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Sample records for central artery stiffness

  1. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Głuszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for

  2. Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts.

  3. Arterial stiffness, body fat compartments, central hemodynamics, renal function and left atrial size.

    PubMed

    Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Krauze, Tomasz; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Stajgis, Marek; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Wysocki, Henryk; Wykrętowicz, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    Left atrial (LA) size is an important predictor of stroke, death, and atrial fibrillation. It was demonstrated recently that body fat, arterial stiffness and renal functions are associated with LA diameter. However, data are lacking for comprehensive assessments of all these risk factors in a single population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between LA size and different fat descriptors, central hemodynamics, arterial stiffness, and renal function in healthy subjects. To this end, body fat percentage, abdominal, subcutaneous fat, and general descriptors of body fat were estimated in 162 healthy subjects (mean age 51 years). Echocardiography was performed to assess LA diameter. Arterial stiffness and peripheral and central hemodynamics were estimated by digital volume pulse analysis and pulse wave analysis. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by MDRD formula. There were significant (p < 0.05) bivariate correlations between LA diameter and all descriptors of body fat (except subcutaneous fat). Arterial stiffness and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also significantly correlated with LA size. Multiple regression analysis including all significant confounders, such as sex, mean arterial pressure, arterial stiffness, eGFR and body fat descriptors, explained 35% of variance in LA diameter. In conclusion, the present study reveals significant, independent relationships between body fat, arterial stiffness, and LA size.

  4. Central Artery Stiffness in Hypertension and Aging: A Problem with Cause and Consequence

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Jay D.; Harrison, David G.; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Lacolley, Patrick; Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases affecting the heart, brain, and kidneys. It has long been thought that hypertension leads to a thickening and stiffening of central arteries (i.e., stiffness is a consequence) while more recent evidence suggests that stiffening precedes hypertension (i.e., stiffness is a cause). We submit, however, that consideration of the wall biomechanics and hemodynamics reveals an insidious positive feedback loop that may render it irrelevant whether hypertension causes or is caused by central arterial stiffening. A progressive worsening can ensue in either case, thus any onset of stiffening merits early intervention. PMID:26846637

  5. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics and wave reflection in normal pregnancy and control nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wykrętowicz, Magdalena; Krauze, Tomasz; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jarosław; Markwitz, Wiesław; Wykrętowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2011-11-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by different physiological adaptations in the cardiovascular system. However, information on central blood pressures, wave reflection, arterial stiffness in uncomplicated pregnancy compared with nonpregnant women is limited. Forty-six women (mean age 28 years) in the third trimester of pregnancy and 45 healthy age- and height-matched controls were evaluated. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics and wave reflection was assessed with the use of digital volume pulse analysis and pulse wave analysis. In comparison with nonpregnant participants, pregnant women had significantly lower mean (p=0.04) and central systolic (p=0.02) blood pressure, central pulse pressure (p=0.02), augmentation index (p=0.02) and augmentation pressure (p=0.002), whereas their pulse pressure amplification was significantly higher (p=0.001). Similarly, arterial stiffness index was higher in pregnant women than in healthy nonpregnant controls (p=0.006). This index was correlated significantly with central augmentation index and augmentation pressure (r=0.5, p=0.0005 and r=0.52, p=0.0002, respectively) but only in nonpregnant women. Healthy pregnancy is associated with increased pulse pressure amplification as well as diminished wave reflection, which results in lower central augmentation index and augmentation pressure. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy have slightly higher arterial stiffness in comparison with healthy nonpregnant, age- and height-matched controls. The increased value of measures of arterial stiffness might be secondary to a known physiological increase of cardiac output and the amount of circulating blood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between urinary electrolytes excretion and central hemodynamics, and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Weizhong; Han, Xiao; Sun, Ningling; Chen, Yunchao; Jiang, Shiliang; Li, Min

    2017-08-01

    High sodium intake plays an important role in the onset and exacerbation of hypertension. However, the relationships between urinary electrolytes excretion and central hemodynamics and between urinary electrolyte excretion and arterial stiffness are still the subject of debate. This study sought to clarify the associations of salt intake with central aortic pressure and arterial stiffness indicators. A total of 431 untreated hypertensive individuals were recruited into the study. Twenty-four-hour urinary samples were collected to measure the excretion of urinary electrolytes. Central hemodynamics parameters and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured. We evaluated the independent relationship between urinary sodium or potassium excretion and the abovementioned indices. The mean 24-h urinary sodium of all subjects was 166.6±70.0 mmol/24 h. With increases in urinary sodium excretion, central blood pressure and baPWV values markedly increased. Multiple regression analysis showed that urinary sodium was independently associated with increases in central systolic blood pressure, central diastolic blood pressure, the augmentation index, and baPWV. Significant correlations were identified between high dietary sodium and central hemodynamics and between high dietary sodium and arterial elasticity. Prospective interventional studies in hypertensive patients may be required to determine the effect of salt intake on central hemodynamics.

  7. Relationships between central arterial stiffness, lean body mass, and absolute and relative strength in young and older men and women.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2017-08-16

    Relationships between muscular strength and arterial stiffness as well as between muscle mass and arterial stiffness have been observed suggesting a link between the neuromuscular system and vascular health. However, the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength along with muscle mass has not been investigated in both sexes across a broad age range. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength as well as between central arterial stiffness and lean body mass (LBM) in men and women across a broad age range. LBM, central arterial stiffness and strength were measured on 36 men and 35 women between the ages of 18 and 75 years. Strength was measured on five machine resistance exercises and summed as one measure of overall strength (absolute strength). Relative strength was calculated as total strength divided by LBM (relative strength). Central arterial stiffness was inversely related to both absolute (r = -0·230; P = 0·029) and relative strength (r = -0·484; P < 0·001) but not LBM (r = 0·097; P = 0·213). The relationship between central arterial stiffness and relative strength was attenuated but still present when controlling for either age, per cent body fat, LBM or mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that, across a wide age range, the expression of relative muscular strength has a stronger relationship with central arterial stiffness compared to either LBM or absolute strength. This suggests that muscle function more than muscle mass may be coupled with vascular health. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Central artery stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity, and brain white matter neuronal fiber integrity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Takashi; de Jong, Daan L K; Zhu, David C; Tseng, Benjamin Y; Liu, Jie; Hill, Candace; Riley, Jonathan; Womack, Kyle B; Kerwin, Diana R; Lu, Hanzhang; Munro Cullum, C; Zhang, Rong

    2015-04-15

    Cerebral hypoperfusion elevates the risk of brain white matter (WM) lesions and cognitive impairment. Central artery stiffness impairs baroreflex, which controls systemic arterial perfusion, and may deteriorate neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among brain WM neuronal fiber integrity, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and central artery stiffness in older adults. Fifty-four adults (65 ± 6 years) with normal cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were tested. The neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM was assessed from diffusion metrics acquired by diffusion tensor imaging. BRS was measured in response to acute changes in blood pressure induced by bolus injections of vasoactive drugs. Central artery stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). The WM diffusion metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivities, BRS, and cfPWV were not different between the control and MCI groups. Thus, the data from both groups were combined for subsequent analyses. Across WM, fiber tracts with decreased FA and increased RD were associated with lower BRS and higher cfPWV, with many of the areas presenting spatial overlap. In particular, the BRS assessed during hypotension was strongly correlated with FA and RD when compared with hypertension. Executive function performance was associated with FA and RD in the areas that correlated with cfPWV and BRS. These findings suggest that baroreflex-mediated control of systemic arterial perfusion, especially during hypotension, may play a crucial role in maintaining neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness in idiopathic and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Klaas; Fliegen, Sabine; Koester, Jelena; Martin, Rafael Campos; Deuschl, Günther; Reppel, Michael; Mortensen, Kai; Schneider, Susanne A

    2017-02-01

    Blood pressure is commonly abnormal in parkinsonian disorders, but central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness, well-established predictors of total cardiovascular risk, have rarely been studied in these disorders. 32 patients [27 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD); 5 with multiple system atrophy (MSA)] and 15 controls matched for cardiac risk factors underwent 24 h-ambulatory blood pressure recordings using an I.E.M. device (Mobil-O-Graph™), measuring peripheral pressure and calculating central pressures and arterial stiffness. Mean augmentation indices corrected for heart rate (AIx@75) were significantly lower and pulse wave velocities were significantly elevated in patients compared to controls. Central systolic blood pressure, cardiac output and daytime total vascular resistance were significantly elevated in patients. Mean nocturnal systolic peripheral blood pressure and nocturnal heart rates were also significantly higher; 56.3% of patients had nocturnal hypertension (80% of the MSA group); 85.2% showed non-dipping. This supports previous findings of reduced vulnerability to systemic atherosclerosis and end-organ damage in treated PD. Yet, hemodynamic abnormalities were common and often remained asymptomatic.

  10. Decreased elastic energy storage, not increased material stiffness, characterizes central artery dysfunction in fibulin-5 deficiency independent of sex.

    PubMed

    Ferruzzi, J; Bersi, M R; Uman, S; Yanagisawa, H; Humphrey, J D

    2015-03-01

    Central artery stiffness has emerged over the past 15 years as a clinically significant indicator of cardiovascular function and initiator of disease. Loss of elastic fiber integrity is one of the primary contributors to increased arterial stiffening in aging, hypertension, and related conditions. Elastic fibers consist of an elastin core and multiple glycoproteins; hence defects in any of these constituents can adversely affect arterial wall mechanics. In this paper, we focus on mechanical consequences of the loss of fibulin-5, an elastin-associated glycoprotein involved in elastogenesis. Specifically, we compared the biaxial mechanical properties of five central arteries-the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta, suprarenal abdominal aorta, infrarenal abdominal aorta, and common carotid artery-from male and female wild-type and fibulin-5 deficient mice. Results revealed that, independent of sex, all five regions in the fibulin-5 deficient mice manifested a marked increase in structural stiffness but also a marked decrease in elastic energy storage and typically an increase in energy dissipation, with all differences being most dramatic in the ascending and abdominal aortas. Given that the primary function of large arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use this energy during diastole to work on the blood, fibulin-5 deficiency results in a widespread diminishment of central artery function that can have significant effects on hemodynamics and cardiac function.

  11. Effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise on central arterial stiffness and gait velocity in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Chong-Do; Wee, Sang Ouk; Fernhall, Bo; Jae, Sae Young

    2015-09-01

    The effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on central arterial stiffness and gait velocity in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis were investigated. Twenty-six patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis were randomly assigned to either the combined aerobic and resistance exercise group (n = 14) or the control group (n = 12). The exercise intervention group received a combined aerobic and resistance exercise training (1 hr/day, three times/week for 16 wks), whereas the control group received usual care. Central arterial stiffness was determined by pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Gait velocity was assessed using the 6-min walk test, 10-m walk test, and the Timed Up-and-Go test. Patients in the exercise intervention group had greater improvement of mean pulse wave velocity (P < 0.001), augmentation index (P = 0.048), and gait velocity (6-min walk test, P < 0.001; 10-m walk test, P < 0.001) than did patients in the control group. Patients in the exercise intervention group also had greater improvements in physical fitness component (grip strength, P < 0.001; muscular strength of upper and lower limbs, P < 0.027; flexibility, P < 0.001) when compared with control patients. The combined aerobic and resistance exercise program significantly reduced central arterial stiffness and increased gait velocity in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

  12. Differential impact of belatacept and cyclosporine A on central aortic blood pressure and arterial stiffness after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Felix S; Steltzer, Julia; Melilli, Eduardo; Grannas, Gerrit; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Bauer, Frederic; Zidek, Walter; Grinyó, Josep; Westhoff, Timm H

    2014-09-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are potent vasoconstrictors and induce an acceleration of arteriosclerosis, thus contributing to the cardiovascular risk after renal transplantation. The study compares the impact of belatacept and cyclosporine A (CsA) on arterial stiffness and central aortic blood pressure. We performed a case-control study in 46 patients (23 on belatacept and 23 on CsA) matched for age, body mass index, time after transplantation, and time on dialysis prior to transplantation. Pulse wave analysis (SphygmoCor, AtCor(®) ) was used to assess central aortic blood pressure, aortic augmentation pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness. Assessment of vascular function was performed after a minimum of 20 months and a median follow-up of 81 months post-transplant. Peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not significantly differ in the two groups (p > 0.05 each). The central aortic augmentation pressure was higher in the CsA group (12.7 mmHg vs. 7.3 mmHg, p = 0.048). PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness did not differ in the two groups. Thus, belatacept is not associated with a significant difference in arterial stiffness compared to CsA after a median of 81 months post-transplant. It is associated, however, with a lower aortic augmentation pressure, a strong independent cardiovascular risk factor. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Associations and clinical relevance of aortic-brachial artery stiffness mismatch, aortic reservoir function, and central pressure augmentation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Martin G; Hughes, Alun D; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E

    2015-10-01

    Central augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx) predict cardiovascular events and mortality, but underlying physiological mechanisms remain disputed. While traditionally believed to relate to wave reflections arising from proximal arterial impedance (and stiffness) mismatching, recent evidence suggests aortic reservoir function may be a more dominant contributor to AP and AIx. Our aim was therefore to determine relationships among aortic-brachial stiffness mismatching, AP, AIx, aortic reservoir function, and end-organ disease. Aortic (aPWV) and brachial (bPWV) pulse wave velocity were measured in 359 individuals (aged 61 ± 9, 49% male). Central AP, AIx, and aortic reservoir indexes were derived from radial tonometry. Participants were stratified by positive (bPWV > aPWV), negligible (bPWV ≈ aPWV), or negative stiffness mismatch (bPWV < aPWV). Left-ventricular mass index (LVMI) was measured by two-dimensional-echocardiography. Central AP and AIx were higher with negative stiffness mismatch vs. negligible or positive stiffness mismatch (11 ± 6 vs. 10 ± 6 vs. 8 ± 6 mmHg, P < 0.001 and 24 ± 10 vs. 24 ± 11 vs. 21 ± 13%, P = 0.042). Stiffness mismatch (bPWV-aPWV) was negatively associated with AP (r = -0.18, P = 0.001) but not AIx (r = -0.06, P = 0.27). Aortic reservoir pressure strongly correlated to AP (r = 0.81, P < 0.001) and AIx (r = 0.62, P < 0.001) independent of age, sex, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and height (standardized β = 0.61 and 0.12, P ≤ 0.001). Aortic reservoir pressure independently predicted abnormal LVMI (β = 0.13, P = 0.024). Positive aortic-brachial stiffness mismatch does not result in higher AP or AIx. Aortic reservoir function, rather than discrete wave reflection from proximal arterial stiffness mismatching, provides a better model description of AP and AIx and also has clinical relevance as evidenced by an independent association of aortic reservoir pressure with LVMI.

  14. Arterial stiffness in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Prenner, Stuart B; Chirinos, Julio A

    2015-02-01

    Arterial stiffness is an age-related process that is a shared consequence of numerous diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM), and is an independent predictor of mortality both in this population and in the general population. While much has been published about arterial stiffness in patients with DM, a thorough review of the current literature is lacking. Using a systematic literature search strategy, we aimed to summarize our current understanding related to arterial stiffness in DM. We review key studies demonstrating that, among patients with established DM, arterial stiffness is closely related to the progression of complications of DM, including nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. It is also becoming clear that arterial stiffness can be increased even in pre-diabetic populations with impaired glucose tolerance, and in those with the metabolic syndrome (METS), well before the onset of overt DM. Some data suggests that arterial stiffness can predict the onset of DM. However, future work is needed to further clarify whether large artery stiffness and the pulsatile hemodynamic changes that accompany it are involved in the pathogenesis of DM, and whether interventions targeting arterial stiffness are associated with improved clinical outcomes in DM. We also review of the potential mechanisms of arterial stiffness in DM, with particular emphasis on the role of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and nitric oxide dysregulation, and address potential future directions for research.

  15. Preeclampsia Is Associated with Increased Central Aortic Pressure, Elastic Arteries Stiffness and Wave Reflections, and Resting and Recruitable Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Farro, Ignacio; Zócalo, Yanina; Farro, Federico; Sosa, Claudio; Scasso, Santiago; Alonso, Justo; Bia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. An altered endothelial function (EF) could be associated with preeclampsia (PE). However, more specific and complementary analyses are required to confirm this topic. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and hyperemic-related changes in carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr) offer complementary information about “recruitability” of EF. Objectives. To evaluate, in healthy and hypertensive pregnant women (with and without PE), central arterial parameters in conjunction with “basal and recruitable” EF. Methods. Nonhypertensive (HP) and hypertensive pregnant women (gestational hypertension, GH; preeclampsia, PE) were included. Aortic blood pressure (BP), wave reflection parameters (AIx@75), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) and PWVcr, and brachial and common carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness were measured. Brachial FMD and L-FMC and hyperemic-related change in PWVcr were measured. Results. Aortic BP and AIx@75 were elevated in PE. PE showed stiffer elastic but not muscular arteries. After cuff deflation, PWVcr decreased in HP, while GH showed a blunted PWVcr response and PE showed a tendency to increase. Maximal FMD and L-FMC were observed in HP followed by GH; PE did not reach significant arterial constriction. Conclusion. Aortic BP and wave reflections as well as elastic arteries stiffness are increased in PE. PE showed both “resting and recruitable” endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:26351578

  16. High Central Aortic Rather than Brachial Blood Pressure is Associated with Carotid Wall Remodeling and Increased Arterial Stiffness in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Gonzalo; García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Marota, Marco; Castro, Juan; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina

    2017-03-01

    In adults, central blood pressure (cBP) is reported to associate target organ damages (TODs) rather than peripheral blood pressure (pBP). However, data regarding the association of pre-clinical TODs with cBP and pBP in pediatric populations are scarce. To evaluate in children and adolescents the importance of cBP and pBP levels, in terms of their association with hemodynamic and vascular changes. 315 subjects [age (mean/range) 12/8-18 years] were included. pBP (oscillometry, Omron-HEM433INT and Mobil-O-Graph), cBP levels and waveforms (oscillometry, Mobil-O-Graph; applanation tonometry, SphygmoCor), aortic wave reflection-related parameters, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid (elastic modulus, stiffness-index) and aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV). Four groups were defined considering pBP and cBP percentiles (th): cBP ≥90th, cBP <90th, pBP ≥90th, pBP <90th. In each group, haemodynamic and vascular parameters were compared for subgroups defined considering the level of the remaining blood pressure (cBP or pBP). Subgroups were matched for anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors (propensity matching-score). Subjects with high cBP showed a worse cardiovascular risk profile in addition to worse peripheral hemodynamic conditions. The CIMT, carotid and aortic stiffness levels were also higher in those subjects. CIMT and carotid stiffness remained statistically higher when subjects were matched for pBP and other cardiovascular risk factors. There were no differences in arterial properties when subjects were analyzed (compared) considering similar pBP levels, during normal and high cBP conditions. Compared with pBP, the cBP levels show a greater association with vascular alterations (high CIMT and arterial stiffness), in children and adolescents.

  17. Comparison of the effects of antihypertensive agents on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Isla S; McEniery, Carmel M; Dhakam, Zahid; Brown, Morris J; Cockcroft, John R; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2009-08-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and results primarily from elastic artery stiffening. Although various drug therapies are used to lower peripheral blood pressure (BP) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, the effects of the 4 major classes of antihypertensive agents on central BP, pulse pressure (PP) amplification, and arterial stiffness in this condition are not clear. Fifty-nine patients over the age of 60 years with untreated isolated systolic hypertension (systolic BP > or =140 mm Hg and diastolic BP central PP was only reduced significantly by perindopril, lercanidipine, and bendrofluazide, whereas atenolol had no effect. Lercanidipine reduced the augmentation index, whereas atenolol increased it. Aortic pulse wave velocity was not changed by any of the drugs. In summary, despite similar reductions in peripheral systolic and PPs with the 4 classes of drug, changes in central pressure and augmentation index varied. Because central PP and increased wave reflections are considered important risk factors in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, the choice of therapy may be influenced by these findings in the future.

  18. Arterial Stiffness: Recommendations and Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of arterial stiffness measurements in longitudinal cohorts of normal populations, hypertensive patients, diabetic patients, healthy elderly, and patients on hemodialysis have confirmed the value of this important measure of arterial health, and established its complementary role to measures of blood pressure. Its contribution to understanding cardiovascular and mortality risk beyond blood pressure measurements has moved measures of arterial stiffness into the ranks of factors such as elevated cholesterol, diabetes, and left ventricular hypertrophy in considering cardiovascular risk. The recent international collaboration's publication of reference ranges for normal people and those with hypertension, along with the American Heart Association's recent scientific statement on standardizing arterial stiffness measurements are important aspects to consider in future studies employing these valuable methods, particularly as interventions that not only lower blood pressure but improve arterial function are tested in the clinical arena. PMID:28275588

  19. Low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training can prevent the increase of central arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Masuhara, M; Ikuta, K

    2013-05-01

    Although high-intensity resistance training increases arterial stiffness, low-intensity resistance training reduces arterial stiffness. The present study investigates the effect of low-intensity resistance training before and after high-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness. 30 young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a group that performed low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training (BLRT, n=10), a group that performed low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training (ALRT, n=10) and a sedentary control group (n=10). The BLRT and ALRT groups performed resistance training at 80% and 50% of one repetition maximum twice each week for 10 wk. Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral and femoral-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV). One-repetition maximum strength in the both ALRT and BLRT significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Both carotid-femoral PWV and femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the ALRT group did not change from before training. In contrast, carotid-femoral PWV after combined training in the BLRT group increased from before training (P <0.05). Femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the both BLRT and ALRT groups did not change from before training. These results suggest that although arterial stiffness is increased by low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training, performing low-intensity resistance training thereafter can prevent the increase of arterial stiffness.

  20. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Šabovič, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    The world population is aging and the number of old people is continuously increasing. Arterial structure and function change with age, progressively leading to arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness is best characterized by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is its surrogate marker. It has been shown that PWV could improve cardiovascular event prediction in models that included standard risk factors. Consequently, it might therefore enable better identification of populations at high-risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review is focused on a survey of different pharmacological therapeutic options for decreasing arterial stiffness. The influence of several groups of drugs is described: antihypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates), statins, peroral antidiabetics, advanced glycation end-products (AGE) cross-link breakers, anti-inflammatory drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, and vasopeptidase inhibitors. All of these have shown some effect in decreasing arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, further studies are needed which should address the influence of arterial stiffness diminishment on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). PMID:25170513

  1. Epidemiology of the arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt-Grögler, K; Belz, G G

    1999-06-01

    Aortic stiffening is as much an important risk factor in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as it serves as reliable surrogate marker for clinical endpoints like myocardial and cerebrovascular incidents. Elevated aortic stiffness induces high systolic blood pressure, augmented pulse pressure with increased ventricular afterload, reduced subendocardial blood flow and augmented pulsatile stress in the peripheral arteries. Factors with relevant impact on the epidemiology of arterial stiffness are widely spread. 3 major groups of parameters influencing the stiffness of the aorta and the large arteries have been studied and described up to now: (i) physiological properties like age, gender, body height, pressure, hormonal state, genetic factors; (ii) environmental factors like nutrition (fish-, salt-, garlic consumption), smoking, performance of sports and aerobic capacity; (iii) diseases like hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, renal failure, Marfan-syndrome, growth hormone deficiency. Close association between several of these factors impedes analyzing them independently from each other. Age and blood pressure were found to be the most prominent predictors of arterial stiffness in normal as well as in disease populations. Physiological and environmental factors can modulate these effects of aging, diseases generally seem to amplify them.

  2. Arterial stiffness, hypertension, and rational use of nebivolol.

    PubMed

    Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2009-01-01

    Arterial stiffness plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. Some indices of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, characteristics of central blood pressure waveform) may be presently calculated and evaluated in the clinical setting. Age and blood pressure are the two major clinical determinants of increased arterial stiffness, while molecular determinants of arterial stiffness are related to fibrotic components of the extracellular matrix, mainly elastin, collagen and fibronectin. Increased arterial stiffness has been consistently observed in conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Arterial stiffness evaluated by means of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity yielded prognostic significance beyond and above traditional risk factors. A more favorable effect of calcium channel blockers, diuretics and ACE inhibitors compared with beta-blockers on indices of arterial stiffness was observed in several studies. It is conceivable that newer beta-blockers with additional vasodilating properties, such as nebivolol, which has favorable effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as on endothelial function and on oxidative stress, may have favorable effects on arterial stiffness, compared with atenolol. In fact, in recent studies, nebivolol was demonstrated to improve artery stiffness to a greater extent than older beta-blockers. Because endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness play an important role in the early atherosclerotic processes and are associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality, independently of blood pressure, the ability of nebivolol to enhance release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, and consequently improve endothelial function and arterial stiffness, may have significant clinical implications for the use of this agent in the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Arterial stiffness, hypertension, and rational use of nebivolol

    PubMed Central

    Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2009-01-01

    Arterial stiffness plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. Some indices of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, characteristics of central blood pressure waveform) may be presently calculated and evaluated in the clinical setting. Age and blood pressure are the two major clinical determinants of increased arterial stiffness, while molecular determinants of arterial stiffness are related to fibrotic components of the extracellular matrix, mainly elastin, collagen and fibronectin. Increased arterial stiffness has been consistently observed in conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Arterial stiffness evaluated by means of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity yielded prognostic significance beyond and above traditional risk factors. A more favorable effect of calcium channel blockers, diuretics and ACE inhibitors compared with β-blockers on indices of arterial stiffness was observed in several studies. It is conceivable that newer β-blockers with additional vasodilating properties, such as nebivolol, which has favorable effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as on endothelial function and on oxidative stress, may have favorable effects on arterial stiffness, compared with atenolol. In fact, in recent studies, nebivolol was demonstrated to improve artery stiffness to a greater extent than older β-blockers. Because endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness play an important role in the early atherosclerotic processes and are associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality, independently of blood pressure, the ability of nebivolol to enhance release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, and consequently improve endothelial function and arterial stiffness, may have significant clinical implications for the use of this agent in the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19475771

  4. Relationships between HDL-C, hs-CRP, with Central Arterial Stiffness in Apparently Healthy People Undergoing a General Health Examination

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Ye, Ping; Yuan, Ying; Lu, XueChun; Wang, Fan; Zeng, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Some cardiovascular risk factors have been confirmed to be positively correlated with arterial stiffness. However, it is unclear whether HDL-C, a well-established anti-risk factor, has an independent association with arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HDL-C levels and arterial stiffness and the possible role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in this potential correlation in apparently healthy adults undergoing a general health examination in China. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. In total, 15,302 participants (age range, 18–82 years; mean, 43.88±8.44 years) were recruited during routine health status examinations. A questionnaire was used and we measured the body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose, and serum lipid, uric acid, hs-CRP, and serum creatinine levels of each participant. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Results HDL-C levels decreased as cf-PWV increased. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that HDL-C levels were associated with cf-PWV (r=−0.18, P<0.001). hs-CRP levels were positively associated with cf-PWV (r=0.13). After adjustment for all confounders, HDL-C was inversely independently associated with all quartiles of cf-PWV. Furthermore, HDL-C was associated with cf-PWV in different quartiles of hs-CRP, and the correlation coefficients (r) gradually decreased with increasing hs-CRP levels (quartiles 1–4). Conclusions HDL-C is inversely independently associated with central arterial stiffness. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C may mediate its relationship with cf-PWV. Further, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate whether high HDL-C levels are protective against central artery stiffening through the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C. PMID:24312587

  5. Vascular Aging and Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mikael, Luana de Rezende; Paiva, Anelise Machado Gomes de; Gomes, Marco Mota; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira; Euzébio, Maicon Borges; Sousa, Wátila de Moura; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba

    2017-06-29

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account annually for almost one third of all deaths worldwide. Among the CVD, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is related to more than half of those outcomes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for SAH because it causes functional and structural damage to the arterial wall, leading to stiffness. Several studies have related oxidative stress, production of free radicals, and neuroendocrine and genetic changes to the physiopathogenesis of vascular aging. Indirect ways to analyze that aging process have been widely studied, pulse wave velocity (PWV) being considered gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, because there is large epidemiological evidence of its predictive value for cardiovascular events, and it requires little technical knowledge to be performed. A pulse wave is generated during each cardiac contraction and travels along the arterial bed until finding peripheral resistance or any bifurcation point, determining the appearance of a reflected wave. In young individuals, arteries tend to be more elastic, therefore, the reflected wave occurs later in the cardiac cycle, reaching the heart during diastole. In older individuals, however, the reflected wave occurs earlier, reaching the heart during systole. Because PWV is an important biomarker of vascular damage, highly valuable in determining the patient's global cardiovascular risk, we chose to review the articles on vascular aging in the context of cardiovascular risk factors and the tools available to the early identification of that damage. Resumo As doenças cardiovasculares são anualmente responsáveis por quase um terço do total de mortes no mundo. Dentre elas, a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) está relacionada com mais da metade desses desfechos. O diabetes mellitus tipo 2 é visto com um fator de risco independente para HAS por causar lesões funcionais e estruturais na parede arterial, ocasionando-lhe enrijecimento. Diversos estudos

  6. Flavonoids and arterial stiffness: promising perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lilamand, M; Kelaiditi, E; Guyonnet, S; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Raynaud-Simon, A; Vellas, B; Cesari, M

    2014-07-01

    Flavonoids are a group of polyphenol compounds, ubiquitously found in plants. Great emphasis has been given to their possible benefits for cardiovascular health. These beneficial effects may be mediated by a specific action on arterial walls. Arterial stiffness is a marker of vascular aging, increasingly used in the clinical setting and assessed by pulse wave velocity. It has shown to be a robust predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. This review aims at providing a comprehensive evaluation of available intervention and observational studies examining the relationship between flavonoid consumption and arterial stiffness. A Medline(®) literature search was performed using the keywords "arterial stiffness" and "flavonoids". As a result, 2 cross-sectional and 16 intervention studies assessing the relationship between flavonoids intake and arterial stiffness were retained. Four intervention trials reported a significant decrease of arterial stiffness after a flavonoid-based intervention, independently from blood pressure changes. The two observational studies reported significant associations between a higher flavonoid consumption and a lower arterial stiffness. In this review, isoflavones, anthocyanins and to a lesser extent cocoa flavan-3-ols appeared to be the more efficient to improve vascular function. Despite their heterogeneity, preliminary data seem to support an improvement of the arterial stiffness related to flavonoid intake. However, further research on absorption and dose-response effects of the specific flavonoid subclasses on arterial structure is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical inactivity and arterial stiffness in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Sievi, Noriane A; Franzen, Daniel; Kohler, Malcolm; Clarenbach, Christian F

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is an important predictor of cardiovascular risk besides classic cardiovascular risk factors. Previous studies showed that arterial stiffness is increased in patients with COPD compared to healthy controls and exercise training may reduce arterial stiffness. Since physical inactivity is frequently observed in patients with COPD and exercise training may improve arterial stiffness, we hypothesized that low daily physical activity may be associated with increased arterial stiffness. Methods In 123 patients with COPD (72% men; mean [standard deviation] age: 62 [7.5] years; median [quartile] forced expiratory volume in 1 second 35 [27/65] %predicted), arterial stiffness was assessed by augmentation index (AI). Daily physical activity level (PAL) was measured by an activity monitor (SenseWear Pro™) >1 week. The association between AI and PAL was investigated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis, taking into account disease-specific characteristics and comorbidities. Results Patients suffered from moderate (35%), severe (32%), and very severe (33%) COPD, and 22% were active smokers. Median (quartile) PAL was 1.4 (1.3/1.5) and mean (standard deviation) AI 26% (9.2%). PAL showed a negative association with AI (B=−9.32, P=0.017) independent of age, sex, blood pressure, and airflow limitation. Conclusion In COPD patients, a higher PAL seems to favorably influence arterial stiffness and therefore may reduce cardiovascular risk. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01527773 PMID:26392763

  8. Angiotensin Receptor Blockades Effect on Peripheral Muscular and Central Aortic Arterial Stiffness: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chih-Hsuan; Lai, Yau-Huei; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Lee, Ping-Ying; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous clinical trials have demonstrated the impact of blocking upstream renin-angiotensin-axis with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on arterial stiffness as evaluated by pulse-wave velocity (PWV). We ran a meta-analysis to evaluate the anti-stiffness effect of powerful downstream angiotensin receptor blockades (ARBs) on peripheral and central arterial stiffness (brachial to ankle, ba-PWV; carotid to femoral, cf-PWV, respectively), using a systematic review to assess the clinical arterial stiffness issues. Methods For our study, we searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases from inception to June 2013, targeting randomized controlled trials. ARBs along with other antihypertensive agents, ACEIs, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), beta-blockers and diuretics were evaluated to ascertain their comparable effect on ba-PWV and cf-PWV, respectively. A meta-analysis was conducted utilizing the fixed or random effect of the weighted mean change difference between the ARB and comparator groups, depending on the I2 statistic heterogeneity measurement. Results In 2 trials treating patients with ARBs (n = 30), the ARBs insignificantly reduced levels of ba-PWV (pooled mean change difference -188, 95% CI -687, 311, p = 0.24 with significant heterogeneity) as compared to other hypertensive agents (ACEIs and CCBs, n = 77). Interestingly, ARBs (n = 20) had a superior capacity to reduce levels of ba-PWV than CCBs (n = 20) in single study results (mean change difference -400, 95% CI -477, -322, p < 0.05). In 7 trials which included a total of 653 patients, treatment with ARBs (n = 308) also insignificantly reduced cf-PWV (pool mean change difference -0.197, 95% CI -0.54, 0.14, p = 0.218) as compared to other anti-hypertensive agents. Conclusions Our data suggested that ARBs had a similar effect as other anti-hypertensive agents in reducing ba-PWV and cf-PWV. Upon systematic review, the renin-angiotensin-axis system mechanism seems more significant

  9. Large Artery Stiffness Assessment Using SphygmoCor Technology

    PubMed Central

    Butlin, Mark; Qasem, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Large artery stiffness assessment has been an integral part of the SphygmoCor technology since 1998. Aortic stiffness is approximated with non-invasive measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, with improvements made with time to make the assessment procedure quicker and more user independent. Also standard in the devices is the ability to reliably calculate the central aortic waveform shape from a peripheral pressure waveform from either the brachial or radial artery. This waveform contains much information beyond peak and trough (systolic and diastolic pressure). Relative waveform features such as the augmentation index, wave reflection magnitude, reflection time index, and subendocardial viability ratio are parameters that are influenced by the stiffness of systemic arteries. This article briefly describes these parameters related to large artery stiffness and provides reference to validation and repeatability studies relative to the clinical use of the SphygmoCor devices. It is beyond the scope to review here the 424 original research articles that have employed SphygmoCor devices in measuring arterial stiffness. Instead, the method of measurement across the devices is described, including tonometry, volumetric displacement through cuff placement around limbs, and ambulatory monitoring. Key population and subpopulation studies are cited where the average stiffness parameter progression with age and gender, as measured by SphygmoCor devices, is quantified in the healthy and general population. Finally, with reference to guidelines from working groups on arterial stiffness and hypertension, the clinical utility of large artery stiffness measurement is discussed in the context of the arterial stiffness parameters provided by the SphygmoCor systems. PMID:28229053

  10. Effect of A Reduction in glomerular filtration rate after NEphrectomy on arterial STiffness and central hemodynamics: rationale and design of the EARNEST study.

    PubMed

    Moody, William E; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Ferro, Charles J; Steeds, Richard P; Mark, Patrick B; Zehnder, Daniel; Tomson, Charles R; Cockcroft, John R; Wilkinson, Ian B; Townend, Jonathan N

    2014-02-01

    There is strong evidence of an association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. To date, however, proof that a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a causative factor in cardiovascular disease is lacking. Kidney donors comprise a highly screened population without risk factors such as diabetes and inflammation, which invariably confound the association between CKD and cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence that increased arterial stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, rather than atherosclerotic disease, mediate the adverse cardiovascular effects of CKD. The expanding practice of live kidney donation provides a unique opportunity to study the cardiovascular effects of an isolated reduction in GFR in a prospective fashion. At the same time, the proposed study will address ongoing safety concerns that persist because most longitudinal outcome studies have been undertaken at single centers and compared donor cohorts with an inappropriately selected control group. The reduction in GFR accompanying uninephrectomy causes (1) a pressure-independent increase in aortic stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity) and (2) an increase in peripheral and central blood pressure. This is a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, parallel group study of 440 living kidney donors and 440 healthy controls. All controls will be eligible for living kidney donation using current UK transplant criteria. Investigations will be performed at baseline and repeated at 12 months in the first instance. These include measurement of arterial stiffness using applanation tonometry to determine pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis, office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and a series of biomarkers for cardiovascular and bone mineral disease. These data will prove valuable by characterizing the direction of causality between cardiovascular and renal disease. This should help inform whether targeting

  11. Effect of A Reduction in glomerular filtration rate after NEphrectomy on arterial STiffness and central hemodynamics: Rationale and design of the EARNEST study☆

    PubMed Central

    Moody, William E.; Tomlinson, Laurie A.; Ferro, Charles J.; Steeds, Richard P.; Mark, Patrick B.; Zehnder, Daniel; Tomson, Charles R.; Cockcroft, John R.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Townend, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. To date, however, proof that a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a causative factor in cardiovascular disease is lacking. Kidney donors comprise a highly screened population without risk factors such as diabetes and inflammation, which invariably confound the association between CKD and cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence that increased arterial stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, rather than atherosclerotic disease, mediate the adverse cardiovascular effects of CKD. The expanding practice of live kidney donation provides a unique opportunity to study the cardiovascular effects of an isolated reduction in GFR in a prospective fashion. At the same time, the proposed study will address ongoing safety concerns that persist because most longitudinal outcome studies have been undertaken at single centers and compared donor cohorts with an inappropriately selected control group. Hypotheses The reduction in GFR accompanying uninephrectomy causes (1) a pressure-independent increase in aortic stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity) and (2) an increase in peripheral and central blood pressure. Methods This is a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, parallel group study of 440 living kidney donors and 440 healthy controls. All controls will be eligible for living kidney donation using current UK transplant criteria. Investigations will be performed at baseline and repeated at 12 months in the first instance. These include measurement of arterial stiffness using applanation tonometry to determine pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis, office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and a series of biomarkers for cardiovascular and bone mineral disease. Conclusions These data will prove valuable by characterizing the direction of causality between cardiovascular and renal disease. This

  12. [Impact of aortic stiffness on central hemodynamics and cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Bulas, J; Potočárová, M; Filková, M; Simková, A; Murín, J

    2013-06-01

    Arterial stiffness increases as a result of degenerative processes accelerated by aging and many risk factors, namely arterial hypertension. Basic clinical examination reveals increased pulse pressure as its hemodynamic manifestation. The most serious consequence of increased vascular stiffness, which cannot be revealed by clinical examination, is a change of central hemodynamics leading to increased load of left ventricle, left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and to overall increase of cardiovascular risk. This review aimed to point at some patophysiological mechanisms taking part in the development of vascular stiffness, vascular remodeling and hemodynamic consequences of these changes. This work also gives an overview of noninvasive examination methods and their characteristics enabling to evaluate the local, regional and systemic arterial stiffness and central pulse wave analysis and their meaning for central hemodynamics and heart workload.

  13. Central arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction are associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity in young women but polycystic ovary syndrome does not confer additional risk.

    PubMed

    Rees, E; Coulson, R; Dunstan, F; Evans, W D; Blundell, H L; Luzio, S D; Dunseath, G; Halcox, J P; Fraser, A G; Rees, D A

    2014-09-01

    Are arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and diastolic dysfunction increased in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) independently of the effects of obesity? Insulin resistance and central obesity are associated with subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction in young women, but a diagnosis of PCOS does not appear to confer additional risk at this age. Some studies have shown that young women with PCOS may have increased measures of cardiovascular risk, including arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and myocardial dysfunction. However, it is difficult to establish how much of this risk is due to PCOS per se and how much is due to obesity and insulin resistance, which are common in PCOS and themselves associated with greater vascular risk. This cross-sectional study comprised 84 women with PCOS and 95 healthy volunteers, aged 16-45 years. The study was conducted in a university hospital. Subjects underwent a comprehensive assessment of body composition (including computed tomography (CT) assessment of visceral fat; VF), measurements of arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity; aPWV), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT), diastolic function (longitudinal tissue velocity; e':a') and endocrinological measures. A sample size of 80 in each group gave 80% power for detecting a difference of 0.45 m/s in aPWV or a difference of 0.25 in e':a'. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), PCOS subjects had a greater insulin response (insulin area under the curve-IAUC) following glucose challenge (adjusted difference [AD] 35 900 pmol min/l, P < 0.001) and higher testosterone (AD 0.57 nmol/l, P < 0.001) and high molecular weight adiponectin than controls (AD 3.01 µg/ml, P = 0.02), but no significant differences in aPWV (AD -0.13 m/s, P = 0.33), ccIMT (AD -0.01 mm, P = 0.13), or e':a' (AD -0.01, P = 0.86) were observed. After adjustment for age, height and central pulse pressure, e':a' and aPWV were associated with log

  14. Effect of whole-body mild-cold exposure on arterial stiffness and central haemodynamics: a randomised, cross-over trial in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    King, Sibella G; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Wass, Jezreel; Shing, Cecilia M; Adams, Murray J; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E; Williams, Andrew D

    2013-05-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality, but little is known about the effect of air temperature changes on these variables. Our study investigated the effect of exposure to whole-body mild-cold on measures of arterial stiffness (aortic and brachial PWV), and on central haemodynamics [including augmented pressure (AP), AIx], and aortic reservoir components [including reservoir and excess pressures (P ex)]. Sixteen healthy volunteers (10 men, age 43 ± 19 years; mean ± SD) were randomised to be studied under conditions of 12 °C (mild-cold) and 21 °C (control) on separate days. Supine resting measures were taken at baseline (ambient temperature) and after 10, 30, and 60 min exposure to each experimental condition in a climate chamber. There was no significant change in brachial blood pressure between mild-cold and control conditions. However, compared to control, AP [+2 mmHg, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-4.36; p = 0.01] and AIx (+6 %, 95 % CI 1.24-10.1; p = 0.02) increased, and time to maximum P ex (a component of reservoir function related to timing of peak aortic in-flow) decreased (-7 ms, 95 % CI -15.4 to 2.03; p = 0.01) compared to control. Yet there was no significant change in aortic PWV (+0.04 m/s, 95 % CI -0.47 to 0.55; p = 0.87) or brachial PWV (+0.36 m/s; -0.41 to 1.12; p = 0.35) between conditions. We conclude that mild-cold exposure increases central haemodynamic stress and alters timing of peak aortic in-flow without differentially affecting arterial stiffness.

  15. Association between arterial stiffness and peripheral artery disease as measured by radial artery tonometry.

    PubMed

    Zahner, Greg J; Gruendl, Magdalena A; Spaulding, Kimberly A; Schaller, Melinda S; Hills, Nancy K; Gasper, Warren J; Grenon, S Marlene

    2017-07-26

    Arterial stiffness and peripheral artery disease (PAD) are both associated with an elevated risk of major adverse cardiac events; however, the association between arterial stiffness and PAD is less well characterized. The goal of this study was to examine the association between parameters of radial artery tonometry, a noninvasive measure of arterial stiffness, and PAD. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 134 vascular surgery outpatients (controls, 33; PAD, 101) using arterial applanation tonometry. Central augmentation index (AIX) normalized to 75 beats/min and peripheral AIX were measured using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Pulse wave velocity was recorded at the carotid and femoral arteries. PAD was defined as symptomatic claudication with an ankle-brachial index of <0.9 or a history of peripheral revascularization. Controls had no history of atherosclerotic vascular disease and an ankle-brachial index ≥0.9. Among the 126 participants with high-quality tonometry data, compared with controls (n = 33), patients with PAD (n = 93) were older, with higher rates of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and smoking (P < .05). Patients with PAD also had greater arterial stiffness as measured by central AIX, peripheral AIX, and pulse wave velocity (P < .05). In a multivariable model, a significantly increased odds of PAD was associated with each 10-unit increase in central AIX (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.9; P = .03) and peripheral AIX (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.2; P = .01). In addition, central and peripheral AIX were highly correlated (r120 = 0.76; P < .001). In a cross-sectional analysis, arterial stiffness as measured by the AIX is independently associated with PAD, even when adjusting for several atherosclerotic risk factors. Further prospective data are needed to establish whether radial artery tonometry could be a tool for risk stratification in the PAD population. Copyright © 2017 Society for

  16. Arterial pressure suffices to increase liver stiffness.

    PubMed

    Piecha, Felix; Peccerella, Teresa; Bruckner, Tom; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Rausch, Vanessa; Mueller, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive measurement of liver stiffness (LS) has been established to screen for liver fibrosis. Since LS is also elevated in response to pressure-related conditions such as liver congestion, this study was undertaken to learn more about the role of arterial pressure on LS. LS was measured by transient elastography (μFibroscan platform, Echosens, Paris, France) during single intravenous injections of catecholamines in anesthetized rats with and without thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis. The effect of vasodilating glycerol trinitrate (GTN) on LS was also studied. Pressures in the abdominal aorta and caval and portal veins were measured in real time with the PowerLab device (AD Instruments, Dunedin, New Zealand). Baseline LS values in all rats (3.8 ± 0.5 kPa, n = 25) did not significantly differ from those in humans. Epinephrine and norepinephrine drastically increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 82 to 173 and 156 mmHg. Concomitantly, LS almost doubled from 4 to 8 kPa, while central venous pressure remained unchanged. Likewise, portal pressure only showed a slight and delayed increase. In the TAA-induced fibrosis model, LS increased from 9.5 ± 1.0 to 25.6 ± 14.7 kPa upon epinephrine injection and could efficiently be decreased by GTN. We finally show a direct association in humans in a physiological setting of elevated cardiac output and MAP. During continuous spinning at 200 W, MAP increased from 84 ± 8 to 99 ± 11 mmHg while LS significantly increased from 4.4 ± 1.8 to 6.7 ± 2.1 kPa. In conclusion, our data show that arterial pressure suffices to increase LS. Moreover, lowering MAP efficiently decreases LS in fibrotic livers that are predominantly supplied by arterial blood. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    PubMed Central

    Lundbäck, Magnus; Mills, Nicholas L; Lucking, Andrew; Barath, Stefan; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3) or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA), as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV). PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx) and time to wave reflection (Tr) were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02) and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01), along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03), 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution. PMID:19284640

  18. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man.

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, Magnus; Mills, Nicholas L; Lucking, Andrew; Barath, Stefan; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders

    2009-03-13

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 mug/m3) or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA), as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV). PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx) and time to wave reflection (Tr) were calculated. Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02) and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01), along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03), 10 minutes post-exposure. Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  19. Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Daniel A.; Gyan, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes patients and general population. However, the contribution of diabetes to arterial stiffness is often masked by coexistent obesity and hypertension. In this study, we assessed arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive, nonobese type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in Ghana. Methods. In case-control design, 166 nonhypertensive, nonobese participants, comprising 96 T2DM patients and 70 nondiabetes controls, were recruited. Peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) indices were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), augmentation index (AIx), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV). Results. With similar peripheral and central BP indices, T2DM patients had higher PWVao (8.3 ± 1 versus 7.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.044) and CAVI (7.9 ± 1.2 versus 6.9 ± 0.7, p = 0.021) than nondiabetic control. AIx and haPWV were similar between T2DM and nondiabetic controls. Multiple regression models showed that, in the entire study participants, the major determinants of PWVao were diabetes status, age, gender, systolic BP, and previous smoking status (β = 0.22, 0.36, 0.48, 0.21, and 0.25, resp.; all p < 0.05); the determinants of CAVI were diabetes status, age, BMI, heart rate, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and previous smoking status (β = 0.21, 0.38, 0.2, 0.18, 0.24. 0.2, −0.19, and 0.2, resp.; all p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nonhypertensive, nonobese T2DM patients have increased arterial stiffness without appreciable increase in peripheral and central pressure indices. PMID:27774104

  20. Arterial stiffness: pathophysiology and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    London, Gérard M; Marchais, Sylvain J; Guerin, Alain P; Pannier, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The ill effects of hypertension are usually attributed to a reduction in the caliber or the number of arterioles, resulting in an increase in total peripheral resistance (TPR). This definition does not take into account the fact that BP is a cyclic phenomenon with systolic and diastolic BP being the limits of these oscillations. The appropriate term to define the arterial factor(s) opposing LV ejection is aortic input impedance which depends on TPR, arterial distensibility (D), and wave reflections (WR). D defines the capacitive properties of arterial stiffness, whose role is to dampen pressure and flow oscillations and to transform pulsatile flow and pressure in arteries into a steady flow and pressure in peripheral tissues. Stiffness is the reciprocal value of D. These parameters are BP dependent, and arteries become stiffer at high pressure. In to D which provides information about the of artery as a hollow structure, the elastic incremental modulus (Einc) characterizes the properties of the arterial wall biomaterials, independently of vessel geometry. As an alternative, arterial D can be evaluated by measuring the pulse wave velocity (PWV) which increases with the stiffening of arteries. Arterial stiffening increases left ventricular (LV) afterload and alters the coronary perfusion. With increased PWV, the WR impacts on the aorta during systole, increasing systolic pressures and myocardial oxygen consumption, and decreasing diastolic BP and coronary flow. The arterial stiffness is altered primarily in association with increased collagen content and alterations of extracellular matrix (arteriosclerosis) as classically observed during aging or in arterial hypertension. The arterial stiffening estimated by changes in aortic PWV and intensity of WR are independent predictors of survival in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and general population. Improvement of arterial stiffening could be obtained by antihypertensive treatmen as observed with the calcium

  1. Hydration Status Is Associated with Aortic Stiffness, but Not with Peripheral Arterial Stiffness, in Chronically Hemodialysed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bia, Daniel; Galli, Cintia; Zócalo, Yanina; Armentano, Ricardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adequate fluid management could be essential to minimize high arterial stiffness observed in chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHP). Aim. To determine the association between body fluid status and central and peripheral arterial stiffness levels. Methods. Arterial stiffness was assessed in 65 CHP by measuring the pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a central arterial pathway (carotid-femoral) and in a peripheral pathway (carotid-brachial). A blood pressure-independent regional arterial stiffness index was calculated using PWV. Volume status was assessed by whole-body multiple-frequency bioimpedance. Patients were first observed as an entire group and then divided into three different fluid status-related groups: normal, overhydration, and dehydration groups. Results. Only carotid-femoral stiffness was positively associated (P < 0.05) with the hydration status evaluated through extracellular/intracellular fluid, extracellular/Total Body Fluid, and absolute and relative overhydration. Conclusion. Volume status and overload are associated with central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness levels with independence of the blood pressure level, in CHP. PMID:26167301

  2. Hypertension and arterial stiffness in heart transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Neto, João David; de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Lima-Rocha, Hermano Alexandre; Oliveira-Lima, José Wellington; Bacal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Post-transplantation hypertension is prevalent and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and subsequent graft dysfunction. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with arterial stiffness as measured by the ambulatory arterial stiffness index. METHODS: The current study used a prospective, observational, analytical design to evaluate a group of adult heart transplantation patients. Arterial stiffness was obtained by monitoring ambulatory blood pressure and using the ambulatory arterial stiffness index as the surrogate outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to control confounding. RESULTS: In a group of 85 adult heart transplantation patients, hypertension was independently associated with arterial stiffness (OR 4.98, CI 95% 1.06-23.4) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure averages and nighttime descent. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of ambulatory arterial stiffness index is a new, non-invasive method that is easy to perform, may contribute to better defining arterial stiffness prognosis and is associated with hypertension. PMID:27652829

  3. Arterial stiffness profiles: investigating various sections of the arterial tree of African and Caucasian people.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Reimann, Manja

    2011-01-01

    In Africans, arterial stiffness progression seems more pronounced compared to Caucasians. We compared the arterial stiffness profiles of different age groups and focused on muscular arteries and two more central arterial segments in African and Caucasian people from South Africa. In African (N = 374) and Caucasian (N = 376) participants (20-70 years), we measured carotid-radial (C-R) and carotid-dorsalis pedis (C-DP) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic characteristic impedance (Zao). Major findings were that normotensive and high-normal/hypertensive (HT) Caucasians indicated increased trends of C-R PWV with aging (P = .029 and P = .067), not seen in the African groups (P = .122 and P = .526). Both ethnic groups showed significant increases of C-DP PWV and Zao with aging. High-normal/hypertensive Africans had significantly stiffer arteries than hypertensive Caucasians for almost all age groups, and for all stiffness measures. African C-R PWV correlated significantly with blood pressure (BP), but not with age. Opposite results were observed for Caucasians. In conclusion, the stiffness of muscular arteries is already elevated in young Africans, in both those with normal or elevated BP. This is possibly due to an earlier deterioration during childhood, or perhaps already present from birth. Also, in Caucasians stiffness seems more age-related, while in Africans it seems to be more pressure-related.

  4. Adrenalectomy improves arterial stiffness in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Branislav; Petrák, Ondrej; Zelinka, Tomás; Wichterle, Dan; Holaj, Robert; Kasalický, Mojmír; Safarík, Libor; Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Jirí

    2008-10-01

    BackgroundAldosterone has been shown to substantially contribute to the accumulation of different types of collagen fibers and growth factors in the arterial wall, which increase wall stiffness. We previously showed that arterial wall stiffness is increased in primary aldosteronism (PA) independently of concomitant hypertension. This study was aimed at assessing the effects of specific treatment of PA on the arterial stiffness.MethodsTwenty-nine patients with confirmed PA (15 with aldosterone-producing adenoma treated by unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, 14 treated with spironolactone (mainly idiopathic aldosteronism) were investigated by Sphygmocor applanation tonometer (using measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI)) at the time of the diagnosis and then approximately 1 year after the specific treatment.ResultsThe office blood pressure (BP) decreased from 167 +/- 18/96 +/- 9 to 136 +/- 12/80 +/- 7 mm Hg after adrenalectomy (P = 0.001), and from 165 +/- 21/91 +/- 13 to 151 +/- 22/88 +/- 8 mm Hg (not significant (n.s.)) on spironolactone. The mean 24-h BP decreased from 150 +/- 18/93 +/- 11 mm Hg to 126 +/- 17/80 +/- 10 mm Hg after adrenalectomy (P < 0.01), and from 155 +/- 16/94 +/- 12 to 139 +/- 18/88 +/- 8 mm Hg (n.s.) on spironolactone. The PWV significantly decreased after surgery from 9.5 +/- 2.7 m/s to 7.6 +/- 2 m/s (P = 0.001), and the AI (recalculated for heart rate 75/min) decreased significantly from 27 +/- 10 to 19 +/- 9% (P < 0.01). On the other hand, we did not find significant change of arterial stiffness indices in patients treated with spironolactone (PWV: 9.3 +/- 1.6 m/s vs. 8.8 +/- 1.3 m/s (n.s.); AI: 25 +/- 9% vs. 25 +/- 8% (n.s.)).ConclusionsSurgical but not conservative treatment of PA led to a significant decrease of BP and arterial stiffness parameters.American Journal of Hypertension (2008). doi:10.1038/ajh.2008.243American Journal of Hypertension (2008); 21, 10, 1086-1092. doi 10.1038/ajh

  5. Combined moderate and high intensity exercise with dietary restriction improves cardiac autonomic function associated with a reduction in central and systemic arterial stiffness in obese adults: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Wang, Shen; Wang, Dan; Lai, Qinhao; Chen, Xiaoying; Duan, Shiwei; Zhao, Mengke; Huang, Junhao

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of exercise with dietary restriction on cardiac autonomic activity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular biomarkers in obese individuals. Seventeen obese adults completed an 8-week exercise and dietary program. Anthropometry, body composition, and multiple biochemical markers were measured. We used carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), central blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx) to assess arterial stiffness. To determine cardiac autonomic activity, heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed by standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD), total power (TF), low-frequency power in normalized units (LFnu), high-frequency power in normalized units (HFnu), and low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LF/HF). Following the exercise and diet intervention, obese subjects had significant reductions in body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, brachial systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate, and they had shown improvements in blood chemistry markers such as lipid profiles, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a significant reduction in both cfPWV and baPWV following the intervention when compared to baseline levels. Moreover, the AIx and aortic systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after the intervention. The diet and exercise intervention significantly increased cardiac autonomic modulation (determined by improved SDNN, RMSSD, TP LF, HF, and LF/HF), which was partly due to changes in heart rate, insulin resistance, and the inflammatory pattern. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between enhanced cardiac autonomic modulation (LF/HF) and decreased arterial stiffness, as measured by central cfPWV and systemic baPWV. An 8-week combined intervention of diet and exercise is effective in improving cardiac autonomic

  6. Arterial Stiffness in Children: Pediatric Measurement and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Savant, Jonathan D.; Furth, Susan L.; Meyers, Kevin E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is a natural consequence of aging, accelerated in certain chronic conditions, and predictive of cardiovascular events in adults. Emerging research suggests the importance of arterial stiffness in pediatric populations. Methods There are different indices of arterial stiffness. The present manuscript focuses on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis, although other methodologies are discussed. Also reviewed are specific measurement considerations for pediatric populations and the literature describing arterial stiffness in children with certain chronic conditions (primary hypertension, obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hypercholesterolemia, genetic syndromes involving vasculopathy, and solid organ transplant recipients). Conclusions The measurement of arterial stiffness in children is feasible and, under controlled conditions, can give accurate information about the underlying state of the arteries. This potentially adds valuable information about the functionality of the cardiovascular system in children with a variety of chronic diseases well beyond that of the brachial artery blood pressure. PMID:26587447

  7. Arterial Stiffness in Children: Pediatric Measurement and Considerations.

    PubMed

    Savant, Jonathan D; Furth, Susan L; Meyers, Kevin E C

    2014-05-01

    Arterial stiffness is a natural consequence of aging, accelerated in certain chronic conditions, and predictive of cardiovascular events in adults. Emerging research suggests the importance of arterial stiffness in pediatric populations. There are different indices of arterial stiffness. The present manuscript focuses on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis, although other methodologies are discussed. Also reviewed are specific measurement considerations for pediatric populations and the literature describing arterial stiffness in children with certain chronic conditions (primary hypertension, obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hypercholesterolemia, genetic syndromes involving vasculopathy, and solid organ transplant recipients). The measurement of arterial stiffness in children is feasible and, under controlled conditions, can give accurate information about the underlying state of the arteries. This potentially adds valuable information about the functionality of the cardiovascular system in children with a variety of chronic diseases well beyond that of the brachial artery blood pressure.

  8. Heart Rate Dependency of Large Artery Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Tan, Isabella; Spronck, Bart; Kiat, Hosen; Barin, Edward; Reesink, Koen D; Delhaas, Tammo; Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) quantifies large artery stiffness, it is used in hemodynamic research and is considered a useful cardiovascular clinical marker. cfPWV is blood pressure (BP) dependent. Intrinsic heart rate (HR) dependency of cfPWV is unknown because increasing HR is commonly accompanied by increasing BP. This study aims to quantify cfPWV dependency on acute, sympathovagal-independent changes in HR, independent of BP. Individuals (n=52, age 40-93 years, 11 female) with in situ cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators were paced at 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 bpm. BP and cfPWV were measured at each HR. Both cfPWV (mean [95% CI], 0.31 [0.26-0.37] m/s per 10 bpm; P<0.001) and central aortic diastolic pressure (3.78 [3.40-4.17] mm Hg/10 bpm; P<0.001) increased with HR. The HR effect on cfPWV was isolated by correcting the BP effects by 3 different methods: (1) statistically, by a linear mixed model; (2) mathematically, using an exponential relationship between BP and cross-sectional lumen area; and (3) using measured BP dependency of cfPWV derived from changes in BP induced by orthostatic changes (seated and supine) in a subset of subjects (n=17). The BP-independent effects of HR on cfPWV were quantified as 0.20 [0.11-0.28] m/s per 10 bpm (P<0.001, method 1), 0.16 [0.11-0.22] m/s per 10 bpm (P<0.001, method 2), and 0.16 [0.11-0.21] m/s per 10 bpm (P<0.001, method 3). With a mean HR dependency in the range of 0.16 to 0.20 m/s per 10 bpm, cfPWV may be considered to have minimal physiologically relevant changes for small changes in HR, but larger differences in HR must be considered as contributing to significant differences in cfPWV.

