. (4) Attenuation corrections may be inaccurate or not fully reflect local 3D near-source attenuation structure. The use of empirical Green's function (EGF) events can help, but these often have signal-to-noise issues or are not very close to the target earthquake. (5) Energy estimates typically rely on some degree of extrapolation of spectra beyond their observational band, introducing model assumptions into what is intended to be a direct measure of an earthquake property. (6) P-wave spectra are analyzed much more than S-wave spectra because of their greater frequency content, but they only carry a small fraction of the total radiated seismic energy and thus total energy estimates may rely on poorly known Es/Ep scaling relations. We will discuss strategies to address these problems and to compute improved source
Teleseismic P-wave tomography and mantle dynamics beneath Eastern Tibet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Jianshe; Zhao, Dapeng
2016-05-01
We determined a new 3-D P-wave velocity model of the upper mantle beneath eastern Tibet using 112,613 high-quality arrival-time data collected from teleseismic seismograms recorded by a new portable seismic array in Yunnan and permanent networks in southwestern China. Our results provide new insights into the mantle structure and dynamics of eastern Tibet. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies are revealed down to 200 km depth under the Sichuan basin and the Ordos and Alashan blocks. Low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are imaged in the upper mantle under the Kunlun-Qilian and Qinling fold zones, and the Songpan-Ganzi, Qiangtang, Lhasa and Chuan-Dian diamond blocks, suggesting that eastward moving low-V materials are extruded to eastern China after the obstruction by the Sichuan basin, and the Ordos and Alashan blocks. Furthermore, the extent and thickness of these low-V anomalies are correlated with the surface topography, suggesting that the uplift of eastern Tibet could be partially related to these low-V materials having a higher temperature and strong positive buoyancy. In the mantle transition zone (MTZ), broad high-V anomalies are visible from the Burma arc northward to the Kunlun fault and eastward to the Xiaojiang fault, and they are connected upward with the Wadati-Benioff seismic zone. These results suggest that the subducted Indian slab has traveled horizontally for a long distance after it descended into the MTZ, and return corner flow and deep slab dehydration have contributed to forming the low-V anomalies in the big mantle wedge. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of the eastern Tibetan plateau.
Distinct crustal structure of the North American Midcontinent Rift from P wave receiver functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hao; Lee, Suzan; Wolin, Emily; Bollmann, Trevor A.; Revenaugh, Justin; Wiens, Douglas A.; Frederiksen, Andrew W.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Aleqabi, Ghassan I.; Wysession, Michael E.; Stein, Seth; Jurdy, Donna M.
2016-11-01
Eighty-two broadband seismic stations of the Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) collected 2.5 years of continuous seismic data in the area of the high gravity anomaly associated with the Midcontinent Rift (MCR). Over 100 high-quality teleseismic earthquakes were used for crustal P wave receiver function analysis. Our analysis reveals that the base of the sedimentary layer is shallow outside the MCR, thickens near the flanks where gravity anomalies are low, and shallows again in the MCR's center where the gravity anomalies peak. This pattern is similar to that found from local geophysical studies and is consistent with reverse faulting having accompanied the cessation of rifting at 1.1 Ga. Intermittent intracrustal boundaries imaged by our analysis might represent the bottom of the MCR's mostly buried dense volcanic layers. Outside the MCR, the Moho is strong, sharp, and relatively flat, both beneath the Archean Superior Province and the Proterozoic terranes to its south. Inside the MCR, two weaker candidate Mohos are found at depths up to 25 km apart in the rift's center. The intermediate layer between these discontinuities tapers toward the edges of the MCR. The presence of this transitional layer is remarkably consistent along the strike of the MCR, including beneath its jog in southern Minnesota, near the Belle Plaine Fault. We interpret these results as evidence for extensive underplating as a defining characteristic of the rift, which remains continuous along the Minnesota jog, where due to its orientation, it is minimally affected by the reverse faulting that characterizes the NNE striking parts of the rift.
Velocity variations and uncertainty from transdimensional P-wave tomography of North America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burdick, Scott; Lekić, Vedran
2017-03-01
High-resolution models of seismic velocity variations constructed using body-wave tomography inform the study of the origin, fate, and thermochemical state of mantle domains. In order to reliably relate these variations to material properties including temperature, composition, and volatile content, we must accurately retrieve both the patterns and amplitudes of variations and quantify the uncertainty associated with the estimates of each. For these reasons, we image the mantle beneath North America with P-wave traveltimes from USArray using a novel method for 3-D probabilistic body-wave tomography. The method uses a Transdimensional Hierarchical Bayesian (THB) framework with a reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (rj-MCMC) algorithm in order to generate an ensemble of possible velocity models. We analyze this ensemble solution to obtain the posterior probability distribution of velocities, thereby yielding error bars and enabling rigorous hypothesis testing. Overall, we determine that the average uncertainty (1σ) of compressional wave velocity estimates beneath North America is ∼0.25% dVP/VP, increasing with proximity to complex structure and decreasing with depth. The addition of USArray data reduces the uncertainty beneath the Eastern US by over 50% in the upper mantle and 25-40% below the transition zone and ∼30% throughout the mantle beneath the Western US. In the absence of damping and smoothing, we recover amplitudes of variations 10-80% higher than a standard inversion approach. Accounting for differences in data coverage, we infer that the length-scale of heterogeneity is ∼50% longer at shallow depths beneath the continental platform than beneath tectonically active regions. We illustrate the model trade-off analysis for the Cascadia slab and the New Madrid Seismic Zone, where we find that smearing due to the limitations of the illumination is relatively minor.
Attenuation measurements of ultrasonic P-wave and S-wave in partially frozen unconsolidated sands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.; Kato, Y.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, A.
2012-12-01
Seismic attenuation which controls both the amplitude decay of seismic waves and the accompanying frequency change is a signature of the wave-rock interaction. Seismic attenuation in rocks is a highly variable parameter, which depends on the confining pressure, porosity, degree of fluid saturation, and fluid type. Although seismic attenuation has been widely used to estimate physical conditions and rock properties in various fields, the loss mechanisms responsible for seismic attenuation often are unclear and controversial. To elucidate a plausible mechanism for seismic attenuation, the joint use of both P- and S-waves will provide more helpful information because these two types of waves respond differently to fluid and solid combinations. We have conducted ultrasonic P- and S-wave transmission measurements to examine the influence of ice-brine coexisting system grown in the pore space of unconsolidated sands on ultrasonic P- and S-waves. We observed the variations of a transmitted wave with a frequency content of 100-1000 kHz , changing its temperature from 20°C to -15°C. We use not only impulse-type signals but also sweep-type signals to prevent from the spectral leakage effect caused by the effect of windowing. We concern with attenuation at ultrasonic frequencies of 500-1000 kHz for P-waves and 100-400 kHz for S-waves. Our observation of the variation of the Poisson's ratio and the ratio of P- to S-wave attenuation with changing temperature indicates the possibilities of the joint use of both P- and S-waves to elucidate a plausible mechanism for seismic attenuation.
Teleseismic P wave spectra from USArray and implications for upper mantle attenuation and scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cafferky, Samantha; Schmandt, Brandon
2015-10-01
Teleseismic P wave amplitude spectra from deep earthquakes recorded by USArray are inverted for maps of upper mantle Δt* for multiple frequency bands within 0.08-2 Hz. All frequency bands show high Δt* regions in the southwestern U.S., southern Rocky Mountains, and Appalachian margin. Low Δt* is more common across the cratonic interior. Inversions with narrower frequency bands yield similar patterns, but greater Δt* magnitudes. Even the two standard deviation Δt* magnitude for the widest band is ˜2-7 times greater than predicted by global QS tomography or an anelastic olivine thermal model, suggesting that much of the Δt* signal is nonthermal in origin. Nonthermal contributions are further indicated by only a moderate correlation between Δt* and P travel times. Some geographic variations, such as high Δt* in parts of the cratonic interior with high mantle velocities and low heat flow, demonstrate that the influence of temperature is regionally overwhelmed. Transverse spectra are used to investigate the importance of scattering because they would receive no P energy in the absence of 3-D heterogeneity or anisotropy. Transverse to vertical (T/Z) spectral ratios for stations with high Δt* are higher and exhibit steeper increases with frequency compared to T/Z spectra for low Δt* stations. The large magnitude of Δt* estimates and the T/Z spectra are consistent with major contributions to Δt* from scattering. A weak positive correlation between intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering may contribute to Δt* magnitude and the moderate correlation of Δt* with travel times.
