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Sample records for central american agouti

  1. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Central American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence and profile of Central American grandparents raising grandchildren in the United States of America. Using nationally representative data from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, Central American grandparent caregivers are compared with their noncare-giving peers. Results indicate that nationally an estimated…

  3. Agouti polypeptide compositions

    DOEpatents

    Woychik, Richard P.; Bultman, Scott J.; Michaud, Edward J.

    2001-10-30

    Disclosed are methods and compositions comprising novel agouti polypeptides and the polynucleotides which encode them. Also disclosed are DNA segments encoding these proteins derived from human and murine cell lines, and the use of these polynucleotides and polypeptides in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods, compositions, kits, and devices are also provided for identifying compounds which are inhibitors of agouti activity, and for altering fatty acid synthetase activity and intracellular calcium levels in transformed cells.

  4. Analysis of the function of the agouti gene in obesity and diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, R.L.; Miltenberger, R.J.; Klebig, M.L.

    1996-09-01

    This chapter discusses the agouti gene and dominant mutations in that gene that lead to agouti-induced obesity, and recent work with transgenic mice to elucidate the role of agouti in obesity. Agouti was cloned in 1992 by the lab of Rick Woychik at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, making it the first of many recently cloned mouse obesity genes. Sequence analysis predicted that mouse agouti is a secreted protein of 131 amino acids. The mature protein has a basic central region (lys57-arg85), a proline-rich domain (pro86-pro91) and a C-terminal region (cys 92-cys 13 1) containing 10 cysteine residues which form 5 disulfide bonds. The human homologue of agouti has also been cloned by the Woychik lab and maps to human chromosome 20q 11.2. Human agouti is 132 amino acids long and is 85% similar to the mouse agouti protein and is normally expressed in adipose tissue. The researchers have been able to recapitulate obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia with the ubiquitous expression of agouti. Agouti expression in either liver and adipose tissue alone does not cause obesity, and there`s a dose-dependent effect of agouti on body weight, food efficiency, body temperature, and insulin and glucose levels.

  5. Placentation in the capybara (Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris), Agouti (Dasyprocta aguti) and paca (Agouti paca).

    PubMed

    Miglino, M A; Carter, A M; dos Santos Ferraz, R H; Fernandes Machado, M R

    2002-05-01

    Placentae of three hystricimorph rodents--capybara, agouti and paca--were examined by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, and TUNEL staining. The placentae were divided into lobules of labyrinthine syncytium separated by interlobular and marginal trophoblast. The subplacenta comprised cytotrophoblasts, supported on lamellae of allantoic mesoderm, and syncytiotrophoblast. The central excavation was still apparent in the definitive placenta of capybara. In agouti and paca, the decidua of the junctional zone formed a mesoplacenta comprising a capsule and a pedicle. Towards term the pedicle formed a tenuous attachment between placenta and uterine wall comprising a few maternal vessels surrounded by degraded tissue. In paca placenta, it was shown by TUNEL staining that breakdown of this tissue occurred by apoptosis. The visceral yolk sac was highly villous and, in agouti, the yolk sac villi were extremely long. Lateral to its attachment to the placenta, the fetal surface was covered with non-vascular yolk sac endoderm. A layer of spongiotrophoblast cells was interposed between the endoderm and the marginal trophoblast.

  6. Centralization and Decentralization in American Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the trend toward centralization in American education policy over the last century through a variety of lenses. The overall picture that emerges is one of a continuous tug-of-war, with national and local policymakers stumbling together toward incrementally more standardized and centralized policies. There is a center of power…

  7. Properties of the Central American cold surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.; Reding, Philip J.; Zhang, Yuxia

    1993-01-01

    The Central American cold surge (CACS) is a frontal incursion from the United States into Central America and resembles the East Asian cold surge. They occur more frequently than analyzed by NMC or by published results, based on our observations between 1979 and 1990. Climatology and structure are quantified, based on surface and upper air stations throughout Central America and satellite products from GOES visible and infrared sensors and SSM/I precipitable water and rain rate sensors.

  8. The Suffix "-oso" in Central American Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the lexical formative "-oso," which is added to nominal and verbal roots to form adjectives to denote possession of the quality contained in the primitive, in Central American Spanish. Concludes it is used with traditional Spanish denotations and has undergone various semantic shifts and is being applied to roots in a completely…

  9. Rotavirus vaccination in Central American children.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Avila-Aguero, María L

    2014-06-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age around the world. Severe dehydration and mortality rates are higher in developing countries, especially those from Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The vaccine has been introduced in the national immunization programs of more than half of Latin American countries, and impact data from some of these nations has been already published. The two rotavirus vaccines, the 2-dose monovalent (RV-1) and the 3-dose pentavalent (RV-5) vaccine, have been available in the market to all Central American countries. Rotavirus vaccine has been universally introduced in the expanded immunization national programs of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Panama, but not in Belize and Costa Rica. This review summarizes what has been published about the epidemiology and impact of universal rotavirus vaccination in Central America.

  10. A Climatology of Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, P. P.; Griffin, K. S.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Monsoon gyres, commonly found over the western Pacific Ocean, are characterized by broad low-level cyclonic circulations that occur at a variety of spatial scales ranging from 1500-3000 km. Low-level cyclonic gyre circulations, while less frequent and occupying a smaller scale, have also been observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. A noteworthy gyre observed during the 2010 PREDICT field project served as a "collector" of TC Matthew and a source for TC Nicole. During October 2011, devastating flooding occurred in Guatemala and El Salvador when TD 12-E, embedded in a gyre circulation, made landfall on the Pacific coast of Central America. These gyre occurrences, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high-impact weather motivates this presentation. A preliminary analysis of Central American gyres suggests that their spatial scales vary between 1000-2000 km. These gyres also tend to be co-located with reservoirs of deep moisture that are characterized by high precipitable water values (>50 mm) and embedded deep convection on their southern and eastern sides. Catastrophic flooding can occur when gyre cyclonic circulations interact with the topography of Central America. A Central American gyre climatology including gyre frequency over the TC season and individual gyre duration will be presented. This climatology is then used to craft a gyre composite using previous gyre cases from 1980-2010. Particular attention will be given to the common synoptic and sub-synoptic scale features that precede and take place during gyre formation. This includes the role that intraseasonal and interannual circulations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) might play in gyre development. TC genesis events within gyre circulations will also be highlighted and examined further. Finally, the results of a September 2010 case study will be used to illustrate the impact that Central American

  11. Agouti polynucleotide compositions and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Woychik, Richard P.; Bultman, Scott J.; Michaud, Edward J.

    2003-02-04

    Disclosed are methods and compositions comprising novel agouti polypeptides and the polynucleotides which encode them. Also disclosed are DNA segments encoding these proteins derived from human and murine cell lines, and the use of these polynucleotides and polypeptides in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods, compositions, kits, and devices are also provided for identifying compounds which are inhibitors of agouti activity, and for altering fatty acid synthetase activity and intracellular calcium levels in transformed cells.

  12. A climatology of Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, Philippe P.

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are large, low-level, cyclonic circulations that are observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. CAGs often occur in conjunction with TCs, and can result in torrential rainfall over portions of Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and eastern United States. The lack of prior research on CAGs, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high- impact weather motivates this study. To study CAG occurrence, an algorithm was developed to identify cyclonic circulations possessing similar characteristics to monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs) in other ocean basins. This algorithm also includes a series of tests that distinguishes CAG events from large TCs and non-closed circulations. This algorithm was run between May-November 1980-2010 using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis 0.5o gridded dataset to produce the CAG climatology. 42 CAGs were classified (˜1.4 per season) with a bimodal distribution of occurrence favoring the early (May-Jun) and late (Sep-Nov) TC season. Stratification of CAG occurrence by the phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) shows that over 75% of all CAGs develop in phases 8,1, and 2. A gyre-relative, time-lagged, CAG composite analysis is performed on CAG cases spanning from three days prior to two days after CAG formation. Positive low-level geopotential height anomalies are present in the east Pacific and Atlantic basins and are associated with anomalous low-level flow before the formation of the CAG. This results in increasing cyclonic vorticity near anomalously high precipitable water over Central America, a pattern that aids the generation of deep convection and the broad closed low-level cyclonic circulation that defines the CAG. CAGs are also split into two subsets using potential vorticity (PV) on the 350K isentropic surface. Tropical CAGs possess upper-tropospheric ridging associated with low

  13. Splenic melanosis in agouti and black mice.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk-Wetula, Dominika; Wieczorek, Justyna; Płonka, Przemysław M

    2015-01-01

    An interesting example of extradermal deposition of melanin in vertebrates, notably in mammals, is splenic melanosis. In particular, if the phenomenon of splenic melanosis is correlated with hair or skin pigmentation, it must reflect the amount and perhaps the quality of pigment produced in hair follicle melanocytes. The present paper is our first study on splenic pigmentation in mice of phenotype agouti. We used untreated mixed background mice C57BL/6;129/SvJ (black - a/a, agouti - A/a, A/A), and as a control - black C57BL/6 and agouti fur from 129/SvJ mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). After euthanasia skin and spleen was evaluated macroscopically, photographed and collected for further analysis using Fontana-Masson and hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band. Spleens of the agouti mice revealed splenic melanosis but were slightly weaker pigmented than their black counterparts, while the presence of pheomelanin was difficult to determine. The fur of both phenotypes was of similar melanin content, with the same tendency as in the spleens. The contribution of pheomelanin in the agouti fur was on the border of detectability by EPR. Histological and EPR analysis confirmed the presence of melanin in the melanotic spleens. The shape of the EPR signal showed a dominance of eumelanin in fur and in melanized spleens in both phenotypes of mice. Therefore, splenic melanosis does reflect the hair follicle pigmentation not only in black, but also in agouti mice. PMID:26291042

  14. Dynamics of the Central American Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieytez, Begonia; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; José Machín, Francisco; José Gavidia, Francisco; Castro, Mi

    2014-05-01

    The Central American Pacific (CAP) is the area located in front of the Central America coast, within the Eastern Tropical Pacific region (ETP). The CAP dynamic is strongly influenced by the NE and SE trade winds, also this area is characterized by the presence of coastal wind jets at Gulf of Papagayo and Gulf of Panama, which are product of wind pulses blowing through the mountain gaps of the central cordillera, generating important eddies as the cyclonic eddy of Costa Rica Dome (CRD). Nevertheless, the implications of the topography of the continental margin of Central America in the determination of the dynamic processes in the area related to the action of winds and currents are still unknown. Between November and December 2010 (dry season), onboard the R/V Miguel Oliver, oceanographic parameters were measured in the CAP area, which despite its importance, has been poorly investigated until date. Available oceanographic information was processed in order to describe the dynamic along the Pacific coast of Central America, which is notable for its particularly strong stratification in the water column and the distribution of properties, as response to the presence of areas with high temperatures (above 28° C) and other areas with salinity minimum (less than 24). In this study was possible to distinguish three hydrographic zones: PM, south, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Panama, PY, in the center, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Papagayo, and FC, to the north, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Fonseca. The surface transformations of the water bodies, from south to north, observed in these zones could be indicting the presence of Costa Rica current. The prevailing wind system is the main force of variations in the surface distribution of the temperature in the area, and they are responsible of important structures as the anticyclonic eddy in front Gulf of Fonseca, eddies derived from the wind pulses of Gulf of Papagayo, and the relatively low temperatures in

  15. Tropical Cyclone Interactions Within Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, P. P.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are broad (~1000 km diameter) low-level cyclonic circulations that organize over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. While CAGs have rarely been studied, prior work on similar circulations has been conducted on monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs), which possess spatial scales of 1000 - 2500 km in the west Pacific basin. A key difference between MDs and MGs is related to the organization of vorticity around the low-level circulation. MDs possess a symmetrical vorticity pattern where vorticity accumulates near the circulation center over time, occasionally developing into a large TC. In contrast, MGs possess asymmetrical vorticity, organized in mesovorticies, which rotate cyclonically along the periphery of the MG circulation. Small tropical cyclones (TCs) occasionally develop from these mesovorticies. Interaction and development of TCs within CAGs are also common, as noted by a CAG identified during the 2010 PREDICT field project, which involved the interaction of TC Matthew and the development of TC Nicole within the larger CAG. This project is motivated by the lack of prior research on CAGs, as well as the complex scale interactions that occasionally occur between TCs and CAGs. This presentation focuses on the mutual interaction of vortices embedded in the larger-scale cyclonic flow comprising the CAG circulation. Case studies will be presented using a circulation framework to illustrate the relationship between different scale vorticity elements within the CAG. Some of these case studies resemble a MD-like evolution, where a large TC develops through the accumulation of symmetrical vorticity around the CAG (e.g. TC Opal 1995, TC Frances 1998). Other instances resemble a MG-like evolution, where smaller mesovorticies rotate around a common circulation center (e.g. TC Florence 1988). The circulation analysis framework aids in the diagnosis of interaction between different scale cyclonic vortices, and

  16. 1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central Furnaces & Docks, General Plan of Works Showing Trestle, 1-3-39.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. Pharmacogenetics in Central American healthy volunteers: interethnic variability.

    PubMed

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Ramírez, Ronald; Serrano, Víctor; Fariñas, Humberto; Barrantes, Ramiro; LLerena, Adrián

    2015-03-01

    Ethnicity is one of the major factors involved in interindividual variability to drug response. This study aims to describe the frequency of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in Central American healthy volunteers and to determine its interethnic variability. Twenty-six original research articles on allelic, genotypes or metabolic phenotype frequencies were analyzed, in which a total number of 7611 Central American healthy volunteers were included (6118 were analyzed for genotype and 1799 for metabolic phenotype). No reports were available for population from Belize and Honduras. The CYP2D6*4 and *5 frequencies in Amerindian populations from Costa Rica have shown to be among the highest frequencies so far reported in the world. Furthermore, NAT2*5 and *6 presented higher frequencies in admixed populations than in Amerindians, but, inversely, the NAT2*7 was more frequent in Amerindians compared to an admixed population. Likewise, different patterns of distribution have been shown in HLA-A*02, *03 and HLA-B*07 among Native populations from Latin America. Reports on Central American populations were also found for the CYP2C19, LDLR, CYP2E1, MDR1, G6PD, TP53, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 biomarkers, but no data were available for the other 91 pharmacogenetic biomarkers revised in Central American populations. Differences in the frequency of some pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes were found, showing interethnic variability within Central American and with other Latin American populations. PMID:25490028

  19. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  20. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on Central American Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J. M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is a vital component of Central America's economy. Poor crop yields and harvest reliability can produce food insecurity, malnutrition, and conflict. Regional climate models (RCMs) and agricultural models have the potential to greatly enhance the efficiency of Central American agriculture and water resources management under both current and future climates. A series of numerical experiments was conducted using Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to evaluate the ability of RCMs to reproduce the current climate of Central America and assess changes in temperature and precipitation under multiple future climate scenarios. Control simulations were thoroughly compared to a variety of observational datasets, including local weather station data, gridded meteorological data, and high-resolution satellite-based precipitation products. Future climate simulations were analyzed for both mean shifts in climate and changes in climate variability, including extreme events (droughts, heat waves, floods). To explore the impacts of changing climate on maize, bean, and rice yields in Central America, RCM output was used to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer Model (DSSAT). These results were synthesized to create climate change impacts predictions for Central American agriculture that explicitly account for evolving distributions of precipitation and temperature extremes.

  1. Centralized obesity and cardiovascular disease risk in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Reichley, K B; Mueller, W H; Hanis, C L; Joos, S K; Tulloch, B R; Barton, S; Schull, W J

    1987-03-01

    The association between body fat distribution patterns and cardiovascular disease risk variables (high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressures, and fasting blood glucose levels) was sought in a sample of Mexican American adults who were studied during 1981-1983 in Starr County, Texas. In the sample, all diabetics were excluded to see whether centralized obesity carried any risk for cardiovascular disease independent of diabetes. A component of centralized body fat distribution was identified through the use of principal components analysis of five skinfold measurements, which included the upper and lower extremities and trunk areas. The centralized obese were compared with generalized (peripheral) obese and nonobese controls in four subgroups of the population: younger and older adult males and females. The means of all cardiovascular risk variables were in a direction indicating that the centralized obese were significantly at greater risk than nonobese controls (in particular, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and blood glucose levels). The generalized obese differed from the centralized obese in having significantly lower blood glucose levels, and tended to be intermediate between centralized obese and nonobese controls in the other variables. The data confirm that centralized obesity as defined by a linear combination of skinfold measures works in the same way as the waist-to-hip circumference ratio in describing a body build factor which heightens the risk of cardiovascular disease in the obese independent of the clinical diabetic state. PMID:3812446

  2. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  3. July 1973 ground survey of active Central American volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground survey has shown that thermal anomalies of various sizes associated with volcanic activity at several Central American volcanoes should be detectable from Skylab. Anomalously hot areas of especially large size (greater than 500 m in diameter) are now found at Santiaguito and Pacaya volcanoes in Guatemala and San Cristobal in Nicaragua. Smaller anomalous areas are to be found at least seven other volcanoes. This report is completed after ground survey of eleven volcanoes and ground-based radiation thermometry mapping at these same points.

  4. Central American paleogeography controlled Pliocene Arctic Ocean molluscan migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marincovich, Louie, Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The Pliocene interchange of North Pacific and North Atlantic marine faunas via the Arctic Ocean was long thought to have been a single episode of faunal exchange between the northern oceans that took place as soon as the Bering Strait first opened. New evidence implies that there were two northern migration events instead of one, and that the second phase of migration was much later than the first. The migration of Atlantic-Arctic mollusks into the Bering Sea and North Pacific when the Bering Strait first opened at 4.8 5.5 Ma constituted the initial phase of this interchange, but the abrupt appearance of North Pacific mollusks in the North Atlantic at 3.6 Ma postdated the first opening of the Bering Strait by 1.2 1.9 m.y. This second phase of trans-Arctic migration was also coeval with shoaling of the Central American seaway between North and South America. This late Pliocene trans-Arctic migration of North Pacific mollusks is evidence for the reversal of marine flow to northward through the Bering Strait, which was one consequence of the reorganization of Northern Hemisphere ocean circulation caused by substantial closure of the Central American seaway. This inferred causal link between the histories of the Beringian and Panamanian ocean gateways is in agreement with ocean circulation models.

  5. Ocean floor faulting explains differences in Central American lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The steady eastward progression of the Cocos tectonic plate, which lies off the west coast of Central America, forces it under the Caribbean and North American plates, driving seismic and volcanic activity. Along the Central American coast, the chemical content of the lava produced by such volcanism varies significantly, an unusual finding given that the raw material for the magma—the Cocos plate—feeds the entire region. For instance, magma in central Nicaragua has a much higher ratio of barium to lanthanum than the magma in Costa Rica, with the concentrations of these and other trace elements serving as an indicator that distinct processes were involved in generating the different magma. To identify structural properties that vary along the Cocos plate that may explain these differences, Van Avendonk et al. conducted a 396-kilometer sweep of the plate's eastern boundary, collecting measurements of seismic velocity, i.e., how fast seismic waves are able to travel through the various rock layers. Previous research describes a complicated history of the Cocos plate. The northern half, which lies off Nicaragua, was the product of deep-ocean spreading at the East Pacific Rise (EPR). The Cocos-Nazca (CN) spreading region, along with intraplate volcanism near the Galápagos Islands, generated the southern portion of the plate. The authors found that seismic velocities within the northern portion of the plate are anomalously low. The authors suggest that as the Cocos plate is forced down, forming the Middle America Trench, the rock stretches and breaks. This high degree of faulting within the crust would allow seawater to penetrate into the mantle and form hydrated rocks called serpentinites. As the northern portion of the Cocos plate is subducted, these high serpentinite concentrations are carried deeper into the mantle, releasing their trapped water and significantly affecting the chemical composition of the magma. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10

  6. Subduction and recycling of nitrogen along the Central American margin.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tobias P; Hilton, David R; Zimmer, Mindy M; Shaw, Alison M; Sharp, Zachary D; Walker, James A

    2002-08-16

    We report N and He isotopic and relative abundance characteristics of volatiles emitted from two segments of the Central American volcanic arc. In Guatemala, delta15N values are positive (i.e., greater than air) and N2/He ratios are high (up to 25,000). In contrast, Costa Rican N2/He ratios are low (maximum 1483) and delta15N values are negative (minimum -3.0 per mil). The results identify shallow hemipelagic sediments, subducted into the Guatemalan mantle, as the transport medium for the heavy N. Mass balance arguments indicate that the subducted N is efficiently cycled to the atmosphere by arc volcanism. Therefore, the subduction zone acts as a "barrier" to input of sedimentary N to the deeper mantle.

  7. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  8. Polycystic kidney disease in adult Brazilian agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina).

    PubMed

    Müller, D W H; Szentiks, C A; Wibbelt, G

    2009-07-01

    During the last 21 years, 7 adult captive Brazilian agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina) from 4 different zoologic gardens were necropsied and histologically examined at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany. All animals had polycystic kidney disease as the major pathologic change. Except in 1 case, no clinical signs were recognized prior to death. The animals had macroscopic bilateral alterations of the kidneys ranging from granulated surfaces to severe polycystic changes. Microscopic examination revealed multifocal to generalized, moderate to severe cystic dilatations of Bowman's capsules and renal tubules, moderate mesangial and capsular proliferation of the renal corpuscles, mild interstitial fibrosis, and mild to moderate interstitial lympho-plasmacytic infiltrations. Little information is known about the genetic relationships of these animals, but breeding practice indicates a high possibility of inbred agouti zoo populations in Germany. This is the first report on polycystic kidney disease in Brazilian agoutis with possible genetic background.

  9. Central infusion of the melanocortin receptor antagonist agouti-related peptide (AgRP(83-132)) prevents cachexia-related symptoms induced by radiation and colon-26 tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Joppa, M A; Gogas, K R; Foster, A C; Markison, S

    2007-03-01

    Cachexia is a clinical wasting syndrome that occurs in multiple disease states, and is associated with anorexia and a progressive loss of body fat and lean mass. The development of new therapeutics for this disorder is needed due to poor efficacy and multiple side effects of current therapies. The pivotal role played by the central melanocortin system in regulating body weight has made this an attractive target for novel cachexia therapies. The mixed melanocortin receptor antagonist AgRP is an endogenous peptide that induces hyperphagia. Here, we used AgRP(83-132) to investigate the ability of melanocortin antagonism to protect against clinical features of cachexia in two distinct animal models. In an acute model, food intake and body weight gain were reduced in mice exposed to radiation (300 RAD), and delivery of AgRP(83-132) into the lateral cerebral ventricle prevented these effects. In a chronic tumor cachexia model, adult mice were injected subcutaneously with a cell line derived from murine colon-26 adenocarcinoma. Typical of cachexia, tumor-bearing mice progressively reduced body weight and food intake, and gained significantly less muscle mass than controls. Administration of AgRP(83-132) into the lateral ventricles significantly increased body weight and food intake, and changes in muscle mass were similar to the tumor-free control mice. These findings support the idea that antagonism of the central melanocortin system can reduce the negative impact of cachexia and radiation therapy.

  10. Understanding Seismotectonic Aspects of Central and South American Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Jiménez, Carlos A.; Monsalve-Jaramillo, Hugo; Huérfano, Victor

    2004-10-01

    The Circum-Pacific, and particularly the Central and South America, subduction zones are complex structures that are subject to frequent, large-magnitude earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, and geological hazards. Among these natural hazards, earthquakes produce the most significant social and economic impacts in Latin America, and the subduction zones therefore demand constant vigilance and intensive study. The American continent has witnessed serveral earthquakes that rank among the most destrive in the world. Earthquakes such as the ones that occurred in Colombia-Ecuador [Mw = 8.9, 1906], Chile [Mw = 9.6, 1960; Mw = 8.9, 1995], Mexico [Mw = 9.6, 1985], and Peru [Mw = 8.0, 2001], as well as a number of destuctive events related to crustal fault systems and volcanic eruptions [e.g., Soufrière, El Ruiz, Galeras, ect.], have produced significant human and economic loss.The latent seismic hazards in the Caribbean, and Central and South America demand from the regional Earth sciences community accurate models to explain the mechanisms of these natural phenomena.

  11. Associations between Central Nervous System Serotonin, Fasting Glucose and Hostility in African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Stephen H.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Brummett, Beverly H.; Barefoot, John C.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Matson, Wayne R.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Grichnik, Katherine; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Williams, Redford B.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Surwit, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown an association between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women. Central nervous system serotonin activity is implicated both in metabolic processes and in hostility related traits. Purpose To determine whether central nervous system serotonin influences the association between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women. Methods The study consisted of 119 healthy volunteers (36 African American women, 27 white women, 21 white males, and 35 African American males, mean age 34±8.5 years). Serotonin metabolites were measured in cerebrospinal fluid. Hostility was measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Results Hostility was associated with fasting glucose and central nervous system serotonin metabolites in African American women only. Controlling for the serotonin metabolites significantly reduced the association of hostility to glucose. Conclusions The positive correlation between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women can partly be explained by central nervous system serotonin function. PMID:24806470

  12. [Intestinal parasites of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae) in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Y; Velázquez, J; Pashov, B

    1991-06-01

    In a sample of 23 breeding places of pacas (Agouti paca) in Costa Rica, the following parasites were found: Eimeria agoutii, Balantidium coli, Capillaria sp., Trichuris sp., Taenia sp., Strongyloides sp., and members of the superfamilies Strongyloidea and Ascaroidea. PMID:1844153

  13. Detailed Seismic Reflection Images of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, K. D.; Fulthorpe, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    New high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA) reveal an asymmetric deformation pattern with large-scale folding and uplift of basinal strata in the forearc contrasted by intrusive bodies, normal faults, and possible strikes-slip faults in the backarc. Since Miocene times the CAVA has migrated seaward, apparently impinging on the Sandino forearc basin and creating or modifying the low-lying Nicaragua depression, which contains the backarc and much of the arc. However the structural nature of the depression and its possible relationship to forearc sliver movement is poorly known. In November-December 2004 we recorded a large, high-resolution, seismic reflection dataset largely on the Pacific shelf (forearc) area of Central America, extending from NW Costa Rica to the SE edge of El Salvador's territorial waters. We seized an opportunity to study the nature of the CAVA by recording data into the Gulf of Fonseca, a large embayment at the intersection of Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. With 3 GI airguns and a 2100 m streamer we recorded data with typical penetration of 2-3 seconds in the Sandino basin and frequency content of ~10-250 Hz (at shallow levels). Penetration was limited over the arc summit with high velocity volcanic rocks encountered at depths as shallow as a few hundred meters. To the NE the edge of the Nicaragua depression occurs abruptly; our data show a well-developed sedimentary basin 1.5-3 km thick separated by numerous steeply-dipping faults. The broadband signal and good penetration of this dataset will help us determine the chronology of arc development in this position and the styles of deformation in the forearc, arc, and backarc areas. In turn, this will help us understand the regional tectonic and stratigraphic development of this margin due to the profound affects of the arc.

  14. Central American study: getting to know their problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-28

    Central America encompasses seven small countries with strong disagreements, relatively large populations, and much foreign debt. It must meet the challenge of global progress while trying to master alternative sources of energy to substitute for oil, of which there is very little. The region has a total of 22-million inhabitants, four times that of Bolivia, but with only half the territory. The population density of El Salvador is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world: 215 inhabitants per square kilometer. According to the Latin American Organization of Energy (OLADE), the region registers a high and growing participation of hydrocarbons in its energy consumption, based on the consolidated energy balance for the area. From the consumption distribution by sectors, it can be discerned that the transportation sector is the most critical. It has the highest growth rate, and consequently the projections derived therefrom are quite significant. This issue of Energy Detente includes the fuel price/tax series and the industrial fuel prices for September 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  15. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    PubMed Central

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  16. Evolution of geochemical variations along the Central American volcanic front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, Ian; Gazel, Esteban; Condie, Claire; Carr, Michael J.

    2013-10-01

    New geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks in El Salvador add to existing data from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to create a comprehensive set of geochemical data for Central American volcanics. These data coupled with previously published 40Ar/39Ar ages covering the past 30 Ma show that Costa Rica and Nicaragua had similar U/Th and Ba/La values until 10 Ma when the region developed the distinctive along arc variations that made this margin famous. U/Th values increased in Nicaragua since the Miocene, while remaining unchanged along the rest of the volcanic front. This coincides temporally with the Carbonate Crash, which caused a transition in Cocos plate sediments from low-U carbonates to high-U, organic rich hemipelagic muds. Increases in uranium are not observed in Costa Rica because its lower slab dip produces a more diffuse zone of partial melting and because of the contribution from Galapagos-derived tracks dilutes this signal. Ba/La has been used as a geochemical proxy for contributions from the subducting slab; however, our analyses indicate that the Ba concentrations do not vary significantly along strike either in the subducting sediment or the volcanic front. Along-arc variation is controlled by changes in La, an indicator of the degree of partial melting or source enrichment. Trace element models of five segments of the volcanic front suggest that a subducting sediment component is more important to magmas produced in El Salvador and Nicaragua than in Costa Rica, where the geochemistry is controlled by recent (<10 Ma) recycling of Galapagos tracks.

  17. Evolution of Geochemical Variations Along the Central American Volcanic Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I. S.; Gazel, E.; Condie, C.; Carr, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    New geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks in El Salvador add to existing data from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to create a comprehensive set of geochemical data for Central American volcanics. These data coupled with previously published 40Ar/39Ar ages covering the past 30 Ma shows that Costa Rica and Nicaragua had similar U/Th and Ba/La values until 10 Ma when the region developed the distinctive along arc variations that made this margin famous. U/Th values increased in Nicaragua since the Miocene, while remaining unchanged along the rest of the volcanic front. This coincides temporally with the Carbonate Crash, which caused a transition in Cocos plate sediments from low-U carbonates to high-U, organic rich hemipelagic muds. Increases in uranium are not observed in Costa Rica because its lower slab dip produces a more diffuse zone of partial melting and because of the contribution from Galapagos-derived tracks dilutes this signal. Ba/La has been used as a geochemical proxy for contributions from the subducting slab, however our analyses indicate that the Ba concentrations do not vary significantly along strike either in the subducting sediment or the volcanic front. Along-arc variation is controlled by changes in La, an indicator of the degree of partial melting or source enrichment. Trace element models of five segments of the volcanic front suggest that a subducting sediment component is more important to magmas produced in El Salvador and Nicaragua than in Costa Rica, where the geochemistry is controlled by recent (<10 Ma) recycling of Galapagos tracks.

  18. Differentiating Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia and Androgenetic Alopecia in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica C.; Reid, Sophia D.; Sperling, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss accompanied by scalp symptoms. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion in African American men with the appropriate clinical picture and confirm the diagnosis by scalp biopsy. Prompt and appropriate treatment can help halt or slow disease progression. PMID:22768355

  19. Modeling Central American basalts using the Arc Basalt Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenson, M.; Carr, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    We have used the Arc Basalt Simulator (ABS), developed by JI Kimura, to explore the conditions and components of melting beneath the Central American volcanic front. ABS is a comprehensive forward model that incorporates slab dehydration and melting and mantle wedge fluxing and melting using realistic P-T conditions and experimentally determined phase relations. We have applied ABS versions 3 and 4 to model representative magma types in Nicaragua, which span a broad geochemical range including proximal high- and low-Ti lavas in Nicaragua. Sr-Nd-Pb data require appropriate selection of previously identified sources, including: separate carbonate and hemipelagic sediments, DMM, an enriched mantle isotopically similar to the alkaline basalts of Yojoa, a Himu-influenced mantle derived from Galapagos material and altered oceanic crust (AOC) derived from both MORB and Galapagos seamounts. Following the dry solidus, the dominant arc basalts, exemplified by Cerro Negro lavas, can be generated at about 80-90 km where lawsonite and zoisite break down, releasing LILEs into a hydrous fluid that travels into the wedge. The fluid-triggered melting occurs just above the garnet stability field in the wedge to fit the HREEs. Below 90 Km, slab melting begins and the AOC component dominates, generating a fluid with little or no HFSE depletions, consistent with the unusual high-Ti lavas found in Nicaragua. However, the isotopic data require a much lower sediment input for the high-Ti lavas (consistent with 10Be results on the high-Ti lavas) and an enriched component for the AOC and/or mantle wedge. Following the wet solidus, fits to the Cerro Negro magma only occur in the absence of phengite in the AOC and with the presence of HFSE attracting minerals, rutile, zircon and allanite. The depth of the best fit is 135 km, consistent with current best estimates of the depth to the seismic zone beneath Cerro Negro. Below 150 km, the high-Ti lavas can be generated if the HFSE retaining

  20. Isolation and characterization of Agouti: a diabetes/obesity related gene

    DOEpatents

    Woychik, Richard P.

    2000-06-27

    The present invention relates to the cloning and expression of the Agouti gene and analogous genes in transformed, transfected and transgenic mice. The present invention provides an animal model for the study of diabetes, obesity and tumors for the testing of potential therapeutic agents. The present invention provides oligonucleotide probes for the detection of the Agouti gene and mutations in the gene. The present invention also relates to the isolation and recombinant production of the Agouti gene product, production of antibodies to the Agouti gene product and their use as diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Agouti: a diabetes/obesity related gene

    DOEpatents

    Woychik, Richard P.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the cloning and expression of the Agouti gene and analogous genes in transformed, transfected and transgenic mice. The present invention provides an animal model for the study of diabetes, obesity and tumors for the testing of potential therapeutic agents. The present invention provides oligonucleotide probes for the detection of the Agouti gene and mutations in the gene. The present invention also relates to the isolation and recombinant production of the Agouti gene product, production of antibodies to the Agouti gene product and their use as diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

  2. The alpaca agouti gene: genomic locus, transcripts and causative mutations of eumelanic and pheomelanic coat color.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Renieri, Carlo; La Manna, Vincenzo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2013-06-01

    The agouti gene encodes the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) which regulates pheomelanin and eumelanin synthesis in mammals. To investigate the role of agouti in coat color variation of alpaca, we characterized the agouti gene and identified three mutations potentially involved with the determinism of eumelanic and pheomelanic phenotypes. The exon-4 hosts the mutations g.3836C>T, g.3896G>A and g.3866_3923del57. Further analysis of these mutations revealed two genotypes for black animals. The reverse transcription analysis of mRNA purified from skin biopsies of alpaca revealed the presence of three transcripts with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) and color specific expression. The white specific transcript, possibly originating from a duplication event (intra-chromosomal recombination) of the agouti gene is characterise by a 5'UTR containing 142bp of the NCOA6 gene sequence. Furthermore, the relative level expression analysis of mRNA demonstrates that the agouti gene has up-regulated expression in white skin, suggesting a pleiotropic effect of agouti in the white phenotype. Our findings refine the structure of the agouti locus and transcripts and provide additional information in order to understand the role of agouti in the pigmentation of alpaca.

  3. Agreement. Central State University and the American Association of University Professors, Central State University Chapter. 1985-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central State Univ., Edmond, OK.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Central State University and the university's chapter (295 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP), covering the period 1985-1988, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: academic freedom, nondiscrimination, affirmative action plans, maintenance of practices,…

  4. The role of gender and acculturation on determining the consumption of alcoholic beverages among Mexican-Americans and Central Americans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marín, G; Posner, S F

    1995-05-01

    This study analyzed the responses of 391 Mexican-Americans (44.9% males) and 531 Central Americans (40.2% males) who were between 21 and 65 years of age and resided in San Francisco, California. In general, Mexican-Americans were found to have a lower proportion of abstainers (56.8%) than Central Americans (64.4%). Mexican-Americans reported drinking more often and in greater quantities than Central Americans, and the proportion of "high" drinkers was higher among Mexican-American men and women than among the Central American respondents. Despite this diversity in the topography of alcoholic beverage consumption between Mexican-Americans and Central Americans, the role of gender and acculturation on shaping those variables was fairly consistent across groups. The acculturation level of the respondents was found to significantly affect the proportion of abstainers in both groups. Furthermore, gender was an important determinant of frequency, total number of drinks, and volume of drinking for Mexican-Americans and for Central Americans.

  5. Constructing "Deservingness": DREAMers and Central American Unaccompanied Children in the National Immigration Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a Latina/o Critical Theory framework (LatCrit), I examine the narratives that emerged within national newsprint media coverage of DREAMers and Central American unaccompanied children. Data included 268 newspaper articles published during periods of heightened national media attention about DREAMers (96 articles) and Central American…

  6. Achieving the Dream: Undocumented Central American Latinas in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Maruth

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the U.S. Latino population and its diversity has gained much local and national attention of the need to learn more about their experiences in college (Torres, 2003). And although this body of research is growing, the work is limited to a segment of the Latino population. The literature has mainly focused on the Mexican American or…

  7. Molecular analysis of the mouse agouti gene and the role of dominant agouti-locus mutations in obesity and insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P.; Wilkinson, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    The lethal yellow (A{sup y/-}) and viable yellow (A{sup vy/-}) mouse agouti mutants have a predominantly yellow pelage and display a complex syndrome that includes obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, hallmark features of obesity-associated noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in humans. A new dominant agouti allele, A{sup iapy}, has recently been identified; like the A{sup vy} allele, it is homozygous viable and confers obesity and yellow fur in heterozygotes. The agouti gene was cloned and characterized at the molecular level. The gene is expressed in the skin during hair growth and is predicted to encode a 131 amino acid protein, that is likely to be a secreted factor. In both Ay/- and A{sup iapy}/- mice, the obesity and other dominant pleiotropic effects are associated with an ectopic expression of agouti in many tissues where the gene product is normally not produced. In Ay, a 170-kb deletion has occurred that causes an upstream promoter to drive the ectopic expression of the wild-type agouti coding exons. In A{sup iapy}, the coding region of the gene is expressed from a cryptic promoter within the LTR of an intracisternal A-particle (IAP), which has integrated within the region just upstream of the first agouti coding exon. Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing the cloned agouti gene under the influence of the beta-actin and phosphoglycerate kinase promoters display obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and yellow coat color. This demonstrates unequivocally that ectopic expression of agouti is responsible for the yellow obese syndrome.

  8. Fisheries Management of Mexican and Central American Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Amezcua-Martinez, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2014-09-14

    The contributed papers in this book provide research undertaken in estuarine systems of Mexico and Central America that aim to provide a scientific basis for proper estuarine management. The book is divided in three parts that cover topics associated with fisheries management and regulations: physicochemical studies, ecological studies and socioeconomic studies. This introduction outlines the contents of this book in relation to the management of coastal ecosystems, which have a high socioeconomic importance for a large proportion of the population in this area of the world. Rather than be a definitive suite of papers for the regulation of these habitats, the goal of this book is to outline the urgent need to continue research of threatened coastal ecosystems of Mexico and Central America.

  9. Neogene Caribbean plate rotation and associated Central American tectonic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.; Burke, K.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical model of the opening of the Cayman Trough is developed on the basis of geological evidence from a wide area. It is proposed that strike slip motion began about 30 Myr ago and proceeded at a rate of 37 + or - 6 mm/yr for a total of 1100 km of relative plate displacement, and that Central America Underwent an anticlockwise rotation with internal plate deformation. Maps of the reconstructed motion are provided.

  10. 1996 Central New Mexico Section [American Chemical Society] annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.

    1997-02-07

    The main goal of the Central New Mexico Section this year was to increase attendance at the local meetings. Throughout the course of the year attendance at the meeting more than doubled. This was brought on by several factors: having the meeting spread throughout the section (Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Las Vegas, Socorro, Los Alamos); supplementing the ACS National Tour speakers with interesting local sections speakers; and making full use of the newly formed Public Relations Committee. Activities during 1996 are summarized.

  11. Molecular structure and chromosomal mapping of the human homolog of the agouti gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, H.Y.; Woychik, R.P.; Bultman, S.J. |; Loeffler, C.; Hansmann, I.; Chen, W.J.; Furdon, P.J.; Wilkison, W.; Powell, J.G.; Usala, A.L.

    1994-10-11

    The agouti (a) locus in mouse chromosome 2 normally regulates coat color pigmentation. The mouse agouti gene was recently cloned and shown to encode a distinctive 131-amino acid protein with a consensus signal peptide. Here the authors describe the cloning of the human homolog of the mouse agouti gene using an interspecies DNA-hybridization approach. Sequence analysis revealed that the coding region of the human agouti gene is 85% identical to the mouse gene and has the potential to encode a protein of 132 amino acids with a consensus signal peptide. Chromosomal assignment using somatic-cell-hybrid mapping panels and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that the human agouti gene maps to chromosome band 20q11.2. This result revealed that the human agouti gene is closely linked to several traits, including a locus called MODY (for maturity onset diabetes of the young) and another region that is associated with the development of myeloid leukemia. Initial expression studies with RNA from several adult human tissues showed that the human agouti gene is expressed in adipose tissue and testis.