  9. Physical exercise improves arterial stiffness after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle; Currie, Katharine D.; West, Christopher R.; Gee, Cameron M.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective/background Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), the gold-standard assessment of central arterial stiffness, has prognostic value for cardiovascular disease risk in able-bodied individuals. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV in athletes and non-athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional comparison. Methods Aortic PWV was assessed in 20 individuals with motor-complete, chronic SCI (C2–T5; 18 ± 8 years post-injury) using applanation tonometry at the carotid and femoral arterial sites. Ten elite hand-cyclists were matched for sex to 10 non-athletes; age and time since injury were comparable between the groups. Heart rate and discrete brachial blood pressure measurements were collected throughout testing. Outcome measures Aortic PWV, blood pressure, heart rate. Results Aortic PWV was significantly lower in athletes vs. non-athletes (6.9 ± 1.0 vs. 8.7 ± 2.5 m/second, P = 0.044). There were no significant between-group differences in resting supine mean arterial blood pressure (91 ± 19 vs. 81 ± 10 mmHg) and heart rate (60 ± 10 vs. 58 ± 6 b.p.m.). Conclusion Athletes with SCI exhibited improved central arterial stiffness compared to non-athletes, which is in agreement with the previous able-bodied literature. This finding implies that chronic exercise training may improve arterial health and potentially lower cardiovascular disease risk in the SCI population. PMID:24976366

  10. Arterial Stiffness and Renal Replacement Therapy: A Controversial Topic

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Edmundo Cabrera; Zócalo, Yanina; Galli, Cintia; Bia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The increase of arterial stiffness has been to have a significant impact on predicting mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a noninvasive, reliable parameter of regional arterial stiffness that integrates the vascular geometry and arterial wall intrinsic elasticity and is capable of predicting cardiovascular mortality in this patient population. Nevertheless, reports on PWV in dialyzed patients are contradictory and sometimes inconsistent: some reports claim the arterial wall stiffness increases (i.e., PWV increase), others claim that it is reduced, and some even state that it augments in the aorta while it simultaneously decreases in the brachial artery pathway. The purpose of this study was to analyze the literature in which longitudinal or transversal studies were performed in hemodialysis and/or peritoneal dialysis patients, in order to characterize arterial stiffness and the responsiveness to renal replacement therapy. PMID:26064684

  11. Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness.

  12. Martial Arts Training Attenuates Arterial Stiffness in Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter C.; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Methods Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. Results There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). Conclusion The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness. PMID:24427479

  13. Large artery stiffness: implications for exercise capacity and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2002-03-01

    1. Large artery stiffness, or its inverse, compliance, determines pulse pressure, which, in turn, influences myocardial work capacity and coronary perfusion, both of which impact on exercise capacity and cardiovascular risk. 2. In support of a role for arterial properties in exercise performance, aerobically trained athletes (aged 30-59 years) have lower arterial stiffness than their sedentary counterparts. Furthermore, in healthy older subjects (aged 57-80 years), time to exhaustion on treadmill testing correlated positively with arterial compliance. 3. Arterial stiffness is more closely linked to exercise capacity and myocardial risk in patients with coronary disease where, independently of degree of coronary disease, those with stiffer proximal arteries have a lower exercise-induced ischaemic threshold. 4. Moderate aerobic training elevates resting arterial compliance by approximately 30%, independently of mean pressure reduction, in young healthy individuals but not in isolated systolic hypertensive patients. Rat training studies support a role for exercise training in structural remodelling of the large arteries. 5. High-resistance strength training is associated with stiffer large arteries and higher pulse pressure than matched controls. 6. Large artery stiffness is an important modulator of the myocardial blood supply and demand equation, with significant ramifications for athletic performance and ischaemic threshold in coronary disease patients. Moderate aerobic training, but not high-resistance strength training, reduces large artery stiffness in young individuals whereas older subjects with established isolated systolic hypertension are resistant to such adaptation.

  14. Hormones and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Ozkan; Kircelli, Fatih; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian; Ok, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease constitutes the major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Arterial stiffness is an important contributor to the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease. Various risk factors, including altered hormone levels, have been suggested to be associated with arterial stiffness. Based on the background that chronic kidney disease predisposes individuals to a wide range of hormonal changes, we herein review the available data on the association between arterial stiffness and hormones in patients with chronic kidney disease and summarize the data for the general population.

  15. Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection: Sex Differences and Relationship with Left Ventricular Diastolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2012-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been reported in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and in asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, a precursor of HFNEF. It is unclear whether women, who have higher frequency of HFNEF, are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious effects of arterial stiffness on LV diastolic function. We investigated in a large community-based cohort, whether sex differences exist in the relationship between arterial stiffness, wave reflection and LV diastolic function. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed in 983 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using applanation tonometry. Central pulse pressure/stroke volume index (cPP/SVi), total arterial compliance, pulse pressure amplification and augmentation index were used as parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. LV diastolic function was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were greater in women compared to men, independent of body size and heart rate (all p<0.01), and showed inverse relationships with parameters of diastolic function in both sexes. Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these relationships; however, higher cPP/SVi predicted LV diastolic dysfunction in women [odds ratio (OR) 1.54, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03–2.30] and men (OR: 2.09, 95% CI 1.30–3.39) independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, in our community-based cohort study, higher arterial stiffness was associated with worse LV diastolic function in men and women. Women’s higher arterial stiffness, independent of body size, may contribute to their greater susceptibility to develop HFNEF. PMID:22753223

  16. Estimation of Stiffness Parameter on the Common Carotid Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao; Matsui, Kiyoaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. Up to the present, several methods to measure stiffness parameter of the carotid artery have been proposed. However, they have analyzed at the only one point of common carotid artery. In this paper, we propose the method of analysis extended over a wide area of common carotid artery. In order to measure stiffness parameter of common carotid artery from echocardiogram, it is required to detect two border curves which are boundaries between vessel wall and blood. The method is composed of two steps. The first step is the detection of border curves, and the second step is the calculation of stiffness parameter using diameter of common carotid artery. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

  17. Association between sleep condition and arterial stiffness in Chinese adult with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xia; Zhou, Jiansong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Zhiheng

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) usually has worse cardiovascular risk factors. Given the potential association between deterioration of sleep and arterial stiffness, we aim to investigate the association between deterioration of sleep and arterial stiffness in a middle-aged Chinese population with NAFLD. In this cross-sectional study, 15,372 Chinese aged 40-60 years who participated in periodic health checkups in central south China, were included. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality, anthropometric, biochemical, and liver ultrasound scan were analyzed and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was used as the indicator of arterial stiffness. Poor sleep quality was found to be associated with increased arterial stiffness, with odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of 2.28 (95 % CI, 1.53-3.38) compared with good sleep quality. Using sleep duration ≥ 8 h as the reference, there was no significant association between sleep duration of ≤ 6 or 6-8 h and arterial stiffness after multivariable-adjusted. In additional analyses, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to arterial stiffness indicated participants with poor sleep quality and sleep duration ≤ 6 h were more likely to have arterial stiffness than those with good quality sleep who sleep for ≥ 8 h (OR 2.59, 95 % CI 1.58-4.24). The present study indicates that short sleep duration, poor sleep quality in individuals with NAFLD correlate with increased arterial stiffness.

  18. Crosstalk between oxidative and nitrosative stress and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-02-01

    Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy. Oxidative and nitrosative stress play important roles in arterial stiffness elevation in several disorders, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, thalassemia, Kawasaki disease and malignant disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction due to uncoupling of the nitric oxide synthase, oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in vascular endothelial cells, associated with inflammation, arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. Regular physical exercise, caloric restriction, red wine, statins, sartans, metformin, oestradiol, curcumin and combinations of antioxidant vitamins are therapeutic strategies that may decrease arterial stiffness and oxidative stress thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. ROS and RNS represent potential therapeutic targets for preventing progression of arterial stiffness.

  19. Psychological Stress and Arterial Stiffness in Korean Americans

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; Carlson, John; Carlson, Barbara W; Rowsey, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffness is identified as a causative factor for hypertension. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological stress and arterial stiffness in Korean Americans. Methods A convenience sample of 102 Korean Americans (aged 21–60 years, 60% women) was recruited from North Carolina. Psychological stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, the Social, Attitudinal, Familiar, and Environmental (SAFE) Acculturative Stress Scale, and the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) using the SphygmoCor system (AtCor Medical, Australia). Results This study shows that the emotional stress response, measured by anxiety, significantly predicted arterial stiffness (β= .25, p=.008), independently of such confounding factors as age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), gender, body mass index, smoking, education, and income. Anxiety was neither related to age (r=.12, p=.212) nor MAP (r=.14, p=.151). Additionally, this sample of Korean Americans had higher levels of psychological stress when compared to previous findings from studies of other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Conclusion Findings demonstrate that anxiety is a significant and independent determinant of arterial stiffness. Given that anxiety was not related to MAP, these findings suggest that arterial stiffness may be a pathway to explain the connection between anxiety and hypertension risk. Studies that scrutinize the relationship between anxiety and arterial stiffness are an important next step for future research. Further studies are also recommended to explore cultural factors and individual characteristics that may affect anxiety in Korean Americans. PMID:22691560

  20. Arterial Stiffness in the Young: Assessment, Determinants, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Arterial stiffness describes the rigidity of the arterial wall. Its significance owes to its relationship with the pulsatile afterload presented to the left ventricle and its implications on ventricular-arterial coupling. In adults, the contention that arterial stiffness as a marker and risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is gaining support. Noninvasive methods have increasingly been adopted in both the research and clinical arena to determine local, segmental, and systemic arterial stiffness in the young. With adoption of these noninvasive techniques for use in children and adolescents, the phenomenon and significance of arterial stiffening in the young is beginning to be unveiled. The list of childhood factors and conditions found to be associated with arterial stiffening has expanded rapidly over the last decade; these include traditional cardiovascular risk factors, prenatal growth restriction, vasculitides, vasculopathies associated with various syndromes, congenital heart disease, and several systemic diseases. The findings of arterial stiffening have functional implications on energetic efficiency, structure, and function of the left ventricle. Early identification of arterial dysfunction in childhood may provide a window for early intervention, although longitudinal studies are required to determine whether improvement of arterial function in normal and at-risk paediatric populations will be translated into clinical benefits. PMID:20421954

  1. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  2. Effects of chronic carotid baroreceptor activation on arterial stiffness in severe heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gronda, Edoardo; Brambilla, GianMaria; Seravalle, Gino; Maloberti, Alessandro; Cairo, Matteo; Costantino, Giuseppe; Lovett, Eric; Vanoli, Emilio; Mancia, Giuseppe; Grassi, Guido

    2016-10-01

    Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and increased arterial stiffness, leading to an impaired ventricular-vascular coupling. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) has been shown to reduce muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and improve clinical status of patients with HFrEF. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of BAT on arterial stiffness in HFrEF. MSNA, clinical variables, and parameters of central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness were collected in 18 NYHA Class III HFrEF patients, nine receiving BAT and nine continuing with optimal medical management alone. Patients were followed for 3 months, with measurements at that time compared to baseline evaluation. Baseline characteristics of the groups were well matched. At 3 months, BAT did not improve central BP and arterial stiffness despite a significant amelioration of MSNA, NYHA class, Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire score, number of heart failure medications and six-minute walking distance. The control group exhibited no significant changes in all the measured variables. Despite significant reductions in MSNA and clinical improvement, BAT does not appear to chronically modify arterial stiffness within this HFrEF cohort. Additional study is required to determine if this result applies to the HFrEF population as a whole.

  3. Skinfold thickness as a predictor of arterial stiffness: obesity and fatness linked to higher stiffness measurements in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Ali; Bulucu, Fatih; Kalafat, Firdevs; Cakar, Mustafa; Demirbas, Seref; Karaman, Murat; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Saglam, Kenan; Balta, Sevket; Demirkol, Sait; Arslan, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive patients have strong evidence of endothelial dysfunction. Some novel endothelial dysfunction parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central aortic pressure (CAP) have been investigated as predictive markers of atherosclerosis. It is well known that obesity has relationships with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate relationships between anthropometric measurements and arterial stiffness parameters in essentially hypertensive patients. The study population included 100 patients (56 females, 44 males) newly or formerly diagnosed as essentially hypertensive in an outpatient clinic. Arterial stiffness measurements, including PWV, AIx, CAP, and body mass index (BMI); waist circumference, hip circumference; waist/hip ratio; and triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses were also applied to all the study patients. Then, the relationships between BMI, anthropometric measurements, and arterial stiffness parameters were investigated. The mean systolic arterial blood pressure of the study population was 135.85 ± 15.27 mm Hg and the mean diastolic arterial blood pressure of the study population was 84.17 ± 9.58 mm Hg. The parameters such as PWV, AIx, and CAP measured for arterial stiffness had correlations between BMI and different anthropometric measurements. The statistically significant correlations were present between PWV and triceps skinfold thickness (TST) (r = 0.377, P < .001) and it was also seen when regression analysis was performed (PWV = 6.41 + [0.072 × TST]; R(2) = 0.142, F[1-98] = 16.23, P < .001). Triceps skinfold thickness among these correlations may be used to estimate the carotid-femoral PWV, which is an indicator of subclinical organ damage due to hypertension.

  4. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    PubMed

    Elewa, Usama; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Alegre, Raquel; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; El-Fishawy, Hussein; Belal, Dawlat; Ortiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV) was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV) - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population). Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  5. Children and Adolescent Obesity Associates with Pressure-Dependent and Age-Related Increase in Carotid and Femoral Arteries' Stiffness and Not in Brachial Artery, Indicative of Nonintrinsic Arterial Wall Alteration

    PubMed Central

    García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Castro, Juan Manuel; Arana, Maite; Giachetto, Gustavo; Chiesa, Pedro; Zócalo, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze if childhood obesity associates with changes in elastic, transitional, and/or muscular arteries' stiffness. Methods. 221 subjects (4–15 years, 92 females) were assigned to normal weight (NW, n = 137) or obesity (OB, n = 84) groups, considering their body mass index z-score. Age groups were defined: 4–8; 8–12; 12–15 years old. Carotid, femoral, and brachial artery local stiffness was determined through systodiastolic pressure-diameter and stress-strain relationships. To this end, arterial diameter and peripheral and aortic blood pressure (BP) levels and waveforms were recorded. Carotid-femoral, femoropedal, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocities were determined to evaluate aortic, lower-limb, and upper-limb regional arterial stiffness, respectively. Correlation analysis between stiffness parameters and BP was done. Results. Compared to NW, OB subjects showed higher peripheral and central BP and carotid and femoral stiffness, reaching statistical significance in subjects aged 12 and older. Arterial stiffness differences disappeared when levels were normalized for BP. There were no differences in intrinsic arterial wall stiffness (elastic modulus), BP stiffness relationships, and regional stiffness parameters. Conclusion. OB associates with BP-dependent and age-related increase in carotid and femoral (but not brachial) stiffness. Stiffness changes would not be explained by intrinsic arterial wall alterations but could be associated with the higher BP levels observed in obese children. PMID:27066273

  6. A systematic review on the effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness reveals a differential response in the upper and lower arterial segments.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Andrew F; Cooke, Alexandra B; Saleh, Olivier; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the controversy that still abounds as to the impact of acute aerobic exercise on immediate changes in arterial stiffness. Electronic databases were searched to identify articles assessing the effects of acute aerobic exercise on parameters of arterial stiffness. Eligible studies included arterial stiffness measurements before and after acute aerobic exercise in healthy human subjects. Forty-three studies were included. The effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness was found to be dependent on the anatomical segment assessed, and on the timing of the measurement post-exercise. Arterial stiffness of the central and upper body peripheral arterial segments was found to be increased relative to resting values immediately post-exercise (0-5 min), whereas, thereafter (>5 min), decreased to a level at or below resting values. In the lower limbs, proximal to the primary working muscles, arterial stiffness decreased immediately post-exercise (0-5 min), which persisted into the recovery period post-exercise (>5 min). This systematic review reveals a differential response to acute exercise in the lower and upper/central arterial segments in healthy adult subjects. We further showed that the effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness is dependent on the timing of the measurements post-exercise. Therefore, when assessing the overall impact of exercise on arterial stiffness, it is important to consider the arterial segment being analyzed and measurement time point, as failure to contextualize the measurement can lead to conflicting results and misleading clinical inferences.

  7. Pressure-dependence of arterial stiffness: potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Spronck, Bart; Heusinkveld, Maarten H G; Vanmolkot, Floris H; Roodt, Jos Op 't; Hermeling, Evelien; Delhaas, Tammo; Kroon, Abraham A; Reesink, Koen D

    2015-02-01

    Arterial stiffness measures such as pulse wave velocity (PWV) have a known dependence on actual blood pressure, requiring consideration in cardiovascular risk assessment and management. Given the impact of ageing on arterial wall structure, the pressure-dependence of PWV may vary with age. Using a noninvasive model-based approach, combining carotid artery echo-tracking and tonometry waveforms, we obtained pressure-area curves in 23 hypertensive patients at baseline and after 3 months of antihypertensive treatment. We predicted the follow-up PWV decrease using modelled baseline curves and follow-up pressures. In addition, on the basis of these curves, we estimated PWV values for two age groups (mean ages 41 and 64 years) at predefined hypertensive (160/90 mmHg) and normotensive (120/80 mmHg) pressure ranges. Follow-up measurements showed a near 1 m/s decrease in carotid PWV when compared with baseline, which fully agreed with our model-prediction given the roughly 10 mmHg decrease in diastolic pressure. The stiffness-blood pressure-age pattern was in close agreement with corresponding data from the 'Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness' study, linking the physical and empirical bases of our findings. Our study demonstrates that the innate pressure-dependence of arterial stiffness may have implications for the clinical use of arterial stiffness measurements, both in risk assessment and in treatment monitoring of individual patients. We propose a number of clinically feasible approaches to account for the blood pressure effect on PWV measurements.

  8. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  9. Arterial stiffness and inflammatory response to psychophysiological stress.

    PubMed

    Ellins, Elizabeth; Halcox, Julian; Donald, Ann; Field, Bryony; Brydon, Lena; Deanfield, John; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    The processes through which psychological stress influences cardiovascular disease are poorly understood, but may involve activation of hemodynamic, neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses. We assessed the relationship between carotid arterial stiffness and inflammatory responses to acute psychophysiologic stress. Participants were 155 healthy men and women aged 55.3, SD 2.7 years. Blood samples for the assessment of plasma fibrinogen, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL) 6 were drawn at baseline, immediately following standardized behavioral tasks, and 45 min later. Carotid artery stiffness was measured ultrasonically three years later, and blood pressure and heart rate responses were recorded. The tasks induced substantial increases in blood pressure and heart rate, together with increased fibrinogen, TNFalpha and IL-6 concentration. Carotid stiffness was positively associated with body mass, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein, and inversely with high density lipoprotein and grade of employment. Baseline levels of inflammatory variables were not related to carotid artery stiffness. But carotid stiffness was greater in participants with larger fibrinogen (p=0.037) and TNFalpha (p=0.036) responses to psychophysiological stress. These effects were independent of age, gender, grade of employment, smoking, body mass, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic pressure, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. There were no associations between carotid stiffness and stress responses in IL-6, blood pressure, or heart rate. We conclude that individual differences in inflammatory responses to psychophysiological stress are independently related to structural changes in artery walls that reflect increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  10. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  12. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Gao, Ping-Jin; Guo, Hui-Feng; Nawrot, Tim; Stanton, Alice V; Zhu, Ding-Liang; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that 1 minus the slope of diastolic on systolic pressure during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ambulatory arterial stiffness index [AASI]) might reflect arterial stiffness. We compared AASI with established measures of arterial stiffness and studied its distribution in Chinese and European populations. We used 90207 SpaceLabs monitors and the SphygmoCor device to measure AASI, central and peripheral pulse pressures, the central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) systolic augmentation indexes, and aortic pulse wave velocity. In 166 volunteers, the correlation coefficient between AASI and pulse wave velocity was 0.51 (P<0.0001). In 348 randomly recruited Chinese subjects, AASI correlated (P<0.0001) with CAIx (r=0.48), PAIx (r=0.50), and central pulse pressure (r=0.50). AASI increased with age and mean arterial pressure but decreased with body height. Both before and after adjustment for arterial wave reflections by considering height and heart rate as covariates, AASI correlated more (P<0.0001) closely with CAIx and PAIx than 24-hour pulse pressure. Among normotensive subjects, the 95th percentile of AASI was 0.55 in Chinese and 0.57 in 1617 Europeans enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. The upper boundary of the 95% prediction interval of AASI in relation to age ranged from 0.53 at 20 years to 0.72 at 80 years. In conclusion, AASI is a new index of arterial stiffness that can be easily measured under ambulatory conditions. Pending additional validation in outcome studies, normal values of AASI are probably <0.50 and 0.70 in young and older subjects, respectively.

  13. Effect of Simvastatin on Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Statin Myalgia

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Lorson, Lindsay; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.; Taylor, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Statins reduce arterial stiffness but are also associated with mild muscle complaints. It is unclear whether individuals with muscle symptoms experience the same vascular benefit or whether statins affect striated and smooth muscle cells differently. We examined the effect of simvastatin treatment on arterial stiffness in patients who did versus those who did not exhibit muscle symptoms. Patients with a history of statin-related muscle complaints (n = 115) completed an 8 wk randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial of daily simvastatin 20 mg and placebo. Serum lipids and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were assessed before and after each treatment. Muscle symptoms with daily simvastatin treatment were reported by 38 patients (33%). Compared to baseline, central PWV decreased (P = 0.01) following simvastatin treatment but not placebo (drug ∗ time interaction: P = 0.047). Changes in central PWV with simvastatin treatment were not influenced by myalgia status or time on simvastatin (P ≥ 0.15). Change in central PWV after simvastatin treatment was inversely correlated with age (r = −0.207, P = 0.030), suggesting that advancing age is associated with enhanced statin-mediated arterial destiffening. In patients with a history of statin-related muscle complaints, the development of myalgia with short-term simvastatin treatment did not attenuate the improvement in arterial stiffness. PMID:26257959

  14. Relationship between glycaemic levels and arterial stiffness in non-diabetic adults.

    PubMed

    Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2017-09-15

    To examine, in a non-diabetic population, whether the association between arterial stiffness and glycaemic levels depends on the test used as a glycaemic indicator, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). A cross-sectional analysis of a 220 non-diabetic subsample from the EVIDENT II study in which FPG, HbA1c and arterial stiffness-related parameters (pulse wave velocity, radial and central augmentation index, and central pulse pressure) were determined. Mean differences in arterial stiffness-related parameters by HbA1c and FPG tertiles were tested using analysis of covariance. All means of arterial stiffness-related parameters increased by HbA1c tertiles, although mean differences were only statistically significant in pulse wave velocity (p ≤.001), even after controlling for potential confounders (HbA1c <5.30% = 6.88 m/s; HbA1c 5.30%-5.59% = 7.06 m/s; and HbA1c ≥5.60% = 8.16 m/s, p =.004). Conversely, mean differences in pulse wave velocity by FPG tertiles did not reach statistically significant differences after controlling for potential confounders (FPG 4.44 mmol/l = 7.18 m/s; FPG 4.44 mmol/l-4.87 mmol/l = 7.26 m/s; and FPG ≥4.88 mmol/l = 7.93 m/s, p =.066). Glucose levels in a non-diabetic population were associated with arterial stiffness but better when levels were determined using HbA1c. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between left ventricular diastolic function and arterial stiffness in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Roos, Cornelis J; Auger, Dominique; Djaberi, Roxana; de Koning, Eelco J; Rabelink, Ton J; Pereira, Alberto M; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria; Jukema, J Wouter; Scholte, Arthur J

    2013-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the relation between these two pathophysiological factors remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between LV diastolic function and arterial stiffness as assessed with applanation tonometry. In 142 asymptomatic patients with DM (mean age 48 years, 75 (53 %) men, 72 (51 %) patients with type 2 DM) LV diastolic function was assessed with echocardiography. Arterial stiffness was evaluated measuring the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) whereas wave reflection was assessed measuring central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), central pulse pressure (cPP), and augmentation index (AIx) with applanation tonometry. Mean E/A ratio, E' and E/E' ratio were 1.1 ± 0.3, 8.1 ± 2.3 and 9.2 ± 3.3 cm/s, respectively. Mean PWV, mean cSBP, median cPP and mean AIx were 7.9 ± 2.4 m/s, 122 ± 17 mmHg, 40 [35-51] mmHg and 17.9 ± 12.1 %, respectively. PWV was independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction grade (β = 0.76, p = 0.03). In contrast, measures of wave reflection, cPP, cSBP and AIx were independently related with E/A ratio, but not with the LV diastolic dysfunction grade. Parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection are associated with echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function in asymptomatic patients with DM. Therapies that prevent progression of arterial stiffness and reduce late-systolic pressure overload may help to reduce the prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in this population.

  16. Effect of upper body aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Kunihiko; Mendelsohn, Marissa E; Overend, Tom J; Petrella, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of acute arm-cycling exercise on arterial stiffness of the brachial artery (BA: working limb) and posterior tibial artery (PTA: nonworking limb) in healthy older participants. Eleven participants were tested to evaluate BA and PTA stiffness. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and arterial stiffness indices of the BA and PTA measured by Doppler ultrasound were determined before and 10 min after graded arm-cycling exercise to volitional fatigue on 2 separate days. After the exercise, although BA diameter, brachial systolic BP, pulse pressure, and HR increased significantly (all p < .05), arterial stiffness indices of the BA remained unchanged. Similarly, arterial stiffness indices of the PTA remained unchanged after the exercise, whereas HR increased significantly (p < .05). These results show that acute arm-cycling exercise failed to modify arterial stiffness of the BA and PTA, suggesting that it has no systemic effect on arterial stiffness in healthy older adults.

  17. Acute Effect of Static Stretching Exercise on Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2016-10-01

    Habitual stretching exercise increases carotid arterial compliance, and acute stretching exercise increases arterial compliance in patients with myocardial infarction. However, it is not known whether this arterial adaptation is sustained after exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout of stretching exercise on the time course of systemic, central, and peripheral arterial stiffness in healthy young subjects. Twenty-six healthy young men performed static stretching exercise involving the entire body (trunk, upper limb, and lower limb) for 40 mins. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV; an index of arterial stiffness), blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before and 0, 15, 30, and 60 mins after stretching exercise. Femoral-ankle PWV and brachial-ankle PWV were reduced relative to baseline 15 and 30 mins after acute stretching (P < 0.05); however, these arterial responses were not sustained for longer periods, and both PWV values returned to the baseline levels within 60 mins. By contrast, carotid-femoral PWV was unchanged. These results suggest that chronic and sufficient repetition of muscle stretch stimulation may result in chronic high arterial compliance, although a single bout of stretch exercise acutely affects arterial compliance.

  18. Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuya; Tsubaki, Shigekazu; Fujita, Masami; Koyama, Naoto; Takahashi, Michio; Takazawa, Kenji

    2010-11-03

    Safflower seed extract (SSE) contains characteristic polyphenols and serotonin derivatives (N-( p-coumaroyl) serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin), which are reported to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and improve arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave analysis in animal models. The effects of long-term supplementation with SSE on arterial stiffness in human subjects were evaluated. This doubleblind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 77 males (35-65 years) and 15 postmenopausal females (55-65 years) with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension who were not undergoing treatment. Subjects received SSE (70 mg/day as serotonin derivatives) or placebo for 12 weeks, and pulse wave measurements, ie, second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG), augmentation index, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were conducted at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Vascular age estimated by SDPTG aging index improved in the SSE-supplemented group when compared with the placebo group at four (P = 0.0368) and 12 weeks (P = 0.0927). The trend of augmentation index reduction (P = 0.072 versus baseline) was observed in the SSE-supplemented group, but reduction of baPWV by SSE supplementation was not observed. The SSE-supplemented group also showed a trend towards a lower malondialdehyde-modified-LDL autoantibody titer at 12 weeks from baseline. These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness.

  19. Arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, and smoke exposure in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Denise M; Siegel, Paul D; Hughes, Michael D; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F; Campbell, Corey R; Richards, Jennifer C; Kales, Stefanos F; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuong-son; O'Donnell, Carl R; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R; Christiani, David C

    2014-07-01

    To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pulmonary Function and Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bangchuan; Gong, Shijin; Yu, Yihua; Dai, Haiwen

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness contributes to heart failure and is decreased by angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). This cross-sectional study aimed to assess associations of lung function and ARB with arterial stiffness in patients with chronic heart failure. 354 outpatients (168 males; 186 females; 68.2 ± 7.2 years old) with chronic heart failure were evaluated. Lung function parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and FEV1 to FVC ratio (FEV1/FVC), were assessed. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was used to estimate arterial stiffness. Unadjusted correlation analyses revealed a positive association of CAVI with ARB but not ACEI, and a negative correlation with FEV1 (r = −0.2987, p < 0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that ARB and FEV1 (p < 0.0001) were independent predicting factors for CAVI. These findings suggest that reduced pulmonary function is associated with increased CAVI. Pulmonary function protection could be used to improve the prognosis in heart failure, but additional studies are necessary. PMID:28097138

  1. Arterial Stiffness, Oxidative Stress, and Smoke Exposure in Wildland Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Denise M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Hughes, Michael D.; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F.; Campbell, Corey R.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Kales, Stefanos F.; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuongson; O’Donnell, Carl R.; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. Methods We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Results Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Conclusions Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. PMID:24909863

  2. Exposure to wood smoke increases arterial stiffness and decreases heart rate variability in humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emissions from biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and are estimated to cause millions of premature deaths worldwide annually. Whilst adverse respiratory health effects of biomass exposure are well established, less is known about its effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we assessed the effect of exposure to wood smoke on heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability in otherwise healthy persons. Methods Fourteen healthy non-smoking subjects participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects were exposed to dilute wood smoke (mean particle concentration of 314±38 μg/m3) or filtered air for three hours during intermittent exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability were measured at baseline and for one hour post-exposure. Results Central arterial stiffness, measured as augmentation index, augmentation pressure and pulse wave velocity, was higher after wood smoke exposure as compared to filtered air (p < 0.01 for all), and heart rate was increased (p < 0.01) although there was no effect on blood pressure. Heart rate variability (SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50; p = 0.003, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively) was decreased one hour following exposure to wood smoke compared to filtered air. Conclusions Acute exposure to wood smoke as a model of exposure to biomass combustion is associated with an immediate increase in central arterial stiffness and a simultaneous reduction in heart rate variability. As biomass is used for cooking and heating by a large fraction of the global population and is currently advocated as a sustainable alternative energy source, further studies are required to establish its likely impact on cardiovascular disease. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01488500 PMID:23742058

  3. Circulating Angiogenic Cell Populations, Vascular Function, and Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Susan; Wang, Na; Larson, Martin G.; Palmisano, Joseph N.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Levy, Daniel; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Vita, Joseph A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Cohen, Kenneth S.; Hamburg, Naomi M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several bone marrow-derived cell populations have been identified that may possess angiogenic activity and contribute to vascular homeostasis in experimental studies. We examined the extent to which lower quantities of these circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes may be related to impaired vascular function and greater arterial stiffness. Methods We studied 1,948 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 66±9 years; 54% women) who were phenotyped for circulating angiogenic cells: CD34+, CD34+/KDR+, and early outgrowth colony forming units (CFU). Participants underwent non-invasive assessments of vascular function including peripheral arterial tone (PAT), arterial tonometry, and brachial reactivity testing. Results In unadjusted analyses, higher CD34+ and CD34+/KDR+ concentrations were modestly associated with lower PAT ratio (β=−0.052±0.011, P<0.001 and β=−0.030±0.011, P=0.008, respectively) and with higher carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (β=0.144±0.043, P=0.001 and β=0.112±0.043, P=0.009), but not with flow-mediated dilation; higher CD34+ was also associated with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (β=−0.229±0.094, P=0.015) However, only the association of lower CD34+ concentration with higher PAT ratio persisted in multivariable analyses that adjusted for standard cardiovascular risk factors. In all analyses, CFU was not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness. Conclusions In our large, community-based sample of men and women, circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes largely were not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness in analyses adjusting for traditional risk factors. PMID:22093724

  4. Arterial Stiffness is Associated with Increase in Blood Pressure Over Time in Treated Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, T; Bailey, KR; Turner, ST; Kullo, IJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension. We hypothesized that arterial stiffness would predict increases in systolic (SBP), mean (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) over time in treated hypertensives. Methods Blood pressure (BP) was measured a mean of 8.5±0.9 years apart in 414 non-Hispanic white hypertensives (mean age 60±8 years, 55% women). The average of 3 supine right brachial BPs was recorded. Measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx) and central pulse pressure (CPP) were obtained at baseline by applanation tonometry. We performed stepwise multivariable linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders to assess the associations of arterial stiffness parameters with BP changes over time. Results Systolic, mean and pulse pressure increased in 80% of participants. After adjustment for the covariates listed above, cfPWV was significantly associated with increases in SBP (β±SE: 0.71±0.31) and PP (β±SE: 1.09±0.27); AIx was associated with increases in SBP (β±SE: 0.23±0.10) and MAP (β±SE: 0.27±0.07); and CPP was associated with increases in SBP (β±SE: 0.44±0.07), MAP (β±SE: 0.24±0.05) and PP (β±SE: 0.42±0.06) over time (P≤0.02 for all). Conclusions Baseline arterial stiffness measures were associated with longitudinal increases in SBP, MAP and PP in treated hypertensives. PMID:24952654

  5. Arterial stiffness, antiphospholipid antibodies, and pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Im Cho, Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of arterial stiffness in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and its relationship with antiphospholipid antibody (aPL). Measurement of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), carotid arterial stiffness, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was performed in 51 patients with SLE. PAH was diagnosed if the pulmonary artery systolic pressure was >40mmHg. Information concerning SLE duration, medication, and serum autoantibodies was recorded. SLE activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). aPL was present in 10 patients (20%), and PAH was detected in 6 patients (12%). The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon, baPWV, positive aPL, and titers of IgG anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) were increased in SLE with PAH; however, no difference was found in inflammatory markers, disease duration, and SLEDAI compared to SLE without PAH. Carotid artery deformation and right ventricular function were reduced in patients with PAH (all p<0.05). Carotid artery circumferential strain (r=0.34, p=0.021), radial strain (r=-0.30, p=0.045), and baPWV (r=0.46, p=0.001) showed significant correlation between IgG aCL. Univariate and multiple regression analysis revealed that the only significant independent predictors of the presence of PAH were baPWV, carotid artery stiffness, and IgG aCL. Arterial stiffness might contribute to the pathogenesis of PAH related to SLE as well as aPLs. Furthermore, the significant association of aPL with arterial stiffness suggests its important role in PAH with SLE. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  7. Dietary potassium regulates vascular calcification and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Byon, Chang Hyun; Yang, Youfeng; Bradley, Wayne E; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Sanders, Paul W; Agarwal, Anupam; Wu, Hui; Chen, Yabing

    2017-10-05

    Vascular calcification is a risk factor that predicts adverse cardiovascular complications of several diseases including atherosclerosis. Reduced dietary potassium intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and incidental stroke, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using the ApoE-deficient mouse model, we demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that reduced dietary potassium (0.3%) promoted atherosclerotic vascular calcification and increased aortic stiffness, compared with normal (0.7%) potassium-fed mice. In contrast, increased dietary potassium (2.1%) attenuated vascular calcification and aortic stiffness. Mechanistically, reduction in the potassium concentration to the lower limit of the physiological range increased intracellular calcium, which activated a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signal that subsequently enhanced autophagy and promoted vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Inhibition of calcium signals and knockdown of either CREB or ATG7, an autophagy regulator, attenuated VSMC calcification induced by low potassium. Consistently, elevated autophagy and CREB signaling were demonstrated in the calcified arteries from low potassium diet-fed mice as well as aortic arteries exposed to low potassium ex vivo. These studies established a potentially novel causative role of dietary potassium intake in regulating atherosclerotic vascular calcification and stiffness, and uncovered mechanisms that offer opportunities to develop therapeutic strategies to control vascular disease.

  8. Fibrinogen and d-dimer in contrasting relation with measures of wave reflection and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, Jedrzej; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Marciniak, Ryszard; Komarnicki, Mieczyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Wysocki, Henryk; Wykretowicz, Andrzej

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between the results of coagulation tests and measures of arterial stiffness or wave reflection has been investigated in different diseases. This exploratory study aimed at the evaluation of similar associations in healthy individuals. Pulse wave analysis of reconstructed aortic pressure waveform for the central augmentation index, augmentation pressure and pulse pressure, and digital volume pulse for the stiffness index were measured at supine rest in 91 healthy volunteers (54.1 ± 8.5 years; 56 female). Standard coagulation tests for the d-dimer and fibrinogen concentrations were performed in fasting venous blood. In univariate linear regression d-dimer and fibrinogen concentrations were significantly and positively, although weakly, associated with measures related to pulse wave analysis. Multivariate linear regression adjusted to subjects' age, resting pulse rate and mean blood pressure showed that the d-dimer concentration was significantly related to central augmentation index (p = 0.014), augmentation pressure (p = 0.003) and pulse pressure (p = 0.029) whereas fibrinogen was linked to the stiffness index (p = 0.04). Higher concentrations of d-dimers and fibrinogen are associated with increased arterial stiffness and faster pulse wave propagation in healthy people and the observed associations are independent of typical determinants of the shapes of pulse pressure waveforms like age, pulse rate and mean blood pressure. The independent relationships between the results of the coagulation tests and pulse wave analysis suggest that the existence of such associations may indicate a biologically plausible phenomenon.

  9. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Moyen, N E; Ganio, M S; Burchfield, J M; Tucker, M A; Gonzalez, M A; Dougherty, E K; Robinson, F B; Ridings, C B; Veilleux, J C

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for > 4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature (T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p >  .05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s(-1)) to 1.5 °C ΔT C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s(-1); p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s(-1); 1.5 °C ΔT C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s(-1); p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated (p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  10. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C Δ T C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  11. Relation of arterial stiffness with gestational age and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Wong, K; Lam, B.; Tsoi, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: The cardiovascular risk of individuals who are born small as a result of prematurity remains controversial. Given the previous findings of stiffer peripheral conduit arteries in growth restricted donor twins in twin–twin transfusion syndrome regardless of gestational age, we hypothesised that among children born preterm, only those with intrauterine growth retardation are predisposed to an increase in cardiovascular risks. Aim: To compare brachioradial arterial stiffness and systemic blood pressure (BP) among children born preterm and small for gestational age (group 1, n = 15), those born preterm but having birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 2, n = 36), and those born at term with birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 3, n = 35). Methods: Systemic BP was measured by an automated device (Dinamap), while stiffness of the brachioradial arterial segment was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV). The birth weight was adjusted for gestational age and expressed as a z score for analysis. Results: The 86 children were studied at a mean (SD) age of 8.2 (1.7) years. Subjects from group 1, who were born at 32.3 (2.0) weeks' gestation had a significantly lower z score of birth weight (-2.29 (0.63), p<0.001), compared with those from groups 2 and 3. They had a significantly higher mean blood pressure (p<0.001) and their diastolic blood pressure also tended to be higher (p = 0.07). Likewise, their brachioradial PWV, and hence arterial stiffness, was the highest of the three groups (p<0.001). While subjects from group 2 were similarly born preterm, their PWV was not significantly different from that of group 3 subjects (p = 1.00) and likewise their z score of birth weight did not differ (-0.01 (0.71) v -0.04 (1.1), p = 1.00). Brachioradial PWV correlated significantly with systolic (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), diastolic (r = 0.38, p<0.001), and mean (0.47, p<0.001) BP, and with z score of birth weight (r = -0.43, p<0

  12. Increased arterial stiffness in South Dakota American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Litz, Andrew M; Van Guilder, Gary P

    2016-02-01

    Arterial stiffness has been observed in white American obese children, yet there are no data in American Indian youth, who are affected disproportionately by the cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and its accompanying risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of childhood overweight-obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors with arterial stiffness in South Dakota white American and American Indian children. Thirty-six (28 white American and 8 American Indian) children (age, 13 ± 1 years; grades 6-8) from a rural South Dakota elementary and middle school were studied: 18 had a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI), 19.5 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 18 were overweight-obese (BMI, 26.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Arterial stiffness was assessed using applanation tonometry via pulse wave analysis to determine carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV) and aortic augmentation index (AIx). There were no differences (P = 0.94) in crPWV between healthy weight (7.1 ± 1.4 m/s) and overweight-obese (7.3 ± 1.0 m/s) children, even after controlling for risk factors. However, crPWV was markedly elevated (P = 0.002) in overweight-obese American Indian children (7.7 ± 1.1 m/s) compared with white American children (6.8 ± 0.5 m/s), and these differences remained after controlling for blood pressure and more severe obesity in the American Indians. An obesity-matched subgroup analysis indicated that crPWV (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 6.8 ± 0.4 m/s) remained significantly greater in the American Indians (P = 0.03). There were no between-group differences in aortic AIx. These findings indicate an adverse influence of American Indian ethnicity on arterial stiffening in children with elevated adiposity. Arterial stiffness in American Indian children may accelerate early adulthood vascular disease.

  13. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Lee, Si-Hoon; Oh, Yoon-Sang; Park, Jeong-Wook; An, Jae-Young; Choi, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity is a marker of arterial stiffness and a surrogate marker of vascular damage. Autonomic abnormalities associated with blood pressure are relatively commonly observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to compare arterial stiffness between patients with PD and controls and investigate the associations between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and pulse wave velocity in PD. One hundred twenty-five PD patients without diabetes mellitus were enrolled into this study, along with 22 age-matched controls. Orthostatic vital signs and ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring values were recorded. Pulse wave velocity was used to evaluate arterial stiffness. In PD, greater arterial stiffness was associated with orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, nocturnal hypertension, and nondipping. Dopaminergic treatment did not influence cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction or arterial stiffness. Although pulse wave velocity was mildly increased in patients with PD compared to controls, the arterial stiffness in PD patients without autonomic failure was similar to that in normal controls. Stiffer arteries were found only in patients with PD and autonomic failure. These findings suggest that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is associated with arterial stiffness in PD. PD itself does not affect arterial stiffness, whereas autonomic blood pressure disturbances influence alterations in arterial stiffness and architectural changes in the arteries of PD patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. New photoplethysmographic signal analysis algorithm for arterial stiffness estimation.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Ferenets, Rain; Meigas, Kalju; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Temitski, Kristina; Viigimaa, Margus

    2013-01-01

    The ability to identify premature arterial stiffening is of considerable value in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The "ageing index" (AGI), which is calculated from the second derivative photoplethysmographic (SDPPG) waveform, has been used as one method for arterial stiffness estimation and the evaluation of cardiovascular ageing. In this study, the new SDPPG analysis algorithm is proposed with optimal filtering and signal normalization in time. The filter parameters were optimized in order to achieve the minimal standard deviation of AGI, which gives more effective differentiation between the levels of arterial stiffness. As a result, the optimal low-pass filter edge frequency of 6 Hz and transitionband of 1 Hz were found, which facilitates AGI calculation with a standard deviation of 0.06. The study was carried out on 21 healthy subjects and 20 diabetes patients. The linear relationship (r = 0.91) between each subject's age and AGI was found, and a linear model with regression line was constructed. For diabetes patients, the mean AGI value difference from the proposed model y AGI was found to be 0.359. The difference was found between healthy and diabetes patients groups with significance level of P < 0.0005.

  15. Arterial Stiffness in Patients Taking Second-generation Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Fındıklı, Ebru; Gökçe, Mustafa; Nacitarhan, Vedat; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Hüseyin Avni; Kardaş, Selçuk; Şahin, Merve Coşgun; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objective That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine. Mental illness was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Mean age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, Framingham risk score (FRS), etc. were determined. Simultaneous electrocardiography and pulse wave were recorded with an electromyography device. The photo-plethysmographic method was used to record the pulse wave. Inclusion criteria included use of SGAs for at least the last six months. Patients with diseases that are known to cause stiffness and the use of typical antipsychotics were excluded. Results Ninety-six subject (56 patients, 40 controls) were included in our study. There were 49 females, 47 males. Patients had schizophrenia (n=17) and BD (n=39). Their treatments were quetiapine (n=15), risperidone (n=13), olanzapine (n=15), and aripiprazole (n=13). Although differences in mean age, gender, and FRS in the patient and control groups were not statistically significant (p=1), PWV was greater in patients in the antipsychotic group (p=0.048). Conclusion This study supported the liability to stiffness in patients with schizophrenia and BD. Using SGAs may contribute to arterial stiffness in these patients. PMID:27776389

  16. Habitual cocoa intake reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women regardless of intake frequency: a randomized parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Ryota; Natsume, Midori; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years) were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13), and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13). These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral–ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05). However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. PMID:27881914

  17. Habitual cocoa intake reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women regardless of intake frequency: a randomized parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Ryota; Natsume, Midori; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years) were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13), and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13). These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral-ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05). However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

  18. Assessment of arterial stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome in Ecuador: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Peñaherrera, Carlos A; Peñaherrera, Ruben; Duarte, Maria C; Peñaherrera, Ernesto

    Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk, and causes damage to the vascular wall. Through this mechanism, it might increase arterial rigidity, leading to further complications and heart strain. The use of a device that measures arterial rigidity can help determine if metabolic syndrome is related to a higher vascular stiffness and changes in estimated arterial age. Cross-sectional study at Luis Vernaza hospital of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Inpatients and outpatients from the Department of Cardiology with a full blood panel and echocardiogram were included. We used the IDF criteria to diagnose metabolic syndrome and measured arterial rigidity parameters in all of them, including augmentation indexes, central blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and arterial age. 95 patients were included for analysis, 44.2% were females and 55.8% were males. Mean age was 61.7 years (±13.1). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 49.5% of our patients and it was significantly more prevalent in women. We found significant differences in PWV, augmentation indexes, and peripheral and central blood pressure between metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome patients. There was a non-significant relationship between estimated arterial age and metabolic syndrome (p=0.32). Patients with metabolic syndrome have an increased arterial rigidity. This, added to the high prevalence of the disease we found in our sample, shows the high cardiovascular risk these patients are at. A multidisciplinary approach to management is needed, along with patient collaboration. The introduction of these devices to measure arterial stiffness in developing countries can improve diagnosis and therapy of patients with cardio-metabolic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of weight loss and insulin reduction on arterial stiffness in the SAVE trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic arterial stiffness contributes to the negative health effects of obesity and insulin resistance, which include hypertension, stroke, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity are individually associated with improved central arterial stiffness; however, their combined effects on arterial stiffness are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how insulin levels modify the improvements in arterial stiffness seen with weight loss in overweight and obese young adults. Methods To assess the effects of weight loss and decreased fasting insulin on vascular stiffness, we studied 339 participants in the Slow the Adverse Effects of Vascular Aging (SAVE) trial. At study entry, the participants were aged 20–45, normotensive, non-diabetic, and had a body-mass index of 25–39.9 kg/m2. Measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the central (carotid-femoral (cfPWV)), peripheral (femoral-ankle (faPWV)), and mixed (brachial-ankle (baPWV)) vascular beds were collected at baseline and 6 months. The effects of 6-month change in weight and insulin on measures of PWV were estimated using multivariate regression. Results After adjustment for baseline risk factors and change in systolic blood pressure, 6-month weight loss and 6-month change in fasting insulin independently predicted improvement in baPWV but not faPWV or cfPWV. There was a significant interaction between 6-month weight change and change in fasting insulin when predicting changes in baPWV (p < 0.001). Individuals experiencing both weight loss and insulin reductions showed the greatest improvement in baPWV. Conclusions Young adults with excess weight who both lower their insulin levels and lose weight see the greatest improvement in vascular stiffness. This improvement in vascular stiffness with weight loss and insulin declines may occur throughout the vasculature and may not be limited to individual vascular beds. Trial

  20. The effects of single hemodialysis session on arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Öğünç, Handan; Akdam, Hakan; Alp, Alper; Gencer, Fatih; Akar, Harun; Yeniçerioğlu, Yavuz

    2015-07-01

    Increased arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), which are markers of arterial stiffness, were used to determine the severity of vascular damage noninvasively. This study aimed to investigate the effects of solute volume removal and hemodynamic changes on PWV and AIx of a single hemodialysis session. Thirty hemodialysis patients were enrolled in the study. Before initiation of hemodialysis, every 15 minutes during hemodialysis, and 30 minutes after the completion of the session, measurements of PWV and AIx@75 (normalized with heart rate 75 bpm) were obtained from each patient. Body composition was analyzed by bioimpedance spectroscopy device before and 30 minutes after completion of the hemodialysis session. During the hemodialysis, no significant change was observed in AIx@75. However, PWV decreased steadily during the session reaching statistically significant level at 135th minute (P = 0.026), with a maximal drop at 210th minute (P < 0.001). At 210th minute, decrease in PWV correlated positively with the decrease in central systolic blood pressure, central diastolic blood pressure, central pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, and AIx@75. Multiple regression analysis showed that decrease in PWV at 210th minute was associated with decrease in central systolic blood pressure and central pulse pressure. Ultrafiltration during hemodialysis had no significant effect on PWV and AIx@75. Delta urea correlated positively with delta PWV at 240th minute. A significant decrease in PWV was observed during hemodialysis and correlated with urea reduction; however, we were unable to document any effect of volume removal on arterial stiffness.

  1. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  2. Blood pressure and arterial stiffness in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A strong relationship exists between obesity and elevated BP in both children and adults. Obesity and elevated BP in childhood track into adult life increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ambulatory BP is the most precise measure to evaluate the BP burden, whereas carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating arterial (i.e. aortic) stiffness. These measures might contribute to a better understanding of obesity's adverse impact on the cardiovascular system, and ultimately a better prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The overall aim of the present PhD thesis is to investigate arterial stiffness and 24-hour BP in obese children and adolescents, and evaluate whether these measures are influenced by weight reduction. The present PhD thesis is based on four scientific papers.  In a cross-sectional design, 104 severe obese children and adolescents with an age of 10-18 years were recruited when newly referred to the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk University Hospital, and compared to 50 normal weighted age and gender matched control individuals. Ambulatory BP was measured, and cfPWV was investigated in two ways in respect to the distance measure of aorta; the previously recommended length - the so called subtracted distance, and the currently recommended length - the direct distance. In a longitudinal design, the obese patients were re-investigated after one-year of lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic in purpose of reducing the degree of obesity. In the cross-sectional design, the obese group had higher measures of obesity, while matched for age, gender and height, when compared to the control group. In the longitudinal design, 74% of the 72 followed up obese patients experienced a significant weight reduction. CfPWV was dependent on the method used to measure the

  3. Associations of arterial stiffness and cognitive function with physical fitness in patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hee; Yoon, Eun Sun; Park, Soo Hyun; Heffernan, Kevin S; Lee, Chong; Jae, Sae Young

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether arterial stiffness is associated with cognitive function after adjustment for physical fitness in patients with chronic stroke. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 102 patients with chronic stroke who participated in an exercise rehabilitation programme. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were measured as indices of arterial stiffness and central systolic loading. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination. Parameters of physical fitness included the 6-min walk test, flexibility, balance, and muscle strength tests. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly associated with Mini Mental State Examination (r = -0.45, p < 0.01) and parameters of physical fitness (r = -0.45~ -0.55, p  < 0.01, all). Mini Mental State Examination was significantly associated with parameters of physical fitness (r = 0.32~0.46, p < 0.01, all). In multivariable linear regression models, carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was inversely associated with Mini Mental State Examination after adjustment for multiple risk factors (beta = -0.33, p = 0.01). However, the association was attenuated and became non-significant after additional adjustment for physical fitness (beta = -0.11, p = 0.39). Arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity is associated with cognitive function in patients with chronic stroke, but not after adjustment for physical fitness. Maintaining appropriate levels of physical fitness may have a favourable effect on both vascular and cognitive function in patients with stroke.

  4. Acute effects of submaximal endurance training on arterial stiffness in healthy middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jan; Wilms, Michael; Oberhoffer, Renate

    2015-05-01

    Measures of arterial stiffness are indicators for cardiovascular health and predictors of cardiovascular events. Arterial stiffness is responsive to acute physiologic stressors such as exercise. However, the acute effects of intensive exercise and recovery on arterial stiffness are controversial. Thirty-seven healthy middle- and long-distance runners (33 men, mean age 26.5±6.6 years) underwent evaluation of their cardiovascular stiffness at rest, after a 15-minute warm-up, immediately after vigorous running 3 km at the pace of their 10-km personal best, and finally 30 minutes after terminating their workout. Peripheral and central systolic blood pressure, as well as augmentation index and pulse wave velocity (PWV), increased during exercise in comparison to baseline (P<.001, general linear model). Thirty minutes after terminating the workout, a drop in peripheral blood pressure (P<.001), central blood pressure (P<.001), and PWV (P=.001) below baseline was observed. Therefore, the authors found that exercise of either moderate or vigorous intensity causes a temporary increase in arterial stiffness in middle- and long-distance runners.

  5. The role of pulmonary arterial stiffness in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Struthers, Allan D.; Lipworth, Brian J.; Houston, J. Graeme

    2015-01-01

    COPD is the second most common cause of pulmonary hypertension, and is a common complication of severe COPD with significant implications for both quality of life and mortality. However, the use of a rigid diagnostic threshold of a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) of ≥25mHg when considering the impact of the pulmonary vasculature on symptoms and disease is misleading. Even minimal exertion causes oxygen desaturation and elevations in mPAP, with right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation present in patients with mild to moderate COPD with pressures below the threshold for diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. This has significant implications, with right ventricular dysfunction associated with poorer exercise capability and increased mortality independent of pulmonary function tests. The compliance of the pulmonary artery (PA) is a key component in decoupling the right ventricle from the pulmonary bed, allowing the right ventricle to work at maximum efficiency and protecting the microcirculation from large pressure gradients. PA stiffness increases with the severity of COPD, and correlates well with the presence of exercise induced pulmonary hypertension. A curvilinear relationship exists between PA distensibility and mPAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) with marked loss of distensibility before a rapid rise in mPAP and PVR occurs with resultant right ventricular failure. This combination of features suggests PA stiffness as a promising biomarker for early detection of pulmonary vascular disease, and to play a role in right ventricular failure in COPD. Early detection would open this up as a potential therapeutic target before end stage arterial remodelling occurs. PMID:26095859

  6. Arterial stiffness & Sri Lankan chronic kidney disease of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Fiona; Kimmitt, Robert; Herath, Chula; Webb, David J; Melville, Vanessa; Siribaddana, Sisira; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness contributes to CVD risk in CKD. In many developing countries a considerable proportion of CKD remains unexplained, termed CKDu. We assessed arterial stiffness in subjects with Sri Lankan CKDu, in matched controls without CKD and in those with defined CKD. Aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed in 130 subjects (50 with CKDu, 45 with CKD and 35 without CKD) using the validated TensioMed™ Arteriograph monitor. Brachial and aortic BP was lower in controls than in CKDu and CKD subjects but no different between CKDu and CKD. Controls had a lower PWV compared to subjects with CKDu and CKD. Despite equivalent BP and renal dysfunction, CKDu subjects had a lower PWV than those with CKD (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 2.2 m/s, p < 0.01). Excluding diabetes accentuated the differences in PWV seen between groups (controls vs. CKDu vs. CKD: 6.7 ± 0.9 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 10.4 ± 1.5 m/s, p < 0.001 for all). Sri Lankan CKDu is associated with less arterial stiffening than defined causes of CKD. Whether this translates to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality long term is unclear and should be the focus of future studies. PMID:27586642

  7. Arterial stiffness &Sri Lankan chronic kidney disease of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Fiona; Kimmitt, Robert; Herath, Chula; Webb, David J; Melville, Vanessa; Siribaddana, Sisira; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness contributes to CVD risk in CKD. In many developing countries a considerable proportion of CKD remains unexplained, termed CKDu. We assessed arterial stiffness in subjects with Sri Lankan CKDu, in matched controls without CKD and in those with defined CKD. Aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed in 130 subjects (50 with CKDu, 45 with CKD and 35 without CKD) using the validated TensioMed™ Arteriograph monitor. Brachial and aortic BP was lower in controls than in CKDu and CKD subjects but no different between CKDu and CKD. Controls had a lower PWV compared to subjects with CKDu and CKD. Despite equivalent BP and renal dysfunction, CKDu subjects had a lower PWV than those with CKD (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 2.2 m/s, p < 0.01). Excluding diabetes accentuated the differences in PWV seen between groups (controls vs. CKDu vs. CKD: 6.7 ± 0.9 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 10.4 ± 1.5 m/s, p < 0.001 for all). Sri Lankan CKDu is associated with less arterial stiffening than defined causes of CKD. Whether this translates to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality long term is unclear and should be the focus of future studies.

  8. Add-on therapy with doxazosin in patients with hypertension influences arterial stiffness and albuterol-mediated arterial vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Adamska, Karolina; Milewska, Agata; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-12-01

    Doxazosin is an antihypertensive agent with largely unknown effects on arterial stiffness and vasodilation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of doxazosin extended-release (ER) to the standard management of hypertension in patients with inadequately controlled blood pressure (BP) on arterial stiffness and arterial vasodilation. Twenty patients with inadequately controlled hypertension were treated with 4 mg doxazosin ER daily for 16 weeks as an adjunct to their existing antihypertensive regimen. Doxazosin ER add-on therapy was associated with significantly reduced systolic (P < 0.0001) and diastolic (P = 0.0003) BP, improved arterial stiffness (determined by digital volume pulse analysis (P = 0.048) and albuterol-mediated arterial vasodilation (P = 0.030). Add-on therapy with 4 mg of doxazosin ER daily reduces BP and arterial stiffness and improves arterial vasodilation in response to adrenergic stimulation.

  9. Torque-stiffness-controlled dynamic walking with central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Vanderborght, Bram; Van Ham, Ronald; Wang, Qining

    2014-12-01

    Walking behavior is modulated by controlling joint torques in most existing passivity-based bipeds. Controlled Passive Walking with adaptable stiffness exhibits controllable natural motions and energy efficient gaits. In this paper, we propose torque-stiffness-controlled dynamic bipedal walking, which extends the concept of Controlled Passive Walking by introducing structured control parameters and a bio-inspired control method with central pattern generators. The proposed walking paradigm is beneficial in clarifying the respective effects of the external actuation and the internal natural dynamics. We present a seven-link biped model to validate the presented walking. Effects of joint torque and joint stiffness on gait selection, walking performance and walking pattern transitions are studied in simulations. The work in this paper develops a new solution of motion control of bipedal robots with adaptable stiffness and provides insights of efficient and sophisticated walking gaits of humans.

  10. All-Extremity Exercise Training Improves Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Nichols, Wilmer W; Sofianos, Sofia; Christou, Demetra D

    2017-07-01

    Large elastic arteries stiffen with age, which predisposes older adults to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training is known to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, but the optimal exercise prescription for attenuating large elastic arterial stiffening in older adults is not known. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effect of all-extremity high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid artery compliance in older adults. Forty-nine sedentary older adults (age = 64 ± 1 yr), free of overt major clinical disease, were randomized to HIIT (n = 17), MICT (n = 18), or nonexercise controls (CONT; n = 14). HIIT (4 × 4 min at 90% HRpeak interspersed with 3 × 3 min active recovery at 70% HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% HRpeak) were performed on an all-extremity non-weight-bearing ergometer, 4 d·wk for 8 wk under supervision. Aortic (carotid to femoral PWV [cfPWV]) and common carotid artery compliance were assessed at pre- and postintervention. cfPWV improved by 0.5 m·s in MICT (P = 0.04) but did not significantly change in HIIT and CONT (P > 0.05). Carotid artery compliance improved by 0.03 mm·mm Hg in MICT (P = 0.001), but it remained unchanged in HIIT and CONT (P > 0.05). Improvements in arterial stiffness in response to MICT were not confounded by changes in aortic or brachial blood pressure, HR, body weight, total and abdominal adiposity, blood lipids, or aerobic fitness. All-extremity MICT, but not HIIT, improved central arterial stiffness in previously sedentary older adults free of major clinical disease. Our findings have important implications for aerobic exercise prescription in older adults.