Fermionic entanglement that survives a black hole
Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan
2009-10-15
We introduce an arbitrary number of accessible modes when analyzing bipartite entanglement degradation due to Unruh effect between two partners Alice and Rob. Under the single mode approximation (SMA) a fermion field only had a few accessible levels due to Pauli exclusion principle conversely to bosonic fields which had an infinite number of excitable levels. This was argued to justify entanglement survival in the fermionic case in the SMA infinite acceleration limit. Here we relax SMA. Hence, an infinite number of modes are excited as the observer Rob accelerates, even for a fermion field. We will prove that, despite this analogy with the bosonic case, entanglement loss is limited. We will show that this comes from fermionic statistics through the characteristic structure it imposes on the infinite dimensional density matrix for Rob. Surprisingly, the surviving entanglement is independent of the specific maximally entangled state chosen, the kind of fermionic field analyzed, and the number of accessible modes considered. We shall discuss whether this surviving entanglement goes beyond the purely statistical correlations, giving insight concerning the black hole information paradox.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corboz, Philippe; Orús, Román; Bauer, Bela; Vidal, Guifré
2010-04-01
We explain how to implement, in the context of projected entangled-pair states (PEPSs), the general procedure of fermionization of a tensor network introduced in P. Corboz and G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 80, 165129 (2009). The resulting fermionic PEPS, similar to previous proposals, can be used to study the ground state of interacting fermions on a two-dimensional lattice. As in the bosonic case, the cost of simulations depends on the amount of entanglement in the ground state and not directly on the strength of interactions. The present formulation of fermionic PEPS leads to a straightforward numerical implementation that allowed us to recycle much of the code for bosonic PEPS. We demonstrate that fermionic PEPS are a useful variational ansatz for interacting fermion systems by computing approximations to the ground state of several models on an infinite lattice. For a model of interacting spinless fermions, ground state energies lower than Hartree-Fock results are obtained, shifting the boundary between the metal and charge-density wave phases. For the t-J model, energies comparable with those of a specialized Gutzwiller-projected ansatz are also obtained.
Spectrum structure of a fermion on Bloch branes with two scalar–fermion couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Qun-Ying; Guo, Heng; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Du, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Peng
2017-03-01
It is known that the Bloch brane is generated by an odd scalar field ϕ and an even one χ. In order to localize a bulk fermion on the Bloch brane, the coupling between the fermion and scalars should be introduced. There are two localization mechanisms in the literature, the Yukawa coupling -η \\bar{\\Psi}{{F}1}≤ft(φ,χ \\right) \\Psi and non-Yukawa coupling λ \\bar{\\Psi}{ΓM}{{\\partial}M}{{F}2}≤ft(φ,χ \\right){γ5} \\Psi . The Yukawa coupling has been considered. In this paper, we consider both couplings between the fermion and the scalars with {{F}1}={χm}{φ2p+1} and {{F}2}={χn}{φ2q} , and investigate the localization and spectrum structure of the fermion on the Bloch brane. It is found that the left-handed fermion zero mode can be localized on the Bloch brane under some conditions, and the effective potentials have rich structure and may be volcano-like, finite square well-like, and infinite potentials. As a result, the spectrum consists of a series of resonant Kaluza–Klein fermions, finite or infinite numbers of bound Kaluza–Klein fermions. Especially, we find a new feature of the introduction of both couplings: the spectrum for the case of finite square well-like potentials contains discrete quasi-localized and localized massive KK modes simultaneously.
Jerger, Steven A.
1997-01-01
A study of isolated direct photon production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy √s= 1800 Ge V is reported, as measured at the D0 Fermilab Tevatron. Cross sections for the central (0 ≤ |η| ≤0.9) and forward (1.6 ≤ |η| ≤2.5) rapidity regions are presented as a function of photon (15 GeV≤ E_{T} ≤ 150 GeV ), and compared with a next-to-leading order QCD calculation. In the central the data and theory are consistent in both shape and normalization; however, in the forward region the data are consistently above the theory, especially in the E_{T} region below ~30 Ge V. A preliminary measurement of the correlation between the rapidity of the photon and that of the leading in the event shows qualitative agreement between the data and theoretical prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
César Ricci, Mário
2015-10-01
In a companion paper of this was introduced a set of non-linear algebraic equations for ball's motion, sliding friction and internal loading distribution computation in a high-speed, single-row, angular-contact ball bearing, subjected to a known combined radial, thrust and moment load, which must be applied to the inner ring's center of mass. It was shown there that it is required the iterative solution of 9Z + 3 simultaneous non-linear equations - where Z is the number of balls - to yield exact solution for contact angles, ball attitude angles, rolling radii, normal contact deformations and axial, radial, and angular deflections of the inner ring with respect the outer ring. The Newton-Rhapson method is to be used to solve the problem. This paper deals with the numerical procedure description. The numerical results derived from the described procedure shall be published later.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozyrev, E. A.; Solodov, E. P.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bondar, A. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Gribanov, S. S.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Ignatov, F. V.; Ivanov, V. L.; Karpov, S. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Korobov, A. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Otboev, A. V.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Senchenko, A. I.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.
2016-09-01
The e+e- →KS0 KLl0l cross section has been measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV at 25 energy points using 6.1 ×105 events with KS0 →π+π- decay. The analysis is based on 5.9 pb-1 of an integrated luminosity collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider. To obtain ϕ (1020) meson parameters the measured cross section is approximated according to the Vector Meson Dominance model as a sum of the ρ , ω , ϕ-like amplitudes and their excitations. This is the most precise measurement of the e+e- →KS0 KL0 cross section with a 1.8% systematic uncertainty.
Bartlett, Nate C-M; Jankunas, Justin; Goswami, Tapas; Zare, Richard N; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C
2011-05-14
We have measured differential cross sections (DCSs) for the reaction H + D(2) → HD(v' = 2,j' = 0,3,6,9) + D at center-of-mass collision energies E(coll) of 1.25, 1.61, and 1.97 eV using the photoloc technique. The DCSs show a strong dependence on the product rotational quantum number. For the HD(v' = 2,j' = 0) product, the DCS is bimodal but becomes oscillatory as the collision energy is increased. For the other product states, they are dominated by a single peak, which shifts from back to sideward scattering as j' increases, and they are in general less sensitive to changes in the collision energy. The experimental results are compared to quantum mechanical calculations and show good, but not fully quantitative agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Searcy, Jacob
The measurement of the cross section of top quark pair production in proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is reported. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.05 fb-1. Events with an isolated electron or muon and a tau lepton decaying hadronically are used. In addition, a large missing transverse momentum and two or more energetic jets are required. At least one of the jets must be identified as originating from a b-quark. The measured cross section, sigma tt¯ = 178 +/- 12 stat. +/- 18 sys. +/- 7 lumi. pb, is in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shtol, D. A.
2015-12-01
In the experiment with the SND detector at the VEPP-2000 e + e - collider the cross section for the process e + e - → ηπ+π- has been measured in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.22 to 2.00 GeV. Obtained results are in agreement with previous measurements and have better accuracy. The energy dependence of the e + e - → ηπ+π- cross section has been fitted with the vector-meson dominance model. From this fit the product of the branching fractions B(ρ(1450) → ηπ+π-) B(ρ(1450) → π+π-) has been extracted and compared with the same products for (ρ(1450) → ωP0 and (ρ(1450) → π+π- decays. The obtained cross section data have been also used to test the conservation of vector current hypothesis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, Sudeep S.
In this paper we present the status of the measurement of angular distributions of final state electrons in ppbar → gamma*/Z → e+ e- + X events produced in the Z boson mass region at square root of center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron. For this analysis, we have used the Run IIb2 dataset collected with the Dphi detector. The angular distributions as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair are studied, and the Lam-Tung relation, valid only for a spin-1 description of the gluon is investigated. The final result will also describe the details of the production mechanism of Z bosons via quark anti-quark annihilation or quark-gluon Compton scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. 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P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.
2011-11-01
The jet fragmentation function and transverse profile for jets with 25 GeV< p T jet<500 GeV and | η jet|<1.2 produced in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV are presented. The measurement is performed using data with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb-1. Jets are reconstructed and their momentum measured using calorimetric information. The momenta of the charged particle constituents are measured using the tracking system. The distributions corrected for detector effects are compared with various Monte Carlo event generators and generator tunes. Several of these choices show good agreement with the measured fragmentation function. None of these choices reproduce both the transverse profile and fragmentation function over the full kinematic range of the measurement.
Dirac fermions in an antiferromagnetic semimetal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Peizhe; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2016-12-01
Analogues of the elementary particles have been extensively searched for in condensed-matter systems for both scientific interest and technological applications. Recently, massless Dirac fermions were found to emerge as low-energy excitations in materials now known as Dirac semimetals. All of the currently known Dirac semimetals are non-magnetic with both time-reversal symmetry and inversion symmetry . Here we show that Dirac fermions can exist in one type of antiferromagnetic system, where both and are broken but their combination is respected. We propose orthorhombic antiferromagnet CuMnAs as a candidate, analyse the robustness of the Dirac points under symmetry protections and demonstrate its distinctive bulk dispersions, as well as the corresponding surface states, by ab initio calculations. Our results provide a possible platform to study the interplay of Dirac fermion physics and magnetism.
Plutonium-Based Heavy-Fermion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.
2015-03-01
An effective mass of charge carriers that is significantly larger than the mass of a free electron develops at low temperatures in certain lanthanide- and actinide-based metals, including those formed with plutonium, owing to strong electron-electron interactions. This heavy-fermion mass is reflected in a substantially enhanced electronic coefficient of specific heat Î³, which for elemental Pu is much larger than that of normal metals. By our definition, there are twelve Pu-based heavy-fermion compounds, most discovered recently, whose basic properties are known and discussed. Relative to other examples, these Pu-based heavy-fermion systems are particularly complex owing in part to the possible simultaneous presence of multiple, nearly degenerate 5fn configurations. This complexity poses significant opportunities as well as challenges, including understanding the origin of unconventional superconductivity in some of these materials.