  12. Legal Status and Educational Transitions for Mexican and Central American Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Emily; Hall, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the Survey of Income and Program Participation to infer the legal status of Mexican and Central American immigrant youth and to investigate its relationship with educational attainment. We assess differences by legal status in high school graduation and college enrollment, decompose differences in college enrollment into the…

  13. Developmental Indices among Central American Immigrants Exposed to War-Related Trauma: Clinical Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the separate levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) among 68 Central American immigrants who had been exposed to war-related trauma, as a function of developmental disruptions resulting in mistrust, identity confusion, and isolation. Findings indicate that variance in depression, anxiety,…

  14. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  15. Drake Passage and Central American Seaway controls on the distribution of the oceanic carbon reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyke, Jeremy G.; D'Orgeville, Marc; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    A coupled carbon/climate model is used to explore the impact of Drake Passage opening and Central American Seaway closure on the distribution of carbon in the global oceans. We find that gateway evolution likely played an important role in setting the modern day distribution of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which is currently characterized by relatively low concentrations in the Atlantic Ocean, and high concentrations in the Southern, Indian, and Pacific oceans. In agreement with previous studies, we find a closed Drake Passage in the presence of an open Central American Seaway results in suppressed Atlantic meridional overturning and enhanced southern hemispheric deep convection. Opening of the Drake Passage triggers Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow and a weak Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Subsequent Central American Seaway closure reinforces the AMOC while also stagnating equatorial Pacific subsurface waters. These gateway-derived oceanographic changes are reflected in large shifts to the global distribution of DIC. An initially closed Drake Passage results in high DIC concentrations in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and lower DIC concentrations in the Pacific/Indian/Southern oceans. Opening Drake Passage reverses this gradient by lowering mid-depth Atlantic and Arctic DIC concentrations and raising deep Pacific/Indian/Southern Ocean DIC concentrations. Central American Seaway closure further reinforces this trend through additional Atlantic mid-depth DIC decreases, as well as Pacific mid-depth DIC concentration increases, with the net effect being a transition to a modern distribution of oceanic DIC.

  16. Overweight and Perceived Health in Mexican American Children: A Pilot Study in a Central Texas Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Diane O.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed actual and perceived health status of overweight Mexican American clients at a central Texas school-based health center in a predominately Hispanic school district. It also explored the participants' interest in making lifestyle changes to promote a healthy weight. A medical records review indicated that of the Hispanic…

  17. Drake passage and central american seaway controls on the distribution of the oceanic carbon reservoir

    DOE PAGES

    Fyke, Jeremy G.; D'Orgeville, Marc; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    A coupled carbon/climate model is used to explore the impact of Drake Passage opening and Central American Seaway closure on the distribution of carbon in the global oceans. We find that gateway evolution likely played an important role in setting the modern day distribution of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which is currently characterized by relatively low concentrations in the Atlantic ocean, and high concentrations in the Southern, Indian, and Pacific oceans. In agreement with previous studies, we find a closed Drake Passage in the presence of an open Central American Seaway results in suppressed Atlantic meridional overturning and enhancedmore » southern hemispheric deep convection. Opening of the Drake Passage triggers Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow and a weak Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Subsequent Central American Seaway closure reinforces the AMOC while also stagnating equatorial Pacific subsurface waters. These gateway-derived oceanographic changes are reflected in large shifts to the global distribution of DIC. An initially closed Drake Passage results in high DIC concentrations in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and lower DIC concentrations in the Pacific/Indian/Southern oceans. Opening Drake Passage reverses this gradient by lowering mid-depth Atlantic and Arctic DIC concentrations and raising deep Pacific/Indian/Southern Ocean DIC concentrations. Central American Seaway closure further reinforces this trend through additional Atlantic mid-depth DIC decreases, as well as Pacific mid-depth DIC concentration increases, with the net effect being a transition to a modern distribution of oceanic DIC.« less

  18. Drake passage and central american seaway controls on the distribution of the oceanic carbon reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Fyke, Jeremy G.; D'Orgeville, Marc; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    A coupled carbon/climate model is used to explore the impact of Drake Passage opening and Central American Seaway closure on the distribution of carbon in the global oceans. We find that gateway evolution likely played an important role in setting the modern day distribution of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which is currently characterized by relatively low concentrations in the Atlantic ocean, and high concentrations in the Southern, Indian, and Pacific oceans. In agreement with previous studies, we find a closed Drake Passage in the presence of an open Central American Seaway results in suppressed Atlantic meridional overturning and enhanced southern hemispheric deep convection. Opening of the Drake Passage triggers Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow and a weak Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Subsequent Central American Seaway closure reinforces the AMOC while also stagnating equatorial Pacific subsurface waters. These gateway-derived oceanographic changes are reflected in large shifts to the global distribution of DIC. An initially closed Drake Passage results in high DIC concentrations in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and lower DIC concentrations in the Pacific/Indian/Southern oceans. Opening Drake Passage reverses this gradient by lowering mid-depth Atlantic and Arctic DIC concentrations and raising deep Pacific/Indian/Southern Ocean DIC concentrations. Central American Seaway closure further reinforces this trend through additional Atlantic mid-depth DIC decreases, as well as Pacific mid-depth DIC concentration increases, with the net effect being a transition to a modern distribution of oceanic DIC.

  19. Inverse modeling of Central American lavas: old lithospheric and young asthenospheric heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenson, M.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of models proposed to account for the OIB-like geochemical characteristics of lavas from central Costa Rica. The source for most basalts of the Central American volcanic front (ranging from Guatemala to northern Costa Rica) is dominantly DM (depleted MORB-source mantle) fluxed by subduction-derived fluids. In contrast, central Costa Rican basalts display striking isotopic similarities to the Galapagos hotspot. How the Galapagos signature is introduced into the Central American source is at the heart of the conflicting theories. Several models incorporate asthenospheric flow of this enriched mantle, either around the Central American arc via South America, or through a slab window, which may have opened about 5 my ago beneath central Costa Rica. Alternatively, passage of the Caribbean plate over the Galapagos hotspot may have left veins of unerupted melt within the sub-Caribbean lithosphere. These veins may be preferentially tapped during later superimposed arc volcanism. Although these models yield identical isotopic systematics, it may be possible to distinguish between them by a geochemical technique that can indicate the presence of garnet in the source region. This method, developed by Hofmann and coworkers in the 1980s, is termed inverse modeling, and uses the variation of REEs in lavas to assess the relative importance of garnet vs. clinopyroxene during partial melting. We have applied this method to new REE data from back arc lavas throughout Central America, and preliminary results indicate that garnet is not present in their sources. In contrast, direct slab melts (adakites) from Central America, as well as volcanic front lavas and alkaline basalt (with minimal slab signature) from central Costa Rica and Panama, require a source with garnet. Therefore, enriched mantle in the back arc is likely stored in the shallow lithosphere rather than introduced through asthenospheric flow. Enriched material in the volcanic

  20. Where American Indian Students Go to School: Enrollment in Seven Central Region States. REL 2016-113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen S.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides descriptive information about the location and native language use of schools in the REL Central Region with high enrollment of American Indian students, whether Bureau of Indian Education schools or non-Bureau of Indian Education high-density American Indian schools (schools with 25 percent or more American Indian student…

  1. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: Role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zemel, M.B.; Kim, J.H.; Woychik, R.P.; Michaud, E.J.; Hadwell, S.H.; Patel, I.R.; Wilkison, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca{sup 2+} flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (A{sup vy}). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Determinants of female and male condom use among immigrant women of Central American descent.

    PubMed

    Salabarría-Peña, Yamir; Lee, Jerry W; Montgomery, Susanna B; Hopp, Helen W; Muralles, Arnulfo A

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to determine factors that influence female and male condom use among Central American women, applying the theory of planned behavior. A cross-sectional design was employed and a sample of 175 Central American women, 18-50 years old, was recruited from a community-based clinic in Los Angeles County. Participants in this study were interviewed face-to-face. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control explained 41% and 45% of the variation in the intention to use male and female condoms, respectively. Respondents' friends and mothers influenced their subjective norms. Beliefs regarding sexual sensation and sexually transmitted infection/pregnancy prevention affected respondents' attitudes toward condoms. Trust issues were also a major factor affecting attitudes toward female condoms. Condom use and sex negotiation skills predicted control over condoms. Results of this study can be used to design HIV/AIDS prevention programs that help women feel control over condom use and their sexual behavior.

  3. Global economic restructuring and international migration: some observations based on the Mexican and Central American experience.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, N; Chinchilla, N S

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between processes of global economic restructuring and international migration through an examination of Mexican and Central American immigration to the U.S. and the experiences of Central American and Mexican immigrants in the U.S. This relationship is analysed as one of mutual causation: on the one hand, global restructuring affects conditions in both sending and receiving countries (it is not only a factor in emigration but also in the economic and political receptivity to immigrants at their point of destination); on the other, international migration in turn has an important impact on countries of origin, receiving countries, and the relationship between them." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12347343

  4. Immigration Enforcement, Parent-Child Separations, and Intent to Remigrate by Central American Deportees.

    PubMed

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Pozo, Susan; Puttitanun, Thitima

    2015-12-01

    Given the unprecedented increase in the flow of migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras to the United States, this article analyzes the impact of U.S. interior enforcement on parent-child separations among Central American deportees, along with its implications for deportees' intentions to remigrate to the United States. Using the EMIF sur survey data, we find that interior enforcement raises the likelihood of parent-child separations as well as the likelihood that parents forcedly separated from their young children report the intention to return to the United States, presumably without documents. By increasing parent-child separations, interior enforcement could prove counterproductive in deterring repetitive unauthorized crossings among Central American deportees.

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Twyford, Alex D.; Ennos, Richard A.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. • Methods and Results: The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. • Conclusions: The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections. PMID:25202548

  6. Seismic evidence for hydration of the Central American slab: Guatemala through Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Thurber, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Central American subduction zone exhibits a wide variability in along-arc slab hydration as indicated by geochemical studies. These studies generally show maximum slab contributions to magma beneath Nicaragua and minimum contributions beneath Costa Rica, while intermediate slab fluid contributions are found beneath El Salvador and Guatemala. Geophysical studies suggest strong slab serpentinization and fluid release beneath Nicaragua, and little serpentinization beneath Costa Rica, but the remainder of the subduction zone is poorly characterized seismically. To obtain an integrated seismic model for the Central American subduction zone, we combine 250,000 local seismic arrivals and 1,000,000 differential arrivals for 6,500 shallow and intermediate-depth earthquakes from the International Seismic Centre, the Central American Seismic Center, and the temporary PASSCAL TUCAN array. Using this dataset, we invert for Vp, Vs, and hypocenters using a variable-mesh double-difference tomography algorithm. By observing low-Vp areas within the normally high-Vp slab, we identify portions of the slab that are likely to contain serpentinized mantle, and thus contribute to higher degrees of melting and higher volatile components observable in arc lavas.

  7. Agreement between Central State University and the American Association of University Professors Central State University Chapter. September 1, 1988-August 31, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the agreement between Central State University and the Central State University Chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) for the period September 1, 1988-August 31, 1991. The contract details the following 48 articles: agreement; agreement construction; recognition of the bargaining unit; AAUP…

  8. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Six Recessive Viable Alleles of the Mouse Agouti Locus

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, C. M.; Perry, W. L.; Siracusa, L. D.; Rasberry, C.; Cobb, L.; Cattanach, B. M.; Kovatch, R.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1995-01-01

    The agouti locus on mouse chromosome 2 encodes a secreted cysteine-rich protein of 131 amino acids that acts as a molecular switch to instruct the melanocyte to make either yellow pigment (phaeomelanin) or black pigment (eumelanin). Mutations that up-regulate agouti expression are dominant to those causing decreased expression and result in yellow coat color. Other associated effects are obesity, diabetes, and increased susceptibility to tumors. To try to define important functional domains of the agouti protein, we have analyzed the molecular defects present in a series of recessive viable agouti mutations. In total, six alleles (a(mJ), a(u), a(da), a(16H), a(18H), a(e)) were examined at both the RNA and DNA level. Two of the alleles, a(16H) and a(e), result from mutations in the agouti coding region. Four alleles (a(mJ), a(u), a(18H), and a(da)) appear to represent regulatory mutations that down-regulate agouti expression. Interestingly, one of these mutations, a(18H), also appears to cause an immunological defect in the homozygous condition. This immunological defect is somewhat analogous to that observed in motheaten (me) mutant mice. Short and long-range restriction enzyme analyses of homozygous a(18H) DNA are consistent with the hypothesis that a(18H) results from a paracentric inversion where one end of the inversion maps in the 5' regulatory region of agouti and the other end in or near a gene that is required for normal immunological function. Cloning the breakpoints of this putative inversion should allow us to identify the gene that confers this interesting immunological disorder. PMID:7635290

  9. Identification of Distant Agouti-Like Sequences and Re-Evaluation of the Evolutionary History of the Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP)

    PubMed Central

    Västermark, Åke; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Houle, Michael E.; Fredriksson, Robert; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2012-01-01

    The Agouti-like peptides including AgRP, ASIP and the teleost-specific A2 (ASIP2 and AgRP2) peptides have potent and diverse functional roles in feeding, pigmentation and background adaptation mechanisms. There are contradictory theories about the evolution of the Agouti-like peptide family as well the nomenclature. Here we performed comprehensive mining and annotation of vertebrate Agouti-like sequences. We identified A2 sequences from salmon, trout, seabass, cod, cichlid, tilapia, gilt-headed sea bream, Antarctic toothfish, rainbow smelt, common carp, channel catfish and interestingly also in lobe-finned fish. Moreover, we surprisingly found eight novel homologues from the kingdom of arthropods and three from fungi, some sharing the characteristic C-x(6)-C-C motif which are present in the Agouti-like sequences, as well as approximate sequence length (130 amino acids), positioning of the motif sequence and sharing of exon-intron structures that are similar to the other Agouti-like peptides providing further support for the common origin of these sequences. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the AgRP sequences cluster basally in the tree, suggesting that these sequences split from a cluster containing both the ASIP and the A2 sequences. We also used a novel approach to determine the statistical evidence for synteny, a sinusoidal Hough transform pattern recognition technique. Our analysis shows that the teleost AgRP2 resides in a chromosomal region that has synteny with Hsa 8, but we found no convincing synteny between the regions that A2, AgRP and ASIP reside in, which would support that the Agouti-like peptides were formed by whole genome tetraplodization events. Here we suggest that the Agouti-like peptide genes were formed through classical subsequent gene duplications where the AgRP is the most distantly related to the three other members of that group, first splitting from a common ancestor to ASIP and A2, and then later the A2 split from ASIP followed by a

  10. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536

  11. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Weber, John C.; Ragona, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9–15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7).

  12. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central range fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Weber, J.C.; Crosby, C.J.; Ragona, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9-15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7). ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  13. Agouti sequence polymorphisms in coyotes, wolves and dogs suggest hybridization.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Sheila M; Berryere, Thomas G; Barta, Jodi L; Reddick, Kimberley D; Schmutz, Josef K

    2007-01-01

    Domestic dogs have been shown to have multiple alleles of the Agouti Signal Peptide (ASIP) in exon 4 and we wished to determine the level of polymorphism in the common wild canids of Canada, wolves and coyotes, in comparison. All Canadian coyotes and most wolves have banded hairs. The ASIP coding sequence of the wolf did not vary from the domestic dog but one variant was detected in exon 4 of coyotes that did not alter the arginine at this position. Two other differences were found in the sequence flanking exon 4 of coyotes compared with the 45 dogs and 1 wolf. The coyotes also demonstrated a relatively common polymorphism in the 3' UTR sequence that could be used for population studies. One of the ASIP alleles (R96C) in domestic dogs causes a solid black coat color in homozygotes. Although some wolves are melanistic, this phenotype does not appear to be caused by this same mutation. However, one wolf, potentially a dog-wolf hybrid or descendant thereof, was heterozygous for this allele. Likewise 2 coyotes, potentially dog-coyote or wolf-coyote hybrid descendants, were heterozygous for the several polymorphisms in and flanking exon 4. We could conclude that these were coyote-dog hybrids because both were heterozygous for 2 mutations causing fawn coat color in dogs.

  14. [Ovarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) under captivity].

    PubMed

    Montes Pérez, Rubén C; Cabrera Baz, Elsy A

    2006-09-01

    The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile) at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatśn, Mexico. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta estradiol (E2) were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29+/-8.4 days, levels of 1.61+/-0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39+/-24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18+/-3.70 ng/ml and 29+/-16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9+/-0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22+/-17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress. The changes in the levels of P4 during the cycle are indicators of luteal activity, with the intersticial tissue acting probably as active steroids-producing gland. Follicular growth was observed during the entire cycle.

  15. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2013-11-01

    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants' residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans' and Central Americans' prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. PMID:24090862

  16. Fatal anemia and dermatitis in captive agoutis (Dasyprocta mexicana) infested with Echidnophaga fleas.

    PubMed

    Cucchi-Stefanoni, Karina; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Parás, Alberto; Garner, Michael M

    2008-08-17

    Two captive agoutis (Dasyprocta mexicana) died of anemia with centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis (2/2), severe flea ectoparasitism (2/2), and cardiomegaly attributed to anemia (1/2). Other agoutis were similarly parasitized and one had anemia. Fleas were manually removed and all agoutis treated topically with propoxur and selamectin and moved to another enclosure. No additional cases of fatal anemia were seen. Cutaneous lesions suggestive of hypersensitivity were observed in three additional agoutis with dorsal alopecia (3/3), a penetrating wound associated with pruritus and self-mutilation in the flank (2/3), flea ectoparasitism at the time of morphologic diagnosis (1/3), and hyperplastic perivascular dermatitis (3/3). One of these died of bacterial infection of the wound. Similar but milder skin disease was seen in 3 out of over 30 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) housed in the same exhibit. Fleas collected from all the fatal agouti cases and maras were classified in the genus Echidnophaga based on the angular front margin of head, contracted thorax, absence of genal and pronotal combs, and the fact that fleas did not jump. These findings suggest that flea ectoparasitism may be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in captive rodents. PMID:18556127

  17. Sex-related differences in habitat associations of wintering American Kestrels in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfino, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used roadside survey data collected from 19 routes over three consecutive winters from 200708 to 200910 to compare habitat associations of male and female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) in the Central Valley of California to determine if segregation by sex was evident across this region. As a species, American Kestrels showed positive associations with alfalfa and other forage crops like hay and winter wheat, as well as grassland, irrigated pasture, and rice. Habitat associations of females were similar, with female densities in all these habitats except rice significantly higher than average. Male American Kestrels showed a positive association only with grassland and were present at densities well below those of females in alfalfa, other forage crops, and grassland. Males were present in higher densities than females in most habitats with negative associations for the species, such as orchards, urbanized areas, and oak savannah. The ratio of females to males for each route was positively correlated with the overall density of American Kestrels on that route. Our findings that females seem to occupy higher quality habitats in winter are consistent with observations from elsewhere in North America. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. Plastid DNA sequencing and nuclear SNP genotyping help resolve the puzzle of central American Platanus

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Olga; Di Maio, Antonietta; Lozada García, José Armando; Piacenti, Danilo; Vázquez-Torres, Mario; De Luca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent research on the history of Platanus reveals that hybridization phenomena occurred in the central American species. This study has two goals: to help resolve the evolutive puzzle of central American Platanus, and to test the potential of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting ancient hybridization. Methods Sequencing of a uniparental plastid DNA marker [psbA-trnH(GUG) intergenic spacer] and qualitative and quantitative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of biparental nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) markers [LEAFY intron 2 (LFY-i2) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)] were used. Key Results Based on the SNP genotyping results, several Platanus accessions show the presence of hybridization/introgression, including some accessions of P. rzedowskii and of P. mexicana var. interior and one of P. mexicana var. mexicana from Oaxaca (= P. oaxacana). Based on haplotype analyses of the psbA-trnH spacer, five haplotypes were detected. The most common of these is present in taxa belonging to P. orientalis, P. racemosa sensu lato, some accessions of P. occidentalis sensu stricto (s.s.) from Texas, P. occidentalis var. palmeri, P. mexicana s.s. and P. rzedowskii. This is highly relevant to genetic relationships with the haplotypes present in P. occidentalis s.s. and P. mexicana var. interior. Conclusions Hybridization and introgression events between lineages ancestral to modern central and eastern North American Platanus species occurred. Plastid haplotypes and qualitative and quantitative SNP genotyping provide information critical for understanding the complex history of Mexican Platanus. Compared with the usual molecular techniques of sub-cloning, sequencing and genotyping, real-time PCR assay is a quick and sensitive technique for analysing complex evolutionary patterns. PMID:23798602

  19. [Diagnostic studies in the planning process of human resources: the Central American experience].

    PubMed

    de Canales, F; Martínez Chopen, O; Tercero Talavera, I; González, G

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze various aspects of one of the essential stages in the process of planning human resources--diagnostic studies and research which will serve as a starting point. They stress the role of diagnostic personnel studies in formulating human resources policies and planning, and describe the phases to be followed in their execution, according to the results obtained in the three Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) in which the studies were completed. The paper concludes with a summary of the process in the three countries. PMID:3451871

  20. Chronic kidney disease in Central American agricultural communities: challenges for epidemiology and public health.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis Carlos; Ordúñez, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    This paper contextualizes the chronic kidney disease epidemic and related burden of disease affecting Central American farming communities. It summarizes the two main causal hypotheses (heat stress and agrochemicals), draws attention to the consequences of dichotomous reasoning concerning causality, and warns of potential conflicts of interest and their role in "manufacturing doubt." It describes some methodological errors that compromise past study findings and cautions against delaying public health actions until a conclusive understanding is reached about the epidemic's causes and underlying mechanisms. It makes the case for a comprehensive approach to the historical, social and epidemiological facts of the epidemic, for critically assessing existing studies and for enhanced rigor in new research.

  1. [Diagnostic studies in the planning process of human resources: the Central American experience].

    PubMed

    de Canales, F; Martínez Chopen, O; Tercero Talavera, I; González, G

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze various aspects of one of the essential stages in the process of planning human resources--diagnostic studies and research which will serve as a starting point. They stress the role of diagnostic personnel studies in formulating human resources policies and planning, and describe the phases to be followed in their execution, according to the results obtained in the three Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) in which the studies were completed. The paper concludes with a summary of the process in the three countries.

  2. Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1–2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83–19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19–14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24–20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the “La Boca Formation” (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  3. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-01-01

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula

  4. Arc-continent collision and orocline formation: Closing of the Central American seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Camilo; Bayona, G.; Cardona, A.; Buchs, D. M.; Silva, C. A.; Morón, S.; Hoyos, N.; RamíRez, D. A.; Jaramillo, C. A.; Valencia, V.

    2012-04-01

    Closure of the Central American seaway was a local tectonic event with potentially global biotic and environmental repercussions. We report geochronological (six U/Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon ages) and geochemical (19 XRF and ICP-MS analyses) data from the Isthmus of Panama that allow definition of a distinctive succession of plateau sequences to subduction-related protoarc to arc volcaniclastic rocks intruded by Late Cretaceous to middle Eocene intermediate plutonic rocks (67.6 ± 1.4 Ma to 41.1 ± 0.7 Ma). Paleomagnetic analyses (24 sites, 192 cores) in this same belt reveal large counterclockwise vertical-axis rotations (70.9° ± 6.7°), and moderate clockwise rotations (between 40° ± 4.1° and 56.2° ± 11.1°) on either side of an east-west trending fault at the apex of the Isthmus (Rio Gatun Fault), consistent with Isthmus curvature. An Oligocene-Miocene arc crosscuts the older, deformed and segmented arc sequences, and shows no significant vertical-axis rotation or deformation. There are three main stages of deformation: 1) left-lateral, strike-slip offset of the arc (˜100 km), and counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation of western arc segments between 38 and 28 Ma; 2) clockwise rotation of central arc segments between 28 and 25 Ma; and 3) orocline tightening after 25 Ma. When this reconstruction is placed in a global plate tectonic framework, and published exhumation data is added, the Central American seaway disappears at 15 Ma, suggesting that by the time of northern hemisphere glaciation, deep-water circulation had long been severed in Central America.

  5. The Central American Seaway and the Late Neogene ocean conveyor belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Birgit; Krebs-Kanzow, Uta; Park, Wonsun

    2013-04-01

    'The great ocean conveyor belt' depicts the large scale exchange of water mass properties between today's oceans. Over the past million years the tectonic evolution of ocean passages altered this pan-oceanic communication. The last such tectonic transformation was the closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) which represented a low latitude gateway between Pacific and Atlantic prior to 4 million years ago. We use a coupled general circulation model and configure the topography for the past. The Central American Seaway modifies the global ocean circulation and the ocean conveyor belt which implies drastic changes in water mass properties and inter basin heat and freshwater transports. Compared to an experiment with modern basin geometry, a 1000-meter deep passage at the location of today's Isthmus of Panama results in a fundamental change in the warm water route of the conveyor belt while the cold path remains qualitatively unchanged. A transport of 10 Sv from Pacific to Atlantic is associated with the meridional transport in the South Atlantic changing from 10Sv northward to 2 Sv southward. Both Indonesian throughflow and export of warm water from the Indian Ocean across 30S are reduced by about 7 Sv. Analysing transports in density classes we are able to propose a sketch of the late Neogene conveyor belt.

  6. [Cultural conflicts in the management of hydrographic watersheds in the Central American isthmus].

    PubMed

    Mojica, I H

    1976-06-01

    Productivity of natural ecosystems in watersheds in the Central American Isthmus is being seriously endangered by the disproportionate increase in population, which hampers an adequate development of water and agricultural resources. The logical consequences of the lack of planning in the use of these resources are rapid degradation of the soil and high levels of environmental pollution. Among the human activities which destroy the natural ecological balance are slash burning, overgrazing and farming on lands not suited for this purpose. These activities form part of the socio-economic and cultural aspects of the region and are associated with systems of land occupancy and distribution, and with inefficient practices, such as tenant farming and share cropping. Recent apprehensions by nature-loving groups and the general public are pressing for more realistic conservation and legislative policies, and for the creation of more dynamic government agencies that would not only actively participate in the planning and utilization of natural resources, but also in the technical studies of watersheds that after the socio-cultural aspects of the central American region. PMID:948643

  7. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996–2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants’ residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans’ and Central Americans’ prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. PMID:24090862

  8. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. PMID:15876321

  9. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases.

  10. "Central American Children Speak: Our Lives and Our Dreams." Study Guide to the Video with Stories and Background Information for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Meredith

    The videotape "Central American Children Speak: Our Lives and Dreams" begins and ends in a U.S. classroom where students are studying Central America. The video, which was designed to help children gain a basic understanding of one another, follows seven Central American children through a typical day of school, work, and play. Their stories…

  11. Legal status and educational transitions for mexican and central american immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Emily; Hall, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    This study uses the Survey of Income and Program Participation to infer the legal status of Mexican and Central American immigrant youth and to investigate its relationship with educational attainment. We assess differences by legal status in high school graduation and college enrollment, decompose differences in college enrollment into the probability of high school graduation and the probability of high school graduates' enrollment in college and estimate the contributions of personal and family background characteristics to such differences. Results show that undocumented students are less likely than documented students to both graduate from high school and enroll in college, and differences in college enrollment cannot be explained by family background characteristics. We conclude that legal status is a critical axis of stratification for Latinos.

  12. Legal Status and Educational Transitions for Mexican and Central American Immigrant Youth

    PubMed Central

    Greenman, Emily; Hall, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the Survey of Income and Program Participation to infer the legal status of Mexican and Central American immigrant youth and to investigate its relationship with educational attainment. We assess differences by legal status in high school graduation and college enrollment, decompose differences in college enrollment into the probability of high school graduation and the probability of high school graduates' enrollment in college and estimate the contributions of personal and family background characteristics to such differences. Results show that undocumented students are less likely than documented students to both graduate from high school and enroll in college, and differences in college enrollment cannot be explained by family background characteristics. We conclude that legal status is a critical axis of stratification for Latinos. PMID:24511162

  13. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  14. [Quality of the water and public health in the Central American isthmus].

    PubMed

    Donato, C

    1976-06-01

    As of December 1970 the population of the Central American Isthmus was 16,436,723; 6,225,447 (37.9%) urban and 10,210,946 (62.1%) rural. Of the urban population, 63.3%, or 3,964,611 had water in the home, while 2,283,836 (36.7% had no adequate water supply. The problem is even worse in the rural population where only 732,150 inhabitants (7.17%) had water in the home; the rest, 9,500,000 were using water from contaminated rivers, streams, wells, etc. These low percentages do not meet the standards proposed at Punta del Este, Uruguay in 1961 of providing drinking water to 70% of the urban population and to 50% of those of rural areas. Nor do the very low figures for sanitary disposal of wastes meet these standards (31.4% in urban areas and 19.5% in rural areas). As a logical consequence, water-bourne morbility in the Central American Isthmus is very high. The rates per 100,000 inhabitants are 0.4 to 18.8 for typhoid fever; 0.7 to 13.0 for paratyphoid fever; 0.5 to 786.2 for bacillary dysentery; and 17.9 to 555.6 for amebiasis. Although it would be hard to evaluate the benefits of sanitary water and waste disposal systems, the damage caused by water-bourne illnesses is well known, especially their effect on the individual human being since they sap his energy, lower his life expectancy and productivity, and thus indirectly affect the national economy. It is a well known fact that the cost of optimum water supply and waste disposal systems will more than amply be paid for by the savings in medication and lost time through illness.

  15. Source of lead in Central American and Caribbean mineralization, II. Lead isotope provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, George L.; Kesler, Stephen E.; Krstic, Dragan

    1981-12-01

    In an earlier study of Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralization in Central America and the Caribbean region, we found that lead isotopic compositions of deposits in northern Central America, which is underlain by a pre-Mesozoic craton, ranged to higher 206Pb/ 204Pb and 207Pb/ 204Pb compositions than did deposits from elsewhere in the region, where the basement is Mesozoic oceanic material. Using 16 analyses for 12 new deposits, as well as new analyses for 11 of the samples studied previously, we have found that lead isotopic compositions correlate closely with crustal type but show little or no correlation with depth to the M-discontinuity. The deposits are divisible into three main groups including (in order of increasing 207Pb/ 204Pb and 208Pb/ 204Pb ratio): (1) deposits in southern Central America and all deposits in the Greater Antilles except Cuba; (2) all deposits in northern Central America; and (3) the Cuban deposits. Southern Central American and Caribbean lead is higher in 207Pb/ 204Pb and 208Pb/ 204Pb than most mid-ocean ridge basalts but could have been derived directly or indirectly from undepleted mantle. Northern Central America can be divided into the Maya block, which belongs to the Americas plate, and the Chortis block, which belongs to the Caribbean plate. Maya block deposits fall along a linear array whereas those of the Chortis block (except the Monte Cristo deposit) form a cluster. These results suggest that the Maya block is underlain by crust or mantle with a large range of U/Pb and Th/U ratios, whereas the Chortis block basement is more homogeneous. Two-stage model calculations indicate an age of about 2280±310 m.y. for the Maya block basement, although no such rocks are known in the region. Comparison of the Chortis block data to our recently published lead isotopic analyses of Mexican deposits shows considerable similarities suggesting that the Chortis block could have been derived from Mexico.

  16. 3D Lithospheric Density Structure of the Central American Subduction Zone from Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Data from the EGM2008 Combined Geopotential Model has been interpreted to construct a comprehensive three-dimensional model of the lithospheric density structure along the Central American Isthmus. This is the first time that integration of all geophysical information available for the isthmus has been undertaken. The density model is constrained by seismic velocity models, magnetotelluric cross-sections, receiver functions,and hypocenter data from local seismic networks acquired along the Middle American Subduction Zone by different institutes and projects during the last three decades. The segmentation of the crustal basement of the Caribbean Plate was modeled with separate units for the Chortis Block (2.77 Mg/m^3), the Mesquito Composite Oceanic Terrane / SiunaTerrane (3 Mg/m^3), and the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (2.90 Mg/m^3). Furthermore, first order boundary layers such as the Moho and the Cocos-Caribbean plate interface were modeled and extracted for correlation with tectonic features and dynamic processes. The Costa Rican segment has been the most widely studied along the Central American margin. Here, it is possible to review the slab geometry based on the three-dimensional density model against seismological information from local networks in greater detail. By integrating probabilistic relocated hypocenters with the density model by means of 3D visualization, a joint interpretation of the distribution of seismicity with the density units in the subducted slab was carried out.A change in the depth of intra-plate seismicity is observed reaching 220 km for the northwestern part and becoming shallower toward the southeast where it reaches a maximum depth of 75 km. The changes in the maximum depth registered for the seismicity, correlate with changes in the density structure of the subducted slab which were modeled based on the gravity response of the model. The crust of the oceanic plate was assigned an initial density of 2.80 Mg/m3, deeper than this

  17. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  18. Phylogeographic Diversity of the Lower Central American Cichlid Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    McCafferty, S Shawn; Martin, Andrew; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    It is well appreciated that historical and ecological processes are important determinates of freshwater biogeographic assemblages. Phylogeography can potentially lend important insights into the relative contribution of historical processes in biogeography. However, the extent that phylogeography reflects historical patterns of drainage connection may depend in large part on the dispersal capability of the species. Here, we test the hypothesis that due to their relatively greater dispersal capabilities, the neotropical cichlid species Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus will display a phylogeographic pattern that differs from previously described biogeographic assemblages in this important region. Based on an analysis of 318 individuals using mtDNA ATPase 6/8 sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism data, we found eight distinct clades that are closely associated with biogeographic patterns. The branching patterns among the clades and a Bayesian clock analysis suggest a relatively rapid colonization and diversification among drainages in the emergent Isthmus of Panama followed by the coalescing of some drainages due to historical connections. We also present evidence for extensive cross-cordillera sharing of clades in central Panama and the Canal region. Our results suggest that contemporary phylogeographic patterns and diversification in Lower Central American fishes reflect an interaction of historical drainage connections, dispersal, and demographic processes. PMID:23008800

  19. Chemical Variation and Origin of Pleistocene Silicic Pyroclastic Flows from Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, L. C.; Vogel, T. A.; Alvarado, G. E.; Rose, W. I.; Viray, E. L.

    2003-12-01

    Silicic pyroclastic flows have occurred along the Central American volcanic arc during the Pleistocene. The volcanic products from these eruptions range in composition have SiO{2} mode of 70 wt.%. In the latest part of the Pleistocene (<100 Ky), ash-flow tuffs are common in Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua, but absent from Costa Rica. Phenocryst phases of the silicic pyroclastic flows along Central America are generally very similar. Plagioclase dominates as phenocryst and in the groundmass. Sub-calcic augite, hypersthene are common in dacites. Amphibole as well as biotite are common in the rhyolites and rhyodacites in Guatemala and El Salvador, but these minerals are absent from all units in Nicaragua, and from the youngest unit in Costa Rica. In addition, Ti-oxides, apatite, quartz, are common. It is worth noting that the silicic rocks from Central America contain very little alkali feldspar. There are some chemical variations in the composition of ash-flow tuffs along the arc. The most primitive materials in ignimbrites from Guatemala and Costa Rica are basaltic andesites and andesites; but in Nicaragua and El Salvador, basaltic scorias are present. The ignimbrites from Central Costa Rica have higher alkali content, than the rest of the Pleistocene ash-flow tuffs from Central America, a pattern similar to that observed in lavas. Furthermore, some trace element and trace element ratios also vary along the arc in a pattern similar to that observed in the lavas. The ignimbrites from Nicaragua tend to have the lowest concentrations of Zr (<100 ppm) and the highest concentration of Rb (>200 ppm); Ba/Th, U/Th are highest and La/Yb is the lowest in Nicaragua.Fractional crystallization has played a role in the evolution of ash-flow sheets in the Central American volcanic arc. Some samples from Guatemala and El Salvador have Eu/Eu*<0.7 and Sr<200 ppm. These compositions can be interpreted as the result of plagioclase fractionation. However, this process alone does

  20. The Work Kids Do: Mexican and Central American Immigrant Children's Contributions to Households and Schools in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich

    2001-01-01

    Research on Mexican and Central American immigrant children illuminates their everyday work as helpers in the home, community, and school. Their participation is shaped by gender dynamics. Their work can be viewed in multiple ways as volunteerism, learning opportunities, and cultural and linguistic brokering. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

  1. The Effects of a Social-Emotional Intervention on Caregivers and Children with Disabilities in Two Central American Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groark, Christina J.; McCall, Robert B.; McCarthy, Stephanie K.; Eichner, Joan C.; Warner, Hilary A.; Salaway, Jennifer; Palmer, Kalani; Lopez, Meghan E.

    2013-01-01

    This field study describes changes in caregiving and young children's physical and behavioral/cognitive development as a consequence of a pilot intervention using typical staff in 2 Central American orphanages for children with severe and multiple disabilities. The intervention trained staff in sensitive, responsive, child-directed,…

  2. Participation in a Technological World: The Meaning of Educational Technology in the Lives of Young Adult Central American Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt-Mentle, Davina S.

    Many communities throughout the United States are experiencing a large influx of Central American immigrants. Langley Park, Maryland is typical of the pockets that are formed by the new arrivals. Community members of Latino background now account for 60% of the population, while in 1990 they were only 40% (US Census, 2000). As the immigrants move…

  3. Low-Income Central American Immigrant Mothers' Goals and Their Children's Classroom Competencies in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Nicole Marie; Harden, Brenda Jones; Gonzalez, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Unlike other Latino groups, there is little information about the early socialization of children from Central American (CA) immigrant families. This study examined CA immigrant mothers' short-term goals and the implications of these goals for children's behavior in preschool. A total of 47 low-income mothers described…

  4. Effect of transatlantic transport on reproduction of agouti and nonagouti deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus.

    PubMed

    Hayssen, V

    1998-01-01

    In conjunction with establishing colonies of deer mice in the UK, effects of transportation on reproduction in agouti (A) and nonagouti (a) deer mice were assessed. Adults were shipped via ground courier and air freight from Northampton, Massachusetts, USA to Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire, England in February and June. Deer mice were paired upon arrival in Sutton Bonington, whereas matched controls were paired in the original colonies at shipping. To assess reproduction, the following variables were monitored for 110 days for all 96 pairs: number of pairs producing litters, time from pairing to birth, interlitter interval, litter size at birth, and litter size at weaning. Generally, shipping suppressed litter production and delayed its timing, but had less effect on litter size. Overall, 32 of 48 control pairs (67%) produced 69 litters compared with 37 litters from 21 of 48 pairs (44%) after shipping. Pairing-to-first-litter intervals were approximately two oestrous cycles shorter in control animals (39 vs 53 days). Averaged over all litters, litter size was higher in control pairs (4.4 vs 4.0). With respect to genotype, control agouti deer mice were less productive than nonagouti animals, but they reproduced better than nonagoutis after shipping. In control animals, colourmorphs did not differ with respect to litter production or timing, but agouti pairs had smaller litters (first litter: A: 3.1, a: 4.2) and this difference increased at successive litters (third litter A: 3.9, a: 6.0). After shipping, agouti animals produced more litters (A: 22, a: 15), and did so earlier (pairing to birth: A: 47 days, a: 60 days), as well as more frequently (interlitter interval: A: 32 days, a: 51 days). Litter size was also more similar between genotypes after shipping (A: 4.0, a: 4.1). Overall, control agouti animals produced 37% fewer offspring than nonagouti pairs. (A: 116 neonates, a: 185 neonates), but after shipping agouti deer mice produced 43% more offspring than

  5. Combating Gangs: Federal Agencies Have Implemented a Central American Gang Strategy, but Could Strengthen Oversight and Measurement of Efforts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-395

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larence, Eileen R.