  11. Arterial stiffness and medial temporal lobe atrophy in elders with memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Lilamand, Matthieu; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Plichart, Matthieu; De Jong, Laura W; Duron, Emmanuelle; Hanon, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Arterial stiffness could be involved in the mechanisms of vascular cognitive impairment and in Alzheimer's disease. We examined the association between arterial stiffness, assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy, a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. Elderly community-dwelling study participants (n = 149) with memory complaints were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (n = 62) or mild cognitive impairment (n = 87) at a memory clinic. PWV, peripheral and central blood pressure (SBP), and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. MTL was graded on MRI according to the Scheltens' scale. Mean age was 79.5 (SD = 5) years old, 36% of study participants were men. MTL was absent or discrete in 23.5%, moderate in 53.0% and severe in 23.5% of study participants. PWV was 9.3 (2.2) m/s in none or discrete, 11.1 (2.8) in moderate and 13.5 (4.0) in severe MTL atrophy (P < 0.0001). PWV, central SBP, and central PP were overall associated with MTL atrophy after adjustment for age, sex, antihypertensive treatments and white matter lesions, and further adjusted for mean BP for PWV, whereas peripheral SBP and PP were not associated with MTL atrophy. PWV was significantly associated with severe MTL atrophy [odds ratio = 3.69 (95% confidence interval = 1.69-8.05), P = 0.001] and marginally associated with moderate MTL atrophy [1.80 (0.92-3.53), P = 0.09]. Furthermore PWV was significantly associated with severe MTL atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment study participants separately. The result of this study suggests a role of arterial stiffness in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Cardiac Organ Damage and Arterial Stiffness in Autonomic Failure: Comparison With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Valeria; Maule, Simona; Di Stefano, Cristina; Tosello, Francesco; Totaro, Silvia; Veglio, Franco; Milan, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic failure (AF) is characterized by orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, and increased blood pressure (BP) variability. AF patients develop cardiac organ damage, similarly to essential hypertension (EH), and have higher arterial stiffness than healthy controls. Determinants of cardiovascular organ damage in AF are not well known: both BP variability and mean BP values may be involved. The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac organ damage, arterial stiffness, and central hemodynamics in AF, compared with EH subjects with similar 24-hour BP and a group of healthy controls, and to evaluate determinants of target organ damage in patients with AF. Twenty-seven patients with primary AF were studied (mean age, 65.7±11.2 years) using transthoracic echocardiography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, central hemodynamics, and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. They were compared with 27 EH subjects matched for age, sex, and 24-hour mean BP and with 27 healthy controls. AF and EH had similar left ventricular mass (101.6±33.3 versus 97.7±28.1 g/m(2), P=0.59) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (9.3±1.8 versus 9.2±3.0 m/s, P=0.93); both parameters were significantly lower in healthy controls (P<0.01). Compared with EH, AF patients had higher augmentation index (31.0±7.6% versus 26.1±9.2%, P=0.04) and central BP values. Nighttime systolic BP and 24-hour systolic BP predicted organ damage, independent of BP variability. AF patients develop hypertensive heart disease and increased arterial stiffness, similar to EH with comparable mean BP values. Twenty-four-hour and nighttime systolic BP were determinants of cardiovascular damage, independent of BP variability.

  13. Acute changes in arterial stiffness following exercise in people with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Jeyasundar; Swaminathan, Narasimman; Pereira, Natasha M; Henderson, Keiran; Brodie, David A

    2016-08-22

    This study aims to examine the changes in arterial stiffness immediately following sub-maximal exercise in people with metabolic syndrome. Ninety-four adult participants (19-80 years) with metabolic syndrome gave written consent and were measured for arterial stiffness using a SphygmoCor (SCOR-PVx, Version 8.0, Atcor Medical Private Ltd, USA) immediately before and within 5-10min after an incremental shuttle walk test. The arterial stiffness measures used were pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic pulse pressure (PP), augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AI), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and ejection duration (ED). There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in most of the arterial stiffness variables following exercise. Exercise capacity had a strong inverse correlation with arterial stiffness and age (p<0.01). Age influences arterial stiffness. Exercise capacity is inversely related to arterial stiffness and age in people with metabolic syndrome. Exercise induced changes in arterial stiffness measured using pulse wave analysis is an important tool that provides further evidence in studying cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Greater impairments in cerebral artery compared with skeletal muscle feed artery endothelial function in a mouse model of increased large artery stiffness.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Henson, Grant D; Reihl, Kelly D; Morgan, R Garrett; Dobson, Parker S; Nielson, Elizabeth I; Ling, Jing; Mecham, Robert P; Li, Dean Y; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Donato, Anthony J

    2015-04-15

    Increased large artery stiffness is a hallmark of arterial dysfunction with advancing age and is also present in other disease conditions such as diabetes. Increased large artery stiffness is correlated with resistance artery dysfunction in humans. Using a mouse model of altered arterial elastin content, this is the first study to examine the cause-and-effect relationship between large artery stiffness and peripheral resistance artery function. Our results indicate that mice with genetically greater large artery stiffness have impaired cerebral artery endothelial function, but generally preserved skeletal muscle feed artery endothelial function. The mechanisms for impaired cerebral artery endothelial function are reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidative stress. These findings suggest that interventions that target large artery stiffness may be important to reduce disease risk associated with cerebral artery dysfunction in conditions such as advancing age. Advancing age as well as diseases such as diabetes are characterized by both increased large artery stiffness and impaired peripheral artery function. It has been hypothesized that greater large artery stiffness causes peripheral artery dysfunction; however, a cause-and-effect relationship has not previously been established. We used elastin heterozygote mice (Eln(+/-) ) as a model of increased large artery stiffness without co-morbidities unrelated to the large artery properties. Aortic stiffness, measured by pulse wave velocity, was ∼35% greater in Eln(+/-) mice than in wild-type (Eln(+/+) ) mice (P = 0.04). Endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD), assessed by the maximal dilatation to acetylcholine, was ∼40% lower in Eln(+/-) than Eln(+/+) mice in the middle cerebral artery (MCA, P < 0.001), but was similar between groups in the gastrocnemius feed arteries (GFA, P = 0.79). In the MCA, EDD did not differ between groups after incubation with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N

  15. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying genes and biological pathways regulating arterial stiffness may provide insight into the genetics underlying the increased risk of hypertension in African Americans. This paper reviews the genetic findings to date in the area of arterial stiffness and blood pressure in African Americans with an emphasis on the current limitations and new efforts to move the field forward. PMID:22492025

  16. Add-on therapy with doxazosin in patients with hypertension influences arterial stiffness and albuterol-mediated arterial vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Adamska, Karolina; Milewska, Agata; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Hypertension is associated with increased arterial stiffness and impaired endothelial function. Arterial vasodilation depends on endothelial function and can be regulated by β2-adrenergic stimulation. Doxazosin is a known and potent antihypertensive agent. However, its effects on arterial stiffness and vasodilation have not been fully established. What this study adds Sixteen-week add-on antihypertensive therapy with 4 mg of doxazosin extended release daily: Reduces arterial stiffness. Improves albuterol-mediated, i.e. endothelium-dependent, arterial vasodilation. Does not influence nitroglycerin-mediated, i.e. endothelium-independent, arterial vasodilation. Aims Doxazosin is an antihypertensive agent with largely unknown effects on arterial stiffness and vasodilation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of doxazosin extended-release (ER) to the standard management of hypertension in patients with inadequately controlled blood pressure (BP) on arterial stiffness and arterial vasodilation. Methods Twenty patients with inadequately controlled hypertension were treated with 4 mg doxazosin ER daily for 16 weeks as an adjunct to their existing antihypertensive regimen. Results Doxazosin ER add-on therapy was associated with significantly reduced systolic (P < 0.0001) and diastolic (P = 0.0003) BP, improved arterial stiffness (determined by digital volume pulse analysis (P = 0.048) and albuterol-mediated arterial vasodilation (P = 0.030). Conclusions Add-on therapy with 4 mg of doxazosin ER daily reduces BP and arterial stiffness and improves arterial vasodilation in response to adrenergic stimulation. PMID:17635498

  17. Testosterone suppression in men with prostate cancer is associated with increased arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Dockery, F; Bulpitt, C J; Agarwal, S; Rajkumar, C

    2002-12-01

    Low androgen levels in men are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, through unclear mechanisms. We measured arterial stiffness ('compliance') in 21 men receiving complete testosterone suppression therapy for prostate cancer, and in 25 controls. Systemic arterial compliance (SAC), which assesses proximal aortic stiffness, was calculated by simultaneous recording of aortic flow and carotid artery pressure (the 'area method'). Aorto-femoral (A-F), aorto-radial (A-R) and femoral-dorsalis pedis (F-DP) pulse-wave velocities (PWVs) were recorded using the 'Complior' system. SAC was significantly lower in the androgen-depleted men compared to controls (0.81 +/- 0.53 vs. 1.18 +/- 0.43 arbitrary compliance units, p = 0.01, mean +/- SD). Correspondingly, their A-F PWV was higher (14.1 (10.1-21.8) vs. 12.4 (9.6-17.4) m/s, p = 0.03, median (range)). Cases tended to be older (75 +/- 7 vs. 71 +/- 6 years, p = 0.07), and to have higher systolic blood pressure (148 +/- 22 vs. 143 +/- 17 mmHg, p = 0.40); however, SAC was still significantly lower (p = 0.03) after adjustment for age and stratification for central systolic pressure (< or = or > the median). Adjustment of A-F PWV for age and central systolic pressure reduced significance to p = 0.07. There was no significant difference in peripheral PWVs between groups. In conclusion, testosterone suppression is associated with increased aortic stiffness, only partly explained by age and blood pressure. Loss of androgens in men might therefore adversely affect cardiovascular risk.

  18. Long sleep duration associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Chen; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and arterial stiffness among adults of different ages, because to date there has been only one study on this relationship, which was confined to middle-aged civil servants. Cross-sectional study. A health examination center in National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Taiwan. A total of 3,508 subjects, age 20-87 y, were enrolled after excluding those with a history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, hypoglycemic agents, and anti-inflammatory drugs, from October 2006 to August 2009. N/A. SLEEP DURATION WAS CLASSIFIED INTO THREE GROUPS: short (< 6 h), normal (6-8 h) and long (> 8 h). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV), and increased arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV ≥ 1400 cm/sec. The sleep duration was different for subjects with and without increased arterial stiffness in males, but not in females. In the multivariate analysis for males, long sleepers (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, P = 0.034) but not short sleepers (OR 0.98, P = 0.92) had a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. In addition, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, cigarette smoking, and exercise were also independently associated factors. However, in females, neither short nor long sleep duration was associated with increased arterial stiffness. Long sleep duration was associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males. Short sleepers did not exhibit a significant risk of increased arterial stiffness in either sex. Tsai TC, Wu JS, Yang YC, Huang YH, Lu FH, Chang CJ. Long sleep duration associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1315-1320.

  19. Arterial stiffness and arterial function in adult cyanotic patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Trojnarska, Olga; Szczepaniak-Chicheł, Ludwina; Gabriel, Marcin; Bartczak-Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Rupa-Matysek, Joanna; Tykarski, Andrzej; Grajek, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Mortality in cyanotic patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD) is high, mainly due to cardiovascular complications. It is known that endothelial dysfunction, increased arterial stiffness, and impaired vascular function have negative influence on cardiovascular prognosis. The aim of the study was to assess parameters of arterial stiffness and vascular dysfunction in cyanotic patients with CHD as well as their potential relation to impaired blood oxygen saturation and polycythemia parameters typical for cyanosis. A total of 36 CHD cyanotic patients (17 males) (42.3±16.3 years) and 35 healthy individuals (16 males) (39.6±10.4 years) were enrolled. Assessed parameters were intima media thickness and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Assessed parameters using applanation tonometry methods were aortic systolic pressure, aortic pulse pressure (AoPP), augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AI), pulse pressure amplification (PPampl), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). AoPP (37.3±11.1mmHg vs. 29±6.5mmHg; p=0.002), AP (10.1±7.3mmHg vs. 1.1±3.9mmHg; p=0.00001), AI (24.7±13.5% vs. 3.0±13.6%; p=0.00001), and PWV (7.4±2.1m/s vs. 6.3±0.7m/s; p=0.003) were higher, and PPampl was lower (135.3±16.1% vs. 160.4±12.8%; p=0.00001) in the studied group compared to controls and proved the presence of the increased stiffness of arteries. Impairment of FMD was observed (9.0±5.6 vs. 10.9±4.7; p=0.04). No significant correlations were found between analyzed arterial parameters and biochemical ones characterizing cyanotic patients depicting rheological properties of blood. Cyanotic patients with CHD are characterized by increased arterial stiffness estimated with pulse wave analysis parameters and by deteriorated arterial function expressed with worse vasodilatative response in comparison with healthy population. It may confirm relevance of those mechanisms in development of increased rate of cardiovascular events in this population. Association between oxygen saturation

  20. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Arterial Stiffness: Tsunami Effect in the Brain?

    PubMed Central

    Saji, Naoki; Toba, Kenji; Sakurai, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral small vessel diseases, including silent lacunar infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds, pose a risk for cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and the geriatric syndrome via effects on arterial stiffness. However, the vascular, physiological, and metabolic roles of arterial stiffness in cerebral small vessel diseases remain unclear. Summary Arterial stiffness can be assessed using various indicators such as the ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity, cardio-ankle vascular index, and augmentation index. Arterial stiffness is independently associated with all components of cerebral small vessel disease including silent lacunar infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds, although there are some methodological differences between the various surrogate markers. Evidence of arterial stiffness indicates microvessel arteriosclerosis presenting with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Further, vascular narrowing due to atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness due to lipohyalinosis can accelerate the pulse waves. This hemodynamic stress, pulsatile pressure, or blood pressure variability can cause a ‘tsunami effect’ towards the cerebral parenchyma and lead to cerebral small vessel disease. Previous studies have shown that silent lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are strongly associated with arterial stiffness. However, the association between microbleeds and arterial stiffness remains controversial, as there are two vessel mechanisms related to microbleeds: cerebral amyloid angiopathy and hypertensive small vessel disease. Key Messages Cerebral small vessel disease with associated arterial stiffness is a risk factor for silent cerebral lesions, stroke, and cognitive impairment. Improvement of the living environment, management of risk factors, and innovation and development of novel drugs that improve arterial stiffness may suppress the progression of cerebral small vessel disease, and may reduce

  1. Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stress-strain relationship in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Khamdaeng, T.; Luo, J.; Vappou, J.; Terdtoon, P.; Konofagou, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is well accepted as a reliable indicator of arterial disease. Increase in carotid arterial stiffness has been associated with carotid arterial disease, e.g., atherosclerotic plaque, thrombosis, stenosis, etc. Several methods for carotid arterial stiffness assessments have been proposed. In this study, in-vivo noninvasive assessment using applanation tonometry and an ultrasound-based motion estimation technique was applied in seven healthy volunteers (age 28 ± 3.6 years old) to determine pressure and wall displacement in the left common carotid artery (CCA), respectively. The carotid pressure was obtained using a calibration method by assuming that the mean and diastolic blood pressures remained constant throughout the arterial tree. The regional carotid arterial wall displacement was estimated using a 1D cross-correlation technique on the ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signals acquired at a frame rate of 505–1010 Hz. Young’s moduli were estimated under two different assumptions: (i) a linear elastic two-parallel spring model and (ii) a two-dimensional, nonlinear, hyperelastic model. The circumferential stress (σθ) and strain (εθ) relationship was then established in humans in vivo. A slope change in the circumferential stress-strain curve was observed and defined as a transition point. The Young’s moduli of the elastic lamellae (E1), elastin-collagen fibers (E2) and collagen fibers (E3) and the incremental Young’s moduli before (E0≤εθ<ε0T) and after the transition point (EεθT≤εθ) were determined from the first and second approach, respectively, to describe the contribution of the complex mechanical interaction of the different arterial wall constituents. The average E1, E2 and E3 from seven healthy volunteers were found to be equal to 0.15 ± 0.04, 0.89 ± 0.27 and 0.75 ± 0.29 MPa, respectively. The average E0≤εθ<εθTInt and EεθT≤εθInt of the intact wall (both the tunica adventitia and tunica media layers

  2. Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stress-strain relationship in vivo.

    PubMed

    Khamdaeng, T; Luo, J; Vappou, J; Terdtoon, P; Konofagou, E E

    2012-03-01

    Arterial stiffness is well accepted as a reliable indicator of arterial disease. Increase in carotid arterial stiffness has been associated with carotid arterial disease, e.g., atherosclerotic plaque, thrombosis, stenosis, etc. Several methods for carotid arterial stiffness assessment have been proposed. In this study, in vivo noninvasive assessment using applanation tonometry and an ultrasound-based motion estimation technique was applied in seven healthy volunteers (age 28±3.6years old) to determine pressure and wall displacement in the left common carotid artery (CCA), respectively. The carotid pressure was obtained using a calibration method by assuming that the mean and diastolic blood pressures remained constant throughout the arterial tree. The regional carotid arterial wall displacement was estimated using a 1D cross-correlation technique on the ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signals acquired at a frame rate of 505-1010Hz. Young's moduli were estimated under two different assumptions: (i) a linear elastic two-parallel spring model and (ii) a two-dimensional, nonlinear, hyperelastic model. The circumferential stress (σ(θ)) and strain (ɛ(θ)) relationship was then established in humans in vivo. A slope change in the circumferential stress-strain curve was observed and defined as the transition point. The Young's moduli of the elastic lamellae (E(1)), elastin-collagen fibers (E(2)) and collagen fibers (E(3)) and the incremental Young's moduli before ( [Formula: see text] ) and after the transition point ( [Formula: see text] ) were determined from the first and second approach, respectively, to describe the contribution of the complex mechanical interaction of the different arterial wall constituents. The average moduli E(1), E(2) and E(3) from seven healthy volunteers were found to be equal to 0.15±0.04, 0.89±0.27 and 0.75±0.29MPa, respectively. The average moduli [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the intact wall (both the tunica

  3. Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelido, G.; Angiletta, S.; Pujalte, A.; Quiroga, P.; Cornes, P.; Craiem, D.

    2007-11-01

    Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements.

  4. Testosterone suppression in men with prostate cancer leads to an increase in arterial stiffness and hyperinsulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Frances; Bulpitt, Christopher J; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Donaldson, Mandy; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2003-02-01

    The role of androgens in cardiovascular disease is uncertain. We aimed to determine the vascular effects of androgen suppression in men with prostate cancer. Arterial stiffness (or 'compliance') was measured in 16 men (71+/-9 years, mean+/-S.D.) prior to, and 3 months after, complete androgen suppression with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues as treatment for prostate cancer. Fifteen control men (70+/-7 years) also had arterial stiffness studies at baseline and 3 months later. Two measures of arterial stiffness were employed: systemic arterial compliance (SAC) was measured by simultaneous recording of aortic flow and carotid artery pressure ('area method'), and pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were recorded with the 'Complior' system. The 16 cases underwent glucose-tolerance and fasting-lipids tests on both visits. After 3 months of testosterone suppression, there was a significant fall in SAC, which was not seen in the controls [mean change+/-S.E.M., -0.26+/-0.09 a.c.u. (arbitrary compliance unit) in the cases versus +0.06+/-0.11 in the controls; P =0.03). Central, but not peripheral, PWVs tended to increase in the cases (mean change+/-S.E.M. for aorto-femoral PWV, +0.5+/-0.4 m/s for cases versus -0.3+/-0.3 m/s for controls; P =0.08). After testosterone suppression, fasting insulin levels increased from 6.89+/-4.84 m-units/l to 11.34+/-8.16 m-units/l (mean+/-S.D.), total cholesterol increased from 5.32+/-0.77 mmol/l to 5.71+/-0.82 mmol/l and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 1.05+/-0.24 mmol/l to 1.26+/-0.36 mmol/l; P <0.005 for all. No significant change occurred in body-mass index, serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triacylglycerol (triglyceride) levels. Our results indicate that loss of androgens in men leads to an increase in aortic stiffness and serum insulin levels, and may therefore adversely affect cardiovascular risk.

  5. [Assessment of arterial wall stiffness by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Korneva, V A; Kuznetsova, T Yu

    2016-01-01

    Arterial wall stiffness is an early marker of cardiovascular diseases. The gold standard for assessment of the stiffness of large vessels is presently pulse wave velocity (PWV). Work is in progress on the study of the reference values of PWV in people of different genders and ages. 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring is not only a procedure that can estimate diurnal BP variability, but also monitor the indicators of vascular wall stiffness in a number of cases over a 24-hour period. The given review highlights the pathophysiology of arterial stiffness, methods for its assessment, and the aspects of use in therapeutic practice.

  6. Surrogates of Large Artery versus Small Artery Stiffness and Ankle-Brachial Index

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Päivi; Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral artery tonometry (PAT) is a novel method for assessing arterial stiffness of small digital arteries. Pulse pressure can be regarded as a surrogate of large artery stiffness. When ankle-brachial index (ABI) is calculated using the higher of the two ankle systolic pressures as denominator (ABI-higher), leg perfusion can be reliably estimated. However, using the lower of the ankle pressures to calculate ABI (ABI-lower) identifies more patients with isolated peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in ankle arteries. We aimed to compare the ability of PAT, pulse pressure, and different calculations of ABI to detect atherosclerotic disease in lower extremities. We examined PAT, pulse pressure, and ABI in 66 cardiovascular risk subjects in whom borderline PAD (ABI 0.91 to 1.00) was diagnosed 4 years earlier. Using ABI-lower to diagnose PAD yielded 2-fold higher prevalence of PAD than using ABI-higher. Endothelial dysfunction was diagnosed in 15/66 subjects (23%). In a bivariate correlation analysis, pulse pressure was negatively correlated with ABI-higher (r = −0.347, p = 0.004) and with ABI-lower (r = −0.424, p < 0.001). PAT hyperemic response was not significantly correlated with either ABI-higher (r = −0.148, p = 0.24) or with ABI-lower (r = −0.208, p = 0.095). Measurement of ABI using the lower of the two ankle pressures is an efficient method to identify patients with clinical or subclinical atherosclerosis and worth performing on subjects with pulse pressure above 65 mm Hg. The usefulness of PAT measurement in detecting PAD is vague. PMID:22942632

  7. Arterial stiffness and sedentary lifestyle: Role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lessiani, Gianfranco; Santilli, Francesca; Boccatonda, Andrea; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Liani, Rossella; Tripaldi, Romina; Saggini, Raoul; Davì, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and leads to a quantifiable impairment in vascular function and arterial wall stiffening. We tested the hypothesis of oxidative stress as a determinant of arterial stiffness (AS) in physically inactive subjects, and challenged the reversibility of these processes after the completion of an eight-week, high-intensity exercise training (ET). AS was assessed before and after ET, measuring carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) with a Vicorder device. At baseline and after ET, participants performed urine collection and underwent fasting blood sampling. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, an in vivo marker of lipid peroxidation, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. ET was associated with significantly reduced urinary 8-iso-PGF2α(p<0.0001) levels. PWV was significantly reduced after ET completion (p<0.0001), and was directly related to urinary 8-iso-PGF2α(Rho=0.383, p=0.021). After ET, cardiovascular fitness improved [peak oxygen consumption (p<0.0001), peak heart rate (p<0.0001)]. However, no improvement in lipid profile was observed, apart from a significant reduction of triglycerides (p=0.022). PWV and triglycerides were significantly related (Rho=0.466, p=0.005) throughout the study period. PWV levels were also related to urinary 8-iso-PGF2α in our previously sedentary subjects. We conclude that regular physical exercise may be a natural antioxidant strategy, lowering oxidant stress and thereby the AS degree.

  8. Stiffness Indices and Fractal Dimension relationship in Arterial Pressure and Diameter Time Series in-Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cymberknop, L.; Legnani, W.; Pessana, F.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The advent of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, is associated to significant alterations in the physical properties of arterial vessels. Evaluation of arterial biomechanical behaviour is related to the assessment of three representative indices: arterial compliance, arterial distensibility and arterial stiffness index. Elasticity is the most important mechanical property of the arterial wall, whose natures is strictly non-linear. Intervention of elastin and collagen fibres, passive constituent elements of the arterial wall, is related to the applied wall stress level. Concerning this, appropriate tools are required to analyse the temporal dynamics of the signals involved, in order to characterize the whole phenomenon. Fractal geometry can be mentioned as one of those techniques. The aim of this study consisted on arterial pressure and diameter signals processing, by means of nonlinear techniques based on fractal geometry. Time series morphology was related to different arterial stiffness states, generated by means of blood flow variations, during experiences performed in vitro.

  9. Acute effects of firefighting on arterial stiffness and blood flow.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant; Rossow, Lindy M; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Echols, George; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Rowland, Thomas; Lane, Abbi; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Sudden cardiac events are responsible for 40-50% of line-of-duty firefighter fatalities, yet the exact cause of these events is unknown. Likely, combinations of thermal, physical, and mental factors impair cardiovascular function and trigger such events. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of firefighting activities on vascular function. Sixty-nine young (28 ± 1 years) male firefighters underwent 3 hours of firefighting activities. Carotid, aortic, and brachial blood pressures (BP), heart rate (HR), augmentation index (AIx), wave reflection timing (TR), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm reactive hyperemia (RH) were measured before and after firefighting activities. Paired samples t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) increases in aortic diastolic BP, HR, AIx, PWV, RH, and FBF, and significant decreases in brachial and aortic pulse pressure and TR following firefighting activities. In conclusion, these results suggest that 3 hours of firefighting activities increase both arterial stiffness and vasodilation.

  10. Pulmonary Arterial Stiffness: Toward a New Paradigm in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Pathophysiology and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Michal; Myers, Cynthia; Brown, R Dale; Frid, Maria G; Tan, Wei; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2016-01-01

    Stiffening of the pulmonary arterial bed with the subsequent increased load on the right ventricle is a paramount feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pathophysiology of vascular stiffening is a complex and self-reinforcing function of extracellular matrix remodeling, driven by recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells and their interactions with resident vascular cells, and mechanotransduction of altered hemodynamic forces throughout the ventricular-vascular axis. New approaches to understanding the cell and molecular determinants of the pathophysiology combine novel biopolymer substrates, controlled flow conditions, and defined cell types to recapitulate the biomechanical environment in vitro. Simultaneously, advances are occurring to assess novel parameters of stiffness in vivo. In this comprehensive state-of-art review, we describe clinical hemodynamic markers, together with the newest translational echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging methods, to assess vascular stiffness and ventricular-vascular coupling. Finally, fluid-tissue interactions appear to offer a novel route of investigating the mechanotransduction processes and disease progression.

  11. Assessment of Arterial Stiffness, Volume, and Nutritional Status in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewski, Lukasz; Wyzgal, Janusz; Czyzewska, Emilia; Kurowski, Andrzej; Sierdzinski, Janusz; Truszewski, Zenon; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reduction of cardiovascular death might have a significant effect on the long-term survival rates of renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The aim of the study was to assess the relation between arterial stiffness and graft function, adipose tissue content, and hydration status in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx). The study included 83 RTR patients (mean age: 55 ± 13 years) who had been admitted to a nephrology-transplantation outpatient clinic 0.5 to 24 years after KTx. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed and eGFR was calculated with the CKD-EPI formula. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all RTRs with pulse wave propagation velocity (PWV) with the use of a complior device. In addition, fluid and nutritional status was assessed with a Tanita BC 418 body composition analyzer. The control group consisted of 31 hospital workers who received no medication and had no history of cardiovascular disease. Multivariable linear regression analysis, with PWV as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (B = 0.323; P = 0.004), age (B = 0.297; P = 0.005), tacrolimus therapy (B = −0.286; P = 0.004), and central DBP (B = 0.185; P = 0.041). Multivariable linear regression analysis with eGFR as a dependent variable retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model; creatinine concentration (B = −0.632; P = 0.000), hemoglobin (B = 0.280; P = 0.000), CRP (B = −0.172; P = 0.011), tacrolimus therapy (B = 0.142; P = 0.039), and triglycerides (B = −0.142; P = 0.035). Our data indicates that: kidney transplant recipients can present modifiable CVD risk factors linked to increased arterial stiffness, DBP, waist circumference, SCr, time on dialysis, CyA therapy, and visceral fat mass; RDW is a parameter associated with arterial stiffness; and parameters such as

  12. Assessment of Arterial Stiffness, Volume, and Nutritional Status in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Czyzewski, Lukasz; Wyzgal, Janusz; Czyzewska, Emilia; Kurowski, Andrzej; Sierdzinski, Janusz; Truszewski, Zenon; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-02-01

    Reduction of cardiovascular death might have a significant effect on the long-term survival rates of renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The aim of the study was to assess the relation between arterial stiffness and graft function, adipose tissue content, and hydration status in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx).The study included 83 RTR patients (mean age: 55 ± 13 years) who had been admitted to a nephrology-transplantation outpatient clinic 0.5 to 24 years after KTx. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed and eGFR was calculated with the CKD-EPI formula. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all RTRs with pulse wave propagation velocity (PWV) with the use of a complior device. In addition, fluid and nutritional status was assessed with a Tanita BC 418 body composition analyzer. The control group consisted of 31 hospital workers who received no medication and had no history of cardiovascular disease.Multivariable linear regression analysis, with PWV as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (B = 0.323; P = 0.004), age (B = 0.297; P = 0.005), tacrolimus therapy (B = -0.286; P = 0.004), and central DBP (B = 0.185; P = 0.041). Multivariable linear regression analysis with eGFR as a dependent variable retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model; creatinine concentration (B = -0.632; P = 0.000), hemoglobin (B = 0.280; P = 0.000), CRP (B = -0.172; P = 0.011), tacrolimus therapy (B = 0.142; P = 0.039), and triglycerides (B = -0.142; P = 0.035).Our data indicates that: kidney transplant recipients can present modifiable CVD risk factors linked to increased arterial stiffness, DBP, waist circumference, SCr, time on dialysis, CyA therapy, and visceral fat mass; RDW is a parameter associated with arterial stiffness; and parameters such as CyA therapy, time on

  13. A knowledge-based approach to arterial stiffness estimation using the digital volume pulse.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae-Geun; Farooq, Umar; Park, Seung-Hun; Goh, Choong-Won; Hahn, Minsoo

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a knowledge based approach for arterial stiffness estimation. The proposed new approach reliably estimates arterial stiffness based on the analysis of age and heart rate normalized reflected wave arrival time. The proposed new approach reduces cost, space, technical expertise, specialized equipment, complexity, and increases the usability compared to recently researched noninvasive arterial stiffness estimators. The proposed method consists of two main stages: pulse feature extraction and linear regression analysis. The new approach extracts the pulse features and establishes a linear prediction equation. On evaluating proposed methodology with pulse wave velocity (PWV) based arterial stiffness estimators, the proposed methodology offered the error rate of 8.36% for men and 9.52% for women, respectively. With such low error rates and increased benefits, the proposed approach could be usefully applied as low cost and effective solution for ubiquitous and home healthcare environments.

  14. Assessment of arterial stiffness among schizophrenia-spectrum disorders using aortic pulse wave velocity and arterial compliance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Warburton, Darren E R; Flynn, Sean W; Fredrikson, Diane; Lang, Donna J

    2014-01-30

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Arterial stiffness provides a non-invasive indication of cardiovascular disease risk. To date, arterial stiffness, which has been shown to have independent predictive value for CVD morbidity and mortality, has not been evaluated in this population. We aimed to examine aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as large and small artery compliance (Comp1 and Comp2) in patients being treated for schizophrenia, compared to healthy volunteers. Ten patients and 10 age and gendermatched volunteers underwent a comprehensive evaluation of arterial stiffness including: aPWV, Comp1, Comp2, stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. Patient aPWV was significantly elevated compared to healthy volunteers (9.1 ± 4.11 vs. 5.7 ± 1.4, P=0.03). Increased age, blood pressure, heart rate, and cigarettes/day were associated with reduced arterial health in patients. This is the first time aPWV has been described in those treated for schizophrenia. Arterial stiffness is increased in this population. Measuring arterial stiffness is a non-invasive, sensitive and effective tool for evaluating CVD risk in this population. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Arterial Stiffness and Trace Elements in Apparently Healthy Population- A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, Gangapatnam; Ramalingam, Krishnan; Indira, Selvam Armugam; Kantha, Katari; Soren, Bhemasen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stiffening of arteries is a natural ageing process. Any diseases/disorders or risk factors that escalate oxidative stress, microvascular inflammation and endothelial damage may promote to premature vascular stiffening. Any imbalance in these trace element levels may independently contribute to the changes in the components in the arterial wall and thus, arterial stiffness via one or more mechanisms. Aim To evaluate the severity of arterial stiffness in apparently healthy population and also to evaluate role of various risk factors and trace elements in the severity of arterial stiffness Materials and Methods Male and female subjects living in urban and rural areas of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, between 20-60 years, apparently normal as judged by the clinician basing on clinical and laboratory findings, were studied. Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (cf-PWV) a marker of arterial stiffness was assessed using non-invasive blood pressure curve monitoring (periscope). Furthermore, we also estimated serum levels of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), Aluminium (Al), silicon (Si), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mb), Vanadium (Vn) and lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. ANOVA and Chi-Square test were used to study the clinical correlations between severity of arterial stiffness, risk factors and trace elements. Results A total of 737 apparently healthy subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total 542 (73.5%) were from rural and the remaining 195 (26.5%) were living in urban areas, 328 (44.5%) were males, and 409 (55.5%) were females. A 63.5% (468/737) had normal arterial stiffness followed by 14.5% (107/737) with mild stiffness, 7% (57/737) had moderate stiffness and 14.2% (105/737) had severe arterial stiffness. Smoking, alcohol, blood pressures, fasting blood sugar, and total cholesterol, Cu, Al and Vn correlated (p<0.05) with different grades of arterial stiffness. Conclusion A 36.5% had

  16. Clinical appraisal of arterial stiffness: the Argonauts in front of the Golden Fleece

    PubMed Central

    Vlachopoulos, C; Aznaouridis, K; Stefanadis, C

    2006-01-01

    Interest in evaluating arterial elastic properties has grown in parallel with the widespread availability of non‐invasive methods for assessing arterial stiffness. A clinically useful diagnostic index must be pathophysiologically relevant, must be readily measurable, and must indicate the severity of the disease and predict the corresponding risk. Interventional modification of this index must parallel disease regression and benefit prognosis. The current evidence for the clinical value of estimating arterial stiffness (mainly of large, elastic‐type arteries, such as the aorta and the carotids) in the contemporary era of cardiovascular medicine is reviewed. PMID:16339817

  17. Clinical appraisal of arterial stiffness: the Argonauts in front of the Golden Fleece.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, C; Aznaouridis, K; Stefanadis, C

    2006-11-01

    Interest in evaluating arterial elastic properties has grown in parallel with the widespread availability of non-invasive methods for assessing arterial stiffness. A clinically useful diagnostic index must be pathophysiologically relevant, must be readily measurable, and must indicate the severity of the disease and predict the corresponding risk. Interventional modification of this index must parallel disease regression and benefit prognosis. The current evidence for the clinical value of estimating arterial stiffness (mainly of large, elastic-type arteries, such as the aorta and the carotids) in the contemporary era of cardiovascular medicine is reviewed.

  18. A higher baseline plasma uric acid level is an independent predictor of arterial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao-Han; Wang, Xiaona; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei; Ye, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyperuricemia has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Though the association between uric acid (UA) and arterial stiffness has been investigated previously in patients with basic diseases, the predictive value of baseline UA level for arterial stiffness has not been conducted. We aimed at identifying the predictive role of UA for arterial stiffness prospectively. A longitudinal follow-up study in a routine health check-up population was performed with an average follow-up of 4.8 years. The demographic information, baseline and follow-up anthropometric parameters, arterial stiffness (pulse-wave velocity, PWV), and biomarker variables including UA have been measured and analyzed. A total of 1447 valid follow-ups were available for the final analysis. Both of the baseline and follow-up UA levels were significantly higher in the arterial stiffness groups than that in the nonarterial stiffness groups (all P values <0.001). The follow-up carotid-femoral PWV [(cf-PWV), r = 0.161, P < 0.001] was strongly correlated with baseline UA. At the follow-up cross-section, cf-PWV was also closely associated with UA (r = 0.101, P < 0.001). Logistic regressions revealed that a higher baseline UA level was an independent predictor of follow-up arterial stiffness assessed by cf-PWV [odds ratio (OR): 1.824; P = 0.046]. A higher baseline level of UA is closely related to arterial stiffness and is an independent predictor of arterial stiffening. PMID:28178136

  19. Arterial stiffness and hand osteoarthritis: a novel relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, A. S.; Najjar, S. S.; Muller, D. C.; Shetty, V.; Ferrucci, L.; Gelber, A. C.; Ling, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) and vascular stiffening may share elements of common pathogenesis, but their potential relatedness has been the focus of little prior inquiry. We tested the hypothesis that these two aging-associated conditions are related to each other. Method We analyzed cross-sectional data from 256 participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a study of normative aging. All underwent measurement of arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), an index of vascular stiffness, as well as hand radiographs that were graded for evidence of OA. Twenty total joints across three joint groups (distal interphalangeal [DIP], proximal interphalangeal [PIP], carpal-metacarpal [CMC]) were each assigned a Kellgren–Lawrence grade (K–L) of 0 (normal) through 4 (severe), with K–L grades ≥2 considered evidence of definite OA. Radiographic hand OA was defined as definite OA changes in at least two of the three anatomic hand sites (DIP, PIP, CMC). OA burden was represented by the total number of affected OA joints, and a cumulative K–L grade was aggregated across all hand joint groups. The relationship of PWV with these three measures of hand OA was assessed by linear regression. Results Upon univariate analysis, the presence of radiographic hand OA (β = 218.1, P < 0.01), the total number of OA joints (β = 32.9, P < 0.01), and the cumulative K–L grade across all joint groups (β = 12.2, P < 0.01) were each associated with increased PWV. These associations, however, were no longer significant in age-adjusted models. Conclusion Although significant individual relationships between PWV and several measures of hand OA were observed, these associations were largely attributable to the confounding effect of age. PMID:17097316

  20. Telemetric ambulatory arterial stiffness index, a predictor of cardio-cerebro-vascular mortality, is associated with aortic stiffness-determining factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Tian-Ying; Zhang, Sai-Long; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xue-Wen; Guan, Yun-Feng; Lo, Ming; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2013-09-01

    Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed as a new measure of arterial stiffness for predicting cardio-cerebro-vascular morbidity and mortality. However, there has been no research on the direct relationships between AASI and arterial stiffness-determining factors. We utilized beat-to-beat intra-aortic blood pressure (BP) telemetry to characterize AASI in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). By determination of aortic structural components and analysis of their correlations with AASI, we provided the first direct evidence for the associations between AASI and arterial stiffness-determining factors including the collagen content and collagen/elastin. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index was positively correlated with pulse pressure in both WKY and SHR, less dependent on BP and BP variability than pulse pressure, and relatively stable, especially the number of BP readings not less than ~36. The correlations between AASI and aortic components were comparable for various AASI values derived from BP readings not less than ~36. Not only AASI but also BP variability and pulse pressure demonstrated a direct relationship with arterial stiffness. These findings indicate AASI may become a routine measure in human arterial stiffness assessment. It is recommended to use a cluster of parameters such as AASI, BP variability, and pulse pressure for evaluating arterial stiffness. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Periodontitis and arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Audrey; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Bouchard, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Patients with periodontitis have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, although a causal relationship between these conditions remains unclear. Arterial stiffness is considered a marker of arteriosclerosis and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A systematic review of the literature on clinical studies using pulse wave velocity (PWV) to assess arterial stiffness in patients with periodontitis was carried out to answer the following questions: (i) Do patients with periodontitis have impaired arterial stiffness compared to non-periodontal diseased subjects? (ii) Is periodontal treatment effective as a means to improve arterial stiffness in patients with periodontitis? Literature search was done on different databases up to September 2014. All clinical studies (excluding case reports) using PWV in patients with periodontitis were retrieved for a full-text evaluation. A total of 10 studies were included. Patients with periodontitis have increased arterial stiffness compared to controls (PWV mean difference 0.85 m/s; 95% confidence interval: 0.53-1.16; p<0.00001). The only two interventional studies showed contradictory results on the effects of periodontal treatment on PWV. Patients with periodontitis appear to have higher values of PWV compared to controls. The effect of periodontal treatment on arterial stiffness remains unclear. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association between high arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressures in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz; Piskorski, Jarosław; Minczykowski, Andrzej; Wykrętowicz, Andrzej; Guzik, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    High arterial stiffness increases the left ventricular (LV) filling pressures in different cardiac disorders. The association between arterial stiffness and LV filling pressures has not been studied so far in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of the study was to assess the association between arterial stiffness and LV filling pressures in patients with acute MI. Arterial stiffness, measured using the digital volume pulse stiffness index (SIDVP), and LV filling pressures, quantified as the ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic septal mitral annulus velocity (E/e'), were evaluated in 263 patients with acute MI (mean age, 63.8 ±11 years; 69 women). The association between high E/e' (>15) and very stiff arteries (SIDVP >18 m/s) was analyzed by logistic regression, with data presented as odds ratios (OR s) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed an association between E/e' >15 and SIDVP >18 m/s (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.8-12.3), independently of female sex (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4-10.2), LV ejection fraction <35% (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2-8.2), left atrial volume >34 ml/m2 (OR, 17.4; 95% CI, 5.8-52.0). There was no significant association between E/e' >15 and previous MI (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.9-5.7). High arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with acute MI. A reduction in arterial stiffness may improve LV diastolic function in this patient group.

  3. Greater arterial stiffness in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an obesity--but not a PCOS-associated phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Ketel, I J; Stehouwer, C D; Henry, R M; Serné, E H; Hompes, P; Homburg, R; Smulders, Y M; Lambalk, C B

    2010-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity are associated with cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear to what extent they contribute independently. Arterial stiffness might link obesity and PCOS to cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to investigate whether PCOS in the presence or absence of obesity is linked with arterial stiffness. We conducted a cross-sectional study, including 31 obese (18 with PCOS) and 39 lean (22 with PCOS) women. Estimates of arterial stiffness were obtained by ultrasonography (distensibility and compliance of carotid, femoral, and brachial arteries; carotid elastic modulus; and intima-media thickness) and pulse wave transit time analyses (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index). Obese women, with or without PCOS, had stiffer arteries than lean women. After adjustment for 24-h mean arterial pressure and age, obesity was inversely associated with the femoral, brachial, and carotid distensibility coefficients [β (95% confidence interval), -0.354 (-0.614 to -0.094), -0.354 (-0.547 to -0.161), and -0.248 (-0.370 to -0.126) 10(-3)/kPA, respectively] and with the femoral and carotid compliance coefficients [-0.296 (-0.563 to -0.029) and -0.190 (-0.377 to -0.003) mm(2)/kPA, respectively] but not with the brachial compliance coefficient [-0.018 (-0.052-0.015) mm(2)/kPA], Young's elastic modulus [0.049 (-0.005-0.103) kPA], aortic pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index [0.050 msec (-0.959-1.058 msec) and -1.831% (-8.196-4.534%), respectively]. Analyses with waist circumference as key independent variable gave broadly similar results. In contrast, PCOS was not associated with arterial stiffness estimates after adjustment for the presence of obesity. In young obese women with PCOS, (central) obesity, rather than PCOS itself, is associated with increased arterial stiffness. These data emphasize that, from the perspective of cardiovascular risk reduction, the focus should be on central fat mass reduction

  4. Exercise Training Reduces Peripheral Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Young Prehypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. METHODS Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120–139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80–89mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18–35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. RESULTS PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). PHRT and PHET decreased augmentation index (AIx) by 7.5% ± 2.8% and 8.1% ± 3.2% (P < 0.05), AIx@75 by 8.0% ± 3.2% and 9.2% ± 3.8% (P < 0.05), and left ventricular wasted pressure energy, an index of extra left ventricular myocardial oxygen requirement due to early systolic wave reflection, by 573±161 dynes s/cm2 and 612±167 dynes s/cm2 (P < 0.05), respectively. PHRT and PHET reduced carotid–radial PWV by 1.02±0.32 m/sec and 0.92±0.36 m/sec (P < 0.05) and femoral–distal PWV by 1.04±0.31 m/sec and 1.34±0.33 m/sec (P < 0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the time-control groups. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that both resistance and endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects. PMID:23736111

  5. Exercise training reduces peripheral arterial stiffness and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Casey, Darren P; Braith, Randy W

    2013-09-01

    Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80-89 mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18-35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). PHRT and PHET decreased augmentation index (AIx) by 7.5% ± 2.8% and 8.1% ± 3.2% (P < 0.05), AIx@75 by 8.0% ± 3.2% and 9.2% ± 3.8% (P < 0.05), and left ventricular wasted pressure energy, an index of extra left ventricular myocardial oxygen requirement due to early systolic wave reflection, by 573±161 dynes s/cm(2) and 612±167 dynes s/cm(2) (P < 0.05), respectively. PHRT and PHET reduced carotid-radial PWV by 1.02±0.32 m/sec and 0.92±0.36 m/sec (P < 0.05) and femoral-distal PWV by 1.04±0.31 m/sec and 1.34±0.33 m/sec (P < 0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the time-control groups. This study suggests that both resistance and endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

  6. Relationship between sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and arterial stiffness in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Galbreath, M Melyn; Shibata, Shigeki; Jarvis, Sara S; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Meier, Rhonda L; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Previous human studies have shown that large-artery stiffness contributes to an age-related decrease in cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity. Whether this is also true with sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity is associated with the stiffness of baroreceptor segments (the carotid artery and the aorta) in elderly individuals and that sex affects this relationship. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity was assessed from the spontaneous changes in beat-by-beat diastolic pressure and corresponding muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during supine rest in 30 men (mean±SEM: 69±1 years) and 31 women (68±1 years). Carotid artery stiffness (B-mode ultrasonography) and aortic stiffness (MRI) were also determined. We found that elderly women had lower sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity than elderly men (-2.33±0.25 versus -3.32±0.25 bursts · 100 beats(-1) · mm Hg(-1); P=0.007). β-Stiffness indices of the carotid artery and the aorta were greater in elderly women than in men (6.68±0.48 versus 5.10±0.50 and 4.03±0.47 versus 2.68±0.42; both P<0.050). Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity was inversely correlated with carotid artery stiffness in both men and women (r=0.49 and 0.50; both P<0.05), whereas this relation was shifted in parallel upward (toward a reduced sensitivity) in women with no changes in the slope (0.26 versus 0.24 arbitrary units). Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and aortic stiffness showed similar trends. Thus, barosensory artery stiffness seems to be one independent determinant of sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity in elderly men and women. The lower sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity in elderly women may predispose them to an increased prevalence of hypertension.

  7. Assessments of arterial stiffness and endothelial function using pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Lee; Young, Joanna M; Fryer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, the assessments of endothelial function and arterial stiffness require different sets of equipment, making the inclusion of both tests impractical for clinical and epidemiological studies. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) provides useful information regarding the mechanical properties of the arterial tree and can also be used to assess endothelial function. PWA is a simple, valid, reliable, and inexpensive technique, offering great clinical and epidemiological potential. The current paper will outline how to measure arterial stiffness and endothelial function using this technique and include discussion of validity and reliability.

  8. Greater impairments in cerebral artery compared with skeletal muscle feed artery endothelial function in a mouse model of increased large artery stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ashley E; Henson, Grant D; Reihl, Kelly D; Morgan, R Garrett; Dobson, Parker S; Nielson, Elizabeth I; Ling, Jing; Mecham, Robert P; Li, Dean Y; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Donato, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Advancing age as well as diseases such as diabetes are characterized by both increased large artery stiffness and impaired peripheral artery function. It has been hypothesized that greater large artery stiffness causes peripheral artery dysfunction; however, a cause-and-effect relationship has not previously been established. We used elastin heterozygote mice (Eln+/–) as a model of increased large artery stiffness without co-morbidities unrelated to the large artery properties. Aortic stiffness, measured by pulse wave velocity, was ∼35% greater in Eln+/– mice than in wild-type (Eln+/+) mice (P = 0.04). Endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD), assessed by the maximal dilatation to acetylcholine, was ∼40% lower in Eln+/– than Eln+/+ mice in the middle cerebral artery (MCA, P < 0.001), but was similar between groups in the gastrocnemius feed arteries (GFA, P = 0.79). In the MCA, EDD did not differ between groups after incubation with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (P > 0.05), indicating that lower NO bioavailability contributed to the impaired EDD in Eln+/– mice. Superoxide production and content of the oxidative stress marker nitrotyrosine was higher in MCAs from Eln+/− compared with Eln+/+ mice (P < 0.05). In the MCA, after incubation with the superoxide scavenger TEMPOL, maximal EDD improved by ∼65% in Eln+/– (P = 0.002), but was unchanged in Eln+/+ mice (P = 0.17). These results indicate that greater large artery stiffness has a more profound effect on endothelial function in cerebral arteries compared with skeletal muscle feed arteries. Greater large artery stiffness can cause cerebral artery endothelial dysfunction by reducing NO bioavailability and increasing oxidative stress. PMID:25627876

  9. Arterial stiffness is not increased in patients with short duration rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dzieża-Grudnik, Anna; Sulicka, Joanna; Strach, Magdalena; Siga, Olga; Klimek, Ewa; Korkosz, Mariusz; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of CV events. The aim of the study was to assess arterial stiffness and inflammatory markers in patients with short duration chronic arthritis. We assessed carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), traditional CV risk factors and inflammatory and endothelial markers in 71 chronic arthritis patients (RA and AS) and in 29 healthy controls. We did not find differences in PWV (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 10 [8.8-10.9] versus 10.7 [9.1-11.8] versus 9.2 [8.3-11.4] m/s; p = .14) and AIx (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 24.3 ± 11.5 versus 5.7 ± 12.4 versus 10 ± 12.8%; p = .22). Both groups of arthritis patients had active disease with significantly elevated inflammatory markers compared to controls. There were no correlations between endothelial and inflammatory markers and parameters of arterial stiffness in arthritis patients. When analyzing arthritis patients according to median of PVW, there were no significant differences in inflammatory and endothelial markers. We found that in patients with short duration active RA and AS arterial stiffness was not increased and furthermore, there was no association between markers of systemic inflammation and arterial stiffness.

  10. The effects of resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    DeVallance, E; Fournier, S; Lemaster, K; Moore, C; Asano, S; Bonner, D; Donley, D; Olfert, I M; Chantler, P D

    2016-05-01

    Arterial stiffness is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is elevated in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength, balance and glucose control. However, it is unknown whether resistance exercise training (RT) can lower arterial stiffness in patients with MetS. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether a progressive RT program would improve arterial stiffness in MetS. A total of 57 subjects (28 healthy sedentary subjects; 29 MetS) were evaluated for arterial structure and function, including pulse wave velocity (cfPWV: arterial stiffness), before and after an 8-week period of RT or continuation of sedentary lifestyle. We found that 8 weeks of progressive RT increased skeletal muscle strength in both Con and MetS, but did not change arterial stiffness in either MetS (cfPWV; Pre 7.9 ± 0.4 m/s vs. Post 7.7 ± 0.4 m/s) or healthy controls (cfPWV; Pre 6.9 ± 0.3 m/s vs. Post 7.0 ± 0.3 m/s). However, when cfPWV is considered as a continuous variable, high baseline measures of cfPWV tended to show a decrease in cfPWV following RT. Eight weeks of progressive RT did not decrease the group mean values of arterial stiffness in individuals with MetS or healthy controls.

  11. Airflow limitation in smokers is associated with arterial stiffness: the Nagahama Study.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Muro, Shigeo; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Terao, Chikashi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of associations between airflow limitation (AL) and arterial stiffness remain unclear. One factor that might affect both AL and arterial stiffness is habitual smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible interaction of smoking on the association between AL and arterial stiffness. Study subjects consisted of 8790 apparently healthy community residents. Airflow limitation was defined as a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity of less than 70%. Brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was used as an index of arterial stiffness. Smoking habit was investigated using a structured questionnaire. Subjects with AL had significantly higher baPWV (AL 1381 ± 334, control 1261 ± 227 cm/s, p < 0.001). In a separate analysis by smoking habit, advanced arterial stiffness in AL was observed only in smokers (non-smokers: AL 1300 ± 220, control 1260 ± 218; smokers: AL 1436 ± 384, control 1264 ± 243 cm/s). Other clinical features of subjects with AL were older age; increased plasma hsCRP levels; and a high prevalence of male sex, hypertension, and smoking experience. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for these covariates identified the smoking × AL interaction as an independent determinant of baPWV (β = 0.066, p < 0.001). Conversely, baPWV was an independent determinant of AL in current and past smokers, but not in never smokers. AL arising from cigarette smoking, but not AL in non-smokers, was associated with arterial stiffness in a general population independently of established risk factors. Measurement of subclinical arterial change in smokers may be useful in identifying persons at risk for AL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased large-artery stiffness in midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle in healthy women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Spaczyński, Robert Z; Mitkowska, Agnieszka; Florczak, Małgorzata; Banaszewska, Beata; Krauze, Tomasz; Wykrętowicz, Andrzej; Guzik, Przemysław; Pawelczyk, Leszek

    2014-10-01

    Sex hormones are specific factors contributing to the regulation of cardiovascular system. Studies on the effects of hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle on hemodynamics and arterial stiffness in young women are limited and provide conflicting results. The aim of the study was to assess arterial stiffness, peripheral/central blood (pBP and cBP) and pulse (pPP and cPP) pressures throughout the single, natural menstrual cycle (early follicular [EFP], late follicular [LFP] and midluteal [LP] phase). Forty two healthy regularly menstruating women (28.6±5.1 yrs of age; BMI 22.0±3.5 kg/m2) were evaluated during EFP (Estradiol [E], FSH, LH, PRL, TSH, Testosterone [T], DHEAS, and SHBG), LFP (E, FSH, LH) and LP (Progesterone, E, FSH, LH). Transvaginal ultrasound was performed to confirm ovulatory cycle. Resting radial and aortic BP were assessed noninvasively and continuously using tonometric measurement of peripheral PP wave-PPW (Colin BMP7000, Japan) and on-line reconstruction of central PPW (Sphygmocor Mx, Australia) at EFP, LFP and LP. ANOVA and Friedman test were used in statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in systolic/diastolic BP and PP both at the periphery and at ascending aorta throughout the menstrual cycle. Comparable observations of no interphasal differences were noted for peripheral Augmentation Index (AI). Central AI and augmentation pressure (AP) were significantly lower in LP than in LFP (by 4%; p<0.05 and by 37%; p<0.05, respectively). We demonstrated significant differences in mechanical properties of large arteries at the midluteal phase of natural menstrual cycle. We conclude that sex hormones may play role in the regulation of arterial stiffness in the reproductive age women.

  13. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  14. Relations of Inflammatory Biomarkers and Common Genetic Variants with Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate; Larson, Martin G.; Dupuis, Josée; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lipinska, Izabella; Meigs, James B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Rong, Jian; Vita, Joseph A; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Keaney, John F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation causes vascular dysfunction and perpetuates proatherosclerotic processes. We hypothesized that a broad panel of inflammatory biomarkers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammatory genes are associated with vascular stiffness. We assessed 12 circulating inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2 (Lp-PLA2 mass and activity), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myeloperoxidase, CD40 ligand, osteoprotegerin, P-selectin, tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII)] in relation to tonometry variables [central pulse pressure (CPP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), forward pressure wave, reflected pressure wave (RPW), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV), augmentation index] measured in 2409 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 60 years, 55% women, 13% ethnic/racial minorities). SNPs (n=2195) in 240 inflammatory candidate genes were related to tonometry measures in 1036 white individuals. In multivariable analyses, biomarkers explained less than 1% of any tonometry measure's variance. Applying backwards elimination, markers related to tonometry (P<0.01) were: TNFRII (inversely) with MAP; CRP (positively) and Lp-PLA2 (inversely) with RPW; and interleukin-6 and osteoprotegerin (positively) with CFPWV. In genetic association analyses, lowest p-values (false discovery rate <0.50) were observed for rs10509561 (FAS), p=6.6×10−5 for CPP and rs11559271 (ITGB2), p=1.1×10−4 for MAP. These data demonstrate that in a community-based sample, circulating inflammatory markers TNFRII (MAP), CRP, Lp-PLA2 activity (RPW), interleukin-6 and osteoprotegerin (CFPWV) were significantly but modestly associated with measures of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Additional studies are needed to determine if variation in inflammatory marker genes are associated with tonometry measures. PMID:18426996

  15. Metabolic risk factors and arterial stiffness in Indian children of parents with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Pandit, Deepa S; Kinare, Arun S; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the possible association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and arterial stiffness in Indian children with parental MS status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 140 overweight/obese and 60 normal-weight Indian children (mean age, 11.4 ± 2.8 years) along with one of their parents during 2008-2009. Data on weight, height, blood pressure, serum lipids, zinc, insulin, and glucose were collected. Intima media thickness (CIMT) and stiffness parameters were assessed in the right carotid artery. Physical activity and diet were assessed using structured questionnaires. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. A gradual increase in the percentage of MS children with an increasing number of MS components in parents was observed. Mean values for arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity, and elastic modulus were significantly higher in MS children of MS parents than in MS children of normal parents (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed for lifestyle, metabolic, and arterial parameters among child-parent pairs (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression revealed that children's CIMT and arterial stiffness were significantly associated (p < 0.01) with their serum levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and zinc, as well as with parental MS-CIMT. Parental MS status and lifestyle factors increase the risk of MS and arterial abnormalities in children.

  16. The Impact of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Arterial Stiffness and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Angina Pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Zagidullin, Naufal; Scherbakova, Elena; Safina, Yuliana; Zulkarneev, Rustem; Zagidullin, Shamil

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is the set of ischemia episodes that protects against subsequent periods of prolonged ischemia through the cascade of adaptive responses; however, the mechanisms of RIPC are not entirely clear. Here, we aimed to study the impact of RIPC in patients with stable angina pectoris and compare it with healthy individuals with respect to arterial stiffness and heart rate variability. In the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover blind design study, a group of 30 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients (63.9 ± 1.6 years) with stable angina pectoris NYHA II-III and a control group of 20 healthy individuals (58.2 ± 2.49) were both randomly allocated for remote RIPC or sham RIPC. Arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity (Spygmacor, Australia), and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded before and after the procedure followed by the crossover examination. In the group of healthy individuals, RIPC showed virtually no impact on the cardiovascular parameters, while, in the CHD group, the systolic and central systolic blood pressure, central pulse pressure, and augmentation decreased, and total power of HRV improved. We conclude that ischemic preconditioning reduces not only systolic blood pressure, but also reduces central systolic blood pressure and improves arterial compliance and heart rate modulation reserve, which may be associated with the antianginal effect of preconditioning. PMID:27348009

  17. Hyperglycemia and Arterial Stiffness: the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jonathan; Nambi, Vijay; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Steffes, Michael W.; Juraschek, Stephen P.; Coresh, Josef; Sharrett, A. Richey; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hyperglycemia has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that hyperglycemia is associated with the atherosis component of atherosclerosis, limited studies have addressed the independent role of hyperglycemia in the pathophysiology of sclerotic vascular disease. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia, as assessed by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), would be independently associated two common indices of arterial stiffness (pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep) and Young’s elastic modulus (YEM)). Methods We examined the cross-sectional association between HbA1c and arterial stiffness using B-mode ultrasound examination of the carotid artery in 9,050 participants from the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to characterize the association between HbA1c and increased Ep and YEM. Results Higher values of HbA1c were associated in a graded fashion with increased arterial stiffness (P-trend <0.001 for both EP and YEM). After adjusting for traditional risk factors, increasing HbA1c deciles were significantly associated with elevated EP (OR for the highest decile of HbA1c compared to the lowest, 2.01, 95% CI 1.30, 3.11) and YEM (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.15, 2.55). Conclusion Elevated HbA1c is associated with measures of increased arterial stiffness, even after accounting for arterial wall thickness. This is consistent with the hypothesis that hyperglycemia contributes to arterial stiffness beyond its effects on atherosis and suggests that hyperglycemia is associated with altered material within the arterial wall. PMID:23031361

  18. Reduction in arterial stiffness and vascular age by naltrexone-induced interruption of opiate agonism: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prospectively assess if opiate antagonist treatment or the opiate-free status could reverse opiate-related vasculopathy. Design Longitudinal Open Observational, Serial ‘N of One’, over 6.5 years under various treatment conditions: opiate dependence, naltrexone and opiate-free. Setting Primary care, Australia. Participants 20 opiate-dependent patients (16 males: 16 cases of buprenorphine 4.11±1.17 mg, two of methadone 57.5±12.5 mg and two of heroin 0.75±0.25 g). Intervention Studies of central arterial stiffness and vascular reference age (RA) were performed longitudinally by SphygmoCor Pulse Wave Analysis (AtCor, Sydney). Primary outcomes Primary outcome was vascular age and arterial stiffness accrual under different treatment conditions. Results The mean chronological age (CA) was 33.62±2.03 years. The opiate-free condition was associated with a lower apparent vascular age both in itself (males: p=0.0402 and females: p=0.0360) and in interaction with time (males: p=0.0001 and females: p=0.0004), and confirmed with other measures of arterial stiffness. The mean modelled RA was 38.82, 37.73 and 35.05 years in the opiate, naltrexone and opiate-free conditions, respectively. The opiate-free condition was superior to opiate agonism after full multivariate adjustment (p=0.0131), with modelled RA/CA of 1.0173, 0.9563 and 0.8985 (reductions of 6.1% and 11.9%, respectively). Conclusions Data demonstrate that opiate-free status improves vascular age and arterial stiffness in previous chronic opiate users. The role of opiate antagonist treatment in achieving these outcomes requires future clarification and offers hope of novel therapeutic remediation. PMID:23524044

  19. Development of easy operating arterial stiffness assessment instrument for home care.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Yao, Cheng-Tso; Wu, Tsang-Chih; Liu, An-Bang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 41 asymptomatic subjects (22 men and 19 women, 20 to 60 years of age) were enrolled. The PWV was measured both by dual-channel PPG (PWV-DVP) and by the proposed PWV instrument, Pulse Wave Velocity by Digital Volume Pulse Easy (PWV-DVPE). The developed system recorded digital volume pulse simultaneously from both the finger and ear. Time of pulse transition was measured on the time delay difference between two digital volume pulses. The PWV was calculated by dividing the distance between finger and ear by that of transit time. PWV-DVPE's capability of precise self-monitoring arterial stiffness is being proven in this study. In home care area, only few minutes is needed for self arterial stiffness assessment. Therefore, early self-monitoring of cardio-vascular dys-function and arterial stiffness is easily and effectively achieved.