Plaquette boson-fermion model of cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altman, Ehud; Auerbach, Assa
2002-03-01
The strongly interacting Hubbard model on the square lattice is reduced to the low energy plaquette boson fermion model (PBFM). The four bosons (an antiferromagnon triplet and a d-wave hole pair), and the fermions are defined by the lowest plaquette eigenstates. We apply the contractor renormalization method of Morningstar and Weinstein to compute the boson effective interactions. The range-3 truncation error is found to be very small, signaling short hole-pair and magnon coherence lengths. The pair-hopping and magnon interactions are comparable, which explains the rapid destruction of antiferromagnetic order with emergence of superconductivity, and validates a key assumption of the projected SO(5) theory. A vacuum crossing at larger doping marks a transition into the overdoped regime. With hole fermions occupying small Fermi pockets and Andreev coupled to hole pair bosons, the PBFM yields several testable predictions for photoemission, tunneling asymmetry, and entropy measurements.
Thermofield dynamics and Casimir effect for fermions
Queiroz, H. . E-mail: hebe@fis.ufba.br; Silva, J.C. da . E-mail: jcsilva@cefetba.br; Khanna, F.C. . E-mail: khanna@phys.ualberta.ca; Malbouisson, J.M.C. . E-mail: jmalbou@phys.ualberta.ca; Revzen, M. . E-mail: revzen@physics.technion.ac.il; Santana, A.E. . E-mail: asantana@fis.unb.br
2005-05-01
A generalization of the Bogoliubov transformation is developed to describe a space compactified fermionic field. The method is the fermionic counterpart of the formalism introduced earlier for bosons [Phys. Rev. A 66 (2002) 052101], and is based on the thermofield dynamics approach. We analyze the energy-momentum tensor for the Casimir effect of a free massless fermion field in a d-dimensional box at finite temperature. As a particular case the Casimir energy and pressure for the field confined in a three-dimensional parallelepiped box are calculated. It is found that the attractive or repulsive nature of the Casimir pressure on opposite faces changes depending on the relative magnitude of the edges. We also determine the temperature at which the Casimir pressure in a cubic box changes sign and estimate its value when the edge of the cube is of the order of the confining lengths for baryons.
Fermionic light in common optical media.
Novoa, David; Michinel, Humberto; Tommasini, Daniele
2010-11-12
Recent experiments have proved that the response to short laser pulses of common optical media, such as air or oxygen, can be described by focusing Kerr and higher order nonlinearities of alternating signs. Such media support the propagation of steady solitary waves. We argue by both numerical and analytical computations that the low-power fundamental bright solitons satisfy an equation of state which is similar to that of a degenerate gas of fermions at zero temperature. Considering, in particular, the propagation in both O2 and air, we also find that the high-power solutions behave like droplets of ordinary liquids. We then show how a grid of the fermionic light bubbles can be generated and forced to merge in a liquid droplet. This leads us to propose a set of experiments aimed at the production of both the fermionic and liquid phases of light, and at the demonstration of the transition from the former to the latter.
Fermions on one or fewer kinks
Chu Yizen; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2008-01-15
We find the full spectrum of fermion bound states on a Z{sub 2} kink. In addition to the zero mode, there are int[2m{sub f}/m{sub s}] bound states, where m{sub f} is the fermion and m{sub s} the scalar mass. We also study fermion modes on the background of a well-separated kink-antikink pair. Using a variational argument, we prove that there is at least one bound state in this background, and that the energy of this bound state goes to zero with increasing kink-antikink separation, 2L, and faster than e{sup -a2L} where a=min(m{sub s},2m{sub f}). By numerical evaluation, we find some of the low lying bound states explicitly.
Quantum Phases of Fermionic Cold Atoms Through Pairing and Dissociation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Nicolas; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Timmermans, E.; Lin, Chi-Yong
2011-03-01
Cold atom experiments have realized molecule creation consisting of paired fermions and dissociation of weakly bound molecules into correlated fermions by tuning of the interactions with external fields [1,2]. We study many-body correlations in such system where molecules are weakly bound and therefore pairs of fermionic atoms convert into and dissociate from the bound molecule state. This exchange mediates a long-range interaction between the fermions. We consider a simple many-body Hamiltonian that includes the destruction of fermionic atom pairs to form single bosonic molecules and vice versa. We employ a functional renormalization-group approach to search for instabilities from the disordered quantum liquid phase that may arise from a boson mediated fermion-fermion interaction. We calculate the renormalized frequency-dependent fermion interactions vertices and renormalized molecular binding energy.
Evidence for e+e- →γχc1,2 at center-of-mass energies from 4.009 to 4.360 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; R. Baldini, Ferroli; Ban, Y.; W. Bennett, D.; V. Bennett, J.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; A. Briere, R.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; A. Cetin, S.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; F. De, Mori; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; P. Guo, Y.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; A. Harris, F.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; C. Ke, B.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; B. Kolcu, O.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; S. Lange, J.; M., Lara; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; X. Lin(Lin, D.; Liu, B. J.; L. Liu, C.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhiqing, Liu; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; E. Maas, F.; Maggiora, M.; A. Malik, Q.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; G. Messchendorp, J.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; E. Mitchell, R.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; C. Morales, Morales; Moriya, K.; Yu. Muchnoi, N.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; B. Nikolaev, I.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; H. Rashid, K.; F. Redmer, C.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; R. Shepherd, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; H. Thorndike, E.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; S. Varner, G.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; D. Wang(Yadi, Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; A. Zafar, A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration
2015-04-01
Using data samples collected at center-of-mass energies of √s = 4.009, 4.230, 4.260, and 4.360 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider, we perform a search for the process e+e- → γχcJ (J=0, 1, 2) and find evidence for e+e- → γχc1 and e+e- → γχc2 with statistical significances of 3.0σ and 3.4σ, respectively. The Born cross sections σB(e+e- → γχcJ), as well as their upper limits at the 90% confidence level (C.L.) are determined at each center-of-mass energy. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Joint Funds of National Natural Science Foundation of China (11079008, 11179007, U1232201, U1332201, U1232107), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (10935007, 11121092, 11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology; German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0)
Fermion boson metamorphosis in field theory
Ha, Y.K.
1982-01-01
In two-dimensional field theories many features are especially transparent if the Fermi fields are represented by non-local expressions of the Bose fields. Such a procedure is known as boson representation. Bilinear quantities appear in the Lagrangian of a fermion theory transform, however, as simple local expressions of the bosons so that the resulting theory may be written as a theory of bosons. Conversely, a theory of bosons may be transformed into an equivalent theory of fermions. Together they provide a basis for generating many interesting equivalences between theories of different types. In the present work a consistent scheme for constructing a canonical Fermi field in terms of a real scalar field is developed and such a procedure is valid and consistent with the tenets of quantum field theory is verified. A boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. The nature of dynamical generation of mass when the theory undergoes boson transmutation and the preservation of continuous chiral symmetry in the massive case are examined. The dynamics of the system depends to a great extent on the specific number of fermions and different models of the same system can have very different properties. Many unusual symmetries of the fermion theory, such as hidden symmetry, duality and triality symmetries, are only manifest in the boson formulation. The underlying connections between some models with U(N) internal symmetry and another class of fermion models built with Majorana fermions which have O(2N) internal symmetry are uncovered.
Fermion-fermion scattering in quantum field theory with superconducting circuits.
García-Álvarez, L; Casanova, J; Mezzacapo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Lamata, L; Romero, G; Solano, E
2015-02-20
We propose an analog-digital quantum simulation of fermion-fermion scattering mediated by a continuum of bosonic modes within a circuit quantum electrodynamics scenario. This quantum technology naturally provides strong coupling of superconducting qubits with a continuum of electromagnetic modes in an open transmission line. In this way, we propose qubits to efficiently simulate fermionic modes via digital techniques, while we consider the continuum complexity of an open transmission line to simulate the continuum complexity of bosonic modes in quantum field theories. Therefore, we believe that the complexity-simulating-complexity concept should become a leading paradigm in any effort towards scalable quantum simulations.
Topological susceptibility in staggered fermion chiral perturbation theory
Billeter, Brian; DeTar, Carleton; Osborn, James
2004-10-01
The topological susceptibility of the vacuum in quantum chromodynamics has been simulated numerically using the Asqtad improved staggered fermion formalism. At nonzero lattice spacing, the residual fermion doublers (fermion tastes) in the staggered fermion formalism give contributions to the susceptibility that deviate from conventional continuum chiral perturbation theory. In this brief report, we estimate the taste-breaking artifact and compare it with results of recent simulations, finding that it accounts for roughly half of the scaling violation.
Maximum entanglement in squeezed boson and fermion states
Khanna, F. C.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.; Santana, A. E.; Santos, E. S.
2007-08-15
A class of squeezed boson and fermion states is studied with particular emphasis on the nature of entanglement. We first investigate the case of bosons, considering two-mode squeezed states. Then we construct the fermion version to show that such states are maximum entangled, for both bosons and fermions. To achieve these results, we demonstrate some relations involving squeezed boson states. The generalization to the case of fermions is made by using Grassmann variables.