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…

  6. Biotechnology for developing countries. The case of the Central American isthmus.

    PubMed

    León, P E

    1993-12-21

    Recent developments in the fields of chemistry, molecular biology, computer science, and communications promise to transform the way that many things will be done in the near future in diverse fields of scientific R&D. Fortunately for less developed countries (LDCs) some of the technologies involved are user friendly and safe, avoiding the need for radioactive precursors, large machines, or expensive reagents. For instance, tissue culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), dideoxi-sequencing, and recombinant DNA techniques have already invaded clinical laboratories, agricultural field stations, and natural history museums, even in some developing nations. Somatic cell culture for plant biotechnology and immunologic techniques for diagnosis have had wide applications for over a decade in all countries in the Central American Isthmus. More recently, recombinant DNA techniques, including PCR, have been introduced for diagnostic purposes and research at the two largest universities in Costa Rica and at other public institutions and are also used in Guatemala and Panama. Honduras and Nicaragua are only now acquiring these technologies for diagnostic purposes. Biotechnological applications in industry seem to be lagging behind, and presently no good links exist between research laboratories and industry for advanced applications. The application of biotechnologies in environmental problems is slowly underway, with molecular studies of natural wildlife populations and primary forest trees. A major effort is needed to create safe and effective ways of dealing with environmental degradation, wastes, and byproducts of tropical agriculture and industry. The creation of the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) in Costa Rica to elaborate an inventory of flora and fauna and to prospect for useful substances provides a unique opportunity for biotechnological applications. In addition, government policies to promote biotechnological development are supported by CONICIT (National

  7. Biotechnology for developing countries. The case of the Central American isthmus.

    PubMed

    León, P E

    1993-12-21

    Recent developments in the fields of chemistry, molecular biology, computer science, and communications promise to transform the way that many things will be done in the near future in diverse fields of scientific R&D. Fortunately for less developed countries (LDCs) some of the technologies involved are user friendly and safe, avoiding the need for radioactive precursors, large machines, or expensive reagents. For instance, tissue culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), dideoxi-sequencing, and recombinant DNA techniques have already invaded clinical laboratories, agricultural field stations, and natural history museums, even in some developing nations. Somatic cell culture for plant biotechnology and immunologic techniques for diagnosis have had wide applications for over a decade in all countries in the Central American Isthmus. More recently, recombinant DNA techniques, including PCR, have been introduced for diagnostic purposes and research at the two largest universities in Costa Rica and at other public institutions and are also used in Guatemala and Panama. Honduras and Nicaragua are only now acquiring these technologies for diagnostic purposes. Biotechnological applications in industry seem to be lagging behind, and presently no good links exist between research laboratories and industry for advanced applications. The application of biotechnologies in environmental problems is slowly underway, with molecular studies of natural wildlife populations and primary forest trees. A major effort is needed to create safe and effective ways of dealing with environmental degradation, wastes, and byproducts of tropical agriculture and industry. The creation of the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) in Costa Rica to elaborate an inventory of flora and fauna and to prospect for useful substances provides a unique opportunity for biotechnological applications. In addition, government policies to promote biotechnological development are supported by CONICIT (National

  8. High Field Strength Elements Reflect Segmentation of the Central American Volcanic Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolge, L. L.; Carr, M. J.; Feigenson, M. D.; Lindsay, F. N.; Milidakis, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Central American volcanic front is divided into several discrete segments defined by right steps and changes in the strike of the volcanic front. The HFSE ratio, Zr/Nb, provides the first geochemical signature that regularly reflects this segmentation. From El Salvador to Costa Rica there are five volcanic segments: El Salvador, western Nicaragua, eastern Nicaragua, western Costa Rica and central Costa Rica. The two Costa Rican segments are separated by a volcanic gap, whereas all the other segments are separated by right steps in the volcanic front. At each segment boundary defined by a right step, there is a sharp increase in Zr/Nb, such that the volcanoes to the SE, which step closer to the trench, have much higher Zr/Nb. Furthermore, within each segment, Zr/Nb steadily decreases from the northwest to the southeast. A sawtooth pattern is generated by the sharp increases followed by gradual declines. The Zr/Nb sawtooth pattern along the arc (sensu lato) is very similar to the sawtooth pattern of slab depths for each volcanic center calculated by Syracuse and Abers (2006). The depth to the slab steadily increases moving northwest to southeast along each segment of the arc. Furthermore, at each segment boundary that is defined by a right step there is a sharp decrease in slab depth to the SE accompanying the sharp increase in Zr/Nb. As the depth to the slab increases, Zr/Nb decreases. The decrease in this ratio primarily reflects an increase of Nb. In Central America there are several examples of different magma types erupting from the same vent. Therefore the range of Zr/Nb may reflect mixing of a highly Nb depleted magma of shallow origin with magmas of deeper origin that lack Nb depletion. This decrease in Nb retention with increasing depth may also be the result of varying mineral instabilities with increasing depth and pressure. It may also result from a longer route of the rising melt through the mantle wedge allowing different amounts of Nb to be removed

  9. On-and offshore tephrostratigraphy and -chronology of the southern Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Wang, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Including the recently drilled CRISP sites (IODP Exp. 334&344) the deep sea drilling programs have produced 69 drill holes at 29 Sites during 9 Legs at the Central American convergent margin, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. The CAVA produced numerous plinian eruptions in the past. Although abundant in the marine sediments, information and data regarding large late Cenozoic explosive eruptions from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala remain very sparse and discontinuous on land. We have established a tephrostratigraphy from recent through Miocene times from the unique archive of ODP/IODP sites offshore Central America in which we identify tephra source regions by geochemical fingerprinting using major and trace element glass shard compositions. Here we present first order correlations of ­~500 tephra layers between multiple holes at a single site as well as between multiple sites. We identified ashes supporting Costa Rican (~130), Nicaraguan (17) and Guatemalan (27) sources as well as ~150 tephra layers from the Galápagos hotspot. Within our marine record we also identified well-known marker beds such as the Los Chocoyos tephra from Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and the Tiribi Tuff from Costa Rica but also correlations to 15 distinct deposits from known Costa Rican and Nicaraguan eruptions within the last 4.1 Ma. These correlations, together with new radiometric age dates, provide the base for an improved tephrochronostratigraphy in this region. Finally, the new marine record of explosive volcanism offshore southern CAVA provides insights into the eruptive history of long-living volcanic complexes (e.g., Barva, Costa Rica) and into the distribution and frequency of large explosive eruptions from the Galápagos hotspot. The integrated approach of Ar/Ar age dating, correlations with on land deposits from CAVA, biostratigraphic ages and sediment accumulation rates improved the age models for the drilling sites.

  10. Venomic and antivenomic analyses of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus (Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Angulo, Yamileth; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    The proteome of the venom of Micrurus nigrocinctus (Central American coral snake) was analyzed by a "venomics" approach. Nearly 50 venom peaks were resolved by RP-HPLC, revealing a complex protein composition. Comparative analyses of venoms from individual specimens revealed that such complexity is an intrinsic feature of this species, rather than the sum of variable individual patterns of simpler composition. Proteins related to eight distinct families were identified by MS/MS de novo peptide sequencing or N-terminal sequencing: phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), three-finger toxin (3FTx), l-amino acid oxidase, C-type lectin/lectin-like, metalloproteinase, serine proteinase, ohanin, and nucleotidase. PLA(2)s and 3FTxs are predominant, representing 48 and 38% of the venom proteins, respectively. Within 3FTxs, several isoforms of short-chain α-neurotoxins as well as muscarinic-like toxins and proteins with similarity to long-chain κ-2 bungarotoxin were identified. PLA(2)s are also highly diverse, and a toxicity screening showed that they mainly exert myotoxicity, although some are lethal and may contribute to the known presynaptic neurotoxicity of this venom. An antivenomic characterization of a therapeutic monospecific M. nigrocinctus equine antivenom revealed differences in immunorecognition of venom proteins that correlate with their molecular mass, with the weakest recognition observed toward 3FTxs.

  11. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. . Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. )

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  12. Atlantic Deep-water Response to the Early Pliocene Shoaling of the Central American Seaway

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David B.; Jung, Simon J. A.; Kroon, Dick; Hodell, David A.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    The early Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS), ~4.7–4.2 million years ago (mega annum-Ma), is thought to have strengthened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The associated increase in northward flux of heat and moisture may have significantly influenced the evolution of Pliocene climate. While some evidence for the predicted increase in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation exists in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, similar evidence is missing in the wider Atlantic. Here, we present stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope records from the Southeast Atlantic-a key region for monitoring the southern extent of NADW. Using these data, together with other δ13C and δ18O records from the Atlantic, we assess the impact of the early Pliocene CAS shoaling phase on deep-water circulation. We find that NADW formation was vigorous prior to 4.7 Ma and showed limited subsequent change. Hence, the overall structure of the deep Atlantic was largely unaffected by the early Pliocene CAS shoaling, corroborating other evidence that indicates larger changes in NADW resulted from earlier and deeper shoaling phases. This finding implies that the early Pliocene shoaling of the CAS had no profound impact on the evolution of climate. PMID:26193070

  13. Characterization of the dog agouti gene and a nonagouti mutation in german shepherd dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Julie A.; Newton, J.; Berryere, Tom G.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Schmutz, Sheila M.; Barsh, Gregory S.

    2004-07-08

    The interaction between two genes, Agouti and Melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), produces diverse pigment patterns in mammals by regulating the type, amount, and distribution pattern of the two pigment types found in mammalian hair: eumelanin (brown/black) and pheomelanin (yellow/red). In domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), there is a tremendous variation in coat color patterns between and within breeds; however, previous studies suggest that the molecular genetics of pigment-type switching in dogs may differ from that of other mammals. Here we report the identification and characterization of the Agouti gene from domestic dogs, predicted to encode a 131-amino-acid secreted protein 98 percent identical to the fox homolog, and which maps to chromosome CFA24 in a region of conserved linkage. Comparative analysis of the Doberman Pinscher Agouti cDNA, the fox cDNA, and 180 kb of Doberman Pinscher genomic DNA suggests that, as with laboratory mice, different pigment-type-switching patterns in the canine family are controlled by alternative usage of different promoters and untranslated first exons. A small survey of Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, Australian Shepherds, and German Shepherd Dogs did not uncover any polymorphisms, but we identified a single nucleotide variant in black German Shepherd Dogs predicted to cause an Arg-to-Cys substitution at codon 96, which is likely to account for recessive inheritance of a uniform black coat.

  14. Characterization of the dog Agouti gene and a nonagoutimutation in German Shepherd Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Julie A; Newton, J; Berryere, Tom G; Rubin, Edward M; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Schmutz, Sheila M; Barsh, Gregory S

    2004-10-01

    The interaction between two genes, Agouti and Melanocortin-1 receptor ( Mc1r), produces diverse pigment patterns in mammals by regulating the type, amount, and distribution pattern of the two pigment types found in mammalian hair: eumelanin (brown/black) and pheomelanin (yellow/red). In domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris), there is a tremendous variation in coat color patterns between and within breeds; however, previous studies suggest that the molecular genetics of pigment-type switching in dogs may differ from that of other mammals. Here we report the identification and characterization of the Agouti gene from domestic dogs, predicted to encode a 131-amino-acid secreted protein 98% identical to the fox homolog, and which maps to chromosome CFA24 in a region of conserved linkage. Comparative analysis of the Doberman Pinscher Agouti cDNA, the fox cDNA, and 180 kb of Doberman Pinscher genomic DNA suggests that, as with laboratory mice, different pigment-type-switching patterns in the canine family are controlled by alternative usage of different promoters and untranslated first exons. A small survey of Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, Australian Shepherds, and German Shepherd Dogs did not uncover any polymorphisms, but we identified a single nucleotide variant in black German Shepherd Dogs predicted to cause an Arg-to-Cys substitution at codon 96, which is likely to account for recessive inheritance of a uniform black coat.

  15. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  16. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  17. Genetic divergence disclosing a rapid prehistorical dispersion of Native Americans in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    He, Yungang; Wang, Wei R; Li, Ran; Wang, Sijia; Jin, Li

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the divergence time between Native Americans is important for understanding the initial entry and early dispersion of human beings in the New World. Current methods for estimating the genetic divergence time of populations could seriously depart from a linear relationship with the true divergence for multiple populations of a different population size and significant population expansion. Here, to address this problem, we propose a novel measure to estimate the genetic divergence time of populations. Computer simulation revealed that the new measure maintained an excellent linear correlation with the population divergence time in complicated multi-population scenarios with population expansion. Utilizing the new measure and microsatellite data of 21 Native American populations, we investigated the genetic divergences of the Native American populations. The results indicated that genetic divergences between North American populations are greater than that between Central and South American populations. None of the divergences, however, were large enough to constitute convincing evidence supporting the two-wave or multi-wave migration model for the initial entry of human beings into America. The genetic affinity of the Native American populations was further explored using Neighbor-Net and the genetic divergences suggested that these populations could be categorized into four genetic groups living in four different ecologic zones. The divergence of the population groups suggests that the early dispersion of human beings in America was a multi-step procedure. Further, the divergences suggest the rapid dispersion of Native Americans in Central and South Americas after a long standstill period in North America. PMID:22970308

  18. Genetic Divergence Disclosing a Rapid Prehistorical Dispersion of Native Americans in Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    He, Yungang; Wang, Wei R.; Li, Ran; Wang, Sijia; Jin, Li

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the divergence time between Native Americans is important for understanding the initial entry and early dispersion of human beings in the New World. Current methods for estimating the genetic divergence time of populations could seriously depart from a linear relationship with the true divergence for multiple populations of a different population size and significant population expansion. Here, to address this problem, we propose a novel measure to estimate the genetic divergence time of populations. Computer simulation revealed that the new measure maintained an excellent linear correlation with the population divergence time in complicated multi-population scenarios with population expansion. Utilizing the new measure and microsatellite data of 21 Native American populations, we investigated the genetic divergences of the Native American populations. The results indicated that genetic divergences between North American populations are greater than that between Central and South American populations. None of the divergences, however, were large enough to constitute convincing evidence supporting the two-wave or multi-wave migration model for the initial entry of human beings into America. The genetic affinity of the Native American populations was further explored using Neighbor-Net and the genetic divergences suggested that these populations could be categorized into four genetic groups living in four different ecologic zones. The divergence of the population groups suggests that the early dispersion of human beings in America was a multi-step procedure. Further, the divergences suggest the rapid dispersion of Native Americans in Central and South Americas after a long standstill period in North America. PMID:22970308

  19. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high

  20. The Origin of Spatial and Temporal Geochemical Variations in the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoernle, K.; Heydolph, K.; Sadofsky, S.; Lissinna, B.; Hauff, F.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2006-12-01

    Variations in age and composition of the subduction input, slab dip, crustal thickness and crustal composition are likely to be the major controls on spatial and temporal variations along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Our extensive new geochemical data set from volcanic rocks and olivine-hosted melt inclusions, combined with published data, shows systematic variations along two sections of the CAVA. Along the volcanic front (VF) from NW Nicaragua to Guatemala and across the arc from El Salvador to Honduras, variations in trace element (e.g. decrease in Ba/La and U/Th and increase in La/Yb) and isotopic composition (decrease in 143Nd/144Nd and increase in 206Pb/204Pb) suggest a decreasing role for a hydrous fluid component and an increasing role of a sediment melt component in the arc magmas to the NW along the VF and behind the VF. Since the age and composition of the subduction input are similar along this part of the arc, the decreasing slab dip angle, increase in crustal thickness and/or transition from mafic oceanic to evolved continental type basement are likely to control the observed geochemical variations. From NW Nicaragua to central Costa Rica, the most mafic lavas and melt inclusions show an increase in SiO2, La/Yb and 206Pb/204Pb and a decrease in FeO*, Ba/La, U/Th and 143Nd/144Nd, consistent with an increasing role of hydrous melts with Galapagos hotspot-type geochemical signatures contributing to the arc magmas to the SE. These geochemical variations correlate with an increasing overprinting of the incoming Cocos Plate by the Galapagos hotspot. There is a dramatic increase in Pb isotopic composition beginning at Arenal, which is coincident with the projection of the northern morphological boundary of the subducting Galapagos hotspot track. The fluid-mobile nature of Pb and the high Pb concentrations in the arc magmas indicate that the Pb isotopic composition (and the other geochemical variations) is primarily controlled by the subduction

  1. Genetic differentiation and species cohesion in two widespread Central American Begonia species.

    PubMed

    Twyford, A D; Kidner, C A; Ennos, R A

    2014-04-01

    Begonia is one of the ten largest plant genera, with over 1500 species. This high species richness may in part be explained by weak species cohesion, which has allowed speciation by divergence in allopatry. In this study, we investigate species cohesion in the widespread Central American Begonia heracleifolia and Begonia nelumbiifolia, by genotyping populations at microsatellite loci. We then test for post-zygotic reproductive barriers using experimental crosses, and assess whether sterility barriers are related to intraspecific changes in genome size, indicating major genome restructuring between isolated populations. Strong population substructure was found for B. heracleifolia (FST=0.364, F'ST=0.506) and B. nelumbiifolia (FST=0.277, F'ST=0.439), and Bayesian admixture analysis supports the division of most populations into discrete genetic clusters. Moderate levels of inferred selfing (B. heracleifolia s=0.40, B. nelumbiifolia s=0.62) and dispersal limitation are likely to have contributed to significant genetic differentiation (B. heracleifolia Jost's D=0.274; B. nelumbiifolia D=0.294). Interpopulation crosses involving a divergent B. heracleifolia population with a genome size ∼10% larger than the species mean had a ∼20% reduction in pollen viability compared with other outcrosses, supporting reproductive isolation being polymorphic within the species. The population genetic data suggest that Begonia populations are only weakly connected by gene flow, allowing reproductive barriers to accumulate between the most isolated populations. This supports allopatric divergence in situ being the precursor of speciation in Begonia, and may also be a common speciation mechanism in other tropical herbaceous plant groups.

  2. Genetic differentiation and species cohesion in two widespread Central American Begonia species

    PubMed Central

    Twyford, A D; Kidner, C A; Ennos, R A

    2014-01-01

    Begonia is one of the ten largest plant genera, with over 1500 species. This high species richness may in part be explained by weak species cohesion, which has allowed speciation by divergence in allopatry. In this study, we investigate species cohesion in the widespread Central American Begonia heracleifolia and Begonia nelumbiifolia, by genotyping populations at microsatellite loci. We then test for post-zygotic reproductive barriers using experimental crosses, and assess whether sterility barriers are related to intraspecific changes in genome size, indicating major genome restructuring between isolated populations. Strong population substructure was found for B. heracleifolia (FST=0.364, F′ST=0.506) and B. nelumbiifolia (FST=0.277, F′ST=0.439), and Bayesian admixture analysis supports the division of most populations into discrete genetic clusters. Moderate levels of inferred selfing (B. heracleifolia s=0.40, B. nelumbiifolia s=0.62) and dispersal limitation are likely to have contributed to significant genetic differentiation (B. heracleifolia Jost's D=0.274; B. nelumbiifolia D=0.294). Interpopulation crosses involving a divergent B. heracleifolia population with a genome size ∼10% larger than the species mean had a ∼20% reduction in pollen viability compared with other outcrosses, supporting reproductive isolation being polymorphic within the species. The population genetic data suggest that Begonia populations are only weakly connected by gene flow, allowing reproductive barriers to accumulate between the most isolated populations. This supports allopatric divergence in situ being the precursor of speciation in Begonia, and may also be a common speciation mechanism in other tropical herbaceous plant groups. PMID:24220088

  3. Long-Term Drop in Caribbean Marine Export Productivity with the Demise of the Central American Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. D.; Trumbo, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The progressive closing of the Central American Seaway ~3-7 Ma substantially altered the surface ocean salinity, nutrient content, and biology of the Caribbean Sea and Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data from fossil plankton, reef development and oceanographic models of the shoaling Central American Seaway suggest that there was a distinct change in Caribbean productivity with closure of the seaway, but there has not been a detailed comparison of export production between the two ocean basins. Here we show that export production gradually decreased in the Caribbean starting about 2.7 Ma while remaining relatively stable in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Data are derived from 0-5.3 Ma XRF records of Caribbean Site ODP 999 and Pacific Site ODP 846 at ~600-1000 year resolution. Caribbean export production falls during glacial phases in response to ventilation of the tropical thermocline by increasingly nutrient-starved Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water. In contrast, Caribbean production peaks during interglacials when nutrient-rich Antarctic Intermediate Water ventilates the tropical thermocline. Export production in both the eastern Pacific and Caribbean is governed mostly by high latitude nutrient sources as seen in the dominance of high latitude orbital forcing. The gradual intensification of Caribbean oligotrophy may be responsible for the well documented delay in extinction of Caribbean reef associated fauna relative to closure of the central American Seaway. The increasing nutrient starvation of the Caribbean during glacial events may also have rendered Caribbean reef corals unusually susceptible to anthropogenic nutrient loads in modern times.

  4. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Geisler, J.G. |

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in A{sup vy}/a mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, G.L.

    1998-08-01

    Viable yellow (A{sup vy}/a) mice are larger, obese, hyperinsulinemic, more susceptible to cancer, and, on average, shorter lived than their non-yellow siblings. They are epigenetic mosaics ranging from a yellow phenotype with maximum ectopic agouti overexpression, through a continuum of mottled agouti/yellow phenotypes with partial agouti overexpression, to a pseudoagouti phenotype with minimal ectopic expression. Pseudoagouti A{sup vy}/a mice are lean, healthy, and longer lived than their yellow siblings. Here the authors report that feeding pregnant black a/a dams methyl-supplemented diets alters epigenetic regulation of agouti expression in their offspring, as indicated by increased agouti/black mottling in the direction of the pseudoagouti phenotype. They also present confirmatory evidence that epigenetic phenotypes are maternally heritable. Thus A{sup vy} expression, already known to be modulated by imprinting, strain-specific modification, and maternal epigenetic inheritance, is also modulated by maternal diet. These observations suggest, at least in this special case, that maternal dietary supplementation may positively affect health and longevity of the offspring. Therefore, this experimental system should be useful for identifying maternal factors that modulate epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA methylation, in developing embryos.

  6. Miocene latitudinal climatic and topographic variability within the central North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gébelin, Aude; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Heizler, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    The long-term climatic evolution and atmospheric circulation patterns of the Earth are influenced by the topography of large mountain chains whose topography is in turn controlled by links and feedbacks of surface processes and those acting within the Earth's interior. Stable isotopes in precipitation change systematically with elevation in many modern mountain ranges and have become an increasingly important tool in reconstructing the long-term topographic and climatic evolution of the world's largest mountain ranges. Here, we present stable isotope data from meteoric fluids trapped in orogen-scale deformation zones and associated fault-bounded basin sediments that record paleoelevation and also link the geodynamics of orogens with the overall long-term landscape and climate histories. To reconstruct the Cenozoic paleoelevation history of the central part of the North American Cordillera, we focus on the metamorphic core complexes of the Snake Range (Nevada) and Buckskin Mountains (Arizona). The Snake Range and Buckskin Mountains represent both classic examples of normal fault-bounded metamorphic core complexes that developed as a consequence of Oligocene Miocene extension of the Basin and Range Province. Synkinematic muscovites collected systematically over the top-300 m of section within the Snake Range detachment reveal a pattern of increasingly younger 40Ar/39Ar ages (26.9 Ma to 21.3 Ma) from the top to the bottom of the detachment. Across the same section dD muscovite values as low as -150 per mil occur at the top of the detachment zone and attain progressively higher values of up to -72 per mil towards the bottom of the section. This hydrogen stable isotope trend suggests that meteoric fluids percolated 10s to 100s of meters into the ductile segment of the detachment over the time scale of mylonitic deformation (ca. 27 to 23 Ma). In contrast, dDmuscovite values of similarly aged mylonitic quartzites from the Buckskin Mountains are much higher and range

  7. Results from NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Managua,Central American Volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, K.; Funk, J.; Mann, P.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    Lake Managua covers an area of 1,035 km2 of the Central American volcanic arc and is enclosed by three major stratovolcanoes: Momotombo to the northwest was last active in AD 1905, Apoyeque in the center on the Chiltepe Peninsula was last active ca. 4600 years BP, and Masaya to the southeast was last active in AD 2003. A much smaller volcano in the lake (Momotombito) is thought to have been active <4500 yrs B.P. In May of 2006, we used a chartered barge to collect 330 km of 3.5 kHz profiler data along with coincident 274 km of sidescan sonar and 27 km of seismic reflection data. These data identify three zones of faulting on the lake floor: 1) A zone of north-northeast-striking faults in the shallow (2.5-7.5 m deep) eastern part of the lake that extends from the capital city of Managua, which was severely damaged by shallow, left-lateral strike-slip displacements on two of these faults in 1931 (M 5.6) and 1972 (M 6.2): these faults exhibit a horst and graben character and include possible offsets on drowned river valleys 2) a semicircular rift zone that is 1 km wide and can be traced over a distance of 30 km in the central part of the lake; the rift structure defines the deepest parts of the lake ranging from 12 to 18 m deep and is concentric about the Apoyeque stratocone/Chiltepe Peninsula; and 3) a zone of fault scarps defining the northwestern lake shore that may correlate to the northwestern extension of the Mateare fault zone, a major scarp-forming fault that separates the Managua lowlands from the highlands south and west of the city. Following previous workers, we interpret the northeast- trending group of faults in the eastern part of the lake as part of a 15-km-long discontinuity where the trend of the volcanic arc is offset in a right-lateral sense. The semi-circular pattern of the rift zone that is centered on Chiltepe Peninsula appears to have formed as a distal effect of either magma intrusion or withdrawal from beneath this volcanic complex. The

  8. Exhumation of the Panama basement complex and basins: Implications for the closure of the Central American seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Diego A.; Foster, David A.; Min, Kyoungwon; Montes, Camilo; Cardona, Agustín.; Sadove, Gephen

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of the Central American isthmus occurred episodically from Eocene to Pliocene time and was caused by a series of tectonic and volcanic processes. Results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology, and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic data from sedimentary (sandstones and recent river sands) and plutonic rocks from the Azuero Peninsula and Central Panama document the exhumation and uplift history of the Panamanian basement complex. Our data support previous paleobotanical and thermochronological studies that suggest that by middle Eocene time some areas of Central Panama and Azuero Peninsula were exposed above sea level as a series of islands surrounded by shallow open marine waters. The Gatuncillo, Cobachón and Tonosí formations were deposited during this partial emergence. Transtension in the Oligocene-early Miocene produced various pull-apart basins (e.g., the Canal Basin) and local uplift that exhumed the Eocene strata (Gatuncillo and Cobachón formations). This event probably reduced circulation between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Tonosí Formation records late Miocene to Pleistocene cooling and exhumation, which may be related to uplift above the subducting Coiba Ridge. These results suggest that the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama followed a series of diachronous events that led to the final closure of the Central American seaway.

  9. Molecular basis of the pleiotropic phenotype of mice carrying the hypervariable yellow (A{sup hvy}) mutation at the agouti locus

    SciTech Connect

    Argeson, A.C.; Nelson, K.K.; Siracusa, L.D.

    1996-02-01

    The murine agouti locus regulates a switch in pigment synthesis between eumelanin (black/brown pigment) and phaeomelanin (yellow/red pigment) by hair bulb melanocytes. We recently described a spontaneous mutation, hypervariable yellow (A{sup hvy}) and demonstrated that A{sup hvy} is responsible for the largest range of phenotypes yet identified at the agouti locus, producing mice that are obese with yellow coats to mice that are of normal weight with black coats. Here, we show that agouti expression is altered both temporally and spatially in A{sup hvy} mutants. Agouti expression levels are positively correlated with the degree of yellow pigmentation in individual A{sup hvy} mice, consistent with results from other dominant yellow agouti mutations. Sequencing of 5{prime} RACE and genomic PCR products revealed that A{sup hvy} resulted from the integration of an intracisternal A particle (IAP) in an antisense orientation within the 5{prime} untranslated agouti exon 1C. This retrovirus-like element is responsible for deregulating agouti expression in A{sup hvy} mice; agouti expression is correlated with the methylation state of CpG residues in the IAP long terminal repeat as well as in host genomic DNA. In addition, the data suggest that the variable phenotype of A{sup hvy} offspring is influenced in part by the phenotype of their A{sup hvy} female parent. 42 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Closure History of the Central American Seaway and its Relationship to Ocean Circulation and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.; Lawrence, K. T.; Ladlow, C. G.; Newkirk, D.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoceanographic and ecologic studies suggest that gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS) as the Isthmus of Panama rose between ~13 to 2 Ma caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow Pacific water flow through the seaway into the Caribbean. This diminishing communication is thought to have significantly influenced surface currents, ocean circulation at depth, and ultimately regional and global climate. However, new studies of Panama's volcanic/tectonic history suggest the isthmus rose much earlier than previous estimates, calling into question many of our accepted implications for this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, increased North Atlantic temperature, and ties to Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Despite considerable research, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined the possibility of earlier events in the closure history of the CAS and thus the precise linkages and timing are not well defined. To investigate early restricted CAS flow related to sill formation or pulsed exhumation events, we examine two sets of independent paleoceanographic reconstructions from Ocean Drilling Program sediment cores from the region. We assess the presence of Pacific waters within the Caribbean over the last 30 Ma via the Nd-isotopic composition of fish teeth from several Caribbean sites; these records point to sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean from at least 30 to 10 Ma. Further, alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) indicate the presence of consistently warm (>27 °C) waters in the EEP from ~12 to ~5 Ma, after which time SSTs at sites within the modern cold tongue begin to cool appreciably. The SST data imply that the EEP cold tongue, which some studies suggest is linked in part to the rise of the Panamanian isthmus, did not develop until after 5

  11. Comparison of High Temporal Resolution SO2 Emission Rates and Geophysical Data at Central American Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J. L.; Dalton, M. P.; Watson, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    automatic derivations of plume velocity, as well as preliminary integration of camera-derived SO2 emission rates with other geophysical datasets from Fuego, Masaya, and other Central American volcanoes. The high temporal resolution of the UV camera's dataset offers a new opportunity for evaluation, alongside concurrent seismic and acoustic datasets, of variations in SO2 emission rate on a short time scale.

  12. Structural and ultrastructural features of the agouti tongue (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766)

    PubMed Central

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; Bolina, Cristina de Sousa; de Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; da da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2013-01-01

    The agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent belonging to the family Dasyproctidae that is found throughout Brazil and feeds on fruits and seeds. The aim of the present study was to describe the following features of the tongue of agouti: its morphological structures, the three-dimensional characteristics of the lingual papillae surface, the connective tissue cores (CTCs) and the epithelial cell ultrastructure. Four types of papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue with a triangular shape: filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate. Filiform papillae were distributed throughout the tongue surface, and removal of the epithelial surface revealed conical CTCs and multifilaments. Fungiform papillae were observed in the rostral and middle regions, whereas foliate papillae developed in pairs on the lateral margin of the caudal region. Removal of the epithelium in these regions revealed CTCs with parallel laminar conformation. Vallate papillae were arranged in a V-shape in the caudal region, and their CTCs ranged in shape from elongate to ovoid. The ultrastructural components of the dorsal epithelium were the basal, spinous, granular and keratinised layers. A broad area with cytoplasmic projections was identified in the interface region between the lamina propria and the basal layer. Flattened cells with intermediate filaments were observed in the transitional region between spinous and granular layers. The keratinised layer was composed of superimposed epithelial cells where desmosomes and cell-surface microridges were observed. These structural features, including the three-dimensional aspects of the lingual papillae, the CTCs and the epithelial ultrastructure, indicate that when compared with other animals, particularly other rodent species, the morphological features of the tongue of agouti are relatively well developed, especially regarding foliate and vallate papillae. PMID:23701183

  13. Bromine release during Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Appel, K.; Freundt, A.; Perez-Fernandez, W.; Wehrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) have produced at least 72 highly explosive eruptions within the last 200 ka. The eruption columns of all these “Plinian” eruptions reached well into the stratosphere such that their released volatiles may have influenced atmospheric chemistry and climate. While previous research has focussed on the sulfur and chlorine emissions during such large eruptions, we here present measurements of the heavy halogen bromine by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro-XRF microanalysis (SR-XRF) with typical detection limits at 0.3 ppm (in Fe rich standard basalt ML3B glass). Spot analyses of pre-eruptive glass inclusions trapped in minerals formed in magma reservoirs were compared with those in matrix glasses of the tephras, which represent the post-eruptive, degassed concentrations. The concentration difference between inclusions and matrix glasses, multiplied by erupted magma mass determined by extensive field mapping, yields estimates of the degassed mass of bromine. Br is probably hundreds of times more effective in destroying ozone than Cl, and can accumulate in the stratosphere over significant time scales. Melt inclusions representing deposits of 22 large eruptions along the CAVA have Br contents between 0.5 and 13 ppm. Br concentrations in matrix glasses are nearly constant at 0.4 to 1.5 ppm. However, Br concentrations and Cl/Br ratios vary along the CAVA. The highest values of Br contents (>8 ppm) and lowest Cl/Br ratios (170 to 600) in melt inclusions occur across central Nicaragua and southern El Salvador, and correlate with bulk-rock compositions of high Ba/La > 85 as well as low La/Yb <5. Thus we observe the maximum magmatic Br-concentrations in the segements of the arc. where the input of sediment and water into the subduction system is largest and the melting column is longest. The largest eruptive emissions of Br into the atmosphere, however, occurred in Guatemala due to the large magnitude of

  14. Circulation Through the Central American Seaway During the Miocene Carbonate Crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newkirk, D. R.; Martin, E. E.

    2007-12-01

    Changes in deep sea circulation in the Caribbean Basin were investigated in order to determine the cause of the carbonate crash in the middle to late Miocene and the impact of the shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS) on larger scale circulation patterns. Gateway events, such as the shoaling of the CAS, have long been associated with the reorganization of ocean circulation and dramatic climate events. The distribution of water masses in the Caribbean region was evaluated using Nd isotopes from fossil fish teeth from three ODP sites: Site 998 in the northern Caribbean Basin (3179 m water depth), Site 999 in the southern Caribbean (2897 m), and Site 846 from the eastern equatorial Pacific (3296 m). Prior to the carbonate crash in the Caribbean (14 to 12 Ma) ɛNd values increased from -6 to ~-3, while carbonate mass accumulation rates \\(MARs\\) decreased. During the crash interval ɛNd values were highly variable within the Caribbean basin with values ranging between -4.4 and 0; the highest values correlate with intervals of greatest dissolution. As carbonate MARs increased following the crash ɛNd values in the Caribbean began to decrease, reaching a value of ~-6 by 9 Ma. The carbonate crash in the eastern equatorial Pacific lags the Caribbean crash by about 0.5 Ma. Prior to the crash ɛNd values at Site 846 increased from -4 to -2. They then remained relatively steady during the crash. The radiogenic Nd values in the Caribbean basin are much higher than any values recorded in the Atlantic throughout the Cenozoic. The possibility that these values are altered by ash diagenesis in the Caribbean has been evaluated, but there is no correlation between intervals of ash deposition and radiogenic ɛNd values. However, these radiogenic values are similar to values reported for Pacific intermediate and shallow waters during the Miocene. It appears that corrosive, intermediate Pacific waters were gradually introduced into the Caribbean prior to the crash, while

  15. [Methyl-containing diet of mothers affects the AGOUTI gene expression in the offspring of rats with various behavioral types].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Os'kina, I N; Pliusnina, I Z; Trut, L N

    2009-05-01

    The effects of selection of agouti rats (with genotype AAHH) on the tame and aggressive behavior and dietary methyl given to females from the eighth day of pregnancy to the fifth day after the birth of the offspring on the intensity of the agouti coat color in the offspring have been studied. The morphometric parameters of hair determining the darkness of the agouti color (the total length of guard hairs, the lengths of their eumelanin end and pheomelanin band, the ratio between the lengths of the eumelanin and pheomelanin portions of the hair, the total length of the awn hairs, and the relative length of their widened "lanceolate" upper end) have been compared. It has been found that selection of agouti rats for aggressive behavior is accompanied by darkening of the coat color compared to tame rats due to an increase in the ratio of the length of the black eumelanin end of the guard hairs to the length of the yellow pheomelanin band. Methyl-containing additives to the diet of females affect the intensity of the agouti coat color in the offsprings with both types of behavior, but to different extents. Aggressive offspring is more sensitive to the mother's methyl-containing diet: the percentage of animals that are darker than control rats is higher among aggressive animals than among tame ones due to a greater increase in the ratio between dark and light portions of hairs. The possible mechanisms of differences in the phenotypic modifications of coat color in control and experimental agouti rats with different types of behavior are discussed. PMID:19534427

  16. Teriflunomide attenuates immunopathological changes in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ringheim, Garth E; Lee, Lan; Laws-Ricker, Lynn; Delohery, Tomas; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; Colletti, Nicholas; Soos, Timothy J; Schroeder, Kendra; Fanelli, Barbara; Tian, Nian; Arendt, Christopher W; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Petty, Margaret; Ji, Zhongqi; Qian, George; Gaur, Rajula; Weinstock, Daniel; Cavallo, Jean; Telsinskas, Juventas; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy recently approved in several locations for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the effects of teriflunomide, immunocyte population changes were measured during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats. Treatment with teriflunomide attenuated levels of spinal cord-infiltrating T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Teriflunomide also mitigated the disease-induced changes in immune cell populations in the blood and spleen suggesting an inhibitory effect on pathogenic immune responses. PMID:24198809

  17. Atmospheric chemistry effects of the 1998 Mexican/Central American fires measured in central New Mexico USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, C. J.

    1998-12-16

    Atmospheric effects from large fires have received a great deal of interest recently, especially when the fires have the potential to effect human health when the plumes are transported long distances over areas of high population density. Examples are the recent large fires in Southeast Asia in 1997 (1) and the wildfires occurring in southern Mexico and Central America that were manifested in decreased visibility and high aerosol concentrations in the United States at distances of 2500-4000 km from the fires. In addition to fine aerosols, these biomass fires have the potential to produce and transport large quantities of oxygenated organic species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfate and nitrate species. Most of the literature reports dealing with products of biomass burning have been related to fireplace and wood burning stove emissions (2,3) and with local effects from forest fires(4). The recent super-large fires occurring in Indonesia and Mexico/Central America also bring about the issue of atmospheric reactivity because long-range transport affords long reaction times for photochemical reactions, wet and dry deposition and surface reactions on the aerosol particles. The smoke/haze conditions prompted considerable concern among the general population in New Mexico regarding health hazards and a large number of calls to the Albuquerque, NM Air Quality Division which reported the PM{sub 10} samples collected showed no significant increase in mass(5). The conclusion was that the particles were very fine and therefore had considerable influence on the visibility but did not violate health standards. In this study, organic and inorganic chemical species in the gaseous and aerosol phases have been identified and quantified under non-smoky and smoky conditions in Central New Mexico approximately 3000 km from the source of the fires.

  18. Short-days induce weight loss in Siberian hamsters despite overexpression of the agouti-related peptide gene.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, P H; Warner, A; Fowler, M J; Murphy, M; de Backer, M W; Adan, R A H; Barrett, P; Brameld, J M; Ebling, F J P

    2010-06-01

    Many vertebrates express profound annual cycles of body fattening, although it is not clear whether these represent differential activity of the central pathways known to mediate homeostatic control of food intake and energy expenditure, or whether the recent discovery of a major role for pars tuberalis-ependymal signalling points towards novel mechanisms. We examined this in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) by using gene transfection to up-regulate a major orexigenic peptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and then determined whether this increased anabolic drive could prevent the short-day induced winter catabolic state. Infusions of a recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding an AgRP construct into the hypothalamus of hamsters in the long-day obese phase of their seasonal cycle produced a 20% gain in body weight over 6 weeks compared to hamsters receiving a control reporter construct, reflecting a significant increase in food intake and a significant decrease in energy expenditure. However, all hamsters showed a significant, prolonged decrease in body weight when exposed to short photoperiods, despite the hamsters expressing the AgRP construct maintaining a higher food intake and lower energy expenditure relative to the control hamsters. Visualisation of the green fluorescent protein reporter and analysis of AgRP-immunoreactivity confirmed widespread expression of the construct in the hypothalamus, which was maintained for the 21-week duration of the study. In conclusion, the over-expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus produced a profoundly obese state but did not block the seasonal catabolic response, suggesting a separation of rheostatic mechanisms in seasonality from those maintaining homeostasis of energy metabolism.