  20. HIV infection and arterial stiffness among older-adults taking antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Siedner, Mark J.; Kim, June-Ho; Nakku, Ruth Sentongo; Hemphill, Linda; Triant, Virginia A.; Haberer, Jessica E.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Boum, Yap; Kwon, Douglas S.; Tsai, Alexander C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Okello, Samson; Bangsberg, David R.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with arterial stiffness, but no studies have assessed this relationship in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled 205 participants over 40 years old in Uganda: 105 on antiretroviral therapy for a median of 7 years, and a random sample of 100 age and gender-matched HIV-uninfected controls from the clinic catchment area. The prevalence of arterial stiffness (ABI>1.2) was 33%, 18%, 19% and 2% in HIV+ men, HIV- men, HIV+ women, and HIV- women. In multivariable models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, HIV+ individuals had over double the prevalence of arterial stiffness (APR 2.86, 95%CI 1.41–5.79, P=0.003). PMID:26636926

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Ethnic Differences in Arterial Stiffness and Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Jessica A.; Gower, Barbara A.; Calhoun, David A.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Dong, Yanbin; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Scholl, Jenni; Ashraf, Ambika P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D reportedly influences vascular function, which is worse in African Americans (AAs) relative to European Americans (EAs). It is not clear if ethnic differences in 25(OH)D mediate differences in vascular function. This study examined the relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with indicators of vascular function among healthy, young AA and EA adults. Methods This is a cross sectional study involving 23 AAs and 22 EAs. The main outcomes were augmentation index (AIx75), central aortic pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and seated and supine blood pressures. Results Results indicated that 25(OH)D was inversely associated with AIx75, supine systolic blood pressure (SBP), central aortic SBP and central aortic diastolic blood pressure (DBP), independent of age, sex, and percent body fat (standardized β= -0.29 to -0.43, P < 0.05 for all). AAs had greater AIx75 (P = 0.04) and PWV (P = 0.07) and lower FMD (P = 0.02) compared to EA after adjusting for age and percent body fat; further adjustment for 25(OH)D reduced the ethnic differences (P = 0.44, 0.53, and 0.20, respectively). Conclusion The 25(OH)D was associated with vascular function in healthy adults, and lower 25(OH)D among AAs may contribute to their greater arterial stiffness and reduced endothelial function (Clinical trials.gov NCT01041365, NCT01041547). PMID:22719806

  2. Relation between coronary artery disease, risk factors and intima-media thickness of carotid artery, arterial distensibility, and stiffness index.

    PubMed

    Alan, Sait; Ulgen, Mehmet S; Ozturk, Onder; Alan, Bircan; Ozdemir, Levent; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a diffuse process that involves vessel structures. In recent years, the relation of noninvasive parameters such as intima-media thickening (IMT), arterial distensibility (AD), and stiffness index (SI) to cardiovascular diseases has been researched. However, we have not found any study that has included all these parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors to AD, SI, and IMT, which are the noninvasive predictors of atherosclerotic process in the carotid artery. Included in the study were 180 patients who were diagnosed as having CAD by coronary angiography (those with at least > or = 30% stenosis in the coronary arteries) and, as a control group, 53 persons who had normal appearing coronary angiographies. IMT, AD, and SI values of all the patients in the study were measured by echo-Doppler imaging (AD formula = 2 x (AoS - AoD)/PP x AoD, SI formula = (SBP/DBP)/([AoS - AoD]/AoD). Significantly increased IMT (0.82 +/- 0.1, 0.57 +/- 0.1, p<0.05), decreased AD (0.25 +/- 0.9, 0.37 +/- 0.1, p<0.05), and increased SI (13 +/- 4, 8 +/- 3, p<0.05) values were detected in the CAD group compared to the control group. A significant correlation was found between IMT and presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and presence of plaque in carotids, and age. In the coronary artery disease group there was a significant correlation between AD and age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol levels, while there was no significant correlation with plaque development. A significant correlation was also found between stiffness index and systolic blood pressure and age; however, there was no relation between number of involved vessels and IMT, AD, and SI. We found sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values for CAD diagnosis to be 70%, 75%, 77%, and 66%, respectively. In CAD cases, according to data in

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Arterial Stiffness and Improves Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Battson, Micah L; Lee, Dustin M; Jarrell, Dillon K; Hou, Shoufei; Ecton, Kayl E; Phan, Anna B; Gentile, Christopher L

    2017-09-21

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a potential mechanism contributing to diabetes and its comorbidities. However, the importance of ER stress in diabetic vascular dysfunction is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), on arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. Carotid and mesenteric artery endothelial function were assessed via ex vivo pressure myography, and arterial stiffness was measured by aortic pulse wave velocity. The effects of TUDCA were examined both acutely (ex vivo) and chronically (250 mg/kg/day; i.p., 4 weeks). Compared to control C57BL/6J mice, db/db (DB) mice did not display carotid artery endothelial dysfunction; however, mesenteric artery endothelial function was markedly impaired. Acute incubation and chronic administration of TUDCA improved endothelium-dependent dilation in DB mesenteric arteries, without affecting endothelium-independent dilation. Chronic TUDCA administration also reduced arterial stiffness and was associated with reductions in ER stress markers in aortic and perivascular adipose tissue. These results suggest that ER stress may represent a novel cause of, and therapeutic target for, diabetic vascular dysfunction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Association between arterial stiffness and peritoneal small solute transport rate.

    PubMed

    Zhe, Xing-wei; Tian, Xin-kui; Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-juan; Gu, Yue; Chen, Hui-min; Tang, Li-jun; Wang, Tao

    2008-05-01

    While cardiovascular disease accounts for 40-50% of the mortality in dialysis patients, and while a high peritoneal transport in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is an independent predictor of outcome, it is unclear if there are any links. Aortic stiffness has become established as a cardiovascular risk factor. We thus studied pulse wave velocity (PWV) in CAPD patients to explore the possible link between peritoneal small solute transport and aortic stiffness. CAPD patients (n = 76, 27 M/49 F) in our center were included in the present study. Aortic stiffness was assessed by brachial pulse pressure (PP) and carotid-femoral PWV. Patients' peritoneal small solute transport rate was assessed by D/P(cr) at 4 h. Extracellular water over total body water (E/T ratio) was assessed by means of bioimpedance analysis. C-reactive protein was also measured. Carotid-femoral PWV was positively associated with patients' age (r = 0.555; P < 0.01), time on peritoneal dialysis (r = 0.332; P < 0.01), diabetic status (r = 0.319; P < 0.01), D/P(cr) (r = 0.241; P < 0.05), PP (r = 0.475; P < 0.01), and E/T (r = 0.606; P < 0.01). In a multivariate regression analysis, carotid-femoral PWV was independently determined by E/T (P < 0.01), PP (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), and D/P(cr) (P < 0.05). D/P(cr), in addition to E/T, age, and PP, was an independent predictor of elevated carotid-femoral PWV in CAPD patients, suggesting that there might be a link between high aortic stiffness and increased peritoneal small solute transport rate.

  5. Assessment of Arterial Stiffness Using the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease. Although measurement of pulse wave velocity is a widely accepted, noninvasive approach for the assessment of arterial stiffness, its accuracy is affected by changes in blood pressure. Summary The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is an index of the overall stiffness of the artery from the origin of the aorta to the ankle and is theoretically independent of blood pressure at the time of measurement. CAVI increases linearly with age and is elevated even in mild arteriosclerotic disease. It can identify differences in the degree of arteriosclerosis among patients with severe arteriosclerotic disease and better reflects the severity of disease of the coronary artery than does brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Patients with higher CAVI values show a poor prognosis compared with those with lower CAVI values. Furthermore, CAVI can be lowered by controlling diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Key Messages The primary aims of assessing arterial stiffness using CAVI are to assist in the early detection of arteriosclerosis, allowing timely treatment and lifestyle modification, and to quantitatively evaluate the progression of disease and the effectiveness of treatment. Whether CAVI-guided therapy can improve prognosis in high-risk patients needs to be further examined to confirm the clinical usefulness of this measure. PMID:27493899

  6. Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meili; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xinchun

    2014-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) changes with age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Chinese adults to investigate: (1) what is the relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and BP in Chinese men and women; and (2) to what degree can the age-BP relationship be explained by arterial stiffness, controlling for other covariables. These analyses included a total of 1688 subjects (males/females: 623/1065), aged 40 to 88 years. Among them, 353 (20.9%) had hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV appeared to be more strongly correlated with BP (including SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure [PP]) than age (P < 0.001 for comparisons between Spearman correlation coefficients). Furthermore, baPWV was associated with BP (including SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) and risk of hypertension in a dose-response fashion, independent of age; in contrast, the age-BP associations were either attenuated or became negative after adjusting for baPWV. Arterial stiffness appears to be an independent contributor to hypertension, even after adjusting for age and other covariables. In contrast, age-BP associations became attenuated or negative after adjusting for baPWV. The utility of baPWV as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic indicator for hypertension warrants further investigation.

  7. Relationship between sleep duration and arterial stiffness in a multi-ethnic population: The HELIUS study

    PubMed Central

    Anujuo, Kenneth; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Peters, Ron J.; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between sleep duration and arterial stiffness among a multi-ethnic cohort, and whether the associations differed among ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Data were derived from 10 994 participants (aged 18–71 years) of the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study. Self-reported sleep duration was categorized into: short (<7 h/night), healthy (7–8 h/night) and long (≥9 h/night). Arterial stiffness was assessed by duplicate pulse-wave velocity (PWV in m/s) measurements using the Arteriograph system. The association of sleep duration with PWV was analysed using linear regression (β) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results showed that neither short nor long sleep was related to PWV in all ethnic groups, except for long sleep in Dutch men which was associated with higher PWV (indicating stiffer arteries) after adjustment for potential confounders (β = 0.67, 95%CI, 0.23–1.11). Our study showed no convincing evidence that sleep duration was related to arterial stiffness among various ethnic groups. The link between sleep duration and cardiovascular outcomes does not seem to operate through arterial stiffness. Further research is needed to consolidate these findings. PMID:27058653

  8. Relations of Arterial Stiffness With Postural Change in Mean Arterial Pressure in Middle-Aged Adults: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Torjesen, Alyssa; Cooper, Leroy L; Rong, Jian; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Mitchell, Gary F

    2017-04-01

    Impaired regulation of blood pressure on standing can lead to adverse outcomes, including falls, syncope, and disorientation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) typically increases on standing; however, an insufficient increase or a decline in MAP on standing may result in decreased cerebral perfusion. Orthostatic hypotension has been reported in older people with increased arterial stiffness, whereas the association between orthostatic change in MAP and arterial stiffness in young- to middle-aged individuals has not been examined. We analyzed orthostatic blood pressure response and comprehensive hemodynamic data in 3205 participants (1693 [53%] women) in the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort. Participants were predominantly middle aged (mean age: 46±9 years). Arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, forward pressure wave amplitude, and characteristic impedance of the aorta. Adjusting for standard cardiovascular disease risk factors, orthostatic change in MAP (6.9±7.7 mm Hg) was inversely associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (partial correlation, rp=-0.084; P<0.0001), forward wave amplitude (rp=-0.129; P<0.0001), and characteristic impedance (rp=-0.094; P<0.0001). The negative relation between forward wave amplitude and change in MAP on standing was accentuated in women (P=0.002 for sex interaction). Thus, higher aortic stiffness was associated with a blunted orthostatic increase in MAP, even in middle age. The clinical implications of these findings warrant further study. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Effects of age and aerobic capacity on arterial stiffness in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vaitkevicius, P V; Fleg, J L; Engel, J H; O'Connor, F C; Wright, J G; Lakatta, L E; Yin, F C; Lakatta, E G

    1993-10-01

    It has been well established that arterial stiffness, manifest as an increase in arterial pulse wave velocity or late systolic amplification of the carotid artery pressure pulse, increases with age. However, the populations studied in prior investigations were not rigorously screened to exclude clinical hypertension, occult coronary disease, or diabetes. Furthermore, it is unknown whether exercise capacity or chronic physical endurance training affects the age-associated increase in arterial stiffness. Carotid arterial pressure pulse augmentation index (AGI), using applanation tonometry, and aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV) were measured in 146 male and female volunteers 21 to 96 years old from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were rigorously screened to exclude clinical and occult cardiovascular disease. Aerobic capacity was determined in all individuals by measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during treadmill exercise. In this healthy, largely sedentary cohort, the arterial stiffness indexes AGI and APWV increased approximately fivefold and twofold, respectively, across the age span in both men and women, despite only a 14% increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). These age-associated increases in AGI and APWV were of a similar magnitude to those in prior studies of less rigorously screened populations. Both AGI and APWV varied inversely with VO2max, and this relationship, at least for AGI, was independent of age. In endurance trained male athletes, 54 to 75 years old (VO2max = 44 +/- 3 mL.kg-1.min-1), the arterial stiffness indexes were significantly reduced relative to their sedentary age peers (AGI, 36% lower; APWV, 26% lower) despite similar blood pressures. Even in normotensive, rigorously screened volunteers in whom SBP increased an average of only 14% between ages 20 and 90 years, major age-associated increases of arterial stiffness occur. Higher physical conditioning status, indexed by VO2max, was associated with reduced

  10. Effect of acute and long-term aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Yuasa, Toshiaki; Oshiumi, Akira; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Miyawaki, Yoshinori; Miki, Tetsuro; Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2007-10-01

    Arterial stiffness is an important factor for cardiovascular performance and a predictor of cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the effects of both acute and long-term aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness in community-dwelling healthy elderly subjects. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the effects of long-term exercise and those of acute exercise. The study subjects were participants in the Shimanami Health Promoting Program study (J-SHIPP), which was designed to investigate factors relating to cardiovascular disease, dementia, and death (67+/-6 years). They performed mild-to-moderate aerobic exercise lasting for 30 min twice a week for 6 months. Arterial stiffness was assessed before and after the first 30-min acute exercise (n=99) and long-term 6-month aerobic training (n=40). The radial arterial augmentation index (AI) obtained from the radial pulse waveform by the tonometry method was used as a parameter of arterial stiffness. Both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly decreased after 30-min of aerobic exercise, however no significant change in AI was observed. On the other hand, there were significant decreases in AI (from 87 to 84%, p<0.01), SBP (from 136 to 129 mmHg, p<0.01), and DBP (from 75 to 70 mmHg, p<0.01) after the 6-month exercise period. Long-term exercise-induced changes in AI were significantly and inversely correlated with the pre-exercise AI (r=-0.40, p<0.01). In addition, AI changes after the 6-month exercise period were significantly related to those observed after first 30-min exercise (r=0.48, p<0.01). These findings indicate that apparently healthy and sedentary elderly subjects with higher AI may benefit from mild-to-moderate aerobic exercise to improve arterial stiffness.

  11. The interleukin-6 –174 G/C promoter polymorphism and arterial stiffness; the Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Sie, Mark PS; Mattace-Raso, Francesco US; Uitterlinden, André G; Arp, Pascal P; Hofman, Albert; Pols, Huibert AP; Hoeks, Arnold PG; Reneman, Robert S; Asmar, Roland; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Witteman, Jacqueline CM

    2008-01-01

    Arterial stiffness normally increases with age and has been established as a precursor of cardiovascular disease. Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine with an important role in the inflammatory cascade, such as up-regulation of C-reactive protein (CRP). The interleukin-6 –174-G/C promoter polymorphism appears to influence levels of inflammatory markers, which have been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness. We studied the association of this polymorphism with levels of interleukin-6 and CRP and with arterial stiffness. The study (n = 3849) was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective, population-based study. Analyses on the association between the –174-G/C polymorphism and pulse wave velocity, distensibility coefficient, and pulse pressure were performed using analyses of variance. Analyses on the levels of inflammatory markers and arterial stiffness were performed using linear regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, known cardiovascular risk factors, and atherosclerosis. We found pulse wave velocity to be 0.35 m/s higher for CC-homozygotes vs. wildtype GG-homozygotes (p = 0.018) with evidence for an allele-dose effect (p trend = 0.013), and a similar pattern for pulse pressure (p trend = 0.041). No apparent consistent association with the distensibility coefficient was found. CRP levels were associated with pulse wave velocity (p = 0.007). In conclusion, the interleukin-6 –174 G/C polymorphism is associated with increased arterial stiffness and pulse pressure. PMID:19066003

  12. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in ischemic stroke: the role of sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Carlo W; Tamisier, Renaud; Manconi, Mauro; Andreotti, Jennifer; Frangi, Jane; Pifferini, Valeria; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2013-04-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) represents a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity after a cerebral ischemic event (acute ischemic event, ischemic stroke, or transient ischemic attack). In the present study, endothelial function and arterial stiffness were analyzed in patients who experienced a postacute ischemic event with relation to SDB, sleep disruption, and nocturnal oxygenation parameters. SDB was assessed by full polysomnography in patients with acute ischemic event 3 months after the admission at our stroke unit. Moderate-severe SDB was defined according to the apnea-hypopnea index as apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 20. Endothelial function and arterial stiffness were assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000. Thirty-seven patients were included. The augmentation index was significantly different between patients with apnea-hypopnea index <20 and apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 20 (22.4 ± 15.6% versus 34.6 ± 21.6%; P=0.042), whereas reactive hyperemia index level was not (2.02 ± 0.65 versus 2.31 ± 0.61; P=0.127). Patients with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 20 showed an increased risk for arterial stiffness (odds ratio, 5.98 [95% CI, 1.11-41.72]) even when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. The augmentation index was correlated with the arousal index (P=0.010) and with mean O2 saturation (P = 0.043). Poststroke patients with moderate-severe SDB were more prone to have increased arterial stiffness, although we did not find significant differences in endothelial function. Arterial stiffness also correlated with sleep disruption (arousal index) and mean O2 saturation.

  13. Arterial stiffness measurements with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahey, Gregg E.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; McAleavey, Stephen A.; Gallippi, Caterina M.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a new method of imaging the mechanical properties of tissues based on very brief (<1msec) and localized applications of acoustic radiation force and the ultrasonic measurement of local tissues' responses to that force. Initial results with this technique demonstrate its ability to image mechanical properties of the medial and adventitial layers within ex vivo and in vivo arteries, and to distinguish hard and soft atherosclerotic plaques from normal vessel wall. We have labeled this method Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging. We describe studies to utilize this technique in the characterization of diffuse and focal atherosclerosis. We describe phantom trials and finite element simulations which explore the fundamental resolution and contrast achievable with this method. We describe in vivo and ex vivo trials in the popliteal, femoral and brachial arteries to assess the relationship between the mechanical properties of healthy and diseased arteries provided by this method and those obtained by alternative methods.

  14. Optical imaging of resting-state functional connectivity in a novel arterial stiffness model.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Edgar; Sadekova, Nataliya; Girouard, Hélène; Lesage, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of unilateral increases in carotid stiffness on cortical functional connectivity measures in the resting state. Using a novel animal model of induced arterial stiffness combined with optical intrinsic signals and laser speckle imaging, resting state functional networks derived from hemodynamic signals are investigated for their modulation by isolated changes in stiffness of the right common carotid artery. By means of seed-based analysis, results showed a decreasing trend of homologous correlation in the motor and cingulate cortices. Furthermore, a graph analysis indicated a randomization of the cortex functional networks, suggesting a loss of connectivity, more specifically in the motor cortex lateral to the treated carotid, which however did not translate in differentiated metabolic activity.

  15. Inverse relationship between physical activity and arterial stiffness in adults with hypertension.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Cuisle; Lithander, Fiona E; Raftery, Tara; Gormley, John; Mahmud, Azra; Hussey, Juliette

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on arterial stiffness among healthy adults. There is a lack of data on this relationship in adults with hypertension. The majority of studies which have examined physical activity and arterial stiffness have used subjective measures of activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured habitual physical activity and arterial stiffness in individuals with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. Adults attending an outpatient hypertension clinic were recruited into this cross sectional study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured using applanation tonometry. Participant's full lipid profile and glucose were determined through the collection of a fasting blood sample. Fifty-three adults [51(14) years, 26 male] participated, 16 of whom had the metabolic syndrome. Inactivity was positively correlated with PWV (r = .53, P < .001) and AIx (r = .48, P < .001). There were significant inverse associations between habitual physical activity of all intensities and both AIx and PWV. In stepwise regression, after adjusting for potential confounders, physical activity was a significant predictor of AIx and PWV. Habitual physical activity of all intensities is associated with reduced arterial stiffness among adults with hypertension.

  16. Is arterial stiffness predicted by continuous metabolic syndrome score in obese children?

    PubMed

    Prochotska, Katarina; Kovacs, Laszlo; Vitariusova, Eva; Feber, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article was to evaluate arterial stiffness, an early marker of increased cardiovascular risk, in relation to obesity. The continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) score was calculated as sum of Z score of mean arterial pressure, body mass index, serum glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 144 obese patients and 66 nonobese controls. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) was calculated as 1 minus regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure from ambulatory blood pressure measurements. The mean AASI increased progressively with severity of obesity. The receiver operator curve analysis of body mass index and AASI showed area under the curve of 0.64 ± 0.06; cMetS area under the curve was 0.72 ± 0.05 suggesting a better predictive power of the cMetS for an increased AASI (>0.3). Patients with obesity have significantly higher arterial stiffness. A composite score such as cMetS seems to be better predictor of an increased stiffness than individual risk factors.

  17. Etiology of End-Stage Renal Disease and Arterial Stiffness among Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoul, Balsam; Korjian, Serge; El Alam, Andrew; Samad, Salam; Dahdah, Georges; Blacher, Jacques; Safar, Michel E.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Prior studies have demonstrated that conventional and emerging CV risk factors are associated with worsening arterial stiffness among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis. The present cross-sectional study evaluates the association between the etiology of ESRD and arterial stiffness among a cohort of hemodialysis patients. Methods. Etiology of ESRD was identified from patients' medical records and classified as either vascular renal disease, diabetic nephropathy, nondiabetic glomerulopathy, tubular interstitial nephropathy, hereditary nephropathy, or ESRD of unconfirmed etiology. Results. A total of 82 subjects were enrolled. cfPWV was independently associated with the composite of either diabetic nephropathy or vascular renal disease (p = 0.022), pulse pressure (p = 0.001), and a history of CV events (p = 0.025), but not history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus alone. The median cfPWVs in diabetic nephropathy and vascular renal disease were comparable and significantly higher than median cfPWVs in other etiologies of ESRD. Conclusion. The study suggests that the etiology of ESRD is independently associated with arterial stiffness among hemodialysis patients. Furthermore, arterial stiffness was higher among patients who developed renal sequelae of either diabetes mellitus or hypertension as compared with those who have a history of either diabetes mellitus or hypertension alone. PMID:28299320

  18. Moderate and heavy metabolic stress interval training improve arterial stiffness and heart rate dynamics in humans.

    PubMed

    Rakobowchuk, Mark; Harris, Emma; Taylor, Annabelle; Cubbon, Richard M; Birch, Karen M

    2013-04-01

    Traditional continuous aerobic exercise training attenuates age-related increases of arterial stiffness, however, training studies have not determined whether metabolic stress impacts these favourable effects. Twenty untrained healthy participants (n = 11 heavy metabolic stress interval training, n = 9 moderate metabolic stress interval training) completed 6 weeks of moderate or heavy intensity interval training matched for total work and exercise duration. Carotid artery stiffness, blood pressure contour analysis, and linear and non-linear heart rate variability were assessed before and following training. Overall, carotid arterial stiffness was reduced (p < 0.01), but metabolic stress-specific alterations were not apparent. There was a trend for increased absolute high-frequency (HF) power (p = 0.10) whereas both absolute low-frequency (LF) power (p = 0.05) and overall power (p = 0.02) were increased to a similar degree following both training programmes. Non-linear heart rate dynamics such as detrended fluctuation analysis [Formula: see text] also improved (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of interval training at improving arterial stiffness and autonomic function, however, the metabolic stress was not a mediator of this effect. In addition, these changes were also independent of improvements in aerobic capacity, which were only induced by training that involved a high metabolic stress.

  19. Long-term pioglitazone therapy improves arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Harashima, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Junichi; Miwa, Takashi; Tsunoda, Tooru

    2009-06-01

    Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, not only improves insulin resistance and glycemic control, but may also have additional beneficial vascular effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether pioglitazone had an influence on arterial stiffness, which is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events, in 204 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A prospective, nonrandomized, open-label trial was performed that involved 41 patients treated with pioglitazone, 46 patients receiving sulfonylureas, 67 patients on insulin, and 50 patients on diet/exercise only. The follow-up period was 56 +/- 3 months. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by using the arterial stiffness index (ASI), which was based on analysis of the pulse wave amplitude pattern obtained during automated blood pressure measurement in the upper limb. The 4 groups had a similar baseline ASI, which was greater than the reference range in each group. Although antidiabetic therapies improved hemoglobin A(1c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ASI only decreased significantly in the pioglitazone group. Thus, pioglitazone improved abnormal arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus via a mechanism beyond the metabolic improvement. These findings may have important clinical implications in the use of pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Acute effects of aerobic exercise intensity on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-10-18

    Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg PWV, ankle pulse pressure and BG levels significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the LE trial (P<0·05), but not in the ME trial. Insulin levels and HR significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials (P<0·05). Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, brachial BP and carotid BP did not change from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials. The present findings indicate that aerobic exercise at moderate intensity before glucose ingestion suppresses increases leg arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

  1. The effects of induced hypogonadism on arterial stiffness, body composition, and metabolic parameters in males with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Bennett, S; Evans, L M; Kynaston, H G; Parmar, M; Mason, M D; Cockcroft, J R; Scanlon, M F; Davies, J S

    2001-09-01

    Sex hormones appear to play a pivotal role in determining cardiovascular risk. Androgen deprivation therapy for males with prostate cancer results in a hypogonadal state that may have important, but as yet undetermined, effects on the vasculature. We studied the effects of androgen deprivation therapy on large artery stiffness in 22 prostate cancer patients (mean age, 67 +/- 8 yr) over a 6-month period. Arterial stiffness was assessed using pulse-wave analysis, a technique that measures peripheral arterial pressure waveforms and generates corresponding central aortic waveforms. This allows determination of the augmentation of central pressure resulting from wave reflection and the augmentation index, a measure of large artery stiffness. Body compositional changes were assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, testosterone, and estradiol were measured. After a 3-month treatment period, the augmentation index increased from 24 +/- 6% (mean +/- SD) at baseline to 29 +/- 9% (P = 0.003) despite no change in peripheral blood pressure. Timing of wave reflection was reduced from 137 +/- 7 to 129 +/- 10 msec (P = 0.003). Fat mass increased from 20.2 +/- 9.4 to 21.9 +/- 9.6 kg (P = 0.008), whereas lean body mass decreased from 63.2 +/- 6.8 to 61.5 +/- 6.0 kg (P = 0.016). There were no changes in lipids or glucose during treatment. Median serum insulin rose from 11.8 (range, 5.6-49.1) to 15.1 (range, 7.3-83.2) mU/liter at 1 month (P = 0.021) and to 19.3 (range, 0-85.0 mU/liter by 3 months (P = 0.020). There was a correlation between the changes in fat mass and insulin concentration over the 3-month period (r = 0.56; P = 0.013). In a subgroup of patients whose treatment was discontinued after 3 months, the augmentation index decreased from 31 +/- 7% at 3 months to 29 +/- 5% by 6 months, in contrast to patients receiving continuing treatment in whom the augmentation index remained elevated at 6 months compared with baseline (P = 0

  2. Relations of Arterial Stiffness and Brachial Flow-Mediated Dilation With New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Amir Y; Wang, Na; Yin, Xiaoyan; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Hamburg, Naomi M; Magnani, Jared W; Ellinor, Patrick T; Lubitz, Steven A; Mitchell, Gary F; Benjamin, Emelia J; McManus, David D

    2016-09-01

    The relations of measures of arterial stiffness, pulsatile hemodynamic load, and endothelial dysfunction to atrial fibrillation (AF) remain poorly understood. To better understand the pathophysiology of AF, we examined associations between noninvasive measures of vascular function and new-onset AF. The study sample included participants aged ≥45 years from the Framingham Heart Study offspring and third-generation cohorts. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we examined relations between incident AF and tonometry measures of arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), wave reflection (augmentation index), pressure pulsatility (central pulse pressure), endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), resting brachial arterial diameter, and hyperemic flow. AF developed in 407/5797 participants in the tonometry sample and 270/3921 participants in the endothelial function sample during follow-up (median 7.1 years, maximum 10 years). Higher augmentation index (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.32; P=0.02), baseline brachial artery diameter (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.43; P=0.04), and lower flow-mediated dilation (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.99; P=0.04) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. Central pulse pressure, when adjusted for age, sex, and hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.28; P=0.02) was associated with incident AF. Higher pulsatile load assessed by central pulse pressure and greater apparent wave reflection measured by augmentation index were associated with increased risk of incident AF. Vascular endothelial dysfunction may precede development of AF. These measures may be additional risk factors or markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease associated with increased risk of incident AF. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Physical Activity Correlates with Arterial Stiffness in Community-dwelling Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ada; Eng, Janice J.; Brasher, Penelope M.; Madden, Kenneth M.; Mohammadi, Azam; Krassioukov, Andrei V.; Tsang, Teresa S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity contributes to atherosclerotic processes, which manifest as increased arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness is associated with myocardial demand and coronary perfusion and is a risk factor for stroke and other adverse cardiac outcomes. Poststroke mobility limitations often lead to physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors. This exploratory study aimed to identify functional correlates, reflective of daily physical activity levels, with arterial stiffness in community-dwelling individuals >1 year poststroke. Methods Carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was measured in 35 participants (65% men; mean ± SD age 66.9 ± 6.9 years; median time poststroke 3.7 years). Multivariable regression analyses examined the relationships between cfPWV and factors associated with daily physical activity: aerobic capacity (VO2 peak), gait speed, and balance ability (Berg Balance Scale). Age and the use of antihypertensive medications, known to be associated with pulse wave velocity, were also included in the model. Results Mean cfPWV was 11.2 ± 2.4 m/s. VO2 peak and age were correlated with cfPWV (r = −0.45 [P = .006] and r = 0.46 [P = .004], respectively). In the multivariable regression analyses, age and the use of antihypertensive medication accounted for 20.4% of the variance of cfPWV, and the addition of VO2 peak explained an additional 4.5% of the variance (R2 = 0.249). Conclusions We found that arterial stiffness is elevated in community-dwelling, ambulatory individuals with stroke relative to healthy people. Multivariable regression analysis suggests that aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) may contribute to the variance of cfPWV after accounting for the effects of age and medication use. Whether intense risk modification and augmented physical activity will improve arterial stiffness in this population remains to be determined. PMID:23473623

  4. B-vitamin levels and genetics of hyperhomocysteinemia are not associated with arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, S C; Enneman, A W; van Meurs, J; Swart, K M A; Ham, A H; van Wijngaarden, J P; Brouwer-Brolsma, E M; van der Zwaluw, N L; van Schoor, N M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; de Groot, L C P G M; Lips, P; Uitterlinden, A G; Blom, H; Geleijnse, J M; Feskens, E; de Jongh, R T; Smulders, Y M; van den Meiracker, A H; Mattace-Raso, F U S; van der Velde, N

    2014-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with arterial stiffness, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms explaining this association are to be revealed. This study was aimed to explore two potential pathways concerning the one-carbon metabolism. A potential causal effect of homocysteine was explored using a genetic risk score reflecting an individual's risk of having a long-term elevated plasma homocysteine level and also associations with B-vitamin levels were investigated. Baseline cross-sectional data of the B-PROOF study were used. In the cardiovascular subgroup (n = 567, 56% male, age 72.6 ± 5.6 yrs) pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined using applanation tonometry. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, methylmalonic acid (MMA) and holo transcobalamin (holoTC) were assessed and the genetic risk score was based on 13 SNPs being associated with elevated plasma homocysteine. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression analysis. B-vitamin levels were not associated with PWV. The genetic risk score was also not associated with PWV. However, the homocysteine-gene interaction was significant (p < 0.001) in the association of the genetic risk score and PWV. Participants with the lowest genetic risk of having long-term elevated homocysteine levels, but with higher measured homocysteine levels, had the highest PWV levels. Homocysteine is unlikely to be causally related to arterial stiffness, because there was no association with genetic variants causing hyperhomocysteinemia, whereas non-genetically determined hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with arterial stiffness. Moreover, the association between homocysteine and arterial stiffness was not mediated by B-vitamins. Possibly, high plasma homocysteine levels reflect an unidentified factor, that causes increased arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multicomponent supplement containing Chlorella decreases arterial stiffness in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Kono, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains various antioxidants and other nutrients such as amino acids and fiber. Previous studies have reported that supplementation with multiple antioxidants reduces arterial stiffness, a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated the effects of Chlorella intake on arterial stiffness using a single-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study design. Fourteen young men took placebo or Chlorella tablets for four weeks, with a 12-week washout period between trials, in a randomized order. Before and after each trial, blood pressure, heart rate, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, an index of arterial stiffness, were measured. Treatment compliance was comparable between the two groups. There were no differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after supplementation in both the placebo and Chlorella groups. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity decreased after Chlorella intake (before vs after intake; 11.6 ± 0.2 vs 11.1 ± 0.1 m/s, p = 0.01), but not after placebo intake (11.4 ± 0.2 vs 11.4 ± 0.2 m/s, p = 0.98). Multicomponent analysis of the Chlorella-containing tablet detected nutrients that can reduce arterial stiffness, such as antioxidant vitamins, arginine, potassium, calcium, and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that intake of a Chlorella-containing multicomponent supplement can decrease arterial stiffness. PMID:24249971

  6. Arterial stiffness is not associated with bone parameters in an elderly hyperhomocysteinemic population.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, S C; de Jongh, R T; Enneman, A W; Ham, A C; Swart, K M A; van Wijngaarden, J P; van der Zwaluw, N L; Brouwer-Brolsma, E M; van Schoor, N M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; Lips, P; de Groot, C P G M; Smulders, Y M; Blom, H J; Feskens, E J; Geleijnse, J M; van den Meiracker, A H; Mattace Raso, F U S; Uitterlinden, A G; Zillikens, M C; van der Velde, N

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have observed positive associations between bone disease and cardiovascular disease. A potential common pathway is hyperhomocysteinemia; however, to date, there is a lack of data regarding hyperhomocysteinemic populations. Therefore, we examined both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, whether there is an association between bone parameters and arterial stiffness in a hyperhomocysteinemic population, and investigated the potential common role of homocysteine (hcy) level on these associations. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of the B-PROOF study were used (n = 519). At both baseline and 2-year follow-up we determined bone measures-incident fractures and history of fractures, bone-mineral density (BMD) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement. We also measured arterial stiffness parameters at baseline-pulse wave velocity, augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure levels with applanation tonometry. Linear regression analysis was used to examine these associations and we tested for potential interaction of hcy level. The mean age of the study population was 72.3 years and 44.3 % were female. Both cross-sectionally and longitudinally there was no association between arterial stiffness measures and BMD or QUS measurements or with incident fractures (n = 16) within the 2-3 years of follow-up. Hcy level did not modify the associations and adjustment for hcy did not change the results. Arterial stiffness was not associated with bone parameters and fractures, and hcy neither acted as a pleiotropic factor nor as a mediator. The potential association between bone and arterial stiffness is therefore not likely to be driven by hyperhomocysteinemia.

  7. Assessments of endothelial function and arterial stiffness are reproducible in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Seigler, Nichole; Bass, Leon; Dillard, Thomas A; Harris, Ryan A

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated cardiovascular disease risk is observed in patients with COPD. Non-invasive assessments of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness have recently emerged to provide mechanistic insight into cardiovascular disease risk in COPD; however, the reproducibility of endothelial function and arterial stiffness has yet to be investigated in this patient population. Objectives This study sought to examine the within-day and between-day reproducibility of endothelial function and arterial stiffness in patients with COPD. Methods Baseline diameter, peak diameter, flow-mediated dilation, augmentation index, augmentation index at 75 beats per minute, and pulse wave velocity were assessed three times in 17 patients with COPD (six males, eleven females, age range 47–75 years old; forced expiratory volume in 1 second =51.5% predicted). Session A and B were separated by 3 hours (within-day), whereas session C was conducted at least 7 days following session B (between-day). Reproducibility was assessed by: 1) paired t-tests, 2) coefficients of variation, 3) coefficients of variation prime, 4) intra-class correlation coefficient, 5) Pearson’s correlations (r), and 6) Bland–Altman plots. Five acceptable assessments were required to confirm reproducibility. Results Six out of six within-day criteria were met for endothelial function and arterial stiffness outcomes. Six out of six between-day criteria were met for baseline and peak diameter, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity, whereas five out of six criteria were met for flow-mediated dilation. Conclusion The present study provides evidence for within-day and between-day reproducibility of endothelial function and arterial stiffness in patients with COPD. PMID:26396509

  8. Prostate-specific antigen levels are associated with arterial stiffness in essential hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Vyssoulis, Gregory; Karpanou, Eva; Kyvelou, Stella-Maria; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Tzamou, Vanessa; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2012-12-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been recently related to cardiovascular system in a multifactorial way. Arterial stiffness is a independent predictor of cardiovascular events and is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSA values, are associated with arterial stiffness indices in patients with essential arterial hypertension. The study comprised 150 consecutive male patients (mean age 60 years) with uncomplicated never-treated essential hypertension. All patients underwent a complete clinical and laboratory evaluation, including measurement of PSA levels. Aortic stiffness and arterial wave reflection assessment was made by using carotid-femoral (PWVc-f) pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate (AIx75). Patients with prostate cancer or benign prostate hyperplasia (PSA > 4 ng/mL) were excluded from the study. PSA was positively associated with waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.235, P = 0.04), PWVc-f (r = 0.426, P < 0.001), AIx75 (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; r = 0.376, P < 0.001). In categorization to PSA quartiles, patients in the higher quartile presented with higher waist-to hip ratio (P = 0.009), PWVc-f (P < 0.00001), AIx75 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.001) values. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for various confounders PSA remained a significant determinant of PWVc-f values (beta [SE] = 0.477 [0.13], R(2) = 0.405, P < 0.001). The present study points towards an association between PSA levels and aortic stiffness in untreated essential hypertensive males. Potential causal relationships between PSA and arterial stiffness remain to be further explored. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Both diabetes and fetuin-A are independently associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ou, Horng-Yih; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Hung-Tsung; Hung, Hao-Chang; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2015-05-20

    Arterial stiffness is a functional assessment of vascular damage caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Fetuin-A is associated with subclinical CVD and incident or fatal CVD, with some modification of its effect occurring with the presence of diabetes. We investigated the impact of different glycemic statuses and serum fetuin-A levels on arterial stiffness. A total of 312 age- and sex-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) were recruited. Serum fetuin-A levels were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV). We found that the mean values of baPWV were 1533±338, 1518±353, 1589±307, and 1690±414 cm/s, and fetuin-A levels were 298±69, 313±67, 330±86, and 342±93 μg/ml, in subjects with NGT, IFG, IGT, and NDD, respectively (both p<0.001, test for trend). NDD subjects had significantly higher baPWV and fetuin-A levels than those with NGT. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, fetuin-A, diabetes, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia are independently associated factors of baPWV after adjusting for cardiometabolic risk factors, HOMA-IR, and adiponectin. Both diabetes and fetuin-A levels are independently associated with arterial stiffness. Fetuin-A may further aggravate increased arterial stiffness in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline.

  11. Estrogen receptor-alpha genotype affects exercise-related reduction of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Maeda, Seiji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Otsuki, Takeshi; Sugawara, Jun; Tanabe, Takumi; Miyauchi, Takashi; Kuno, Shinya; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Mitsuo

    2008-02-01

    Arterial stiffness, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, increases with advancing age. Arterial stiffness is improved by regular exercise, but individual responses to exercise training are variable. Given that estrogen and estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) can induce vasodilation and can exert an antiatherosclerotic effect in vessels, we hypothesized that gene polymorphisms of ER-alpha might influence the ability of regular exercise to improve arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. One hundred ninety-five healthy postmenopausal women (62 +/- 6 yr, mean +/- SD) participated in our cross-sectional study. We determined the genotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at -401T/C of intron 1 of the ER-alpha gene. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and daily physical activity was estimated by a uniaxial accelerometer. Subjects were divided into active and inactive groups according to the median value (200 kcal.d(-1)) of energy expenditure. baPWV in individuals with the TT variant of -401T/C genotype were significantly higher than for individuals with the TC+CC genotype. No significant differences in mean baPWV values were found between the active group and the inactive group (P = 0.09). A significant reduction of baPWV secondary to increased daily physical activity was observed in individuals with the TC+CC genotype but not in individuals with the TT genotype (TT/active: 1470 +/- 36 cm.s(-1); TT/inactive: 1457 +/- 34 cm.s(-1); TC+CC/active: 1359 +/- 21 cm.s(-1); TC+CC/inactive: 1433 +/- 24 cm.s(-1)). These results suggest that ER-alpha polymorphism affects the regular exercise-related reduction in arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women.

  12. High glomerular filtration rate is associated with arterial stiffness in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Peng, Kui; Du, Rui; Huang, Xiaolin; Sun, Wanwan; Ding, Lin; Wang, Po; Huang, Ya; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Lu, Jieli

    2017-02-01

    Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been suspected as a risk factor for arterial stiffness. Whether high GFR is the risk factor of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease remains uncertain. We aim to evaluate the association between high estimated GFR (eGFR) and arterial stiffness in Chinese adults. We performed a cross-sectional study involving 9136 Chinese adults without chronic kidney disease. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and pulse pressure (PP). We divided participants into four groups according to age-specific quartiles of eGFR. Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) was defined with the highest age-specific quartile of eGFR. The odds ratios (ORs) of elevated baPWV and PP were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models and were further tested using propensity score matching analysis between participants with or without RHF. RHF was associated with 11 and 32% higher risk of elevated baPWV and PP in age-adjusted models, P = 0.35 and 0.005, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, RHF was significantly associated with 23 and 39% increased risk of elevated baPWV and PP, P = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively. These associations were further confirmed in propensity score matching analysis. The adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) were 1.17 (1.03-1.30) for elevated baPWV and 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for elevated PP, P = 0.02 and P value less than 0.001, respectively. RHF was associated with elevated baPWV and PP, suggesting that RHF might be an early indicator for the detection of arterial stiffness.

  13. The relationship between various measures of obesity and arterial stiffness in morbidly obese patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness assessed by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate how various measures of body composition affect arterial stiffness. Methods This is an analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a controlled clinical trial addressing changes in arterial stiffness after either surgery or lifestyle intervention in a population of morbidly obese patients. High-fidelity applanation tonometry (Millar®, Sphygmocor®) was used to measure pulse wave velocity (PWV). Carotid femoral PWV is a direct measure of arterial stiffness and is considered to be the gold standard method. The Inbody 720 Body Composition Analyzer was used for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Spearman's correlation, independent samples t-test, chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and multiple linear regression analyses were used as statistical methods. Results A total of 133 patients (79 women), with a mean (SD) age of 43 (11) years were included in the study. Men had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity related comorbidities and significantly higher PWV, 9.1 (2.0) m/s vs. 8.1 (1.8) m/s, p = 0.003, than women. In the female group, PWV was positively correlated with WC, WHtR, BMI and visceral fat area. In the male group, PWV was negatively correlated with BMI. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that increasing BMI, WC, WHtR, visceral fat area and fat mass were independently associated with higher PWV in women, but not in men, after adjustment for age, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Most measures of general and abdominal obesity were predictors of arterial stiffness in female morbidly obese patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00626964 PMID:21284837

  14. The importance of carotid artery stiffness and increased intima-media thickness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ozcetin, Mustafa; Celikyay, Z Ruken Yuksekkaya; Celik, Atac; Yilmaz, Resul; Yerli, Yasemin; Erkorkmaz, Unal

    2012-03-08

    Atherosclerosis that starts in childhood invariably advances during adulthood. Aim. We aimed to study the effect of obesity on main carotid artery intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness. A total of 78 children were studied from October 2010 to February 2011. They were divided into obese (42 - group 1) and normal (36 - group 2). All the children were subjected to physical examination, routine biochemical and haematological analysis, carotid ultrasonography and echocardiographic measurements. A detailed medical history was obtained. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing participants' weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. Stiffness index β was calculated using blood pressure and diameter of the systolic and diastolic artery. Intima-media thickness was also measured. The mean age of the obese and normal (control) groups were 10.12±2.12 years and 9.78±1.78 years respectively. Weight, BMI, and systolic and and diastolic blood pressure values were significantly higher in the obese group (all p<0.001). In terms of arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements, all parameters were higher in the obese group than the control (p<0.001). There was a relationship between the degree of obesity and CIMT or stiffness index β. In addition, dilatation and hypertrophy levels in the left ventricle were higher in obese children. Obese children with risk factors for multiple atherosclerosis could have increased CIMT dimensions and consequently should be screened for these risks. Ultrasonographic CIMT and arterial stiffness measurements can detect vascular damage at an early stage of development in children with cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, L; Dower, J I; Mensink, M; Siebelink, E; Bakker, S J L; Geleijnse, J M

    2015-10-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low in sodium and potassium. After a 1-week run-in period, subjects received capsules with supplemental sodium (3 g d(-1), equals 7.6 g d(-1) of salt), supplemental potassium (3 g d(-1)) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. Fasting office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and measures of arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks. Of 37 randomized subjects, 36 completed the study. They had a mean pre-treatment BP of 145/81 mm Hg and 69% had systolic BP ⩾140 mm Hg. Sodium excretion was increased by 98 mmol per 24 h and potassium excretion by 63 mmol per 24 h during active interventions, compared with placebo. During sodium supplementation, office BP was significantly increased by 7.5/3.3 mm Hg, 24-h BP by 7.5/2.7 mm Hg and central BP by 8.5/3.6 mm Hg. During potassium supplementation, 24-h BP was significantly reduced by 3.9/1.6 mm Hg and central pulse pressure by 2.9 mm Hg. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were not significantly affected by sodium or potassium supplementation. In conclusion, increasing the intake of sodium caused a substantial increase in BP in subjects with untreated elevated BP. Increased potassium intake, on top of a relatively low-sodium diet, had a beneficial effect on BP. Arterial stiffness did not materially change during 4-week interventions with sodium or potassium.

  16. Mean Platelet Volume and Arterial Stiffness – Clinical Relationship and Common Genetic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Panova-Noeva, Marina; Arnold, Natalie; Hermanns, M. Iris; Prochaska, Jürgen H.; Schulz, Andreas; Spronk, Henri M.; Binder, Harald; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Beutel, Manfred; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Lotz, Johannes; Münzel, Thomas; Lackner, Karl J.; ten Cate, Hugo; Wild, Philipp S.

    2017-01-01

    Vessel wall stiffening is an important clinical parameter, but it is unknown whether platelets, key elements in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis, are associated with arterial stiffness. The present studies sought to determine whether mean platelet volume (MPV), a potential marker of platelet activation, is linked to vascular elasticity as assessed by the augmentation index (AIx), in 15,010 individuals from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Multivariable analysis showed that MPV in both males (β 0.776; 95thCI [0.250;1.16]; p = 0.0024) and females (β 0.881[0.328;1.43]; p = 0.0018) is strongly associated with AIx. Individuals with MPV and AIx above the sex-specific medians had worse survival. Association analysis between MPV-related genetic variants and arterial stiffness identified four genetic variants in males and one in females related with AIx. Cox regression analysis for mortality identified one of these joint genetic variants close to ring finger protein 145 gene (RNF145, rs10076782) linked with increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.02; 95thCI [1.35;3.02]; p = 0.00061). Thus, these population-based data demonstrate a close relation between platelet volume as a potential marker of platelet activation and arterial stiffness in both sexes. Further research is warranted to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying larger platelets‘ role in arterial stiffening including the role of shared common genetics. PMID:28059166

  17. Manipulation of arterial stiffness, wave reflections, and retrograde shear rate in the femoral artery using lower limb external compression.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Lefferts, Wesley K; Kasprowicz, Ari G; Tarzia, Brendan J; Thijssen, Dick H; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of the arterial wall to retrograde shear acutely leads to endothelial dysfunction and chronically contributes to a proatherogenic vascular phenotype. Arterial stiffness and increased pressure from wave reflections are known arbiters of blood flow in the systemic circulation and each related to atherosclerosis. Using distal external compression of the calf to increase upstream retrograde shear in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), we examined the hypothesis that changes in retrograde shear are correlated with changes in SFA stiffness and pressure from wave reflections. For this purpose, a pneumatic cuff was applied to the calf and inflated to 0, 35, and 70 mmHg (5 min compression, randomized order, separated by 5 min) in 16 healthy young men (23 ± 1 years of age). Doppler ultrasound and wave intensity analysis was used to measure SFA retrograde shear rate, reflected pressure wave intensity (negative area [NA]), elastic modulus (Ep), and a single-point pulse wave velocity (PWV) during acute cuff inflation. Cuff inflation resulted in stepwise increases in retrograde shear rate (P < 0.05 for main effect). There were also significant cuff pressure-dependent increases in NA, Ep, and PWV across conditions (P < 0.05 for main effects). Change in NA, but not Ep or PWV, was associated with change in retrograde shear rate across conditions (P < 0.05). In conclusion, external compression of the calf increases retrograde shear, arterial stiffness, and pressure from wave reflection in the upstream SFA in a dose-dependent manner. Wave reflection intensity, but not arterial stiffness, is correlated with changes in peripheral retrograde shear with this hemodynamic manipulation.

  18. Effects of 8-week swimming training on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wen-Xue; Liu, Hai-Bin; Gao, Feng-Shan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2016-12-28

    Exercise has been found to either reduce or increase arterial stiffness. Land-based exercise modalities have been documented as effective physical therapies to decrease arterial stiffness. However, these land-based exercise modalities may not be suitable for overweight individuals, in terms of risks of joint injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8-week swimming training and 4-week detraining on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults. Twenty young male adults who were overweight were recruited and engaged in 8-week of swimming training and 4-week detraining. Five individuals withdrew due to lack of interest and failure to follow the training protocol. Body Fat Percentage (BFP) and carotid hemodynamic variables were measured on a resting day at the following intervals: baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks after swimming training and 4 weeks after detraining. A repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the differences between baseline and each measurement. When significant differences were detected, Tukey's test for post hoc comparisons was used. Eight-week swimming training at moderate intensity decreased BFP, including the trunk and four extremities. Additionally, the BFP of the right and left lower extremities continued to decrease in these overweight adults 4 weeks after ceasing training. Carotid arterial stiffness decreased, while there were no significant changes in arterial diameters. Blood flow velocity, flow rate, maximal and mean wall shear stress increased, while systolic blood pressure and peripheral resistance decreased. No significant differences existed in minimal wall shear stress and oscillatory shear stress. Eight-week swimming training at moderate intensity exhibited beneficial effects on systolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness and blood supply to the brain in overweight adults. Moreover, maximal and mean wall shear stress increased after training. It is worth noting that these

  19. Habitual rowing exercise is associated with high physical fitness without affecting arterial stiffness in older men.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Gando, Yuko; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Asaka, Meiko; Aoyama, Tomoko; Ando, Takafumi; Tokizawa, Ken; Miyachi, Motohiko; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated the effects of habitual rowing exercise on arterial stiffness and plasma levels of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in older men. Eleven rowers (68.0 ± 1.6 years) and 11 sedentary control older men (64.9 ± 1.1 years) were studied. Peak oxygen uptake (36.0 ± 1.7 vs. 27.7 ±1.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), leg press power (1346 ± 99 vs. 1077 ± 68 W), and HDL-cholesterol (75 ± 5 vs. 58 ±3 mg · ml(-1)) were higher and triglyceride (78 ± 9 vs. 120 ± 14 mg · ml(-1)) was lower in rowers than in control participants (all P < 0.05). Arterial stiffness indices (carotid β-stiffness and cardio-ankle vascular index) and plasma endothelin-1 and NOx (nitrite + nitrate) levels did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that habitual rowing exercise in older men is associated with high muscle power and aerobic capacity, and favourable blood lipid profile without affecting arterial stiffness or plasma levels of endotheline-1 and NO.

  20. Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with blood pressure and carotid arterial stiffness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Tagetti, Angela; Bonafini, Sara; Zaffanello, Marco; Benetti, Maria V; Vedove, Francesco Dalle; Gasperi, Emma; Cavarzere, Paolo; Gaudino, Rossella; Piacentini, Giorgio; Minuz, Pietro; Maffeis, Claudio; Antoniazzi, Franco; Fava, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Both sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and high blood pressure (BP) occur more frequently among obese children than among normal weight children, and this may be due to endothelial dysfunction and worsened arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between SDB and BP, and the possible role of endothelial function and local and systemic arterial stiffness in a sample of obese children asymptomatic for sleep disturbances. Thirty-nine obese children were included in the study. Children underwent overnight limited channel polysomnography, and the vascular measurements included the following: office and 24-h ambulatory BP; brachial flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and carotid distensibility measured using ultrasound; and systemic arterial stiffness index measured using digital volume pulse analysis. Significant correlations between different BP measurements (both office and ambulatory BP monitoring and estimated by Z score) and SDB were found, including correlations involving the respiratory disturbance index, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the number of desaturations per hour and the mean peripheral saturation (r ranging between 0.330 and 0.474). Carotid distensibility was correlated with the AHI (r = -0.367; P = 0.030) and with the mean oxygen saturation (r = 0.401; P = 0.017). In contrast, there was no relationship among flow-mediated dilatation, stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness and all the tested respiratory markers. In the multivariate analysis, the supine Z SBP remained independently associated with the number of desaturations per hour and the AHI, even after correction for carotid distensibility and BMI. Our data suggest that in obese children asymptomatic for sleep respiratory problems, SDB might worsen BP, in part, through an increase in arterial stiffness.

  1. Uteroplacental insufficiency and lactational environment separately influence arterial stiffness and vascular function in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tare, Marianne; Parkington, Helena C; Bubb, Kristen J; Wlodek, Mary E

    2012-08-01

    Early life environmental influences can have lifelong consequences for health, including the risk of cardiovascular disease. Uteroplacental insufficiency causes fetal undernutrition and impairs fetal growth. Previously we have shown that uteroplacental insufficiency is associated with impaired maternal mammary development, compromising postnatal growth leading to hypertension in male rat offspring. In this study we investigated the roles of prenatal and postnatal nutritional environments on endothelial and smooth muscle reactivity and passive wall stiffness of resistance arteries of male rat offspring. Fetal growth restriction was induced by maternal bilateral uterine vessel ligation (restricted) on day 18 of pregnancy. Control offspring were from mothers that had sham surgery (control) and another group from mothers with their litter size reduced (reduced; litter size reduced to 5 at birth, equivalent to the restricted group). On postnatal day 1, offspring (control, restricted, and reduced) were cross-fostered onto control or restricted mothers. At 6 months, mesenteric and femoral arteries were studied using wire and pressure myography. In restricted-on-restricted rats, wall stiffness was increased, and sensitivity to phenylephrine and relaxation evoked by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and sodium nitroprusside were impaired in mesenteric arteries. In femoral arteries, relaxation to sodium nitroprusside was reduced, whereas wall stiffness was unaltered. Cross-fostering restricted offspring onto control mothers alleviated deficits in vascular stiffness and reactivity. Control or reduced offspring who suckled a restricted mother had marked vascular stiffening. In conclusion, prenatal and early postnatal environments separately influence vascular function and stiffness. Furthermore, the early postnatal lactational environment is a determinant of later cardiovascular function.

  2. Relationship between carotid intima‐media thickness and arterial stiffness in children after Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y‐f; Wong, S J; Ho, M H K

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence of premature atherosclerosis and systemic arterial stiffening in patients after Kawasaki disease is accumulating. Aim To test the hypothesis that carotid intima‐media thickness (IMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, is associated with systemic arterial stiffness in children after Kawasaki disease. Methods A cohort of 72 patients was studied, comprising 26 patients with Kawasaki disease and coronary aneurysms (group I), 24 patients with Kawasaki disease and normal coronary arteries (group II) and 22 healthy age‐matched children (group III). The carotid IMT, carotid artery stiffness index, brachioradial pulse wave velocity (PWV), fasting total cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined and compared among the three groups. Results The carotid IMT was related to indices of arterial stiffness, and significant determinants of carotid IMT were identified by multivariate analysis. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) carotid IMT of both group I (0.41 (0.04) mm) and group II (0.39 (0.04) mm) was significantly greater than that of group III (0.36 (0.04) mm; p<0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). For the entire cohort, carotid IMT correlated positively with LDL cholesterol (r = 0.31, p = 0.009), carotid artery stiffness index (r = 0.40, p = 0.001) and brachioradial PWV (r = 0.28, p = 0.016), but not with age, body mass index, systemic blood pressure, and HDL and total cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis identified carotid artery stiffness index (β = 0.25, p = 0.028) and subject grouping (β = −0.39, p = 0.001; model R2 = 0.29) as significant correlates of carotid IMT. Conclusion The increased carotid IMT in children after Kawasaki disease is associated with systemic arterial stiffening. PMID:16820386

  3. Influence of Postprandial Hyperglycemic Conditions on Arterial Stiffness in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gordin, Daniel; Saraheimo, Markku; Tuomikangas, Jaana; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Forsblom, Carol; Paavonen, Karri; Steckel-Hamann, Birgit; Vandenhende, Francois; Nicolaou, Loizos; Pavo, Imre; Koivisto, Veikko

    2016-01-01

    Context: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether postprandial hyperglycemia affects arterial function in T2D. Design: A single-center, open-label study of three groups of men were studied: 1) T2D patients with albuminuria (n = 22), 2) T2D patients without albuminuria (n = 24), and 3) nondiabetic controls (n = 25). Patients were randomized to a two-period crossover study schedule, ingesting breakfast, with or without insulin lispro (to induce low or high postprandial glycemia). Main Outcome Measures: Arterial stiffness was assessed by calculating pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index using applanation tonometry, and endothelial dysfunction was assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry, 30 minutes before breakfast and up to 240 minutes after breakfast. Results: At baseline, arterial stiffness was increased in patients. When adjusted for age and body mass index, in a combined group of patients with and without albuminuria, brachial PWV was higher during low (P = .032) and high (P = .038) postprandial glycemia vs controls. These differences were driven by the albuminuria group vs controls during low (P = .014) and high (P = .018) postprandial glycemia. No differences were observed in aortic PWV, augmentation index, or peripheral arterial tonometry ratio between patients and controls. Endothelin-1 and IL-6 were higher, and superoxide dismutase was lower, during postprandial hyperglycemia in T2D patients vs controls. Conclusions: In patients with T2D and albuminuria, brachial PWV was higher under postprandial hyperglycemic conditions, relative to controls. These data suggest that hyperglycemia induces an increase in stiffness of intermediate-sized arteries. We found no changes in other parts of the arterial bed. PMID:26731258

  4. Arterial stiffness is increased in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; Vogels, Oscar J M; Biesma, Douwe H; Bos, Willem-Jan W

    2013-08-01

    Radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (HLS). Identifying subjects most likely to develop these complications is challenging. Arterial stiffness has been frequently used as an early marker of CVD, but has never previously been investigated in patients treated with radiotherapy. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the distensibility coefficient (DC) of the common carotid artery were used as markers of arterial stiffness. Eighty-two HLS and 40 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. The aorta and the carotid arteries were situated within the radiation field in 50 and 39 patients. Mean PWV was not significantly different in HLS treated with radiotherapy on the mediastinum when compared to HLS treated without mediastinal radiotherapy and to controls. If HLS were 40 years or older at radiotherapy their PWV was significantly higher (8.54 m/s) than patients irradiated at a younger age (7.14 m/s, p = 0.004) and controls (6.91 m/s, p < 0.001), after adjusting for current age and other CVD risk factors. Mean DC was lower, indicative of stiffer arteries, in HLS treated with radiotherapy on the common carotid artery (2.79) than in HLS without radiotherapy (3.35, p = 0.029) and versus controls (3.60, p = 0.001). DC was lowest in HLS treated at 35 years of age or later (2.05), compared to HLS irradiated at a younger age (2.98, p = 0.046). In HLS, radiotherapy is associated with increased arterial stiffness. The effect of radiotherapy seems most evident when radiotherapy is administered at ages above 35-40 years.