Global analysis of fermion mixing with exotics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nardi, Enrico; Roulet, Esteban; Tommasini, Daniele
1991-01-01
The limits are analyzed on deviation of the lepton and quark weak-couplings from their standard model values in a general class of models where the known fermions are allowed to mix with new heavy particles with exotic SU(2) x U(1) quantum number assignments (left-handed singlets or right-handed doublets). These mixings appear in many extensions of the electroweak theory such as models with mirror fermions, E(sub 6) models, etc. The results update previous analyses and improve considerably the existing bounds.
Condensation of gauge interacting massless fermions
Siringo, Fabio
2004-09-15
A single massless fermionic field with an Abelian U(1) gauge interaction (electrodynamics of a massless Dirac fermion) is studied by a variational method. Even without the insertion of any extra interaction the vacuum is shown to be unstable towards a particle-antiparticle condensate. The single particle excitations do acquire a mass and behave as massive Fermi particles. An explicit low-energy gap equation has been derived and numerically solved. Some consequences of condensation and mass generation are discussed in the framework of the standard model.
Massless rotating fermions inside a cylinder
Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2015-12-07
We study rotating thermal states of a massless quantum fermion field inside a cylinder in Minkowski space-time. Two possible boundary conditions for the fermion field on the cylinder are considered: the spectral and MIT bag boundary conditions. If the radius of the cylinder is sufficiently small, rotating thermal expectation values are finite everywhere inside the cylinder. We also study the Casimir divergences on the boundary. The rotating thermal expectation values and the Casimir divergences have different properties depending on the boundary conditions applied at the cylinder. This is due to the local nature of the MIT bag boundary condition, while the spectral boundary condition is nonlocal.
Production of P-wave charmed mesons in hadronic B decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Hai-Yang; Chua, Chun-Khiang
2006-08-01
Production of even-parity charmed mesons in hadronic B decays is studied. Specifically, we focus on the Cabibbo-allowed decays B¯→D**π and D¯s**D(*), where D** denotes generically a P-wave charmed meson. While the measured color-allowed decays B¯0→D**+π- are consistent with the theoretical expectation, the experimental observation of B-→D**0π- for the broad D** states is astonishing as it requires that the color-suppressed contribution dominates over the color-allowed one, even though the former is 1/mb suppressed in the heavy quark limit. In order to accommodate the data of B¯→D**π-, it is found that the real part of a2/a1 has a sign opposite to that in B¯→Dπ decays, where a1 and a2 are the effective parameters for color-allowed and color-suppressed decay amplitudes, respectively. The decay constants and form factors for D** and the Isgur-Wise functions τ1/2(ω) and τ3/2(ω) are extracted from the data of B→D**π decays. The Isgur-Wise functions calculated in the covariant light-front quark model are in good agreement with experiment. The neutral modes B¯0→D**0π0 for D**=D0*(2400), D1'(2430), and B¯0→D1'0(2430)ω are predicted to have branching ratios of order 10-4 which are also supported by the isospin argument. The decay constants of Ds0*(2317) and Ds1'(2460) are inferred from the measurements of B¯→Ds**-D to be 58 86 MeV and 130 200 MeV, respectively. Contrary to the decay constants fD0* and fD1' which are similar in size, the large disparity between fDs0* and fDs1' is surprising and unexpected.
A P-wave based, on-site method for Earthquake Early Warning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zollo, Aldo
2016-04-01
Can we rapidly predict the potential damage of earthquakes by-passing the estimation of its location and magnitude? One possible approach is to predict the expected peak ground shaking at the site and the earthquake magnitude from the initial P-peak amplitude and characteristic period, respectively. The idea, first developed by Wu and Kanamori (2005), is to combine the two parameters for declaring the alert once the real-time measured quantities have passed pre-defined thresholds. Our proposed on-site early warning method generalized this approach, based on the analysis of strong motion data from modern accelerograph networks in Japan, Taiwan and Italy (Zollo et al., 2010). It is based on the real-time measurement of the period (τc) and peak displacement (Pd) parameters at one or more co-located stations at a given target site to be protected against the earthquake effects. By converting these real-time proxies in predicted values of Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) or instrumental intensity (IMM) and magnitude, an alert level is issued at the recording site based on a decisional table with four entries defined upon threshold values of the parameters Pd and Tc. The latter ones are set according to the error bounds estimated on the derived prediction equations. A near-source network of stations running the onsite method can provide the event location and transmit the information about the alert levels recorded at near-source stations to more distant sites, before the arrival of the most destructive phase. The network-based approach allows for the rapid and robust estimation of the Potential Damage Zone (PDZ), that is the area where most of earthquake damage is expected (Colombelli et al., 2012). A new strategy for a P-wave based, on-site earthquake early warning system has been developed and tested on Japanese strong motion data and under testing on Italian data. The key elements are the real-time, continuous measurement of three peak amplitude parameters and their
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skelly, Klint T.
Coal is an important source of energy, but combustion of coal releases a significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Consequently, developing efficient carbon capture and sequestration strategies to mitigate global warming is of great practical significance. Characterization of reservoirs proposed for carbon capture and sequestration is important for efficient injection of CO2 and monitoring reservoir performance over time. The efficiency and long term effectiveness of CO2 storage is largely governed by the presence and orientation of fractures within a reservoir and its associated seal. The presence of natural fractures which can act as conduits for CO2 leakage gives rise to seismic anisotropy that is related to the fracture orientation and fracture density, and this relation can be studied through anisotropy analysis. Estimation of fracture orientation and fracture density is essential for long term CO 2 storage and monitoring. Well logs, cores and well tests provide information about stress fields and fractures at the well location but away from the well one has to rely on seismic data. Seismic-derived attributes like semblance and curvature provide useful tools for qualitative analysis of fractures, but they do not provide a direct measure of fracture orientation and fracture density. Moreover, such analyses depend on the quality of stacked seismic data. Multiazimuth seismic data, on the other hand, provide information about the variations in the seismic velocity in different azimuths and can thus provide a direct estimate of fracture orientation and fracture density. This research, which focus on the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming, USA, used single component (P-wave) multiazimuth seismic data and well data to create flattened angle gathers for different azimuths using prestack waveform inversion. Here, an advanced waveform technique, prestack waveform inversion, was used to obtain suitable velocities for proper offset-to-angle conversion as
P-Wave Velocity Tomography from Local Earthquakes in Western Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa-Chávez, Juan A.; Escudero, Christian R.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco J.; Bandy, William L.
2016-10-01
In western Mexico, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North America plate has deformed and fragmented the overriding plate, forming several structural rifts and crustal blocks. To obtain a reliable subsurface image of the continental crust and uppermost mantle in this complex area, we used P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes along with the Fast Marching Method tomography technique. We followed an inversion scheme consisting of (1) the use of a high-quality earthquake catalog and corrected phase picks, (2) the selection of earthquakes using a maximum location error threshold, (3) the estimation of an improved 1-D reference velocity model, and (4) the use of checkerboard testing to determine the optimum configuration of the velocity nodes and inversion parameters. Surprisingly, the tomography results show a very simple δVp distribution that can be described as being controlled by geologic structures formed during two stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates. The earlier period represents the initial stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath western Mexico; the later period represents the more advanced stage of rifting where the Rivera and Cocos plates had separated sufficiently to allow melt to accumulate below the Colima Volcanic complex. During the earlier period (14 or 10-1.6 Ma), NE-SW-oriented structures/lineaments (such as the Southern Colima Rift) were formed as the two plates separated. During the second period (1.6 Ma to the present), the deformation is attributed to magma, generated within and above the tear zone between the Rivera and Cocos plates, rising beneath the region of the Colima Volcanic Complex. The rising magma fractured the overlying crust, forming a classic triple-rift junction geometry. This triple-rift system is confined to the mid- to lower crust perhaps indicating that this rifting process is still in an early stage. This fracturing, along with fluid circulation and associated
Time varying velocity structures in Earth's outer core: Constraints from exotic P-waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, E. A.; Irving, J. C.; Deuss, A. F.; Cormier, V. F.
2011-12-01
The outer core is one of the most dynamic divisions of our planet. However, despite undergoing vigorous convection, the outer core is not necessarily a uniform, homogeneous layer of the Earth. Accumulation of light element enriched iron at the top of the outer core, below the core-mantle boundary, may lead to the formation of a stably stratified layer, corresponding to the E' layer as defined by Bullen. The E' layer would have different properties to the rest of the outer core and may be a source of scattering. The lowermost outer core, the F layer, may also have different physical properties than the rest of the outer core, either due to the crystallisation of iron or the release of light elements as the inner core grows. Time varying structure in the Earth's core has been observed in some previous studies, particularly using earthquake doublets. The vigorous convection in the outer core may lead to small-scale lateral variations in its velocity structure over time, due to the movement of fluids and slurry near to the core-mantle and inner core boundaries. We investigate the velocity and attenuation structure of the upper 1500 km of the outer core using high frequency PmKP seismic phases. PmKP waves travel as P-waves throughout the Earth, bouncing m-1 times on the underside of the core-mantle boundary. By analysing the relative arrival times and amplitudes of the PmKP waves and other seismic phases, and comparing these to synthetic waveforms, it is possible to constrain the velocity and attenuation characteristics of the upper 1500 km of the outer core. We correct for known mantle structure and explore the effects of core-mantle boundary topography. To investigate the scattering characteristics of the uppermost outer core and the sharpness of any stratified layers we search for precursors to PmKP phases, which are elusive. P4KP-PcP differential travel times suggest that the uppermost 1300 km of the outer core is up to 0.4% slower than PREM. There is some evidence
3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy; Davy, Richard; Sawyer, Dale; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Reston, Timothy; Shillington, Donna; Ranero, Cesar
2015-04-01
The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.