  19. Deletion of agouti-related protein blunts ethanol self-administration and binge-like drinking in mice.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Cubero, I; Ko, L; Thiele, T E

    2009-06-01

    The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of peptides that are cleaved from the polypeptide precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Recent pharmacological and genetic evidence suggests that melanocortin receptor (MCR) signaling modulates neurobiological responses to ethanol and ethanol intake. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is synthesized by neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is a natural antagonist of MCRs. Because central administration of the functionally active AgRP fragment AgRP-(83-132) increases ethanol intake by C57BL/6 J mice, we determined if mutant mice lacking normal production of AgRP (AgRP(-/-)) and maintained on a C57BL/6 J genetic background would show reduced self-administration of ethanol relative to littermate wild-type (AgRP(+/+)) mice. AgRP(-/-) mice showed reduced 8% (v/v) ethanol-reinforced lever-pressing behavior relative to AgRP(+/+) mice in daily 2-h sessions, but normal sucrose-, saccharin- and water-reinforced lever-pressing. Similarly, AgRP(-/-) mice showed reduced consumption of 8% ethanol in a two-bottle limited access test (2 h/day), although this effect was largely sex-dependent. Using drinking-in-the-dark (DID) procedures, AgRP(-/-) mice showed blunted binge-like drinking of 20% (v/v) ethanol which was associated with lower blood ethanol levels (85 mg/dl) relative to AgRP(+/+) mice (133 mg/dl) after 4 h of intake. AgRP(-/-) mice showed normal ethanol metabolism and did not show altered sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These observations with genetically altered mice are consistent with previous pharmacological data and suggest that endogenous AgRP signaling modulates the reinforcing properties of ethanol and binge-like ethanol drinking.

  20. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor-dependent inverse agonism of agouti-related protein on melanocortin 4 receptor in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elisa; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Thompson, Darren; Metz, Juriaan; Flik, Gert; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor mainly expressed in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Activation of the MC4R leads to a decrease in food intake, whereas inactivating mutations are a genetic cause of obesity. The binding of agouti-related protein (AGRP) reduces not only agonist-stimulated cAMP production (competitive antagonist) but also the basal activity of the receptor, as an inverse agonist. Transgenic zebrafish overexpressing AGRP display increased food intake and linear growth, indicative of a physiological role for the melanocortin system in the control of the energy balance in fish. We report on the cloning, pharmacological characterization, tissue distribution, and detailed brain mapping of a sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) MC4R ortholog. Sea bass MC4R is profusely expressed within food intake-controlling pathways of the fish brain. However, the activity of the melanocortin system during progressive fasting does not depend on the hypothalamic/pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and MC4R expression, which suggests that sea bass MC4R is constitutively activated and regulated by AGRP binding. We demonstrate that AGRP acts as competitive antagonist and reduces MTII-induced cAMP production. AGRP also decreases the basal activity of the receptor as an inverse agonist. This observation suggests that MC4R is constitutively active and supports the evolutionary conservation of the AGRP/MC4R interactions. The inverse agonism, but not the competitive antagonism, depends on the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (IBMX). This suggests that inverse agonism and competitive antagonism operate through different intracellular signaling pathways, a view that opens up new targets for the treatment of melanocortin-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:19225141

  1. Educational Equity Policies and the Centralization of American Public Education: The Case of Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrogordato, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    Sixty years ago, federal guidelines regarding the instruction of special populations in American public schools were nonexistent. Racial minorities, language minorities, women, the poor, and those with physical and mental disabilities had not been identified as groups that needed special protections. Much has changed since then. Federal…

  2. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  3. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  4. Ethnic Identity and the Boarding School Experience of West-Central Oklahoma American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeth, Sally J.

    This book reports on a study of the perceptions of Oklahoma American Indians about their childhood experiences in government and church-sponsored boarding schools. Drawing on symbolic anthropology, the boarding school experience is interpreted to be a complex cultural symbol and symbolic process that contributes to group collectivity and belonging…

  5. An obesity-dependent lactation defect in the viable yellow agouti mouse is associated with mammary inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity is known to delay lactogenesis in breast-feeding women, as well as negatively impact lactation in other species. Obesity is also understood to be associated with inflammation. Work with the viable yellow agouti (Avy) mouse in our laboratory has documented a lactation defect in obese...

  6. Recombinant Inbred Strain and Interspecific Backcross Analysis of Molecular Markers Flanking the Murine Agouti Coat Color Locus

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, L. D.; Buchberg, A. M.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant inbred strain and interspecific backcross mice were used to create a molecular genetic linkage map of the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. The orientation and distance of the Ada, Emv-13, Emv-15, Hck-1, Il-1a, Pck-1, Psp, Src-1 and Svp-1 loci from the β(2)-microglobulin locus and the agouti locus were established. Our mapping results have provided the identification of molecular markers both proximal and distal to the agouti locus. The recombinants obtained provide valuable resources for determining the direction of chromosome walking experiments designed to clone sequences at the agouti locus. Comparisons between the mouse and human genome maps suggest that the human homolog of the agouti locus resides on human chromosome 20q. Three loci not present on mouse chromosome 2 were also identified and were provisionally named Psp-2, Hck-2 and Hck-3. The Psp-2 locus maps to mouse chromosome 14. The Hck-2 locus maps near the centromere of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lyn locus. The Hck-3 locus maps near the distal end of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lck locus. PMID:2759422

  7. Cenozoic History of Paleo-Currents through the Central American Seaway: Insights from Deep Sea Sediments and Outcrops in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Paleontologic, oceanographic, and ecologic studies suggest gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway between ~15 to 2 Ma that caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. This diminishing communication has been further associated with changes in surface and deep ocean currents, atmospheric flow, and ultimately regional and global climate. Recent studies of the Isthmus of Panama's exhumation history, palm phylogenies, and fossil/molecularly derived migration rates, however, suggest that the isthmus may have risen much earlier. An earlier rise scenario would call into question many accepted consequences of this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Despite considerable research on the Neogene, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined long-term changes in the adjacent oceans over the Cenozoic to evaluate the potential for earlier events in the closure history of the seaway. In this study, we extend records of bottom water circulation reconstructed from the Nd-isotopes of fish teeth from several Caribbean International Ocean Discovery Program sediment cores (ODP Sites 998, 999, 1000). These reconstructions clearly depict an increase in Pacific volcanism throughout the Cenozoic and sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean basin from ~50 to 9 Ma, although there appear to be interesting complexities within the Caribbean basin itself. We also present preliminary investigations into the potential of Nd-isotopic analyses on fossil fish teeth recovered from outcrops and exposures of marine strata across Panama to further elucidate the regional dynamics and shoaling history of the Central American Seaway.

  8. Liver-specific expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice promotes liver carcinogenesis in the absence of obesity and diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklin, Alexander; Mynatt, Randall; Klebig, Mitch; Kiefer, Laura; Wilkison, William O; Woychik, Richard P; Michaud III, Edward J

    2004-01-01

    Background: The agouti protein is a paracrine factor that is normally present in the skin of many species of mammals. Agouti regulates the switch between black and yellow hair pigmentation by signalling through the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) on melanocytes. Lethal yellow (Ay) and viable yellow (Avy) are dominant regulatory mutations in the mouse agouti gene that cause the wild- ype protein to be produced at abnormally high levels throughout the body. Mice harboring these mutations exhibit a pleiotropic syndrome characterized by yellow coat color, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased susceptibility to hyperplasia and carcinogenesis in numerous tissues, including the liver. The goal of this research was to determine if ectopic expression of the agouti gene in the liver alone is sufficient to recapitulate any aspect of this syndrome. For this purpose, we generated lines of transgenic mice expressing high levels of agouti in the liver under the regulatory control of the albumin promoter. Expression levels of the agouti transgene in the liver were quantified by Northern blot analysis. Functional agouti protein in the liver of transgenic mice was assayed by its ability to inhibit binding of the -melanocyte stimulating hormone ( MSH) to the Mc1r. Body weight, plasma insulin and blood glucose levels were analyzed in control and transgenic mice. Control and transgenic male mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) of the hepatocellular carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), at 15 days of age. Mice were euthanized at 36 or 40 weeks after DEN injection and the number of tumors per liver and total liver weights were recorded. Results: The albumin-agouti transgene was expressed at high levels in the livers of mice and produced a functional agouti protein. Albumin-agouti transgenic mice had normal body weights and normal levels of blood glucose and plasma insulin, but responded to chemical initiation of the liver with an increased number

  9. Dark Agouti rat model of chemotherapy-induced mucositis: Establishment and current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoecke, Barbara; Bateman, Emma; Mayo, Bronwen; Vanlancker, Eline; Thorpe, Daniel; Keefe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Mucositis is a major oncological problem. The entire gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract and also other mucosal surfaces can be affected in recipients of radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. Major progress has been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms of oral and small intestinal mucositis, which appears to be more prominent than colonic damage. This progress is largely due to the development of representative laboratory animal models of mucositis. This review focuses on the development and establishment of the Dark Agouti rat mammary adenocarcinoma model by the Mucositis Research Group of the University of Adelaide over the past 20 years to characterize the mechanisms underlying methotrexate-, 5-fluorouracil-, and irinotecan-induced mucositis. It also aims to summarize the results from studies using different animal model systems to identify new molecular and cellular markers of mucositis. PMID:25966981

  10. Dark Agouti rat model of chemotherapy-induced mucositis: establishment and current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Vanhoecke, Barbara; Bateman, Emma; Mayo, Bronwen; Vanlancker, Eline; Stringer, Andrea; Thorpe, Daniel; Keefe, Dorothy

    2015-06-01

    Mucositis is a major oncological problem. The entire gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract and also other mucosal surfaces can be affected in recipients of radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. Major progress has been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms of oral and small intestinal mucositis, which appears to be more prominent than colonic damage. This progress is largely due to the development of representative laboratory animal models of mucositis. This review focuses on the development and establishment of the Dark Agouti rat mammary adenocarcinoma model by the Mucositis Research Group of the University of Adelaide over the past 20 years to characterize the mechanisms underlying methotrexate-, 5-fluorouracil-, and irinotecan-induced mucositis. It also aims to summarize the results from studies using different animal model systems to identify new molecular and cellular markers of mucositis.

  11. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  12. Visibly Hidden: Language, Culture and Identity of Central Americans in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavadenz, Magaly

    2008-01-01

    The history, culture and practices of Central America are inadequately addressed in teacher preparation and professional development across the United States, and especially in California based on the author's analysis of teacher preparation. Information about the histories, cultures and practices add to the linguistic and pedagogic knowledge-base…

  13. A polymorphism in the agouti signaling protein gene is associated with human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kanetsky, Peter A; Swoyer, Jennifer; Panossian, Saarene; Holmes, Robin; Guerry, DuPont; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2002-03-01

    In mice and humans, binding of alpha-melanocyte--stimulating hormone to the melanocyte-stimulating--hormone receptor (MSHR), the protein product of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, leads to the synthesis of eumelanin. In the mouse, ligation of MSHR by agouti signaling protein (ASP) results in the production of pheomelanin. The role of ASP in humans is unclear. We sought to characterize the agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP) in a group of white subjects, to assess whether ASIP was a determinant of human pigmentation and whether this gene may be associated with increased melanoma risk. We found no evidence of coding-region sequence variation in ASIP, but detected a g.8818A-->G polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region. We genotyped 746 participants in a study of melanoma susceptibility for g.8818A-->G, by means of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment--length polymorphism analysis. Among the 147 healthy controls, the frequency of the G allele was.12. Carriage of the G allele was significantly associated with dark hair (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2--2.8) and brown eyes (odds ratio 1.9; 95% CI 1.3--2.8) after adjusting for age, gender, and disease status. ASIP g.8818A-->G was not associated independently with disease status. This is the first report of an association of ASIP with specific human pigmentation characteristics. It remains to be investigated whether the interaction of MC1R and ASIP can enhance prediction of human pigmentation and melanoma risk.

  14. Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Duellman, William E.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Approximately one-half of all species of amphibians occur in the New World tropics, which includes South America, Middle America, and the West Indies. Of those, 27% (801 species) belong to a large assemblage, the eleutherodactyline frogs, which breed out of water and lay eggs that undergo direct development on land. Their wide distribution and mode of reproduction offer potential for resolving questions in evolution, ecology, and conservation. However, progress in all of these fields has been hindered by a poor understanding of their evolutionary relationships. As a result, most of the species have been placed in a single genus, Eleutherodactylus, which is the largest among vertebrates. Our DNA sequence analysis of a major fraction of eleutherodactyline diversity revealed three large radiations of species with unexpected geographic isolation: a South American Clade (393 sp.), a Caribbean Clade (171 sp.), and a Middle American Clade (111 sp.). Molecular clock analyses reject the prevailing hypothesis that these frogs arose from land connections with North and South America and their subsequent fragmentation in the Late Cretaceous (80–70 Mya). Origin by dispersal, probably over water from South America in the early Cenozoic (47–29 million years ago, Mya), is more likely. PMID:17548823

  15. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  16. Hematology and serum biochemistry comparison in wild and captive Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Mendoza, Judith; Weber, Manuel; Zenteno-Ruiz, Claudia E; López-Luna, Marco A; Barba-Macías, Everardo

    2009-10-01

    Hematological and serum biochemistry analyses were determined on 51 Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2006. Turtles came from two sites: Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve and a turtle breeding farm, both located in Tabasco State, Mexico. Physical examination and body measures of animals were performed. Incidence and prevalence of hemoparasites were explored. Captive organisms were in poor physical condition while wild turtles were apparently healthy. There were differences in several hematological parameters related with the condition and the season. During the dry season captive turtles exhibited higher levels of uric acid and urea, as well as lower levels of glucose. Haemogregarina sp. was detected in 100% of the wild individuals, but not in captive individuals. Its incidence was greater during the rainy season. This is the first health assessment and hematology study of this critically endangered species.

  17. Mineralization potential along the trend of the Keweenawan- age Central North American Rift System in Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berendsen, P.

    1989-01-01

    The tectonic and sedimentary environment of the Central North American Rift System (CNARS) provides an excellent setting for major mineral deposits. Major north-northeast-trending high-angle normal or reverse faults and northwest-trending transcurrent fault systems may exercise control over ore forming processes. Gabbro and basalt are the dominant igneous rock types. Carbonatite and kimberlite occur in Nebraska and Kansas. Concentrations of Cu, Ni, Co, Ti, Au, Ag and PG minerals are known to occur in this setting. Arkosic sandstone, siltstone, shale, and minor carbonate units occur on top of the rift basalts and in flanking basins where they may reach thicknesses of 10 km (6 miles). The potential for stratiform or unconformity-related metalliferous deposits should be considered. The rift as a whole remains largely unexplored.

  18. Hematology and serum biochemistry comparison in wild and captive Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Mendoza, Judith; Weber, Manuel; Zenteno-Ruiz, Claudia E; López-Luna, Marco A; Barba-Macías, Everardo

    2009-10-01

    Hematological and serum biochemistry analyses were determined on 51 Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2006. Turtles came from two sites: Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve and a turtle breeding farm, both located in Tabasco State, Mexico. Physical examination and body measures of animals were performed. Incidence and prevalence of hemoparasites were explored. Captive organisms were in poor physical condition while wild turtles were apparently healthy. There were differences in several hematological parameters related with the condition and the season. During the dry season captive turtles exhibited higher levels of uric acid and urea, as well as lower levels of glucose. Haemogregarina sp. was detected in 100% of the wild individuals, but not in captive individuals. Its incidence was greater during the rainy season. This is the first health assessment and hematology study of this critically endangered species. PMID:19380155

  19. Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central America.

    PubMed

    Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Sánchez, Andrés; Arbelaez, Italo; Lessios, Harilaos A; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of large predators has long been a challenge for biologists due to the limited information we have about their ecology, generally low numbers in the wild, large home ranges and the continuous expansion of human settlements. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a typical apex predator, that has suffered from all of these characteristic problems, especially the latter one. Humans have had a major impact on the recovery of this species throughout its range, even though most of the countries it inhabits have banned hunting. The last decade has made it clear that in order to implement sound conservation and management programs, we must increase our understanding of crocodile spatial ecology. However, in only two countries where American crocodiles have telemetry studies even been published. Herein we have characterized the spatial ecology of C. acutus on Coiba Island, Panama, by radio-tracking (VHF transmitters) 24 individuals between 2010 and 2013, to determine movement patterns, home range, and habitat use. We have then compared our findings with those of previous studies to develop the most comprehensive assessment of American crocodile spatial ecology to date. Females showed a higher average movement distance (AMD) than males; similarly, adults showed a higher AMD than sub-adults and juveniles. However, males exhibited larger home ranges than females, and concomitantly sub-adults had larger home ranges than juveniles, hatchlings, and adults. There was an obvious relationship between seasonal precipitation and AMD, with increased AMD in the dry and "low-wet" seasons, and reduced AMD during the "true" wet season. We found disaggregate distributions according to age groups throughout the 9 habitat types in the study area; adults and hatchlings inhabited fewer habitat types than juveniles and sub-adults. These sex- and age-group discrepancies in movement and habitat choice are likely due to the influences of reproductive biology and Coiba

  20. Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A.; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Sánchez, Andrés; Arbelaez, Italo; Lessios, Harilaos A.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of large predators has long been a challenge for biologists due to the limited information we have about their ecology, generally low numbers in the wild, large home ranges and the continuous expansion of human settlements. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a typical apex predator, that has suffered from all of these characteristic problems, especially the latter one. Humans have had a major impact on the recovery of this species throughout its range, even though most of the countries it inhabits have banned hunting. The last decade has made it clear that in order to implement sound conservation and management programs, we must increase our understanding of crocodile spatial ecology. However, in only two countries where American crocodiles have telemetry studies even been published. Herein we have characterized the spatial ecology of C. acutus on Coiba Island, Panama, by radio-tracking (VHF transmitters) 24 individuals between 2010 and 2013, to determine movement patterns, home range, and habitat use. We have then compared our findings with those of previous studies to develop the most comprehensive assessment of American crocodile spatial ecology to date. Females showed a higher average movement distance (AMD) than males; similarly, adults showed a higher AMD than sub-adults and juveniles. However, males exhibited larger home ranges than females, and concomitantly sub-adults had larger home ranges than juveniles, hatchlings, and adults. There was an obvious relationship between seasonal precipitation and AMD, with increased AMD in the dry and “low-wet” seasons, and reduced AMD during the “true” wet season. We found disaggregate distributions according to age groups throughout the 9 habitat types in the study area; adults and hatchlings inhabited fewer habitat types than juveniles and sub-adults. These sex- and age-group discrepancies in movement and habitat choice are likely due to the influences of reproductive biology and Coiba

  1. Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

  2. Current and future niche of North and Central American sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases.

  3. Current and future niche of North and Central American sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

  4. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  5. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  6. Current distribution of North American river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma, with seven new county records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation reintroduced North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) from coastal Louisiana into eastern Oklahoma. Those reintroductions and immigration from Arkansas and possibly northeastern Texas allowed river otters to become reestablished in eastern Oklahoma. Our goals were to determine the contemporary distribution of river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma with voucher specimens, sign surveys, and mail surveys and to compare proportion of positive detections among watersheds. We report new distributional records with voucher specimens from seven counties (Adair, Bryan, Coal, Johnston, McIntosh, Okfuskee, Tulsa) in Oklahoma. We also provide locality information for specimens collected from four counties (Haskell, McCurtain, Muskogee, Wagoner) where river otters were described in published literature but no voucher specimens existed. During winter and spring 2006 and 2007, we visited 340 bridge sites in 28 watersheds in eastern and central Oklahoma and identified river otter signs in 16 counties where river otters were not previously documented in published literature or by voucher specimens. Proportion of positive sites within each watershed ranged 0–100%. Mail surveys suggested that river otters occurred in eight additional counties where they were not previously documented by published literature, voucher specimens, or sign-survey efforts.

  7. Phylogeny and Niche Conservatism in North and Central American Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), Vectors of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  8. The Fate of Saharan Dust Across the Atlantic and Implications for a Central American Dust Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, E.; Colarco, P.; da Silva, A.; Hlavka, D.; McGill, M.

    2011-01-01

    Saharan dust was observed over the Caribbean basin during the summer 2007 NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) field experiment. Airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and satellite observations from MODIS suggest a barrier to dust transport across Central America into the eastern Pacific. We use the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric transport model with online aerosol tracers to perform simulations of the TC4 time period in order to understand the nature of this barrier. Our simulations are driven by the Modem Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological analyses. We evaluate our baseline simulated dust distributions using MODIS and CALIOP satellite and ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations. GEOS-5 reproduces the observed location, magnitude, and timing of major dust events, but our baseline simulation does not develop as strong a barrier to dust transport across Central America as observations suggest. Analysis of the dust transport dynamics and lost processes suggest that while both mechanisms play a role in defining the dust transport barrier, loss processes by wet removal of dust are about twice as important as transport. Sensitivity analyses with our model showed that the dust barrier would not exist without convective scavenging over the Caribbean. The best agreement between our model and the observations was obtained when dust wet removal was parameterized to be more aggressive, treating the dust as we do hydrophilic aerosols.

  9. The high glycemic index diet was an independent predictor to explain changes in agouti-related protein in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin Netto, Bárbara; Landi Masquio, Deborah Cristina; Da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; De Lima Sanches, Priscila; Campos Corgosinho, Flavia; Tock, Lian; Missae Oyama, Lila; Túlio de Mello, Marco; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2014-02-01

    La Dieta de alto índice glucémico es un predictor independiente para explicar los cambios en la proteína relacionada al agouti en adolescentes obesos. Introducción y objetivos: El papel de la dieta de índice glucémico (GI) en el control de los factores orexigénicos y anorexígenos del balance de energía todavía no está claro. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar si la dieta habitual, de acuerdo con diferentes alimentos con IG, ejerce influencia sobre la regulación de los marcadores del balance de energía y los efectos de la intervención interdisciplinaria en adolescentes obesos. Métodos: Un total de 55 adolescentes obesos, con edades de 14 a 19 años, han sido sometidos a un año de tratamiento interdisciplinario y se dividieron en dos grupos, de acuerdo al patrón de dieta predominante de la ingesta de alimentos: el grupo IG alto (H-GI; n = 29) y GI moderada/bajo grupo (M/L-GI, n = 26). Resultados: La concentración de orexigenic factor de AgRP (p < 0,01), la grasa visceral (p = 0,04) y la relación visceral/ subcutánea (p = 0,03) fueron mayores en el grupo de HGI en comparación con el grupo M/L-GI. Por otra parte, el consumo habitual de alimentos H-GI fue un predictor independiente para explicar los cambios en las concentraciones de AgRP. Después de un año de tratamiento interdisciplinario, los adolescentes presentan una reducción significativa en el peso corporal, la grasa corporal total (%), visceral y la grasa subcutánea y el HOMA-IR, así como un aumento significativo de la masa libre de grasa (%). Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados pueden sugerir que la dieta H-GI habitual podría upregulate vías orexigénicos, contribuyendo al círculo vicioso entre las dietas indeseables, desregula el equilibrio energético y predisponen a la obesidad. Uno por otro lado, un año de tratamiento interdisciplinario puede perfil metabólico mejora significativa y la obesidad central en los adolescentes.

  10. First volcanic CO2 budget estimate for three actively degassing volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, Philippe; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Conde, Vladimir; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Avard, Geoffroy; Muñoz, Angélica

    2014-05-01

    CO2 is a key chemical tracer for exploring volcanic degassing mechanisms of basaltic magmatic systems (1). The rate of CO2 release from sub-aerial volcanism is monitored via studies on volcanic plumes and fumaroles, but information is still sparse and incomplete for many regions of the globe, including the majority of the volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (2). Here, we use a combination of remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements of volcanic gas plumes to provide a first estimate of the CO2 output from three degassing volcanoes in Central America: Turrialba, in Costa Rica, and Telica and San Cristobal, in Nicaragua. During a field campaign in March-April 2013, we obtained (for the three volcanoes) a simultaneous record of SO2 fluxes (from the NOVAC network (3)) and CO2 vs. SO2 concentrations in the near-vent plumes (obtained via a temporary installed fully-automated Multi-GAS instrument (4)). The Multi-GAS time-series allowed to calculate the plume CO2/SO2 ratios for different intervals of time, showing relatively stable gas compositions. Distinct CO2 - SO2 - H2O proportions were observed at the three volcanoes, but still within the range of volcanic arc gas (5). The CO2/SO2 ratios were then multiplied by the SO2 flux in order to derive the CO2 output. At Turrialba, CO2/SO2 ratios fluctuated, between March 12 and 19, between 1.1 and 5.7, and the CO2flux was evaluated at ~1000-1350 t/d (6). At Telica, between March 23 and April 8, a somewhat higher CO2/SO2 ratio was observed (3.3 ± 1.0), although the CO2 flux was evaluated at only ~100-500 t/d (6). At San Cristobal, where observations were taken between April 11 and 15, the CO2/SO2 ratio ranged between 1.8 and 7.4, with a mean CO2 flux of 753 t/d. These measurements contribute refining the current estimates of the total CO2 output from the Central American Volcanic Arc (7). Symonds, R.B. et al., (2001). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 108, 303-341 Burton, M. R. et al. (2013). Reviews in

  11. Scale-dependent effects of a heterogeneous landscape on genetic differentiation in the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii).

    PubMed

    Blair, Mary E; Melnick, Don J

    2012-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies offer a fine-scale understanding of how habitat heterogeneity influences population genetic structure. We examined population genetic structure and conducted a landscape genetic analysis for the endangered Central American Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) that lives in the fragmented, human-modified habitats of the Central Pacific region of Costa Rica. We analyzed non-invasively collected fecal samples from 244 individuals from 14 groups for 16 microsatellite markers. We found two geographically separate genetic clusters in the Central Pacific region with evidence of recent gene flow among them. We also found significant differentiation among groups of S. o. citrinellus using pairwise F(ST) comparisons. These groups are in fragments of secondary forest separated by unsuitable "matrix" habitats such as cattle pasture, commercial African oil palm plantations, and human residential areas. We used an individual-based landscape genetic approach to measure spatial patterns of genetic variance while taking into account landscape heterogeneity. We found that large, commercial oil palm plantations represent moderate barriers to gene flow between populations, but cattle pastures, rivers, and residential areas do not. However, the influence of oil palm plantations on genetic variance was diminished when we restricted analyses to within population pairs, suggesting that their effect is scale-dependent and manifests during longer dispersal events among populations. We show that when landscape genetic methods are applied rigorously and at the right scale, they are sensitive enough to track population processes even in species with long, overlapping generations such as primates. Thus landscape genetic approaches are extremely valuable for the conservation management of a diverse array of endangered species in heterogeneous, human-modified habitats. Our results also stress the importance of explicitly considering the heterogeneity of matrix habitats in

  12. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    PubMed

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  14. Projecting the Local Impacts of Climate Change on a Central American Montane Avian Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasner, Matthew R.; Jankowski, Jill E.; Ciecka, Anna L.; Kyle, Keiller O.; Rabenold, Kerry N.

    2010-01-01

    Significant changes in the climates of Central America are expected over the next century. Lowland rainforests harbor high alpha diversity on local scales (<1 km2), yet montane landscapes often support higher beta diversity on 10-100 km2 scales. Climate change will likely disrupt the altitudinal zonation of montane communities that produces such landscape diversity. Projections of biotic response to climate change have often used broad-scale modelling of geographical ranges, but understanding likely impacts on population viability is also necessary for anticipating local and global extinctions. We model species abundances and estimate range shifts for birds in the Tilaran Mountains of Costa Rica, asking whether projected changes in temperature and rainfall could be sufficient to imperil high-elevation endemics and whether these variables will likely impact communities similarly. We find that nearly half of 77 forest bird species can be expected to decline in the next century. Almost half of species projected to decline are endemic to Central America, and seven of eight species projected to become locally extinct are endemic to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panam . Logistic-regression modelling of distributions and similarity in projections produced by temperature and rainfall models suggest that changes in both variables will be important. Although these projections are probably conservative because they do not explicitly incorporate biological or climate variable interactions, they provide a starting point for incorporating more realistic biological complexity into community-change models. Prudent conservation planning for tropical mountains should focus on regions with room for altitudinal reorganization of communities comprised of ecological specialists.

  15. Estimates of Numbers of Unauthorized Migrants Residing in the United States: The Total, Mexican, and Non-Mexican Central American Unauthorized Populations in Mid-2001. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Frank D., Van Hook, Jennifer, Woodrow-Lafield, Karen

    This report presents estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants in the United States in mid-2001 for the total unauthorized population, Mexican unauthorized population, and non-Mexican Central American unauthorized population. Researchers subtracted estimates of the numbers of persons residing in the country legally from the numbers of…

  16. Recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from agouti (Dasiprocta aguti) using powdered coconut water (ACP-109c) and Tris extenders.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Santos, E A A; Castelo, T S; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to compare the use of powdered coconut water (ACP-109c; ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil) and Tris extenders for recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from agouti. The caudae epididymus and proximal ductus deferens from 10 sexually mature agoutis were subjected to retrograde washing using ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) or Tris. Epididymal sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, sperm viability, membrane integrity, and morphology. Samples were centrifuged, and extended in the same diluents plus egg yolk (20%) and glycerol (6%), frozen in liquid nitrogen, and subsequently thawed at 37°C for 1 min, followed by re-evaluation of sperm characteristics. The two extenders were similarly efficient for epididymal recovery, with regard to the number and quality of sperm recovered. However, for both extenders, sperm quality decreased (P < 0.05) after centrifugation and dilution. After sperm cryopreservation and thawing, there were (mean ± SEM) 26.5 ± 2.6% motile sperm with 2.6 ± 0.2 vigor in the ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) group, which was significantly better than 9.7 ± 2.6% motile sperm with 1.2 ± 0.3 vigor in Tris. In conclusion, agouti epididymal sperm were successfully recovered using either ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) or Tris extenders; however, ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) was a significantly better extender for processing and cryopreserving these sperm.

  17. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene in some goat breeds in tropical and temperate climates.

    PubMed

    Adefenwa, Mufliat A; Peters, Sunday O; Agaviezor, Brilliant O; Wheto, Matthew; Adekoya, Khalid O; Okpeku, Moses; Oboh, Bola; Williams, Gabriel O; Adebambo, Olufunmilayo A; Singh, Mahipal; Thomas, Bolaji; De Donato, Marcos; Imumorin, Ikhide G

    2013-07-01

    The agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) plays a major role in mammalian pigmentation as an antagonist to melanocortin-1 receptor gene to stimulate pheomelanin synthesis, a major pigment conferring mammalian coat color. We sequenced a 352 bp fragment of ASIP gene spanning part of exon 2 and part of intron 2 in 215 animals representing six goat breeds from Nigeria and the United States: West African Dwarf, predominantly black; Red Sokoto, mostly red; and Sahel, mostly white from Nigeria; black and white Alpine, brown and white Spanish and white Saanen from the US. Twenty haplotypes from nine mutations representing three intronic, one silent and five missense (p.S19R, p.N35K, p.L36V, p.M42L and p.L45W) mutations were identified in Nigerian goats. Approximately 89 % of Nigerian goats carry haplotype 1 (TGCCATCCG) which seems to be the wild type configuration of mutations in this region of the gene. Although we found no association between these polymorphisms in the ASIP gene and coat color in Nigerian goats, in-silico functional analysis predicts putative deleterious functional impact of the p.L45W mutation on the basic amino-terminal domain of ASIP. In the American goats, two intronic mutations, g.293G>A and g.327C>A, were identified in the Alpine breed, although the g.293G>A mutation is common to American and Nigerian goat populations. All Sannen and Sahel goats in this study belong to haplotypes 1 of both populations which seem to be the wild-type composite ASIP haplotype. Overall, there was no clear association of this portion of the ASIP gene interrogated in this study with coat color variation. Therefore, additional genomic analyses of promoter sequence, the entire coding and non-coding regions of the ASIP gene will be required to obtain a definite conclusion. PMID:23661018

  18. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  19. Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B.; Ault, T.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the Southwest and Central Plains of Western North America, climate change is expected to increase drought severity in the coming decades. These regions nevertheless experienced extended Medieval-era droughts that were more persistent than any historical event, providing crucial targets in the paleoclimate record for benchmarking the severity of future drought risks. We use an empirical drought reconstruction and three soil moisture metrics from 17 state-of-the-art general circulation models to show that these models project significantly drier conditions in the later half of the 21st century compared to the 20th century and earlier paleoclimatic intervals. This desiccation is consistent across most of the models and moisture balance variables, indicating a coherent and robust drying response to warming despite the diversity of models and metrics analyzed. Notably, future drought risk will likely exceed even the driest centuries of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1100-1300 CE) in both moderate (RCP 4.5) and high (RCP 8.5) future emissions scenarios, leading to unprecedented drought conditions during the last millennium.

  20. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  1. Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains

    PubMed Central

    Ault, Toby R.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Central Plains of Western North America, climate change is expected to increase drought severity in the coming decades. These regions nevertheless experienced extended Medieval-era droughts that were more persistent than any historical event, providing crucial targets in the paleoclimate record for benchmarking the severity of future drought risks. We use an empirical drought reconstruction and three soil moisture metrics from 17 state-of-the-art general circulation models to show that these models project significantly drier conditions in the later half of the 21st century compared to the 20th century and earlier paleoclimatic intervals. This desiccation is consistent across most of the models and moisture balance variables, indicating a coherent and robust drying response to warming despite the diversity of models and metrics analyzed. Notably, future drought risk will likely exceed even the driest centuries of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1100–1300 CE) in both moderate (RCP 4.5) and high (RCP 8.5) future emissions scenarios, leading to unprecedented drought conditions during the last millennium. PMID:26601131

  2. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.

  3. Paleoseismic and Geomorphic Evidence for Quaternary Fault Slip on the Central Range Fault, South American-Caribbean Plate Boundary, Trinidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C. S.; Weber, J.; Crosby, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    The island of Trinidad is located along the transform plate boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates. GPS measurements show that relative motion along this boundary is nearly E-W right-lateral shear (Weber et al., 2001). Analysis and comparison of historic triangulation and GPS data suggest that a significant fraction (14+/-3 mm/yr) of the total plate-boundary motion (about 20 mm/yr) is being accommodated across the Central Range Fault in central Trinidad. Our new paleoseismic studies demonstrate that Quaternary surface rupture has occurred on this previously unrecognized, historically aseismic, active fault. Geomorphic evidence of Quaternary faulting along the Central Range Fault includes linear drainages, aligned topographic saddles and troughs, offset ridges, right-laterally deflected streams, and linear scarps. We mapped these features using 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs and field reconnaissance along a 25-km-long section between Pointe-a-Pierre on the west coast and Navet Dam. Geomorphic features near Manzanilla Bay on the east coast suggest that the Central Range Fault continues across the island as a Quaternary feature for another 25 km to the northeast. Marine geophysical surveys suggest this fault continues offshore to the west (Warm Springs fault), and steps to the north across the Gulf of Paria pull-apart basin to the El Pilar Fault. The extent of the fault offshore to the east is unknown. We exposed a 6-m-wide shear zone within Pliocene(?) material in a trench cut into a fluvial terrace, south of Samlalsingh Road near Bonne Aventure. The overlying Quaternary fluvial gravel is faulted and folded across the shear zone, and Quaternary fluvial deposits are faulted against the shear zone on the north side. A second excavation across a prominent scarp near Tabaquite, 12 km northeast of Samlalsingh Road, exposed a colluvial wedge and overlying unfaulted sediments. We interpret the colluvial wedge to represent deposits shed off the scarp in

  4. Child health outcomes among Central American refugees and immigrants in Belize.

    PubMed

    Moss, N; Stone, M C; Smith, J B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of international migration, including refugee status, upon child health outcomes. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in 1989 in three settlements in Belize, Central America, that have a high proportion of refugees and economic immigrants living side-by-side with the local population. In two of the settlements, the entire population of mothers with children under 6 was interviewed; in the third settlement a two-thirds random sample was interviewed. Health history data were obtained for 255 children of 134 mothers, from whom sociodemographic data were also collected. The majority of children were born to Salvadoran or Guatemalan mothers, but native and naturalized Belizeans in the survey communities were included for comparison purposes. Migration, the exposure variable, was characterized by mother's residency/refugee legal status, nationality, and duration of time in country. Socioeconomic and proximate control variables were included as suggested by the Mosley-Chen framework. Despite normal birthweight averaging 3374 g, a large proportion of children are at the lowest percentiles of the weight-for-age curves (44% below the tenth percentile for the international reference population). A high incidence of diarrheal and respiratory illnesses (30% and 47% of children, respectively, having frequent episodes), and 50% of children with measles vaccination appropriate for age, indicate a population with high potential morbidity. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of migration on weight-for-age and frequency of diarrheal and respiratory tract episodes independent of socioeconomic and proximate factors, as suggested by the Mosley-Chen framework.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.

  6. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism. PMID:27294743

  7. Mantle transition zone thickness in the Central South-American Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; van der Lee, Suzan; Doermann, Lindsey

    We used receiver functions to determine lateral variations in mantle transition zone thickness and sharpness of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities in the presence of subducting lithosphere. The mantle beneath the central Andes of South America provides an ideal study site owing to its long-lived subduction history and the availability of broadband seismic data from the dense BANJO/SEDA temporary networks and the permanent station LPAZ. For LPAZ, we analyzed 26 earthquakes between 1993-2003 and stacked the depth-migrated receiver functions. For temporary stations operating for only about one year (1994-1995), station stacks were not robust. We thus stacked receiver functions for close-by stations forming five groups that span the subduction zone from west to east, each containing 12 to 25 events. We found signal significant at the 2σ level for several station groups from P to S conversions that originate near 520- and 850-900 km depth, but most prominently from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. For the latter, the P to S converted signal is clear in stacks for western groups and LPAZ, lack of coherent signal for two eastern groups is possibly due to incoherent stacking and does not necessitate the absence of converted energy. The thickness of the mantle transition zone increases progressively from a near-normal 255 km at the Pacific coast to about 295 km beneath station LPAZ in the Eastern Cordillera. Beneath LPAZ, the 410-km discontinuity appears elevated by nearly 40 km, thus thickening the transition zone. We compared signal amplitudes from receiver function stacks calculated at different low-pass frequencies to study frequency dependence and possibly associated discontinuity sharpness of the P to S converted signals. We found that both the 410- and 660-km discontinuities exhibit amplitude increase with decreasing frequency. Synthetic receiver function calculations for discontinuity topography mimicking observed topography show that the observed steep

  8. Slip rate and earthquake recurrence along the central Septentrional fault, North American-Caribbean plate boundary, Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Septentrional fault zone (SFZ) is the major North American-Caribbean, strike-slip, plate boundary fault at the longitude of eastern Hispaniola. The SFZ traverses the densely populated Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, forming a prominent scarp in alluvium. Our studies at four sites along the central SFZ are aimed at quantifying the late Quaternary behavior of this structure to better understand the seismic hazard it represents for the northeastern Caribbean. Our investigations of excavations at sites near Rio Cenovi show that the most recent ground-rupturing earthquake along this fault in the north central Dominican Republic occurred between A.D. 1040 and A.D. 1230, and involved a minimum of ???4 m of left-lateral slip and 2.3 m of normal dip slip at that site. Our studies of offset stream terraces at two locations, Rio Juan Lopez and Rio Licey, provide late Holocene slip rate estimates of 6-9 mm/yr and a maximum of 11-12 mm/yr, respectively, across the Septentrional fault. Combining these results gives a best estimate of 6-12 mm/yr for the slip rate across the SFZ. Three excavations, two near Tenares and one at the Rio Licey site, yielded evidence for the occurrence of earlier prehistoric earthquakes. Dates of strata associated with the penultimate event suggest that it occurred post-A.D. 30, giving a recurrence interval of 800-1200 years. These studies indicate that the SFZ has likely accumulated elastic strain sufficient to generate a major earthquake during the more than 800 years since it last slipped and should be considered likely to produce a destructive future earthquake.

  9. A polymorphism in the human agouti-related protein is associated with late-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, George; Rankinen, Tuomo; Neufeld, Doni R; Rice, Treva; Province, Michael A; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, Claude

    2002-09-01

    The mouse agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a powerful appetite effector that results in hyperphagia and the development of obesity when administered intracerebroventricularly or when overexpressed in transgenic mice. Animal studies have also shown that exogenous administration of AGRP predisposes toward hedonic intake of high fat and high sucrose diets. The human ortholog (hAGRP) maps on chromosome 16q22 and has similar physiological properties, as tested in animal models. A polymorphism was identified in the third exon of hAGRP, c.199G-->A, that resulted in a nonconservative amino acid substitution, Ala(67)Thr. Computational analysis of the protein showed significant differences in the coils of the two polymorphic isoforms of the protein. Human studies showed no genotype effects in individuals with a mean age of 25 yr. However, the G/G genotype was significantly associated with fatness and abdominal adiposity in the parental population with a mean age of 53 yr. The c.199G-->A polymorphism in hAGRP could, therefore, play a role in the development of human obesity in an age-dependent fashion.