  5. Evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Çiftel, Murat; Demir, Berrin; Kozan, Günay; Yılmaz, Osman; Kahveci, Hasan; Kılıç, Ömer

    2016-02-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy can produce cardiopulmonary disease in children. However, it is unclear whether adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes atherosclerosis. This study evaluated carotid intimamedia thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The study included 40 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (age: 5-10 years) and 36 healthy children with similar age and body mass index. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were measured in all subjects. Carotid intima-media thickness, carotid arterial systolic diameter, and carotid arterial diastolic diameter were measured using a high-resolution ultrasound device. Based on these measurements, carotid arterial strain, carotid artery distensibility, beta stiffness index, and elasticity modulus were calculated. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (0.36±0.05 mm vs. 0.34±0.04 mm, P=0.02) compared to healthy controls. Beta stiffness index (3.01±1.22 vs. 2.98±0.98, P=0.85), elasticity modulus (231.39±99.23 vs. 226.46±83.20, P=0.88), carotid arterial strain (0.17±0.06 vs. 0.17±0.04, P=0.95), and carotid artery distensibility (13.14±3.88 vs. 12.92±3.84, P=0.75) were similar between children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the healthy controls. The present study revealed increased carotid intima-media thickness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The risk of subclinical atherosclerosis may be higher in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  6. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is associated with increased arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wall, Nadezhda A; Chue, Colin D; Edwards, Nicola C; Pankhurst, Tanya; Harper, Lorraine; Steeds, Richard P; Lauder, Sarah; Townend, Jonathan N; Moss, Paul; Ferro, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased cardiovascular risk that is not fully explained by traditional risk factors but appears to be related to increased arterial stiffness. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with increased cardiovascular risk although the mechanisms for this are unknown. We examined whether CMV seropositivity was associated with increased arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease. In 215 non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease, CMV seropositivity was determined using an anti-CMV IgG ELISA. Pulse wave velocity was measured and aortic distensibility assessed in the ascending, proximal descending and distal descending thoracic aorta. Patients seropositive for CMV had a higher pulse wave velocity and lower aortic distensibility at all 3 levels. These differences (except for ascending aortic distensibility) persisted in a subcohort matched for age, gender and renal function, and when the whole cohort was divided into quartiles of age. In multivariable analyses, CMV seropositivity was an independent determinant of pulse wave velocity and proximal and distal descending aortic distensibility. In patients with chronic kidney disease, CMV seropositivity is associated with increased arterial stiffness and decreased distensibility of the proximal descending and distal aorta. These findings suggest that further research is required to examine CMV as a possible cause of arterial disease and increased cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD and may be relevant more widely for CMV seropositive patients with normal renal function.

  7. An Inverse Method to Determine Arterial Stiffness with Guided Axial Waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Yang; He, Qiong; Jia, Lin; He, Ping; Luo, Jianwen; Cao, Yanping

    2017-02-01

    Many cardiovascular diseases can alter arterial stiffness; therefore, measurement of arterial wall stiffness can provide valuable information for both diagnosis of such diseases in the clinic and evaluation of the effectiveness of relevant drugs. However, quantitative assessment of the in vivo elastic properties of arterial walls in a non-invasive manner remains a great challenge. In this study, we found that the elastic modulus of the arterial wall can be extracted from the dispersion curve of the guided axial wave (GAW) measured using the ultrasound elastography method. It is shown that the GAW in the arterial wall can be well described with the Lamb wave (LW) model when the frequency exceeds a critical value fc, whose explicit form is determined here based on dimensional analysis method and systematic finite-element simulations. Further, an inverse procedure is proposed to determine both fc and the elastic modulus of the arterial wall. Phantom experiments have been performed to validate the inverse method and illustrate its potential use in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute effect of caffeine on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, A; Feely, J

    2001-08-01

    Caffeine acutely increases blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance, in part because of sympathetic stimulation. Its effects on large artery properties are largely unknown. In a double-blind crossover study, 7 healthy subjects 26+/-2.6 years of age (mean+/-SEM) were studied for 90 minutes while in the supine position on 2 occasions separated by a week in random order after ingestion of 250 mL caffeinated (150 mg) and decaffeinated (<2 mg) coffee. Compared with baseline, arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity increased progressively from 7.2+/-0.41 to 8.0+/-0.6 m/s (P<0.05) at 90 minutes after caffeine intake, an effect that may be independent of changes in blood pressure. In addition, arterial wave reflection, measured by applanation tonometry from the aortic pressure waveform, also increased from -5.7+/-7.6% to 5.28%+/-5.6 (P<0.01). No such changes were seen with decaffeinated coffee intake. Although the integral of the brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure values over the 90 minutes was larger (P<0.05) after caffeinated than decaffeinated coffee intake, the effect on aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures was more pronounced (P<0.05) than on the brachial artery. These results show a significant effect of caffeine intake on arterial tone and function and suggest that caffeine acutely increases arterial stiffness.

  9. Association of Parental Hypertension with Arterial Stiffness in Non-Hypertensive Offspring: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle; Larson, Martin G.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2016-01-01

    High arterial stiffness appears to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness prior to clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 non-hypertensive Framingham Heart Study Third generation cohort participants (mean age 38 years, 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A totally of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents with hypertension. Parental hypertension was associated with greater offspring mean arterial pressure (multivariable-adjusted estimate= 2.9 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-3.9, and 4.2 mm Hg, 95% CI 2.9-5.5, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively, p<0.001 for both), and with greater forward pressure wave amplitude (1.6 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.6-2.7, and 1.9 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.6-3.2, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively, p=0.003 for both). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index displayed similar dose-dependent relations with parental hypertension in sex, age, and height-adjusted models, but associations were attenuated upon further adjustment. Offspring with at least one parent in the upper quartile of augmentation index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity had significantly higher values themselves (p≤0.02). In conclusion, in this community-based sample of young, non-hypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:27456526

  10. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness in Metabolically Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Nayeon; Yoon, So Ra

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that lower proportion of serum phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is inversely associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular function in metabolically healthy men. To elucidate it, we first compared serum phospholipid free fatty acid (FA) compositions and cardiovascular risk parameters between healthy men (n = 499) and male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 111) (30-69 years) without metabolic syndrome, and then further-analyzed the association of serum phospholipid DHA composition with arterial stiffness expressed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) in metabolically healthy men. Basic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting glycemic status, adiponectin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LDL particle size, and serum phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between the two subject groups. Serum phospholipid DHA was highly correlated with most of long-chain FAs. Metabolically healthy men were subdivided into tertile groups according to serum phospholipid DHA proportion: lower (< 2.061%), middle (2.061%-3.235%) and higher (> 3.235%). Fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hs-CRP and ba-PWVs were significantly higher and adiponectin and LDL particle size were significantly lower in the lower-DHA group than the higher-DHA group after adjusted for confounding factors. In metabolically healthy men, multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum phospholipid DHA mainly contributed to arterial stiffness (β′-coefficients = -0.127, p = 0.006) together with age, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (r = 0.548, p = 0.023). Lower proportion of serum phospholipid DHA was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. It suggests that maintaining higher proportion of serum phospholipid DHA may be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk including arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. PMID:27482523

  11. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Vita, Joseph A; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2016-09-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 nonhypertensive Framingham Heart Study third-generation cohort participants (mean age: 38 years; 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A total of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents with hypertension. Parental hypertension was associated with greater offspring mean arterial pressure (multivariable-adjusted estimate=2.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.9, and 4.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.5, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P<0.001 for both) and with greater forward pressure wave amplitude (1.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.7, and 1.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-3.2, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P=0.003 for both). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index displayed similar dose-dependent relations with parental hypertension in sex-, age-, and height-adjusted models, but associations were attenuated on further adjustment. Offspring with at least 1 parent in the upper quartile of augmentation index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity had significantly higher values themselves (P≤0.02). In conclusion, in this community-based sample of young, nonhypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness in Metabolically Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Nayeon; Yoon, So Ra; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that lower proportion of serum phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is inversely associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular function in metabolically healthy men. To elucidate it, we first compared serum phospholipid free fatty acid (FA) compositions and cardiovascular risk parameters between healthy men (n = 499) and male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 111) (30-69 years) without metabolic syndrome, and then further-analyzed the association of serum phospholipid DHA composition with arterial stiffness expressed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) in metabolically healthy men. Basic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting glycemic status, adiponectin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LDL particle size, and serum phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between the two subject groups. Serum phospholipid DHA was highly correlated with most of long-chain FAs. Metabolically healthy men were subdivided into tertile groups according to serum phospholipid DHA proportion: lower (< 2.061%), middle (2.061%-3.235%) and higher (> 3.235%). Fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hs-CRP and ba-PWVs were significantly higher and adiponectin and LDL particle size were significantly lower in the lower-DHA group than the higher-DHA group after adjusted for confounding factors. In metabolically healthy men, multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum phospholipid DHA mainly contributed to arterial stiffness (β'-coefficients = -0.127, p = 0.006) together with age, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (r = 0.548, p = 0.023). Lower proportion of serum phospholipid DHA was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. It suggests that maintaining higher proportion of serum phospholipid DHA may be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk including arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men.

  13. Arterial Stiffness Is Associated With Cytomegalovirus-Specific Senescent CD8(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hee Tae; Youn, Jong-Chan; Kim, Jong Hoon; Seong, Yeon-Jae; Park, Su-Hyung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Won-Woo; Park, Sungha; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2017-08-28

    Arterial stiffness is a well-known predictor of future cardiovascular events. Search for the underlying mechanism of arterial stiffening is still under way. We investigated the relationship between arterial stiffness and cytomegalovirus infection in terms of T-cell senescence. Arterial stiffness was evaluated using pulse wave velocity measurements in 415 Koreans (age 59±12 years). We also investigated the frequency of CD57(+) or CD28(null) senescent T cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes and analyzed which immune parameters were correlated with pulse wave velocity. Furthermore, cytomegalovirus-specific T cells were stimulated with overlapping peptides covering pp65 protein, and T-cell function was evaluated by intracellular cytokine staining of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and CD107a. In a multivariate analysis, it was found that the frequency of CD57(+) cells in the CD8(+) T-cell subset was independently correlated with pulse wave velocity after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus history, smoking history, body mass index, blood pressure, serum creatinine, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Cytomegalovirus pp65-specific T cells were more frequently observed in the CD8(+)CD57(+) population than in the CD8(+)CD57(-) population, and multivariate analysis revealed that the frequency of cytomegalovirus pp65-specific interferon-γ(+), tumor necrosis factor-α(+), or CD107a(+) cells in the CD8(+) T-cell subset was independently correlated with pulse wave velocity as well. We demonstrate that arterial stiffness is associated with senescent CD57(+) T cells and CMV pp65-specific T cells in the CD8(+) T-cell subset. The precise role of cytomegalovirus-specific, senescent T cells in vascular aging needs to be further investigated. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Arterial stiffness is greater in African Americans than in whites: evidence from the Forsyth County, North Carolina, ARIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Din-Dzietham, Rebecca; Couper, David; Evans, Greg; Arnett, Donna K; Jones, Daniel W

    2004-04-01

    Impairment of arterial dilation is thought to occur earlier than arterial wall thickening in the atherosclerotic process. In comparison with whites, African Americans reportedly have a generalized attenuation of their vasodilation mechanisms. We set out to evaluate arterial stiffness and its correlates by ethnicity, hypothesizing that African Americans would have stiffer common carotid arteries (ie, lower arterial distension for a given systolic pressure) than their white counterparts. The study population included 268 African Americans and 2459 whites, who were aged 45 to 64 years at baseline examination in 1986 to 1989, free of coronary heart disease and stroke/transient ischemic attack, from Forsyth County, North Carolina. The beta stiffness index and pulsatile arterial diameter change were derived from brachial blood pressure and from echo-tracked systolic and diastolic carotid arterial diameters. African Americans had stiffer carotid arteries than their white counterparts, with a right shift of the beta stiffness index distribution. After adjustment for selected cardiovascular risk factors, the mean beta stiffness index was 9% higher for African Americans (mean +/- SEM: 11.3 +/- 0.3) than for whites (mean +/- SEM: 10.3 +/- 0.1) among participants not taking antihypertensive medication. Socioeconomic status and comorbidities were differentially associated with arterial stiffness by ethnicity. Specifically, the association between these correlates and beta stiffness index was stronger in African Americans than in whites. This report on arterial mechanics in African Americans suggests that large artery stiffening either occurs earlier, or is more accelerated in African Americans than in whites in our sample, perhaps as a result of earlier exposure to multiple risk factors. This finding may have implications for hypertension prevention, as arterial stiffness is associated with the development of hypertension.

  15. Arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: Frequency in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Rodilla Sala, Enrique; Adell Alegre, Manuel; Giner Galvañ, Vicente; Perseguer Torregrosa, Zeneida; Pascual Izuel, Jose Maria; Climent Catalá, María Teresa

    2017-07-11

    Arterial stiffness (AS) is a well-recognized target organ lesion. This study aims to determine: 1) the frequency of AS in community pharmacies; 2) if stiffened subjects identified by brachial oscillometry have more CV risk factors than normal subjects, and 3) the dependence of stiffness on using either age-adjusted values or a fixed threshold. Observational, cross-sectional study in 32 community pharmacies of the Valencia Community, between November/2015 and April/2016. Stiffness was as pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured with a semi-automatic, validated device (Mobil-O-Graph(®), IEM), followed by a 10-item questionnaire. Mean age of the 1,427 consecutive recruited patients was 56.6 years. Overall proportion of patients with AS was 17.4% with age-adjusted PWV (9.4% in normotensives, 28.3% in hypertensives). Multivariate logistic regression showed independent association of stiffness in normotensives with male gender, obesity, higher pulse pressure and heart rate, in hypertensives, with higher pulse pressure and lower age. AS was globally found in 20.5% of subjects, defining stiffness by PWV>10m/s (6.2% in normotensives, 40.2% in hypertensives). It was associated with higher age and pulse pressure in both groups. Concordance in classifying stiffness was 74.6%. Frequency of AS varied between 17.4-20.5%. Age-adjusted stiffness is associated in normotensives with male gender, pulse pressure, obesity and heart rate, in hypertensives with pulse pressure and inversely to age. Stiffness by 10m/s is determined by higher pulse pressure and higher age. Both definitions of PWV are not interchangeable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Arterial Stiffness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Puolakka, Elina; Pahkala, Katja; Laitinen, Tomi T; Magnussen, Costan G; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Sabin, Matthew A; Laitinen, Tomi; Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the importance of socioeconomic factors in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the association of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) with arterial stiffness in adulthood has not been reported. Our aim was to determine whether higher childhood family-level SES is associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. The analyses were performed using data gathered within the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The sample comprised 2566 participants who had data concerning family SES at ages 3 to 18 years in 1980 and arterial pulse wave velocity and carotid artery distensibility measured 21 or 27 years later in adulthood. Higher family SES in childhood was associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood; carotid artery distensibility being higher (β value±SE, 0.029±0.0089%/10 mm Hg; P=0.001) and pulse wave velocity lower (β value±SE, -0.062±0.022 m/s; P=0.006) among those with higher family SES in a multivariable analysis adjusted with age, sex, and conventional childhood cardiometabolic risk factors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for participant's SES in adulthood (β value±SE, 0.026±0.010%/10 mm Hg; P=0.01 for carotid artery distensibility and β value±SE, -0.048±0.023 m/s; P=0.04 for pulse wave velocity) but attenuated after adjustment for adulthood cardiometabolic risk factors (β value±SE, 0.015±0.008%/10 mm Hg; P=0.08 for carotid artery distensibility and β value±SE, -0.019±0.02 m/s; P=0.38 for pulse wave velocity). In conclusion, we observed an association between higher family SES in childhood and lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. Our findings suggest that special attention could be paid to children from low SES families to prevent cardiometabolic diseases primordially. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Deterioration in Renal Function Is Associated With Increased Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Higher levels of baseline pulse wave velocity (PWV) have been associated with longitudinal decline in renal function in patients with kidney disease. We examined longitudinal decline in renal function in relation to levels of PWV. We hypothesized that longitudinal decline in renal function in a community-based, nonclinic sample would be associated with higher levels of PWV. METHODS We conducted a 4–5 year longitudinal study with 482 community-living individuals free from acute stroke, dementia, and end-stage renal disease (mean age = 60.9 years; 59% women; 93.2% white; 10% with diabetes mellitus; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) = 79.2ml/min/1.73 m2). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between changes in renal function (eGFR and serum creatinine) from baseline to follow-up and PWV levels at follow-up, the outcome measure. Regression coefficients were adjusted for age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, weight, activity level, mean arterial pressure, treatment of hypertension, and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS With adjustment for covariables, decline in renal function was associated with higher levels of PWV over a mean follow-up of 4.68 years. CONCLUSIONS Decline in renal functioning from baseline levels measured 4–5 years before measurement of PWV is related to higher levels of PWV in a community sample. PMID:24080989

  18. Application of a four-channel vibrometer system for detection of arterial stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Adriaan; Waz, Adam; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Dirckx, Joris; Abramski, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CD) are the most important cause of death in the world and their prevalence is only rising. A significant aspect in the etiology of CD is the stiffening of the large arteries (arteriosclerosis) and plaque formation (atherosclerosis) in the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck. As shown by increasing evidence, both conditions can be detected by assessing pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the CCA, and several approaches allow local detection of PWV, including ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In previous studies, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) was introduced as an approach to assess arterial stiffness. In the present work, a new, compact four-channel LDV system is used for PWV detection in four phantom arteries mimicking real life CCA conditions. The high sensitivity of the LDV system allowed PWV to be assessed, and even local changes in phantom architecture could be detected. This method has potential for cardiovascular screening, as it allows arteriosclerosis assessment and plaque detection.

  19. Chronic antihypertensive treatment improves pulse pressure but not large artery mechanics in a mouse model of congenital vascular stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Carmen M.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Ye, Li; Mecham, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is a common characteristic of humans with Williams-Beuren syndrome and mouse models of elastin insufficiency. Arterial stiffness is associated with multiple negative cardiovascular outcomes, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death. Therefore, identifying therapeutic interventions that improve arterial stiffness in response to changes in elastin levels is of vital importance. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of chronic pharmacologic therapy with different classes of antihypertensive medications on arterial stiffness in elastin insufficiency. Elastin-insufficient mice 4–6 wk of age and wild-type littermates were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic micropumps delivering a continuous dose of one of the following: vehicle, losartan, nicardipine, or propranolol for 8 wk. At the end of treatment period, arterial blood pressure and large artery compliance and remodeling were assessed. Our results show that losartan and nicardipine treatment lowered blood pressure and pulse pressure in elastin-insufficient mice. Elastin and collagen content of abdominal aortas as well as ascending aorta and carotid artery biomechanics were not affected by any of the drug treatments in either genotype. By reducing pulse pressure and shifting the working pressure range of an artery to a more compliant region of the pressure-diameter curve, antihypertensive medications may mitigate the consequences of arterial stiffness, an effect that is drug class independent. These data emphasize the importance of early recognition and long-term management of hypertension in Williams-Beuren syndrome and elastin insufficiency. PMID:26232234

  20. Cardiovascular outcome associations among cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of arterial stiffness: the Dallas heart study.

    PubMed

    Maroules, Christopher D; Khera, Amit; Ayers, Colby; Goel, Akshay; Peshock, Ronald M; Abbara, Suhny; King, Kevin S

    2014-05-14

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been validated for the noninvasive assessment of total arterial compliance and aortic stiffness, but their associations with cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations of CMR measures of total arterial compliance and two CMR measures of aortic stiffness with respect to future cardiovascular events. The study consisted of 2122 Dallas Heart Study participants without cardiovascular disease who underwent CMR at 1.5 Tesla. Aortic stiffness was measured by CMR-derived ascending aortic distensibility and aortic arch pulse wave velocity. Total arterial compliance was calculated by dividing left ventricular stroke volume by pulse pressure. Participants were monitored for cardiovascular death, non-fatal cardiac events, and non-fatal extra-cardiac vascular events over 7.8 ± 1.5 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess for associations between CMR measures and cardiovascular events. Age, systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate were independently associated with changes in ascending aortic distensibility, arch pulse wave velocity, and total arterial compliance (all p < .0001). A total of 153 participants (6.9%) experienced a cardiovascular event. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, total arterial compliance was modestly associated with increased risk for composite events (HR 1.07 per 1SD, p = 0.03) while the association between ascending aortic distensibility and composite events trended towards significance (HR 1.18 per 1SD, p = 0.08). Total arterial compliance and aortic distensibility were independently associated with nonfatal cardiac events (HR 1.11 per 1SD, p = 0.001 and HR 1.45 per 1SD, p = 0.0005, respectively), but not with cardiovascular death or nonfatal extra-cardiac vascular events. Arch pulse wave velocity was independently associated with nonfatal extra-cardiac vascular events (HR 1.18 per 1SD, p = 0

  1. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p < 0.05) in the placebo group, but not in the taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  2. Longitudinal changes of the serum calcium levels and accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazutaka; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Chisa; Odaira, Mari; Shiina, Kazuki; Nagata, Mikio; Yamashina, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The progression of arterial stiffness is accelerated by aging, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. This prospective observational study was conducted to clarify whether longitudinal changes in the serum calcium/phosphate levels are associated with the accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age. In a cohort of employees at a construction company (1507 middle-aged Japanese men), the serum calcium/phosphate levels and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured at the start and at the end of a 3-year study period. A general linear model multivariate analysis revealed a significant interaction of the 2 factors {age and longitudinal changes of the serum calcium levels (delCa) during the follow-up period} on the longitudinal changes of the baPWV during the study period (delPWV). The delCa was significantly correlated with the delPWV even after adjustments for covariates in subjects aged ≥48 years. The delPWV in subjects aged ≥48 years with the delCa in the upper tertile (69 ± 137 cm/s) was significantly larger than that in the other groups even after adjustments for covariates (e.g., del PWV in subjects aged <48 years with the delCa in the lower tertile = 1 ± 94 cm/s) (p < 0.01). The association between the arterial stiffness and serum calcium levels differed with age. Pathophysiological abnormalities related to increased serum calcium levels appeared to be associated with accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in arterial stiffness at rest and after acute exercise between young men and women.

    PubMed

    Doonan, Robert J; Mutter, Andrew; Egiziano, Giordano; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2013-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether there are sex differences in arterial stiffness. Acute physical stress can elicit vascular abnormalities not present at rest. Our objective was to assess sex differences in arterial stiffness at rest and in response to acute physical stress. Healthy young men (n=67) and women (n=55) underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest and 2, 5, 10 and 15 min following an exercise test to exhaustion. At rest, aortic systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean pressures were all significantly higher in men as was aortic pulse pressure at 10 and 15 min post exercise and aortic systolic pressure at 15 min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly higher in men (6.0±0.7 m s(-1) vs. 5.6±0.6 m s(-1), P=0.03) at rest and at all time points post exercise. Heart rate-adjusted augmentation index was significantly lower (-10.7±10.2% vs. -4.0±10.9, P<0.0001) and subendocardial viability ratio was significantly higher (176.2±43.8% vs. 163.4±40.9, P=0.04) in men at rest. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess sex differences in the arterial stiffness response to acute physical stress in young men and women. Although we were not able to elicit differences in vascular function after adjustment, which were not present at rest, we found that young men and women exhibit differences in arterial stiffness at rest and after acute physical stress.

  4. Investigation of the relationship between arterial stiffness and sleep architecture in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hang; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    A change in sleep architecture might increase the risk of hypertension and worsen target organs. This study thus aimed to study the features of sleep architecture and examine its relationship with pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, in patients with essential hypertension and healthy people aged 45-65 years (n = 106). We collected data on demographics, the serum index, overnight polysomnography, vascular testing and ambulatory blood pressure in addition to measuring arterial stiffness and monitoring sleep respiration. We found that patients with hypertension had longer sleep latency and shorter duration. Their sleep efficiency and the ratio of N3 in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement were lower, while the micro-arousal index (MI), N1 and N2 in NREM, and the apnea-hypopnea index were higher than normal people in controls. PWV raised with a decrease in N3 and an increase in the MI. In summary, there were notable changes in sleep architecture and with a decrease in N3 and increase in MI can accelerate arterial stiffness and then worsen target organ damage in patients with hypertension.

  5. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901

  6. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness.

  7. Arterial stiffness is associated with low skeletal muscle mass in Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Sewo Sampaio, Priscila Yukari; Yamada, Minoru; Yukutake, Taiki; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Arai, Hidenori

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether arterial stiffness, measured by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), is associated with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. Data were collected from 175 participants through questionnaires and specific tests; the data included demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and body composition features determined by the bioelectrical impedance analysis, ankle-brachial index, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, handgrip strength (GS), walking speed and shuttle walking tests (SW), and arterial stiffness determined by the CAVI. Absolute SMI was dichotomized according to the first quintile, which determined low (n = 35) and normal (n = 140) SMI. Participants with low SMI were older (P = 0.01), had more polypharmacy (P = 0.01), a lower BMI (P < 0.001), and fat mass index (P = 0.02), and had a greater risk of malnutrition (P < 0.001) than the normal group. Additionally, they showed poorer physical performance (GS and SW, P = 0.007 and 0.01, respectively) than the normal group. Furthermore, CAVI was associated with SMI even after adjustments (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90, P = 0.01). Our data showed that arterial stiffness is associated with low SMI in community-dwelling older adults, even when adjusting by multiple factors, showing a close interaction of vascular aging and muscle mass decline. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p < 0.001, for all) and hs-CRP (p = 0.005) were higher in morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05, for all). Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p < 0.001), aortic distensibility (β= -0.384, p < 0.001) and day-night SBP difference (β = 0.229, p < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. We found independent relationship between morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.

  9. Association of inflammatory gene polymorphisms and conventional risk factors with arterial stiffness by age.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, Motahare; Niimura, Hideshi; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Nakahata, Noriko; Nakamura, Akihiko; Ogawa, Shin; Mantjoro, Eva Mariane; Shimatani, Keiichi; Nerome, Yasuhito; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Kusano, Ken; Takezaki, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory gene polymorphisms are potentially associated with atherosclerosis risk, but their age-related effects are unclear. To investigate the age-related effects of inflammatory gene polymorphisms on arterial stiffness, we conducted cross-sectional and 5-year follow-up studies using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness. We recruited 1850 adults aged 34 to 69 years from the Japanese general population. Inflammatory gene polymorphisms were selected from NF-kB1, CD14, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, ICAM-1, and TNF-α. Associations of CAVI with genetic and conventional risk factors were estimated by sex and age group (34-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) using a general linear model. The association with 5-year change in CAVI was examined longitudinally. Glucose intolerance was associated with high CAVI among women in all age groups, while hypertension was associated with high CAVI among participants in all age groups, except younger women. Mean CAVI for the CD14 CC genotype was lower than those for the TT and CT genotypes (P for trend = 0.005), while the CD14 polymorphism was associated with CAVI only among men aged 34 to 49 years (P = 0.006). No association of the other 6 polymorphisms with CAVI was observed. No association with 5-year change in CAVI was apparent. Inflammatory gene polymorphisms were not associated with arterial stiffness. To confirm these results, further large-scale prospective studies are warranted.

  10. Renal hyperfiltration and arterial stiffness in humans with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cherney, David Z I; Sochett, Etienne B; Lai, Vesta; Dekker, Maria G; Slorach, Cameron; Scholey, James W; Bradley, Timothy J

    2010-09-01

    We have reported that renal hyperfiltration is associated with endothelial dysfunction in early type 1 diabetes. However, the relationship between renal hyperfiltration and arterial stiffness is unknown. Accordingly, we measured arterial stiffness in type 1 diabetic subjects with hyperfiltering (n = 20) or normofiltering (n = 18). Augmentation index (AIx), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), renal hemodynamic function (inulin and paraaminohippurate clearances), and urinary and circulating plasma cGMP were measured in normoalbuminuric subjects with type 1 diabetes during clamped euglycemia (glucose 4-6 mmol/l) and hyperglycemia (glucose 9-11 mmol/l). During clamped euglycemia, hyperfiltering subjects (glomerular filtration rate >or=135 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) exhibited lower AIx values (-6.1 +/- 2.9 vs. 13.9 +/- 2.7%, P = 0.001) and higher cGMP levels in urine and plasma compared with normofiltering subjects. These differences were maintained during clamped hyperglycemia. As expected, renal hemodynamic responses to clamped hyperglycemia were exaggerated in normofilterers, but values for AIx remained unchanged. Renal hyperfiltration is associated with reduced arterial stiffness in subjects with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes.

  11. Arterial stiffness is inversely associated with a better running record in a full course marathon race

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Jeen; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sewon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and may contribute to reduced running capacity in humans. This study investigated the relationship between course record and arterial stiffness in marathoners who participated in the Seoul International Marathon in 2012. [Methods] A total of 30 amateur marathoners (Males n = 28, Females n = 2, mean age = 51.6 ± 8.3 years) were assessed before and after the marathon race. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) was assessed by VP-1000 plus (Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) before and immediately after the marathon race. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between race record and ba-PWV. In addition, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine the difference in ba-PWV between before and after the race. [Results] There was no significant change in the ba-PWV of marathoners before and after the race (1271.1 ± 185 vs. 1268.8 ± 200 cm/s, P=0.579). Both the full course record (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.416, P = 0.022) and the record of half line (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.482, P = 0.007) were positively related with the difference in ba-PWV, suggesting that reduced arterial stiffness is associated with a better running record in the marathon. [Conclusion] These results may suggest that good vascular function contributes to a better running record in the marathon race. PMID:25671202

  12. Genetic variation in CYP17A1 is associated with arterial stiffness in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung-Tae; Kim, Won Jun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Cheol-Young

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension and arterial stiffness are associated with an increasing risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to identify genetic variants affecting hypertension and arterial stiffness in diabetic subjects and to compare genetic associations with hypertension between prediabetic and diabetic subjects. A total of 1,069 participants (326 prediabetic and 743 diabetic subjects) were assessed to determine the genetic variants affecting hypertension by analyzing 52 SNPs previously reported to be associated with hypertension. Moreover, the SNPs were tested for association with hemodynamic parameters related to hypertension. Out of the 52 SNPs analyzed, four SNPs including rs5326 (DRD1), rs1004467 (CYP17A1), rs2960306 (GRK4), and rs11191548 (near NT5C2) in diabetic subjects and rs1530440 (C10orf107) in prediabetic subjects showed a modest association with hypertension (P = 0.0265, 0.0020, 0.0066, 0.0078, and 0.0015, resp; all were insignificant after Bonferroni correction). Of these SNPs, rs1004467 in CYP17A1 was significantly associated with augmentation index in diabetic subjects who were not taking antihypertensive medication (P = 0.0001; corrected P = 0.006) but not in diabetic subjects receiving antihypertensive medication. This finding suggests that certain genetic variations found in diabetic subjects may confer arterial stiffness and the development of hypertension and also be affected by antihypertensive medication.

  13. Influence of detraining on temporal changes in arterial stiffness in endurance athletes: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Hiroya; Maeshima, Etsuko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We examined the effects of detraining on temporal changes in arterial stiffness in endurance athletes. [Subjects] Eighteen female university athletes requiring high endurance exercise capabilities were classified into 2 groups: 10 retired players (detraining group) and 8 active players (training group). [Methods] Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, an index of arterial stiffness, was measured a total of 6 times: immediately before retirement of the detraining group and at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after retirement. [Results] Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured in the training group at the same 6 points to allow comparison with the detraining group. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the detraining group increased significantly at 3 and 12 months as compared with that at 0 months and showed a significant increase at 12 months compared with that at 1 month. Moreover, the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the detraining group was significantly higher at 3, 6, and 12 months than in the training group. [Conclusion] These results revealed that detraining may result in increased arterial stiffness from 3 months onward in endurance athletes. PMID:26834331

  14. Investigation of the arterial stiffness and associated factors in patients with familial Mediterranean fever

    PubMed Central

    Çakar, Mustafa; Akhan, Muharrem; Doğan, Tolga; Taşkın, Gürhan; Öztürk, Kadir; Çınar, Muhammet; Arslan, Erol; Yılmaz, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Because of the ongoing and recurring inflammatory state in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), patients may experience a high risk of cardiovascular events. Our aim was to investigate the arterial stiffness and associated factors in patients with FMF. Methods: Sixty-nine consecutive FMF patients (including 11 females) and 35 controls (including 5 females) were enrolled in the study. The demographical, clinical, and laboratory data and genetic mutations of the patients were recorded. In the study, FMF patients according to the Tel-Hashomer criteria were included, whereas patients with other known inflammatory rheumatologic disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, those under the age of 18 years, or those refusing to participate in the study were excluded. Arterial stiffness measurements were performed using the TensioMed device (TensoMed Ltd, Budapest, Hungary). Results: The patient and control groups were similar in terms of the mean ages, BMIs, gender, systolic blood pressures, and smoking. FMF patients had a higher pulse wave velocity (PWV) (7.73±1.3 and 7.18±1.1 m/s; p=0.03) and lower brachial and aortic augmentation indexes (–64.6±14.6% and –54.6±25.9%, p=0.041 and 4.9±7.4% and 14.0±11.5%, p=0.025, respectively) compared with the controls. Thirty-one (45%) patients were in the “during-attack” state and had higher PWV (8.17±1.6 and 7.38±0.9 m/s; p=0.027) compared with the asymptomatic patients. PWV was correlated to serum CRP, WBC, ESR, fibrinogen, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios (r=0.666, 0.429, 0.441, 0.388, and 0.460, respectively). The genetic mutation and predominant attack type had no effect on arterial stiffness. Conclusion: FMF patients have increased arterial stiffness during attacks compared with asymptomatic patients and controls. The impaired arterial stiffness is correlated to the severity of the inflammatory state rather than to the attack type or genetic mutations. PMID:27488756

  15. The Use of the Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index in Patients Suspected of Secondary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Verbakel, Joshua R. A.; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Kraayvanger, Nicole; Dechering, Dirk G.; Postma, Cornelis T.

    2016-01-01

    The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a marker of arterial stiffness and is derived from ambulatory 24-h blood pressure registration. We studied whether the AASI could be used as a predictive factor for the presence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) in patients with a suspicion of secondary hypertension and as such as a diagnostic tool for RAS. We included 169 patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension. They all underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring registration, imaging of the renal arteries, and cardiovascular risk measurement, including smoking, history, biometrics, blood pressure, renal function, lipids, and glucose metabolism. Performing univariate and multivariate analyses, we investigated if AASI and the other cardiovascular risk factors were related to the presence of RAS. Of the 169 patients (49% women), 31% had RAS. The mean AASI was 0.44 (0.16). The presence of RAS showed no significant correlation with AASI (r = 0.14, P = 0.06). Age (r = 0.19, P = 0.01), hypercholesterolemia (r = 0.26, P = 0.001), history of CVD (r = 0.22, P = 0.004), and creatinine clearance (r = −0.34, P < 0.001) all demonstrated a correlation with RAS. Although AASI is higher in patients with RAS, AASI does not independently predict the presence of RAS in hypertensive subjects. PMID:28018907

  16. Increased Pulse Wave Velocity Reflecting Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Kwack, Won Gun; Lee, Youg-Sup; Hahm, Ki Baik; Kim, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The obese patients with diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer as well as adenomas under the shared pathogenesis related to atherosclerosis. Here we determined the association between increased arterial stiffness and colorectal adenomas incorporating parameters including age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, lipid profiles, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Subjects who simultaneously underwent colonoscopies and pulse wave velocity (PWV) determinations between July 2005 and September 2006 were analyzed, based on which the subjects were classified into two groups as patients group with colorectal adenomas (n = 49) and control group (n = 200) with normal, non-polypoid benign lesions or hyperplastic polyps. Uni- and multi-variate analyses were performed to calculate the odd ratio for colon adenomas. Based on uni-variate analysis, age, waist circumference, body mass index, heart-femoral PWV (hfPWV), and brachial-ankle PWV were significantly associated with adenomas (p<0.05) and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the heart-femoral PWV, waist circumference, and the levels of LDL-C were significant risk factor for colorectal adenoma. However, arterial stiffness did not affect the progression of colon adenoma. The finding that hfPWV, reflecting aortic stiffness, was increased in patients with colorectal adenomas lead to conclusion that patients who have prominently increased arterial stiffness can be recommended to undergo colonoscopic examinations and at the same time we also recommend counseling about the risk for atherosclerosis in those who have colorectal adenomas. PMID:21103036

  17. Association between environmental particulate matter and arterial stiffness in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-10-06

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease and the general population. Atmospheric particulate- matter (PM) concentrations and their effects on cardiovascular system by affecting arterial stiffness and central hemodynamic parameters had been noted. The purpose of this study was to access the correlation of air pollution variables and PWV in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). This study analyzed 127 HD patients treated at the outpatient HD center. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured by using a Vascular Profiler 1000 (VP-1000). Air pollution levels were recorded by a network of 27 monitoring stations near or in the patients' living areas throughout Taiwan. The 12-month average concentrations of PM with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 and <2.5 mm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide(CO), and ozone (O3) were included. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β = 0.589, P < 0.025), age (β = 0.316, P < 0.001), serum aluminum level (Al) (β = 0.149, P = 0.020), and PM10 (β = 0.133, P = 0.036) were positively correlated with baPWV. This cross-sectional study shows that in HD patients, the environmental PM10 level is associated with the baPWV.

  18. Prevalence of arterial stiffness and the risk of myocardial diastolic dysfunction in women

    PubMed Central

    Seeland, Ute; Brecht, Anna; Nauman, Ahmad T.; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Ruecke, Mirjam; Knebel, Fabian; Stangl, Verena; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The present study determines the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and arterial stiffness (ASt) in a female urban population by measuring the brachial augmentation index (AIx) and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). The study tests the hypothesis that the measurement of AIx and PWV is useful in addition to that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors when assessing the risk for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). This cross-sectional study recruited 965 women aged 25–75 years from 12 districts of Berlin. The ASt indices, brachial AIx, aortic PWV and the central blood pressure were measured by an oscillometric method. A randomly selected subgroup (n=343) was examined by echocardiography. Trans-mitral inflow E/A ratio and diastolic mitral annulus velocity (é) were assessed. Questionnaires, medical history and blood sampling were used for the evaluation of individual risk factors. Normal vascular function was found in 55% of the women included. The prevalence of women with pathological AIx only (AIx ⩾ −10%, PWV normal) was 21.5%, whereas 17.9% were affected by increased AIx and PWV (AIx ⩾ −10%, PWV ⩾9.7 m/s), and 6% with only pathological PWV values. The prevalence of LVDD was 31.7%. LVDD was significantly associated with pathological PWV ⩾ 9.7 m/s [OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.02–1.57], age [OR: 4.17, 95%CI: 2.87–6.07] and a waist circumference >80 cm [OR: 3.61, 95%CI: 1.85–7.04] in multiple regression analysis. The high prevalence of markers for vascular dysfunction and ASt in a general female population and their importance as a mediator of diastolic dysfunction should encourage implementation of aortic PWV measurement to improve cardiovascular-risk assessment in particular to identify subclinical myocardial diastolic dysfunction. PMID:27653526

  19. Arterial Stiffness Is Significantly Associated With Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Namba, Takayuki; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Matsuo, Yuki; Sato, Atsushi; Kimura, Toyokazu; Horii, Shunpei; Yasuda, Risako; Yada, Hirotaka; Kawamura, Akio; Takase, Bonpei; Adachi, Takeshi

    2016-12-02

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is considered the main cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There have been few reports on the correlation between LV diastolic dysfunction and arterial stiffness in patients with clinical cardiovascular disease.This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 patients (67 men, 33 women; mean age, 70 years). All participants were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. A total of 89 (89%) patients had coronary artery disease or HF. Patients with reduced EF and valvular disease were excluded. Arterial stiffness was assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), and LV diastolic dysfunction was estimated using echocardiography. The patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of CAVI. In all patients the ratio of early diastolic transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e') was significantly higher in the high CAVI group than in the low CAVI group (15.5 ± 6.4 versus 12.5 ± 2.9, P = 0.003). In the HF subgroup, E/e' was also significantly higher in the high CAVI group than in the low CAVI group (17.2 ± 5.9 versus 13.0 ± 3.1, P = 0.026). In univariate regression analysis, CAVI was significantly associated with E/e' in all patients (β = 0.28, P = 0.004) and in HF patients (β = 0.4, P = 0.028). Also in multivariate analysis, CAVI remained as an independent predictive factor of E/e' (β = 0.252, P = 0.037).A high CAVI was independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with clinical cardiovascular disease. These results suggested that arterial stiffness contributed to the development of LV diastolic dysfunction.

  20. Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

  1. Self-esteem variability predicts arterial stiffness trajectories in healthy adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kharah M; Liu, Sarah; Tomfohr, Lianne M; Miller, Gregory E

    2013-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that high levels of self-esteem are associated with better health outcomes, particularly in older adults dealing with serious medical illnesses. Much less is known about how this linkage unfolds developmentally, particularly during times like adolescence, when youngsters' self-views are typically in flux. Here we explore the self-esteem of adolescent females over a 2.5-year period, and how it covaries with trajectories of vascular function assessed over the same timeframe. One-hundred and thirty adolescent females completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale every 6 months for 2.5 years. Vascular function was measured three times over the same period, using peripheral artery tonometry. Indices of endothelial function and arterial stiffness were derived from these measurements. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed an association between self-esteem variability and arterial stiffness trajectories, β = 9.0 × 10-3, SE = 4.4 × 10-3, p = .04. To the extent that their self-esteem fluctuated over the 2.5-year study, participants showed increasing trajectories of arterial stiffness, independent of various demographic and biobehavioral confounders. This association was also independent of participants' trait-like self-esteem over the same period of time. Neither trait self-esteem nor self-esteem variability was related to endothelial function. These findings suggest that fluctuating self-esteem may accelerate the early stages of vascular stiffening in young women, regardless of whether self-views are generally positive or negative. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Associations of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness with intradialytic hypotension and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    DUBIN, Ruth; OWENS, Christopher; GASPER, Warren; GANZ, Peter; JOHANSEN, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Intradialytic hypotension and hypertension are both independently associated with mortality among persons with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are two possible mechanisms underlying these phenomena, but their association with hemodynamic instability during dialysis has not been evaluated. Thirty patients were recruited from chronic dialysis units at San Francisco General Hospital and San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Endothelial dysfunction was assessed with flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery after upper arm occlusion. Arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measured by tonometry. Intradialytic hypotension and hypertension were defined as the average decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 1 week, as well as the frequency over 1 month of hypotension or hypertension. Every 5% decrease in flow-mediated dilation was associated with a 7.5mmHg decrease in SBP after adjustment for phosphorus, body mass index, atherosclerosis, and ultrafiltration (P=0.02). Every 5 m/s increase in pulse wave velocity was associated with an 8mmHg increase in SBP after adjustment for predialysis SBP and ultrafiltration (P=0.03). Over 1 month, every 5% lower flow-mediated dilation was associated with a 10% higher frequency of hypotension (P=0.09), and every 5 m/s increase in pulse wave velocity was associated with an 15% higher frequency of hypertension (P=0.02). In a cross-sectional analysis of 30 dialysis patients, endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness were independently associated with intradialytic hypotension and intradialytic hypertension, respectively. Elucidating these potential mechanisms of hemodynamic instability during dialysis may facilitate development of treatment strategies specific to this pathophysiology. PMID:21658174

  3. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index is unchanged in uncomplicated third-trimester singleton and twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Henna; Heiskanen, Nonna; Saarelainen, Heli; Valtonen, Pirjo; Lyyra-Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Vanninen, Esko; Heinonen, Seppo

    2011-05-01

    To document the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) during pregnancy compared to three months after delivery in singleton and twin pregnancies. Descriptive study with a follow-up design. University hospital in Eastern Finland. 43 childbearing women; 32 with singleton and 11 with twin pregnancies. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements were conducted using a digital ambulatory blood pressure system. AASI was calculated as 1 minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressures obtained from 24-hour monitoring. Arterial stiffness measured by AASI. In normotensive pregnant women, the 95th percentiles of AASI were 0.40 in singleton and 0.46 in twin pregnancies, respectively, implying arterial normality and high elasticity. There were no differences in AASI values between singleton and twin pregnancies and no changes were observed postpartum. After delivery, but not during pregnancy, AASI correlated negatively with nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction (dipping) (r=-0.536, p=0.001; r=-0.674, p<0.001) and with maternal HDL (r=-0.363, p=0.038) and positively with maternal age (r=0.440, p=0.009), whereas maternal BMI had a significant impact on AASI both during and after pregnancy (r=0.366, p=0.016; r=0.377, p=0.028). Normal singleton or twin pregnancies had no detectable effects on AASI. However, pregnancy appeared to overcome the negative effects of low high-density lipoproteins, unfavorable dipping status and advanced maternal age on arterial stiffness, but not the effect caused by maternal body mass index. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Serum free thyroxine levels are positively associated with arterial stiffness in the SardiNIA study.

    PubMed

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Orrù, Marco; Filigheddu, Fabiana; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Delitala, Giuseppe; Ganau, Antonello; Saba, Pier Sergio; Decandia, Federica; Scuteri, Angelo; Marongiu, Michele; Lakatta, Edward G; Strait, James; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid dysfunction may accelerate atherosclerosis. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an early index of arterial stiffness and an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and might therefore be linked to changes in thyroid activity. We investigated the relationship between thyroid function and carotid-femoral PWV, as an index of arterial stiffness. Cross-sectional cohort study. Participants from the SardiNIA study. Those being treated for thyroid diseases were excluded, yielding a sample of 5875 aged 14-102. Clinical parameters, blood tests including serum TSH and serum FT4, and carotid-femoral PWV were measured. After adjusting for confounders, a direct and linear association between FT4 and PWV was shown (multiple regression analysis). The model containing age, mean blood pressure, body mass index, heart rate, FT4, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia accounted for 55% of the variation in PWV. Like several other known risk factors, serum FT4 levels are associated with carotid-femoral PWV, suggesting that high FT4 levels have a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and may contribute to ageing process of the vascular system. This finding may help to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and contribute to improve prevention therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Endovascular Management of Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Gala, Nihar B; Baumrind, Benjamin; Hansberry, David R; Thabet, Ahmad M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-11-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmologic emergency due to the sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer. Without immediate treatment, permanent blindness may ensue. Several treatment options exist, ranging from noninvasive medical management to thrombolysis. Nonetheless, ongoing debate exists regarding the best therapeutic strategy. The authors present the case of a 78-year-old woman with a medical history of hypercholesterolemia and rheumatoid arthritis who experienced complete loss of vision in her left eye. Following ophthalmologic evaluation demonstrating left CRAO, anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. Endovascular intervention was performed via local intra-arterial fibrinolysis with alteplase. Her vision returned to 20/20 following the procedure. In general, conventional therapies have not significantly improved patient outcomes. Several management options exist for CRAO. In general, conservative measures have not been reported to yield better patient outcomes as compared to the natural history of this medical emergency. Endovascular approaches are another option as observed with this case reported. In cases of CRAO, therapeutic strategies such as intra-arterial fibrinolysis utilize a local infusion of reactive tissue plasminogen activator directly at the site of occlusion via catheterization of the ophthalmic artery. Although several case series do show promising results after treating CRAO with intra-arterial fibrinolysis, further studies are required given the reports of complications.

  6. Pacifier Stiffness Alters the Dynamics of the Suck Central Pattern Generator.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Emily; Barlow, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Variation in pacifier stiffness on non-nutritive suck (NNS) dynamics was examined among infants born prematurely with a history of respiratory distress syndrome. Three types of silicone pacifiers used in the NICU were tested for stiffness, revealing the Super Soothie™ nipple is 7 times stiffer than the Wee™ or Soothie™ pacifiers even though shape and displaced volume are identical. Suck dynamics among 20 preterm infants were subsequently sampled using the Soothie™ and Super Soothie™ pacifiers during follow-up at approximately 3 months of age. ANOVA revealed significant differences in NNS cycles/min, NNS amplitude, NNS cycles/burst, and NNS cycle periods as a function of pacifier stiffness. Infants modify the spatiotemporal output of their suck central pattern generator when presented with pacifiers with significantly different mechanical properties. Infants show a non-preference to suck due to high stiffness in the selected pacifier. Therefore, excessive pacifier stiffness may decrease ororhythmic patterning and impact feeding outcomes.

  7. Arterial Stiffness Is Increased in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Without Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Llauradó, Gemma; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; Vilardell, Carme; Simó, Rafael; Freixenet, Núria; Vendrell, Joan; González-Clemente, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between arterial stiffness and low-grade inflammation in subjects with type 1 diabetes without clinical cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixty-eight patients with type 1 diabetes and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were evaluated. Arterial stiffness was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV). Serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and soluble fractions of tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFαR1 and sTNFαR2, respectively) were measured. All statistical analyses were stratified by sex. RESULTS Subjects with diabetes had a higher aPWV compared with healthy control subjects (men: 6.9 vs. 6.3 m/s, P < 0.001; women: 6.4 vs. 6.0 m/s, P = 0.023). These differences remained significant after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Men with diabetes had higher concentrations of hsCRP (1.2 vs. 0.6 mg/L; P = 0.036), IL-6 (0.6 vs. 0.3 pg/mL; P = 0.002), sTNFαR1 (2,739 vs. 1,410 pg/mL; P < 0.001), and sTNFαR2 (2,774 vs. 2,060 pg/mL; P < 0.001). Women with diabetes only had higher concentrations of IL-6 (0.6 vs. 0.4 pg/mL; P = 0.039). In men with diabetes, aPWV correlated positively with hsCRP (r = 0.389; P = 0.031) and IL-6 (r = 0.447; P = 0.008), whereas in women with diabetes no significant correlation was found. In men, multiple linear regression analysis showed that the following variables were associated independently with aPWV: age, BMI, type 1 diabetes, and low-grade inflammation (R2 = 0.543). In women, these variables were age, BMI, mean arterial pressure, and type 1 diabetes (R2 = 0.550). CONCLUSIONS Arterial stiffness assessed as aPWV is increased in patients with type 1 diabetes without clinical cardiovascular disease, independently of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In men with type 1 diabetes, low-grade inflammation is independently associated with arterial stiffness. PMID:22357186

  8. The relationship between calcium kidney stones, arterial stiffness and bone density: unraveling the stone-bone-vessel liaison.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Antonia; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Comellato, Gabriele; Caletti, Chiara; Fantin, Francesco; Zaza, Gianluigi; Zamboni, Mauro; Lupo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Kidney stone disease is associated with a higher incidence of cardio-vascular (CV) events for still unclear reasons. Reduced bone density is also a frequent finding in calcium kidney stones. The association of reduced bone density with increased vascular stiffness and calcification has been discovered in a number of conditions. We investigated the hypothesis that patients with calcium kidney stones have increased arterial stiffness, which would be associated with reduced bone density and higher CV risk. We compared measures of arterial stiffness [carotid-radial pulse-wave velocity (CR-PWV), carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (CF-PWV) and augmentation index (AI)] and of bone density (T-scores determined at lumbar spine, neck and hip) among 42 idiopathic calcium stone formers compared with 42 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Stone formers had higher values of CR-PWV, CF-PWV and AI, and lower values of all T-scores. Furthermore, the prevalence of abnormal arterial stiffness and reduced bone density was significantly higher among stone formers. Statistical adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and other covariates did not change the results. Our study confirms that stone formers have increased arterial stiffness and reduced bone density. Abnormal arterial stiffness appears to be independent of reduced bone density and may explain the higher CV risk observed in stone formers.

  9. Opiate Dependence as an Independent and Interactive Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Ageing - A Longitudinal Study in Females

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite intriguing observational cross-sectional data there are no longitudinal studies of opiate related arterial disease. As opiates act via P16INK4A/CDKN2A, and vascular ageing has been thought to be a surrogate for organismal ageing, the subject has far-reaching implications. Methods Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA) by radial arterial tonometry (SphygmoCor) was performed on control and opiate dependent patients. Results A total of 37 controls were compared with 93 opiate dependents. They were studied on 117 and 275 occasions respectively up to 1,797 days. The mean (± S.E.M.) ages were 38.72 ± 2.64 and 33.78 ± 0.90 years (P = 0.0260), 91.4% and 10.8% smoked (P < 0.0001). Body mass index rose more in controls (P = 0.0185) and in interaction with time (P = 0.0025). When controlled for time and BMI, opiate dependency status was shown to be associated with vascular age and central arterial stiffness and pressure indices (all P < 0.05). When repeated measures multiple regression was performed on all traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the opiate dose-duration interaction was significant and appeared in 12 terms in the final model. It was also independently significant (P = 0.0153). Opiate dose or duration appeared in a further 15 terms. The model was shown to be significantly improved by the inclusion of terms for opiate dependency (A.I.C. 71.10 v 54.31, P < 0.0001). Conclusion These data confirm increased vascular stiffness and ageing in a longitudinal study, and thereby imply advanced organismal ageing. These multivariate studies are consistent with opiate dependency as an interactive and multivariate cardiovascular risk factor and emphasize the role of treatment duration. PMID:23976908

  10. Flavanones protect from arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women consuming grapefruit juice for 6 mo: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Habauzit, Véronique; Verny, Marie-Anne; Milenkovic, Dragan; Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas; Mazur, Andrzej; Dubray, Claude; Morand, Christine

    2015-07-01

    The consumption of citrus fruits is associated with health benefits. However, clinical data regarding the effects of grapefruit flavanone consumption on vascular function are lacking. The objective of the present study was to address the role of flavanones in the long-term effects induced by grapefruit juice (GFJ) consumption on vascular function in healthy postmenopausal women. Forty-eight healthy postmenopausal women aged 50-65 y within 3-10 y since menopause, a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 19-30, and a waist size >88 cm completed this double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial. These volunteers were randomly assigned to consume 340 mL GFJ/d, providing 210 mg naringenin glycosides, or a matched control drink without flavanones for 6 mo each, with a 2-mo washout between beverages. The primary endpoint was the assessment of endothelial function in the brachial artery by using flow-mediated dilation. Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in the peripheral arterial bed were also evaluated as indicators of vascular function. These measurements and blood collection for clinical biochemical markers were performed in overnight-fasted subjects before and after the 6-mo treatment periods. The mean ± SD carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, which reflects central aortic stiffness, was statistically significantly lower after consumption of GFJ (7.36 ± 1.15 m/s) than after consumption of the matched control drink without flavanones (7.70 ± 1.36 m/s), with a P value of 0.019 for the treatment effect. Endothelial function in macro- and microcirculation, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, glucose metabolism, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were not affected by the intervention. Regular GFJ consumption by middle-aged, healthy postmenopausal women is beneficial for arterial stiffness. This effect may be related to flavanones present in grapefruit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01272167.

  11. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Stoian, Dana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy.

  12. Effect of Heart Rate on Arterial Stiffness as Assessed by Pulse Wave Velocity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Isabella; Butlin, Mark; Spronck, Bart; Xiao, Huanguang; Avolio, Alberto

    2017-07-24

    Vascular assessment is becoming increasingly important in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, clinical assessment of arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is gaining increased interest due to the recognition of PWV as an influential factor on the prognosis of hypertension as well as being an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Whilst age and blood pressure are established as the two major determinants of PWV, the influence of heart rate on PWV measurements remains controversial with conflicting results being observed in both acute and epidemiological studies. In a majority of studies investigating the acute effects of heart rate on PWV, results were confounded by concomitant changes in blood pressure. Observations from epidemiological studies have also failed to converge, with approximately just half of such studies reporting a significant blood-pressure-independent association between heart rate and PWV. Further to the lack of consensus on the effects of heart rate on PWV, the possible mechanisms contributing to observed PWV changes with heart rate have yet to be fully elucidated, although many investigators have attributed heart-rate related changes in arterial stiffness to the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall. With elevated heart rate being an independent prognostic factor of cardiovascular disease and its association with hypertension, the interaction between heart rate and PWV continues to be relevant in assessing cardiovascular risk. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, while no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583

  14. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy. PMID:28167849

  15. Main pulmonary arterial wall shear stress correlates with invasive hemodynamics and stiffness in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kheyfets, Vitaly O.; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Dunning, Jamie; Shandas, Robin; Buckner, J. Kern; Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Hunter, Kendall S.; Fenster, Brett E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with proximal pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vessel diameter, wall thickening, and stiffness. In vivo assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) may provide insights into the relationships between pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling. We investigated the relationship between main pulmonary artery (MPA) WSS and pulmonary hemodynamics as well as markers of stiffness. As part of a prospective study, 17 PH patients and 5 controls underwent same-day four-dimensional flow cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4-D CMR) and right heart catheterization. Streamwise velocity profiles were generated in the cross-sectional MPA in 45° increments from velocity vector fields determined by 4-D CMR. WSS was calculated as the product of hematocrit-dependent viscosity and shear rate generated from the spatial gradient of the velocity profiles. In-plane average MPA WSS was significantly decreased in the PH cohort compared with that in controls (0.18 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.08 N/m2; P = 0.01). In-plane MPA WSS showed strong inverse correlations with multiple hemodynamic indices, including pulmonary resistance (ρ = −0.74, P < 0.001), mean pulmonary pressure (ρ = −0.64, P = 0.006), and elastance (ρ = −0.70, P < 0.001). In addition, MPA WSS had significant associations with markers of stiffness, including capacitance (ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001), distensibility (ρ = 0.52, P = 0.013), and elastic modulus (ρ = −0.54, P = 0.01). In conclusion, MPA WSS is decreased in PH and is significantly associated with invasive hemodynamic indices and markers of stiffness. 4-D CMR–based assessment of WSS may represent a novel methodology to study blood-vessel wall interactions in PH. PMID:27076906

  16. Main pulmonary arterial wall shear stress correlates with invasive hemodynamics and stiffness in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Michal; Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Schroeder, Joyce D; Dunning, Jamie; Shandas, Robin; Buckner, J Kern; Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Hunter, Kendall S; Fenster, Brett E

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with proximal pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vessel diameter, wall thickening, and stiffness. In vivo assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) may provide insights into the relationships between pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling. We investigated the relationship between main pulmonary artery (MPA) WSS and pulmonary hemodynamics as well as markers of stiffness. As part of a prospective study, 17 PH patients and 5 controls underwent same-day four-dimensional flow cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4-D CMR) and right heart catheterization. Streamwise velocity profiles were generated in the cross-sectional MPA in 45° increments from velocity vector fields determined by 4-D CMR. WSS was calculated as the product of hematocrit-dependent viscosity and shear rate generated from the spatial gradient of the velocity profiles. In-plane average MPA WSS was significantly decreased in the PH cohort compared with that in controls (0.18 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.08 N/m(2); P = 0.01). In-plane MPA WSS showed strong inverse correlations with multiple hemodynamic indices, including pulmonary resistance (ρ = -0.74, P < 0.001), mean pulmonary pressure (ρ = -0.64, P = 0.006), and elastance (ρ = -0.70, P < 0.001). In addition, MPA WSS had significant associations with markers of stiffness, including capacitance (ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001), distensibility (ρ = 0.52, P = 0.013), and elastic modulus (ρ = -0.54, P = 0.01). In conclusion, MPA WSS is decreased in PH and is significantly associated with invasive hemodynamic indices and markers of stiffness. 4-D CMR-based assessment of WSS may represent a novel methodology to study blood-vessel wall interactions in PH.