3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayrakci, G.; Minshull, T. A.; Davy, R. G.; Sawyer, D. S.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Reston, T. J.; Shillington, D. J.; Ranero, C. R.
2014-12-01
The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.
Gas hydrate and P-Wave Velocity Distribution in the Yaquina Basin at the Peruvian margin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huebscher, C.; Gajewski, D.; Grobys, J.; Kukowski, N.; Netzeband, G.; Wagner, M.; Bialas, J.
2003-04-01
The lower boundary of the methane hydrate stability zone in continental margin sediments is often marked by a strong, phase reversed reflection subparallel to the seafloor, called the bottom simulating reflector (BSR). High resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) data from the Yaquina Basin offshore Peru at 8 deg S show a BSR that is varying laterally in amplitude as well as in continuity. The amplitudes of the reflections above the BSR also vary with the appearance of the BSR. Where the BSR is strong, the reflections above it are weaker compared to areas where the BSR is weak. And although the strong part of the BSR is underlain immediately by strong reflections, reflections several hundred meters beneath the BSR appear weaker than those where the BSR is weak. This variation indicates significant heterogeneity in the distribution of gas and gas hydrate in this area. Chemoherms observed at the Yaquina Basin sea floor indicate the presence of free gas in the sediments up to the seafloor. The presence of gas and gas hydrate within the sediment sequence significantly influences the P-wave velocity in the affected layers. Therefore a detailed analysis of velocity variations enables to understand the apparently different conditions for the formation of gas hydrate along the BSR and the migration paths of the free gas. Ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data from profiles coincident with the MCS data can provide such detailed velocity depth information. Velocity analysis from OBS data included 2D-ray tracing and 1D-interval-velocity analysis by means of DIX-inversion. In order to find a trade-off between vertical resolution and minimization of errors caused by the sensitivity of the DIX' formula to velocity variations in thin layers, the data have undergone a Kirchhoff wave-equation datuming and adjacent coherence filtering was applied to the data to eliminate the one sided travel path through the water column of the OBS-observations. The derived velocity structure confirms
Global P-wave tomography of mantle plumes and subducting slabs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Y.; Zhao, D.
2008-12-01
There are many volcanoes on the Earth which can be generally classified into 3 categories: island arc volcanoes, mid-ocean ridge volcanoes, and hotspot volcanoes. Hotspot volcanoes denote intraplate volcanoes like Hawaii, or anomalously large mid-ocean ridge volcanoes like Iceland. So far many researchers have studied the origin of hotspot volcanoes and have used mantle plume hypothesis to explain them. However, we still have little knowledge about mantle plumes yet. In this study, we determined a new model of whole mantle P-wave tomography to understand the origin of hotspot volcanoes. We used the global tomography method of Zhao (2001, 2004). A 3-D grid net was set up in the mantle, and velocity perturbations at every grid nodes were taken as unknown parameters. The iasp91 velocity model (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) was taken as the 1-D initial model. We selected 9106 earthquakes from the events occurred in the last forty years from the ISC catalog. About 1.6 million arrival-time data of five-type P phases (P, pP, PP, PcP, and Pdiff) were used to conduct the tomographic inversion. In our previous model (Zhao, 2004), the grid interval in the E-W direction is too small in the polar regions. In this study, in order to remedy this problem, we use a flexible-grid approach to make the lateral grid intervals in the polar regions nearly the same as the other portions of the mantle. As a result, the tomographic images in the polar regions are remarkably improved. Our new tomographic model shows huge low-velocity (low-V) zones in the entire mantle under Tahiti and Lake Victoria, which reflect the Pacific and African superplumes, being consistent with the previous studies. A clear low-V zone is revealed under Mt. Erebus volcano in Antarctica. Other major hotspots also exhibit significant low-V zones in the mantle under their surface locations. Beneath Bering Sea, we found that the Pacific slab is subducting from the Aleutian trench and it is stagnant in the mantle transition
Site-selective NMR for odd-frequency Cooper pairs around vortex in chiral p -wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro
2016-03-01
In order to identify the pairing symmetry with chirality, we study site-selective NMR in chiral p -wave superconductors. We calculate local nuclear relaxation rate T1-1 in the vortex lattice state by Eilenberger theory, including the applied magnetic field dependence. We find that T1-1 in the NMR resonance line shape is different between two chiral states p±(=px±i py) , depending on whether the chirality is parallel or antiparallel to the vorticity. Anomalous suppression of T1-1 occurs around the vortex core in the chiral p- wave due to the negative coherence term coming from the odd-frequency s -wave Cooper pair induced around the vortex with Majorana state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisrat, Shishay T.; DeShon, Heather R.; Pesicek, Jeremy; Thurber, Clifford
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution P wave seismic attenuation model for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is determined using P wave path attenuation (t*) values of small-magnitude earthquakes (MD < 3.9). Events were recorded at 89 broadband and short-period seismometers of the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Zone Network and 40 short-period seismometers of the Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition experiment. The amplitude spectra of all the earthquakes are simultaneously inverted for source, path (t*), and site parameters. The t* values are inverted for QP using local earthquake tomography methods and a known 3-D P wave velocity model for the region. The four major seismicity arms of the NMSZ exhibit reduced QP (higher attenuation) than the surrounding crust. The highest attenuation anomalies coincide with areas of previously reported high swarm activity attributed to fluid-rich fractures along the southeast extension of the Reelfoot fault. The QP results are consistent with previous attenuation studies in the region, which showed that active fault zones and fractured crust in the NMSZ are highly attenuating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obayashi, Masayuki; Ishihara, Yasushi; Suetsugu, Daisuke
2017-03-01
We conducted synthetic experiments to evaluate the effects of shallow-layer reverberation in oceanic regions on P-wave travel times measured by waveform cross-correlation. Time shift due to waveform distortion by the reverberation was estimated as a function of period. Reverberations in the crystalline crust advance the P-waves by a frequency-independent time shift of about 0.3 s in oceans. Sediment does not affect the time shifts in the mid-ocean regions, but effects as large as -0.8 s or more occur where sediment thickness is greater than 600 m for periods longer than 15 s. The water layer causes time delays (+0.3 s) in the relatively shallow (<3500 m) water region for periods longer than 20 s. The time shift may influence mantle images obtained if the reverberation effects are not accounted for in seismic tomography. We propose a simple method to correct relative P-wave travel times at two sites for shallow-layer reverberation by the cross-convolution of the crustal responses at the two sites. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gualtieri, L.; Serretti, P.; Morelli, A.
2014-01-01
We present a 3-D P wave velocity model of the crust and shallowest mantle under the Italian region, that includes a revised Moho depth map, obtained by regional seismic travel time tomography. We invert 191,850 Pn and Pg wave arrival times from 6850 earthquakes that occurred within the region from 1988 to 2007, recorded by 264 permanent seismic stations. We adopt a high-resolution linear B-spline model representation, with 0.1° horizontal and 2 km vertical grid spacing, and an accurate finite-difference forward calculation scheme. Our nonlinear iterative inversion process uses the recent European reference 3-D crustal model EPcrust as a priori information. Our resulting model shows two arcs of relatively low velocity in the crust running along both the Alps and the Apennines, underlying the collision belts between plates. Beneath the Western Alps we detect the presence of the Ivrea body, denoted by a strong high P wave velocity anomaly. We also map the Moho discontinuity resulting from the inversion, imaged as the relatively sharp transition between crust and mantle, where P wave velocity steps up to values larger than 8 km/s. This simple condition yields an image quite in agreement with previous studies that use explicit representations for the discontinuity. We find a complex lithospheric structure characterized by shallower Moho close by the Tyrrhenian Sea, intermediate depth along the Adriatic coast, and deepest Moho under the two mountain belts.
Precision constraints on extra fermion generations.
Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul
2010-07-16
There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.
Entanglement of several blocks in fermionic chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ares, Filiberto; Esteve, José G.; Falceto, Fernando
2014-12-01
In this paper we propose an expression for the entanglement entropy of several intervals in a stationary state of a free, translational invariant Hamiltonian in a fermionic chain. We check numerically the accuracy of our proposal and conjecture a formula for the asymptotic behavior of principal submatrices of a Toeplitz matrix.
Fermionic entanglement ambiguity in noninertial frames
Montero, Miguel; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
2011-06-15
We analyze an ambiguity in previous works on entanglement of fermionic fields in noninertial frames. This ambiguity, related to the anticommutation properties of field operators, leads to nonunique results when computing entanglement measures for the same state. We show that the ambiguity disappears when we introduce detectors, which are in any case necessary as a means to probe the field entanglement.