  10. Migration and wintering areas of American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) that summer in central North America as determined by satellite and radio telemetry, 1998-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huschle, Guy; Toepfer, John E.; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty adult male American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) were marked on summer range in central North America with satellite tracking Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) to document migration routes and wintering range. Nineteen complete fall migration routes were documented for 17 individuals. Of the successful migrations, 63% (n = 12) went to southern Florida, 32% (n = 6) to southern Louisiana, and 5% (n = 1) to the Gulf coast of Texas. Spring migrations for nine birds were documented, and 78% (n = 7) showed fidelity to breeding range. Two complete migrations for two individuals were documented, and they demonstrated fidelity to winter range. The longest, fastest movement documented was 2,300 km in less than 74 hr. Extensive, post-breeding dispersal was not observed in the adult male American Bitterns in this study. Six male American Bitterns were marked with PTTs on winter range in Florida and Texas. Spring migration for these birds was documented to Nebraska, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Sixty-seven American Bitterns were marked with Very High Frequency radio transmitters on summer ranges, and 16% (n = 11) were located on wintering grounds used by the satellite-tracked birds, further documenting the importance of the Everglades and the Louisiana coast as winter habitat for American Bitterns that breed in Central North America.

  11. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Capece, Paula I; Aliaga-Rossel, Enzo; Jansen, Patrick A

    2013-03-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the abundance and viability of small seeds in feces of Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. A total of 72 fecal samples were collected opportunistically from 4 tapir latrine sites. Seeds were manually extracted from feces and classified by size. Seed viability was estimated by opening each seed and examining for the presence of at least 1 intact firm white endosperm. In total, we obtained 8166 seeds of at least 16 plant species. Small-seeded species dominated, with 96% of all seeds found measuring <5 mm. The canopy tree Laetia procera was the most abundant species in the samples. Of all small seeds found, 69% contained an intact endosperm and appeared viable. This suggests that small seeds, like large seeds, often pass through the digestive tract of T. bairdii intact. Thus, tapirs potentially serve as effective dispersers of a wide range of small-seeded plant species. PMID:23586560

  12. Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: A window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Gonzalez-Barba, Gerardo; Hendy, Austin J. W.; Jaramillo, Carlos; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Montes, Camilo; Suarez, Sandra C.; Shippritt, Monica

    2013-03-01

    The newly described chondrichthyan fauna of the early Miocene Culebra Formation of Panama provides insight into the marine vertebrates occupying shallow seas adjacent to the Central American Seaway, prior to the rise of the Isthmus of Panama. This study takes advantage of a time-limited and unique opportunity to recover fossil from renewed excavations of the Panama Canal. The chondrichthyan fauna of the Culebra Formation is composed of teeth and vertebral centra representing 12 taxa. The species found possessed a cosmopolitan tropical and warm-temperate distribution during the early Neogene and are similar to other assemblages of the tropical eastern Pacific and southern Caribbean. The taxa described suggest a neritic environment, and is in contrast with other interpretations that proposed bathyal water depths for the upper member of the Culebra Formation. The wide depth range of the most common species, Carcharocles chubutensis, and the habitat preference of Pristis sp., suggests varied marine environments, from deep, to shallow waters, close to emerged areas of the evolving isthmus.

  13. Lowermost Mantle Velocity Estimations Beneath the Central North Atlantic Area from Pdif Observed at Balkan, East Mediterranean, and American Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-02-01

    Lowermost mantle velocity in the area 15°S-70°N latitude/60°W-5° W longitude is estimated using two groups of observations, complementary to each other. There are 894 Pdif observations at stations in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean areas from 15 major earthquakes in Central and South America. Another 218 Pdif observations are associated with four earthquakes in Greece/Turkey and one event in Africa, recorded by American stations. A Pdif slowness tomographic approach of the structures immediately above the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB) is used, incorporating corrections for ellipticity, station elevation and velocity perturbations along the ray path. A low-velocity zone above CMB with a large geographical extent, approximately in the area (35-65°N) × (40-20°W), appears to have the velocity perturbations exceeding the value actually assumed by some global models. Most likely, it is extended beneath western Africa. A high-velocity area is observed west of the low-velocity zone. The results suggest that both Cape Verde and Azorean islands are located near transition areas from low-to-high velocity values in the lowermost mantle.

  14. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Capece, Paula I; Aliaga-Rossel, Enzo; Jansen, Patrick A

    2013-03-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the abundance and viability of small seeds in feces of Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. A total of 72 fecal samples were collected opportunistically from 4 tapir latrine sites. Seeds were manually extracted from feces and classified by size. Seed viability was estimated by opening each seed and examining for the presence of at least 1 intact firm white endosperm. In total, we obtained 8166 seeds of at least 16 plant species. Small-seeded species dominated, with 96% of all seeds found measuring <5 mm. The canopy tree Laetia procera was the most abundant species in the samples. Of all small seeds found, 69% contained an intact endosperm and appeared viable. This suggests that small seeds, like large seeds, often pass through the digestive tract of T. bairdii intact. Thus, tapirs potentially serve as effective dispersers of a wide range of small-seeded plant species.

  15. [Environmental services of the forest: an essay in an European Atlantic river basin based on a Central American experience].

    PubMed

    Orrantia Albizu, Oreina; Ortega Hidalgo, M Mercedes; Quirós Madrigal, Olman; Loidi Arregui, Javier

    2008-12-01

    A Conservation Interest Index (CI) was designed to numerically assess the natural quality or value of a given terrestrial area. This CI has been applied along the Golako River Watershed (Biosphere Reserve, Basque Country, Spain). The area, although benefiting from some protection, is strongly influenced by human activities (forestry and cattle breeding). The CI is based on both available cartographic information about vegetation and fieldwork, the later needed to provide estimations for the various descriptors included in this index: in this way, a particular vegetation fragment received a final score on a scale from 0 to 1000. A set of 9 Vegetation Units has been defined to analyze the current vegetation profile and, a ten plot (500 x 500 m) uniformly distributed sampling design has been implemented. Landscape homogenization is high where main land use relies on timbering, contrasting with the more heterogeneous and fragmented profile related to rural activities. At a height of more than 150 m forest appears to be dominant while human occupation becomes patchy, whereas abruptness restraints farms to locations below 100 m. Concerning the index performance, gradual differences have been displayed by the forest, which appears as the only vegetation unit attaining values above 500 (50% in the index scale), mature forest ranking highest (860), followed closely by the riparian forest. We have developed a formula to translate environmental value into economic benefit to promote conservation work at private property level, imitating the initial work undergone in Central American countries, where environmental services are rewarded irrespective of their conservation status.

  16. Foods of American badgers in west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during the duck nesting season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roaldson, J.M.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Although the American badger (Taxidea taxus) is common in grasslands and preys on a wide diversity of foods including birds, little is known about badger diet in areas where nesting ducks are common. Small mammals, primarily Muridae and Geomyidae, were the most common food items in the diet of badgers collected from west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during April-July 1987 through 1990, based on analysis of gastrointestinal tracts of 47 adult ( 1/4 -y-old) and 5 juvenile (<6-mo-old) badgers. Remains of mammals occurred in 98% of samples from adult badgers. Small quantities of insects were found in 40% of adult samples. Bird remains were in 32% of adult samples, most birds identified as Anatidae; ducks or ducklings occurred in 27% and duck eggs in 60% of those samples. Remains of reptiles, amphibians and mollusks were present, but were less common than other foods. Insects and bird eggs were more common during spring (April-May) than summer (June-July). Birds were more frequent in diets of adults than juvenile badgers.

  17. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  18. Are the Regional Variations in Central American Arc Lavas due to Differing Basaltic vs. Peridotitic Slab Fluxing Sources ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüpke, L. H.; Morgan, J. P.; Hort, M.

    2001-12-01

    Arc magmas at subduction zones show systematic along-arc trends in melt chemistry that are well described, but poorly understood. For example, along the Central American arc between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, over the distance of a few hundred kilometers there is a progressive change in the Ba/La ratios of the arc lavas from high-end to near low-end global values. The mantle wedge melts to produce these lavas; melting is triggered by the upward flux of hydrous fluids from the subducting slab which are released from its crustal and mantle portions at different P-T conditions. Here, we investigate arc melting with a new, self-consistent, chemo-thermo-dynamical model for mantle flow, melting, and fluid release. Since the relevant water-releasing reactions consume latent heat, for internal consistency we include these cooling effects within the temperature solution. Tracer particles advect to track the changing slab chemistry. What happens depends highly upon the initial slab petrology. Both the crustal thickness and the amount of chemically bound water in the downgoing slab are likely to vary significantly between different subduction zones, as do the processes that hydrate the slab. The basaltic oceanic crust hydrates at mid-ocean ridges as it forms. The underlying mantle, if hydrated (serpentinized), can potentially store even more chemically bound water than the crust. To hydrate mantle rocks, however, water must flow through the already hydrated, low permeability crust. When the lithosphere faults at the outer rise, these new cracks cross through the crust into the mantle, providing a path for seawater to penetrate into and serpentinize it. Since the depth-interval and intensity of fluid release from hydrated basalts and hydrated peridotites vary as a function of the initial slab petrology, the trigger mechanism for melting, fluid fluxing from the slab, will also vary. When the primary source of the released fluids changes from hydrated basalt to hydrated

  19. Pliocene to Quaternary Central American tephrostratigraphy based on marine Tephras from ODP and DSDP sites - first comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehlow, K.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Kwasnitschka, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) is, and has been, one of the most active volcanic regions and generated numerous Plinian eruptions along his 1200 km extension. The best preserved archive of this volcanism can be found as ash layers in the marine sediments downwind from the volcanic sources on the Pacific floor. Numerous ash layers up to 8 Mio old, which occur in ODP and DSDP cores of Legs 66, 67, and 202, originated in Central America and southern Mexico. The cores lie across the ash distribution areas expected from dominant wind directions as identified by mapped fallout deposits. We have chosen 145 ash layers of all three Legs for first detailed analysis of these sites to built up a data base for upcoming IODP cruise 334: Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project. The ash layers commonly have sharp contacts at the bottom and diffuse transitions to terrigenous and pelagic sediments at the top. Ash layer thickness ranges from 0.5 to 60 cm with typical grain sizes from medium silt to coarse sand. The mineral assemblages are typical for arc volcanism (plagioclase, pyroxene, hornblende, and olivine). The most evolved tephras also contain biotite. Electron microprobe analyses of 1300 glass shards yield compositions ranging from basaltic andesite to rhyolite and trachyte. Felsic ashes can be divided into seven compositional groups by means of silica and potassium contents. Correlations between marine ashes and on-land tephras are constrained by petrographical and stratigraphical criteria, major element geochemistry of glasses and minerals, and trace element data from LA-ICP-MS analyses. Due to limited exposure on land, such correlations with individual tephras are only possible for deposits of late Pleistocene to Holocene age. Older ash layers, however, can be correlated with regional arc segments making use of systematic along-arc variations of trace-element characteristics (Zr/Nb, Ba/La, Ce/Yb, La/Yb and Ba/Zr) of the arc rocks. Results show that source areas of the

  20. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  1. Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections/HIV and risk behaviors in vulnerable populations in 5 Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ramon J; Ghee, Annette E; Nunez, Cesar A; Mayorga, Ruben; Tapia, Kenneth A; Astete, Sabina G; Hughes, James P; Buffardi, Anne L; Holte, Sarah E; Holmes, King K

    2007-09-01

    In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, we recruited 2466 female sex workers (FSWs) by probabilistic or comprehensive sampling and 1418 men who have sex with men (MSM) by convenience sampling to measure sociobehavioral risk and sexually transmitted infections. For MSM, HIV seroprevalence ranged from 7.6% in Nicaragua to 15.3% in El Salvador, and estimated HIV seroincidence per 100 person-years ranged from 2.7 in Panama to 14.4 in Nicaragua; 61% reported using condoms consistently with casual male partners, 29% reported exposure to behavioral interventions, and 22% reported recent sex with male and female partners. For FSWs, HIV seroprevalence ranged from 0.2% in Nicaragua and Panama to 9.6% in Honduras, where estimated HIV seroincidence was also highest (3.2 per 100 person-years); 77% and 72% of FSWs reported using condoms consistently with new and regular clients. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 seroprevalence averaged 85.3% in FSWs and 48.2% in MSM, and syphilis seropositivity averaged 9.6% in FSWs and 8.3% in MSM. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prevalences in FSWs averaged 20.1% and 8.1%, and Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis prevalences averaged 11.0% and 54.8%. An ongoing HIV epidemic involves Central American MSM with potential bridging to women. In FSWs, HSV-2 infection was associated with HIV infection (odds ratio = 11.0, 95% confidence interval: 2.9 to 7.9). For these vulnerable populations, prevention must incorporate acceptable and effective sexual health services, including improved condom access and promotion.

  2. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  3. Effect of Aerosols on Surface Radiation and Air Quality in the Central American Region Estimated Using Satellite UV Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    Solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is reduced by both aerosol scattering and aerosol absorption. Over many parts of the world the latter effect can be as large or larger than the former effect, and small changes in the aerosol single scattering albedo can either cancel the former effect or enhance it. In addition, absorbing aerosols embedded in clouds can greatly reduce the amount of radiation reaching the surface by multiple scattering. Though the potential climatic effects of absorbing aerosols have received considerable attention lately, their effect on surface UV, photosynthesis, and photochemistry can be equally important for our environment and may affect human health and agricultural productivity. Absorption of all aerosols commonly found in the Earth's atmosphere becomes larger in the UV and blue wavelengths and has a relatively strong wavelength dependence. This is particularly true of mineral dust and organic aerosols. However, these effects have been very difficult to estimate on a global basis since the satellite instruments that operate in the visible are primarily sensitive to aerosol scattering. A notable exception is the UV Aerosol Index (AI), first produced using NASA's Nimbus-7 TOMS data. AI provides a direct measure of the effect of aerosol absorption on the backscattered UV radiation in both clear and cloudy conditions, as well as over snow/ice. Although many types of aerosols produce a distinct color cast in the visible images, and aerosols absorption over clouds and snow/ice could, in principle be detected from their color, so far this technique has worked well only in the UV. In this talk we will discuss what we have learned from the long-term record of AI produced from TOMS and Aura/OMI about the possible role of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality in the Central American region.

  4. Influence of the Central American Seaway and Drake Passage on ocean circulation and neodymium isotopes: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.; Rempfer, Johannes; Ritz, Stefan P.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of the neodymium isotopic composition (ɛNd) to tectonic rearrangements of seaways is investigated using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity. The shoaling and closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) is simulated, as well as the opening and deepening of Drake Passage (DP). Multiple series of equilibrium simulations with various intermediate depths are performed for both seaways, providing insight into ɛNd and circulation responses to progressive throughflow evolutions. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these responses to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the neodymium boundary source is examined. Modeled ɛNd changes are compared to sediment core and ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crust data. The model results indicate that the North Atlantic ɛNd response to the CAS shoaling is highly dependent on the AMOC state, i.e., on the AMOC strength before the shoaling to shallow depths (preclosure). Three scenarios based on different AMOC forcings are discussed, of which the model-data agreement favors a shallow preclosure (Miocene) AMOC (˜6 Sv). The DP opening causes a rather complex circulation response, resulting in an initial South Atlantic ɛNd decrease preceding a larger increase. This feature may be specific to our model setup, which induces a vigorous CAS throughflow that is strongly anticorrelated to the DP throughflow. In freshwater experiments following the DP deepening, ODP Site 1090 is mainly influenced by AMOC and DP throughflow changes, while ODP Site 689 is more strongly influenced by Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation and CAS throughflow changes. The boundary source uncertainty is largest for shallow seaways and at shallow sites.

  5. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  6. Doppler ultrasound of the placenta and maternal and fetal vessels during normal gestation in captive agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha, Wagler, 1831).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco C A; Pessoa, Gerson T; Moura, Laecio S; Rodrigues, Renan P S; Diniz, Anaemilia N; Souza, André B; Silva, Elzivânia G; Sanches, Marina P; Silva-Filho, Osmar F; Guerra, Porfirio C; Sousa, João M; Neves, Willams C; Alves, Flávio R

    2016-11-01

    The use of ultrasound for pregnancy monitoring is critical for the evaluation of hemodynamic parameters essential to fetal viability. In the present study, using B-mode and Doppler ultrasound, we characterized the placenta, subplacenta, maternal, and fetal vessels during normal gestation of healthy agoutis raised in captivity. In total, 30 agoutis were obtained from the Center for the Study and Preservation of Wild Animals, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Piauí (Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres-NEPAS, Centro de Ciências Agrárias-CCA, Universidade Federal do Piauí-UFPI). These animals were subjected to B-mode and Doppler ultrasound examinations to evaluate their maternal and fetal hemodynamic profiles. The placenta was located in the mesometrial region and had a discoid, ellipsoid, or globular aspect. With spectral Doppler, characteristic systolic and diastolic flow was observed in the umbilical artery. This flow increased during pregnancy. A cross-sectional view revealed a goblet-shaped placenta. The uteroplacental blood flow was characterized by a marked increase in systolic peak velocity during pregnancy, the presence of a rapid deceleration ramp, and a relatively high diastolic speed. The fetal aortic vascular flow was predominantly systolic and diastolic. The caudal vena cava blood flow was characterized by a systolic peak followed by a decreased diastolic wave throughout pregnancy. In the present study, we characterized the morphologic and hemodynamic interactions of the placenta/subplacenta with maternal and fetal vessels in agoutis at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days gestation using B-mode and Doppler ultrasound. We determined the approximation and separation of the blood flow values of the umbilical artery, subplacental flow, uteroplacental artery, fetal aorta, and fetal vena cava. We believe these values may contribute to an understanding of the gestational biology and aid delivery prediction in this species

  7. Diurnal rhythm of agouti-related protein and its relation to corticosterone and food intake.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Yun; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Barsh, Gregory S; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J

    2002-10-01

    In the present study we examined the diurnal patterns of agouti-related protein (AGRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and their relation to circulating glucocorticoids and food intake. Animals were killed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h diurnal cycle, and the expression of AGRP and POMC mRNA was evaluated by semiquantitative in situ hybridization analysis. We observed a significant diurnal rhythm in AGRP mRNA expression, with a marked peak at 2200 h (4 h after lights off) and a trough at 1000 h (4 h after lights on), consistent with the overall day-night rhythm of food intake. In contrast, POMC mRNA levels did not show a significant fluctuation across the diurnal cycle, although there was a tendency for levels to decrease after the onset of the dark cycle. Corticosterone secretion temporally coincided with the rising phase of AGRP mRNA expression. Depletion of corticosterone by adrenalectomy abolished the AGRP diurnal rhythm by suppressing the nighttime expression, but did not alter the feeding rhythm. Exposure of adrenalectomized rats to constant corticosterone replacement (10 or 50 mg continuous release corticosterone pellet) resulted in fixed AGRP mRNA expression throughout the 12-h light, 12-h dark cycle. A relatively high level of corticosterone (50 mg) significantly increased AGRP mRNA expression, with a positive correlation between these two measures. These results indicate that 1) the diurnal expression of AGRP mRNA is regulated by corticosterone independently of the light/dark cue; and 2) a normal endogenous corticosterone rhythm is required for generating the diurnal AGRP rhythm.

  8. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Lo, Amy Cheuk Yin; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe and compare the differences in electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats and to better understand the effect of age on retinal histology and function. METHODS The electroretinographic responses of two different age groups of adult DA rats were compared. Animals were divided into younger adult DA rats 10-12wk (n=8) and older adult DA rats 17-19wk (n=8). Full field electroretinography (ERG) was recorded simultaneously from both eyes after dark adaption and light adaption and parameters including the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR), negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR), scotopic a-wave, b-wave, photopic a-wave, b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) were compared between groups. RESULTS The older adult rats displayed lower stimulation thresholds of the STRs (pSTR and nSTR) and higher amplitudes of pSTR, scotopic a-wave and b-wave, photopic b-wave and PhNR amplitudes, with shorter implicit times. Photopic a-wave amplitudes were however higher in the younger adult rats. CONCLUSION In summary, for the rod system, photoreceptor, bipolar cell and RGC activity was enhanced in the older adult rats. For the cone system, RGC and bipolar cell activity was enhanced, while photoreceptor activity was depressed in the older adult rats. Such age-related selective modification of retinal cell function needs to be considered when conducting ophthalmic research in adult rats. PMID:26558198

  9. Agouti-related protein increases food hoarding more than food intake in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP), an endogenous melanocortin 3/4 receptor antagonist, appears to play an important role in the control of food intake and energy balance because exogenous administration in rats and overexpression in mice result in hyperphagia and body mass gain. Furthermore, arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA is increased with fasting in laboratory rats and mice and is decreased with refeeding. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also increases arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA, but these animals increase food hoarding, rather than food intake with refeeding. Therefore, we tested whether exogenous AgRP increased food hoarding in this species. Hamsters were trained in a hoarding/foraging apparatus to run a programmed number of wheel revolutions to earn food pellets. Four doses of AgRP-(83-132) or vehicle were injected into the third ventricle at the beginning of the dark phase, and food hoarding, food intake, and foraging were measured at various time points subsequently. Overall, food hoarding was stimulated as much as 10 times more than food intake, and both responses occurred as early as 1 h after injection. Food hoarding was increased the greatest at the lowest dose (0.1 nmol), whereas food intake was increased the greatest at the second lowest dose (1 nmol). Food intake and especially food hoarding were increased up to seven days after the AgRP injections. Foraging was increased at all AgRP doses except the highest dose (100 nmol). These results suggest that AgRP triggers the search for food in this species, and once they find it, hoarding predominates over eating.

  10. The Central Nervous System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum aims to present a framework for alcohol education that…

  11. Hypothalamic agouti-related protein expression is affected by both acute and chronic experience of food restriction and re-feeding in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Wilson, P W; Smulders, T V; Sandilands, V; D'Eath, R B; Boswell, T

    2013-10-01

    The central melanocortin system is conserved across vertebrates. However, in birds, little is known about how energy balance influences orexigenic agouti-related protein (AGRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, despite the fact that commercial food restriction is critical to the efficient production of poultry meat. To enable contrasts to be made, in broiler-breeder chickens, between levels of food restriction, between birds with the same body weight but different feeding experience, and between birds moved from restricted feeding to ad lib. feeding for different periods, five groups of hens were established between 6 and 12 weeks of age with different combinations of food restriction and release from restriction. AGRP and neuropeptide Y expression in the basal hypothalamus was significantly increased by chronic restriction but only AGRP mRNA levels reflected recent feeding experience: hens at the same body weight that had recently been on ad lib. feeding showed lower expression than restricted birds. AGRP expression also distinguished between hens released from restriction to ad lib. feeding for different periods. By contrast, POMC and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA levels were not different. These results showed that AGRP mRNA not only reflected differences between a bird's weight and its potential weight or set point, but also discriminated between differing feeding histories of birds at the same body weight. Therefore, AGRP expression potentially provides an integrated measure of food intake experience and an objective tool to assess a bird's perception of satiety in feeding regimes for improved poultry welfare.

  12. Paleocene Turbidite Deposition in the Central American Seaway (NW Costa Rica): Geochemical Analysis and Provenance of Detrital Spinel and Clinopyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Central American Land Bridge is the crucial connection between North and South America, and the Miocene closure of the Panama seaway led to a change in global oceanic circulation patterns. Modern Costa Rica is part of the island arc that formed over the western Caribbean subduction zone, and the Santa Elena peninsula is on the northwest coast of Costa Rica next to the Sandino forearc basin. This study focuses on the origin and provenance of the Paleocene deep-water Rivas and Descartes turbidites that crop out on the northern part of the Santa Elena peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica. Understanding the sedimentary fill of the Sandino Basin that contributed to the closing of the seaway may lead to a better understanding of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene arcs. Provenance studies of the Santa Elena Peninsula turbidite sandstone bodies constrain the history of the paleogeography and tectonics of the region. Petrographic analyses of rock thin sections constrain source areas; geochemical analysis of individual detrital heavy minerals from rock samples give indications of sediment sources and tectonic setting during deposition. This study is a provenance analysis based on (i) semi-quantitative energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis of heavy minerals, (ii) quantitative wavelength-dispersive spectrometry for major elements of detrital clinopyroxene and spinel grains, (iii) trace element analysis through laser ablation of single detrital clinopyroxene grains, and (iv) comparative analysis of the different potential source rocks to clearly identify the most likely sediment sources. The detrital spinel and clinopyroxene are possibly sourced from: mantle ophiolites, mid-ocean ridge gabbros, or volcanic arc tholeiitic basalts or calc-alkaline andesites. Spinel and clinopyroxne geochemistry suggests a possible peridotitic source, linked to mantle rocks that are now covered by Tertiary volcanics or have completely eroded. The character of the crustal minerals indicates

  13. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana).

    PubMed

    Thomas, N J; Meteyer, C U; Sileo, L

    1998-11-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  14. Late Pleistocene/Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction and eruptive history of Central American volcanoes from lake bottom sediments of Lake Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, S.; Dull, R. A.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K. D.; Gardner, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    A shallow coring program in Lake Nicaragua was completed in May/June 2006 by the University of Texas (UT Department of Geography and UT Institute for Geophysics). A total of 35 sediment cores with lengths ranging between 12 cm and 100 cm along with five longer cores were extracted from the lake using a gravity corer and a modified manual square rod piston corer, respectively. Analyses of lake sediments have the following objectives: 1) to correlate the geophysical results with the core data to provide a stratigraphic framework for the shallow lake sediments; 2) to constrain past climate variability in this rather poorly investigated area; and 3) to establish a time series of explosive volcanic activity based on the identification and dating of tephra layers in the cores. Initial measurements of magnetic susceptibility, dry density, loss on ignition and XRF scanning indicated a dominance of fine-grained homogeneous diatomaceous sediments cover most of the lake floor. Increasing values in magnetic susceptibility in the upper part of several short cores most likely reflect increased erosion caused by land-use changes during the Spanish colonial period (1522-1822). Results on the two longest cores from the northeastern (355 cm) and southwestern (478 cm) parts of the lake reveal complete Holocene paleoclimate records in both areas that are comparable to other terrestrial and marine records in the Central and South- American tropics (i.e. Cariaco Basin). A lithologic change from homogeneous gyttia (diatomaceous mud) to blue- grayish waxy clay at the bottom of these records marks the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition as indicated by a radiocarbon dating on plant remains. The latter dense clay forms a distinctive stratigraphic marker in the lake basin. Tephra layers to date were detected in most gravity cores recovered west of Ometepe Island (Volcan Concepcion), and in long records in the northeastern basin (San Antonio Tephra, Masaya volcano, ca. 7,400 interpolated cal

  15. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  16. Open-Vent Degassing of CO2 from Typical Andesitic Volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Rotolo, S.; Giudice, G.; Moretti, R.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.; Tamburello, G.

    2014-12-01

    The collection of H2O-CO2-SO2 volcanic gas datasets at open-vent basaltic volcanoes has increased since the introduction of electrochemical/NDIR (Multi-GAS) instruments in the field. An open problem remains to understand the degassing regime of volcanoes of intermediate compositions, which is complicated by wide range of eruption styles. We propose here to initiate the study of the degassing regime of Telica and San Cristobal (Nicaragua), two constantly monitored volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). We calculated the CO2 flux sustained by summit plume degassing at Telica and San Cristobal as the product of the CO2/SO2 ratio of Multi-GAS technique with parallel SO2 flux measurements, made by using scanning UV-DOAS instruments in 2013. At Telica, the CO2 flux was evaluated at 166±76 t/d and at San Cristobal we measured 520±260 t/d. Degassing activity at Telica volcano consists in surface gas discharges dominated by H2O (70-98 mol%; mean of 92 mol%), and by CO2 (1-23 mol%; mean of 6 mol%) and SO2 (0.5-7.4 mol%; mean of 2.9 mol%). San Cristobal gas is dominated by H2O (85-97 mol%; mean of 92 mol%), and by CO2 (2-12 mol%; mean of 6 mol%) and SO2 (3-5 mol%; mean of 3.8 mol%). These values are typical of volcanic arc regions and the volcanoes were in a stage of quiescent degassing without excess of CO2 output relatively to the other major gases. By interpreting our recent gas measurements in tandem with preliminary melt inclusion records of pre-eruptive dissolved volatile abundances, we hope to build a conceptual degassing model taking into account the active degassing regimes during past volcanic eruptions. Finally, we hope to refine the CO2 budget estimates along the CAVA.

  17. A novel radiofluorinated agouti-related protein for tumor angiogenesis imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Han; Moore, Sarah J; Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Hongguang; Miao, Zheng; Cochran, Frank V; Liu, Yang; Tian, Mei; Cochran, Jennifer R; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Zhen

    2013-02-01

    A novel protein scaffold based on the cystine knot domain of the agouti-related protein (AgRP) has been used to engineer mutants that can bind to the α(v)β(3) integrin receptor with high affinity and specificity. In the current study, an (18)F-labeled AgRP mutant (7C) was prepared and evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for imaging tumor angiogenesis. AgRP-7C was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis and site-specifically conjugated with 4-nitrophenyl 2-(18/19)F-fluoropropionate ((18/19)F-NFP) to produce the fluorinated peptide, (18/19)F-FP-AgRP-7C. Competition binding assays were used to measure the relative affinities of AgRP-7C and (19)F-FP-AgRP-7C to human glioblastoma U87MG cells that overexpress α(v)β(3) integrin. In addition, biodistribution, metabolic stability, and small animal PET imaging studies were conducted with (18)F-FP-AgRP-7C using U87MG tumor-bearing mice. Both AgRP-7C and (19)F-FP-AgRP-7C specifically competed with (125)I-echistatin for binding to U87MG cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 9.40 and 8.37 nM, respectively. Non-invasive small animal PET imaging revealed that (18)F-FP-AgRP-7C exhibited rapid and good tumor uptake (3.24 percentage injected dose per gram [% ID/g] at 0.5 h post injection [p.i.]). The probe was rapidly cleared from the blood and from most organs, resulting in excellent tumor-to-normal tissue contrasts. Tumor uptake and rapid clearance were further confirmed with biodistribution studies. Furthermore, co-injection of (18)F-FP-AgRP-7C with a large molar excess of blocking peptide c(RGDyK) significantly inhibited tumor uptake in U87MG xenograft models, demonstrating the integrin-targeting specificity of the probe. Metabolite assays showed that the probe had high stability, making it suitable for in vivo applications. (18)F-FP-AgRP-7C exhibits promising in vivo properties such as rapid tumor targeting, good tumor uptake, and excellent tumor-to-normal tissue ratios

  18. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  19. Comment on ``A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion: Implications for slip along the Central American volcanic arc'' by Charles DeMets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Speziale, Marco; Gómez, Juan Martín

    2002-10-01

    We comment on ``A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion: Implications for slip along the Central American volcanic arc'' by Charles DeMets. We find the following inconsistencies in his model: Components of relative motion along the arc are small and variable, not uniform. There is no single surface faulting and earthquakes occur on faults along and perpendicular to the arc. Earthquakes also stop in the middle of the arc. Geometrically, the model calls for buttressing, but there is no evidence for this.

  20. An investigation of thermal anomalies in the Central American volcanic chain and evaluation of the utility of thermal anomaly monitoring in the prediction of volcanic eruptions. [Central America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground truth data collection proves that significant anomalies exist at 13 volcanoes within the test site of Central America. The dimensions and temperature contrast of these ten anomalies are large enough to be detected by the Skylab 192 instrument. The dimensions and intensity of thermal anomalies have changed at most of these volcanoes during the Skylab mission.

  1. Examining American Indian Perspectives in the Central Region on Parent Involvement in Children's Education. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 059

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackety, Dawn M.; Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Parent involvement is recognized as an important factor in encouraging student achievement. However, a survey by the National Center for Education Statistics found that in public schools with 25 percent or more American Indian students, teachers identified lack of parent involvement as one of their schools' three most serious problems. At an…

  2. Callosal axon arbors in the limb representations of the somatosensory cortex (SI) in the agouti (Dasyprocta primnolopha).

    PubMed

    Rocha, E G; Santiago, L F; Freire, M A M; Gomes-Leal, W; Dias, I A; Lent, R; Houzel, J C; Franca, J G; Pereira, A; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2007-01-10

    The present report compares the morphology of callosal axon arbors projecting from and to the hind- or forelimb representations in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of the agouti (Dasyprocta primnolopha), a large, lisencephlic Brazilian rodent that uses forelimb coordination for feeding. Callosal axons were labeled after single pressure (n = 6) or iontophoretic injections (n = 2) of the neuronal tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, 10 kD), either into the hind- (n = 4) or forelimb (n = 4) representations of SI, as identified by electrophysiological recording. Sixty-nine labeled axon fragments located across all layers of contralateral SI representations of the hindlimb (n = 35) and forelimb (n = 34) were analyzed. Quantitative morphometric features such as densities of branching points and boutons, segments length, branching angles, and terminal field areas were measured. Cluster analysis of these values revealed the existence of two types of axon terminals: Type I (46.4%), less branched and more widespread, and Type II (53.6%), more branched and compact. Both axon types were asymmetrically distributed; Type I axonal fragments being more frequent in hindlimb (71.9%) vs. forelimb (28.13%) representation, while most of Type II axonal arbors were found in the forelimb representation (67.56%). We concluded that the sets of callosal axon connecting fore- and hindlimb regions in SI are morphometrically distinct from each other. As callosal projections in somatosensory and motor cortices seem to be essential for bimanual interaction, we suggest that the morphological specialization of callosal axons in SI of the agouti may be correlated with this particular function.

  3. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  4. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  5. Evaluation of minerals, phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of Mexican, Central American, and African green leafy vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditi...

  6. [Effect of estradiol on food intake, glucose and fat metabolism in mice C57BL/6J with mutation yellow at the agouti locus].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, T V; Makarova, E N; Kazantseva, A Iu; Bazhan, N M

    2012-05-01

    Mutation yellow at the agouti locus in mice (A(y)/a-mice) causes the increase of food intake and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In A(y)/a-females the disturbances of glucose and fat metabolisms occur after puberty. We have assumed that the mutation yellow violates the regulatory effect of estradiol on glucose and fat metabolism in mice. We investigated the effects of ovariectomy and estradiol treatment on body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, plasma levels of glucose, insulin and etherified fatty acids in A(y)/a-females. C57Bl/6J females, not carrying yellow mutation at the agouti locus (a/a-mice), were used as a control. The data suggest that the yellow mutation did not affect estradiol regulation of food intake and glucose blood levels after a night of fasting, but, apparently, prevented estradiol participation in the regulation of glucose and fat metabolisms in the muscle and fat tissues.

  7. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  8. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  9. Who’s behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat’s Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed

    PubMed Central

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-01-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (APbe) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  10. The morphology of the pineal gland of the yellow-toothed cavy (Galea Spixii Wagler, 1831) and red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Câmara, Felipe Venceslau; Lopes, Igor Renno Guimarães; de Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides; Bezerra, Ferdinando Vinicius Fernandes; de Oliveira, Radan Elvis Matias; Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Magno; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco

    2015-08-01

    The pineal gland is an endocrine gland found in all mammals. This article describes the morphology of this important gland in two species of Caviideae, namely the yellow-toothed cavy and the red-rumped agouti. Ten adult animals of the two species used in current analysis were retrieved from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA) and euthanized. The glands were removed and photographed in situ and ex situ. They were fixed in a paraformaldehyde solution 4% or glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and submitted to routine histological techniques respectively for light and scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the pineal gland with its elongated structure may be found between the cerebral hemispheres facing the rostral colliculi. Microscopically, pinealocytes and some glia cells were predominant. Contrastingly, to the cavy's pineal gland, a capsule covered the organ in the agouti, with the emission of incomplete septa to the interior, which divided it into two lobules. Light and scanning electron microscopes failed to show calcareous concretions in the pineal gland. Based on the topography of the cavy's and agouti's pineal gland, it may be classified as supra-callosum and ABC type.

  11. Redescriptions and lectotype designations of Central American species of Phaenonotum Sharp (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) based on the type material from the David Sharp collection

    PubMed Central

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to understand the identity of the Central American species of the genus Phaenonotum Sharp, 1882, the type specimens of the species described by Sharp (1882) deposited in the David Sharp collection in the Natural History Museum in London have been re-examined. The following species are redescribed: Phaenonotum apicale Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum collare Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum dubium Sharp, 1882 (confirmed as junior synonym of Phaenonotum exstriatum (Say, 1835)), Phaenonotum laevicolle Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum rotundulum Sharp, 1882 and Phaenonotum tarsale Sharp, 1882. Lectotypes are designated for Phaenonotum apicale, Phaenonotum collare, Phaenonotum rotundulum and Phaenonotum tarsale. External diagnostic characters and morphology of male genitalia are illustrated. A table summarizing diagnostic characters allowing the identification of the species is provided. PMID:27110202

  12. Redescriptions and lectotype designations of Central American species of Phaenonotum Sharp (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) based on the type material from the David Sharp collection.

    PubMed

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the identity of the Central American species of the genus Phaenonotum Sharp, 1882, the type specimens of the species described by Sharp (1882) deposited in the David Sharp collection in the Natural History Museum in London have been re-examined. The following species are redescribed: Phaenonotum apicale Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum collare Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum dubium Sharp, 1882 (confirmed as junior synonym of Phaenonotum exstriatum (Say, 1835)), Phaenonotum laevicolle Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum rotundulum Sharp, 1882 and Phaenonotum tarsale Sharp, 1882. Lectotypes are designated for Phaenonotum apicale, Phaenonotum collare, Phaenonotum rotundulum and Phaenonotum tarsale. External diagnostic characters and morphology of male genitalia are illustrated. A table summarizing diagnostic characters allowing the identification of the species is provided.

  13. Aspects of reproductive ecology of Clusia valerioi Standl. and Clusia peninsulae Hammel (sp. nov.), two Central American species of Clusiaceae with resin flowers.

    PubMed

    Hochwallner, H; Vogel, S; Huber, W; Hammel, B E; Weber, A

    2012-01-01

    Clusia valerioi Standl. and C. peninsulae Hammel, sp. nov. (formally established in the Appendix), two Central American species of Clusiaceae offering resin as a floral reward, were studied in the Piedras Blancas National Park, SW Costa Rica. Basic data on phenology, flower structure, course of anthesis, flower visitors, flower visitation and pollination processes, fruit development and seed dispersal are communicated. Resin collection and pollen release are reported and documented in greater detail. The significance of stingless bees for pollination is confirmed, but honeybees were also observed to visit the flowers and to collect resin. The seeds of C. valerioi, exhibiting a clearly ornithochorous character syndrome, were observed to be eaten and dispersed by four species of the tanager family (Thraupidae) and one species of finch (Fringillidae). Ants were also observed to carry away the seeds.

  14. Probabilities of future VEI ≥ 2 eruptions at the Central American Volcanic Arc: a statistical perspective based on the past centuries' eruption record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Wehrmann, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    A probabilistic eruption forecast is provided for seven historically active volcanoes along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), as a pivotal empirical contribution to multi-disciplinary volcanic hazards assessment. The eruption probabilities are determined with a Kaplan-Meier estimator of survival functions, and parametric time series models are applied to describe the historical eruption records. Aside from the volcanoes that are currently in a state of eruptive activity (Santa María, Fuego, and Arenal), the highest probabilities for eruptions of VEI ≥ 2 occur at Concepción and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, which are likely to erupt to 70-85 % within the next 10 years. Poás and Irazú in Costa Rica show a medium to high eruption probability, followed by San Miguel (El Salvador), Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica), and Izalco (El Salvador; 24 % within the next 10 years).

  15. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  16. Population genetic structure of traditional populations in the Peruvian Central Andes and implications for South American population history.