  17. Arterial stiffness and influences of the metabolic syndrome: a cross-countries study.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, Angelo; Cunha, Pedro G; Rosei, E Agabiti; Badariere, Jolita; Bekaert, Sofie; Cockcroft, John R; Cotter, Jorge; Cucca, Francesco; De Buyzere, Marc L; De Meyer, Tim; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Osca; Gale, Nichols; Gillebert, Thierry C; Hofman, A; Langlois, Michel; Laucevicius, Aleksandras; Laurent, Stephane; Mattace Raso, Francesco U S; Morrell, Cristopher H; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Munnery, Margaret M; Navickas, Rokas; Oliveira, Pedro; Orru', Marco; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Ryliskyte, Ligita; Salvetti, Massimo; Schlessinger, David; Sousa, Nuno; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Strait, James; Van daele, Caroline; Villa, Isabel; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Witteman, Jacqueline; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Nilsson, Peter; Lakatta, Edward G

    2014-04-01

    Specific clusters of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components impact differentially on arterial stiffness, indexed as pulse wave velocity (PWV). Of note, in several population-based studies participating in the MARE (Metabolic syndrome and Arteries REsearch) Consortium the occurrence of specific clusters of MetS differed markedly across Europe and the US. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific clusters of MetS are consistently associated with stiffer arteries in different populations. We studied 20,570 subjects from 9 cohorts representing 8 different European countries and the US participating in the MARE Consortium. MetS was defined in accordance with NCEP ATPIII criteria as the simultaneous alteration in ≥3 of the 5 components: abdominal obesity (W), high triglycerides (T), low HDL cholesterol (H), elevated blood pressure (B), and elevated fasting glucose (G). PWV measured in each cohort was "normalized" to account for different acquisition methods. MetS had an overall prevalence of 24.2% (4985 subjects). MetS accelerated the age-associated increase in PWV levels at any age, and similarly in men and women. MetS clusters TBW, GBW, and GTBW are consistently associated with significantly stiffer arteries to an extent similar or greater than observed in subjects with alteration in all the five MetS components--even after controlling for age, sex, smoking, cholesterol levels, and diabetes mellitus--in all the MARE cohorts. In conclusion, different component clusters of MetS showed varying associations with arterial stiffness (PWV). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arterial stiffness and enlargement in mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Briet, M; Bozec, E; Laurent, S; Fassot, C; London, G M; Jacquot, C; Froissart, M; Houillier, P; Boutouyrie, P

    2006-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Arterial stiffness and remodeling have been well documented in patients with end-stage renal disease, but little is known about arterial phenotype in CKD patients with moderate reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In total, 95 patients (58+/-15 years, mean+/-s.d.) with CKD and GFR measured by renal clearance of (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetate were compared to 121 hypertensive patients without CKD (59+/-11 years), and 57 normotensive subjects (56+/-6 years). Common carotid artery diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), distensibility, and Young's elastic modulus were noninvasively determined with a high-definition echotracking system. Patients with CKD had a significantly larger carotid internal diameter than in hypertensives and normotensives (6.32+/-1.05, 5.84+/-0.74, and 5.50+/-0.64 m x 10(-3), respectively; P<0.001), resulting in 25% and 11% increases in circumferential wall stress, respectively, since no significant difference in IMT was observed. Carotid distensibility and elastic modulus did not significantly differ between CKD and hypertensives; normotensives had significantly higher distensibility and lower elastic modulus than CKD and hypertensive patients. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly higher in CKD patients than in hypertensives and normotensives. In multivariate analyses either involving the entire population or restricted to CKD patients, GFR was independently and strongly related to carotid diameter and elastic modulus. Arterial enlargement and increased arterial stiffness occur in parallel with the decline in renal function in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD.

  19. Aerobic training-induced improvements in arterial stiffness are not sustained in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Madden, K M; Lockhart, C; Cuff, D; Potter, T F; Meneilly, G S

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular mortality. We examined whether a long-term aerobic exercise intervention (6 months) would increase arterial compliance in older adults with hypertension complicated by Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia. A total of 52 older adults (mean age 69.3±0.6 years, 30 males and 22 females) with diet/oral hypoglycemic-controlled T2DM, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an aerobic group (6 months vigorous aerobic exercise, AT group) and a non-aerobic group (6 months of no aerobic exercise, NA group). Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse-wave velocity (PWV) using the Complior device. Aerobic training decreased arterial stiffness as measured by both radial (P=0.001, 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures) and femoral (P=0.002) PWV. This was due to a decrease in arterial stiffness in the AT group after 3 months of training, which was not maintained after 6-month training for either radial (P=0.707) or femoral (P=0.680) PWV. Our findings indicate that in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, short-term improvements in arterial stiffness became attenuated over the long term. PMID:22951625

  20. Acute effect of stretching one leg on regional arterial stiffness in young men.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-06-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that a single bout of stretching exercises acutely reduced arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that this acute vascular response is due to regional mechanical stimulation of the peripheral arteries. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of a single bout of passive one leg stretching on arterial stiffness, comparing the stretched and the non-stretched leg in the same subject. Twenty-five healthy young men (20.9 ± 0.3 years, 172.5 ± 1.4 cm, 64.1 ± 1.2 kg) volunteered for the study. Subjects underwent a passive calf stretching on one leg (six repetitions of 30-s static stretch with a 10-s recovery). Pulse wave velocity (PWV, an index of arterial stiffness), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured before and immediately, 15, and 30 min after the stretching. Femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV) in the stretched leg was significantly decreased from baseline (835.0 ± 15.9 cm/s) to immediately (802.9 ± 16.8 cm/s, P < 0.01) and 15 min (810.5 ± 16.0 cm/s, P < 0.01) after the stretching, despite no changes in systolic and diastolic BP, or HR. However, faPWV in the non-stretched leg was not significantly altered at any time. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) also showed similar responses with faPWV, but this response was not significant. Additionally, the passive stretching did not alter carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV). These results suggest that mechanical stimulation to peripheral arteries as induced by static passive stretch may modulate arterial wall properties directly, rather than resulting in a systemic effect.

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Are Associated With Increased Arterial Stiffness in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dabelea, Dana; Talton, Jennifer W.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Wadwa, R. Paul; Urbina, Elaine M.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Hamman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate if presence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and their clustering as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased arterial stiffness and accelerated progression over time among youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Longitudinal study of 298 youth with type 1 diabetes (age 14.5 years; 46.3% female; duration 4.8 years), with two research visits conducted 5 years apart. CV factors included: waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting lipids (HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides), albumin/creatinine ratio, and HbA1c. MetS was based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for youth. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the carotid–femoral segment was measured by tonometry. Mixed models were used to assess the rate of progression in PWV and the association between CV factors and PWV over time. RESULTS PWV increased significantly over time (0.145 m/s/year; P < 0.0001). MetS (P = 0.0035), large waist (P < 0.0001), and elevated BP (P = 0.0003) at baseline were each associated with worse PWV over time. These baseline factors, however, did not significantly influence the rate of progression. Increases in waist circumference (P < 0.0001), LDL-c levels (P = 0.0156), and declining glucose control (HbA1c; P = 0.0419) were independently associated with higher PWV over time. CONCLUSIONS Presence, clustering, and worsening of CV risk factors are associated with increased arterial stiffness over time in youth with type 1 diabetes. Whether improvement in CV risk factors early in life will slow the progression of arterial stiffness and reduce the burden of CV disease in this population requires further study. PMID:24101697

  2. Arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Kaya, Zeynettin; Marakoglu, Kamile; Ceylan, Esra; Ekmekci, Ahmet Hakan; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Demir, Aysegul; Altunkeser, Bulent Behlul

    2014-10-29

    We investigated the relationship between peripheral neuropathy and parameters of arterial stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study included 161 patients (80 females and 81 males), 69 of whom had peripheral neuropathy. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring, and arterial stiffness parameters were measured. The CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasonography and patients also underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Patients with peripheral neuropathy, compared with those without it, were older (54.68±8.35 years vs. 51.04±7.89 years; p=0.005) and had T2DM for longer periods (60 vs. 36 months; p=0.004). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values (8.55±1.85 mg/dL vs. 7.30±1.51 mg/dL; p<0.001), pulse wave velocity (PWV) (7.74±1.14 m/s vs. 7.15±1.10 m/s; p=0.001), CIMT (anterior 0.74±0.15 mm vs. 0.67±0.13 mm; p=0.01), and left ventricular mass (LVM) index (98.68±26.28 g/m2 vs. 89.71±19.70 g/m2; p=0.02) were all significantly increased in the group with peripheral neuropathy compared to the group without peripheral neuropathy. We determined that duration of diabetes, HbA1c, and LVM index were predictors of peripheral neuropathy. A significant relationship was found between diabetic neuropathy and increased PWV, a parameter of arterial stiffness, as well as CIMT, a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM.

  3. Altered arterial stiffness in male-to-female transsexuals undergoing hormonal treatment.

    PubMed

    Sharula; Chekir, Chebib; Emi, Yayoi; Arai, Fujimi; Kikuchi, Yukako; Sasaki, Aiko; Matsuda, Miwa; Shimizu, Keiko; Tabuchi, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2012-06-01

    Male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals are treated with estrogen with and without progestin through a variety of routes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the arterial stiffness in MTF transsexuals undergoing hormonal treatment. We evaluated the arterial stiffness in 156 MTF transsexuals (22 untreated and 129 treated with estrogen only or plus progestin) using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus equipped with a multi-element applanation tonometry sensor. MTF transsexuals treated with parenteral estrogen were significantly older than untreated MTF transsexuals. Hematocrit, uric acid and activated partial thromboplastin time in treated MTF transsexuals were significantly lower than in untreated MTF transsexuals. The level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in MTF transsexuals treated with oral estrogen was significantly higher than in untreated MTF transsexuals or those treated with parenteral estrogen with and without progestin. The systolic blood pressure in MTF transsexuals treated with estrogen only is significantly lower than that in untreated MTF transsexuals. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly decreased in MTF transsexuals treated with estrogen compared to that in untreated MTF transsexuals or in those treated with estrogen plus progestin. The carotid augmentation index in MTF transsexuals treated with oral estrogen was significantly lower than that in MTF transsexuals treated with parenteral estrogen or oral estrogen plus progestin. Estrogen treatment is likely to have some beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and vascular function in MTF transsexuals; however, progestin administered with estrogen may have adverse effects on arterial stiffness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Arterial Stiffness and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Kaya, Zeynettin; Marakoglu, Kamile; Ceylan, Esra; Ekmekci, Ahmet Hakan; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Demir, Aysegul; Altunkeser, Bulent Behlul

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between peripheral neuropathy and parameters of arterial stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods The study included 161 patients (80 females and 81 males), 69 of whom had peripheral neuropathy. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring, and arterial stiffness parameters were measured. The CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasonography and patients also underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Results Patients with peripheral neuropathy, compared with those without it, were older (54.68±8.35 years vs. 51.04±7.89 years; p=0.005) and had T2DM for longer periods (60 vs. 36 months; p=0.004). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values (8.55±1.85 mg/dL vs. 7.30±1.51 mg/dL; p<0.001), pulse wave velocity (PWV) (7.74±1.14 m/s vs. 7.15±1.10 m/s; p=0.001), CIMT (anterior 0.74±0.15 mm vs. 0.67±0.13 mm; p=0.01), and left ventricular mass (LVM) index (98.68±26.28 g/m2 vs. 89.71±19.70 g/m2; p=0.02) were all significantly increased in the group with peripheral neuropathy compared to the group without peripheral neuropathy. We determined that duration of diabetes, HbA1c, and LVM index were predictors of peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions A significant relationship was found between diabetic neuropathy and increased PWV, a parameter of arterial stiffness, as well as CIMT, a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM. PMID:25351260

  5. Bone Strength and Arterial Stiffness Impact on Cardiovascular Mortality in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Avramovska, Maja; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and increased arterial stiffness independently have been found to be associated with higher cardiovascular events rates in the general population (GP). We examined 558 patients from GP by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements at baseline, with 36-month follow-up period. DXA assessed bone mineral density of femoral neck (BMD FN) and lumbar spine (BMD LS). Carotid-femoral PWV was assessed by pulsed-Doppler. The aim of our study is to find correlation between bone strength and arterial stiffness and their impact on cardiovascular mortality in GP. The mean ± SD of BMD FN, BMD LS, and PWV was 0.852 ± 0.1432 g/cm2, 0.934 ± 0.1546 g/cm2, and 9.209 ± 1.9815 m/s. In multiple regression analysis we found BMD FN (βst = −6.0094, p < 0.0001), hypertension (βst = 1.7340, p < 0.0091), and diabetes (βst = 0.4595, p < 0.0046). With Cox-regression analysis, after 17 cardiovascular events, the significant covariates retained by the backward model were BMD FN (b = −2.4129, p = 0.015) and PWV (b = 0.2606, p = 0.0318). The cut-off values were PWV = 9.4 m/s, BMD FN = 0.783 g/cm2, and BMD LS = 0.992 g/cm2. The results for BMD FN and PWV hazard ratio risk were 1.116 and 1.297, respectively. BMD FN as a measure of bone strength and PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in GP. PMID:27047700

  6. Developing an effective arterial stiffness monitoring system using the spring constant method and photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ching-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a fast and effective arterial stiffness monitoring system for diabetic patients using the spring constant method and photoplethysmography (PPG). The experimental group comprised 70 patients (4 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and 66 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients); 23 participants suffered from atherosclerosis. All were subjected to the measurements of both the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and the spring constants evaluated using the PPG pulse as well as the radial pulse. The control group comprised 70 normal participants (39 men and 31 women) who did not have diabetes mellitus, with an age range of 40-84 years. All control group members were only subjected to the measurement by the spring constant method. For the experimental group, statistical analysis indicated a significantly high correlation between the spring constants computed using PPG and the radial pulse (p < 0.001, correlation coefficient =0.89). The result also showed a significant negative correlation between the cfPWV and the spring constant of PPG (p < 0.001, correlation coefficient = - 0.72); multivariate analysis similarly indicated a close relationship. In addition, we used Student's t test to examine the difference between the experimental and control groups for the spring constant of PPG. A P value less than 0.05 confirmed that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. In the receiver operating characteristic curve, area under curve (=0.82) indicates a good discrimination, and a spring constant of PPG below 516 (g/s (2)) may imply a risk of arterial stiffness for diabetic patients. These findings imply that the spring constant of PPG could effectively identify normal versus abnormal characteristics of elasticity in normal and diabetic participants. As a result of some excellent characteristics in clinical monitoring, the spring constant computed using PPG shows the effectiveness and feasibility in the monitoring system of

  7. Effect of Lysyl Oxidase Inhibition on Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension, Remodeling, and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Eberson, Lance S.; Sanchez, Pablo A.; Majeed, Beenish A.; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Secomb, Timothy W.; Larson, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that angiotensin II (Ang II) induces altered vascular stiffness through responses including both structural and material remodeling. Concurrent with remodeling is the induction of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) through which ECM proteins are cross-linked. The study objective was to determine the effect of LOX mediated cross-linking on vascular mechanical properties. Three-month old mice were chronically treated with Ang II with or without the LOX blocker, β -aminopropionitrile (BAPN), for 14 days. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) from Doppler measurements of the aortic flow wave was used to quantify in vivo vascular stiffness in terms of an effective Young’s modulus. The increase in effective Young’s modulus with Ang II administration was abolished with the addition of BAPN, suggesting that the material properties are a major controlling element in vascular stiffness. BAPN inhibited the Ang II induced collagen cross-link formation by 2-fold and PWV by 44% (P<0.05). Consistent with this observation, morphometric analysis showed that BAPN did not affect the Ang II mediated increase in medial thickness but significantly reduced the adventitial thickness. Since the hypertensive state contributes to the measured in vivo PWV stiffness, we removed the Ang II infusion pumps on Day 14 and achieved normal arterial blood pressures. With pump removal we observed a decrease of the PWV in the Ang II group to 25% above that of the control values (P=0.002), with a complete return to control values in the Ang II plus BAPN group. In conclusion, we have shown that the increase in vascular stiffness with 14 day Ang II administration results from a combination of hypertension-induced wall strain, adventitial wall thickening and Ang II mediated LOX ECM cross-linking, which is a major material source of vascular stiffening, and that the increased PWV was significantly inhibited with co-administration of BAPN. PMID:25875748

  8. Astaxanthin has no effect on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, or inflammation in renal transplant recipients: a randomized controlled trial (the XANTHIN trial).

    PubMed

    Coombes, Jeff S; Sharman, James E; Fassett, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that renal transplant recipients have accelerated atherosclerosis that is manifest by increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The high incidence of atherosclerosis is, in part, related to increased arterial stiffness, vascular dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, and inflammation associated with immunosuppressive therapy. The carotenoid astaxanthin has shown potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim was to investigate the effects of oral astaxanthin on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, and inflammation in renal transplant recipients. This trial used a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design in which 61 patients received either 12 mg astaxanthin/d or an identical placebo orally for 1 y. Primary outcomes were 1) arterial stiffness measured by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), 2) oxidative stress assessed by total plasma F2-isoprostanes, and 3) inflammation assessed by plasma pentraxin-3. Secondary outcomes included vascular function, carotid artery intima-media thickness, augmentation index, central blood pressure, subendocardial viability ratio, and additional measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. Patients underwent assessments at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo. Fifty-eight participants completed the study. There were no significant between-group differences in the changes in any of the primary outcome measures (PWV changed by +9.5% and +6.0%, F2-isoprostanes changed by -3.0% and -9.7%, and pentraxin-3 changed by +50.6% and -11.0% in the placebo and astaxanthin groups, respectively). There were no significant between-group differences in secondary outcome measures. Larger-than-expected variability decreased the power of the study and increased the possibility of a type 2 statistical error. Astaxanthin (12 mg/d for 12 mo) had no effect on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, or inflammation in renal transplant recipients. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  9. Evolution of renal hyperfiltration and arterial stiffness from adolescence into early adulthood in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cherney, David Z I; Sochett, Etienne B

    2011-08-01

    To determine, in a small but carefully physiologically characterized cohort of subjects with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes, the changes in renal hemodynamic function and arterial stiffness that occur over time as the participants transitioned from adolescence into early adulthood. The classical paradigm for type 1 diabetes suggests that glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines in patients with renal hyperfiltration, but the natural history of peripheral vascular function abnormalities in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes is less well understood, particularly as patients transition from adolescence to early adulthood. Renal hemodynamic function (inulin and p-aminohippuric acid clearance), blood pressure, arterial stiffness (radial augmentation index), albumin excretion, and circulating renin-angiotensin system measures were obtained during clamped euglycemia at baseline and at follow-up 6.8 ± 2.5 years later in 10 patients with hyperfiltration (GFR ≥135 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and in 8 with normofiltration. Compared with baseline values, GFR (171 ± 20 to 120 ± 15 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and filtration fraction (FF, 0.24 ± 0.06 to 0.18 ± 0.03) declined in hyperfilterers (ANOVA P ≤ 0.033), and renal vascular resistance increased (0.0678 ± 0.0135 to 0.0783 ± 0.0121 mmHg/L/min, P = 0.017). GFR and FF did not change in normofiltering subjects. In contrast, the radial augmentation index decreased in hyperfiltering (1.2 ± 11.7 to -11.0 ± 7.8%) and normofiltering (14.3 ± 14.0 to 2.5 ± 14.6%) subjects (within-group changes, ANOVA P ≤ 0.030). The decline in circulating aldosterone levels was similar in both groups. During the transition from adolescence to early adulthood, hyperfiltration is not sustained in subjects with type 1 diabetes, whereas GFR remains stable in normofiltering subjects. Our findings suggest early normofiltration may predict stable renal function. In contrast, arterial stiffness decreased in all patients regardless of filtration status, suggesting that

  10. Improved parameters of metabolic glycaemic and immune function and arterial stiffness with naltrexone implant therapy.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Here the dramatic and rapid response of a 54-year-old obese hypertensive man with poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes with a 33 year history of high dose heroin use, a 1 year history of refractory ulceration of his hands, ankles and feet, treated coronary artery disease, and the metabolic syndrome, to implantation with long-acting naltrexone implants is presented. In particular his hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, proinflammatory state, evidence of hepatic and renal insufficiency, arterial stiffness, and extensive and chronic cutaneous ulceration all improved dramatically over just 13 weeks, in association with complete control of his heroin, benzodiazepine, tobacco and cannabis use. The metabolic and vascular benefits were all highly statistically significant. The case is the first to document dramatic and rapid metabolic, immune and vascular improvements in association with clinical naltrexone therapy and are consistent with its likely effects in restoring addiction-related stem cell and immunological deficits.

  11. Arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations following eight weeks of resistance exercise training in young and older women.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Lindy M; Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Mouser, James G; Shore, Erin A; Beck, Travis W; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2014-05-01

    Resistance training is recommended for all adults of both sexes. The arterial stiffness and limb blood flow responses to resistance training in young and older women have not been well-studied. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise training in young and older women. Young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 50-64) women performed full-body high-intensity resistance exercise three times per week for eight weeks. The following measurements were performed twice prior to training and once following training: carotid to femoral and femoral to tibialis posterior pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, heart rate, resting forearm blood flow and forearm reactive hyperemia. Data was analyzed by ANOVAs with alpha set at 0.05. Correlations were also examined between changes in arterial stiffness and baseline arterial stiffness values. Older subjects had higher carotid-femoral PWV than younger subjects. No significant effects were found for femoral-tibialis posterior PWV or for resting forearm blood flow. Changes in carotid-femoral and femoral-tibialis posterior PWV correlated significantly with their respective baseline values. Older subjects increased peak forearm blood flow while young subjects showed no change. Total hyperemia increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, in both young and older women, eight weeks of high-intensity resistance training appeared to improve microvascular forearm function while not changing carotid-femoral or femoral-tibialis posterior arterial stiffness. However, a large degree of individual variation was found and arterial stiffness adaptations appeared positively related to the initial stiffness values.

  12. Associations of Triiodothyronine Levels with Carotid Atherosclerosis and Arterial Stiffness in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kircelli, Fatih; Asci, Gulay; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Gungor, Ozkan; Demirci, Meltem Sezis; Ozbek, Suha Sureyya; Ceylan, Naim; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Toz, Huseyin; Ok, Ercan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives End-stage renal disease is linked to alterations in thyroid hormone levels and/or metabolism, resulting in a high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and low triiodothyronine (T3) levels. These alterations are involved in endothelial damage, cardiac abnormalities, and inflammation, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum free-T3 (fT3) and carotid artery atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, and vascular calcification in prevalent patients on conventional hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements 137 patients were included. Thyroid-hormone levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay, carotid artery–intima media thickness (CA-IMT) by Doppler ultrasonography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV), and augmentation index by Sphygmocor device, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores by multi-slice computerized tomography. Results Mean fT3 level was 3.70 ± 1.23 pmol/L. Across decreasing fT3 tertiles, c-f PWV and CA-IMT values were incrementally higher, whereas CACs were not different. In adjusted ordinal logistic regression analysis, fT3 level (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 0.97), age, and interdialytic weight gain were significantly associated with CA-IMT. fT3 level was associated with c-f PWV in nondiabetics but not in diabetics. In nondiabetics (n = 113), c-f PWV was positively associated with age and systolic BP but negatively with fT3 levels (odds ratio = 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.83). Conclusions fT3 levels are inversely associated with carotid atherosclerosis but not with CAC in hemodialysis patients. Also, fT3 levels are inversely associated with surrogates of arterial stiffness in nondiabetics. PMID:21836150

  13. Association between arterial stiffness and variations in oestrogen-related genes.

    PubMed

    Peter, I; Kelley-Hedgepeth, A; Huggins, G S; Housman, D E; Mendelsohn, M E; Vita, J A; Vasan, R S; Levy, D; Benjamin, E J; Mitchell, G F

    2009-10-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been identified as cardiovascular disease risk factors. In light of significant sex differences and the moderate heritability of vascular function measures, we hypothesized that variation in the genes coding for oestrogen receptors alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) is associated with aortic stiffness and pressure wave reflection as measured by non-invasive arterial tonometry. In all, 1261 unrelated Framingham Offspring Study participants who attended the seventh examination cycle (mean age 62+/-10 years, 52% women) and had arterial tonometry and genotyping data were included in the study. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with forward wave amplitude, augmented pressure, augmentation index (AI), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and mean arterial pressure with adjustment for potential confounders. In the sex-pooled analysis, those homozygous for the minor allele at any of four ESR1 variants that were in strong linkage disequilibrium ((TA)(n), rs2077647, rs2234693 and rs9340799) had on an average 18% higher augmented pressure and 16% greater AI compared with carriers of one or two major alleles (P=0.0002-0.01). A similar magnitude of association was detected in those homozygous for the common allele at two ESR2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (P=0.007-0.02). Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in ESR1 and ESR2, but not CYP19A1, is associated with an increased wave reflection that may contribute to associations between these variants and adverse clinical events demonstrated earlier. Our findings will need to be replicated in additional cohorts.

  14. Association between Arterial Stiffness and Variations in Estrogen-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Huggins, Gordon S.; Housman, David E.; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Vita, Joseph A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Mitchell, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been identified as cardiovascular disease risk factors. In light of significant sex differences and the moderate heritability of vascular function measures, we hypothesized that variation in the genes coding for estrogen receptors alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) is associated with aortic stiffness and pressure wave reflection as measured by noninvasive arterial tonometry. 1261 unrelated Framingham Offspring Study participants who attended the 7th examination cycle (mean age 62±10 years, 52% women) and had arterial tonometry and genotyping data were included in the study. ANCOVA was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with forward wave amplitude, augmented pressure, augmentation index, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and mean arterial pressure with adjustment for potential confounders. In the sex-pooled analysis, those homozygous for the minor allele at any of four ESR1 variants that were in strong linkage disequilibrium ((TA)n, rs2077647, rs2234693 and rs9340799) had on average 18% higher augmented pressure and 16% greater augmentation index compared to carriers of one or two major alleles (p=0.0002–0.01). A similar magnitude of association was detected in those homozygous for the common allele at two ESR2 SNPs (p=0.007–0.02). Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in ESR1 and ESR2, but not CYP19A1, is associated with increased wave reflection, which may contribute to previously demonstrated associations between these variants and adverse clinical events. Our findings will need to be replicated in additional cohorts. PMID:19194457

  15. Association of body mass index with arterial stiffness and blood pressure components: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Bogl, Leonie H; Medda, Emanuela; Fagnani, Corrado; Nisticò, Lorenza; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Brescianini, Sonia; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Boatta, Emanuele; Zini, Chiara; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Baracchini, Claudio; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Osztovits, Janos; Jermendy, Gyorgy; Kiss, Robert Gabor; Preda, Istvan; Karlinger, Kinga; Lannert, Agnes; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Berczi, Viktor; Pucci, Giacomo; Baffy, Gyorgy; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, blood pressure and arterial stiffness are heritable traits interconnected to each other but their possible common genetic and environmental etiologies are unknown. We studied 228 monozygotic and 150 dizygotic twin pairs aged 18-82 years from Italy, Hungary and the United States, of which 45 monozygotic and 38 dizygotic pairs were discordant for body mass index (BMI; intrapair difference (Δ) in BMI ≥ 3 kg/m(2)). Blood pressure components and arterial stiffness were measured by TensioMed Arteriograph. Hypertension was more prevalent among obese than non-obese individuals (55% vs. 29%, p < 0.001). Age-, sex- and country-adjusted heritability estimates were high for hemodynamic measures (45%-58%) and BMI (78%). According to bivariate Cholesky decomposition, phenotypic correlations between BMI and blood pressure components (r = -0.15 to 0.24, p < 0.05) were largely explained by additive genetic factors (65%-77%) with the remaining explained by the unique environment. When controlling for genetic factors within all monozygotic pairs, ΔBMI was significantly correlated with Δbrachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Δmean arterial pressure, and Δaortic SBP (r = 0.15-0.17, p < 0.05). For the same measures, heavier co-twins of BMI-discordant monozygotic pairs had significantly higher values than their leaner counterparts (p < 0.05). Blood pressure components are moderately correlated with BMI, largely because of shared genetic factors. However, for the association of BMI with brachial SBP and DBP, aortic SBP and mean arterial pressure, acquired, modifiable factors were also found to be important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The predictive value of arterial stiffness on major adverse cardiovascular events in individuals with mildly impaired renal function

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jie; Wang, Xiaona; Ye, Ping; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite growing evidence that arterial stiffness has important predictive value for cardiovascular disease in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, the predictive significance of arterial stiffness in individuals with mildly impaired renal function has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of arterial stiffness on cardiovascular disease in this specific population. Materials and methods We analyzed measurements of arterial stiffness (carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity [cf-PWV]) and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in 1,499 subjects from a 4.8-year longitudinal study. Results A multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis showed that in individuals with normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2), the baseline cf-PWV was not associated with occurrence of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.398, 95% confidence interval 0.748–2.613; P=0.293). In individuals with mildly impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2), a higher baseline cf-PWV level was associated with a higher risk of MACEs (hazard ratio 2.334, 95% confidence interval 1.082–5.036; P=0.031). Conclusion Arterial stiffness is a moderate and independent predictive factor for MACEs in individuals with mildly impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2). PMID:27621605

  17. Aortic stiffness and blood pressure variability in young people: a multimodality investigation of central and peripheral vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Henry; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Lazdam, Merzaka; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Whitworth, Polly; Zwager, Charlotte L.; Francis, Jane M.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Williamson, Wilby; Neubauer, Stefan; Leeson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Increased blood pressure (BP) variability is a cardiovascular risk marker for young individuals and may relate to the ability of their aorta to buffer cardiac output. We used a multimodality approach to determine relations between central and peripheral arterial stiffness and BP variability. Methods: We studied 152 adults (mean age of 31 years) who had BP variability measures based on SD of awake ambulatory BPs, 24-h weighted SD and average real variability (ARV). Global and regional aortic distensibility was measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, arterial stiffness by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) by SphygmoCor (carotid–femoral) and Vicorder (brachial–femoral). Results: In young people, free from overt cardiovascular disease, all indices of SBP and DBP variability correlated with aortic distensibility (global aortic distensibility versus awake SBP SD: r = −0.39, P < 0.001; SBP ARV: r = −0.34, P < 0.001; weighted 24-h SBP SD: r = −0.42, P < 0.001). CAVI, which closely associated with aortic distensibility, also related to DBP variability, as well as awake SBP SD (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and weighted 24-h SBP SD (r = 0.24, P < 0.01), with a trend for SBP ARV (r = 0.17, P = 0.06). In contrast, associations with PWV were only between carotid–femoral PWV and weighted SD of SBP (r = 0.20, P = 0.03) as well as weighted and ARV of DBP. Conclusion: Greater BP variability in young people relates to increases in central aortic stiffness, strategies to measure and protect aortic function from a young age may be important to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:27846043

  18. Azelnidipine plus olmesartan versus amlodipine plus olmesartan on arterial stiffness and cardiac function in hypertensive patients: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Takami, Takeshi; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    To compare the long-term effects of olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or amlodipine on central blood pressure (CBP), left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMI), LV diastolic function (e' velocity, E/e' ratio, E/A ratio) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV] and augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm [AIx]). Patients with systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg received olmesartan monotherapy (20 mg/day) for 12 weeks. They were then randomly assigned to fixed-dose add-on therapy with azelnidipine (16 mg/day; n = 26) or amlodipine (5 mg/day; n = 26) for a further 2 years. CBP, LVMI, e' velocity, E/e' ratio, E/A ratio, baPWV, and AIx were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The decrease in brachial BP over 2 years was similar in both groups. CBP, LVMI, E/e' ratio, baPWV, and AIx decreased significantly, and the E/A ratio and e' velocity increased significantly in both groups. The decreases in CBP (P < 0.001), AIx (P < 0.001), baPWV (P < 0.001), LVMI (P < 0.001), and E/e' (P = 0.002) as well as the increase in E/A ratio (P = 0.03) over 2 years were significantly greater in the olmesartan/azelnidipine group than in the olmesartan/amlodipine group. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that the changes in baPWV (β = 0.41, P < 0.001) and CBP (β = 0.47, P = 0.01) were independently associated with the change in LVMI, the change in baPWV (β = 0.25, P < 0.001) was independently associated with the change in E/e' ratio, and the changes in baPWV (β = 0.21, P = 0.001) and AIx (β = 0.25, P = 0.03) were independently associated with the change in E/A ratio. Treatment with olmesartan/azelnidipine for 2 years resulted in greater improvements in CBP, LVMI, and LV diastolic function, and arterial stiffness compared with olmesartan/amlodipine. Improvements in LV diastolic function were associated with improvements in arterial stiffness.

  19. Azelnidipine plus olmesartan versus amlodipine plus olmesartan on arterial stiffness and cardiac function in hypertensive patients: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Takeshi; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the long-term effects of olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or amlodipine on central blood pressure (CBP), left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMI), LV diastolic function (e′ velocity, E/e′ ratio, E/A ratio) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV] and augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm [AIx]). Patients and methods Patients with systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg received olmesartan monotherapy (20 mg/day) for 12 weeks. They were then randomly assigned to fixed-dose add-on therapy with azelnidipine (16 mg/day; n = 26) or amlodipine (5 mg/day; n = 26) for a further 2 years. CBP, LVMI, e′ velocity, E/e′ ratio, E/A ratio, baPWV, and AIx were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 2 years. Results Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The decrease in brachial BP over 2 years was similar in both groups. CBP, LVMI, E/e′ ratio, baPWV, and AIx decreased significantly, and the E/A ratio and e′ velocity increased significantly in both groups. The decreases in CBP (P < 0.001), AIx (P < 0.001), baPWV (P < 0.001), LVMI (P < 0.001), and E/e′ (P = 0.002) as well as the increase in E/A ratio (P = 0.03) over 2 years were significantly greater in the olmesartan/azelnidipine group than in the olmesartan/amlodipine group. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that the changes in baPWV (β = 0.41, P < 0.001) and CBP (β = 0.47, P = 0.01) were independently associated with the change in LVMI, the change in baPWV (β = 0.25, P < 0.001) was independently associated with the change in E/e′ ratio, and the changes in baPWV (β = 0.21, P = 0.001) and AIx (β = 0.25, P = 0.03) were independently associated with the change in E/A ratio. Conclusion Treatment with olmesartan/azelnidipine for 2 years resulted in greater improvements in CBP, LVMI, and LV diastolic function, and arterial stiffness compared with olmesartan/amlodipine. Improvements in LV diastolic

  20. Central Obesity and Advanced Liver Stiffness in Hepatitis B: Result from Golestan Hepatitis B Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Sima; Poustchi, Hossein; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Freedman, Neal D; Merat, Shahin; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus and obesity may both contribute synergistically to liver disease, although relatively few studies have investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the relationship between central obesity and the liver stiffness in the Golestan Hepatitis B cohort study (GHBCS). Our study included 304 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients enrolled from GHBCS. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and laboratory tests were performed after a follow-up of 4 years (2012). The hepatitis B viral load was measured at the baseline and follow-up using the real-time PCR method. Waist circumference ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 89 cm in women (central obesity) was considered to be abnormal. Advanced liver stiffness (ALS) was defined as LSM ≥ 8 KPa. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-V17. Logistic regression was used to test predictors of advanced liver stiffness (LSM ≥ 8 KPa). Linear regression was used to test the predictive value of variables in ALT (as a continuous variable). P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among these CHB patients, 19 (7.4%) cases with a mean (±SD) age of 49.5 (±6.3) developed ALS after 4 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed a significant predictive role of central obesity and viral load in ALS. Central obesity is related to the liver stiffness in chronic hepatitis B patients.

  1. Effects of aging on the association between cerebrovascular responses to visual stimulation, hypercapnia and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Flück, Daniela; Beaudin, Andrew E; Steinback, Craig D; Kumarpillai, Gopukumar; Shobha, Nandavar; McCreary, Cheryl R; Peca, Stefano; Smith, Eric E; Poulin, Marc J

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased vascular compliance and diminished neurovascular- and hypercapnia-evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses. However, the interplay between arterial stiffness and reduced CBF responses is poorly understood. It was hypothesized that increased cerebral arterial stiffness is associated with reduced evoked responses to both, a flashing checkerboard visual stimulation (i.e., neurovascular coupling), and hypercapnia. To test this hypothesis, 20 older (64 ± 8 year; mean ± SD) and 10 young (30 ± 5 year) subjects underwent a visual stimulation (VS) and a hypercapnic test. Blood velocity through the posterior (PCA) and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries was measured concurrently using transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). Cerebral and systemic vascular stiffness were calculated from the cerebral blood velocity and systemic blood pressure waveforms, respectively. Cerebrovascular (MCA: young = 76 ± 15%, older = 98 ± 19%, p = 0.004; PCA: young = 80 ± 16%, older = 106 ± 17%, p < 0.001) and systemic (young = 59 ± 9% and older = 80 ± 9%, p < 0.001) augmentation indices (AI) were higher in the older group. CBF responses to VS (PCA: p < 0.026) and hypercapnia (PCA: p = 0.018; MCA: p = 0.042) were lower in the older group. A curvilinear model fitted to cerebral AI and age showed AI increases until ~60 years of age, after which the increase levels off (PCA: R (2) = 0.45, p < 0.001; MCA: R (2) = 0.31, p < 0.001). Finally, MCA, but not PCA, hypercapnic reactivity was inversely related to cerebral AI (MCA: R (2) = 0.28, p = 0.002; PCA: R (2) = 0.10, p = 0.104). A similar inverse relationship was not observed with the PCA blood flow response to VS (R (2) = 0.06, p = 0.174). In conclusion, older subjects had reduced neurovascular- and hypercapnia-mediated CBF responses. Furthermore, lower hypercapnia-mediated blood flow responses through the MCA were associated with increased vascular stiffness. These findings suggest the reduced hypercapnia

  2. Normal arterial stiffness in familial Mediterranean fever: evidence for a possible cardiovascular protective role of colchicine.

    PubMed

    Kukuy, Olga; Livneh, Avi; Mendel, Liran; Benor, Ariel; Giat, Eitan; Perski, Oleg; Feld, Olga; Kassel, Yonatan; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Lidar, Merav; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Leiba, Adi

    2017-02-09

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disorder with episodic and persistent inflammation, which is only partially suppressed by continuous colchicine treatment. While chronic inflammation is considered an important cardiovascular risk factor in many inflammatory disorders, its impact in FMF is still disputed. We measured arterial stiffness, a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, in a group of FMF patients, in order to evaluate the cardiovascular consequences of inflammation in FMF and the role of colchicine in their development. Eighty colchicine treated FMF patients, without known traditional cardiovascular risk factors, were randomly enrolled in the study. Demographic, genetic, clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from patient files and examinations. Arterial stiffness was measured using pulse wave velocity (PWV). The recorded values of PWV were compared with those of an age and blood pressure adjusted normal population, using internationally endorsed values. FMF patients displayed normal PWV values, with an even smaller than expected proportion of patients deviating from the 90th percentile of the reference population (5% vs. 10%, p=0.02). The lowest PWV values were recorded in patients receiving the highest dose of colchicine (≥2 mg vs. 0-1 mg, p=0.038), and in patients of North African Jewish origin, whose disease was typically more severe than that of patients of other ethnicities; both observations supporting an ameliorating colchicine effect (p=0.043). Though subjected to chronic inflammation, colchicine treated FMF patients have normal PWV. Our findings provide direct evidence for a cardiovascular protective role of colchicine in FMF.

  3. Different Contributions of Physical Activity on Arterial Stiffness between Diabetics and Non-Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Jiro; Watanabe, Masafumi; Murasawa, Takahide; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Background We compared the contribution of physical activity to the change in arterial stiffness between patients with and without diabetes in ischemic heart disease. Methods We studied 96 (diabetes) and 109 (without diabetes) patients with ischemic heart disease treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) at the first diagnosis of significant coronary ischemia and 6 months after PCI and optimal medical therapy. Physical activity was evaluated using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results CAVI values increased more for diabetic patients than for non-diabetic. The IPAQ scores did not differ between the two groups. During follow-up, CAVI values did not significantly change in either group. In diabetic patients, the CAVI score for 48 patients did not change (NC-group) and 48 patients improved (Improved-group). Physical activity scores were 937.9 ± 923.2 and 1524.6 ± 1166.2 in the NC- and Improved-groups, respectively. IPAQ scores and uric acid levels significantly affect CAVI improvement after adjusting for age, sex, baseline CAVI, total cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion Determining factors influencing CAVI improvement during follow-up were significantly different between patients with and without diabetes. IPAQ scores and uric acid levels were significantly correlated with CAVI changes. PMID:27508936

  4. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  5. Arterial stiffness evaluated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in adolescent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mestanik, Michal; Jurko, Alexander; Mestanikova, Andrea; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. As the studies concerning vascular alterations in pediatric patients are rare, we aimed to study the relationship between hypertension and arterial stiffness in adolescence by novel method independent from BP during examination. Twenty nonobese adolescent boys (16.5 ± 0.4 years) with newly diagnosed essential hypertension, 20 adolescent boys (16.7 ± 0.4 years) with newly diagnosed white-coat hypertension, and 20 healthy controls matched to age and body mass index were examined. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and ejection time (ET) were evaluated. CAVI was significantly increased in essential hypertension patients compared with controls (p < 0.05) with no significant difference in white-coat hypertension patients. Significantly higher baPWV was found in essential and white-coat hypertension patients compared with controls (both p < 0.001). White-coat hypertension patients showed significantly shortened PEP and ET compared with controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) and essential hypertension patients (both p < 0.05). For the first time, the arterial stiffness in adolescents with newly diagnosed essential and white-coat hypertension was studied using BP-independent index CAVI combined with conventional baPWV. Our study revealed significantly increased CAVI in adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension compared with controls. Our findings could help to understand hypertension-atherosclerosis interaction.

  6. Differential effects of nebivolol and metoprolol on arterial stiffness, circulating progenitor cells, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim S; Poole, Joseph C; Neuman, Robert; Morris, Alanna A; Khayata, Mohamed; Kavtaradze, Nino; Topel, Matthew L; Binongo, Jose G; Li, Qunna; Jones, Dean P; Waller, Edmund K; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-03-01

    Unlike traditional beta receptor antagonists, nebivolol activates nitric oxide. We hypothesized that therapy with nebivolol compared with metoprolol would improve arterial stiffness, increase levels of circulating progenitor cells (PC), and decrease oxidative stress (OS). In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, 30 hypertensive subjects received either once daily nebivolol or metoprolol succinate for 3 months each. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were measured using tonometry. Flow cytometry was used to measure circulating PC. OS was measured as plasma aminothiols. Measurements were performed at baseline, and repeated at 3 and 6 months. No significant differences were present between the levels of OS, arterial stiffness, and PC numbers during treatment with metoprolol compared with nebivolol. In subgroup analyses of beta-blocker naïve subjects (n = 19), nebivolol reduced pulse wave velocity significantly compared with metoprolol (-1.4 ± 1.9 vs. -0.1 ± 2.2; P = .005). Both nebivolol and metoprolol increased circulating levels of CD34+/CD133 + PC similarly (P = .05), suggesting improved regenerative capacity.

  7. A Cross-sectional Study of the Relationship Between Habitual Tea Consumption and Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing-Fei; Qiu, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Sai-Lan; Huang, Li-Fang; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yun; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between habitual tea consumption and arterial stiffness. This is a cross-sectional, epidemiological survey of 6589 male and female residents aged 40-75 in Wuyishan, Fujian Province, China. Tea consumption and other lifestyle characteristics were obtained by structured questionnaires. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) were measured using an automated analyzer. Among the 5006 analyzed subjects, 1564 adults (31.2%) consumed tea once or more per week for at least one year. The levels of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) were lowest among subjects who consumed tea habitually for more than 10 years compared with the other 3 subgroups (nonhabitual, 1 to 5 years, and 6 to 10 years habitual tea drinkers), and the levels of ba-PWV were lower with subjects who consumed 10-20 and >20 g/d tea habitually compared to nonhabitual tea drinkers. As the duration and the daily amount of habitual tea consumption increased the average ba-PWV decreased. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that habitual tea consumption was a positive predictor for ba-PWV (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.70). Habitual tea consumption may have a protective effect against arterial stiffness, especially for subjects who have habitually consumed tea for more than 6 years and >10 g daily.

  8. Increased aortic stiffness and related factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2013-10-01

    A number of conditions have been associated with functional changes of large arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with aortic stiffness in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The authors studied 86 patients with PAD (ankle-brachial pressure index [ABPI] ≤0.9) and 86 controls. Aortic stiffness was determined by pulse wave velocity (aPWV) using applanation tonometry. In PAD patients, aPWV was higher compared with controls (11 ± 3 vs 9.8 ± 1.8; P=.002). In multiple regression analysis, aPWV was independently associated with pulse pressure (β=0.05, P=.01) in the PAD patients and with age in the control group (β=0.08, P=.0005). The results of this study confirm an aPWV increase in patients with PAD and emphasize the association between blood pressure and aPWV. Further studies are necessary to assess whether higher aortic stiffening adds prognostic value to ABPI, which is the most powerful prognostic indicator in PAD. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Arterial stiffness in children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Philips, Nicole E; Chirico, Daniele; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E; O'Leary, Deborah D

    2016-12-01

    Children with cardiovascular disease risk factors demonstrate adverse arterial alterations that are predictive of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are at cardiovascular risk as they are more likely to be obese and inactive. The purpose of this study was to assess arterial structure and function in children with and without probable DCD (p-DCD). A cross-sectional study of 33 children with p-DCD (22 male) and 53 without (30 male). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used to classify those with p-DCD. Adiposity was assessed using the BOD POD. Compliance, distensibility, and intima-media thickness were measured at the common carotid artery (CCA). ECG R-wave-to-toe pulse wave velocity (PWV) was also measured. Compared to controls, males with p-DCD had lower CCA distensibility (p=0.034) and higher PWV (p=0.001). No differences were evident in females. Body fat percent was a significant predictor of CCA distensibility and removed the effect of p-DCD on PWV in males. The present study demonstrates augmented arterial stiffness in males with p-DCD, likely attributed to body fat. These findings underscore the importance of targeted interventions in children with p-DCD, specifically males, in order to prevent future cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Dose versus Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation and Arterial Stiffness among Individuals with Prehypertension and Vitamin D Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Amanda; Panza, Gregory; Swales, Heather; Arora, Pankaj; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Wang, Thomas; Thompson, Paul D; Taylor, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the onset and progression of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-mediated increased risk of CVD remain unknown. We sought to examine the differential effect of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D supplementation on markers of arterial stiffness among ~40 vitamin D deficient adults with prehypertension. Participants were randomized to high-dose (4000 IU/d) versus low-dose (400 IU/d) oral vitamin D3 for 6 months. 24 hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and pulse wave analyses were obtained at baseline and after 6 months of vitamin D supplementation. There were no changes in resting BP or pulse wave velocity over 6 mo regardless of vitamin D dose (all p > 0.202). High-dose vitamin D decreased augmentation index and pressure by 12.3 ± 5.3% (p = 0.047) and 4.0 ± 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.02), respectively. However, these decreases in arterial stiffness were not associated with increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over 6 mo (p = 0.425). High-dose vitamin D supplementation appears to lower surrogate measures of arterial stiffness but not indices of central pulse wave velocity. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (Unique Identifier: NCT01240512).

  11. High-Dose versus Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation and Arterial Stiffness among Individuals with Prehypertension and Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Swales, Heather; Arora, Pankaj; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Wang, Thomas; Thompson, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the onset and progression of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-mediated increased risk of CVD remain unknown. We sought to examine the differential effect of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D supplementation on markers of arterial stiffness among ~40 vitamin D deficient adults with prehypertension. Methods. Participants were randomized to high-dose (4000 IU/d) versus low-dose (400 IU/d) oral vitamin D3 for 6 months. 24 hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and pulse wave analyses were obtained at baseline and after 6 months of vitamin D supplementation. Results. There were no changes in resting BP or pulse wave velocity over 6 mo regardless of vitamin D dose (all p > 0.202). High-dose vitamin D decreased augmentation index and pressure by 12.3 ± 5.3% (p = 0.047) and 4.0 ± 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.02), respectively. However, these decreases in arterial stiffness were not associated with increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over 6 mo (p = 0.425). Conclusion. High-dose vitamin D supplementation appears to lower surrogate measures of arterial stiffness but not indices of central pulse wave velocity. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (Unique Identifier: NCT01240512). PMID:26451070

  12. Impaired renal function impacts negatively on vascular stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independently associated with increased vascular stiffness. We examined whether renal function contributes to vascular stiffness independently of CAD status. Methods We studied 160 patients with CAD and 169 subjects without CAD. The 4-variable MDRD formula was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); impaired renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with the SphygmoCor® device. Circulating biomarkers were assessed in plasma using xMAP® multiplexing technology. Results Patients with CAD and impaired renal function had greater PWV compared to those with CAD and normal renal function (10.2 [9.1;11.2] vs 7.3 [6.9;7.7] m/s; P < 0.001). In all patients, PWV was a function of eGFR (β = −0.293; P < 0.001) even after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and presence or absence of CAD. Patients with CAD and impaired renal function had higher levels of adhesion and inflammatory molecules including E-selectin and osteopontin (all P < 0.05) compared to those with CAD alone, but had similar levels of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusions Renal function is a determinant of vascular stiffness even in patients with severe atherosclerotic disease. This was paralleled by differences in markers of cell adhesion and inflammation. Increased vascular stiffness may therefore be linked to inflammatory remodeling of the vasculature in people with impaired renal function, irrespective of concomitant atherosclerotic disease. PMID:23937620

  13. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation reduces arterial stiffness in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ashor, Ammar W; Siervo, Mario; Lara, Jose; Oggioni, Clio; Mathers, John C

    2014-10-01

    Several studies tested the effects of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins on arterial stiffness, but the results were contradictory. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the effect of antioxidant vitamins on arterial stiffness and to determine whether the effects on arterial stiffness vary according to dose, duration of intervention, and health or nutritional status of the included participants. We searched 3 databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) for articles that potentially met the following eligibility criteria: 1) randomized controlled trials comparing antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C, E, and A and β-carotene) to either placebo or no active control in 2) adult participants aged ≥18 y; 3) antioxidant vitamins administered alone or in combination, irrespective of dose, duration, and route of administration; and 4) changes in arterial stiffness or arterial compliance. Data were pooled as standardized mean differences (SMDs) and analyzed using fixed- and random-effects models. Data synthesis showed that antioxidant vitamins reduced arterial stiffness significantly (SMD: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.08; P < 0.001). This effect was significant in experimental (SMD: -1.02; 95% CI: -1.54, -0.49; P < 0.001) and primary prevention (SMD: -0.14; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.04; P < 0.01) studies, whereas a trend for reduced arterial stiffness was observed in studies including participants with diseases (SMD: -0.19; 95% CI: -0.40, 0.02; P = 0.08). Vitamin supplementation improved arterial stiffness irrespective of age group and duration of intervention. Antioxidant vitamins were more effective in participants with low baseline plasma concentrations of vitamins C (SMD: -0.35; 95% CI: -0.62, -0.07; P < 0.016) and E (SMD: -0.79; 95% CI: -1.23, -0.33; P < 0.01). Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins has a small, protective effect on arterial stiffness. The effect may be augmented in those with lower baseline plasma vitamin E

  14. Elderly Algerian women lose their sex-advantage in terms of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular profile.

    PubMed

    Temmar, Mohamed; Watfa, Ghassan; Joly, Laure; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Youcef, Merabia; Bensalah, Selt; Mustapha, Yahia; Salvi, Paolo; Gautier, Sylvie; Safar, Michel; Labat, Carlos; Benetos, Athanase

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have shown lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) levels in women compared to men, a difference that could partially explain the increased longevity in women. However, these studies have been performed in industrial countries while few data are available in emerging populations. We studied arterial stiffness, as evaluated by cfPWV, in elderly Algerian men and women. cfPWV was studied in 321 Algerian men (81.2 ± 5.3 years) and women (81.1 ± 4.4 years). An age-matched and sex-matched cohort of European individuals (n = 321) was used as a control group. Comparatively to men, Algerian women exhibited higher BMI and heart rate (HR), higher prevalence of hypertension, and were more frequently treated for hypertension. cfPWV was not different between Algerian men (14.8 ± 3.3 m/s) and women (14.9 ± 3.4 m/s). By contrast, in Europeans, women had lower cfPWV (12.7 ± 2.7 m/s) than men (14.0 ± 3.3 m/s; P <0.001). Comparatively to European women, Algerian women had a higher cfPWV (P <0.01). In both ethnic groups, multivariate analyses revealed that age, mean blood pressure (BP), HR, and diabetes were positively associated with cfPWV, whereas female sex was associated with lower cfPWV only in Europeans. Elderly Algerian women exhibit arterial stiffness similar to men, whereas European women display lower arterial stiffness than men. This loss of 'arterial sex advantage' in Algerians may be explained by higher BP, HR, and a worse metabolic profile in Algerian women. Interventions in emerging populations, especially in women, should be a priority in order to address these risk factors by acting on current lifestyle.

  15. Arterial hypertension and cardiovascular damage in the elderly: focus on arterial stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, E; Antonicelli, R; Gambini, C; Sirolla, C

    1993-01-01

    Both aging and Arterial Hypertension (AH) cause a series of structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular apparatus. The reduction of aortic distensibility (RAD) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are, in particular, two significant markers of cardiovascular damage apart from being factors of serious and widespread morphological alterations. In this paper, the Authors analyze the effects of aging and of AH on the cardiovascular apparatus in order to find a possible clinical significance in relation to both RAD and LVH.

  16. Reduced subclinical carotid vascular disease and arterial stiffness in vegetarian men: The CARVOS Study.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Navarro, Julio; Antoniazzi, Luiza; Oki, Adriana Midori; Bonfim, Maria Carlos; Hong, Valeria; Acosta-Cardenas, Pedro; Strunz, Celia; Brunoro, Eleonora; Miname, Marcio Hiroshi; Filho, Wilson Salgado; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Santos, Raul D

    2017-03-01

    Dietary habits play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to verify if vegetarian (VEG) diet could be related a better profile of subclinical vascular disease evaluated by arterial stiffness and functional and structural properties of carotid arteries, compared to omnivorous (OMN) diet. In this cross-sectional study, 44 VEG and 44 OMN apparently healthy men ≥35years of age, in order to not have confounding risk factors of subclinical atherosclerosis, were assessed for anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, C reactive protein (CRP), and arterial stiffness determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Also, carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and distensibility were evaluated. VEG men had lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting serum total cholesterol, LDL and non-HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, glucose and glycated hemoglobin values in comparison with OMN individuals (all p values <0.05). Markers of vascular structure and function were different between VEG and OMN: PWV 7.1±0.8m/s vs. 7.7±0.9m/s (p<0.001); c-IMT 593±94 vs. 661±128μm (p=0.003); and relative carotid distensibility 6.39±1.7 vs. 5.72±1.8% (p=0.042), respectively. After a multivariate linear regression analysis, a VEG diet was independently and negatively associated with PWV (p value 0.005). A VEG diet is associated with a more favorable cardiovascular diseases biomarker profile and better vascular structural and functional parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between arterial stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Sloten, Thomas T; Protogerou, Athanase D; Henry, Ronald M A; Schram, Miranda T; Launer, Lenore J; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2015-06-01

    Arterial stiffness may be a cause of cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. For the associations between stiffness (i.e. carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), carotid stiffness and pulse pressure) on the one hand and cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment on the other, we identified 23 (n=15,666/20 cross-sectional; 1 longitudinal; 2 combined cross-sectional/longitudinal) and 41 studies (n=57,671/26 cross-sectional; 11 longitudinal; 4 combined cross-sectional/longitudinal), respectively. Pooled analyses of cross-sectional studies showed that greater stiffness was associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease with odds ratios, per +1 SD, of 1.29-1.32 (P<.001). Studies on cognitive impairment could not be pooled due to large heterogeneity. Some (but not all) studies showed an association between greater stiffness and cognitive impairment, and the strength of this association was relatively weak. The present study supports the hypothesis that greater arterial stiffness is a contributor to microvascular brain disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between arterial stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Sloten, Thomas T; Protogerou, Athanase D; Henry, Ronald MA; Schram, Miranda T; Launer, Lenore J; Stehouwer, Coen DA

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be a cause of cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. For the associations between stiffness (i.e. carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), carotid stiffness and pulse pressure) on the one hand and cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment on the other, we identified 23 (n=15,666/22 cross-sectional/3 longitudinal) and 41 studies (n=57,671/30 cross-sectional/15 longitudinal), respectively. Pooled analyses of cross-sectional studies showed that greater stiffness was associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease with odds ratios, per +1 SD, of 1.29 to 1.32 (P<.001). Studies on cognitive impairment could not be pooled due to large heterogeneity. Some (but not all) studies showed an association between greater stiffness and cognitive impairment, and the strength of this association was relatively weak. The present study supports the hypothesis that greater arterial stiffness is a contributor to microvascular brain disease. PMID:25827412

  19. Response of Arterial Stiffness Four Weeks After Terminating Short-term Aerobic Exercise Training in a Sedentary Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Baykara, Murat; Demirel, Adnan; Yavuzatmaca, İhsan; Bilgen, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of arterial stiffness in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle at 4 weeks after terminating a 2-week aerobic exercise session. Arterial stiffness was evaluated in 38 participants before starting and after completing a prescribed aerobic exercise program and also at 4 weeks after returning back to their sedentary lifestyle. Parameters regarding arterial compliance, distensibility, wall stress, and the elastic modulus were estimated from the information gained from sonography on the dimensions of carotid and femoral arteries and a sphygmomanometer on the pulse pressure. Primary outcomes included whether short-term aerobic exercise reduced the heart rate, arterial pressure, and intima-media thickness and improved vascular biomechanics in physically inactive but otherwise healthy individuals. The benefits gained in arterial compliance and distensibility deteriorated with termination of exercise, but diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus improved further. In individuals with sedentary lifestyles, short-term aerobic exercise has strong four-week residual benefits on diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus, but the effects appear to be negligible on arterial stiffness and distensibility. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Structural and biochemical characteristics of arterial stiffness in patients with atherosclerosis and in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zagura, Maksim; Kals, Jaak; Serg, Martin; Kampus, Priit; Zilmer, Mihkel; Jakobson, Meelis; Unt, Eve; Lieberg, Jüri; Eha, Jaan

    2012-10-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of vascular morbidity and mortality in patients with atherosclerosis. Angiographic score (ASc) reflects severity of atherosclerosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Osteopontin (OPN) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between arterial stiffness, ASc, serum OPN and oxLDL in patients with symptomatic PAD, and in clinically healthy subjects. We studied 79 men with symptomatic PAD (mean age 64±7 years) and 84 healthy men (mean age 63±8 years). Calculation of the ASc was based on severity and location of atherosclerotic lesions in the arteries of the lower extremities. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was evaluated by applanation tonometry using the Sphygmocor device. Serum OPN and oxLDL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aPWV (10±2.4 vs. 8.4±1.7 (m s(-1)); P<0.001), OPN (75 (62.3-85.8) vs. 54.8 (47.7-67.9) (ng ml(-1)); P<0.001) and oxLDL (67 (52.5-93.5) vs. 47.5 (37-65.5); P<0.001) were different for the patients and for the controls. In multiple regression models, aPWV was independently determined by ASc, log-OPN, log-oxLDL and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the patients (R2=0.44; P<0.001) and by log-OPN, log-oxLDL, age and heart rate in the controls (R2=0.38; P<0.001). The independent relationship of a PWV with serum levels of OPN and oxLDL in the patients with PAD and in the controls indicates that OPN and oxLDL might influence arterial stiffening in patients with atherosclerosis and in clinically healthy subjects.