Observation of Weyl fermions in condensed matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Hong
In 1929, a German mathematician and physicist Hermann Weyl proposed that a massless solution of the Dirac equation represents a pair of new type of particles, the so-called Weyl fermions. However, their existence in particle physics remains elusive after more than eight decades, e.g., neutrino has been regarded as a Weyl fermion in the Standard Model until it was found to have mass. Recently, significant advances in topological materials have provided an alternative way to realize Weyl fermions in condensed matter as an emergent phenomenon. Weyl semimetals are predicted as a class of topological materials that can be regarded as three-dimensional analogs of graphene breaking time reversal or inversion symmetry. Electrons in a Weyl semimetal behave exactly as Weyl fermions, which have many exotic properties, such as chiral anomaly, magnetic monopoles in the crystal momentum space, and open Fermi arcs on the surface. In this talk I will report our experimental discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs by observing Fermi arcs with a characteristic spin texture in the surface states and Weyl nodes in the bulk states using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.
Partial dynamical symmetry in a fermion system
Escher; Leviatan
2000-02-28
The relevance of the partial dynamical symmetry concept for an interacting fermion system is demonstrated. Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei and shown to be closely related to the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Implications are discussed for the deformed light nucleus 20Ne.
Finite volume renormalization scheme for fermionic operators
Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas
2013-11-01
We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation.
Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar
Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.
Fermions Living in a Flat World
Jesus Anguiano-Galicia, Ma. de; Bashir, A.
2006-09-25
In a plane, parity transformation, which changes the sign of only one spatial coordinate, swaps the fermion fields living in two inequivalent representations. A parity invariant Lagrangian thus contains fields corresponding to both the representations. For such a Lagrangian, we show that we can also define a chiral symmetry.
Effect of Fermion Velocity on Phase Structure of QED3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian-Feng; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-11-01
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) in thermal QED3 with fermion velocity is studied in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. By adopting instantaneous approximation and neglecting the transverse component of gauge boson propagator at finite temperature, we numerically solve the fermion self-energy equation in the rainbow approximation. It is found that both DCSB and fermion chiral condensate are suppressed by fermion velocity. Moreover, the critical temperature decreases as fermion velocity increases. Supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11535005 and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under Grant No. BK20130387
Improvement of Epicentral Direction Estimation by P-wave Polarization Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshima, Mitsutaka
2016-04-01
Polarization analysis has been used to analyze the polarization characteristics of waves and developed in various spheres, for example, electromagnetics, optics, and seismology. As for seismology, polarization analysis is used to discriminate seismic phases or to enhance specific phase (e.g., Flinn, 1965)[1], by taking advantage of the difference in polarization characteristics of seismic phases. In earthquake early warning, polarization analysis is used to estimate the epicentral direction using single station, based on the polarization direction of P-wave portion in seismic records (e.g., Smart and Sproules(1981) [2], Noda et al.,(2012) [3]). Therefore, improvement of the Estimation of Epicentral Direction by Polarization Analysis (EEDPA) directly leads to enhance the accuracy and promptness of earthquake early warning. In this study, the author tried to improve EEDPA by using seismic records of events occurred around Japan from 2003 to 2013. The author selected the events that satisfy following conditions. MJMA larger than 6.5 (JMA: Japan Meteorological Agency). Seismic records are available at least 3 stations within 300km in epicentral distance. Seismic records obtained at stations with no information on seismometer orientation were excluded, so that precise and quantitative evaluation of accuracy of EEDPA becomes possible. In the analysis, polarization has calculated by Vidale(1986) [4] that extended the method proposed by Montalbetti and Kanasewich(1970)[5] to use analytical signal. As a result of the analysis, the author found that accuracy of EEDPA improves by about 15% if velocity records, not displacement records, are used contrary to the author's expectation. Use of velocity records enables reduction of CPU time in integration of seismic records and improvement in promptness of EEDPA, although this analysis is still rough and further scrutiny is essential. At this moment, the author used seismic records that obtained by simply integrating acceleration
Fermionic-mode entanglement in non-Markovian environment
Cheng, Jiong; Han, Yan; An, Qing-zhi; Zhou, Ling
2015-03-15
We evaluate the non-Markovian effects on the entanglement dynamics of a fermionic system interacting with two dissipative vacuum reservoirs. The exact solution of density matrix is derived by utilizing the Feynman–Vernon influence functional theory in the fermionic coherent state representation and the Grassmann calculus, which are valid for both the fermionic and bosonic baths, and their difference lies in the dependence of the parity of the initial states. The fermionic entanglement dynamics is presented by adding an additional restriction to the density matrix known as the superselection rules. Our analysis shows that the usual decoherence suppression schemes implemented in qubits systems can also be achieved for systems of identical fermions, and the initial state proves its importance in the evolution of fermionic entanglement. Our results provide a potential way to decoherence controlling of identical fermions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvioli, M.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Morita, H.
2016-10-01
Background: The two-nucleon momentum distributions of nucleons N1 and N2 in a nucleus A , nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) , is a relevant quantity that determines the probability of finding two nucleons with relative momentum krel and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum Kc .m .; at high values of the relative momentum and, at the same time, low values of the c.m. momentum, nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) provides information on the short-range structure of nuclei. Purpose: Our purpose is to calculate the momentum distributions of proton-neutron and proton-proton pairs in 3He, 4He, 12C, 16O, and 40Ca, in correspondence to various values of krel and Kc .m .. Methods: The momentum distributions for A >4 nuclei are calculated as a function of the relative, krel, and center-of-mass, Kc.m., momenta and relative angle Θ , within a linked cluster many-body expansion approach, based upon realistic local two-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family and variational wave functions featuring central, tensor, and spin-isospin correlations. Results: Independently of the mass number A , at values of the relative momentum krel≳1.5 -2 fm-1 the momentum distributions exhibit the property of factorization, nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) ≃nrelN1N2(krel) nc.m . N1N2(Kc .m .) ; in particular, for p n back-to-back pairs one has nAp n(krel,Kc .m .=0 ) ≃CAp nnD(krel) nc.m . p n(Kc .m .=0 ) , where nD is the deuteron momentum distribution, nc.m . p n(Kc .m .=0 ) the c.m. motion momentum distribution of the pair, and CAp n the p n nuclear contact measuring the number of back-to-back p n pairs with deuteron-like momenta (kp≃-kn,Kc .m .=0 ). Conclusions: The values of the p n nuclear contact are extracted from the general properties of the two-nucleon momentum distributions corresponding to Kc .m .=0 . The Kc .m .-integrated p n momentum distributions exhibit the property nAp n(krel) ≃CAp nnD(krel) but only at very high values of krel, ≳3.5 -4 fm-1. The theoretical ratio of the p p /p n momentum distributions of 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji
2017-02-01
We theoretically investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including fluctuations in the p-wave Cooper channel within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we clarify how CV as a function of temperature varies, as one moves from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling limit. In the weak-coupling regime, CV is shown to be enhanced by p-wave pairing fluctuations, near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. Similar enhancement of CV(T ≃ Tc) is also obtained in the strong-coupling regime, which, however, reflects that system is close an ideal Bose gas of p-wave two-body bound molecules. Using these results, we classify the normal state into (1) the normal Fermi gas regime, (2) the p-wave molecular Bose gas regime, and (3) the region between the two, where p-wave pairing fluctuations are dominant. Since the current experiments can only access the normal phase of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas, our results would be useful for experiments to understand strong-coupling properties of this Fermi system above Tc.
Center of mass in complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chuanji; Gao, Yachun; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Hongchun; Yang, Chun
2017-01-01
Network dynamics is always a big challenge in nonlinear dynamics. Although great advancements have been made in various types of complex systems, an universal theoretical framework is required. In this paper, we introduce the concept of center of ‘mass’ of complex networks, where ‘mass’ stands for node importance or centrality in contrast to that of particle systems, and further prove that the phase transition and evolutionary state of the system can be characterized by the activity of center of ‘mass’. The steady states of several complex networks (gene regulatory networks and epidemic spreading systems) are then studied by analytically calculating the decoupled equation of the dynamic activity of center of ‘mass’, which is derived from the dynamic equation of the complex networks. The limitations of this method are also pointed out, such as the dynamical problems that related with the relative activities among components, and those systems that consist of oscillatory or chaotic motions.
Center of mass in complex networks
Fu, Chuanji; Gao, Yachun; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Hongchun; Yang, Chun
2017-01-01
Network dynamics is always a big challenge in nonlinear dynamics. Although great advancements have been made in various types of complex systems, an universal theoretical framework is required. In this paper, we introduce the concept of center of ‘mass’ of complex networks, where ‘mass’ stands for node importance or centrality in contrast to that of particle systems, and further prove that the phase transition and evolutionary state of the system can be characterized by the activity of center of ‘mass’. The steady states of several complex networks (gene regulatory networks and epidemic spreading systems) are then studied by analytically calculating the decoupled equation of the dynamic activity of center of ‘mass’, which is derived from the dynamic equation of the complex networks. The limitations of this method are also pointed out, such as the dynamical problems that related with the relative activities among components, and those systems that consist of oscillatory or chaotic motions. PMID:28106109
Magnani, Jared W.; Johnson, Victor M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Gorodeski, Eiran Z.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Levy, Daniel; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.