    PubMed

    Cabana, Graciela S; Lewis, Cecil M; Tito, Raúl Y; Covey, R Alan; Cáceres, Angela M; Cruz, Augusto F De La; Durand, Diana; Housman, Genevieve; Hulsey, Brannon I; Iannacone, Gian Carlo; López, Paul W; Martínez, Rolando; Medina, Ángel; Dávila, Olimpio Ortega; Pinto, Karla Paloma Osorio; Santillán, Susan I Polo; Domínguez, Percy Rojas; Rubel, Meagan; Smith, Heather F; Smith, Silvia E; Massa, Verónica Rubín de Celis; Lizárraga, Beatriz; Stone, Anne C

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-based characterizations of Andean peoples are traditionally conducted in the service of elucidating continent-level evolutionary processes in South America. Consequently, genetic variation among "western" Andean populations is often represented in relation to variation among "eastern" Amazon and Orinoco River Basin populations. This west-east contrast in patterns of population genetic variation is typically attributed to large-scale phenomena, such as dual founder colonization events or differing long-term microevolutionary histories. However, alternative explanations that consider the nature and causes of population genetic diversity within the Andean region remain underexplored. Here we examine population genetic diversity in the Peruvian Central Andes using data from the mtDNA first hypervariable region and Y-chromosome short tandem repeats among 17 newly sampled populations and 15 published samples. Using this geographically comprehensive data set, we first reassessed the currently accepted pattern of western versus eastern population genetic structure, which our results ultimately reject: mtDNA population diversities were lower, rather than higher, within Andean versus eastern populations, and only highland Y-chromosomes exhibited significantly higher within-population diversities compared with eastern groups. Multiple populations, including several highland samples, exhibited low genetic diversities for both genetic systems. Second, we explored whether the implementation of Inca state and Spanish colonial policies starting at about ad 1400 could have substantially restructured population genetic variation and consequently constitute a primary explanation for the extant pattern of population diversity in the Peruvian Central Andes. Our results suggest that Peruvian Central Andean population structure cannot be parsimoniously explained as the sole outcome of combined Inca and Spanish policies on the region's population demography: highland populations

  17. Little Ice Age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.; Schuster, P.F.; Ready, M.M.; Taylor, H.E.; Yanosky, T.M.; McConnaughey, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The ??18O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95??? shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the ??18O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  18. Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water.

    PubMed

    Mollineau, W M; Adogwa, A O; Garcia, G W

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5(∘)C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at -195(∘)C, thawed at 30(∘) to 70(∘)C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30(∘)C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1 cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage. PMID:20871831

  19. [The influence of hyperleptinemia during pregnancy on fetal weight and obesity development in progeny mice with agouti yellow mutation].

    PubMed

    Makarova, E N; Syracheva, M S; Bazhan, N M

    2014-03-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. Leptin can influence the progeny metabolism via its influence on fetal growth and, possibly, via its action on AgRP expression in placenta. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) evokes obesity and increases blood leptin levels in pregnant mice. The aim was to examine the influence of A(y) mutation in pregnant mice on fetal weight, placental expression of AgRP gene and food intake and obesity development in progeny. A(y) pregnant females as compared to control ones had increased circulating leptin levels on days 13 and 18 of pregnancy. Both fetal weight and placental expression of AgRP gene were increased on day 13 of pregnancy and decreased on day 18 of pregnancy in A(y) females as compared to control ones. Both control (a/a) and obesity prone (A(y)/a) male young born to A(y) mothers had lowered body weight and enhanced food intake between 5 and 11 weeks of age as compared to male progeny of control mothers. The enhanced leptin levels during pregnancy in mice are associated with retardation of obesity development in obesity prone male offspring and with changes in fetal weight and AgRP gene expression in placenta.

  20. Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water

    PubMed Central

    Mollineau, W. M.; Adogwa, A. O.; Garcia, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 106 spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5∘C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at −195∘C, thawed at 30∘ to 70∘C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 106 spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30∘C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1 cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage. PMID:20871831

  1. Disulfide assignment of the C-terminal cysteine knot of agouti-related protein (AGRP) by direct sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Young, Y; Zeni, L; Rosenfeld, R D; Stark, K L; Rohde, M F; Haniu, M

    1999-12-01

    We have assigned the disulfide structure of Md-65 agouti-related protein (Md65-AGRP) using differential reduction and alkylation followed by direct sequencing analysis. The mature human AGRP is a single polypeptide chain of 112 amino acid residues, consisting of an N-terminal acidic region and a unique C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. The C-terminal domain, a 48 amino acid peptide named Md65-AGRP, was expressed in Escherichia coil cells and refolded under different conditions from the mature recombinant protein. The disulfide bonds in the cystine knot structure of Md65-AGRP were partially reduced using tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) under acidic conditions, followed by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The procedure generated several isoforms with varying degrees of NEM alkylation. The multiple forms of Md65-AGRP generated by partial reduction and NEM modification were then completely reduced and carboxymethylated to identify unreactive disulfide bonds. Differentially labeled Md65-AGRP were directly sequenced and analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry. The results confirmed that Md65-AGRP contained the same disulfide structure as that of Md5-AGRP reported previously [Bures, E. J., Hui, J. O., Young, Y. et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 12172-12177].

  2. Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation of agouti-related protein (AgRP) in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti).

    PubMed

    Wei, RongBin; Yuan, DengYue; Wang, Tao; Zhou, ChaoWei; Lin, FangJun; Chen, Hu; Wu, HongWei; Yang, ShiYong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ju; Gao, YunDi; Li, ZhiQiong

    2013-09-15

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence for AgRP in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti). The AgRP gene, encoding 126-amino acids, was strongly expressed in the brain. The AgRP gene was detected in embryos at developmental stages. Further, its mRNA was detectable in unfertilized eggs. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression profile of AgRP during short-term and long-term fasting of the hypothalamus. The expression level of AgRP in unfed fish was significantly increased at 3 and 4h post-fasting than in fed fish but did not affect AgRP mRNA expression after 14 days fasting. Overall, our results suggest that AgRP is a conserved peptide that might be involved in the regulation of short-term feeding and other physiological function in Schizothorax prenanti.

  3. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  4. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  5. Little ice age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The {gamma}{sup 18}O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95{per_thousand} shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the {gamma}{sup 18}O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  6. The Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (Omaha, NE, April 29-May 2, 1993). [Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, James A., Ed.; Hoadley, Michael, Ed.

    This publication, designed to communicate the history and research activities of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, presents summaries of 20 papers. The papers focus on elementary physical education specialists; physical education instruction of classroom teachers; child care…

  7. The Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (Des Moines, IA, April 29-May 3, 1992). [Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, James A., Ed.; Hoadley, Michael, Ed.

    This publication is designed to communicate the history and research activities of members of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. It presents summaries of 30 papers and conference presentations on such topics as pioneering physical educators; cholesterol in college football players;…

  8. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented. PMID:26490448

  9. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  10. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  11. Clouds, Wind and the Biogeography of Central American Cloud Forests: Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Modeling, and Walking in the Jungle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, R.; Nair, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud forests stand at the core of the complex of montane ecosystems that provide the backbone to the multinational Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, which seeks to protect a biodiversity conservation "hotspot" of global significance in an area of rapidly changing land use. Although cloud forests are generally defined by frequent and prolonged immersion in cloud, workers differ in their feelings about "frequent" and "prolonged", and quantitative assessments are rare. Here we focus on the dry season, in which the cloud and mist from orographic cloud plays a critical role in forest water relations, and discuss remote sensing of orographic clouds, and regional and atmospheric modeling at several scales to quantitatively examine the distribution of the atmospheric conditions that characterize cloud forests. Remote sensing using data from GOES reveals diurnal and longer scale patterns in the distribution of dry season orographic clouds in Central America at both regional and local scales. Data from MODIS, used to calculate the base height of orographic cloud banks, reveals not only the geographic distributon of cloud forest sites, but also striking regional variation in the frequency of montane immersion in orographic cloud. At a more local scale, wind is known to have striking effects on forest structure and species distribution in tropical montane ecosystems, both as a general mechanical stress and as the major agent of ecological disturbance. High resolution regional atmospheric modeling using CSU RAMS in the Monteverde cloud forests of Costa Rica provides quantitative information on the spatial distribution of canopy level winds, insight into the spatial structure and local dynamics of cloud forest communities. This information will be useful in not only in local conservation planning and the design of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, but also in assessments of the sensitivity of cloud forests to global and regional climate changes.

  12. Convective Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone and Tracers in the Central American ITCZ Region: Evidence from Observations During TC4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Melody; Twohy, Cynthia; MCabe, David; Joiner, Joanna; Severance, Kurt; Atlas, Eliot; Blake, Donald; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, John; Dibb, Jack; Diskin, Glenn; Lawson, Paul; McGill, Matthew; Rogers, David; Sachse, Glen; Scheuer, Eric; Thompson, Anne M.; Trepte, Charles; Wennberg, Paul; Ziemke, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    During the Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment that occurred in July and August of 2007, extensive sampling of active convection in the ITCZ region near Central America was performed from multiple aircraft and satellite sensors. As part of a sampling strategy designed to study cloud processes, the NASA ER-2, WB-57 and DC-8 flew in stacked "racetrack patterns" in convective cells. On July 24, 2007, the ER-2 and DC-8 probed an actively developing storm and the DC-8 was hit by lightning. Case studies of this flight, and of convective outflow on August 5, 2007 reveal a significant anti-correlation between ozone and condensed cloud water content. With little variability in the boundary layer and a vertical gradient, low ozone in the upper troposphere indicates convective transport. Because of the large spatial and temporal variability in surface CO and other pollutants in this region, low ozone is a better convective indicator. Lower tropospheric tracers methyl hydrogen peroxide, total organic bromine and calcium substantiate the ozone results. OMI measurements of mean upper tropospheric ozone near convection show lower ozone in convective outflow. A mass balance estimation of the amount of convective turnover below the tropical tropopause transition layer (TTL) is 50%, with an altitude of maximum convective outflow located between 10 and 11 km, 4 km below the cirrus anvil tops. It appears that convective lofting in this region of the ITCZ is either a two-stage or a rapid mixing process, because undiluted boundary layer air is never sampled in the convective outflow.

  13. Purification of peptides with differential cytolytic activities from the skin secretions of the Central American frog, Lithobates vaillanti (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Raza, Haider; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2009-08-01

    Peptide-based defenses of ranid frogs from Mexico and Central America have been studied in much less detail than those from North America. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1 (5 peptides), palustrin-2 (1 peptide), and ranatuerin-2 (3 peptides) families were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Costa Rican frog, Lithobates vaillanti (Ranidae) and characterized structurally. Brevinin-1VLa (FLGAIAGVAAKFLPKVFCFITKKC) and brevinin-1VLc (FLPVIASVAAKVLPK VFCFITKKC) showed particularly high growth-inhibitory potency (MIC < or =3 microM) against a Gram-positive microorganism Staphylococcus aureus and the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida albicans and potent cytolytic activity (LC(50)< or =8 microM) against both human erythrocytes and HepG2 hepatoma-derived cells. The peptides were also active against a Gram-negative microorganism Escherichia coli (MIC< or =50 microM). Substitutions in brevinin-1VLd (Lys(11) --> Asn) and brevinin-1VLe (Lys(11) --> Ser) that decrease cationicity result in loss of activity against E. coli. Ranatuerin-2VLb (GIMDTIKGAAKDLAGQLLDKLKCKITKC) showed relatively weak antimicrobial activity (MIC> or =75 microM) but selective cytolytic activity against HepG2 tumor cells (LC(50)=30 microM) compared with erythrocytes (LC(50)>200 microM). In addition, a dodecapeptide (RICYAMWIPYPC) were isolated from the secretions that were devoid of antimicrobial activity. This component contains an Ala-Met bond that constitutes the scissile bond in the selective elastase inhibitor, elafin but the peptide did not inhibit pancreatic elastase at concentrations up to 100 microM.

  14. The establishment of Central American migratory corridors and the biogeographic origins of seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Charles G.; Franzone, Brian F.; Xi, Zhenxiang; Davis, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography and community ecology can mutually illuminate the formation of a regional species pool or biome. Here, we apply phylogenetic methods to a large and diverse plant clade, Malpighiaceae, to characterize the formation of its species pool in Mexico, and its occupancy of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) biome that occurs there. We find that the ~162 species of Mexican Malpighiaceae represent ~33 dispersals from South America beginning in the Eocene and continuing until the Pliocene (~46.4–3.8 Myr). Furthermore, dispersal rates between South America and Mexico show a significant six-fold increase during the mid-Miocene (~23.9 Myr). We hypothesize that this increase marked the availability of Central America as an important corridor for Neotropical plant migration. We additionally demonstrate that this high rate of dispersal contributed substantially more to the phylogenetic diversity of Malpighiaceae in Mexico than in situ diversification. Finally, we show that most lineages arrived in Mexico pre-adapted with regard to one key SDTF trait, total annual precipitation. In contrast, these lineages adapted to a second key trait, precipitation seasonality, in situ as mountain building in the region gave rise to the abiotic parameters of extant SDTF. The timing of this in situ adaptation to seasonal precipitation suggests that SDTF likely originated its modern characteristics by the late Oligocene, but was geographically more restricted until its expansion in the mid-Miocene. These results highlight the complex interplay of dispersal, adaptation, and in situ diversification in the formation of tropical biomes. Our results additionally demonstrate that these processes are not static, and their relevance can change markedly over evolutionary time. This has important implications for understanding the origin of SDTF in Mexico, but also for understanding the temporal and spatial origin of biomes and regional species pools more broadly. PMID:25566320

  15. Cryptic Population Structuring and the Role of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec as a Gene Flow Barrier in the Critically Endangered Central American River Turtle

    PubMed Central

    González-Porter, Gracia P.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Vogt, Richard C.; Janke, Axel; Fleischer, Robert C.; Hailer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The critically endangered Central American River Turtle (Dermatemys mawii) is the only remaining member of the Dermatemydidae family, yet little is known about its population structuring. In a previous study of mitochondrial (mt) DNA in the species, three main lineages were described. One lineage (Central) was dominant across most of the range, while two other lineages were restricted to Papaloapan (PAP; isolated by the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Sierra de Santa Marta) or the south-eastern part of the range (1D). Here we provide data from seven polymorphic microsatellite loci and the R35 intron to re-evaluate these findings using DNA from the nuclear genome. Based on a slightly expanded data set of a total of 253 samples from the same localities, we find that mtDNA and nuclear DNA markers yield a highly congruent picture of the evolutionary history and population structuring of D. mawii. While resolution provided by the R35 intron (sequenced for a subset of the samples) was very limited, the microsatellite data revealed pronounced population structuring. Within the Grijalva-Usumacinta drainage basin, however, many populations separated by more than 300 kilometers showed signals of high gene flow. Across the entire range, neither mitochondrial nor nuclear DNA show a significant isolation-by-distance pattern, but both genomes highlight that the D. mawii population in the Papaloapan basin is genetically distinctive. Further, both marker systems detect unique genomic signals in four individuals with mtDNA clade 1D sampled on the southeast edge of the Grijalva-Usumacinta basin. These individuals may represent a separate cryptic taxon that is likely impacted by recent admixture. PMID:24086253

  16. Cryptic population structuring and the role of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec as a gene flow barrier in the critically endangered Central American River Turtle.

    PubMed

    González-Porter, Gracia P; Maldonado, Jesús E; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Vogt, Richard C; Janke, Axel; Fleischer, Robert C; Hailer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The critically endangered Central American River Turtle (Dermatemys mawii) is the only remaining member of the Dermatemydidae family, yet little is known about its population structuring. In a previous study of mitochondrial (mt) DNA in the species, three main lineages were described. One lineage (Central) was dominant across most of the range, while two other lineages were restricted to Papaloapan (PAP; isolated by the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Sierra de Santa Marta) or the south-eastern part of the range (1D). Here we provide data from seven polymorphic microsatellite loci and the R35 intron to re-evaluate these findings using DNA from the nuclear genome. Based on a slightly expanded data set of a total of 253 samples from the same localities, we find that mtDNA and nuclear DNA markers yield a highly congruent picture of the evolutionary history and population structuring of D. mawii. While resolution provided by the R35 intron (sequenced for a subset of the samples) was very limited, the microsatellite data revealed pronounced population structuring. Within the Grijalva-Usumacinta drainage basin, however, many populations separated by more than 300 kilometers showed signals of high gene flow. Across the entire range, neither mitochondrial nor nuclear DNA show a significant isolation-by-distance pattern, but both genomes highlight that the D. mawii population in the Papaloapan basin is genetically distinctive. Further, both marker systems detect unique genomic signals in four individuals with mtDNA clade 1D sampled on the southeast edge of the Grijalva-Usumacinta basin. These individuals may represent a separate cryptic taxon that is likely impacted by recent admixture. PMID:24086253

  17. Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology of the Pallatanga fault (Central Ecuador), a major structure of the South-American crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baize, Stéphane; Audin, Laurence; Winter, Thierry; Alvarado, Alexandra; Pilatasig Moreno, Luis; Taipe, Mercedes; Reyes, Pedro; Kauffmann, Paul; Yepes, Hugo

    2015-05-01

    The Pallatanga fault (PF) is a prominent NNE-SSW strike-slip fault crossing Central Ecuador. This structure is suspected to have hosted large earthquakes, including the 1797 Riobamba event which caused severe destructions to buildings and a heavy death toll (more than 12,000 people), as well as widespread secondary effects like landsliding, liquefaction and surface cracking. The scope of this study is to evaluate the seismic history of the fault through a paleoseismological approach. This work also aims at improving the seismotectonic map of this part of the Andes through a new mapping campaign and, finally, aims at improving the seismic hazard assessment. We show that the PF continues to the north of the previously mapped fault portion in the Western Cordillera (Rumipamba-Pallatanga portion) into the Inter-Andean Valley (Riobamba basin). Field evidences of faulting are numerous, ranging from a clear geomorphological signature to fault plane outcrops. Along the western side of the Riobamba basin, the strike-slip component seems predominant along several fault portions, with a typical landscape assemblage (dextral offsets of valleys, fluvial terrace risers and generation of linear pressure ridges). In the core of the inter-Andean valley, the main fault portion exhibits a vertical component along the c. 100 m-high cumulative scarp. The presence of such an active fault bounding the western suburbs of Riobamba drastically increases the seismic risk for this densely inhabited and vulnerable city. To the east (Peltetec Massif, Cordillera Real), the continuation of the Pallatanga fault is suspected, but not definitely proved yet. Based on the analysis of three trenches, we state that the Rumipamba-Pallatanga section of the PF experienced 4 (maybe 5) Holocene to Historical strong events (Mw > 7). The coseismic behavior of the fault is deduced from the occurrence of several colluvial wedges and layers associated with the fault activity and interbedded within the organic

  18. Age and Geochemistry of Central American Forearc Basement Rocks (DSDP Leg 67 and 84) Reveal a Complex Geodynamic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldmacher, J.; Hoernle, K. A.; Hauff, F.; Kluegel, A.; Bogaard, P. V.

    2006-12-01

    distinctly more enriched initial isotope ratios (e.g. high 206Pb/204Pb=19.42-20.34 and 207Pb/204Pb=15.65-15.70 but low ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd=0.51272-0.51297, ^{176}Hf/^{177}Hf= 0.28281-0.28292). Preliminary results of step-heating 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of mineral separates range from ~100-143 Ma for the depleted group and 104-219 Ma for the enriched group. Because of a different mode and larger degree of isotopic enrichment it is highly questionable whether the enriched group samples are related to the CLIP or were derived from the Galápagos plume. Instead, these rocks most likely represent accreted Mesozoic intraplate seamounts/ocean islands of central Pacific origin. The depleted group can be interpreted as a submerged upper Cretaceous island arc, accreted to the Chortis Block subduction zone. Rocks of similar age and geochemistry to both groups can be found on the Santa Elena Peninsula in Costa Rica, which probably represents the subaerial exposed southern termination of the forarc basement.

  19. Testing the feasibility of ¡Cuídate! With Mexican and Central American youth in a rural region of a southern state.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kim L; Ballard, Sharon M; Nuncio, Brenda J; Swanson, Melvin

    2014-10-01

    Regions of the US with growing Latino populations are in need of culturally sensitive sexual risk reduction programs. A Latino community, a public school district, and a university in eastern North Carolina collaborated to test the feasibility of ¡Cuídate!, a culturally tailored, evidence-based sexual risk reduction program, with Mexican and Central American youth. Ten male and 10 female adolescents, ages 13-17 years, participated in the ¡Cuídate! program and post-program focus groups. Early adolescent boys and girls (ages 13-15) gained the most from this program. A safe environment facilitated healthy sexual communication, and condom skills-building provided a context for shared partner responsibility. Grade-level and gender differences were significant. Analysis of the focus group data identified three important messages: Everybody needs sex education, We like this program better because it is hands-on, and I'm going to make better decisions about sex. The findings of this study support the need for community-based interventions that ensure cultural respect, trust, and a safe environment in which to discuss sexual issues.

  20. Comparing the impacts of Miocene-Pliocene changes in inter-ocean gateways on climate: Central American Seaway, Bering Strait, and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, Chris M.; Fedorov, Alexey V.

    2016-06-01

    Changes in inter-ocean gateways caused by tectonic processes have been long considered an important factor in climate evolution on geological timescales. Three major gateway changes that occurred during the Late Miocene and Pliocene epochs are the closing of the Central American Seaway (CAS) by the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama, the opening of the Bering Strait, and the closing of a deep channel between New Guinea and the Equator. This study compares the global climatic effects of these changes within the same climate model framework. We find that the closure of the CAS and the opening of the Bering Strait induce the strongest effects on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, these effects potentially compensate, as the closure of the CAS and the opening of the Bering Strait cause similar AMOC changes of around 2 Sv (strengthening and weakening respectively). Previous simulations with an open CAS consistently simulated colder oceanic conditions in the Northern Hemisphere - contrasting with the evidence for warmer sea surface temperatures 10-3 million years ago. Here we argue that this cooling is overestimated because (a) the models typically simulated too strong an AMOC change not yet in equilibrium, (b) used a channel too deep and (c) lacked the compensating effect of the closed Bering Strait - a factor frequently ignored despite its potential influence on northern high latitudes and ice-sheet growth. Further, we discuss how these gateway changes affect various climatic variables from surface temperature and precipitation to ENSO characteristics.

  1. Comparison of six commercial DNA extraction kits for detection of Brucella neotomae in Mexican and Central American-style cheese and other milk products.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Tina S; Strain, Errol; Kase, Julie A

    2013-05-01

    Raw or inadequately pasteurized milk from infected animals and cheese made with such milk are a frequent vehicle for human brucellosis infection. Also, biological terrorism is a concern with certain Brucella spp. Due to matrix-associated real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibitors, robust sample preparations are crucial. We compared six commercial nucleic acid extraction kits using nine Mexican and Central American-style soft cheeses or creams and three liquid milk products inoculated with Brucella neotomae, a surrogate for pathogenic Brucella spp. Kits were evaluated by purity and quantity of DNA as determined by qPCR Ct values, reproducibility across cheese and milk types, and cost. At 10(7) CFU/g in four different cheeses, Qiagen statistically outperformed all other kits. When two cheese styles were inoculated at dual levels, Qiagen and High Pure kit extracted samples at 1.5 × 10(5) CFU/g produced average Ct values of 34-39, while PrepSEQ and MagMAX kit extracted samples exhibited higher or no Ct values. High Pure and Qiagen kits excelled also with liquid milk products. Considering matrices, inoculation levels, and kits evaluated, High Pure and Qiagen products produced Brucella DNA of high quality and quantity indicated by the lowest Ct values and were the least expensive.

  2. Proopiomelanocortin, agouti-related protein, and leptin in human cerebrospinal fluid: correlations with body weight and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Page-Wilson, Gabrielle; Meece, Kana; White, Anne; Rosenbaum, Michael; Leibel, Rudolph L; Smiley, Richard; Wardlaw, Sharon L

    2015-09-01

    Leptin and its neuronal targets, which produce proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP), regulate energy balance. This study characterized leptin, POMC, and AgRP in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 47 healthy human subjects, 23 lean and 24 overweight/obese (OW/OB), as related to BMI, adiposity, plasma leptin, soluble leptin receptor (s-OB-R), and insulin. POMC was measured since the POMC prohormone is the predominant POMC peptide in CSF and correlates with hypothalamic POMC in rodents. Plasma AgRP was similarly characterized. CSF leptin was 83-fold lower than in plasma and correlated strongly with BMI, body fat, and insulin. The relative amount of leptin transported into CSF declined with increasing BMI, ranging from 4.5 to 0.52%, consistent with a saturable transport mechanism. CSF sOB-R was 78-fold lower than in plasma and correlated negatively with plasma and CSF leptin. CSF POMC was higher in lean vs. OW/OB subjects (P < 0.001) and correlated negatively with CSF leptin (r = -0.60, P < 0.001) and with plasma leptin, insulin, BMI, and adiposity. CSF AgRP was not different in lean vs. OW/OB; however, plasma AgRP was higher in lean subjects (P = 0.001) and correlated negatively with BMI, adiposity, leptin, insulin, and HOMA (P < 0.005). Thus, CSF measurements may provide useful biomarkers for brain leptin and POMC activity. The striking negative correlation between CSF leptin and POMC could be secondary to leptin resistance and/or neuronal changes associated with obesity but may also indicate that POMC plays a primary role in regulating body weight and adiposity. The role of plasma AgRP as a neuroendocrine biomarker deserves further study.

  3. Hypothalamic Agouti-Related Peptide mRNA is Elevated During Natural and Stress-Induced Anorexia.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Wilson, P W; D'Eath, R B; Boswell, T

    2015-09-01

    As part of their natural lives, animals can undergo periods of voluntarily reduced food intake and body weight (i.e. animal anorexias) that are beneficial for survival or breeding, such as during territorial behaviour, hibernation, migration and incubation of eggs. For incubation, a change in the defended level of body weight or 'sliding set point' appears to be involved, although the neural mechanisms reponsible for this are unknown. We investigated how neuropeptide gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the domestic chicken responded to a 60-70% voluntary reduction in food intake measured both after incubation and after an environmental stressor involving transfer to unfamiliar housing. We hypothesised that gene expression would not change in these circumstances because the reduced food intake and body weight represented a defended level in birds with free access to food. Unexpectedly, we observed increased gene expression of the orexigenic peptide agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in both incubating and transferred animals compared to controls. Also pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was higher in incubating hens and significantly increased 6 days after exposure to the stressor. Conversely expression of neuropeptide Y and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene was unchanged in both experimental situations. We conclude that AgRP expression remains sensitive to the level of energy stores during natural anorexias, which is of adaptive advantage, although its normal orexigenic effects are over-ridden by inhibitory signals. In the case of stress-induced anorexia, increased POMC may contribute to this inhibitory role, whereas, for incubation, reduced feeding may also be associated with increased expression in the hypothalamus of the anorexigenic peptide vasoactive intestinal peptide.

  4. Copy number variation and missense mutations of the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene in goat breeds with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, L; Beretti, F; Riggio, V; Gómez González, E; Dall'Olio, S; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Portolano, B

    2009-01-01

    In goats, classical genetic studies reported a large number of alleles at the Agouti locus with effects on coat color and pattern distribution. From these early studies, the dominant A(Wt) (white/tan) allele was suggested to cause the white color of the Saanen breed. Here, we sequenced the coding region of the goat ASIP gene in 6 goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, Derivata di Siria, Murciano-Granadina, Camosciata delle Alpi, and Saanen), with different coat colors and patterns. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, 3 of which caused missense mutations in conserved positions of the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of the protein (p.Ala96Gly, p.Cys126Gly, and p.Val128Gly). Allele and genotype frequencies suggested that these mutations are not associated or not completely associated with coat color in the investigated goat breeds. Moreover, genotyping and sequencing results, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, as well as allele copy number evaluation from semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR, indicated the presence of copy number variation (CNV) in all investigated breeds. To confirm the presence of CNV and evaluate its extension, we applied a bovine-goat cross-species array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment using a custom tiling array based on bovine chromosome 13. aCGH results obtained for 8 goat DNA samples confirmed the presence of CNV affecting a region of less that 100 kb including the ASIP and AHCY genes. In Girgentana and Saanen breeds, this CNV might cause the A(Wt) allele, as already suggested for a similar structural mutation in sheep affecting the ASIP and AHCY genes, providing evidence for a recurrent interspecies CNV. However, other mechanisms may also be involved in determining coat color in these 2 breeds.

  5. Epistatic Interaction of the Melanocortin 1 Receptor and Agouti Signaling Protein Genes Modulates Wool Color in the Brazilian Creole Sheep.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Diego; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

    2016-11-01

    Different pigmentation genes have been associated with color diversity in domestic animal species. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), agouti signaling protein (ASIP), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) genes are candidate genes responsible for variation in wool color among breeds of sheep. Although the influence of these genes has been described in some breeds, in many others the effect of interactions among genes underlying wool color has not been investigated. The Brazilian Creole sheep is a local breed with a wide variety of wool color, ranging from black to white with several intermediate hues. We analyzed in this study the influence of the genes MC1R, ASIP, TYRP1, and KIT on the control of wool color in this breed. A total of 410 samples were analyzed, including 148 white and 262 colored individuals. The MC1R and ASIP polymorphisms were significantly associated with the segregation of either white or colored wool. The dominant MC1R allele (E(D) p.M73K and p.D121N) was present only in colored animals. All white individuals were homozygous for the MC1R recessive allele (E(+)) and carriers of the duplicated copy of ASIP A gene expression assay showed that only the carrier of the duplicated copy of ASIP produces increased levels in skin, not detectable in the single homozygous copy. These results demonstrate that the epistatic interaction of the genotypes in the MC1R and ASIP gene is responsible for the striking color variation in the Creole breed.

  6. Snake venomics of the South and Central American Bushmasters. Comparison of the toxin composition of Lachesis muta gathered from proteomic versus transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Ferretti, Massimo; Biscoglio, Mirtha J; Rivera, Elena; Crescenti, Ernesto J; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-04-30

    We report the proteomic characterization of the venoms of two closely related pit vipers of the genus Lachesis, L. muta (South American Bushmaster) and L. stenophrys (Central American Bushmaster), and compare the toxin repertoire of the former revealed through a proteomic versus a transcriptomic approach. The protein composition of the venoms of Lachesis muta and L. stenophrys were analyzed by RP-HPLC, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting and CID-MS/MS. Around 30-40 proteins of molecular masses in the range of 13-110 kDa and belonging, respectively, to only 8 and 7 toxin families were identified in L. muta and L. stenophrys venoms. In addition, both venoms contained a large number of bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPP) and a C-type natriuretic peptide (C-NP). BPPs and C-NP comprised around 15% of the total venom proteins. In both species, the most abundant proteins were Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (32-38%) and serine proteinases (25-31%), followed by PLA(2)s (9-12%), galactose-specific C-type lectin (4-8%), l-amino acid oxidase (LAO, 3-5%), CRISP (1.8%; found in L. muta but not in L. stenophrys), and NGF (0.6%). On the other hand, only six L. muta venom-secreted proteins matched any of the previously reported 11 partial or full-length venom gland transcripts, and venom proteome and transcriptome depart in their relative abundances of different toxin families. As expected from their close phylogenetic relationship, the venoms of L. muta and L. stenophrys share (or contain highly similar) proteins, in particular BPPs, serine proteinases, a galactose-specific C-type lectin, and LAO. However, they dramatically depart in their respective PLA(2) complement. Intraspecific quantitative and qualitative differences in the expression of PLA(2) molecules were found when the venoms of five L. muta specimens (3 from Bolivia and 2 from Peru) and the venom of the same species purchased from Sigma were compared. These observations indicate that these class

  7. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas.

  8. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas. PMID:24712442

  9. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Emily E.; Kristensen, Thea V.; Wilton, Clay M.; Lyda, Sara B.; Noyce, Karen V.; Holahan, Paula M.; Leslie,, David M.; Beringer, J.; Belant, Jerrold L.; White, D.; Eggert, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas.

  10. Mapping South American Summer Monsoon Changes during Heinrich Event 1 and the LGM: Insights from New Paleolake Records from the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y.; McGee, D.; Quade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Cave stalagmite records show strong evidence of abrupt changes in summer monsoons during Heinrich events, but we lack rigorous constraints on the amount of wetting or drying occurring in monsoon regions. Studies on shoreline deposits of closed-basin lakes can establish quantitative bounds on water balance changes through mapping-based estimates of lake volume variations. We present new dating constraints on lake level variations in Agua Caliente I and Laguna Loyoques, two closed-basin, high-altitude paleolakes on the Altiplano-Puna plateau of the Central Andes (23.1°S, 67.4°W, 4250 masl). Because this area receives >70% of its total annual precipitation during austral summer, the region is ideally suited to capture a pure response to changes in the South American summer monsoon (SASM). The plateau is home to several small (<40 km2) lakes surrounded by well-preserved paleoshorelines that indicate past wetter conditions. Agua Caliente I is unique, having multiple shorelines encrusted with biologically-mediated calcium carbonate "tufa" deposits. Initial U-Th dating of these massive shoreline tufas reveals that these deposits are dateable to within ±50 to 300 years due to high U concentrations and low initial Th content (as indicated by high 230Th/232Th). Our U-Th dates show that Agua Caliente I was greater in lake surface area during two periods: 17.5-14.5 kyrs BP, coincident with Heinrich Event 1 (HE1), and 24-23 kyrs BP, roughly coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). At these times, Agua Caliente I also overflowed into a neighboring lake basin (Loyoques) through an 8-km long southeast-trending stream channel. Thus, during HE1 and the LGM, the lake was ~9 times larger in surface area relative to modern. Hydrologic modeling constrained by paleotemperature estimates is used to provide bounds for these past precipitation changes. We also tentatively explore physical mechanisms linking Heinrich events and the regional hydroclimate by comparing freshwater

  11. Integrated “omics” profiling indicates that miRNAs are modulators of the ontogenetic venom composition shift in the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus simus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the processes that drive the evolution of snake venom is a topic of great research interest in molecular and evolutionary toxinology. Recent studies suggest that ontogenetic changes in venom composition are genetically controlled rather than environmentally induced. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain elusive. Here we have explored the basis and level of regulation of the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus s. simus using a combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach. Results Proteomic analysis showed that the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of C. s. simus is essentially characterized by a gradual reduction in the expression of serine proteinases and PLA2 molecules, particularly crotoxin, a β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA2, concominantly with an increment of PI and PIII metalloproteinases at age 9–18 months. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the venom glands of neonate and adult C. s. simus specimens indicated that their transcriptomes exhibit indistinguisable toxin family profiles, suggesting that the elusive mechanism by which shared transcriptomes generate divergent venom phenotypes may operate post-transcriptionally. Specifically, miRNAs with frequency count of 1000 or greater exhibited an uneven distribution between the newborn and adult datasets. Of note, 590 copies of a miRNA targeting crotoxin B-subunit was exclusively found in the transcriptome of the adult snake, whereas 1185 copies of a miRNA complementary to a PIII-SVMP mRNA was uniquely present in the newborn dataset. These results support the view that age-dependent changes in the concentration of miRNA modulating the transition from a crotoxin-rich to a SVMP-rich venom from birth through adulhood can potentially explain what is observed in the proteomic analysis of the ontogenetic changes in the venom composition of C. s. simus. Conclusions Existing snake venom

  12. View of the MIS 2—MIS 1 transition from paleosol archives within loess of the North American central Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Mason, J. A.; Woodburn, T. L.; MacPherson, G.

    2009-12-01

    The transition from MIS 2 to MIS 1 was characterized by a rapid succession of discrete climatic phases (Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas, Pre-Boreal, and Boreal), during which there was an overall reduction in Global atmospheric dust flux. Within the North American central Great Plains, the upland loess mantle stabilized sufficiently for effective pedogenesis, resulting in soil formation that persisted for nearly 5 k yrs. This remarkable pedostratigraphic feature, preserved beneath Holocene loess, is well manifest along the proximal boundary of the Last Glacial regional loess plume. In this source-proximal corridor, the soil was particularly sensitive to perturbations in the waning loess transport and associated environmental fluctuations. Age of the soil has been well-constrained through recent AMS 14C and OSL dating of localities east-west along the proximal boundary. Pedogenesis began about 14.2 ka during the Bølling-Allerød and continued uninterrupted to about 10.1 ka within the early Boreal, at which time a threshold level of dust influx and a decrease in effective moisture caused soil development to wane and finally to cease at about 9.4 ka. Increased loess flux, accompanied by widespread sand dune and sheet activation, persisted within the region until about 6.5 ka. Archives of information preserved within this soil document environmental change during the course of pedogenesis. Soil architecture is that of a mature mollisol, exhibiting a cumulic A, underlain by Bk-C horizonation. Profiles of δ13C values derived from total soil organic carbon display a transition from C3 to C4 plant dominance with time, though retardation in this rate of change occurs during the Younger Dryas. Notable consistency exists within the isotopic record for a range of spatial scales, attesting to the viability and inherent region-wide nature of the signal. Biogenic opal data further document the temporal decrease in C3 plants and attendant increase in C4 short grasses during

  13. A Summary of Chlorine Stable Isotopes as a Volatile Tracer in the Central American and Izu- Bonin-Mariana Volcanic Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. D.; Sharp, Z.; Fischer, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Cl isotope composition of volcanic gases (gas fumarole and gas condensate samples), hydrothermal waters, and lava and ash samples from volcanic centers along the Central American (CA) and Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arcs have δ37Cl values ranging from -5 to +12‰. Gas and hydrothermal waters from CA span almost this entire range, whereas lava and ash samples span -2.6 to +3.0‰. In contrast, gas and hydrothermal waters from IBM only range from -5.4 to -0.1‰; overlapping with ash and lava samples ranging from -2.6 to +0.4‰. The high δ37Cl values of volcanic gases are found only at volcanic centers in CA with large associated hydrothermal fields and/or crater lakes, such as Poás, Momotombo, and Santa Ana. It is thought that these enriched 37Cl enriched gases are due to liquid-vapor fractionation in acidic systems and record information regarding the plumbing system of a volcano (see Sharp et al., this meeting). The chlorine isotope composition of the ash and lava samples are probably more representative of the ascending magma, which may serve as a tracer of chlorine sources. δ37Cl values of ash and lava samples in Costa Rica are positive (+0.4 to +3.0‰), with the exception of one Arenal sample. In S. Nicaragua samples are negative and become slightly positive in N. Nicaragua. Samples from at then northern end of the arc are near zero (El Salvador: +0.1 to +0.9‰; Guatemala: -0.5‰). The slightly positive values in Costa Rica may indicate a mantle component with some contribution from isotopically heavy serpentinites. The negative values in Nicaragua are consistent with subducting sediments (structurally bound Cl (SBC) in offshore sediments average -0.5 ± 0.8‰; n = 11), sedimentary pore fluids, and/or isotopically light serpentinites associated with plate bending on the outer rise. Samples from the end of the arc in El Salvador and Guatemala indicate more of a mantle-like signature. In the IBM, there is no variation in δ37Cl values along the length

  14. The Perspectives of University Administrators towards International Leadership, Study Abroad Programs, and Cooperative Agreements in Central American Public and Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curbelo Ruiz, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes globalized by the influence of science and technology, academic institutions in Central America must provide international academic and research opportunities that are conductive to multicultural learning for students, faculty, and staff. Public and private universities in Central America are attempting to increase awareness…

  15. "A 28-Day Program Ain't Helping the Crack Smoker" -- Perceptions of Effective Drug Abuse Prevention Interventions by North Central Florida African Americans Who Use Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma J.; Hill, Mary Angelique; Giroux, Stacey A.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine is a major problem in the rural South, but knowledge is limited regarding the impact on African American populations. Purpose: This study of 18-39-year-old black drug users assessed perceptions of contributing factors to drug use and possible interventions. The study design was qualitative-descriptive, utilizing 4 focus groups with 5 rural…

  16. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Centrla American species: D. barclayi nov. sp. Guatemala, D. caveyi nov. sp. Costa Rica, D. costaricensis nov. sp. Costa Rica, D. dmitryogloblini nov. sp. Mexico, D. duckworthae nov. sp....