  1. Increased postflight carotid artery stiffness and inflight insulin resistance resulting from 6-mo spaceflight in male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Richard L; Robertson, Andrew D; Arbeille, Philippe; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Rush, James W E; Fraser, Katelyn S; Greaves, Danielle K

    2016-03-01

    Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo. Carotid artery distensibility coefficient (P = 0.005) and β-stiffness index (P = 0.006) reflected 17-30% increases in arterial stiffness when measured within 38 h of return to Earth compared with preflight. Spaceflight-by-sex interaction effects were found with greater changes in β-stiffness index in women (P = 0.017), but greater changes in pulse wave transit time in men (P = 0.006). Several blood biomarkers were changed from preflight to inflight, including an increase in an index of insulin resistance (P < 0.001) with a spaceflight-by-sex term suggesting greater change in men (P = 0.034). Spaceflight-by-sex interactions for renin (P = 0.016) and aldosterone (P = 0.010) indicated greater increases in women than men. Six-month spaceflight caused increased arterial stiffness. Altered hydrostatic arterial pressure gradients as well as changes in insulin resistance and other biomarkers might have contributed to alterations in arterial properties, including sex differences between male and female astronauts. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in relation to gender and age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Lim, Woo-Hyun; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A.; Zo, Joo-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and subsequent overt heart failure are more prevalent in elderly women. Close interaction between arterial stiffness and LV morphology/function has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an age- and gender-dependent relationship between arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function. A total of 819 subjects (58.6 ± 13.3 years, 50.2% men) without structural heart disease (LV ejection fraction ≥50%) were retrospectively analyzed. All participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurement on the same day. The association of baPWV with septal e′ velocity and average E/e′ was assessed. In the total study subjects, baPWV was negatively correlated with septal e′ velocity (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), and positively correlated with E/e′ (r = −0.266, P < 0.001). These linear correlations remained significant even after stratificaion of the study subjects by age (<65 years vs ≥65 years) and genders (P < 0.05 for each). There were obvious differences in baPWV according to groups with normal LV diastolic function, intermediate profile and LV diastolic dysfunction in young (P = 0.010) and elderly (≥65 years) women (P < 0.001) and eldery men (P = 0.012) but not in elderly men (P = 0.270). There was a significant association of baPWV with septal e′ velocity (β = −0.258, P = 0.020) and E/e′ (β = 0.122, P = 0.030) in elderly women even after controlling for multiple clinical covariates. This independent association was not seen in younger women and men (P > 0.05 for each). In conclusion, baPWV was independently associated with septal e′ velocity and E/e′ in elderly women but not in younger women or men. The results of this study provide additional evidence that increased arterial stiffness plays an important role in the development of heart failure with

  3. Association between aerobic exercise training effects of serum adropin level, arterial stiffness, and adiposity in obese elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years). In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise training program on the relationship between serum adropin level and arterial stiffness or adiposity in 13 obese adults (age, 54-76 years). Serum adropin levels in normal, overweight, and obese adults negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness and abdominal visceral fat, and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness. After the 8-week exercise program, serum adropin levels in obese adults were elevated, and correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.573, P < 0.05), plasma NOx level (r = 0.671, P < 0.05), and abdominal visceral fat (r = -0.585, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the exercise training-induced increase in serum adropin may be related to the training effects of arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults.

  4. Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Sharma, Tarun; Mahajan, Sheshadri

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO) is rarely described. This case series of four adults aged between 22 and 36 years attempts to describe the clinical profile, etiology and management of Hemi-CRAO. Case 1 had an artificial mitral valve implant. Polycythemia and malignant hypertension were noted in Case 2. The third patient had Leiden mutation while the fourth patient had Eisenmenger's syndrome. Clinical examination and fundus fluorescein angiography revealed a bifurcated central retinal artery at emergence from the optic nerve head, in all cases. Color Doppler examination of the central retinal artery confirmed branching of the artery behind the lamina cribrosa. It is hypothesized that bifurcation of central retinal artery behind the lamina cribrosa may predispose these hemi-trunks to develop an acute occlusion if associated with underlying risk factors. The prognosis depends upon arterial recanalisation and etiology of the thromboembolic event.

  5. Nutritional status and intrarenal arterial stiffness in cardiorenal syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gigante, A; Di Mario, F; Barbano, B; Rosato, E; Di Lazzaro Giraldi, G; Pofi, R; Gasperini, M L; Amoroso, D; Cianci, R; Laviano, A

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-Renal Syndrome (CRS) is a condition, which is more frequently observed in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to explore nutritional status and intrarenal arterial stiffness in patients affected by CRS. 14 consecutive CRS patients, screened for anthropometry, biochemistry, nutritional and metabolic status underwent renal Doppler ultrasound and whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). We found a positive correlation between phase angle (PA) and CKD-EPI and MDRD (p=0.011 and p=0.007), and between body mass index and renal resistive index (RRI) (p=0.002). Finally, we found a negative correlation between fat-free mass and RRI (p=0.024). Body composition assessment may improve the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Also, BIS may help identify changes in hydration status in CKD patients resulting as a significant predictor of mortality.

  6. Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Vienna E; Howard, Matthew J; Francisco, Michael A; Ely, Brett R; Minson, Christopher T

    2016-09-15

    A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion ('heat therapy') on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans. We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training. Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion ('heat therapy') results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4-5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per session) or thermoneutral water

  7. Central retinal artery occlusion following cosmetic blepharoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P W; May, D R

    1980-01-01

    A case is presented of a 70-year-old white male who underwent a bilateral cosmetic lower lid blepharoplasty with fat removal. He subsequently developed a right orbital haemorrhage which resulted in the occlusion of the central retinal artery. The patient had no light perception with his right eye for approximately 1 hour, but vision was eventually restored to 20/20 after emergency therapeutic measures. There are many possible causes of visual loss following blepharoplasty, with orbital haemorrhage being the most common. Visual loss secondary to blepharoplasty can be prevented in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of surgery. Blindness as a complication of cosmetic blepharoplasty can be reversible if recognised early and treated appropriately. These facts must be kept in mind by all surgeons who perform blepharoplasties. Images PMID:7448145

  8. Infant Arterial Stiffness and Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy: A UK Birth Cohort (Baby VIP Study)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; McArdle, Harry J.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hayes, Helen E.; Ciantar, Etienne; Simpson, Nigel A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In animal studies, iron deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to increased offspring cardiovascular risk. No previous population studies have measured arterial stiffness early in life to examine its association with maternal iron status. Objective This study aimed to examine the association between maternal iron status in early pregnancy with infant brachio-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods The Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular Health and Iron in Pregnancy) study is a UK-based birth cohort which recruited 362 women after delivery from the Leeds Teaching Hospitals postnatal wards. Ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester. Infant brachio-femoral PWV was measured during a home visit at 2–6 weeks. Results Iron depletion (ferritin <15 µg/l) was detected in 79 (23%) women in early pregnancy. Infant PWV (mean = 6.7 m/s, SD = 1.3, n = 284) was neither associated with maternal ferritin (adjusted change per 10 µg/l = 0.02, 95% CI: −0.01, 0.1), nor with iron depletion (adjusted change = −0.2, 95% CI: −0.6, 0.2). No evidence of association was observed between maternal serum transferrin receptor level and its ratio to ferritin with infant PWV. Maternal anaemia (<11 g/dl) at <20 weeks’ gestation was associated with a 1.0-m/s increase in infant PWV (adjusted 95% CI: 0.1, 1.9). Conclusion This is the largest study to date which has assessed peripheral PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness in infants. There was no evidence of an association between markers of maternal iron status early in pregnancy and infant PWV. PMID:25790854

  9. Relationship between FEV1 and arterial stiffness in elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Luisa; Pedone, Claudio; Battistoni, Fabrizio; Chiurco, Domenica; Santangelo, Simona; Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele

    2017-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is highly prevalent in the elderly, and both COPD and age per se are associated with cardiovascular morbidity. We tested the hypothesis that in elderly COPD patients airflow limitation is associated with arterial stiffness and the relationship, if any, is related to endothelial function and systemic inflammation. We evaluated lung function, augmentation index (AIx), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and asymmetric dymethilarginine (ADMA) levels in 76 subjects (mean age 73.9 years, SD 6.2) attending a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants with COPD (N = 41) and controls (N = 35) did not differ in terms of AIx (30 vs 28.2 %, P = 0.30) and FMD (14.2 vs 12.3 %, P = 0.10). Similarly, the two groups did not differ with respect to mean concentrations of inflammation markers (IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and ADMA. Among COPD participants there was an inverse correlation between AIx and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (r = -0.349, P = 0.02). This relationship remained significant after correction for potential confounders, including markers of inflammation and ADMA levels (β = -0.194, P = 0.001). According to the results of this study, among COPD patients, bronchial patency and AIx are inversely related, and the relationship is explained neither by endothelial function nor by systemic inflammation. In elderly COPD people, increased arterial stiffness is related to reduced pulmonary function and it seems worth testing as a potential marker of higher cardiovascular risk.

  10. Arterial stiffness evaluation by cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertension and diabetes mellitus subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Xiaobao; Shang, Guangyun; Zhou, Yingyan; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xujing; Wang, Guang; Shi, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we investigated the possible risk factors involving CAVI in hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects. One thousand sixty-three subjects (M/F 533/530) from Shougang Corporation Examination Center were divided into four groups: healthy group (n = 639); hypertension group (n = 312); DM group (n = 58); and hypertension with DM group (n = 54). CAVI was measured by VS-1000 apparatus. Our results showed that CAVI was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with DM than in healthy and hypertension group, respectively (8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.23 ± 1.10; 8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.94 ± 1.33; both P < .05). CAVI was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides in the entire group (r = 0.633, 0.280, 0.172, 0.269, 0.209, 0.254, 0.176, 0.129, 0.175; all P < .05, respectively). There was negatively correlation between CAVI and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the entire group (r = -0.167; P < .05). Multivariate analysis showed that age, body mass index, HbA1c, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were independent associating factors of CAVI in all subjects (β = 0.699; P < .001, β = -0.189; P = .001, β = 0.144; P = .015, β = -0.136; P = .019, respectively). Our present study suggested that CAVI was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with DM compared with healthy and hypertension groups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-03-01

    Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well established among adults. However, little is known about disparities in CVD risk among adolescents, particularly considering indices of subclinical CVD. Our aim was to examine socioeconomic and racial disparities in subclinical CVD indices among adolescents. We hypothesized that African American and lower SES adolescents would show greater arterial stiffness and intima media thickness compared to Caucasian and higher SES adolescents, respectively. Participants were 81 African American and 78 Caucasian adolescents (mean age=17.8) from two schools in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Measures of subclinical CVD were pulse wave velocity and intima media thickness, as assessed by Doppler and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. SES indices included parental education, family income, family assets, subjective social status, and census-derived neighborhood SES. Hypotheses were evaluated in multiple linear regression models with the covariates age, gender, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Results indicated that African American adolescents were more often in low SES positions than Caucasians. When considered individually, racial and SES disparities in pulse wave velocity, and to a lesser extent, intima media thickness, were evident. When race and SES were considered together, high school education, low or medium income, and low neighborhood SES were associated with higher pulse wave velocity. Fewer assets were associated with higher intima media thickness. In conclusion, racial and SES disparities in indices of subclinical CVD were observed, with findings most pronounced for SES disparities in pulse wave velocity. This study extends previous findings in adults to adolescents, indicating that disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness occur as early as adolescence. Efforts to reduce socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD should target disparities early in life.

  12. Arterial stiffness is associated with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ilter, Abdulselam; Kiris, Abdulkadir; Karkucak, Murat; Sahin, Mursel; Serdar, Omer Faruk; Ugan, Yunus

    2016-11-01

    Arterial stiffness (AS) has a detrimental effect on cardiovascular system particularly on left ventricle (LV). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of AS on LV functions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Forty patients with RA and 25 age-sex matched control subjects (mean age 48.5 ± 6.3 vs. 45.1 ± 6.9 years, respectively, p = 0.06) were enrolled in study. AS was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) and heart rate corrected augmentation index (AIx@75) measured by applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor). LV function was evaluated using tissue Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) from lateral mitral annulus. CF-PWV (28.3 ± 10.3 vs. 21.8 ± 9.3 m/s, p = 0.03), AIx@75 (10.2 ± 2.3 vs. 9.2 ± 1, %, p = 0.01) and MPI (0.46 ± 0.12 vs. 0.36 ± 0.1, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with RA than in controls. LV MPI was found to be significantly positive correlated with CF-PWV, AIx@75, and ESR (r = 0.360, p = 0.005; r = 0.334, p = 0.009; r = 0.293, p = 0.023, respectively). Arterial stiffness parameters including CF-PWV and AIx@75 are associated with subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with RA.

  13. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well established among adults. However, little is known about disparities in CVD risk among adolescents, particularly considering indices of subclinical CVD. Our aim was to examine socioeconomic and racial disparities in subclinical CVD indices among adolescents. We hypothesized that African American and lower SES adolescents would show greater arterial stiffness and intima media thickness compared to Caucasian and higher SES adolescents, respectively. Participants were 81 African American and 78 Caucasian adolescents (mean age = 17.8) from two schools in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Measures of subclinical CVD were pulse wave velocity and intima media thickness, as assessed by Doppler and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. SES indices included parental education, family income, family assets, subjective social status, and census-derived neighborhood SES. Hypotheses were evaluated in multiple linear regression models with the covariates age, gender, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Results indicated that African American adolescents were more often in low SES positions than Caucasians. When considered individually, racial and SES disparities in pulse wave velocity, and to a lesser extent, intima media thickness, were evident. When race and SES were considered together, high school education, low or medium income, and low neighborhood SES were associated with higher pulse wave velocity. Fewer assets were associated with higher intima media thickness. In conclusion, racial and SES disparities in indices of subclinical CVD were observed, with findings most pronounced for SES disparities in pulse wave velocity. This study extends previous findings in adults to adolescents, indicating that disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness occur as early as adolescence. Efforts to reduce socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD should target disparities early in

  14. Need for insulin to control gestational diabetes is reflected in the ambulatory arterial stiffness index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to evaluate the metabolic profile in conjunction with vascular function using the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) in women with uncomplicated pregnancies and in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Plasma glucose, lipids, HOMA –IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and AASI, as obtained from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in third trimester pregnancy and at three months postpartum, were measured in three groups of women: controls (N = 32), women with GDM on diet (N = 42) and women with GDM requiring insulin treatment (N = 10). Results Women with GDM had poorer glycemic control and higher HOMA-IR during and after pregnancy and their total and LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were significantly higher after pregnancy than in the controls. After delivery, there was an improvement in AASI from 0.26 ± 0.10 to 0.17 ± 0.09 (P = 0.002) in women with GDM on diet, but not in women with GDM receiving insulin whose AASI tended to worsen after delivery from 0.30 ± 0.23 to 0.33 ± 0.09 (NS), then being significantly higher than in the other groups (P = 0.001-0.047). Conclusions Women with GDM had more unfavorable lipid profile and higher blood glucose values at three months after delivery, the metabolic profile being worst in women requiring insulin. Interestingly, the metabolic disturbances at three months postpartum were accompanied by a tendency towards arterial stiffness to increase in women requiring insulin. PMID:23324111

  15. Long-term anti-hypertensive therapy with benidipine improves arterial stiffness over blood pressure lowering.

    PubMed

    Kita, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Eto, Tanenao; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2005-12-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects arterial stiffness and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, because it is closely related to blood pressure (BP), PWV is an imperfect measure for evaluating the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on arterial wall properties. To clarify the effect of benidipine on arterial properties, we first derived the regression line between BP and PWV changes in a short-term experiment. Using this line, we evaluated the long-term effect of benidipine on PWV changes. In the short-term experiment, 29 participants were intravenously administered nicardipine for 90 min. Maximum decreases of brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) were plotted against the corresponding decreases in BP. In the long-term experiment, 9 hypertensive patients were treated with benidipine for 1 year, during which BP and baPWV were monitored. After 1 year, benidipine was suspended for 2 weeks, and BP and baPWV were reevaluated. In the short-term experiment, PWV was dependent on BP only, and the equation of the regression line was deltaPWV (cm/s) =10.114 x deltaMBP (mmHg) (r=0.913) or deltaPWV (%) =0.719 x deltaMBP (%) (r=0.926). In the long-term therapy, benidipine treatment achieved stable BP control within 3 months; the real PWV decreases (r-PWV) were almost identical to the PWV decrease estimated (e-PWV) from BP lowering at 3 months. However, r-PWV exceeded e-PWV after 6 months. Relative BP and PWV improvements compared to the control were maintained 2 weeks after suspension of benidipine. In conclusion, long-term benidipine administration improves arterial wall properties beyond what can be accounted for by changes in BP.

  16. Effects of a nitrate-rich meal on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Alex H; Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Rich, Lisa; Ward, Natalie C; Vita, Joseph A; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2013-11-30

    An increase in nitrate intake can augment circulating nitrite and nitric oxide. This may lead to lower blood pressure and improved vascular function. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, are rich sources of nitrate. We aimed to assess the acute effects of a nitrate-rich meal containing spinach on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy men and women. Twenty-six participants aged 38-69years were recruited to a randomized controlled cross-over trial. The acute effects of two energy-matched (2000kJ) meals, administered in random order, were compared. The meals were either high nitrate (220mg of nitrate derived from spinach [spinach]) or low nitrate [control]. Outcome measurements were performed pre-meal and at specific time points up to 210min post meal. Spinach resulted in an eightfold increase in salivary nitrite and a sevenfold increase in salivary nitrate concentrations from pre-meal (P<0.001) to 120min post meal. Spinach compared with control resulted in higher large artery elasticity index (P<0.001), and lower pulse pressure (P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.001). Post meal carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (P=0.07), augmentation index (P=0.63), small artery elasticity index (P=0.98) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.13) were not significantly altered by spinach relative to control. Therefore, consumption of a nitrate-rich meal can lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure and increase large artery compliance acutely in healthy men and women. If sustained, these effects could contribute to better cardiovascular health.

  17. Circulating concentrations of vitamin E isomers: Association with bone turnover and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hampson, G; Edwards, S; Sankaralingam, A; Harrington, D J; Voong, K; Fogelman, I; Frost, M L

    2015-12-01

    The effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and bone health are conflicting with beneficial and detrimental findings reported. To investigate this further, we carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the relationship between circulating concentrations of the 2 vitamin E isomers, α- and γ-tocopherol (TP) with bone turnover and arterial stiffness. Two hundred and seventy eight post-menopausal women with mean age [SD] 60.9 [6.0] years were studied. Fasting serum α-TP and γ-TP, bone turnover markers; procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), parathyroid hormone (PTH), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central augmentation index (AI) as markers of arterial stiffness were also determined. A positive correlation was observed between α-TP and γ-TP (r=0.14, p=0.022). A significant negative association between α-TP and P1NP only was seen in multiple linear regression analysis following adjustment for serum TC and TG (p=0.016). In a full multi-linear regression model, following correction for age, years since menopause, smoking habits, alcohol intake, use of calcium supplements, BMI, PTH, serum calcium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the association between α-TP and P1NP remained significant (p=0.011). We did not observe any significant association between γ-TP or α-TP/γ-TP ratio with P1NP or CTX. P1NP was significantly lower in subjects with α-TP concentrations of >30 μmol/L (α-TP >30 μmol/L; P1NP: 57.5 [20.7], α-TP<30 μmol/L; P1NP: 65.7 [24.9] μg/L, p=0.005). PWV was significantly associated with α-TP/γ-TP ratio (p=0.04) but not with serum α-TP or γ-TP in a full multi-linear regression model adjusting for serum lipids, age, and blood pressure. The data suggest that high serum concentrations of α-TP may have a negative effect on bone formation. The balance of α-TP and γ-TP may be important in maintaining

  18. Determinants of arterial stiffness progression in a Han-Chinese population in Taiwan: a 4-year longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lien-Ying; Liao, Yi-Chu; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yu-Shan; Lin, Reuy-Tay; Hsu, Chung Y; Juo, Suh-Hang H

    2015-09-16

    Arterial stiffness predicts the future risk of macro- and micro-vascular diseases. Only a few studies have reported longitudinal changes. The present study aimed to investigate the progression rate of arterial stiffness and the factors influencing stiffness progression in a Han Chinese population residing in Taiwan. The pulse wave velocity (PWV), elasticity modulus (Ep) and arterial stiffness index (β) of the common carotid artery were measured in 577 stroke- and myocardial infarction-free subjects at baseline and after an average interval of 4.2 ± 0.8 years. Stepwise multivariate linear regression was conducted to elucidate the predictors of stiffness progression. For both baseline and follow-up data, men had significantly higher values of PWV, Ep and β in comparison to women. The progression rates of PWV, Ep and β were faster in men, but the difference was not statistically significant (ΔPWV = 0.20 ± 0.20 and 0.18 ± 0.20 m/s/yr; ΔEp = 8.17 ± 8.65 and 6.98 ± 8.26 kPa/yr; Δβ = 0.70 ± 0.64 and 0.67 ± 0.56 for men and women, respectively). In the multivariate regression analyses, age, baseline stiffness parameters, baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), baseline body mass index (BMI) and changes in MAP (ΔMAP) were independent predictors of PWV and Ep progression. There was an inverse correlation between the stiffness parameters at baseline and their progression rate (correlation coefficient (r) = -0.12 to -0.33, p = 0.032-1.6 × 10(-16)). Changes in MAP (ΔMAP) rather than baseline MAP were more strongly associated with PWV progression (p = 8.5 × 10(-24) and 1.9 × 10(-5) for ΔMAP and baseline MAP, respectively). Sex-specific analyses disclosed that baseline BMI and changes in BMI (ΔBMI) were significantly associated with stiffness progression in men (p = 0.010-0.026), but not in women. Aging and elevated blood pressure at baseline and during follow-up were the major determinants

  19. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Anthony; Mathew, Shilpa; Moore, Chris T; Russell, Jean; Robinson, Emma; Soumpasi, Vithleem; Barker, Margo E

    2014-06-01

    Tart cherries are a particularly rich source of anthocyanins. Evidence indicates that dietary intake of anthocyanins is inversely associated with arterial stiffness. We conducted an open-label randomised placebo controlled study to determine whether a tart cherry juice concentrate (Cherry Active) reduced arterial stiffness, inflammation and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in 47 healthy adults (30-50 years). Participants consumed 30 ml of cherry concentrate diluted to a volume of 250 ml with water or the same volume of an energy matched control drink daily for six weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on arterial stiffness (P = 0.218), c-reactive protein (P = 0.220), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.163), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.121), total cholesterol (P = 0.342) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.127). At the end of the intervention, plasma antioxidant capacity (measured as the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.012). We conclude that a tart cherry juice concentrate rich in anthocyanins has no effect on arterial stiffness, c-reactive protein and risk markers for cardiovascular disease, but evokes a minor increase in antioxidant status in healthy adults.

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  1. Evaluation of Blood Pressure Control using a New Arterial Stiffness Parameter, Cardio-ankle Vascular Index (CAVI)

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Kohji; Utino, Junji; Saiki, Atsuhito; Endo, Kei; Ohira, Masahiro; Nagayama, Daiji; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mao; Takahara, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness has been known to be a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also of vascular function. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) had been the most popular index and was known to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. But, it depends on blood pressure at measuring time. To overcome this problem, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed. CAVI is derived from stiffness parameter β by Hayashi, and the equation of Bramwell-Hill, and is independent from blood pressure at a measuring time. Then, CAVI might reflect the proper change of arterial wall by antihypertensive agents. CAVI shows high value with aging and in many arteriosclerotic diseases and is also high in persons with main coronary risk factors. Furthermore, CAVI is decreased by an administration of α1 blocker, doxazosin for 2-4 hours, Those results suggested that CAVI reflected the arterial stiffness composed of organic components and of smooth muscle cell contracture. Angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan decreased CAVI much more than that of calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, even though the rates of decreased blood pressure were almost same. CAVI might differentiate the blood pressure-lowering agents from the point of the effects on proper arterial stiffness. This paper reviewed the principle and rationale of CAVI, and the possibilities of clinical applications, especially in the studies of hypertension. PMID:23807874

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Associations between glycaemic deterioration and aortic stiffness and central blood pressure: the ADDITION-PRO Study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Signe S; Wiinberg, Niels; Vistisen, Dorte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Pedersen, Erling B; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Witte, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    In the context of screening for diabetes, we examined levels of central haemodynamics among individuals with different levels of diabetes risk and analysed the impact of glycated haemoglobin A (HbA1c) and HbA1c changes on central haemodynamics. A Danish population-based stepwise screening programme for diabetes including a diabetes risk score (DRS) questionnaire and glucose measurements identified seven groups of individuals at increasing levels of diabetes risk. After 7.8 years of follow-up, 2048 individuals underwent aortic stiffness assessment by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and assessment of central blood pressure (BP). We compared differences in central haemodynamics at follow-up between the diabetes risk groups and analysed the impact of HbA1c at screening and HbA1c change on central haemodynamics at follow-up adjusting for relevant confounders. At screening, median age was 59.0 years, and median HbA1c was 5.7%. At follow-up, median aPWV was 8.0 m/s, and median central SBP was 123.5 mmHg. Among individuals with high DRS, aPWV, central SBP and DBP, and pulse pressure were higher in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance than normal glucose tolerance. Per 1%-point higher HbA1c at screening, aPWV was 0.23 m/s (95% confidence interval: 0.00; 0.46) higher, and central DBP was 1.35 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.19; 2.51) lower, whereas HbA1c change was not associated with any of the central haemodynamics. Dysglycaemia is associated with future aortic stiffness. However, glycaemic deterioration over 7.8 years does not affect aortic stiffness or central BP independently of other cardiometabolic risk factors.

  4. Stiffness of the large arteries in individuals with and without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Coelho, Luan Cesar; Goncalves, Washington L S; Gouvea, Sonia Alves; Vasconcellos, Maria José Rossi; Cunha, Roberto S; Abreu, Glaucia R

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome is known to cause premature aging in several organ systems. However, it remains unclear whether this aging effect also affects the structure and function of the large arterial trunks. In this controlled study, the possibility of changes in the large arteries due to aging was evaluated in patients with Down syndrome. Eighty-two subjects of both genders were selected. The Down syndrome group had 41 active subjects consisting of 19 males and 22 females (mean age 21 ± 1, range 13-42 years) without cardiovascular complications and who did not use vasoactive drugs. The control group consisted of 41 healthy individuals without trisomy 21 of the same gender and age as the Down syndrome group and who did not use vasoactive medication. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was obtained as an index of aortic stiffness using an automatic noninvasive method. Individuals with Down syndrome had significantly lower blood pressure than those in the control group. Systolic blood pressure for the Down syndrome group and control group was 106 ± 2 mmHg vs 117 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001), respectively; diastolic blood pressure was 66 ± 2 mmHg vs 77 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001); and mean arterial pressure was 80 ± 1 mmHg vs 90 ± 1 mmHg (P < 0.001). Only age and systolic blood pressure were shown to correlate significantly with pulse wave velocity, but the slopes of the linear regression curves of these two variables showed no significant difference between the two study groups. Pulse wave velocity, which was initially significantly lower in the Down syndrome group (7.51 ± 0.14 m/s vs 7.84 ± 0.12 m/s; P <0.05), was similar between the groups after systolic blood pressure adjustment (7.62 ± 0.13 m/s vs 7.73 ± 0.13 m/s). Despite evidence in the literature that patients with Down syndrome undergo early aging, this process does not seem to affect the large arterial trunks, given that values of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were similar in individuals with or without trisomy 21

  5. Stiffness of the large arteries in individuals with and without Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Coelho, Luan Cesar; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves; Vasconcellos, Maria José Rossi; Cunha, Roberto S; Abreu, Glaucia R

    2011-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome is known to cause premature aging in several organ systems. However, it remains unclear whether this aging effect also affects the structure and function of the large arterial trunks. In this controlled study, the possibility of changes in the large arteries due to aging was evaluated in patients with Down syndrome. Methods: Eighty-two subjects of both genders were selected. The Down syndrome group had 41 active subjects consisting of 19 males and 22 females (mean age 21 ± 1, range 13–42 years) without cardiovascular complications and who did not use vasoactive drugs. The control group consisted of 41 healthy individuals without trisomy 21 of the same gender and age as the Down syndrome group and who did not use vasoactive medication. Carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity was obtained as an index of aortic stiffness using an automatic noninvasive method. Results: Individuals with Down syndrome had significantly lower blood pressure than those in the control group. Systolic blood pressure for the Down syndrome group and control group was 106 ± 2 mmHg vs 117 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001), respectively; diastolic blood pressure was 66 ± 2 mmHg vs 77 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001); and mean arterial pressure was 80 ± 1 mmHg vs 90 ± 1 mmHg (P < 0.001). Only age and systolic blood pressure were shown to correlate significantly with pulse wave velocity, but the slopes of the linear regression curves of these two variables showed no significant difference between the two study groups. Pulse wave velocity, which was initially significantly lower in the Down syndrome group (7.51 ± 0.14 m/s vs 7.84 ± 0.12 m/s; P <0.05), was similar between the groups after systolic blood pressure adjustment (7.62 ± 0.13 m/s vs 7.73 ± 0.13 m/s). Conclusion: Despite evidence in the literature that patients with Down syndrome undergo early aging, this process does not seem to affect the large arterial trunks, given that values of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were

  6. Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women. A double-blind randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Braam, Lavienja A J L M; Drummen, Nadja E; Bekers, Otto; Hoeks, Arnold P G; Vermeer, Cees

    2015-05-01

    Observational data suggest a link between menaquinone (MK, vitamin K2) intake and cardiovascular (CV) health. However, MK intervention trials with vascular endpoints are lacking. We investigated long-term effects of MK-7 (180 µg MenaQ7/day) supplementation on arterial stiffness in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=244) received either placebo (n=124) or MK-7 (n=120) for three years. Indices of local carotid stiffness (intima-media thickness IMT, Diameter end-diastole and Distension) were measured by echotracking. Regional aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral and carotid-radial Pulse Wave Velocity, cfPWV and crPWV, respectively) was measured using mechanotransducers. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) as well as acute phase markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and markers for endothelial dysfunction Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM), E-selectin, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) were measured. At baseline dp-ucMGP was associated with IMT, Diameter, cfPWV and with the mean z-scores of acute phase markers (APMscore) and of markers for endothelial dysfunction (EDFscore). After three year MK-7 supplementation cfPWV and the Stiffness Index βsignificantly decreased in the total group, whereas distension, compliance, distensibility, Young's Modulus, and the local carotid PWV (cPWV) improved in women having a baseline Stiffness Index β above the median of 10.8. MK-7 decreased dp-ucMGP by 50 % compared to placebo, but did not influence the markers for acute phase and endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, long-term use of MK-7 supplements improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women, especially in women having a high arterial stiffness.

  7. Noninvasive pulse transit time measurement for arterial stiffness monitoring in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCall, Corey; Rostosky, Rea; Wiard, Richard M; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Cuttino, Charles Marsh; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2015-01-01

    The use of a noninvasive hemodynamic monitor to estimate arterial stiffness, by measurement of pulse transit time (PTT), was demonstrated in microgravity. The monitor's utility for space applications was shown by establishing the correlation between ground-based and microgravity-based measurements. The system consists of a scale-based ballistocardiogram (BCG) and a toe-mounted photoplethysmogram (PPG). PTT was measured from the BCG I-wave to the intersecting tangents of the first trough and maximum first derivative of the PPG waveforms of each subject. The system was tested on a recent series of parabolic flights in which the PTT of nine subjects was measured on the ground and in microgravity. An average of 60.2 ms PTT increase from ground to microgravity environments was shown, and was consistent across all test subjects (standard deviation = 32.9 ms). This increase in PTT could be explained by a number of factors associated with microgravity and reported in previous research, including elimination of hydrostatic pressure, reduction of intrathoracic pressure, and reduction of mean arterial pressure induced by vasodilation.

  8. Peripheral Augmentation Index is Associated With the Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index in Patients With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Kevin S.; Patvardhan, Eshan A.; Karas, Richard H.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is highly prevalent if not ubiquitous in patients with hypertension. We compared two different measures of vascular function obtained from digital volume waveforms with measures of ventricular-vascular load derived from 24-hour blood pressure (BP) recordings in patients with hypertension. Methods Digital pulsatile volume waveforms were captured via plethysmography (peripheral arterial tone, PAT) and used to derive augmentation index (a measure of ventricular-vascular coupling) and the pulse wave amplitude-reactive hyperemia index (a measure of microvascular reactivity). Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and the BP variability ratio (BPVR) were derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Results There was a positive association between PAT-AIx and AASI (r = 0.52, P < 0.05). There was also a positive association between PAT-AIx and BPVR (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). PAT-AIx was not associated with PWA-RHI (r = -0.14, P > 0.05). PWA-RHI was not associated with AASI or BPVR (P > 0.05). Conclusions PAT-AIx is associated with ambulatory measures of vascular function and may offer clinical insight into vascular burden and cardiovascular disease risk in patients with hypertension independent of information obtained from PWA-RHI.

  9. Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index Is Higher in Hypertensive Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg; Neves, Mario Fritsch; Oigman, Wille; Bregman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a parameter obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) that correlates with clinical endpoints. The aim of this study was to compare AASI in nondiabetic hypertensive patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Subjects with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, n = 30) with normal renal function, aged 40 to 75 years, were compared to hypertensive patients with CKD (n = 30) presenting estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min by MDRD formula. ABPM was carried out in all patients. In CKD group, eGFR was 35.3 ± 2.8 ml/min. The mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) was similar in both groups. AASI was significantly higher in CKD group (0.45 ± 0.03 versus 0.37 ± 0.02, P < 0.05), positively correlated to age (r = 0.38, P < 0.01) and pulse pressure (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated to nocturnal BP fall (r = -0.28, P = 0.03). These findings indicate the presence of stiffer vessels in CKD hypertensive patients. PMID:22675608

  10. Cullin-3 mutation causes arterial stiffness and hypertension through a vascular smooth muscle mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Agbor, Larry N.; Ibeawuchi, Stella-Rita C.; Hu, Chunyan; Davis, Deborah R.; Keen, Henry L.; Quelle, Frederick W.; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2016-01-01

    Cullin-3 (CUL3) mutations (CUL3Δ9) were previously identified in hypertensive patients with pseudohypoaldosteronism type-II (PHAII), but the mechanism causing hypertension and whether this is driven by renal tubular or extratubular mechanisms remains unknown. We report that selective expression of CUL3Δ9 in smooth muscle acts by interfering with expression and function of endogenous CUL3, resulting in impaired turnover of the CUL3 substrate RhoA, increased RhoA activity, and augmented RhoA/Rho kinase signaling. This caused vascular dysfunction and increased arterial pressure under baseline conditions and a marked increase in arterial pressure, collagen deposition, and vascular stiffness in response to a subpressor dose of angiotensin II, which did not cause hypertension in control mice. Inhibition of total cullin activity increased the level of CUL3 substrates cyclin E and RhoA, and expression of CUL3Δ9 decreased the level of the active form of endogenous CUL3 in human aortic smooth muscle cells. These data indicate that selective expression of the Cul3Δ9 mutation in vascular smooth muscle phenocopies the hypertension observed in Cul3Δ9 human subjects and suggest that mutations in CUL3 cause human hypertension in part through a mechanism involving smooth muscle dysfunction initiated by a loss of CUL3-mediated degradation of RhoA. PMID:27882355

  11. The distribution of cerebral microbleeds determines their association with arterial stiffness in non-cardioembolic acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Song, T J; Kim, J; Kim, Y D; Nam, H S; Lee, H S; Nam, C M; Heo, J H

    2014-03-01

    Increased arterial stiffness causes vessel damage in the end-organs. Therefore small vessels in the brain may be susceptible to increased arterial stiffness. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are topographically or pathophysiologically categorized as deep or infratentorial type and strictly lobar type. Whether the presence and location of CMBs are associated with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) which represents a measure of arterial stiffness was investigated. Between June 2006 and January 2012, 1137 consecutive patients diagnosed with non-cardioembolic acute ischaemic stroke and who underwent baPWV measurement and brain gradient-echo imaging were enrolled. CMBs were classified as deep or infratentorial or strictly lobar according to their location. Severity of leukoaraiosis was determined using the Fazekas scoring system. CMBs were found in 30.7% of the included patients. These patients were older than those without CMBs. Mean baPWV was higher in patients with CMBs than in those without (20 ± 5 m/s vs. 19 ± 5 m/s; P = 0.001). When comparing baPWV according to the location of the CMB, it was higher in the deep or infratentorial CMB group than in the strictly lobar CMB group (22 ± 5 m/s vs. 20 ± 5 m/s; P = 0.001). In univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses, baPWV was found to be independently associated with deep or infratentorial CMBs. Arterial stiffness was independently associated with deep or infratentorial CMBs but not lobar CMBs. These findings suggest a pathophysiological association between arterial stiffness and CMBs in the deep or infratentorial region. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  12. Association between arterial stiffness, disease activity and functional impairment in ankylosing spondylitis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Avram, Claudiu; Drăgoi, Răzvan Gabriel; Popoviciu, Horațiu; Drăgoi, Mihai; Avram, Adina; Amaricăi, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular risk is an important factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The aim of this study is to assess arterial stiffness in relation to the disease activity and functional limitation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Twenty-four patients (mean age 45.8 ± 11.7 years) suffering of ankylosing spondylitis (disease duration 11.1 ± 5.1 years) and 24 gender and age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Clinical, biological, and functional status of ankylosing spondylitis patients was recorded. Arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse wave analysis (PWA) was performed using applanation tonometry. We found significant differences between ankylosing spondylitis patients and healthy controls in regard to PWV (p = 0.047), aortic augmentation pressure-AP (p = 0.028), augmentation index-AIx (p = 0.038) and aortic augmentation index adjusted for heart rate-AIx75 (p = 0.011). PWV and AIx75 were significantly associated with the disease functioning score-BASFI (p = 0.012, r = 0.504; p = 0.041, r = 0.421). Aortic AP and augmentation indexes (AIx and AIx75) were all associated to ASDAS score (p = 0.028, r = 0.448; p = 0.005, r = 0.549; p = 0.025, r = 0.455). Our study showed that ankylosing spondylitis patients have a higher arterial stiffness than the age-matched controls, leading to an increased cardiovascular risk. We found that arterial stiffness is positively associated with disease activity and functional impairment. Chronic spondiloarthropaties should be screened for arterial stiffness, even in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in order to benefit from primary prevention measures.

  13. Validity of pulse pressure and augmentation index as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness during beta-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lemogoum, Daniel; Flores, Gabriella; Van den Abeele, Wouter; Ciarka, Agnieszka; Leeman, Marc; Degaute, Jean Paul; van de Borne, Philippe; Van Bortel, Luc

    2004-03-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is a determinant of cardiovascular mortality. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a direct measure of arterial stiffness. Aortic augmentation index (AI) and pulse pressure (PP) are surrogate measures of arterial stiffness. Both PWV, AI and PP increase with cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to test the validity of AI and PP as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness compared with PWV, during beta-adrenergic stimulation with Isoprenaline (Iso). A total of 41 healthy volunteers entered a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. In random order, subjects were given intravenous infusion in equal volume of Iso 8 microg/kg per min (dissolved in glucose 5%) and placebo (glucose 5%). A wash-out period of 25 min was observed between the infusions. Measurements included blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), PWV, and AI. PWV were determined using complior (Complior, Artech-Medical, Paris, France). AI and aortic PP were obtained from pulse wave analysis of radial applanation tonometry, using transfer function (SphygmoCor Windows software). Baseline AI increased (P < 0.05) with aging, a lower height and a larger diastolic BP (DBP). Iso increased (P < 0.0001) HR, brachial SBP, brachial and aortic PP as compared with placebo. In contrast, Iso decreased (P < 0.05) AI, brachial DBP, peripheral PWV, but not aortic PWV. Decrease of AI induced by Iso was not related to PWV. In stepwise multiple regression changes in HR, brachial SBP and DBP were independent determinants of AI response to Iso (r = 0.78, P < 0.0001). Our findings show that AI and PP fail as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness during beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  14. Arterial aging and arterial disease: interplay between central hemodynamics, cardiac work, and organ flow—implications for CKD and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    London, Gerard; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Wiecek, Andrzej; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ortiz, Alberto; Massy, Ziad; Lindholm, Bengt; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Fliser, Danilo; Agarwal, Rajiv; Jager, Kitty J; Dekker, Friedo W; Blankestijn, Peter J; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All epidemiological studies have clearly shown that accelerated arterial and cardiac aging is characteristic of these populations. Arterial premature aging is heterogeneous. It principally involves the aorta and central capacitive arteries, and is characterized by preferential aortic stiffening and disappearance of stiffness/impedance gradients between the central and peripheral arteries. These changes have a double impact: on the heart, upstream, with left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased coronary perfusion; and, downstream, on renal and brain microcirculation (decrease in glomerular filtration and cognitive functions). Multifactorial at origin, the pathophysiology of aortic ‘progeria' and microvascular disorders in CKD/ESRD is not well understood and should be the focus of interest in future studies. PMID:25018896

  15. Association of metabolic syndrome and its components with arterial stiffness in Caucasian subjects of the MARK study: a cross-sectional trial.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sanchez, Leticia; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Patino-Alonso, M Carmen; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Fernando, Rigo; Marti, Ruth; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose A; Ramos, Rafel; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2016-10-24

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) can reflect both central and peripheral arterial stiffness. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components may increase arterial stiffness and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the correlation of MetS and its components with arterial stiffness is still not clear. The primary aim of this study is thus the relationship using baPWV and CAVI in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. The secondary aim is to analyze sex differences. This study analyzed 2351 subjects aged 35-74 years (mean, 61.4 ± 7.7 years) comprising 61.7 % males and enrolled in the improving interMediAte Risk management (MARK) study. CAVI was measured using a VaSera VS-1500 (®) device, and baPWV was calculated using a validated equation. MetS was defined based on the Joint Scientific Statement National Cholesterol Education Program III. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile were measured. MetS was found in 51.9 % of the subjects. All MetS components except reduced HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.578) were associated with CAVI. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.075) and waist circumference (p = 0.315) were associated with baPWV. The different MetS components that assess dyslipidemia using the stiffness measures show different associations according to patient sex. The high blood pressure component had a greater odds ratio (OR) for both baPWV ≥ 17.5 m/sec (OR = 6.90, 95 % CI 3.52-13.519) and CAVI ≥ 9 (OR = 2.20, 95 % CI 1.63-1.90). MetS and all its components (except HDL-cholesterol with baPWV and CAVI and WC with baPWV) were associated with baPWV and CAVI. However, there were sex differences in the association of MetS and its components with baPWV and CAVI. Data from this study suggest a greater association of CAVI and baPWV values with MetS components in males than in females and indicate greater arterial stiffness in the

  16. Carotid Arterial Stiffness and Risk of Incident Cerebral Microbleeds in Older People: the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Mitchell, Gary F; Bots, Michiel L; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara B; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age and high blood pressure are major risk factors for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and arterial stiffness may be important. We investigated whether carotid arterial stiffness is associated with incidence and location of CMBs. Approach and Results In the prospective, population-based AGES-Reykjavik study, 2,512 participants aged 66–93 years underwent a baseline brain MRI examination and carotid ultrasound in 2002–2006, and returned for a repeat brain MRI in 2007–2011. Common carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using a standardized protocol and expressed as carotid arterial strain (CAS), distensibility coefficient (DC) and Young’s elastic modulus (YEM). Modified poisson regression was applied to relate carotid arterial stiffness parameters to CMBs incidence. During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 463 people (18.4%) developed new CMBs, of whom 292 had CMBs restricted to lobar regions and 171 had CMBs in a deep or infratentorial region. After adjusting for age, sex and follow-up interval, arterial stiffness measures were associated with incident CMBs (Risk ratio [RR] per SD decrease in CAS, 1.11 [95%CI, 1.01–1.21]; per SD decrease in natural log-transformed DC, 1.14[1.05–1.24]; per SD increase in natural log-transformed YEM, 1.13[1.04–1.23]). These measures were also significantly associated with incident deep CMBs (1.18[1.02–1.37]; 1.24[1.08–1.42]; 1.23[1.07–1.42]) but not with lobar CMBs. When further adjusted for blood pressure and other baseline vascular risk factors, carotid plaque, prevalent CMBs, subcortical infarcts and white matter hyperintensities, the associations persisted. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that localized increases in carotid arterial stiffness may contribute to the development of CMBs, especially in a deep location atttributable to hypertension. PMID:26112009

  17. Assessment of Pulmonary Artery Stiffness of Repaired Congenital Heart Disease Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Namheon; Banerjee, Rajit; Taylor, Michael; Hor, Kan

    2012-10-01

    Surgical correction or palliation of congenital heart disease (CHD) often requires augmenting the main pulmonary artery (MPA) with non-native material or placing a cylindrical graft. The degree to which this intervention affects PA compliance is largely unknown. In this study, the MPA stiffness characteristics were assessed by its compliance, distensibility, and pressure-strain modulus. Coregistered velocity encoded phase-contrast MRI and cardiac catheterization data were available for a cohort of repaired CHD patients (n=8) and controls (n=3). All patients were repaired with either an RV-PA conduit or a RV outflow tract patch. We measured the MPA area change by MRI and MPA pressure during the cath. The measurements were taken through or just distal to the conduit. The MPA compliance and distensibility for the patients were significantly lower than the controls: compliance (9.8±10.8 vs 28.3±7.7mm^2/mmHg, p<0.05), distensibility (2.2±1.5 vs 6.6±2.1%Area change/mmHg, p=0.05). The patients had a significantly higher pressure-strain modulus (152.3±116.4mmHg, p<0.05) than the controls (35.8±10.6mmHg). The abnormally elevated PA stiffness due to the rigidity of the conduit or patch material may cause a compliance mismatch resulting in high stress levels contributing to the observed progressive PA dilatation. This may be a factor in the progressive RV dilatation seen in this cohort of repaired CHD patients.

  18. Cilio-retinal arterial circulation in central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, D

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that an occlusion of the central retinal artery is an essential prerequisite for haemorrhage formation after central retinal vein obstruction has been investigated by examining the fundus changes in patients with a cilio-retinal arterial circulation; the findings are at variance with the 'combined occlusion hypothesis'. Comparisons were made between the pathological features in two retinal capillary beds with independent sources of arterial supply--namely, the central retinal and cilio-retinal arteries--but with an obstructed venous drainage channel common to both--namely, the central retinal vein. The importance of intraluminal pressure changes (as distinct from perfusion changes) in the causation of haemorrhages and oedema after venous occlusion is stressed, and the role of arterial disease in the pathogenesis of venous occlusions is distinguished from its role in determining the sequelae of such occlusions. Images PMID:1203235

  19. Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Wieder, Ralph; Kim, Jeong-Su; Vicil, Florence; Figueroa, Arturo

    2011-09-01

    Arterial stiffness and hemodynamics may be increased following a bout of resistance exercise. Oral creatine supplementation (Cr) may attenuate cardiovascular responses after exercise via improved anaerobic metabolism. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Cr on hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses after acute isokinetic exercise. Sixteen healthy males (22.6 ± 0.6 year) were randomly assigned to either placebo (Pl, n = 8) or Cr (n = 8) (2 × 5 g/day) for 3 weeks. Brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and leg PWV were measured in the supine position at rest before and after the interventions. After the supplementation period, parameters were also measured 5 min (PE5) and 15 min (PE15) after two sets of leg isokinetic exercise. There was no difference between the groups in resting measurements before and after the supplementation. Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had attenuated (P < 0.05) increases in SBP at PE5 (Pl 14.0 ± 2.5, Cr 5.6 ± 2.3 mmHg), HR at both P5 (Pl 28 ± 4 vs. Cr 16 ± 2 beats/min) and PE15 (Pl 21 ± 3, Cr 11 ± 2 beats/min) and rate pressure product at P5 (Pl 45.8 ± 6.4, Cr 24.8 ± 2.2) and P15 (Pl 34.2 ± 5.0, Cr 15.9 ± 6.0). Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had suppressed increases in baPWV at PE5 (Pl 1.5 ± 0.4, Cr -0.1 ± 0.4 m/s) and PE15 (Pl 1.1 ± 0.2, Cr -0.3 ± 0.3 m/s) and returned SBP to pre-exercise values at PE15 (Pl 10.6 ± 2.8, Cr 2.1 ± 2.6 mmHg). PWV in the exercised leg decreased at PE5 in both groups. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation attenuates the hemodynamic and baPWV responses after acute isokinetic exercise.

  20. Stress phase angle depicts differences in arterial stiffness: phantom and in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Lili; Meng, Long; Xu, Lisheng; Liu, Jia; Wang, Qiwen; Xiao, Yang; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-06-01

    The endothelial cells (ECs) lining of a blood vessel wall are exposed to both the wall shear stress (WSS) of blood flow and the circumferential strain (CS) of pulsing artery wall motion. Both WSS and CS keep involved in the modulation of ECs’ biochemical response and function and the temporal phase angle between the two is called stress phase angle (SPA). Previous studies at the cellular level have indicated that SPA is highly negative at sites that are prone to atherosclerosis, and hypothesized that large SPA may contribute to atherogenesis. Till now, there is no experimental data to support this hypothesis, probably due to the lack of a proper tool for measuring WSS and CS simultaneously and real time. In this study, a non-invasive ultrasonic biomechanics method was utilized to quantitatively calculate the SPA and experimentally evaluate the role of SPA in predicting early atherosclerosis. Three silicon tubes with a stiffness of 1.15, 3.62, 9.38 MPa were assembled in a pulsatile flow circuit and the values of SPA were measured to be -101.86 ± 3.65°,-170.19 ± 17.77° and -260.63 ± 18.62°, respectively. For the PVA-c phantoms, stiffness was 162.45, 235.68 and 374.24 kPa, the SPA corresponding to -170.32 ± 17.55°,-207.56 ± 10.78° and -261.08 ± 10.90°, respectively. Both phantom studies results demonstrated that SPA was highly negative in stiffer arteries. Further, experiments were taken in healthy living rats as control group (n = 3), atherosclerotic model group (n = 3), and drug treated group (n = 3), and the results showed that SPA was most negative in the model group, and SPA was least negative in the control group. Together, this study suggested that highly negative SPA appeared to be a prominent mechanical feature of vessels prone to atherosclerotic disease.

  1. High normal thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Armeni, Eleni; Rizos, Demetrios; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Kazani, Maria; Alexandrou, Andreas; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Livada, Alexandra; Psychas, Charalampos; Creatsa, Maria; Bouboulis, George; Alevizaki, Maria; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon

    2012-03-01

    Apart from the effects of a dysfunctional thyroid gland on the cardiovascular system, thyroid function within the reference range may have an impact on the vasculature. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between thyroid function and markers of arterial structure and function in euthyroid postmenopausal women. The present cross-sectional study recruited 106 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 55.0 years and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the laboratory reference range (0.4-4.5 μIU/ml). Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as blood pressure were determined in each individual. Vascular structure and function were assessed by intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index and flow-mediated dilation, respectively. We evaluated the associations between arterial markers and serum TSH, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxin, as well as serum thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies. Mean levels of PWV increased linearly across increasing TSH quartiles (P value = 0.014). Individuals with serum TSH greater than 2.5 μIU/ml had significantly higher values of PWV when compared with individuals with TSH levels below 2.5 μIU/ml (9.68 ± 1.97 vs. 8.54 ± 1.83 m/s; P = 0.030). In multivariate analysis, age, insulin resistance and TSH above 2.5 μIU/ml were the only significant predictors of PWV (TSH, β-coefficient = 0.222; P = 0.014). No associations were found between the remaining markers and levels of thyroid hormones, whereas thyroid antibodies were not associated with any of the arterial markers. Women with TSH levels in the upper reference range have increased arterial stiffness compared to women with lower TSH. The upper limit of normal TSH in postmenopausal women may need re-evaluation with respect to the effects on the vasculature.

  2. Peripheral endothelial function and arterial stiffness in women with migraine with aura: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Liman, T G; Neeb, L; Rosinski, J; Wellwood, I; Reuter, U; Doehner, W; Heuschmann, P U; Endres, M

    2012-04-01

    Vascular dysfunction may be involved in migraine pathophysiology and contribute to the increased risk of ischemic stroke in migraine, particularly in women with migraine with aura (MA). However, data on endothelial function in MA are controversial. Here, we investigated whether systemic endothelial function and arterial stiffness are altered in women with MA, using a novel peripheral arterial tonometry device for the first time. Twenty-nine female MA patients without comorbidities and 30 healthy women were included, and carotid intima-media thickness was assessed by a standardized procedure. Endothelial function was assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry. Reactive hyperaemic response of digital pulse amplitude was measured following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion of the brachial artery. Arterial stiffness was assessed by fingertip tonometry derived and heart-rate-adjusted augmentation index. No differences were found in peripheral arterial tonometry ratio (2.3 ± 0.6 vs 2.2 ± 0.8; p = 0.58) and left carotid intima-media thickness (in µm: 484 ± 119 vs 508 ± 60; p = 0.37). Women with MA had higher heart-rate-averaged augmentation index [median (interquartile range, IQR) of 5 (IQR 0.5 to 18) vs -5 (IQR -16.8 to 8.3), p = 0.005] and heart-rate-adjusted augmentation index [1 (IQR -6 to 12.5) vs -8 (IQR -20.3 to 2.5), p = 0.008] than healthy controls. Peripheral endothelial function is not impaired in women with MA, but they have greater arterial stiffness. This may contribute to the increased stroke risk in women with MA.

  3. Arterial stiffness is regulated by nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor during changes in blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Bellien, Jeremy; Favre, Julie; Iacob, Michele; Gao, Ji; Thuillez, Christian; Richard, Vincent; Joannidès, Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Cytochrome-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids may be important endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, opening calcium-activated potassium channels, but their involvement in the regulation of arterial stiffness during changes in blood flow in humans is unknown. In healthy volunteers, we measured arterial pressure, radial artery diameter, wall thickness, and flow (NIUS02) during hand skin heating in the presence of saline or inhibitors of NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine), calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), and cytochrome epoxygenases (fluconazole). Arterial compliance and elastic modulus were calculated and fitted as functions of midwall stress to suppress the confounding influence of geometric changes. Under saline infusion, heating induced an upward shift of the compliance-midwall stress curve and a downward shift of the modulus-midwall stress curve demonstrating a decrease in arterial tone and stiffness when blood flow increases. These shifts were reduced by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and abolished by the combinations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine+tetraethylammonium and N(G)-monomethyl arginine+fluconazole. In parallel, in isolated mice coronary arteries, fluconazole and tetraethylammonium reduced the relaxations to acetylcholine. However, fluconazole did not affect the relaxations to the openers of calcium-activated potassium channels of small- and intermediate-conductance NS309 and of large-conductance NS1619 excluding a direct effect on these channels. Moreover, tetraethylammonium reduced the relaxations to NS1619 but not to NS309, suggesting that the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor involved mainly acts on large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. These results show in humans that, during flow variations, arterial stiffness is regulated by the endothelium through the release of both NO and cytochrome-related endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.

  4. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on arterial stiffness in hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mallareddy, Madhavi; Parikh, Chirag R; Peixoto, Aldo J

    2006-06-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular prognostic factor and is modulated by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). The authors performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials investigating the effects of ACEIs on pulse wave velocity (PWV) or augmentation index. The search included randomized clinical trials as well as uncontrolled studies that measured in-treatment changes in arterial stiffness. The authors performed separate analyses for carotid-femoral PWV, brachioradial PWV, and augmentation index. Average absolute and relative reduction in mean arterial pressure and PWV were -15.4 mm Hg and -13.04% and -1.15 m/s and -9.74% for carotid-femoral PWV studies; and -11.2 mm Hg and -9.3% and -1.9 m/s and -16.7% for brachioradial PWV studies. There was a greater reduction in augmentation index by ACEIs when compared with controls (-1.0% to -5.3%). The authors conclude that ACEIs have modest beneficial effects on arterial stiffness measured as PWV and augmentation index, and this effect is at least partly independent of changes in blood pressure.

  5. [Association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and arterial stiffness in adult Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ru-Yi; Ye, Ping; Sheng, Li; Luo, Lei-Ming; Wu, Hong-Mei; Xiao, Wen-Kai

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPAR) and arterial stiffness in adult Chinese population (> 50 years). Cardiovascular risk factors from participants of Beijing epidemiological investigation were analyzed. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was measured by Complior system. The subjects were divided into normal arterial stiffness group (cfPWV < 12 m/s, n = 844) and increased arterial stiffness group (cfPWV > 12 m/s, n = 530). Three valid SNPs including rs1053049, rs1800234 and rs8192678 in the PPAR and PPARγC1a gene were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The age [(67.9 ± 8.8) years vs. (58.0 ± 9.7) years], prevalence of hypertension [71.1% (377/530) vs. 30.5% (257/844)] and diabetes mellitus [21.7% (115/530) vs. 11.0% (93/844)] were all significantly higher in increased arterial stiffness group than in normal group (all P < 0.05). The frequencies of CC, CT and TT type of rs8192678 [CC: 32.2% (272/844) vs. 30.8% (163/530), CT: 48.7% (411/844) vs. 52.1% (276/530), TT: 19.1% (161/844) vs. 17.2% (91/530)], rs1053049 [CC: 55.7% (470/844) vs. 51.3% (272/530), CT: 36.7% (310/844) vs. 39.1% (207/530), TT: 7.6% (64/844) vs. 9.6% (51/530)] and rs1800234 [CC: 88.4% (746/844) vs. 90.4% (479/530), CT + TT: 11.6% (98/844) vs. 9.6% (51/530)] were similar between the two groups. There was also no association between haplotypes and the increased arterial stiffness in this cohort. In this community-based population, we found that aging, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were associated but SNPs of PPAR and PPARγC1a were not associated with arterial stiffness.

  6. Association of arterial stiffness and diabetes with triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio for Japanese men: the Nagasaki Islands Study.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuji; Nakazato, Mio; Sekita, Takaharu; Kadota, Koichiro; Yamasaki, Hironori; Takamura, Noboru; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2013-06-01

    Although many studies have reported that elevated serum triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratios constitute a risk for insulin resistance and increased arterial stiffness, no study has clarified as yet the association, in terms of the TG-HDL ratio, between diabetes and increased arterial stiffness evaluated by means of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). To investigate this association, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1344 Japanese men aged 36-79 years undergoing a general health check. We investigated the associations between atherosclerosis/arterial stiffness, evaluated by means of CIMT and CAVI, and diabetes for all subjects, who were divided into tertiles according to TG-HDL levels. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c (NGSP) ≥6.5%, and/or initiation of glucose-lowering medication or insulin therapy. Of the 130 diabetes patients identified in the cohort, 56 patients had high TG-HDL (high TG-HDL diabetes) and 43 had low TG-HDL (low TG-HDL diabetes). We found that only diabetic patients with high TG-HDL were at a significant risk for atherosclerosis (diagnosed as CIMT ≥ 1.1 mm) and increased arterial stiffness (diagnosed as CAVI ≥ 8.0). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of atherosclerosis and increased arterial stiffness for diabetes were 2.67 (95%CI: 1.35-5.28) and 2.36 (95%CI: 1.01-5.50), for total TG-HDL diabetes 2.57 (95%CI: 1.32-5.02) and 3.56 (95%CI: 1.50-8.46) for high TG-HDL diabetes, and 1.17 (95%CI: 0.52-2.63) and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.33-1.90) for low TG-HDL diabetes, respectively. Diabetes, especially high TG-HDL diabetes, constitutes a significant risk for increased arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arterial stiffness in periodontitis patients and controls. A case–control and pilot intervention study.

    PubMed

    Houcken, W; Teeuw, W J; Bizzarro, S; Alvarez Rodriguez, E; Mulders, T A; van den Born, B-Jh; Loos, B G

    2016-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness (AS) is an important indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Epidemiologically, periodontitis and ACVD are associated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate AS in periodontitis patients and controls. In addition, we explored the effect of periodontal therapy on AS in a sub-group of cases. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive chair-side function test for AS, was measured in periodontitis patients (n=57; mean age 46.6 years) and compared with a reference group (n=48; mean age 45.5 years). In addition, 45 cases (mean age 46.9 years) were 6 months followed after periodontal treatment, to explore a possible effect on arterial function. Periodontitis patients showed a significantly increased PWV compared with the reference group (8.01±0.20 vs. 7.36±0.22 m s(-1) respectively; P=0.029) and this remained significant after adjustments for ACVD risk factors (P=0.019). After periodontal therapy, no significant reduction in PWV was seen (8.00±1.8 to 7.82±1.6 m s(-1); P=0.13), but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly reduced (119.8±14.6 to 116.9±15.1 mm Hg; P=0.040). It can be concluded that periodontitis is associated with increased AS. This confirms with a new parameter the association of periodontitis with ACVD. Although periodontal treatment did not lower AS significantly, a modest reduction of SBP after 6 months was observed.