2011-01-01
Long-term risk prediction is a priority for the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF). P wave indices are electrocardiographic measurements describing atrial conduction. The role of P wave indices in the prospective determination of AF and mortality risk has had limited assessment. We quantified by digital caliper the P wave indices of maximum duration and dispersion in 1,550 Framingham Heart Study participants ≥60 years old (58% women) from single-channel electrocardiograms recorded from 1968 through 1971. We examined the association of selected P wave indices and long-term outcomes using Cox proportional hazards regression incorporating age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, significant murmur, heart failure, and PR interval. Over a median follow-up of 15.8 years (range 0 to 38.7), 359 participants developed AF and 1,525 died. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) per SD increase in maximum P wave duration were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 to 1.47, p = 0.27) for AF and 1.02 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.08, p = 0.18) for mortality. The upper 5% of P wave maximum duration had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 2.51 (95% CI 1.13 to 5.57, p = 0.024) for AF and an HR of 1.11 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.40, p = 0.20) for mortality. We found no significant associations between P wave dispersion with incidence of AF or mortality. In conclusion, maximum P wave duration at the upper fifth percentile was associated with long-term AF risk in an elderly community-based cohort. P wave duration is an electrocardiographic endophenotype for AF. PMID:21255761
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Bennett, Michael W.
2006-02-01
P-wave surface seismic reflection data, acquired from a carbonate aquifer in southeastern Florida, are used to delineate flow units in a proposed aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) horizon. The impedance image determined by inversion from P-wave reflection data captures most of the boundaries between hydraulic facies. The hydraulic facies properties are based on integration of the well logs and the lithology, which consists of vuggy carbonate units and sandstones. Within the proposed ASR horizon, located in the upper Floridan aquifer, low-permeability zones consist of sandstones and highly permeable zones are carbonates with interconnected vuggy porosity. High-resolution porosity, permeability, and impedance images based on cross-well reflection and well logs help us evaluate the P-wave seismic reflection results. We use well logs and cross-well seismic data to support whether two-dimensional seismic reflection measurements detect important flow units delineated by cross-well high-resolution seismic data. The data analysis demonstrates that major flow units are resolved and imaged with two-dimensional seismic reflection techniques, although not as clearly as in the high-resolution cross-well data. The results suggest that the surface seismic reflection method, integrated with well logs and geology, provides the tools to assess water resources in this south Florida carbonate aquifer. However, we recommend conducting a cross-well survey in areas where an understanding of the petrophysics is imperative to relating the seismic attributes to rock and fluid properties. This can be a critical step for planning purposes when considering a large surface-oriented seismic survey.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Shen, B. C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Grenier, P.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biasini, M.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Pioppi, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljević, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Forti, A. C.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Cote-Ahern, D.; Hast, C.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; Cartaro, C.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Losecco, J. M.; Gabriel, T. A.; Brau, B.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Pulliam, T.; Wong, Q. K.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Potter, C. T.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Colecchia, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Pivk, M.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; T'jampens, S.; Therin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Behera, P. K.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; del Gamba, V.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Wagoner, D. E.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J.; Tanaka, H. A.; Varnes, E. W.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Schott, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yeche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Purohit, M. V.; Weidemann, A. W.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Berger, N.; Boyarski, A. M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Dong, D.; Dorfan, J.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Hryn'ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Simi, G.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Meyer, T. I.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Saleem, M.; Wappler, F. R.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Kim, H.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; di Lodovico, F.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.
2004-01-01
We have studied the process e+e-→μ+μ-γ at a center-of-mass energy near the Υ(4S) resonance for a μ+μ- invariant mass range near the J/ψ mass and measured the cross section σ(e+e-→J/ψ γ→μ+μ-γ). The data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 88.4 fb-1, was collected using the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II collider. From the measured cross section we extract the product Γ(J/ψ→e+e-)B(J/ψ→μ+μ-)=0.330±0.008±0.007 keV. Using the world averages for B(J/ψ→μ+μ-) and B(J/ψ→e+e-), we derive the J/ψ electronic and total widths: Γ(J/ψ→e+e-)=5.61±0.20 keV and Γ=94.7±4.4 keV.
Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.
2011-07-01
First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.
Miller, David Wilkins
2012-03-20
This thesis presents the first measurement of 6 hadronic event shapes in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results are presented at the particle-level, permitting comparisons to multiple Monte Carlo event generator tools. Numerous tools and techniques that enable detailed analysis of the hadronic final state at high luminosity are described. The approaches presented utilize the dual strengths of the ATLAS calorimeter and tracking systems to provide high resolution and robust measurements of the hadronic jets that constitute both a background and a signal throughout ATLAS physics analyses. The study of the hadronic final state is then extended to jet substructure, where the energy flow and topology within individual jets is studied at the detector level and techniques for estimating systematic uncertainties for such measurements are commissioned in the first data. These first substructure measurements in ATLAS include the jet mass and sub-jet multiplicity as well as those concerned with multi-body hadronic decays and color flow within jets. Finally, the first boosted hadronic object observed at the LHC - the decay of the top quark to a single jet - is presented.
Equilibration via Gaussification in Fermionic Lattice Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gluza, M.; Krumnow, C.; Friesdorf, M.; Gogolin, C.; Eisert, J.
2016-11-01
In this Letter, we present a result on the nonequilibrium dynamics causing equilibration and Gaussification of quadratic noninteracting fermionic Hamiltonians. Specifically, based on two basic assumptions—clustering of correlations in the initial state and the Hamiltonian exhibiting delocalizing transport—we prove that non-Gaussian initial states become locally indistinguishable from fermionic Gaussian states after a short and well controlled time. This relaxation dynamics is governed by a power-law independent of the system size. Our argument is general enough to allow for pure and mixed initial states, including thermal and ground states of interacting Hamiltonians on large classes of lattices as well as certain spin systems. The argument gives rise to rigorously proven instances of a convergence to a generalized Gibbs ensemble. Our results allow us to develop an intuition of equilibration that is expected to be more generally valid and relates to current experiments of cold atoms in optical lattices.
A closer look at the elementary fermions
Goldhaber, Maurice
2002-01-01
Although there have been many experimental and theoretical efforts to measure and interpret small deviations from the standard model of particle physics, the gap that the model leaves in understanding why there are only three generations of the elementary fermions, with hierarchical masses, has not received the attention it deserves. I present here an attempt to fill this gap. Although our findings are mostly only qualitative, they nevertheless may be of heuristic value. Rules concerning the elementary fermions, some previously known and some new, lead to a number of conclusions and questions that seem worth pursuing. Some clarify the standard model, and others suggest possible modifications, the implications of which are discussed. PMID:11773637
Possible Aoki phase for staggered fermions
Aubin, C.; Wang Qinghai
2004-12-01
The phase diagram for staggered fermions is discussed in the context of the staggered chiral Lagrangian, extending previous work on the subject. When the discretization errors are significant, there may be an Aoki-like phase for staggered fermions, where the remnant SO(4) taste-symmetry is broken down to SO(3). We solve explicitly for the mass spectrum in the 3-flavor degenerate mass case and discuss qualitatively the 2+1-flavor case. From numerical results we find that current simulations are outside the staggered-Aoki phase. As for near-future simulations with more-improved versions of the staggered action, it seems unlikely that these will be in the Aoki phase for any realistic value of the quark mass, although the evidence is not conclusive.
Fractional Fermions with Non-Abelian Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2013-03-01
We introduce a novel class of low-dimensional topological tight-binding models that allow for bound states that are fractionally charged fermions and exhibit non-Abelian braiding statistics. The proposed model consists of a double (single) ladder of spinless (spinful) fermions in the presence of magnetic fields. We study the system analytically in the continuum limit as well as numerically in the tight-binding representation. We find a topological phase transition with a topological gap that closes and reopens as a function of system parameters and chemical potential. The topological phase is of the type BDI and carries two degenerate midgap bound states that are localized at opposite ends of the ladders. We show numerically that these bound states are robust against a wide class of perturbations.
Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds
White, B. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Maple, M. B.
2015-02-27
Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion com- pounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.
Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds
White, B. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Maple, M. B.
2015-02-27
Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion com- pounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates andmore » iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.« less
Simulating fermions on a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.
2002-07-01
The real-time probabilistic simulation of quantum systems in classical computers is known to be limited by the so-called dynamical sign problem, a problem leading to exponential complexity. In 1981 Richard Feynman raised some provocative questions in connection to the "exact imitation" of such systems using a special device named a "quantum computer". Feynman hesitated about the possibility of imitating fermion systems using such a device. Here we address some of his concerns and, in particular, investigate the simulation of fermionic systems. We show how quantum computers avoid the sign problem in some cases by reducing the complexity from exponential to polynomial. Our demonstration is based upon the use of isomorphisms of algebras. We present specific quantum algorithms that illustrate the main points of our algebraic approach.
Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, B. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Maple, M. B.
2015-07-01
Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.
Peltier cooling of fermionic quantum gases.
Grenier, Ch; Georges, A; Kollath, C
2014-11-14
We propose a cooling scheme for fermionic quantum gases, based on the principles of the Peltier thermoelectric effect and energy filtering. The system to be cooled is connected to another harmonically trapped gas acting as a reservoir. The cooling is achieved by two simultaneous processes: (i) the system is evaporatively cooled, and (ii) cold fermions from deep below the Fermi surface of the reservoir are injected below the Fermi level of the system, in order to fill the "holes" in the energy distribution. This is achieved by a suitable energy dependence of the transmission coefficient connecting the system to the reservoir. The two processes can be viewed as simultaneous evaporative cooling of particles and holes. We show that both a significantly lower entropy per particle and faster cooling rate can be achieved in this way than by using only evaporative cooling.