  17. Cytochrome P450 dependent metabolism of the new designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP). In vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats as well as in vitro studies in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Paul, Liane D; Springer, Dietmar; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2004-01-15

    1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) is a designer drug with serotonergic properties. Previous studies with male Wistar rats (WI) had shown, that TFMPP was metabolized mainly by aromatic hydroxylation. In the current study, it was examined whether this reaction may be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 by comparing TFMPP vs. hydroxy TFMPP ratios in urine from female Dark Agouti rats, a model of the human CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype (PM), male Dark Agouti rats, an intermediate model, and WI, a model of the human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype. Furthermore, the human hepatic CYPs involved in TFMPP hydroxylation were identified using cDNA-expressed CYPs and human liver microsomes. Finally, TFMPP plasma levels in the above mentioned rats were compared. The urine studies suggested that TFMPP hydroxylation might be catalyzed by CYP2D6 in humans. Studies using human CYPs showed that CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed TFMPP hydroxylation, with CYP2D6 being the most important enzyme accounting for about 81% of the net intrinsic clearance, calculated using the relative activity factor approach. The hydroxylation was significantly inhibited by quinidine (77%) and metabolite formation in poor metabolizer genotype human liver microsomes was significantly lower (63%) compared to pooled human liver microsomes. Analysis of the plasma samples showed that female Dark Agouti rats exhibited significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels compared to those of male Dark Agouti rats and WI. Furthermore, pretreatment of WI with the CYP2D inhibitor quinine resulted in significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels. In conclusion, the presented data give hints for possible differences in pharmacokinetics in human PM and human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype subjects relevant for risk assessment.

  18. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  19. Defining MC1R regulation in human melanocytes by its agonist α-melanocortin and antagonists agouti signaling protein and β-defensin 3.

    PubMed

    Swope, Viki B; Jameson, Joshua A; McFarland, Kevin L; Supp, Dorothy M; Miller, William E; McGraw, Dennis W; Patel, Mira A; Nix, Matthew A; Millhauser, Glenn L; Babcock, George F; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A

    2012-09-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a G(s) protein-coupled receptor, has an important role in human pigmentation. We investigated the regulation of expression and activity of the MC1R in primary human melanocyte cultures. Human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) acted as an antagonist for MC1R, inhibiting the α-melanocortin (α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH))-induced increase in the activities of adenylate cyclase and tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme for melanogenesis. α-Melanocortin and forskolin, which activate adenylate cyclase, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activates protein kinase C, increased, whereas exposure to UV radiation reduced, MC1R gene and membrane protein expression. Brief treatment with α-MSH resulted in MC1R desensitization, whereas continuous treatment up to 3 hours caused a steady rise in cAMP, suggesting receptor recycling. Pretreatment with agouti signaling protein or HBD3 prohibited responsiveness to α-MSH, but not forskolin, suggesting receptor desensitization by these antagonists. Melanocytes from different donors expressed different levels of the G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) 2, 3, 5, and 6, as well as β-arrestin 1. Therefore, in addition to the MC1R genotype, regulation of MC1R expression and activity is expected to affect human pigmentation and the responses to UV.

  20. Co-infections of the cestode Echinococcus vogeli and the nematode Calodium hepaticum in the hystricomorphic rodent Agouti paca from a forest reserve in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F; Caldas, R; Corrêa, C; Rodrigues-Silva, R; Siqueira, N; Machado-Silva, J R

    2013-12-01

    The helminth fauna of Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766) has seldom been studied. In this paper, we report an unusual mixed infection of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch & Bernstein, 1972 and Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1863) in free-ranging paca from a forested region in Acre (Brazil). Gross morphological examination revealed that paca liver contained multiple spherical to subspherical white or translucent lesions, which were isolated or frequently contiguous and partially covered by Glisson's capsule. Microscopic examination revealed unilocular cystic structures that contained abundant brood capsules in which numerous protoscolices budded from the inner surface. The protoscolices possessed rostellar hooks (33-41 μm in length), a morphological characteristic of the blade and calcareous corpuscles that is consistent with the metacestode E. vogeli. The diagnosis of C. hepaticum infection was based on the morphology and morphometry of the egg-shaped ellipsoids with bipolar plugs (44.8 ± 1.9 μm (length) × 24.4 ± 2.0 μm (width)) and liver histopathology. This finding expands the known range of C. hepaticum hosts in South America and, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a mixed infection of E. vogeli and C. hepaticum. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that wild animal meat may be a source of C. hepaticum infection.

  1. Expression of melanocortin-4 receptor and agouti-related peptide mRNAs in arcuate nucleus during long term malnutrition of female ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Tamadon, Amin; Hematzadeh, Aida; Jahanara, Maliheh; Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh; Moghadam, Ali; Niazi, Ali; Moghiminasr, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) are involved in energy homeostasis in the rat. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of MC4R and AgRP mRNAs in arcuate nucleus (ARC) during long term malnutrition of female ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: Ten female ovariectomized rats were divided into two equal groups (n=6) of normal and restricted diet groups. Using real-time PCR, the relative expressions (compared to controls) of MC4R and AgRP mRNAs were compared between both diet groups. Results: The relative expression of MC4R and AgRP mRNA in the ARC of female ovariectomized rats during long term malnutrition was higher than those with normal diet (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes in the relative expression level of MC4R and AgRP mRNAs during long term malnutrition of rat indicated a stimulatory role of MC4R and AgRP in regulating energy balance in ARC of rat hypothalamus. PMID:25825637

  2. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  3. American Indian Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, John E., Ed.

    Assuming that the client is central to any service program, the American Indian Task Force examined a national sample of "grass roots" social service organizations and/or individuals and schools of social work to determine the capability of providing relevant social work education to American Indians. Accordingly, the highest priorities…

  4. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  5. Glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve for Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata based on outcrops in the North American Midcontinent and North-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. . School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Based on lithologic and faunal analysis of uppermost Carboniferous through Lower Permian strata (Wabaunsee through lower Chase groups) exposed from southeastern Nebraska through north-central Oklahoma, a preliminary glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve is presented herein. In addition to the sea-level curve presented for the Midcontinent region, one for coeval outcropping strata (middle and upper Cisco Group) of the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is also presented based on similar criteria. This sea-level curve is derived from new field studies as well as a refinement of earlier curves presented by Harrison (1973), and Boardman and Malinky (1985). The conclusion on the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata cyclothems in the Midcontinent is mirrored by the results of that from North-Central Texas. Each of the primary biostratigraphically-based picks for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary coincide with either intermediate of major cycles in both study areas. Utilization of a glacial-eustatic maximum transgressive event for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary should result in a more correlatable level for intercontinental correlation.

  6. Sequential development of platform to off-platform facies of the great American carbonate bank in the central Appalachians: chapter 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, David K.; Taylor, John F.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    During deposition of the Tippecanoe megasequence, the peritidal shelf cycles were reestablished during deposition of the St. Paul Group. The vertical stacking of lithologies in the Row Park and New Market Limestones represents transgressive and regressice facies of a third-order deepening event. This submergence reached its maximum deepening within the lower Row Park Limestone and extended with the Nittany arch region with deposition of equivalent Loysburg Formation.. Shallow tidal-flat deposits were bordered to the south and east by deep-water ramp deposits of the Lincolnshire Formation. The St. Paul Group is succeeded upsection by ramp facies of the Chamersberg and the Edinburg Formations in the Great Valley, whereas shallow-shelf sedimentation continued in the Nittany-arch area with the depostion of the Hatter Limestoen and the Snyder and Linden Hall Formations. Carbonate deposition on the great American carbonate bank was brought to an end when it was buried beneath clastic flysch deposits of the Martinsberg Formation. Foundering of the bamk was diachronus, and the flysch seidments prograded from east to west.

  7. A review of the Central American and Caribbean species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix Brown and Kempf, 1961 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with a key to New World species.

    PubMed

    Longino, John T

    2013-01-01

    The ant genus Eurhopalothrix occurs throughout the Neotropics and Australasian tropics, where it is an inhabitant of forest leaf litter and soil. The New World species are reviewed, with an emphasis on the fauna of the MesoAmerican corridor and the Caribbean. Previously unappreciated characters of mandibular dentition and labrum shape vary dramatically among species and species groups. A total of 28 New World species are recognized, of which 14 are described as new. A key to workers of all New World species is provided. Eurhopalothrix procera is reported for the first time in the New World. The following new species are described: E. cimu Longino, sp. nov., E. circumcapillum Longino, sp. nov., E. guadeloupensis Longino, sp. nov., E. hunhau Longino, sp. nov., E. mabuya Longino, sp. nov., E. machaquila Longino, sp. nov., E. megalops Longino, sp. nov., E. ortizae Longino, sp. nov., E. oscillum Longino, sp. nov., E. semicapillum Longino, sp. nov., E. sepultura Longino, sp. nov., E. vulcan Longino, sp. nov., E. xibalba Longino, sp. nov., and E. zipacna Longino. sn. nov. Eurhopalothrix schmidti (Menozzi) is removed from synonymy with E. gravis (Mann).

  8. Arab American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  9. Native American Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  10. "It Really Is Not Just Gay, but African American Gay": The Impact of Community and Church on the Experiences of Black Lesbians Living in North Central Florida.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Clare F

    2016-09-01

    The experiences of Black lesbians highlight the unique circumstance found at the intersection of sexuality, race, and gender. However, most sexuality research tends to focus on White lesbians and White gay men, and most race research tends to focus on Black heterosexuals. Furthermore, research on the Black gay community tends to focus on those living in the Northeast or on the West Coast, neglecting experiences of those living in the more politically, socially, and religiously conservative South. This article draws on data obtained from semistructured interviews with 12 Black lesbians living in north central Florida, exploring their perspectives as they negotiate a social world of intersecting oppressions. Participants especially highlight how they contextualized their sexuality in racialized terms and negotiated it in racially defined communities. PMID:26861888

  11. Testing for shared biogeographic history in the lower Central American freshwater fish assemblage using comparative phylogeography: concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses?

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Justin C; Johnson, Jerald B

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of comparative phylogeography is determining whether codistributed species experienced (1) concerted evolutionary responses to past geological and climatic events, indicated by congruent spatial and temporal patterns (“concerted-response hypothesis”); (2) independent responses, indicated by spatial incongruence (“independent-response hypothesis”); or (3) multiple responses (“multiple-response hypothesis”), indicated by spatial congruence but temporal incongruence (“pseudocongruence”) or spatial and temporal incongruence (“pseudoincongruence”). We tested these competing hypotheses using DNA sequence data from three livebearing fish species codistributed in the Nicaraguan depression of Central America (Alfaro cultratus, Poecilia gillii, and Xenophallus umbratilis) that we predicted might display congruent responses due to co-occurrence in identical freshwater drainages. Spatial analyses recovered different subdivisions of genetic structure for each species, despite shared finer-scale breaks in northwestern Costa Rica (also supported by phylogenetic results). Isolation-with-migration models estimated incongruent timelines of among-region divergences, with A. cultratus and Xenophallus populations diverging over Miocene–mid-Pleistocene while P. gillii populations diverged over mid-late Pleistocene. Approximate Bayesian computation also lent substantial support to multiple discrete divergences over a model of simultaneous divergence across shared spatial breaks (e.g., Bayes factor [B10] = 4.303 for Ψ [no. of divergences] > 1 vs. Ψ = 1). Thus, the data support phylogeographic pseudoincongruence consistent with the multiple-response hypothesis. Model comparisons also indicated incongruence in historical demography, for example, support for intraspecific late Pleistocene population growth was unique to P. gillii, despite evidence for finer-scale population expansions in the other taxa. Empirical tests for phylogeographic congruence

  12. Obese gene expression: reduction by fasting and stimulation by insulin and glucose in lean mice, and persistent elevation in acquired (diet-induced) and genetic (yellow agouti) obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, T M; Bergen, H; Funabashi, T; Kleopoulos, S P; Zhong, Y G; Bauman, W A; Mobbs, C V

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in the obese (ob) gene lead to obesity. This gene has been recently cloned, but the factors regulating its expression have not been elucidated. To address the regulation of the ob gene with regard to body weight and nutritional factors, Northern blot analysis was used to assess ob mRNA in adipose tissue from mice [lean, obese due to diet, or genetically (yellow agouti) obese] under different nutritional conditions. ob mRNA was elevated in both forms of obesity, compared to lean controls, correlated with elevations in plasma insulin and body weight, but not plasma glucose. In lean C57BL/6J mice, but not in mice with diet-induced obesity, ob mRNA decreased after a 48-hr fast. Similarly, in lean C57BL/6J controls, but not in obese yellow mice, i.p. glucose injection significantly increased ob mRNA. For up to 30 min after glucose injection, ob mRNA in lean mice significantly correlated with plasma glucose, but not with plasma insulin. In a separate study with only lean mice, ob mRNA was inhibited >90% by fasting, and elevated approximately 2-fold 30 min after i.p. injection of either glucose or insulin. These results suggest that in lean animals glucose and insulin enhance ob gene expression. In contrast to our results in lean mice, in obese animals ob mRNA is elevated and relatively insensitive to nutritional state, possibly due to chronic exposure to elevated plasma insulin and/or glucose. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8622953

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  15. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Controls Ingestive Behavior, Agouti-Related Protein, and Neuropeptide Y mRNA in the Arcuate Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Garretson, John T.; Teubner, Brett J.W.; Grove, Kevin L.; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  16. Long-Term Effects of (–)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) on Pristane-Induced Arthritis (PIA) in Female Dark Agouti Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leichsenring, Anna; Bäcker, Ingo; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Obinger, Christian; Lange, Franziska; Flemmig, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)—a widespread chronic inflammatory disease in industrialized countries—is characterized by a persistent and progressive joint destruction. The chronic pro-inflammatory state results from a mutual activation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, while the exact pathogenesis mechanism is still under discussion. New data suggest a role of the innate immune system and especially polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs, neutrophils) not only during onset and the destructive phase of RA but also at the chronification of the disease. Thereby the enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a peroxidase strongly abundant in neutrophils, may be important: While its peroxidase activity is known to contribute to cartilage destruction at later stages of RA the almost MPO-specific oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is also discussed for certain anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we used pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in Dark Agouti rats as a model for the chronic course of RA in man. We were able to shown that a specific detection of the HOCl-producing MPO activity provides a sensitive new marker to evaluate the actual systemic inflammatory status which is only partially detectable by the evaluation of clinical symptoms (joint swelling and redness measurements). Moreover, we evaluated the long-term pharmacological effect of the well-known anti-inflammatory flavonoid epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Thereby only upon early and continuous oral application of this polyphenol the arthritic symptoms were considerably diminished both in the acute and in the chronic phase of the disease. The obtained results were comparable to the treatment control (application of methotrexate, MTX). As revealed by stopped-flow kinetic measurements, EGCG may regenerate the HOCl-production of MPO which is known to be impaired at chronic inflammatory diseases like RA. It can be speculated that this MPO activity-promoting effect of EGCG may contribute to the

  17. Effects of prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide in transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potentials in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Hanak, Susan; Ji, Zhongqi; Petty, Margaret; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Teriflunomide is a once-daily oral immunomodulatory agent recently approved in the United States for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). This study investigated neurophysiological deficits in descending spinal cord motor tracts during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a model of multiple sclerosis) and the functional effectiveness of prophylactic or therapeutic teriflunomide treatment in preventing the debilitating paralysis observed in this model. Relapsing-remitting EAE was induced in Dark Agouti rats using rat spinal cord homogenate. Animals were treated with oral teriflunomide (10 mg/kg daily) prophylactically, therapeutically, or with vehicle (control). Transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials were measured throughout the disease to provide quantitative assessment of the neurophysiological status of descending motor tracts. Axonal damage was quantified histologically by silver staining. Both prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide treatment significantly reduced maximum EAE disease scores (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively) compared with vehicle-treated rats. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that both teriflunomide treatment regimens prevented a delay in wave-form latency and a decrease in wave-form amplitude compared with that observed in vehicle-treated animals. A significant reduction in axonal loss was observed with both teriflunomide treatment regimens compared with vehicle (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0014, respectively). The results of this study suggest that therapeutic teriflunomide can prevent the deficits observed in this animal model in descending spinal cord motor tracts. The mechanism behind reduced axonal loss and improved motor function may be primarily the reduced inflammation and consequent demyelination observed in these animals through the known effects of teriflunomide on impairing proliferation of stimulated T cells. These findings may have significant implications for patients with RMS

  18. Mutations in the agouti (ASIP), the extension (MC1R), and the brown (TYRP1) loci and their association to coat color phenotypes in horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Rieder, S; Taourit, S; Mariat, D; Langlois, B; Guérin, G

    2001-06-01

    Coat color genetics, when successfully adapted and applied to different mammalian species, provides a good demonstration of the powerful concept of comparative genetics. Using cross-species techniques, we have cloned, sequenced, and characterized equine melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) and agouti-signaling-protein (ASIP), and completed a partial sequence of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1). The coding sequences and parts of the flanking regions of those genes were systematically analyzed in 40 horses and mutations typed in a total of 120 horses. Our panel represented 22 different horse breeds, including 11 different coat colors of Equus caballus. The comparison of a 1721-bp genomic fragment of MC1R among the 11 coat color phenotypes revealed no sequence difference apart from the known chestnut allele (C901T). In particular, no dominant black (ED) mutation was found. In a 4994-bp genomic fragment covering the three putative exons, two introns and parts of the 5'- and 3'-UTRs of ASIP, two intronic base substitutions (SNP-A845G and C2374A), a point mutation in the 3'-UTRs (A4734G), and an 11-bp deletion in exon 2 (ADEx2) were detected. The deletion was found to be homozygous and completely associated with horse recessive black coat color (Aa/Aa) in 24 black horses out of 9 different breeds from our panel. The frameshift initiated by ADEx2 is believed to alter the regular coding sequence, acting as a loss-of-function ASIP mutation. In TYRP1 a base substitution was detected in exon 2 (C189T), causing a threonine to methionine change of yet unknown function, and an SNP (A1188G) was found in intron 2.

  19. Maternal exposure to bisphenol A and genistein has minimal effect on A(vy)/a offspring coat color but favors birth of agouti over nonagouti mice.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Sieli, Paizlee T; Warzak, Denise A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Pennington, Kathleen A; Roberts, R Michael

    2013-01-01

    Reports that maternal diet influences coat color in mouse offspring carrying the agouti A(vy) allele have received considerable attention because the range, from pseudoagouti (brown) to yellow, predicts adult health outcomes, especially disposition toward obesity and diabetes, in yellower mice. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting compound with estrogenic properties, fed to a/a dams harboring A(vy)/a conceptuses has been reported to induce a significant shift toward yellower mice, whereas consumption of either genistein (G) alone or in combination with BPA led to greater numbers of healthy, brown offspring. Groups of C57/B6 a/a females, which are nonagouti, were fed either a phytoestrogen-free control diet or one of six experimental diets: diets 1-3 contained BPA (50 mg, 5 mg, and 50 μg BPA/kg food, respectively); diet 4 contained G (250 mg/kg food); diet 5 contained G plus BPA (250 and 50 mg/kg food, respectively); and diet 6 contained 0.1 μg of ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg food. Mice were bred to A(vy)/a males over multiple parities. In all, 2,824 pups from 426 litters were born. None of the diets provided any significant differences in relative numbers of brown, yellow, or intermediate coat color A(vy)/a offspring. However, BPA plus G (P < 0.0001) and EE diets (P = 0.005), but not the four others, decreased the percentage of black (a/a) to A(vy)/a offspring from the expected Mendelian ratio of 1:1. Data suggest that A(vy)/a conceptuses, which may possess a so-called "thrifty genotype," are at a competitive advantage over a/a conceptuses in certain uterine environments. PMID:23267115

  20. ASNT central certification program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Robert W.; Snell, John R., Jr.

    1997-04-01

    The American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recently established a new central certification program. This program will allow individuals who meet the requirements to receive a 'portable' certificate. Augmenting the existing employer-based certification, this program will have significant impact on industries that may ultimately require nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel to have central certification. This paper explains show ASNT has structured central certification and when and how it will effect thermal/infrared thermography (T/IRT) personnel. The paper also discusses the industry specific certification process.

  1. External Review Teams Training in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Trivino, Moises; Ramirez-Gatica, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries have started actions to promote a higher education quality assurance system. Central America appears as a regional effort that includes universities from all seven countries under the initiative of Central American University Higher Council (CSUCA). After focusing in quality management and self-study processes, CSUCA…

  2. Long-Term Outcome of Half-Dose Verteporfin Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Wong, Raymond L. M.; Chan, Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether half-dose verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) is better than natural history for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive CSC patients treated with half-dose verteporfin PDT or untreated with observation and a minimum follow-up of 36 months. The main outcome measures included mean change in visual acuity and CSC recurrence. Survival analysis was performed to compare the CSC recurrence rates between the two groups. Results: A total of 192 eyes of 192 patients were included; 75 eyes were treated with half-dose verteporfin PDT and 117 were untreated. The mean follow-up duration was 74.1 months. At the last follow-up, the mean logMAR visual acuity was significantly better in the half-dose verteporfin PDT group compared with the untreated control group (P=.005). The mean visual improvement of the half-dose verteporfin PDT group at the last follow-up was 1.8 lines, compared with 0.0 line in the untreated control group (P<.001). Recurrence of CSC developed in 15 eyes (20%) in the half-dose verteporfin PDT group compared with 63 eyes (53.8%) in the untreated control group (P<.001). Survival analysis demonstrated that eyes treated with half-dose verteporfin PDT were significantly less likely to develop CSC recurrence compared with untreated controls (P<.001). Regression analysis showed that half-dose verteporfin PDT was the only significant factor in reducing the risk of CSC recurrence. Conclusions: Half-dose verteporfin PDT for the treatment of CSC resulted in significantly better visual acuity outcomes and lower recurrence rate in the long term compared with untreated controls. PMID:26755855

  3. Hypothesis testing clarifies the systematics of the main Central American Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), across its geographic range.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Patricia L; de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Axen, Heather; Smith, Nicholas; Richards, Bethany R; Charabati, Jirias; Suarez, Julianne; Woods, Adrienne; Pessoa, Rafaela; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Stevens, Lori

    2016-10-01

    The widespread and diverse Triatoma dimidiata is the kissing bug species most important for Chagas disease transmission in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America. Its diversity may contribute to different Chagas disease prevalence in different localities and has led to conflicting systematic hypotheses describing various populations as subspecies or cryptic species. To resolve these conflicting hypotheses, we sequenced a nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS-2) and mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) from an extensive sampling of T. dimidiata across its geographic range. We evaluated the congruence of ITS-2 and cyt b phylogenies and tested the support for the previously proposed subspecies (inferred from ITS-2) by: (1) overlaying the ITS-2 subspecies assignments on a cyt b tree and, (2) assessing the statistical support for a cyt b topology constrained by the subspecies hypothesis. Unconstrained phylogenies inferred from ITS-2 and cyt b are congruent and reveal three clades including two putative cryptic species in addition to T. dimidiata sensu stricto. Neither the cyt b phylogeny nor hypothesis testing support the proposed subspecies inferred from ITS-2. Additionally, the two cryptic species are supported by phylogenies inferred from mitochondrially-encoded genes cytochrome c oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase 4. In summary, our results reveal two cryptic species. Phylogenetic relationships indicate T. dimidiata sensu stricto is not subdivided into monophyletic clades consistent with subspecies. Based on increased support by hypothesis testing, we propose an updated systematic hypothesis for T. dimidiata based on extensive taxon sampling and analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

  4. Hypothesis testing clarifies the systematics of the main Central American Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), across its geographic range.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Patricia L; de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Axen, Heather; Smith, Nicholas; Richards, Bethany R; Charabati, Jirias; Suarez, Julianne; Woods, Adrienne; Pessoa, Rafaela; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Stevens, Lori

    2016-10-01

    The widespread and diverse Triatoma dimidiata is the kissing bug species most important for Chagas disease transmission in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America. Its diversity may contribute to different Chagas disease prevalence in different localities and has led to conflicting systematic hypotheses describing various populations as subspecies or cryptic species. To resolve these conflicting hypotheses, we sequenced a nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS-2) and mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) from an extensive sampling of T. dimidiata across its geographic range. We evaluated the congruence of ITS-2 and cyt b phylogenies and tested the support for the previously proposed subspecies (inferred from ITS-2) by: (1) overlaying the ITS-2 subspecies assignments on a cyt b tree and, (2) assessing the statistical support for a cyt b topology constrained by the subspecies hypothesis. Unconstrained phylogenies inferred from ITS-2 and cyt b are congruent and reveal three clades including two putative cryptic species in addition to T. dimidiata sensu stricto. Neither the cyt b phylogeny nor hypothesis testing support the proposed subspecies inferred from ITS-2. Additionally, the two cryptic species are supported by phylogenies inferred from mitochondrially-encoded genes cytochrome c oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase 4. In summary, our results reveal two cryptic species. Phylogenetic relationships indicate T. dimidiata sensu stricto is not subdivided into monophyletic clades consistent with subspecies. Based on increased support by hypothesis testing, we propose an updated systematic hypothesis for T. dimidiata based on extensive taxon sampling and analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. PMID:27496718

  5. American ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking capsules containing 1 gram of American ginseng root three times daily for 14 days while receiving ... l’Ontario, Ginseng du Wisconsin, Ginseng Occidental, Ginseng Root, North American Ginseng, Occidental Ginseng, Ontario Ginseng, Panax ...

  6. Ocular Perfusion Pressure vs Estimated Trans–Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Difference in Glaucoma: The Central India Eye and Medical Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Jost B.; Wang, Ningli; Nangia, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that taking translamina pressure difference into consideration changes associations between ocular perfusion pressure and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Methods: The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects. Ocular perfusion pressure was calculated as follows: ⅔ [diastolic blood pressure + ⅓ × (systolic blood pressure – diastolic blood pressure)] – IOP. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure (mm Hg) was estimated as follows: 0.44 body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) − 0.18 × age (years) − 1.91. Translamina pressure difference was IOP minus cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Results: In multivariate analysis, higher open-angle glaucoma prevalence was associaed with higher IOP (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.24) or with higher translamina pressure difference (P<.001; OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10, 1.19), but not with ocular perfusion pressure (P<.37). A smaller neuroretinal rim area was correlated with higher IOP (P<.001; standardized coefficient beta −0.09) or larger translamina pressure difference (P<.001; β −0.10), but not with ocular perfusion pressure (P=.26). Greater prevalence of angle-closure glaucoma was associated with higher IOP (P<.001; OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.28) or higher translamina pressure difference (P<.001; OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13, 1.25) or lower ocular perfusion pressure (P<.04; OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90, 0.996). Correlation coefficients were highest for the association with IOP and lowest for ocular perfusion pressure. A smaller rim area was correlated with higher IOP (P<.001; beta −0.08) and higher translamina pressure difference (P<.001; beta −0.08); rim area and ocular perfusion pressure were not significantly associated (P=.25). Conclusions: The present study provides information on the relationship of translamina pressure difference to the development of optic nerve damage in what is presently called glaucoma. It does not provide

  7. Haitian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  8. Proceedings of the Ninth American Woodcock Symposium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    The Ninth Woodcock Symposium was held January 26-28, 1997 in Baton Rough, Louisiana. Contents include: American Woodcock Management, Past, Present, and Future; Current Population Status and Likely Future Trends for American Woodcock; American Woodcock Use of Reclaimed Surface Mines in West Virginia; Food Habits and Preferences of American Woodcock in East Texas Pine Plantations; Activities and Preliminary Results of Research on Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) in Europe; Determining Multiscale Habitat and Landscape Associations for American Woodcock in Pennsylvania; Habitat Management for Wintering American Woodcock in the Southeastern United States; Sources of Variation in Survival and Recovery Rates of American Woodcock; Survival of Female American Woodcock Breeding in Maine; Direct Recoveries From In-season Banding of American Woodcock in South-central Louisiana; Gonadal Condition of American Woodcock Harvested in Louisiana During the 1986-1988 Hunting Seasons; Weight Variation Among American Woodcock Wintering in South-central Louisiana; Factors Influencing Recruitment and Condition of American Woodcock in Minnesota; The Woodcock Trail Demonstration Area in Pennsylvania; Land-use/Land-cover Changes Along Woodcock Singing-ground Survey Routes in West Virginia; Assessing Habitat Selection in Spring by Male American Woodcock in Maine with a Geographic Information System.

  9. Central American information system for energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, M.G.; Lyon, P.C.; Heskett, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    SICAPE (Sistema de Information Centroamericano para Planificacion Energetica) is an expandable information system designed for energy planning. Its objective is to satisfy ongoing information requirements by means of a menu driver operational environment. SICAPE is as easily used by the novice computer user as those with more experience. Moreover, the system is capable of evolving concurrently with future requirements of the individual country. The expansion is accomplished by menu restructuring as data and user requirements change. The new menu configurations require no programming effort. The use and modification of SICAPE are separate menu-driven processes that allow for rapid data query, minimal training, and effortless continued growth. SICAPE's data is organized by country or region. Information is available in the following areas: energy balance, macro economics, electricity generation capacity, and electricity and petroleum product pricing. (JF)

  10. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 PALLADIAN WINDOW AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL HALL. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 CENTRAL VIEW OF DOUBLE PARLORS FROM SOUTHWEST PARLOR TOWARD NORTHWEST PARLOR. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 WALLPAPER IN SOUTHWEST PARLOR. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 FIREPLACE IN SOUTHWEST PARLOR. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 WINDOW IN SOUTHWEST PARLOR. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 DETAIL OF WALLPAPER AND WOODWORK IN ... - Eliza Ward House, 2 George Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  11. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 CENTRAL PORTION, WEST ELEVATION. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Tephrochronology of Lacustrine Ash Layers in Lake Petén Itzá Sediments drilled in the Frame of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP): Implications for Regional Volcanology and Central American Palaeoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Anselmetti, F.; Mueller, A.; Schwalb, A.; Eisele, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Wang, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate records from lacustrine systems have been established in the last years to improve our understanding of the regional and temporal expression of climate change on the continents, and how it influenced the human evolution. Lake Petén Itzá, located in the center of the climatically sensitive Peninsula Yucatán, is a surficial closed-basin lake located in the lowlands of northern Guatemala drilled by ICDP. The region itself exhibits characteristic climate conditions, making it an ideal region for paleoclimatological and paleoecological studies. A key problem in obtaining a long-lasting climate record is to establish robust chronologies beyond 40 ka since they exceed the range of 14C dating, but tephra layers within these sediments may provide good age-constraints >40 ka. We here use large-magnitude, widespread, Pleistocene to Holocene silicic eruptions from caldera volcanoes in the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA), contributing to the drilled Petén Itzá lake sediments in the form of numerous lacustrine tephras providing time markers to develop a new, extended age model. We established robust and well-constrained correlations between the tephras in Lake Petén Itzá and the deposits at the CAVA source as well as their marine equivalents in the sediments of the Pacific Ocean based on major and trace element glass compositions. We document here 8 well-constraint time markers for the Petén Itza age models, which so far were only based on younger 14C dates and some preliminary, only major-element based, tephra correlations. Additionally ongoing Ar/Ar age dating of the Los Chocoyos eruption will provide a new pinning point froma an important regional marker horizon. In summary we have been able to modify the current age models, extend the paleoclimate and paleoecological record in this neotropical region to ~300 ka, and contribute greatly to the determination of the magnitude (eruptive volumes) and more precise eruption dates of CAVA eruptions.

  13. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  14. American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Theodore R.; Nol, E.; Boettcher, R.

    2012-01-01

    The American Oystercatcher is a large, conspicuous shorebird, common in coastal salt marshes and along sand beaches throughout the central part of its range. One of the few birds to specialize on bivalve mollusks living in saltwater, this species is completely restricted to marine habitats. Two races breed in North America—the eastern nominate race along the Atlantic coast from southern Maine south, and a second race along the Pacific coast from northwestern Baja California south. While the eastern race has been studied extensively across its range both during winter and the breeding season, the biology of the western race is poorly known and this population may also be at risk both from coastal development and hybridization with the American Black Oystercatcher (H. bachmani). Eastern oystercatchers regularly winter in large flocks, from Virginia south along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

  15. Creation of the American Board of Ophthalmology: The Role of the American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth D

    2016-09-01

    In the early 20th century, the American Medical Association (AMA), specifically its Section on Ophthalmology, played a central role in the founding of America's first medical specialty board, the American Board of Ophthalmology. With the American Ophthalmological Society and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, the AMA's contributions to the formation of the American Board of Ophthalmology led to the establishment of sound educational standards for practicing ophthalmologists and helped to advance the culture of medical excellence within the profession that is synonymous with board certification today.

  16. In a Rural Chinese Province, an American Educational Outpost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul

    2006-01-01

    SIAS International University, which claims to be the only solely American-owned university in central China, was founded by Shawn Chen, a Chinese-American entrepreneur who wants to shake up China's staid university system. Chen plans to do this by creating an American educational environment in China's agricultural heartland to train students to…

  17. Farewell to Parachute Professors in East-Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognianova, Ekaterina

    1995-01-01

    Examines the work of 10 North American journalism educators who taught in 15 midcareer training programs for journalists in East-Central Europe from 1991-93. Asks how North American journalists teach in intercultural settings and how they changed their methods to suit the setting. Concludes that North American journalists should continue their…

  18. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  19. A Case Study in the Cultural Origins of a Superpower: Liberal Individualism, American Nationalism, and the Rise of High School Life, a Study of Cleveland's Central and East Technical High Schools, 1890-1918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century about one in twenty American teenagers graduated from high school; by mid century over half of them did so; and today six of seven do. Along with this expansion in graduation, the experiences of high schooling became more significant. Though diversity existed at the school level, by the interwar period…

  20. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  1. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blunt the response of Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) glucose inhibited (GI) neurons to decreased glucose.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lihong; Sheng, Zhenyu; Potian, Joseph; Deak, Adam; Rohowsky-Kochan, Christine; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-10-01

    A population of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons which co-express Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) are inhibited at physiological levels of brain glucose and activated when glucose levels decline (e.g. glucose-inhibited or GI neurons). Fasting enhances the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the enhanced activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose following a fast. Mice which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) on their NPY promoter were used to identify NPY/AgRP neurons. Fasting for 24h and LPS injection decreased blood glucose levels. As we have found previously, fasting increased c-fos expression in NPY/AgRP neurons and increased the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. As we predicted, LPS blunted these effects of fasting at the 24h time point. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocked the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. These data suggest that LPS and TNFα may alter glucose and energy homeostasis, in part, due to changes in the glucose sensitivity of NPY/AgRP neurons. Interestingly, our findings also suggest that NPY/AgRP-GI neurons use a distinct mechanism to sense changes in extracellular glucose as compared to our previous studies of GI neurons in the adjacent ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus.

  2. Expression of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein mRNA stimulated by glucocorticoids is attenuated via NF-κB p65 under ER stress in mouse hypothalamic cultures.

    PubMed

    Hagimoto, Shigeru; Arima, Hiroshi; Adachi, Koichi; Ito, Yoshihiro; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2013-10-11

    There are several lines of evidence suggesting that glucocorticoid signaling in the hypothalamus plays an important role in energy balance, and recent studies suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus could affect signaling related to energy balance. In the present study, we examined the regulation of glucocorticoid signaling under ER stress in mouse hypothalamic organotypic cultures. Incubation of the hypothalamic explants with dexamethasone (DEX) significantly increased expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA, and treatment with thapsigargin (TG), an ER stressor, significantly attenuated DEX-induced NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. TG treatment increased the levels of phospho-NF-κB p65 in hypothalamic cultures, and inhibitors of NF-κB p65 reversed the inhibitory effects of TG on NPY and AgRP expression. Our data thus demonstrated that glucocorticoid-stimulated NPY and AgRP expression was attenuated via NF-κB p65 pathways under ER stress, and suggest crosstalk between ER stress and inflammation in the hypothalamus.

  3. Essential role of UCP1 modulating the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Csikasz, Robert I.; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Diéguez, Carlos; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Classically, metabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs) have been considered to be peripherally mediated, i.e. different tissues in the body respond directly to thyroid hormones with an increased metabolism. An alternative view is that the metabolic effects are centrally regulated. We have examined here the degree to which prolonged, centrally infused triiodothyronine (T3) could in itself induce total body metabolic effects and the degree to which brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis was essential for such effects, by examining uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) KO mice. Methods Wildtype and UPC1 KO mice were centrally-treated with T3 by using minipumps. Metabolic measurements were analyzed by indirect calorimetry and expression analysis by RT-PCR or western blot. BAT morphology and histology were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results We found that central T3-treatment led to reduced levels of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevated body temperature (0.7 °C). UCP1 was essential for the T3-induced increased rate of energy expenditure, which was only observable at thermoneutrality and notably only during the active phase, for the increased body weight loss, for the increased hypothalamic levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and for the increased food intake induced by central T3-treatment. Prolonged central T3-treatment also led to recruitment of BAT and britening/beiging (“browning”) of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Conclusions We conclude that UCP1 is essential for mediation of the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance, and we suggest that similar UCP1-dependent effects may underlie central energy balance effects of other agents. PMID:27069867

  4. Anglo Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians: Can They Communicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Clark S.

    A failure in communication between Anglo American, American Indian, and Mexican American communities exists because of the inadequate reporting of the events that occur within each of these groups. This speech outlines several basic ways in which communication can eventually be improved. First, it emphasizes that educators must recognize and…

  5. The Human Dimension of Teacher Education [for the 21st Century]. Proceedings of the Annual Summer Workshop of the North Central Accrediting Association and the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (37th, Muncie, Indiana, July-August, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Donald W., Ed.

    This document contains written summaries of workshop activities which took place at the 1984 summer workshop sponsored by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The theme of the workshop was "The Human Dimension of Teacher Education for the 21st Century." Following a description of the background, structure, and objectives of the…

  6. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  7. Recurrent Evolution of Melanism in South American Felids

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Alexsandra; Henegar, Corneliu; Day, Kenneth; Absher, Devin; Napolitano, Constanza; Silveira, Leandro; David, Victor A.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Barsh, Gregory S.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), the kodkod (Leopardus guigna), and Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus geoffroyi). To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13–21 per species), achieving enrichment of ~500–2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy’s cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations. PMID:25695801

  8. A combination of probiotics and whey proteins enhances anti-obesity effects of calcium and dairy products during nutritional energy restriction in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Sun, Xiaocum; Kawase, Manabu; Kubota, Akira; Miyazawa, Kenji; Harata, Gaku; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; He, Fang; Zemel, Michael B

    2015-06-14

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus paracasei TMC0409, Streptococcus thermophilus TMC1543 and whey proteins were used to prepare fermented milk. For the experiment aP2- agouti transgenic mice were pre-treated with a high-sucrose/high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese mice were fed a diet containing 1·2% Ca and either non-fat dried milk (NFDM) or probiotic-fermented milk (PFM) with nutritional energy restriction for 6 weeks. The animals were examined after the treatment for changes in body weight, fat pad weight, fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity, lypolysis, the expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and skeletal muscle and the presence of biomarkers for oxidative and inflammatory stress in plasma. It was found that the PFM diet significantly reduced body weight, fat accumulation, and adipocyte FAS activity, and increased adipocyte lipolysis as compared with the effects of the NFDM diet (P<0·05). The adipose tissue gene expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) was significantly suppressed in mice that were fed PFM as compared with those that were fed NFDM (P<0·05). PFM caused a greater up-regulation of skeletal muscle PPARα, PPARδ, uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and GLUT4 expression and a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of insulin, malondialdehyde, TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and C-reactive protein as compared with the effects of NFDM (P<0·05). Fermentation of milk with selected probiotics and supplementation of milk with whey proteins may thus enhance anti-obesity effects of Ca and dairy products by the suppression of adipose tissue lipogenesis, activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blunt the response of Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) glucose inhibited (GI) neurons to decreased glucose.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lihong; Sheng, Zhenyu; Potian, Joseph; Deak, Adam; Rohowsky-Kochan, Christine; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-10-01

    A population of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons which co-express Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) are inhibited at physiological levels of brain glucose and activated when glucose levels decline (e.g. glucose-inhibited or GI neurons). Fasting enhances the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the enhanced activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose following a fast. Mice which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) on their NPY promoter were used to identify NPY/AgRP neurons. Fasting for 24h and LPS injection decreased blood glucose levels. As we have found previously, fasting increased c-fos expression in NPY/AgRP neurons and increased the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. As we predicted, LPS blunted these effects of fasting at the 24h time point. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocked the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. These data suggest that LPS and TNFα may alter glucose and energy homeostasis, in part, due to changes in the glucose sensitivity of NPY/AgRP neurons. Interestingly, our findings also suggest that NPY/AgRP-GI neurons use a distinct mechanism to sense changes in extracellular glucose as compared to our previous studies of GI neurons in the adjacent ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. PMID:27473896

  10. Directed seed dispersal towards areas with low conspecific tree density by a scatter-hoarding rodent.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ben T; Kays, Roland; Pereira, Verónica E; Jansen, Patrick A; Rejmanek, Marcel

    2012-12-01

    Scatter-hoarding animals spread out cached seeds to reduce density-dependent theft of their food reserves. This behaviour could lead to directed dispersal into areas with lower densities of conspecific trees, where seed and seedling survival are higher, and could profoundly affect the spatial structure of plant communities. We tested this hypothesis with Central American agoutis and Astrocaryum standleyanum palm seeds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We radio-tracked seeds as they were cached and re-cached by agoutis, calculated the density of adult Astrocaryum trees surrounding each cache, and tested whether the observed number of trees around seed caches declined more than expected under random dispersal. Seedling establishment success was negatively dependent on seed density, and agoutis carried seeds towards locations with lower conspecific tree densities, thus facilitating the escape of seeds from natural enemies. This behaviour may be a widespread mechanism leading to highly effective seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding animals.