  8. Association of lipoprotein subfractions with endothelial function and arterial stiffness in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Šiarnik, Pavel; Čarnická, Zuzana; Krivošíková, Zuzana; Klobučníková, Katarína; Žitňanová, Ingrid; Kollár, Branislav; Sýkora, Marek; Turčáni, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein research has recently been focused on the phenomenon of atherogenic and non-atherogenic lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to explore the association of lipoprotein subfractions with a measure for endothelial function (represented by reactive hyperemia index [RHI]) and arterial stiffness (represented by augmentation index [AI]) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We enrolled 51 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Blood samples were obtained within 24 h after the stroke onset in a fasting condition. Electrophoresis method on polyacrylamide gel was used for the analysis of plasma lipoproteins. RHI and AI was measured by peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT2000 device). We failed to find any significant correlation between RHI and baseline characteristics of the population. Significant correlation was found between AI and age, hypertension, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) 1, LDL 3-7, score for anti-atherogenic risk and atherogenic profile. Age (beta = .362, p = .006) and LDL1 (beta = -0.283, p = .031) were the only independent variables significantly associated with AI in regression analysis. Significantly higher AI was found in an atherogenic lipoprotein profile compared to a non-atherogenic profile population (median 25% vs. median 11.5%, p = .043). In conclusion, our results suggest significant inverse correlation between levels of LDL 1 subfraction and measures of AI in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Significantly higher values of AI were observed in the population with an atherogenic lipoprotein profile.

  9. Effect of yoga on arterial stiffness in elderly subjects with increased pulse pressure: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish Gurunathrao; Aithala, Manjunatha R; Das, Kusal Kanti

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of yoga on arterial function in elderly with increased pulse pressure (PP). Randomized controlled study with two parallel groups. Elderly subjects with PP≥60 mmHg (n=60). Yoga group (n=30) was assigned for yoga training and brisk-walking (BW) group (n=30) for brisk-walk with stretching exercise for 1h in the morning for 6 days in a week for 12 weeks. Arterial stiffness measures: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx@75), arterial stiffness index at brachial (bASI) and tibial arteries (aASI). Total serum nitric oxide concentration (NOx) as an index of endothelial function. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures: Low frequency and high frequency in normalized units (LFnu, HFnu) and LF/HF ratio. The mean between-group change (with 95% CI) in arterial stiffness: c-f PWV(m/s) [1.25(0.59-1.89); p<0.001], baPWV(m/s) [1.96(0.76-3.16), p<0.01], AIx@75 [3.07(0.24-5.89), p=0.066], aASI [8.3(4.06-12.53), p<0.001]; endothelial function index: NO(μmol/L) [-9.03(-14.57 to -3.47), p<0.001]; SBP(mmHg) [14.23(12.03-16.44), p<0.001], DBP(mmHg) [0.1(-1.95-2.15), p=0.38], PP(mmHg) [14.07(11.2-16.92), p<0.001], MAP(mmHg) [4.7(3.08-6.32), p<0.001]; and cardiac autonomic function: LF(nu) [4.81(1.54-8.08), p<0.01], HF(nu) [-4.13(-7.57 to -0.69), p<0.01], LF/HF ratio [0.84(0.3-1.37), p<0.001], indicate significant difference in effects of two intervention on arterial stiffness, endothelial function, BP and cardiac autonomic activity. There was significant change within-yoga group in vascular function, BP and autonomic function, while no significant change within-BW group was observed. Our findings suggest that yoga program offered was more effective than brisk-walk in reducing arterial stiffness along with BP in elderly individuals with increased PP. Yoga can also significantly reduce sympathetic activity and improve endothelial function with enhancement in bioavailability

  10. The Effects of Type 2 Diabetes on Lipoprotein Composition and Arterial Stiffness in Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Scott M.; Davidson, W. Sean; Urbina, Elaine M.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Heink, Anna; Zang, Huaiyu; Lu, L. Jason; Shah, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest HDL exists as numerous subpopulations with distinct protein/lipid compositions that are not reflected in the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) number. In this study, we sought to evaluate HDL subpopulations in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to determine if changes in HDL composition are associated with early vascular disease. T2D (n = 10), lean (n = 9), and obese (n = 11) youth were recruited. Plasma was fractionated using gel-filtration chromatography, and lipid-associated proteins were identified using mass spectrometry. Concurrently, vascular stiffness was assessed using pulse wave velocity (PWV). We found youth with T2D exhibited decreased phospholipid content in fractions containing large HDL particles that was inversely associated with PWV (P < 0.001). No association was noted between HDL-C and PWV. Proteomic analysis revealed changes in 7 of 45 identified proteins in the T2D group, including apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, apoE, and paraoxonase-1 (P < 0.05). Our data demonstrate early changes in the lipid and protein compositions of specific HDL subspecies in adolescents with T2D that are related to early markers of arterial disease. These findings suggest that analyzing the composition of HDL, rather than HDL-C, may be useful in assessing cardiovascular risk in this population. PMID:23835332

  11. Effects of antiretroviral therapy on arterial stiffness in Cameroonian HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ngatchou, William; Lemogoum, Daniel; Ndobo, Pierre; Yiagnigni, Euloge; Tiogou, Emiline; Nga, Elisabeth; Kouanfack, Charles; Nde, Francis; Degaute, Jean-Paul; van de Borne, Philippe; Leeman, Marc

    2013-10-01

    HIV infection increases cardiovascular risk and highly active antiretroviral therapy may further augment it. We hypothesized that an increase in large artery stiffness may be a mechanism of enhanced cardiovascular risk in treated HIV-infected (HIV-T) patients. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) were measured in 108 Cameroonian untreated HIV-infected (HIV-UT) patients and in 130 HIV-T patients. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were higher in HIV-T patients than in HIV-UT patients (all, P < 0.01). PWV was comparable in HIV-T and HIV-UT patients (7.2 ± 1.5 vs. 7.46 ± 2.2 m/s, respectively, P = 0.3), whereas AI was higher in HIV-T patients than in HIV-UT patients (7.9 ± 5 vs. 5.76 ± 4%, respectively, P = 0.003). AI was associated independently with age, brachial systolic BP, brachial diastolic BP, and height in HIV patients (R = 0.75, P < 0.01). This study shows that pulse pressure and AI were increased in HIV-T patients, compared with matched HIV-UT patients, suggesting that highly active antiretroviral therapy could increase cardiovascular risk. However, PWV was not accelerated in HIV-T patients.

  12. Ambulatory (24 h) blood pressure and arterial stiffness measurement in Marfan syndrome patients: a case control feasibility and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Matthias; Nouri, Ghazaleh; Hametner, Bernhard; Parragh, Stephanie; Köster, Jelena; Mortensen, Kai; Schwarz, Achim; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Wassertheurer, Siegfried

    2016-05-06

    The aim of this work is the investigation of measures of ambulatory brachial and aortic blood pressure and indices of arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in Marfan patients. A case-control study was conducted including patients with diagnosed Marfan syndrome following Ghent2 nosology and healthy controls matched for sex, age and daytime brachial systolic blood pressure. For each subject a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and 24 h pulse wave analysis measurement was performed. All parameters showed a circadian pattern whereby pressure dipping was more pronounced in Marfan patients. During daytime only Marfan patients with aortic root surgery showed increased pulse wave velocity. In contrast, various nighttime measurements, wave reflection determinants and circadian patterns showed a significant difference. The findings of our study provide evidence that ambulatory measurement of arterial stiffness parameters is feasible and that these determinants are significantly different in Marfan syndrome patients compared to controls in particular at nighttime. Further investigation is therefore indicated.

  13. Fatty acids impair endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation: a link between obesity and arterial stiffness in very old Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Natacha; Fève, Bruno; Thornton, Simon N; Nzietchueng, Rosine; Regnault, Véronique; Simon, Ginny; Labat, Carlos; Louis, Huguette; Max, Jean-Pierre; Muscat, Adeline; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Lacolley, Patrick; Benetos, Athanase

    2012-09-01

    To analyze age-related interactions between obesity, its associated metabolic disorders, and macrocirculation, we studied large artery stiffness and fatty acid responsiveness in lean and obese Zucker rats, aged 25 (adult) and 80 weeks (very old). Systolic arterial pressure was higher in old obese than in old lean rats (178 ± 10 vs 134 ± 8 mmHg, respectively). Carotid elastic modulus-wall stress curves showed increased age-dependent arterial stiffening, which was greater in obese animals. Old obese exhibited endothelial dysfunction with increased systemic oxidative stress. Adult obese had elevated plasma free fatty acid levels (1,866 ± 177 vs 310 ± 34 μg/μL in lean animals). In old obese, linoleate and palmitate increased contractility to phenylephrine and reduced relaxation to acetylcholine. Thus, obesity at 25 weeks appears to trigger accelerated arterial aging observed at 80 weeks. The early increase in free fatty acids may be a key effector in the severe arterial stiffness of the aged obese Zucker model.

  14. A plain X-ray vascular calcification score is associated with arterial stiffness and mortality in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Adragão, Teresa; Pires, Ana; Birne, Rita; Curto, Jose Dias; Lucas, Carlos; Gonçalves, Margarida; Negrão, Acácio Pita

    2009-03-01

    Vascular calcifications are highly prevalent in dialysis patients and are associated with arterial stiffness and mortality. The use of simple and inexpensive methods to evaluate arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications is desired. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of a simple vascular calcification score (SVCS) with pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure (PP) and to evaluate their association with all-cause mortality. 101 haemodialysis patients (71 men; 19% diabetic) were evaluated. At baseline, arterial stiffness was measured by PP and by PWV with Complior. SVCS was evaluated in plain X-ray of pelvis and hands. During a 43-month observational period, 31 patients died. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, SVCS >3 (P = 0.001), PP > 70 mmHg (P = 0.001) and PWV > 10.5 m/s (P < 0.001) were found to be associated with lower cumulative survival. Adjusting for multiple variables, association with mortality was maintained for SVCS >3 (HR = 3.308, P = 0.032) and PP > 70 mmHg (HR = 3.227, P = 0.031) in all patients and for PWV > 10.5 m/s (HR = 2.981, P = 0.047) in non-diabetic patients. Age (P < 0.001), systolic pressure (P = 0.004) and SVCS > 3 (P = 0.032) were associated with PWV. Diabetes (P = 0.031), calcium carbonate dose (P = 0.009) and SVCS > 3 (P = 0.012) were associated with PP. Higher SVCS, PWV and PP were associated with higher mortality in this population. SVCS was associated with arterial stiffness. Simple and inexpensive methods such as PP or SVCS may be used to detect mortality risk and to provide important information that may be relevant for guiding therapeutic intervention in dialysis patients.

  15. The effect of aliskiren versus ramipril-based treatment on the Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, E A; Angelopoulos, E T; Kolyvas, G N; Agaliotis, G D; Mousoulis, C G; Mousoulis, G P

    2014-02-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in arterial stiffness reduction in previously untreated hypertensive patients. In this open label study, 154 naïve, or not treated in the last six months hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive aliskiren 300 mg or ramipril 5 mg daily. Six weeks after the initiation of treatment, patients were evaluated for blood pressure (BP) control. Patients with SBP ≥140 and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg were assigned to an adjunct of 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide as combination treatment. A re-evaluation of BP control was done after another 6 weeks. Individuals with BP ≥140/90 mmHg were further administered amlodipine 5 mg. The final evaluation was performed six months after the start of the study. Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was carried out and the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) was calculated at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Aliskiren-based therapy, as compared with ramipril-based therapy reduced BP to a similar degree: 13±11 vs. 12±11 mmHg reduction in systolic (P=0.34) and 8±7 vs. 7±7 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP (P=0.44). AASI was reduced by 0.04±0.1 in the aliskiren group and by 0.02±0.2 in the ramipril group. AASI reduction did not differ significantly in the two groups (P=0.13). In hypertensive patients, aliskiren-based treatment as well as ramipril-based treatment appears to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. As arterial stiffness is an important modifiable risk factor, our findings highlight the value of aliskiren beyond BP lowering properties.

  16. Relationship between Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure Drop During the Sit-to-stand Test in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Hideo; Sumida, Koichiro; Suzuki, Shota; Kagimoto, Minako; Okuyama, Yuki; Ehara, Yosuke; Katsumata, Mari; Fujita, Megumi; Fujiwara, Akira; Saka, Sanae; Yatsu, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuo; Kuji, Tadashi; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Gen; Umemura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH) have high arterial stiffness. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often have cardiac autonomic neuropathy that leads to OH; however, whether OH is an indicator of arterial stiffness progression is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) varies between DM patients with and without OH using the sit-to-stand test (STST). Methods: One hundred and fifty-nine patients with DM underwent CAVI assessment and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate change evaluation during the STST. OH was defined as a decline in systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic BP of at least 20 mmHg or 10 mmHg, respectively, in the initial and late upright positions compared with that in the sitting position. Results: OH was diagnosed in 42 patients (26.4%). DM patients with OH had significantly higher CAVI (9.36 ± 1.15 versus 8.89 ± 1.18, p = 0.026) than those without OH. CAVI was significantly inversely correlated with systolic and diastolic BP changes (R = −0.347, p <0.001 and R = −0.314, p <0.001, respectively) in the initial upright position. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age, SBP changes, and low frequency component in the initial upright position were independent determinants of CAVI. Conclusion: Patients with DM having large BP drops occurring when moving from sitting to standing have high arterial stiffness. A significant BP drop during the STST necessitates careful evaluation of advanced arterial stiffness in patient with DM. PMID:27453255

  17. Anti-Platelet Factor 4/Heparin Antibody Plays a Significant Role in Progression of Arterial Stiffness among Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chieh; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Chen, Chien-An; Tsai, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Yen-Hsun

    2017-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is a determinant of cardiovascular disease in end stage renal disease. Hemodialysis patients may develop anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibody (PF4-H Ab) because of heparin treatment in dialysis. We tested whether PF4-H Ab was associated with progression of arterial stiffness in a 3-year follow-up. Methods We enrolled 74 hemodialysis patients and studied their clinical, biochemical and arterial stiffness measurement with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) over 3 years. Baseline and changes in baPWV after 3 years (ΔbaPWV) were collected and compared with related clinical and biochemical parameters. PF4-H Ab was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titer ≥ 0.4 was defined to have PF4-H Ab. Results We found a positive PF4-H Ab status in 25 of 74 patients. Mean baPWV was 16.1 ± 3.8 (m/s) at baseline and 17.6 ± 4.0 (m/s) after 3 years. Mean ΔbaPWV was 3.4 ± 2.2 (m/s) in the PF4-H Ab positive group, and 0.6 ± 1.2 (m/s) in the PF4-H Ab negative group. Baseline baPWV was only significantly associated with age (β = 0.49, p < 0.01). ΔbaPWV was significantly different between the PF4-H Ab positive and negative groups (p < 0.01). In multivariate regression analysis, only PF4-H Ab was positively associated with ΔbaPWV (β = 0.71, p < 0.01). Conclusions Our study concluded that PF4-H Ab was associated with progression of arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients. PMID:28344423

  18. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A.; Proctor, David N.; Chow, Mosuk; Troy, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Vita, Joseph A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Jacques, Paul F.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; West, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are early predictors of cardiovascular disease. Intervention studies suggest that diet is related to vascular health, but most prior studies tested individual foods or nutrients and relied on small samples of younger adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relations between adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and vascular health in a large, cross-sectional analysis. In 5887 adults in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts, diet quality was quantified with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Index (DGAI-2010). Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery ultrasound and arterial stiffness via arterial tonometry. In age-, sex-, and cohort-adjusted analyses, higher DGAI-2010 score (greater adherence) was modestly associated with lower resting flow velocity, hyperemic response, mean arterial pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index, but not associated with resting arterial diameter or flow-mediated dilation. In multivariable models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, only the association of higher DGAI-2010 with lower baseline flow and augmentation index persisted (β=−0.002, P=0.003 and β=−0.05 ± 0.02, P<0.001, respectively). Age-stratified multivariate-adjusted analyses suggested that the relation of higher DGAI-2010 scores with lower mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index was more pronounced among adults younger than 50 years. Better adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, particularly in younger adults, is associated with lower peripheral blood flow velocity and arterial wave reflection but not flow-mediated dilation. Our results suggest a link between adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and favorable vascular health. PMID:25885520

  19. Intra-arterial Thrombolysis for Central Retinal Artery Occlusion after the Coil Embolization of Paraclinoid Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Hae Yu; Choi, Byeong-Sam

    2016-01-01

    The most common complication of coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms is thrombo-embolic stroke; in rare cases, these strokes, can present with central retinal artery occlusion. At our institution, a 53-year-old woman underwent stent-assisted coiling of the aneurysm. The patient's vision was improved immediately after intra-arterial thrombolysis and had further improved 8 months later. This report describes our experience of a rare case of central retinal artery occlusion after coil embolization that was successfully treated by intra-arterial thrombolysis. PMID:28184347

  20. Plasma homocysteine levels are independently associated with alterations of large artery stiffness in men but not in women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Wu, Cai; Bai, Yong-Yi; Xiao, Wen-Kai; Feng, Dan; Ye, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the associations of the plasma homocysteine levels with the alterations in arterial stiffness in a community-based cohort. The gender differences in these associations were examined. Methods We evaluated the relationship between plasma homocysteine levels to three measures of vascular function [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV), carotid-ankle PWV (CA-PWV) and heart rate corrected augmentation index (AI)] in 1680 participants (mean age: 61.5 years; 709 men, 971 women) from communities of Beijing, China. Results In univariate analysis, plasma homocysteine levels was positively related to the CF-PWV (r = 0.211, P < 0.0001) and CA-PWV (r = 0.148, P < 0.0001), whereas inversely associated with AI (r = −0.052, P = 0.016). In multiple linear regression models adjusting for covariants, plasma homocysteine remained positively related to the CF-PWV (standardized β = 0.065, P = 0.007) in total cases. When the groups of men and women were examined separately, plasma homocysteine remained positively associated with the CF-PWV (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.023) in men, whereas the relations between homocysteine and any of the arterial stiffness indices were not further present in women. Conclusions In Chinese population, plasma homocysteine levels are independently associated with alterations of large artery stiffness in men but not in women. PMID:26089849

  1. Effects of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness and Inflammation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Under Clopidogrel Treatment.

    PubMed

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Zaromitidou, Marina; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Mourouzis, Konstantinos; Tsalamandris, Sotiris; Kioufis, Stamatios; Kokkou, Eleni; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Zografos, Theodoros; Antonopoulos, Alexis; Dimitropoulos, Stathis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Clopidogrel's ability to inhibit platelet function determined its clinical usefulness. The role of CYP2C19*2 genotype on antiplatelet treatment is recently under question. Arterial wall properties and inflammation are key players in atherosclerosis development. Hence, we evaluated the impact of CYP2C19*2 genetic polymorphism on endothelial function, arterial stiffness and inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients receiving clopidogrel treatment. In this study we enrolled 408 consecutive patients with stable CAD under dual antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel 75mg/day, aspirin 100mg/day), 30 days after percutaneous coronary intervention. Measurement of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was used to evaluate endothelial function. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) was measured to estimate arterial stiffness. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used for the genotyping of CYP2C19*2. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured with ELISA. We found no difference in basic clinical and demographic characteristics nor in FMD, PWV, AIx and inflammatory status (p=NS for all) between CYP2C19 homozygotes for the wild type; carriers of reduced function allele and homozygotes for the reduced function allele. CYP2C19*2 loss of action polymorphism causes no impact on vascular function and inflammatory status in stable CAD patients receiving clopidogrel treatment.

  2. Identification of artery wall stiffness: in vitro validation and in vivo results of a data assimilation procedure applied to a 3D fluid-structure interaction model.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, Cristóbal; Barber, David; Gaddum, Nicholas; Valverde, Israel; Rutten, Marcel; Beerbaum, Philipp; Moireau, Philippe; Hose, Rodney; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2014-03-21

    We consider the problem of estimating the stiffness of an artery wall using a data assimilation method applied to a 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Recalling previous works, we briefly present the FSI model, the data assimilation procedure and the segmentation algorithm. We present then two examples of the procedure using real data. First, we estimate the stiffness distribution of a silicon rubber tube from image data. Second, we present the estimation of aortic wall stiffness from real clinical data.

  3. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  4. Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on arterial stiffness and serum lipid profile changes in patients with prostate cancer: a prospective study of initial 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Oka, Ryo; Utsumi, Takanobu; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Shirai, Kohji; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    To explore arterial stiffness during the administration of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa), a new indicator, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), and serum lipid profile changes were monitored. A prospective study assessed the changes in arterial stiffness using the CAVI and clinical laboratory variables among 58 men with prostate cancer treated with ADT for 6 months. Furthermore, patients who had a high risk of developing arterial stiffness after ADT were investigated. The whole cohort had no significant increase in arterial stiffness within 6 months after ADT, but 55.2 % of patients had an increased CAVI. Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly at 1 month after the start of ADT and maintained high values thereafter. At baseline, HDL-C was lower and LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were higher in the group with than without an increased CAVI after 6 months of ADT administration. Although the whole cohort did not show a significant change in arterial stiffness with ADT, some patients showed an increased arterial stiffness monitored with the CAVI. The balance between LDL-C and HDL-C, or LDL-C/HDL-C, might have an impact on the development of arterial stiffness after ADT administration. Thus, clinicians might be able to monitor PCa patients who have a high risk of development of arterial stiffness after ADT administration by referring to LDL-C/HDL-C levels.

  5. The grading effect of abnormal glucose status on arterial stiffness and a new threshold of 2-hour post-load glucose based on a Chinese community study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Ke; Wu, Ke-Ye; Dai, Xiao-Tong; Che, Qian-Zi; Chen, Si; Jia, Jia; Li, Jian-Ping; Huo, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Da-Fang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relation between various glucose metabolic status and arterial stiffness, and further explore the threshold of blood glucose indices for the risk of arterial stiffness. The cross-sectional study included 4851 individuals from a Chinese community. Overnight fasting blood glucose and 2-hour post-load glucose sampled. Arterial stiffness measured as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. The association examined using generalized linear regression models. The threshold effect explored using two piecewise linear regression model by the smoothing plot. After adjustment for covariates, isolated impaired fasting glucose, isolated impaired glucose tolerance, combined glucose intolerance, newly diabetes mellitus associated with greater risk of arterial stiffness compared with normal glucose tolerance (B = 18.09, 95%CI: 0.42 ~ 35.76, P = 0.045; B = 28.51, 95%CI: 3.40 ~ 53.62, P = 0.026; B =60.70, 95%CI: 38.37 ~ 83.04, P < 0.001; B = 95.06, 95%CI: 71.88 ~ 118.25, P < 0.001; respectively). Moreover, there was a nonlinear relation between 2-hour post-load glucose and arterial stiffness. A threshold for 2-hour post-load glucose of 6.14 mmol/L observed for risk of arterial stiffness. Impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, combined glucose intolerance, and newly diabetes mellitus related to greater risk of arterial stiffness compared with normal glucose levels. A threshold for 2-hour post-load glucose of 6.14 mmol/L probably exists for risk of arterial stiffness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilizing the Central Part of Tropomyosin Increases the Bending Stiffness of the Thin Filament

    PubMed Central

    Nabiev, Salavat R.; Ovsyannikov, Denis A.; Kopylova, Galina V.; Shchepkin, Daniil V.; Matyushenko, Alexander M.; Koubassova, Natalia A.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.; Tsaturyan, Andrey K.; Bershitsky, Sergey Y.

    2015-01-01

    A two-beam optical trap was used to measure the bending stiffness of F-actin and reconstructed thin filaments. A dumbbell was formed by a filament segment attached to two beads that were held in the two optical traps. One trap was static and held a bead used as a force transducer, whereas an acoustooptical deflector moved the beam holding the second bead, causing stretch of the dumbbell. The distance between the beads was measured using image analysis of micrographs. An exact solution to the problem of bending of an elastic filament attached to two beads and subjected to a stretch was used for data analysis. Substitution of noncanonical residues in the central part of tropomyosin with canonical ones, G126R and D137L, and especially their combination, caused an increase in the bending stiffness of the thin filaments. The data confirm that the effect of these mutations on the regulation of actin-myosin interactions may be caused by an increase in tropomyosin stiffness. PMID:26200873

  7. Arterial stiffness depends on serum ionized calcium levels during dialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Moor, Matthias B; Kruse, Anja; Uehlinger, Dominik E; Eisenberger, Ute

    2013-05-01

    Hemodynamic effects related to changes in serum ionized calcium (iCa) are difficult to determine during conventional hemodialysis (HD) using a fixed dialysate concentration of calcium. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) allows the study of the effects of predefined iCa changes on arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) during a single dialysis session. In a crossover study, 15 patients with end-stage renal disease underwent two HD sessions with RCA. Each session was divided into two study phases in which iCa was titrated either to 0.8-1.0 mm or to 1.1-1.4 mm. The sequence of phases was randomly chosen and alternated for the second session. After reaching a stable iCa level, pulse wave velocity (PWV), arterial BP, and heart rate were measured. iCa levels were modified during sequence 1 (iCa low-high) from a predialysis baseline value of 1.15 ± 0.09 mm, first to 0.92 ± 0.05 mm (time point 1; P < 0.001 vs. baseline) and then to 1.18 ± 0.05 (time point 2; ns). During sequence 2 (iCa high-low), iCa levels were modified from 1.15 ± 0.12 mm first to 1.20 ± 0.05 mm (time point 1; ns vs. baseline) and then to 0.93 ± 0.03 (time point 2; P < 0.001). Assuming a basic linear repeated measures model, PWV was positively related to iCa levels (P < 0.03) independent of systolic or diastolic BP, heart rate, or ultrafiltration rate. PWV is closely related to acute changes in serum iCa levels in HD patients using RCA. RCA provides an interesting opportunity to study the effects of acute iCa changes during one dialysis procedure. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The shear-stress intensity factor for a centrally cracked stiff-flanged shear web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    By use of the principle of superposition the stiff-flanged shear web is modeled mathematically by an infinite elastic strip with fixed longitudinal edges. The shear-stress intensity factor for a central longitudinal crack is calculated for various values of the ratio of strip width to crack length, h/a, in the range 0.1-10. The interaction of the crack with the boundaries is illustrated by boundary shear-stress distributions for three values of h/a. Some implications of the results for the design of damage-tolerant shear webs are discussed briefly.

  9. Advanced glycation end products are associated with arterial stiffness in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Llauradó, Gemma; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; Vilardell, Carme; Simó, Rafael; Gil, Pilar; Cano, Albert; Vendrell, Joan; González-Clemente, José-Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and arterial stiffness (AS) in subjects with type 1 diabetes without clinical cardiovascular events. A set of 68 patients with type 1 diabetes and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were evaluated. AGEs were assessed using serum concentrations of N-carboxy-methyl-lysine (CML) and using skin autofluorescence. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), using applanation tonometry. Patients with type 1 diabetes had higher serum concentrations of CML (1.18 vs 0.96 μg/ml; P=0.008) and higher levels of skin autofluorescence (2.10 vs 1.70; P<0.001) compared with controls. These differences remained significant after adjustment for classical cardiovascular risk factors. Skin autofluorescence was positively associated with aPWV in type 1 diabetes (r=0.370; P=0.003). No association was found between CML and aPWV. Skin autofluorescence was independently and significantly associated with aPWV in subjects with type 1 diabetes (β=0.380; P<0.001) after adjustment for classical cardiovascular risk factors. Additional adjustments for HbA1c, disease duration, and low-grade inflammation did not change these results. In conclusion, skin accumulation of autofluorescent AGEs is associated with AS in subjects with type 1 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events. These findings indicate that determination of tissue AGE accumulation may be a useful marker for AS in type 1 diabetes. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. The EVIDENT diet quality index is associated with cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martin, Carmela; Alonso-Domínguez, Rosario; Patino-Alonso, María C; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Maderuelo-Fernández, José A; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I

    2017-04-08

    We aimed to simplify information from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a single parameter that allows for rapid identification of quality of patient diet and its relationship to cardiovascular risk and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The sample from the EVIDENT study, consisting of 1553 subjects (aged 20-80 years) with no cardiovascular disease selected by random sampling among those attending primary care clinics, was used. The EVIDENT diet index (range 0-100) was calculated based on the results of a FFQ. Evaluation of dietary habits also included adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD). Cardiovascular risk was estimated, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured. Mean subject age was 54.9 ± 13.8 years, and 60.3% of subjects were female. The mean value of the EVIDENT diet index was 52.1 ± 3.2 points. Subjects in the third tertile (the highest score) had the greatest adherence to MD and the highest energy intake, with greater amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and fiber. The best cut-off point of the EVIDENT diet index for predicting good adherence to the MD is 52.3 (0.71 sensitivity, 0.61 specificity). In a multiple regression analysis, after a complete adjustment, it was estimated that for each one-point increase in the EVIDENT diet index, cardiovascular risk (CVR), blood-pressure, waist circumference, and PWV decreased by 0.14, 0.43, 0.24, and 0.09 respectively (p < 0.05, all). The diet quality index developed is associated to CVR and its components, and also with arterial stiffness, as measured with PWV. This index is also a good predictor of adherence to MD.

  11. Exercise training improves ambulatory blood pressure but not arterial stiffness in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pascoalino, Lucas Nóbilo; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Tavares, Aline Cristina; Castro, Rafael Ertner; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bacal, Fernando; Issa, Victor Sarli; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent comorbidity after heart transplantation (HT). Exercise training (ET) is widely recommended as a key non-pharmacologic intervention for the prevention and management of hypertension, but its effects on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and some mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension have not been studied in this population. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ET on ABP and arterial stiffness of HT recipients. 40 HT patients, randomized to ET (n = 31) or a control group (n = 9) underwent a maximal graded exercise test, 24-hour ABP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment before the intervention and at a 12-week follow-up assessment. The ET program was performed thrice-weekly and consisted primarily of endurance exercise (40 minutes) at ~70% of maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2MAX). The ET group had reduced 24-hour (4.0 ± 1.4 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and daytime (4.8 ± 1.6 mm Hg, p < 0.01) systolic ABP, and 24-hour (7.0 ± 1.4 mm Hg, p < 0.001) daytime (7.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg, p < 0.001) and nighttime (5.9 ± 1.5 mm Hg, p < 0.001) diastolic ABP after the intervention. The ET group also had improved Vo2MAX (9.7% ± 2.6%, p < 0.001) after the intervention. However, PWV did not change after ET. No variable was changed in the control group after the intervention. The 12-week ET program was effective for reducing ABP but not PWV in heart transplant recipients. This result suggests that endurance ET may be a tool to counteract hypertension in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction following successful pancreas-kidney transplantation in Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stadler, M; Theuer, E; Anderwald, C; Hanusch-Enserer, U; Auinger, M; Bieglmayer, C; Quehenberger, P; Bischof, M; Kästenbauer, T; Wolzt, M; Wagner, O; Prager, R

    2009-10-01

    Successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) in Type 1 diabetic (T1DM) patients results in improved cardiovascular outcome and survival. However, it is doubtful whether the impairment of cardiovascular and endothelial function in T1DM can be completely reversed. Pulse-wave velocity, stroke volume, heart rate, serological markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble intercellular, vascular cell-adhesion molecules, E-selectin, and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1) were measured in 10 T1DM patients after SPK with non-diabetic glucose levels, 10 T1DM patients with poor [T1DM>8; glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)>8%], and 10 with good glucose control (T1DM<7, HbA1c<7%), in 6 non-diabetic patients after kidney transplantation (KT) and 9 non-diabetic control subjects (CON), matching for major anthropometric characteristics. Pulse-wave velocity was increased in SPK (P < 0.02 vs. CON, KT, T1DM<7) and in T1DM>8 (P < 0.02 vs. T1DM<7). Systolic blood pressure was increased in SPK (P < 0.05 vs. CON). Stroke volume was reduced in SPK, T1DM>8 and T1DM<7 and KT (P < 0.01 vs. CON). Heart rate was elevated in SPK and in T1DM>8 (P < 0.0003 vs. CON and T1DM<7). In SPK, soluble intercellular and vascular cell-adhesion molecules were 100% and 44% higher (P < 0.03 vs. CON), respectively, while plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 was decreased in SPK (P < 0.02 vs. CON). T1DM patients after SPK experience arterial stiffness, a higher heart-rate and blood pressure, reduced stroke volume and serological signs of endothelial dysfunction. Thus, functional and structural cardiovascular alterations as a result of glucotoxicity, uraemia and hypertension in T1DM might not be completely resolved by SPK.

  13. Association of fibroblast growth factor-23 with arterial stiffness in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeffrey J.; Katz, Ronit; Ix, Joachim H.; de Boer, Ian H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet the mechanisms remain uncertain. Our objective was to determine whether higher FGF-23 concentrations are associated with arterial stiffness. Methods In this cross-sectional study, serum FGF-23 concentrations were measured in 5977 participants without known CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The primary outcomes of interest were large (LAE) and small artery elasticity (SAE), pulse pressure and ankle-brachial index (ABI) > 1.30. LAE and SAE were measured by pulse contour analysis of the radial artery. Pulse pressure was measured with an automated sphygmomanometer using the average of two resting blood pressure measurements. ABI was calculated as the ratio of the ankle and brachial systolic blood pressures. Results Serum FGF-23 concentrations were not significantly associated with LAE [relative difference (RD) per doubling: 0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −2–1%], SAE (RD per doubling: 0%; 95% CI: −3–2%), pulse pressure (β per doubling: 0.44; 95% CI: −0.31–1.19), or a high ABI (odds ratio per doubling: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.84–1.55). Findings were similar irrespective of chronic kidney disease status. Conclusions Higher serum FGF-23 concentrations are not associated with arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse pressure, LAE, SAE or high ABI, in a community-based population without CVD. PMID:24782533

  14. No association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation or arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Crandell, Jamie; Liese, Angela D; Lamichhane, Archana P; Bell, Ronny A; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Dolan, Lawrence M; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Shah, Amy S; Urbina, Elaine M; Wadwa, R Paul; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation and arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Data are from youth ≥ 10 years old with clinically diagnosed T1D for ≥ 3 months and ≥ 1 positive diabetes autoantibody in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Fiber intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with measurement error (ME) accounted for by structural sub-models derived using additional 24-h dietary recall data in a calibration sample and the respective exposure-disease model covariates. Markers of inflammation, measured at baseline, included IL-6 (n=1405), CRP (n=1387), and fibrinogen (n=1340); markers of arterial stiffness, measured approximately 19 months post-baseline, were available in a subset of participants and included augmentation index (n=180), pulse wave velocity (n=184), and brachial distensibility (n=177). Mean (SD) T1D duration was 47.9 (43.2) months; 12.5% of participants were obese. Mean (SD) ME-adjusted fiber intake was 15 (2.8) g/day. In multivariable analyses, fiber intake was not associated with inflammation or arterial stiffness. Among youth with T1D, fiber intake does not meet recommendations and is not associated with measures of systemic inflammation or vascular stiffness. Further research is needed to evaluate whether fiber is associated with these outcomes in older individuals with T1D or among individuals with higher intakes than those observed in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation or arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Liese, Angela D.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Shah, Amy S.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Wadwa, R. Paul; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation and arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Methods Data are from youth ≥ 10 years old with clinically diagnosed T1D for ≥ 3 months and ≥ 1 positive diabetes autoantibody in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Fiber intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with measurement error (ME) accounted for by structural sub-models derived using additional 24-hour dietary recall data in a calibration sample and the respective exposure-disease model covariates. Markers of inflammation, measured at baseline, included IL-6 (n=1405), CRP (n=1387), and fibrinogen (n=1340); markers of arterial stiffness, measured approximately 19 months post-baseline, were available in a subset of participants and included augmentation index (n=180), pulse wave velocity (n=184), and brachial distensibility (n=177). Results Mean (SD) T1D duration was 47.9 (43.2) months; 12.5% of participants were obese. Mean (SD) ME-adjusted fiber intake was 15 (2.8) g/day. In multivariable analyses, fiber intake was not associated with inflammation or arterial stiffness. Conclusion Among youth with T1D, fiber intake does not meet recommendations and is not associated with measures of systemic inflammation or vascular stiffness. Further research is needed to evaluate whether fiber is associated with these outcomes in older individuals with T1D or among individuals with higher intakes than those observed in the present study. PMID:24613131

  16. Reduction of plasma aldosterone and arterial stiffness in obese pre- and stage1 hypertensive subjects after aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Collier, SR; Sandberg, K; Moody, AM; Frechette, V; Curry, CD; Ji, H; Gowdar, R; Chaudhuri, D; Meucci, M

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related hypertension is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), increasing arterial stiffness. Aerobic exercise decreases pulse wave velocity (PWV), therefore a treatment option for hypertension and obesity. Assess RAAS activity and PWV before and after 4 weeks of aerobic training in unmedicated, pre-to-stage-1 hypertensives. Ten obese subjects (52±3.2 years, body mass index=33.5±1.4) performed 30 min of aerobic exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week at 65% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Descriptive characteristics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), PWV, and a blood draw was performed at baseline, following the 4-week control and training interventions. No differences in descriptive characteristics during the control period were observed, however, a significant decrease in plasma aldosterone (ALDO) (255.4±75 to 215.8±66 pg ml−1, P=0.001), SBP (140±12 to 136±10.4 mm Hg; P=0.02), DBP (89±4.2 to 85±6.3 mm Hg; P =0.03) and central PWV (11.2±0.6 to 9.8±0.8 m s−1; P=0.04) was shown pre-to-post exercise training. Four weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training in obese, hypertensives decreases plasma ALDO independently of body weight and is significantly correlated to decreases in PWV reductions. PMID:24785976

  17. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors effect on arterial stiffness and wave reflections: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Yousef; Khan, Junaid Alam; Chetter, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Several studies have assessed the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on arterial stiffness and wave reflections as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), respectively. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate this effect in comparison to placebo and to other antihypertensive agents. Additionally, we investigated this effect when ACEIs are combined with other antihypertensive agents and in comparison to a combination of antihypertensive agents. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from inception to May 2011 on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which assessed the effect of ACEIs on arterial stiffness vs. placebo or no treatment and ACEIs vs. angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), β-blockers and diuretics. RCTs which assessed the effect of ACEIs combined with other antihypertensives or compared ACEIs with a combination of antihypertensives were also sought. Data from included RCTs were pooled with use of fixed and random effects meta-analysis of the weighted mean change differences between the comparator groups. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the I(2) statistic. In 5 trials including 469 patients, treatment with ACEIs (n=227) vs. placebo (n=216) significantly reduced PWV (pooled mean change difference -1.69, 95% C.I. -2.05, -1.33, p<0.00001 with insignificant heterogeneity). In 9 trials which included 378 patients, treatment with ACEIs (n=178) insignificantly reduced PWV when compared with other antihypertensives (ARBs, CCBs, β-blockers, diuretics and a combination of ACEI and ARB) (n=220) (pooled mean change difference -0.19, 95% C.I. -0.59, 0.21, p=0.36, I(2)=0%). ACEI effect on AIx in comparison to placebo was assessed in 7 trials. Treatment with ACEIs significantly reduced AIx (pooled mean change difference -3.79, 95% C.I. -5.96, -1.63, p=0.0006) with significant heterogeneity. In 7 trials, treatment with

  18. GENETIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ARTERIAL STIFFNESS-RELATED GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN BRVO AND CRVO PATIENTS IN A TURKISH POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Demir, Selim; Ortak, Hüseyin; Benli, İsmail; Alim, Sait; Bütün, İlknur; Güneş, Alper; Ateş, Ömer

    2015-10-01

    To investigate possible associations between five different single-nucleotide polymorphisms, from genes associated with arterial stiffness and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), or central retinal vein occlusion. A total of 187 patients with retinal vein occlusion (133 with BRVO and 54 with central retinal vein occlusion), and 167 controls, were enrolled in this study. All subjects were screened for hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein. The genotyping of adiponectin +276 G/T, ACE I/D, AGTR1 A1166C, eNOS E298D, and p22phox -242 C/T polymorphisms was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The percentage of the adiponectin +275 T allele carriers was significantly higher in the BRVO patients (37%) than in the controls (23%, P < 0.001). Similarly, the percentage of AGTR1 1166 C allele carriers was significantly higher in the BRVO patients (38%) than in the controls (24%, P < 0.001). At the multiple logistic regression analysis, the adiponectin +275 T allele carrier and AGTR1 1166 C allele carrier status were found to be associated with an increased risk of BRVO (TT vs. GG and TG: odds ratio = 2.278, P = 0.002, 95% confidence interval: 1.370-3.789; CC vs. AA and AC: odds ratio = 1.804, P = 0.025, 95% confidence interval: 1.079-3.017). The genotype distributions or allelic frequencies of ACE I/D, eNOS E298D, and p22phox -242 C/T did not significantly differ between the patients with BRVO and the control subjects. There was no significant difference between the central retinal vein occlusion patients and controls for the genotype or the allele frequency distributions of all evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Adiponectin +276 G/T and AGTR1 A1166C single-nucleotide polymorphism are likely to be risk factors for BRVO.

  19. Association Between Long-Term Blood Pressure Variability and 10-Year Progression in Arterial Stiffness: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tedla, Yacob G; Yano, Yuichiro; Carnethon, Mercedes; Greenland, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Experimental studies conducted on animal and human endothelium suggested that higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability reduces bioavailability of nitric oxide and increases vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. These vascular wall changes could stiffen the arterial wall. Using data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the association between long-term SBP variability and 10-year percent change in arterial stiffness among 1122 individuals (mean age 57 years, 46% males at baseline) who were not taking antihypertensive medications. Within-individual standard deviation, variability independent of the mean, and coefficient of variation of SBP across 5 visits were used to capture long-term SBP variability. Carotid arterial stiffness was measured using distensibility coefficient and Young's elastic modulus at baseline and after a mean of 9.5 years of follow-up (visit 5). In a multivariate linear regression model, individuals in the fifth quintile as compared with those in the first quintile of standard deviation, variability independent of the mean, and coefficient of variation of SBP had a 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] -17.0%, -2.7%), 6.4% (95% CI -13.2%, 0.4%), and 8.7% (95% CI -15.4%, -1.9%) higher decline in distensibility coefficient and a 27.5% (95% CI 15.8%, 39.3%), 25.8% (95% CI 14.7%, 36.9%), and 27.9% (95% CI 16.8%, 39.1%) higher progression in Young's elastic modulus, respectively, after 10 years of follow-up. Linear trends in the decline of distensibility coefficient and progression of Young's elastic modulus were observed across the quintiles of SBP variability indices. These findings suggest that higher long-term SBP variability may be a risk factor for arterial stiffness progression independent of mean BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Associations of atherosclerosis in the descending thoracic aorta on CTA with arterial stiffness and chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Roos, Cornelis J; Delgado, V; de Koning, Eelco J; Rabelink, Ton J; Jukema, J Wouter; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J

    2014-08-01

    The relation between atherosclerosis in the descending thoracic aortic (DTA), arterial stiffness and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unclear. The current aim was to evaluate associations of DTA atherosclerosis with arterial stiffness and parameters of CKD in asymptomatic patients with DM. A total of 213 asymptomatic patients with diabetes (mean age 52 years, 56% men) underwent cardiovascular risk assessment including multi-slice computed tomography (for non-invasive coronary angiography, from which DTA atherosclerosis can be derived), non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness with applanation tonometry and assessment of renal function. Measurements of DTA atherosclerosis included assessment of DTA thickening and calcium score. Arterial stiffness was determined by the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), parameters of CKD included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). DTA atherosclerosis was present in 180 (84%) patients. Patients with DTA atherosclerosis had increased arterial stiffness, lower eGFR and higher UACR values. After multivariate correction, DTA calcium score was independently associated with PWV (β = 0.18, p = 0.04). Furthermore, both DTA maximal wall thickness and DTA calcium score were independently associated with eGFR (β = -7.37, p < 0.001 and β = -1.99, p < 0.003, respectively), but not with UACR. The increase in arterial stiffness by atherosclerosis seemed to be mediated by arterial calcification, while the DTA calcium score was independently associated with arterial stiffness, but not DTA maximal wall thickness. Furthermore, parameters of CKD in patients with DM had a distinct relationship with DTA atherosclerosis: DTA atherosclerosis was associated with eGFR but not with UACR.

  1. Central arterial pressure assessment with intensity POF sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Cátia; Gonçalves, Steve; Antunes, Paulo; Bastos, José M.; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    The central pressure monitoring is considered a new key factor in hypertension assessment and cardiovascular prevention. In this work, it is presented the central arterial systolic pressure assessment with an intensity based POF sensor. The device was tested in four subjects, and stable pulse waves were obtained, allowing the calculation of the central pressure for all the subjects. The results shown that the sensor performs reliably, being a simple and low-cost solution to the intended application.

  2. Blood pressure, arterial stiffness and endogenous lithium clearance in relation to AGTR1 A1166C and AGTR2 G1675A gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cwynar, Marcin; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Głuszewska, Anna; Królczyk, Jarosław; Bartoń, Henryk; Słowik, Agnieszka; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Although recently a matter of epidemiologic controversy, sodium overload and its interaction with genetic factors predispose to hypertension and related target organ complications. In 131 (66 male) treated hypertensives, we measured peripheral and central arterial pressures and pulse wave augmentation indexes (AIx(P), AIx(C1), AIx(C2)), pulse wave velocity (PWV), daily urinary sodium excretion and did genetic studies of AGTR1 A1166C and AGTR2 G1675A polymorphisms. Proximal (FE(Li)) and distal (FDR(Na)) sodium reabsorption measurements were performed using endogenous lithium clearance. In men, we found interaction between FDR(Na) and AGTR2 G1675A polymorphism with respect to AIx(C1) (p(INT)=0.01), AIx(C2) (p(INT)=0.05) and AIx(P) (p(INT)=0.006). Arterial stiffness increased with higher sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, in the presence of AGTR2 G allele with the opposite tendency in A allele carriers. In the subgroup with FDR(Na) below median, as compared to those with FDR(Na) above median, the AIx(C1) (139.6±3.8 vs 159.1±5.7%; p=0.009), AIx(C2) (26.3±1.8 vs 33.3±1.7%; p=0.016) and AIx(P) (83.4±2.5 vs 96.5±2.6%; p<0.0001) were lower, in the G allele carrying men and GG homozygous women. The relation between sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule and the development of arterial stiffness depends on the AGTR2 G1675A polymorphism in blood pressure independent fashion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Vascular Health Assessment of The Hypertensive Patients (VASOTENS) Registry: Study Protocol of an International, Web-Based Telemonitoring Registry for Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Parati, Gianfranco; Avolio, Alberto; Rogoza, Anatoly N; Kotovskaya, Yulia V; Mulè, Giuseppe; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Orlova, Iana A; Grigoricheva, Elena A; Cardona Muñoz, Ernesto; Zelveian, Parounak H; Pereira, Telmo; Peixoto Maldonado, João Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension guidelines recommend ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), central aortic pressure (CAP), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as parameters for estimating blood pressure (BP) control and vascular impairment. Recent advances in technology have enabled devices to combine non-invasive estimation of these parameters over the 24-hour ABP monitoring. However, currently there is limited evidence on the usefulness of such an approach for routine hypertension management. Objective We recently launched an investigator-initiated, international, multicenter, observational, prospective study, the Vascular health Assessment Of The Hypertensive patients (VASOTENS) Registry, aimed at (1) evaluating non-invasive 24-hour ABP and arterial stiffness estimates (through 24-hour pulse wave analysis, PWA) in hypertensive subjects undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for clinical reasons; (2) assessing the changes in estimates following treatment; (3) weighing the impact of 24-hour PWA on target organ damage and cardiovascular prognosis; (4) assessing the relationship between arterial stiffness, BP absolute mean level and variability, and prognosis; and (5) validating the use of a 24-hour PWA electronic health (e-health) solution for hypertension screening. Methods Approximately 2000 subjects, referred to 20 hypertension clinics for routine diagnostic evaluation and follow-up of hypertension of any severity or stage, will be recruited. Data collection will include ABPM, performed with a device allowing simultaneous non-invasive assessment of 24-hour CAP and arterial stiffness (BPLab), and clinical data (including cardiovascular outcomes). As recommended by current guidelines, each patient will be followed-up with visits occurring at regular intervals (ideally every 6 months, and not less than once a year depending on disease severity). A Web-based telemedicine platform (THOLOMEUS) will be used for data collection. The use of the telemedicine system will allow

  4. Evaluation of arterial stiffness with plasma GGT levels and pulse wave velocity measurement in patients with FMF.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Filiz; Ulu, Sena; Akcı, Önder; Ahsen, Ahmet; Demir, Kasım; Yüksel, Şeref

    2014-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive technique used to evaluate the arterial elasticity, which is an early indicator of atherosclerosis. Lately, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) is considered a determiner of arterial stiffness (AS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between GGT levels and AS with PWV in patients with Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The study was conducted with 60 patients with FMF and 40 controls. Genetic analysis of the patients were performed. AS was assessed by PWV and, after the measurement of PWV, the presence of AS was determined. Mean PWV values and AS frequency were significantly higher in patients with FMF compared with the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Mean GGT levels of FMF patients were higher than in the control group but the difference was not statistically different. In the correlation analysis, PWV and AS were positively correlated with FMF (r=0349, p<0.001; r=0.435, p<0.001, respectively). FMF duration and FMF were associated with GGT (r=0.300, p=0.02; r=0199, p=0.047, respectively). Increased PWV values in FMF patients may indicate arterial stiffness. These patients may be followed closely with PWV as an early indicator of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the cardiovascular risk can be determined in the early stages of disease and it may be possible to take necessary precautions.

  5. Can ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring provide reliable indices of arterial stiffness?

    PubMed

    Gosse, Philippe; Papaioanou, Georgios; Coulon, Paul; Reuter, Sylvain; Lemetayer, Philippe; Safar, Michel

    2007-08-01

    The use of ambulatory recordings of blood pressure (BP) was proposed to estimate arterial stiffness (AS). We compared the relative value of the ambulatory AS index (AASI), and of the slope of pulse pressure (PP) according to mean BP (MBP) obtained from 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, to the monitoring of the arrival time of Korotkoff sounds (QKD interval) in the prediction of cardiovascular (CV) events. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP and QKD monitoring were recorded at baseline, before antihypertensive treatment of hypertensive patients in our Bordeaux cohort. From these recordings, the AASI, the PP/MBP slope, and the theoretical value of the QKD for a systolic pressure of 100 mm Hg and a heart rate of 60 beats/min (QKD100-60) were calculated. The patients were then given antihypertensive treatment and followed by their family physicians, who were unaware of the QKD, AASI, and PP/MBP slope results. Regular updates on patients were obtained. The reproducibility of measurements was studied in 38 normal subjects evaluated on two occasions. The reproducibility of the AASI and the PP/MBP slope was less than that of BP over 24 h and of QKD100-60. The cohort comprised 469 patients. With an average follow-up of 70+/-39 months, 62 CV complications, including 13 deaths, were recorded. In the monovariate analysis, age, PP over 24 h, QKD100-60, AASI, and the PP/MBP slope were significantly related to the occurrence of complications. In the multivariate analysis, when age and PP over 24 were included in the model, only QKD100-60 remained significantly linked to CV events. Our data support the value of the AASI as an indirect estimate of AS and as an element in the evaluation of CV risk in hypertensive patients. However, the reproducibility of this index is less, and its predictive value for complications is poorer, than that of QKD100-60, a parameter that we believe is more closely linked to AS.

  6. Outpatient measurement of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mohammedi, Kamel; Compaoré, Aminata; Potier, Louis; Belhatem, Narimène; Feron, Marilyne; Matallah, Nadia; Travert, Florence; Hansel, Boris; Velho, Gilberto; Roussel, Ronan; Hallab, Magid; Marre, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a marker of arterial stiffness. The aim of the present study was to compare PWV in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obesity and healthy subjects in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with obesity without T2DM (n = 37), T2DM without obesity (n = 40), T2DM plus obesity (n = 43), and healthy controls (n = 114). Outpatient measurements of the finger-toe PWV (ftPWV) were made. Mean (± SD) ftPWV was higher in men than in women (10.57 ± 5.02 vs 9.14 ± 3.68 m/s, respectively P = 0.006) and was positively correlated with age (r(2)  = 0.31, P < 0.0001), body mass index (r(2)  = 0.03, P = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (SBP; r(2)  = 0.06, P < 0.0001), and right (r(2)  = 0.03, P = 0.01) and left (r(2)  = 0.03, P = 0.01) ankle-brachial index (ABI). Age, SBP and ABI remained significantly correlated with ftPWV in the stepwise regression analysis. Mean ftPWV in controls and in patients with obesity, T2DM, and T2DM plus obesity was 8.32 ± 2.68, 9.50 ± 3.38, 11.29 ± 4.34, and 12.36 ± 6.67 m/s, respectively (P < 0.0001). These differences remained significant after adjustments for sex, age, SBP, and ABI (P = 0.008). Although ftPWV was higher in patients with than without macrovascular complications (13.11 ± 6.25 vs 10.40 ± 4.54 m/s, respectively; P = 0.006) in univariate analysis, this was not so in the multivariate-adjusted model. Outpatient-measured ftPWV was correlated with age, SBP, and ABI. It was higher in patients with T2DM and obesity compared with healthy controls. The highest ftPWV was observed in patients with both T2DM and obesity. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Left Ventricular Mass and Intrarenal Arterial Stiffness as Early Diagnostic Markers in Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 due to Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Antonietta; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Barbano, Biagio; Romaniello, Antonella; Di Mario, Francesca; Quarta, Silvia; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Gianluca; Laviano, Alessandro; Amoroso, Antonio; Cianci, Rosario; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5) includes a group of conditions characterized by a simultaneous involvement of the heart and kidney in the course of a systemic disease. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is frequently involved in the etiology of acute and chronic CRS-5 among connective tissue diseases. In SSc patients, left ventricular mass (LVM) can be used as a marker of nutritional status and fibrosis, while altered intrarenal hemodynamic parameters are suggestive of early kidney involvement. Methods Forty-two consecutive patients with a diagnosis of SSc without cardiac and/or renal impairment were enrolled to assess whether cardiac muscle mass can be related to arterial stiffness. Thirty subjects matched for age and sex were also enrolled as healthy controls (HC). All patients performed echocardiography and renal ultrasound. Results Doppler indices of intrarenal stiffness and echocardiographic indices of LVM were significantly increased in SSc patients compared to HC. A positive correlation exists between LVM/body surface area and pulsatile index (p < 0.05, r = 0.36), resistive index (p < 0.05, r = 0.33) and systolic/diastolic ratio (p < 0.05, r = 0.38). Doppler indices of intrarenal stiffness and LVM indices were significantly higher in SSc patients with digital ulcers than in SSc patients without a digital ulcer history. Conclusions SSc is characterized by the presence of microvascular and multiorgan injury. An early cardiac and renal impairment is very common. LVM and intrarenal arterial stiffness can be considered as early markers of CRS onset. The clinical use of these markers permits a prompt identification of organ damage. An early diagnosis allows the appropriate setting of pharmacological management, by slowing disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27022332

  8. Association of carotid intima-medial thickness and indices of arterial stiffness with cardiovascular disease outcomes in CKD.

    PubMed

    Zoungas, Sophia; Cameron, James D; Kerr, Peter G; Wolfe, Rory; Muske, Christine; McNeil, John J; McGrath, Barry P

    2007-10-01

    Indices of arterial structure and stiffness are proposed as surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but no study examined multiple markers in the same population. Prospective observational study. 315 subjects with stages 4 to 5 CKD, aged 24 to 79 years (mean age, 56.6 +/- 13.6 [SD] years), enrolled in the Atherosclerosis and Folic Acid Supplementation Trial. Carotid arterial intima-medial thickness (IMT; n = 315) and indices of arterial stiffness (n = 207), including aortofemoral pulse wave velocity (PWV[a-f]), systemic arterial compliance (SAC), and carotid-derived augmentation index. The primary outcome was a composite of all fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. During follow-up (median, 3.6 years), 95 cardiovascular events occurred. On Cox proportional-hazard modeling, mean maximum IMT, PWV(a-f), and SAC were predictive of the composite clinical end point of all cardiovascular events, but carotid-derived augmentation index was not (hazard ratio [HR] for every 0.01-mm increase in IMT, 1.09; P = 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.14; HR for every 1-m/s increase in PWV(a-f), 1.18; P < 0.001; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.25; HR for every 0.01-U/mm Hg decrease in SAC, 0.98; P = 0.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 0.99). After adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, past cardiovascular disease, cholesterol level, and smoking, PWV(a-f) remained a significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events (adjusted HR, 1.12; P = 0.001; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.20), but IMT and SAC did not. Study power to analyze differences between predialysis and dialysis stages of CKD. PWV(a-f) is the only arterial index independently associated with cardiovascular outcome in patients with CKD.

  9. Sex differences in vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes: The cardiac, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness in ESRD (CERES) study.

    PubMed

    Guajardo, Isabella; Ayer, Amrita; Johnson, Alexander D; Ganz, Peter; Mills, Claire; Donovan, Catherine; Scherzer, Rebecca; Shah, Sanjiv J; Peralta, Carmen A; Dubin, Ruth F

    2017-03-08

    Recent studies suggest that women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may have higher rates of mortality than men, but it is unknown whether sex differences in vascular function explain this disparity. The cardiac, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness in ESRD (CERES) study is an ongoing, prospective observational study designed to investigate vascular function, myocardial injury, and cardiovascular outcomes in ESRD. Among 200 CERES participants (34% women), we evaluated arterial wave reflections as augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 (AIx75), arterial stiffness as pulse wave velocity, and macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction as flow-mediated dilation and velocity time integral (VTI). Over a median of 14 months, participants were followed for the composite outcome of cardiovascular hospitalization or all-cause death. Women had higher arterial wave reflection (Mean, SD AIx75 30% ± 9% for women vs. 21% ± 10% for men; P < 0.001) and worse microvascular function (VTI 55 ± 30 cm for women vs. 70 ± 27 cm for men; P = 0.007). After multivariable adjustment, female sex remained associated with a 0.5-SD higher AIx75 (95% CI [0.01, 0.9]) and 0.3-SD lower VTI (95%CI [0.1, 0.7]). Women experienced higher adjusted rates of the composite outcome (HR 2.5; 95%CI [1.1, 5.6]; P = 0.03), and further adjustment for arterial wave reflection attenuated this risk. Vascular dysfunction may partly explain the association of female sex with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with ESRD. Further studies are needed to explore whether sex differences in vascular function predict long-term outcomes, and whether hormonal or inflammatory factors explain these associations. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. Non-HDL cholesterol is a good predictor of the risk of increased arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women in an urban Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Alvim, Rafael; Mourao, Carlos Alberto; Magalhães, Géssica Lopes; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, José Eduardo; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease. Lipid profile impairment, especially hypercholesterolemia, is associated with stiffer blood vessels. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine which of the five circulating lipid components (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides) is the best predictor of increased arterial stiffness in an urban Brazilian population. METHODS: A random sample of 1,662 individuals from the general population of Vitoria, Brazil (25-64 years), was selected, and lipid components were measured using standard methods. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a non-invasive automatic device, and increased arterial stiffness was defined as a pulse wave velocity ≥10 m/s. RESULTS: In men, only total cholesterol (OR=1.59; CI=1.02 to 2.48, p=0.04) was associated with the risk of increased arterial stiffness. In women, HDL-C (OR=1.99; CI=1.18 to 3.35, p=0.01) and non-HDL-C (OR=1.61; CI=1.01 to 2.56, p=0.04) were good predictors of the risk of increased arterial stiffness. However, these associations were only found in postmenopausal women (OR=2.06; CI=1.00 to 4.26, p=0.05 for HDL-C and OR=1.83; CI=1.01 to 3.33, p=0.04 for non-HDL-C). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that both HDL-C and non-HDL-C are good predictors of the risk of increased arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women in an urban Brazilian population and may be useful tools for assessing the risk of arterial stiffness. PMID:28273234

  11. Tau leaping of stiff stochastic chemical systems via local central limit approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yushu; Rathinam, Muruhan

    2013-06-01

    Stiffness manifests in stochastic dynamic systems in a more complex manner than in deterministic systems; it is not only imp