Peltier Cooling of Fermionic Quantum Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grenier, Ch.; Georges, A.; Kollath, C.
2014-11-01
We propose a cooling scheme for fermionic quantum gases, based on the principles of the Peltier thermoelectric effect and energy filtering. The system to be cooled is connected to another harmonically trapped gas acting as a reservoir. The cooling is achieved by two simultaneous processes: (i) the system is evaporatively cooled, and (ii) cold fermions from deep below the Fermi surface of the reservoir are injected below the Fermi level of the system, in order to fill the "holes" in the energy distribution. This is achieved by a suitable energy dependence of the transmission coefficient connecting the system to the reservoir. The two processes can be viewed as simultaneous evaporative cooling of particles and holes. We show that both a significantly lower entropy per particle and faster cooling rate can be achieved in this way than by using only evaporative cooling.
Superconductivity in the boson-fermion model with short range fermion repulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostyrko, Tomasz
1998-03-01
We consider influence of an on-site Coulomb repulsion U between fermions on superconducting properties of a two-component system of the wide band electrons hybridized with heavy boson-like local electron pairs^1,2. Within an RPA treatment valid for U< fermion bandwidth, we show that U almost completely suppresses superconductivity as long as a boson level stays above a Fermi level (BCS limit), reducing both Tc and a range of stability of an s-wave superconducting phase at T=0 K. In a Bose region, where the chemical potential remains pinned to the boson level, superconductivity is always stable at T=0 K and suppression of Tc is relatively small, especially for finite values of a boson mass. Above results are verified with the conclusions based on an effective t-J like hamiltonian derived by means of a canonical perturbation method from the boson-fermion model in a strong U limit. We show that the on-site boson-fermion hybridization is reduced by a factor of 2t/U (t - fermion hopping) and transforms into an intersite coupling supporting an extended s-wave superconducting order in this limit. [1em] 1. J. Ranninger and Robaszkiewicz, Physica B 135, 468 (1985). 2. R. Friedberg and T.D. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 40, 423 (1989).
Matzdorf; Fang; Ismail; Zhang; Kimura; Tokura; Terakura; Plummer
2000-08-04
Ferromagnetic (FM) spin fluctuations are believed to mediate the spin-triplet pairing for the p-wave superconductivity in Sr(2)RuO(4). Our experiments show that, at the surface, a bulk soft-phonon mode freezes into a static lattice distortion associated with an in-plane rotation of the RuO(6) octahedron. First-principle calculations confirm this structure and predict a FM ground state at the surface. This coupling between structure and magnetism in the environment of broken symmetry at the surface allows a reconsideration of the coupling mechanism in the bulk.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Carlos; Ussami, Naomi; Ritsema, Jeroen
2016-08-01
We estimate density and P-wave velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath the southeastern South America plate from geoid anomalies and P-wave traveltime residuals to constrain the structure of the lithosphere underneath the Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) and conterminous geological provinces. Our analysis shows a consistent correlation between density and velocity anomalies. The P-wave speed and density are 1% and 15 kg/m3 lower, respectively, in the upper mantle under the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic alkaline provinces, except beneath the Goiás Alkaline Province (GAP), where density (+20 kg/m3) and velocity (+0.5%) are relatively high. Underneath the PMP, the density is higher by about 50 kg/m3 in the north and 25 kg/m3 in the south, to a depth of 250 - 300 km. These values correlate with high-velocity perturbations of +0.5% and +0.3%, respectively. Profiles of density perturbation versus depth in the upper mantle are different for the PMP and the adjacent Archean São Francisco (SFC) and Amazonian (AC) cratons. The Paleoproterozoic PMP basement has a high-density root. The density is relatively low in the SFC and AC lithospheres. A reduction of density is a typical characteristic of chemically depleted Archean cratons. A more fertile Proterozoic and Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle has a higher density, as deduced from density estimates of mantle xenoliths of different ages and composition. In conjunction with Re-Os isotopic studies of the PMP basalts, chemical and isotopic analyses of peridodite xenoliths from the GAP in the northern PMP, and electromagnetic induction experiments of the PMP lithosphere, our density and P-wave speed models suggest that the densification of the PMP lithosphere and flood basalt generation are related to mantle refertilization. Metasomatic refertilization resulted from the introduction of asthenospheric components from the mantle wedge above Proterozoic subduction zones, which surrounded the Paraná lithosphere
Aaltonen, Timo Antero
2016-06-20
A search for a Higgs boson with suppressed couplings to fermions, $h_f$, assumed to be the neutral, lower-mass partner of the Higgs boson discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, is reported. Such a Higgs boson could exist in extensions of the standard model with two Higgs doublets, and could be produced via $p\\bar{p} \\to H^\\pm h_f \\to W^* h_f h_f \\to 4\\gamma + X$, where $H^\\pm$ is a charged Higgs boson. This analysis uses all events with at least three photons in the final state from proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96~TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.2~${\\rm fb}^{-1}$. No evidence of a signal is observed in the data. Values of Higgs-boson masses between 10 and 100 GeV/$c^2$ are excluded at 95\\% Bayesian credibility.
Fermionic Optical Lattices: A Computational Study
2014-10-22
Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 optical lattices, degenerate quantum gases , quantum control, correlation...with a different wavelength. We systematically determine the real - and momentum-space properties of these states. The crossover from 3D to two...fermions in square lattices. The phases are systematically characterized by the symmetry of the order parameter and the real - and momentum-space
Renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions.
Shankar, R
2011-07-13
A brief introduction is given to the renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions at finite density. It is shown that Landau's theory of the Fermi liquid arises as a fixed point (with the Landau parameters as marginal couplings) and its instabilities as relevant perturbations. Applications to related areas, nuclear matter, quark matter and quantum dots, are briefly discussed. The focus will be on explaining the main ideas to people in related fields, rather than addressing the experts.
Quantum Algorithms for Fermionic Quantum Field Theories
2014-04-28
a theory in two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. The algorithm introduces new techniques to meet the additional challenges posed by...in fermionic field theories, exemplified by the massive Gross- Neveu model, a theory in two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. The...two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. Although our analysis is specific to this theory, our algorithm can be adapted to other massive
Fermions in 5D brane world models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyakov, Mikhail
2016-10-01
In the present manuscript the fermion fields in the background of 5D brane world models with compact extra dimension are examined. It is shown that the only case that allows one to perform the Kaluza-Klein decomposition in a mathematically consistent way without unnatural fine-tunings and possible pathologies, is the one which does not admit localization of the zero mode. The report is based on the results presented in [1].
Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors
Wang, K.C.
1990-11-01
We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.
Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions
2015-12-02
theoretical research supported by this grant focused on discovering new phases of quantum matter for ultracold fermionic atoms or molecules confined in optical...Communications, including a review paper on the orbital physics of cold atoms in optical lattices [1] and a book chapter on topological insulators of cold... atoms [14]. A few significant results are highlighted below. 1. Novel phases of cold atoms on higher orbital bands. The research team discovered
Scalar meson spectroscopy with lattice staggered fermions
Bernard, Claude; DeTar, Carleton; Fu Ziwen; Prelovsek, Sasa
2007-11-01
With sufficiently light up and down quarks the isovector (a{sub 0}) and isosinglet (f{sub 0}) scalar meson propagators are dominated at large distance by two-meson states. In the staggered-fermion formulation of lattice quantum chromodynamics, taste-symmetry breaking causes a proliferation of two-meson states that further complicates the analysis of these channels. Many of them are unphysical artifacts of the lattice approximation. They are expected to disappear in the continuum limit. The staggered-fermion fourth-root procedure has its purported counterpart in rooted staggered chiral perturbation theory (rS{chi}PT). Fortunately, the rooted theory provides a strict framework that permits the analysis of scalar meson correlators in terms of only a small number of low-energy couplings. Thus the analysis of the point-to-point scalar meson correlators in this context gives a useful consistency check of the fourth-root procedure and its proposed chiral realization. Through numerical simulation we have measured correlators for both the a{sub 0} and f{sub 0} channels in the 'Asqtad' improved staggered-fermion formulation in a lattice ensemble with lattice spacing a=0.12 fm. We analyze those correlators in the context of rS{chi}PT and obtain values of the low-energy chiral couplings that are reasonably consistent with previous determinations.
Composite gauge-bosons made of fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Mahiko
2016-07-01
We construct a class of Abelian and non-Abelian local gauge theories that consist only of matter fields of fermions. The Lagrangian is local and does not contain an auxiliary vector field nor a subsidiary condition on the matter fields. It does not involve an extra dimension nor supersymmetry. This Lagrangian can be extended to non-Abelian gauge symmetry only in the case of SU(2) doublet matter fields. We carry out an explicit diagrammatic computation in the leading 1 /N order to show that massless spin-one bound states appear with the correct gauge coupling. Our diagram calculation exposes the dynamical features that cannot be seen in the formal auxiliary vector-field method. For instance, it shows that the s -wave fermion-antifermion interaction in the 3S1 channel (ψ ¯ γμψ ) alone cannot form the bound gauge bosons; the fermion-antifermion pairs must couple to the d -wave state too. One feature common to our class of Lagrangian is that the Noether current does not exist. Therefore it evades possible conflict with the no-go theorem of Weinberg and Witten on the formation of the non-Abelian gauge bosons.