  11. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  12. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  13. Fiesta! Mexico and Central America: A Global Awareness Program for Children in Grades 2-5. Bridges between Nations Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Barbara; Judd, Dick

    Mexican and Central American cultures are a blend of Native American influences and Spanish traditions and religions. These are seen in aspects of Mexican and Central American celebrations. This book explores those celebrations through activities in art, folk and classical music, dances and fiestas. The book is organized into two sections to…

  14. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey (Fed.) Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey (Fed.) Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer Sept. 6, 1940 (B) EXTERIOR, DETAIL OF DOORWAY & CENTRAL PEDIMENT, FROM NORTH EAST. - Elisha Sheldon House, Litchfield, Litchfield County, CT

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer, July 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer, July 20, 1969 VIEW FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING NATIONAL BANK OF WASHINGTON - Central National Bank Building, 631 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer January 1959 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer January 1959 DETAIL ABOVE CENTRAL ENTRANCE, SOUTHEAST SIDE - Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, VIEW OF THE CENTRAL COURT WITH THE FOUNTAIN AND TIFFANY VASES IN NICHES. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  18. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, CENTRAL COURT WITH PORTRAIT OF TIFFANY BY SOROLLA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 CENTRAL PORTION OF REAR (Showing backsteps, stoop & stairhall, window) - Wayne-Gordon House, 10 East Oglethorpe Avenue, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey John R. Stinson, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey John R. Stinson, Photographer May 2, 1978 SOUTH (SIDE) ELEVATION SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO URBAN ENVIRONMENT - Central School, 14403 East Pacific Avenue, Baldwin Park, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie Magazine May 11, 1878 OAKLAND LONG WHARF - CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD TERMINUS - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Used by First Central Pacific Train to Enter Oakland -- November 8, 1869 - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 CENTRAL ROOM, E STREET SIDE, THIRD FLOOR - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer July 1960 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer July 1960 WEST ELEVATION OF CENTRAL BLOCK - Hanson-Cramer House, End of Sea Street (moved from Pascal's Avenue), Rockport, Knox County, ME

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Everett H. Keeler, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Everett H. Keeler, Photographer March 1, 1937 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE DOOR - UNDER WEST PORTICO - Old State House, Main Street & Central Row, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  6. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy, c. 1890, Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy, c. 1890, Courtesy of Museum of the City of New York, WEST 72nd STREET FACADE. - The Dakota (Apartments), 1 West Seventy-second Street, Central Park West, New York County, NY

  7. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer July 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer July 17, 1970 CASINO INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR MOULDING DETAIL FROM SOUTH, FIREPLACE WALL BETWEEN NORTHWEST AND CENTRAL GABLES. - Newport Casino, 186-202 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer April 16, 1941 (b) EXT.-CENTRAL PORTICO OF FRONT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Massachusetts General Hospital, Bulfinch Building, Fruit Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  10. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  11. The American Advisor Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Bernard M.

    Mutual understanding of both similarities and differences between Americans and host nation counterparts is a key to effective use of American advisors abroad. When Americans and their hosts know what to expect of each other, the interpersonal competence, consulting skill, and technical knowledge of American consultants can be brought to bear more…

  12. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity: Its Use with Euro-American, Latino, and Native American Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tanisha Maxwell; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Arredondo, Patricia; Tovar-Gamero, Zoila G.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of scores from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity with 550 Euro-American, 112 Latino, and 41 Native American undergraduates. Data for the Centrality, Private Regard, and Public Regard scales indicate that these scores have construct validity. Scores have acceptable Cronbach alpha…

  13. The West, the Environment, and American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Mark W. T.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes that to understand the American West, one must realize the central importance of the environment to its inhabitants. Provides an overview of western environmental history. Discusses state and federal reclamation efforts, the role of public lands, and the growth of conservation and preservation movements. (KO)

  14. American Indian Studies: A Bibliographic Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Phillip M.

    This book lists sources of information available on Native Americans in the United States, Canada, and Alaska. Some sources also include information on native Hawaiians, Indians of Mexico, and Indians of Central and South America. The purpose of the guide is to provide researchers with direction and organization for selecting and using the best…

  15. AMERICAN HISTORY AND ECONOMICS (NON-REGENTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    THE COURSES ARE DESIGNED TO AFFORD A MEANINGFUL SET OF EXPERIENCES RELATED TO THE ABILITIES AND INTERESTS OF THE NON-COLLEGE-ORIENTED HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS. CENTRAL CONCEPTS ARE POINTS OF EMPHASIS. CONTENT IS ORGANIZED AROUND A NUMBER OF KEY IDEAS, WITH AN INDICATION OF RELATED ILLUSTRATIVE DATA. AMERICAN HISTORY IS ORGANIZED INTO FOUR UNITS. THE…

  16. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  17. American Urban Star Fest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazmino, John

    2003-12-01

    Over the last couple of decades New York City implemented, and continues to carry out, several schemes of eradicating luminous graffiti. One result has been the gradual recovery of the natural night sky. By 1994 the normal clear sky transparency over Manhattan deepened to fourth magnitude and has been slowly creeping deeper, until in 2002 it is at magnitude 4 to 4.5. In the spring of 1995, during some lazing on a Manhattan rooftop under a sky full of stars, several New York astronomers hatched the idea of letting the whole people celebrate the renewed starry sky. In due course they, through the Amateur Astronomers Association, engaged the New York City Parks Department and the Urban Park Rangers in an evening of quiet picnicking to enjoy the stars in their natural sky. Thus the Urban Star Fest was born. The event thrilled about 3,000 visitors in Central Park's Sheep Meadow on Saturday 30 September 1995. This year's Fest, the eighth in the series demonstrated the City's upper skyline of stars on Saturday 5 October 2002 to about 2,200 enthused visitors. Although the Fest is always noted as cancelable for inclement weather, so far, it has convened every year, with attendance ranging from 4,000 down to a mere 1,000, this latter being under the smoke plume of the World Trade Center in 2001. Despite this swing in attendance, the American Urban Star Fest is America's largest regularly scheduled public astronomy event. Of course, special occasions, like comets or eclipses, can and do attract far larger interest both in the city and elsewhere. The presentation shows the setup and program of the American Urban Star Fest, to illustrate how the general public can actively become aware of the night sky and see for themselves the result of their very own efforts at removing light pollution--and note where improvement is yet to come.

  18. Teaching White Students Black History: The African-American Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Leon F.; Walsh, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Many white students are barely exposed to African-American history throughout their schooling. When students do examine the other side of American history, the one not generally found in their textbooks, they often wonder why they have not learned this before. An understanding of African-American history is central to any effort to eliminate…

  19. The Latin-American region and the challenges to develop one homogeneous and harmonized hazard model: preliminary results for the Caribbean and Central America regions in the GEM context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Arcila, M.; Benito, B.; Eraso, J.; García, R.; Gomez Capera, A.; Pagani, M.; Pinho, R.; Rendon, H.; Torres, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Latin America is a seismically active region with complex tectonic settings that make the creation of hazard models challenging. Over the past two decades PSHA studies have been completed for this region in the context of global (Shedlock, 1999), regional (Dimaté et al., 1999) and national initiatives. Currently different research groups are developing new models for various nations. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM), an initiative aiming at the creation of a large global community working collaboratively on building hazard and risk models using open standards and tools, is promoting the collaboration between different national projects and groups so as to facilitate the creation of harmonized regional models. The creation of a harmonized hazard model can follow different approaches, varying from a simple patching of available models to a complete homogenisation of basic information and the subsequent creation of a completely new PSHA model. In this contribution we describe the process and results of a first attempt aiming at the creation of a community based model covering the Caribbean and Central America regions. It consists of five main steps: 1- Identification and collection of available PSHA input models; 2- Analysis of the consistency, transparency and reproducibility of each model; 3- Selection (if more then a model exists for the same region); 4- Representation of the models in a standardized format and incorporation of new knowledge from recent studies; 5- Proposal(s) of harmonization We consider some PHSA studies completed over the latest twenty years in the region comprising the Caribbean (CAR), Central America (CAM) and northern South America (SA), we illustrate a tentative harmonization of the seismic source geometries models and we discuss the steps needed toward a complete harmonisation of the models. Our will is to have a model based on best practices and high standards created though a combination of knowledge and competences coming from the

  20. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Castillo, Mauricio

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews the characteristic imaging appearances of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, including cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, malariasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis, and American and African trypanosomiases. Routine precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging helps in localization, characterization, delineation of extension, and follow-up of the parasitic lesions. Moreover, recently developed tools, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, help to differentiate parasitic diseases of the central nervous system from simulating lesions. Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

  1. The Centralizing Role of Terminology: A Consideration of "Achievement Gap", "NCLB", and "School Turnaround"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby

    2012-01-01

    American educational policies over the last 40 years have represented an uninterrupted movement toward centralization. This article analyzes three terms that have become critical to the centralization of American education. More specifically, this article reviews the development, language, and source of the thematic terms and associated language…

  2. Vietnamese Americans: Lessons in American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Teaching Tolerance is pleased to announce a new partnership with the Orange County Asian and Pacific Islander Community Alliance in the online release of its interdisciplinary curriculum, "Vietnamese Americans: Lessons in American History." The curriculum guide-- complete with timelines, maps and primary sources--offers eight lesson plans,…

  3. Native American Loanwords in American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Ginny

    1997-01-01

    Examines the history of White-Indian relationships in Latin America and North America and the corresponding fluctuations in loanword borrowing into English from Native American languages. Explores 20th-century attitudes toward Native Americans and the impact of these attitudes on borrowing today, particularly in Alaska where Natives are resisting…

  4. American Indian Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajete, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides general insights into American Indian epistemologies that can assist student affairs professionals in their work and examines the shared understandings of American Indians with regard to tribal knowledge and education.

  5. Native American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry G.

    2005-01-01

    Many issues and elements--including ethnic nomenclature, racial attitudes, and the legal and political status of American Indian nations and Indian people--influence Native American identity. (Contains 3 notes.)

  6. American Health Care Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Governors, Directors at Annual Convention in Nashville American Health Care Association Files Court Challenge to Arbitration Rule AHCA ... this Page | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions © American Health Care Association Google Plus .

  7. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Ear Canals Read More ABTA News October 5, 2016 Largest American Brain Tumor Association Team Running in Bank of America Chicago Marathon Sunday, October 9 September 21, 2016 American Brain Tumor Association Awards 16 Grants to Support ...

  8. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts About ... is essential. Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by ...

  9. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  10. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2014, 2.1 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  11. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  12. Asian American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    The sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of all Asian American communities since 1950 have been greatly influenced by federal immigration legislation, and it is not possible to consider the field of Asian American studies without an understanding of the history of immigration legislation. Asian American research may be divided into…

  13. The Latin American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joseph, Ed.; Weatherhead, Richard W., Ed.

    A comparative overview is presented of the Latin American university, which is seen as an institution with a particular history and definite role. Chapters are as follows: "The Latin American University: An Introduction," by Joseph Maier and Richard W. Weatherhead; "Origin and Philosophy of the Spanish American University," by Mario Gongora;…

  14. Urban American Indian Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Josea

    This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

  15. American Humor. [Course Syllabus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, David E. E.

    This syllabus describes a three-credit course entitled "American Humor," offered at the University of New Haven (Connecticut). According to the syllabus, "American Humor" will identify traits of American humor as historical phenomena with relations to national character, business attitudes, regionalism, folk humor, and health; historical…

  16. Unlearning American Patriotism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  17. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  18. Soviet American Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC.

    This is a glossary of Russian and English terms related to building design and construction. It is intended for use by interpreters and specialists dealing with American and Soviet literature on buildings. The glossary consists of two parts: the Soviet-American section, which presents the Soviet terms written in Russian and the American equivalent…

  19. 16 Extraordinary Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    The lives of many Hispanic Americans have made a difference in the story of America. Hispanic Americans are people whose families can be traced to the Spanish speaking countries. At the time of the 1990 census, there were 22,400,000 Hispanic Americans in the United States. They should be proud of their heritage, and should recognize the…

  20. Reconstructing Native American population history.

    PubMed

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2012-08-16

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  1. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2009-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar patterns are found for the construct loss of face (LOF). Asian American men with a high concern for LOF are less similar in their personality structure to European American men than Asian American men with low LOF concern. Mean differences are also found among Asian American and European American men, who differ significantly on Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Results indicate that acculturation and LOF are significantly associated with these four personality dimensions for both Asian American and European American men. PMID:19169434

  2. Central nervous system stimulants.

    PubMed

    George, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes marked behavioural change and sometimes psychosis. Major sports abusing amphetamine are cycling, American football, ice-hockey and baseball. Cocaine increases tolerance to intense exercise, yet most of its chronic effects on energy metabolism are negative. Its greatest effects seem to be as a central stimulant and the enhancement of short-term anaerobic exercise. It is highly addictive and can cause cerebral and cardiovascular fatalities. Caffeine enhances fatty acid metabolism leading to glucose conservation, which appears to benefit long-distance endurance events such as skiing. Caffeine is also addictive, and chronic abuse can lead to cardiac damage. Social abuse of each of the three drugs is often difficult to distinguish from their abuse in sport.

  3. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  4. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Rates and predictors of DUI across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines rates of self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and 12-month and lifetime DUI arrest rates among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans and South/Central Americans in the U.S. population. Using a multistage cluster sample design, a total of 5224 individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the U.S.: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Among men, 21% of Mexican Americans, 19.9% of South/Central Americans, 11.6% of Puerto Ricans and 6.9% of Cuban Americans reported DUI. Rates were lower among women, ranging from 9.7% for Mexican Americans to 1.3% for Cuban Americans. Mexican American men had the highest 12-month arrest rate (1.6%) and the highest lifetime arrest rate (11.2%). Drinkers who reported DUI were heavier drinkers than those not reporting DUI according to a variety of indicators. However, most DUI incidents involved non-alcohol-dependent drivers. Mexican Americans and South Central/Americans, men, younger drivers, those with less than high school education, those with higher income and higher alcohol consumption were more likely to report DUI and DUI arrests. These findings show that Hispanic national groups in the U.S. are diverse regarding drinking and DUI-related experiences.

  5. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  6. We, the Americans: Our Cities and Suburbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The 1970 Census showed that we Americans are an urban people. Seven of every 10 U.S. residents live in metropolitan areas: 3 in central cities and 4 in suburban areas. The movement to the suburbs swelled to high tide in the 1950's. Although it abated somewhat in the 1960's, it reached an historic height in 1970. In April 1970 there were 203.2…

  7. 77 FR 65015 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... Resources, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024... after that date if no additional claimants come forward. The American Museum of......

  8. American Macular Degeneration Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to content Contact DONATE Search for: Search Saving sight through research and education American Macular Degeneration Foundation Saving Sight Through Research and Education Menu About Macular Degeneration ...

  9. Short-term treatment of a Central American torture survivor.

    PubMed

    Munczek, D S

    1998-01-01

    The short-term treatment of a Honduran torture survivor is recounted. Torture--the "counter-therapy of the State" (Ritterman 1987, p. 43)--involves intentional physical and psychological destruction of human beings. The socio-political context in which the traumatic events occurred is described, as are the theoretical and ethical assumptions underlying the work. Treatment of victims of organized violence is a formidable challenge. Obstacles and advantages of short-term psychotherapy and use of the therapist's emotional reactions to understand survivors' experiences are emphasized.

  10. A Central American Perspective on Teaching about the United Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Eleonora

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the United Nations actively works to improve living conditions in Honduras. Discusses United Nations efforts to improve education through teacher education. Asserts that, although the United Nations has extensive operations in Honduras, education about the UN in Honduran schools is superficial. (CFR)

  11. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  12. Nosy Neighbors: Third-Party Actors in Central American Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Beardsley, Kyle

    2004-01-01

    Scholars argue that third parties make rational calculations and intervene to influence interstate dispute outcomes in favor of their own objectives. Third parties affect not only conflict outcomes but also escalation and duration. Theories of third-party involvement are applied to understand the dynamics of intrastate war. An analysis of event…

  13. Textbooks, Mexican Americans, and Twentieth-Century American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Secondary and college level American textbooks should include information about minority groups, particularly Mexican-Americans. Surveys history textbooks with regard to their treatment of the Mexican American minority. For journal availability, see so 506 696. (DB)

  14. More on South American geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    As an addendum to J. Urrutia Fucugauchi's (Eos, 63, June 8, 1982, p. 529) excellent analysis of why things go wrong in Latin American geophysics, I submit that funds in whatever form are not the only answer. In Mexico over the past decade there has been a reasonable availability of funds, yet no dramatic increase in the quality or quantity of geophysical research was detected. Graduate scholarships have even gone begging for applicants in the earth sciences!Leadership is the big problem. National plans and forecasts for science and technology continue to ignore this central fact. They want to generate hundreds, nay thousands, of middle-level scientists while providing no incentive for excellence. As others have found out long before us, this approach is doomed from the start.

  15. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  16. Native American Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Carl D., Comp.; And Others

    Focusing on the Southeastern American Indian cultures, this Native American resource guide is designed for use in the elementary and secondary schools of the East Baton Rouge Parish and is a product of a 1975 Indian Advisory Committee composed of Indian parents, teachers, and staff members. Objectives of these materials require the Indian student,…

  17. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  18. Legends of Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theme unit that includes elementary-level, cross-curricular lessons about lifestyle, belief systems, traditions, and history of Native Americans. The unit includes a poster which offers a traditional Cherokee story, literature on Native American legends, and a variety of cross-curricular activities. The unit ends with students writing…

  19. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  20. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  1. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  2. The American Bilingual Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloss, Heinz

    This volume, published on the occasion of the American Bicentennial, is based on a revision of a 1963 German-language publication describing and analyzing the phenomenon of cultural and linguistic pluralism in American society. It is part of a series on bilingual education, intended to inform the public about how people have used bilingual…

  3. The Quiet American Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legters, Lyman H.

    1984-01-01

    What is wrong in the American parochialism about foreign languages is the assumption that language acquisition is a cosmetic gain, without any immediate or forseeable practical use. Languages will only be learned effectively when Americans learn that they can be used in getting tasks accomplished. (MSE)

  4. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  5. Reviving the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Harriet B.

    American society and its educators are faced with many challenges, particularly from the growing use of computers, which lead to the question of whether the American dream of a viable democracy with an equal chance for all can be revived. The individual, community, thought, and morality provide four standpoints from which to consider technological…

  6. The American Advisor Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Bernard M.

    1971-01-01

    A program which collects information about the similarities and differences between American and a host national counterpart is described. How knowledge of this data has relevance to relations between the American and the host national and how, through educational procedures, this information can be disseminated, are also discussed. (Author/CG(

  7. American Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Shreveport.

    The Louisiana State University in Shreveport (LSUS) American Studies Program is an annual sequence of interdisciplinary activities on and off campus designed to bring students, faculty, and local residents into closer contact with their American heritage and develop their leadership potential. It addresses the problem of lapses in current civic…

  8. Native American Preparatory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Preparatory School, Rowe, NM.

    This booklet provides information on the Native American Preparatory School, a residential secondary school in Rowe, New Mexico, for high-achieving Native American students. The school sponsors two programs: a 5-week rigorously academic summer school for junior high school students and, beginning in fall 1995, a 4-year college preparatory program.…

  9. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  10. Asian Americans: Chinese-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Korean-Americans. Staff Development Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter, Keiko; And Others

    This staff development module is designed to: (1) introduce significant facts basic to understanding the cultural and historical heritage of three Asian-American cultures; (2) develop an accurate knowledge and awareness of the experiences of Asian-Americans; and (3) relate the geography and past history of China, Korea, and Japan to the United…

  11. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  12. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  13. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  14. Native American Entrepreneurship. Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    Although Native Americans have owned and started the fewest small businesses of all U.S. minority groups, entrepreneurship is considered to be an efficient tool for alleviating their economic problems. Barriers to Native American entrepreneurship include poverty, scarce start-up capital, poor access to business education and technical assistance,…

  15. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  16. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  17. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    PubMed Central

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  18. The West Indian Americans. The New Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Holger

    This book, which is part of a series on new immigrant groups in the United States, captures the experiences of West Indian Americans who have arrived in the country since 1965. The seven chapters include: (1) "History of Jamaica and the English-Speaking Caribbean" (e.g., from plantation society to the third world and the Creolization of cultures…

  19. American History Activators (Early American History).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Bill

    This document consists of a package of seven separately published "activities" or simulations that allow students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of United States history that have influenced our present institutions and way of life. The seven units include: (1) First Americans Arrive: 11.000 BC; (2) Puritan General Court,…

  20. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  1. Charting the Ancestry of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION - Shaker Church Family Washhouse, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, centrally located in church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  3. METALS AND METALLOIDS IN TISSUES OF AMERICAN ALLIGATORS IN THREE FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of metals and selenium were examined in tissues of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from three lakes in central Florida, in one of which alligators have exhibited reproductive or developmental defects. Our overall objective was to determine whether ...

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION - Shaker Church Family Boys' Shop, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, centrally located in church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  5. Thieving rodents as substitute dispersers of megafaunal seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Hirsch, Ben T.; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other’s buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees. PMID:22802644

  6. Native American Tribal Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)

  7. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep ...

  8. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Login The Hendren Project Resources Research Continuing Education Residents / Fellows Membership About APSA American Pediatric Surgical Association One Parkview Plaza, Suite 800 Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181 USA Phone: +1-847-686-2237 Fax: +1-847- ...

  9. Singing American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  10. American Diabetes Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2383) Give by Mail Close November is American Diabetes Month® Share your personal diabetes story and show ... Next » « Previous Our Mission: To prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people ...

  11. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  12. American Therapeutic Recreation Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Remember Me I forgot my password American Therapeutic Recreation Association Empowering Recreational Therapists Call for 2017 Webinars – ... http://ow.ly/qzAj304HTCi Join thousands of Therapeutic Recreation specialists today Join Now Renew your membership today ...

  13. Native American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Americans.

  14. Asian American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Asian Americans.

  15. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  16. Hispanic American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Hispanic Americans.

  17. Profile: Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... the visibility of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islander health issues. Overview (Demographics): This racial group ... White population. Selected Data by Disease/Condition Asian/Pacific Islanders and Asthma . Asian/Pacific Islanders and Cancer . ...

  18. Latin American Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsunce, Cesar A. Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Examination of the situation of archives in four Latin American countries--Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica--highlights national systems, buildings, staff, processing of documents, accessibility and services to the public and publications and extension services. (EJS)

  19. General American: An Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  20. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infectious Diseases, 35: 451-464, 2002) What is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by ... mission with your own tax-deductible contribution. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. PO Box 466 Lyme, CT 06371 ...

  1. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Codes and Names Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Signs and Symptoms of Insomnia Anxiety Disorder ...

  2. American Association of Suicidology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent Youth Suicide Resources Someone Needs Help U OK? Program Warning Signs & Risk Factors Current Projects Mission ... American Association of Suicidology | Privacy Statement {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ## ...

  3. Hierarchical modeling of genome-wide Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers infers native American prehistory.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cecil M

    2010-02-01

    This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated from the South American group, which is more consistent with a serial founder effect into South America than that previously described. Western (Andean) South America is found to harbor similar levels of variation as eastern (Equatorial-Tucanoan and Ge-Pano-Carib) South America, which is inconsistent with an initial west coast migration into South America. Moreover, in all relevant models, the estimates of genetic diversity within geographic regions suggest a major bottleneck or founder effect occurring within the North American subcontinent, before the peopling of Central and South America.

  4. Harvesting number and timing effects on shoot yield and flavonoid content in American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on optimal management practices for high dry matter and flavonoid yield in American skullcap is lacking. A field experiment was conducted in central Alabama to determine the effect of timing and frequency of harvest on shoot yield and flavonoid content of American skullcap. In the first ...

  5. Rock, Reservation and Prison: The Native American Occupation of Alcatraz Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklansky, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the 1969-71 occupation of Alcatraz Island by young radical American Indians as a set of metaphors for Indian America. Examines the central images of cultural revitalization through independence, protest against the position of Native Americans nationwide and rebellion against White oppression. Contains 47 references. (SV)

  6. The Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Middle and High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin-Jones, Linda; Penwell, Rebecca; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney; Scales, Ingrid

    This research investigated the status of environmental education (EE) in private American and international middle and high schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American Schools of Central America, Columbia-Caribbean, and Mexico (the…

  7. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  8. Cultural Differences in an Interorganizational Network: Shared Public Relations Firms among Japanese and American Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Ha-Yong

    1997-01-01

    Investigates impact of national culture on interorganizational relationships among organizations. Matches 35 Japanese and American companies by their business types. Reveals that the network of shared public relations firms was loosely connected--American companies were more central. Indicates the network structure of shared public relations firms…

  9. Grade-Related Changes in the Production of African American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined grade as a source of systematic variation in the African American English (AAE) produced by students in preschool through fifth grades. Participants were 400 typically developing African American boys and girls residing in low- or middle-income homes in an urban-fringe community or midsize central city in the…

  10. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF DUBUQUE COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT, LOOKING UP CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF DUBUQUE COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT, LOOKING UP CENTRAL AVENUE, WITH KARIGAN'S RESTAURANT IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND THE AMERICAN HOUSE HOTEL IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  11. The Peoples Multicultural Almanac: America from the 1400s to Present. 365 Days of Contributions by African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, European Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Earl J., Jr.; And Others

    The Peoples Multicultural Almanac provides five entries for each day in the school year, September through May, organized for the following ethnic groups: (1) African Americans; (2) Asian Americans; (3) European Americans; (4) Hispanic Americans; and (5) Native Americans. The entries highlight significant social, political, historical, cultural,…

  12. Centralize Printing, and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

  13. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... Catheters are used when you need medical treatment over a long period of time. For example, you ...

  14. Parental risk factors for oral clefts among Central Africans, Southeast Asians, and Central Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Stephanie; Magee, Kathleen S.; Ihenacho, Ugonna; Baurley, James W.; Sanchez‐Lara, Pedro A.; Brindopke, Frederick; Nguyen, Thi‐Hai‐Duc; Nguyen, Viet; Tangco, Maria Irene; Giron, Melissa; Abrahams, Tamlin; Jang, Grace; Vu, Annie; Zolfaghari, Emily; Yao, Caroline A.; Foong, Athena; DeClerk, Yves A.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Magee, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Several lifestyle and environmental exposures have been suspected as risk factors for oral clefts, although few have been convincingly demonstrated. Studies across global diverse populations could offer additional insight given varying types and levels of exposures. Methods We performed an international case–control study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (133 cases, 301 controls), Vietnam (75 cases, 158 controls), the Philippines (102 cases, 152 controls), and Honduras (120 cases, 143 controls). Mothers were recruited from hospitals and their exposures were collected from interviewer‐administered questionnaires. We used logistic regression modeling to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Family history of clefts was strongly associated with increased risk (maternal: OR = 4.7; 95% CI, 3.0–7.2; paternal: OR = 10.5; 95% CI, 5.9–18.8; siblings: OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4–19.9). Advanced maternal age (5 year OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0–1.3), pregestational hypertension (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3–5.1), and gestational seizures (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1–7.4) were statistically significant risk factors. Lower maternal (secondary school OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2–2.2; primary school OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.6–2.8) and paternal education (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4–2.5; and OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9, respectively) and paternal tobacco smoking (OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1–1.9) were associated with an increased risk. No other significant associations between maternal and paternal factors were found; some environmental factors including rural residency, indoor cooking with wood, chemicals and water source appeared to be associated with an increased risk in adjusted models. Conclusion Our study represents one of the first international studies investigating risk factors for clefts among multiethnic underserved populations. Our findings suggest a multifactorial etiology including both maternal and paternal factors. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 103:863–879, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26466527

  15. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  16. Handbook of Middle American Indians. Volume 5, Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauchope, Robert, Ed.; McQuown, Norman A., Ed.

    This volume presents a summary of work accomplished since the Spanish conquest in the contemporary description and historical reconstruction of the indigenous languages and language families of Mexico and Central America. Contents are (1) "History of Studies in Middle American Linguistics" by N.A. McQuown; (2) "Inventory of Descriptive Materials"…

  17. Portraits of Outstanding African American Women. Grades 4-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Doris Hunter

    This resource book provides information and activity sheets on the achievements and contributions of exceptional African American women, past and present. The book contains six sections, thematically organized around the central issue(s) affecting the lives of the women featured. Introductory questions, biographical portraits and skill-building…

  18. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer August 13, 1936 1:50 P. M. DETAIL OF SOUTH WALL-CENTRAL ROOM OF BASEMENT-UNIT B-AFTER CHALKING - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer August 13, 1936 1:30 P. M. DETAIL OF SOUTH WALL-CENTRAL ROOM OF BASEMENT-UNIT B-BEFORE CHALKING. - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 10. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1910 showing American ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1910 showing American Steel & Wire's campaign for safety on the Job: 'The Fence of Safety Around the Happy Home. . . Every Broken Picket Means One Lost Time Accident.' Photo courtesy Ralph A. Dise, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Linda

    This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

  2. American Indian Education: The Role of Tribal Education Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackety, Dawn M.; Bachler, Susie; Barley, Zoe; Cicchinelli, Lou

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the roles and responsibilities, organization and funding of Tribal Education Departments (TEDs) in the Central Region states. Tribal education departments are departments within tribes responsible for supporting the education of tribal members, created by the sovereign governments of federally recognized American Indian…

  3. Depressed Affect and Historical Loss among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Walls, Melissa L.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Morrisseau, Allan D.; McDougall, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence and correlates of perceived historical loss among 459 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11-13 years from the northern Midwest of the United States and central Canada. The adolescents reported daily or more thoughts of historical loss at rates similar to their female caretakers. Confirmatory factor…

  4. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 'Office Building, Being Erected by the Central Safety Deposit Company,' Published in The Inland Architect and Builder, Vol. VII No. 9 Permission to reproduce is given providing the following appears on the same page with the reproduction: Courtesy Chicago Historical Society - Rookery Building, 209 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama: Boletin Estadistico (Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama: Statistical Bulletin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Jorge A.

    This statistical bulletin provides details on the universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC): Central American University, Rafael Landivar University, Saint John's College, University of Santa Maria La Antigua, Jose Simeon Canas University, Doctor Mariano Galvez University, and the…

  6. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  7. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  8. Between Polish Positivism and American Capitalism: The Educational Agents' Experiment in the Polish-American Community, 1889-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.

    2008-01-01

    "Ameryka-Echo" was one of the most popular Polish-language weeklies, published in the United States between 1889 and 1972. Its founder and owner, Antoni A. Paryski, consciously sought to transplant ideas of Polish Positivism to the Polish-American immigrant communities in the United States. Reading was a central concept of self-education, promoted…

  9. Scholastic Achievement of Adolescent Refugees from Cambodia and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Cecile; Drapeau, Aline

    2000-01-01

    Central American and Cambodian students in six Canadian high schools and their parents were interviewed to assess the students' emotional problems and pre- and postmigration family environment. Findings indicate that the relationship between the emotional problems and scholastic achievement of teenaged refugees was tenuous. (Author/MKA)

  10. Educating the Special Child in the Caribbean and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Stowe State Coll., St. Louis, MO. Teacher Education Dept.

    This paper represents the perspectives of 25 special education teacher scholarship students from 13 Caribbean and Central American countries (Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nevis, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Jamaica, Grenada, and Antigua) on the status of special education in their…

  11. A New Weave: Popular Education in Canada and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Rick; And Others

    Written from the perspective of the Central American experience of education for fundamental social change, this booklet provides ideas and guidelines for developing popular education, a learning process based on the concept that education can serve the interests of the poor and that the people themselves can define the content and context of…

  12. University Strives to Be a Cultural Hub in Central Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    One might not immediately think of Conway, a city of 55,000, as an arts hub. Conway is growing and changing, and the university's artistic aspirations have played a role. In recent years the University of Central Arkansas, a campus of 13,000 students, has become home to two prestigious literary magazines: (1) "Oxford American"; and (2) "Exquisite…

  13. IMAGES OF BLACK AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974

  14. Genetic Identification of Rickettsial Isolates from Fatal Cases of Brazilian Spotted Fever and Comparison with Rickettsia rickettsii Isolates from the American Continents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fabiana C. P.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nascimento, Elvira M. M.; Colombo, Silvia; Marcili, Arlei; Angerami, Rodrigo N.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen bacterial isolates from spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Brazil were genetically identified as Rickettsia rickettsii. In a phylogenetic analysis with other R. rickettsii isolates from GenBank, the Central/South American isolates showed low polymorphism and formed a clade distinct from two North American clades, with the North American clades having greater in-branch polymorphism. PMID:25078908

  15. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  16. Genomic ancestry of the American puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; O'Brien, S J

    2000-01-01

    Puma concolor, a large American cat species, occupies the most extensive range of any New World terrestrial mammal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude from the Canadian Yukon to the Straits of Magellan. Until the recent Holocene, pumas coexisted with a diverse array of carnivores including the American lion (Panthera atrox), the North American cheetah (Miracynonyx trumani), and the saber toothed tiger (Smilodon fatalis). Genomic DNA specimens from 315 pumas of specified geographic origin (261 contemporary and 54 museum specimens) were collected for molecular genetic and phylogenetic analyses of three mitochondrial gene sequences (16S rRNA, ATPase-8, and NADH-5) plus composite microsatellite genotypes (10 feline loci). Six phylogeographic groupings or subspecies were resolved, and the entire North American population (186 individuals from 15 previously named subspecies) was genetically homogeneous in overall variation relative to central and South American populations. The marked uniformity of mtDNA and a reduction in microsatellite allele size expansion indicates that North American pumas derive from a recent (late Pleistocene circa 10,000 years ago) replacement and recolonization by a small number of founders who themselves originated from a centrum of puma genetic diversity in eastern South America 200,000-300,000 years ago. The recolonization of North American pumas was coincident with a massive late Pleistocene extinction event that eliminated 80% of large vertebrates in North America and may have extirpated pumas from that continent as well.

  17. American Indian perspectives on addiction and recovery.

    PubMed

    Lowery, C T

    1998-05-01

    The circle of tribal society is "experienced from the inside.... When forced from the center, one is "alienated, irritable, and lonely" (Deloria, 1970, p. 13). Social workers, as service providers and researchers in collaboration with the American Indian women they are privileged to serve, have a distinct opportunity for working toward health--the integration of the physical, the emotional, the spiritual--in the lives of women who seek help in treatment facilities for substance abuse. A genuine contribution to the health of the communities to which the women return and to the generations which follow is central to this opportunity and lies deep within the circle. PMID:9598395

  18. Native American medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  19. North American encephalitic arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Larry E.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Arboviruses continue to be a major cause of encephalitis in North America and West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease is now the dominant cause of encephalitis. Transmission to humans of North American arboviruses occurs by infected mosquitoes or ticks. Most infections are asymptomatic or produce a flu-like illness. Elderly, immunosuppressed individuals and infants for some arboviruses have the highest incidence of severe encephalitis. Rapid serum or CSF IgM antibody capture ELISA assays are now available to diagnosis the acute infection for all North American arboviruses. Unfortunately, no antiviral drugs are approved for the treatment of arbovirus infection and current therapy is supportive. PMID:18657724

  20. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    PubMed

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  1. American Needlepoint Guild

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz mission patch stitched by Pat Correz of Rialto, Calif., a member of the American Needlepoint Guild, was one of the 123 hand-stitched needlepoint patches donated to NASA's Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The colorful, intricately detailed patches, commemorating American human space flight mission flown to date, were the project of individual needlepoint stitchers, ranging in age from 29 to 89 from across the country who are members of the non-profit guild. The exhibit is located at the entrance to Millennium Hall in the space center's visitor center, StenniSphere.

  2. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  3. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  4. A cultural contracts perspective: examining American Indian identity negotiations in academia.

    PubMed

    Lamsam, Teresa Trumbly

    2014-01-01

    Education has played a central role in identity confusion, and to this day, it is used to assimilate American Indians. For those American Indians who persist through doctoral degrees and enter academe, resisting assimilation is especially risky and often tiresome. In this conceptual exploration of identity, Cultural Contracts theory serves to illuminate the path of the American Indian academic journey. Although never applied in an American Indian context, cultural contracts theory may provide a bridge between the seemingly disparate strains of identity research and leave us with a sense of scope and potential for the theory's application.

  5. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing—along with the removal of the NAC—is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  6. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Vittorio; D'Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; De Luca, Alessandro; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing-along with the removal of the NAC-is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  7. American Indian Perspectives of Euro-American Counseling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokken, Jayne M.; Twohey, Denise

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen American Indians participated in 17 counseling interviews with Euro-American counselors. The study analyzed interviews of American Indian participants using Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR). Counselor trustworthiness, which was increased by counselor empathy, genuineness, concern, self-disclosure, and slow pace of problem…

  8. Central Texas coast gas search bears fruit

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-03

    A group led by American Exploration Co., Houston, plans to drill 40 wells this year on its Yoakum Gorge property in Lavaca County, Tex., where it is completing acquisition of a 152 sq mile 3D seismic survey. The companies planned to spud the first wildcat to Eocene Lower Wilcox on the Central Texas Gulf Coast property in late February. They completed eight exploratory wells as commercial gas discoveries in late 1996 in Oligocene Frio, Miocene, and Eocene Yegua. The eight Frio and Yegua wells drilled during October--December 1996 had combined initial flow rates of 3.730 MMcfd of gas.

  9. American Society of Echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow ... 2016 · Executive Theme · Genesis Framework by StudioPress · WordPress · Log in Membership ▼ Member Portal Log In Join ASE ...

  10. Native American Discursive Tactic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jason Edward

    2013-01-01

    This essay derives from a course called ‘"The Rhetoric of Native America,’" which is a historical-critical survey of Native American primary texts. The course examines the rhetoric employed by Natives to enact social change and to build community in the face of exigencies. The main goal of exploring a native text (particularly, Simon Pokagon's…

  11. American History. Computer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengel, James G.

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Seven interactive computer programs are available to help with the study of American History. They cover the period of the 17th century up through the present day, and involve a variety of approaches to instruction. These programs were conceived and programmed by Jim Lengel, a former state social…

  12. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  13. North American patience

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Independent power companies are facing numerous changes in power markets across North America. While changes bring uncertainty, they also hold promise for future competitive power opportunities. Included are new capacity, repowering aging infrastructure and the role of power brokers. It is likely that patience has never been a more valuable attribute for companies working in the North American market.

  14. American Indian Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

  15. The Native American Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Walter; And Others

    This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching…

  16. Japanese American Intermarriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell; Hirokawa, Dale

    Data for this study of Japanese American intermarriage in Denver (Colorado) from 1910-11 to 1980-81 were collected from marriage records in the Office of the Clerk and Recorder for the City and County of Denver. In order to compare intermarriage trends with available census figures (mostly on population size and sex composition), records were…

  17. American Chiropractic Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radio Chiropractic Cares Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram LinkedIn Advocacy Regulatory Policy Issue Briefs Medicare Veteran's ... for Event Connect with ACA Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram LinkedIn Featured Executive Sponsors: © 2016 Copyright American Chiropractic ...

  18. Asian Americans: Chinese-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Korean-Americans. Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter, Keiko; And Others

    This report presents information on the experiences of three different Asian-American groups (Chinese, Japanese and Koreans) in the United States. Historical and geographic overviews of each group's country and a brief chronological history of each group's immigration and subsequent role in and influence on U.S. history are provided. Product and…

  19. The American Oyster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  20. Highlights of American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Carl

    Intended for high-intermediate/advanced level students of English as a foreign language, this book contains selections from the wide range of American literature, from its beginnings to the modern period. Each section begins with a general introduction to the literary period, and then presents essays about individual authors, selections from the…