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Sample records for central domain eastern

  1. Cetacean distribution and relative abundance on the central eastern and the southeastern Bering Sea shelf with reference to oceanographic domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. E.; Waite, J. M.; Friday, N. A.; Honkalehto, T.

    2002-10-01

    Visual line-transect surveys for cetaceans were conducted in the central-eastern Bering Sea (CEBS) from 5 July to 5 August 1999, and in the southeastern Bering Sea (SEBS) from 10 June to 3 July 2000, in association with a pollock stock assessment survey aboard the NOAA ship Miller Freeman. Observers scanned for cetaceans with 25× (Big Eye) binoculars from the flying bridge (platform height=12 m) at survey speeds of 18.5-22 km h -1 (10-12 knots). Transect survey effort was 1761 km in 1999, in a study area 196,885 km 2; and 2194 km in 2000, in a study area 158,561 km 2. An additional 609 and 402 km of trackline was surveyed in 1999 and 2000, respectively, while in transit to or from pollock survey way points. Fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) were the most common large whale, and Dall’s porpoise ( Phocoenoides dalli) the most common small cetacean in both regions. In the CEBS (1999), uncorrected cetacean abundance estimates were: 3368 (CV=0.29) fin whales, 810 (CV=0.36) minke whales ( B. acutorostrata), 14,312 (CV=0.26) Dall’s porpoise and 693 (CV=0.53) harbor porpoise ( Phocoenaphocoena). In the SEBS (2000), uncorrected abundance estimates were: 683 (CV=0.32) fin whales, 102 (CV=0.50) humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae), 1003 (CV=0.26) minke whales, 9807 (CV=0.20) Dall’s porpoise and 1958 (CV=0.21) harbor porpoise. These are the first estimates of cetacean abundance that can be directly compared between two regions of the eastern Bering Sea. Distributions of some species were associated with bathymetric features, and there were occasions when prey associations were obvious. For example, in the SEBS, fin whales occurred on the Middle Shelf (50-100 m) and on the Outer Shelf (100-200 m) near the Pribilof canyon, but in the CEBS fin whales occurred primarily on the Outer Shelf along the 200 m isobath (i.e. the Green Belt). Fin whales were sometimes associated with echo-sounder backscatter from a mixture of fish schools and zooplankton. Humpback whales

  2. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  3. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  4. Management of ischemic stroke in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Budincevic, Hrvoje; Tiu, Cristina; Bereczki, Daniel; Kõrv, Janika; Tsiskaridze, Alexander; Niederkorn, Kurt; Czlonkowska, Anna; Demarin, Vida

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability in Europe. Central and Eastern European countries have the highest incidence and mortality rates through Europe. The improvements in stroke prevention and treatment in Central and Eastern European countries did not completely reach the quality parameters present in Western European countries. We present features of current management of stroke in Central and Eastern European countries.

  5. Crustal Structure in Central-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, A.; Thybo, H.

    2013-12-01

    We present the seismic structure in the interior of Greenland based on the first measurements by the seismic refraction/wide angle reflection method. Previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up and may not be representative of the interior of the island. Acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The EW-trending profile extends 310 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund across the centre of the ice cap. The planned extension of the profile by use of OBSs and air gun shooting in Scoresbysund Fjord to the east coast of Greenland was unfortunately cancelled, because navigation was prevented by ice drift. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 100 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Two-dimensional velocity model based on forward ray tracing and tomography modelling shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western part to 40 km in the eastern part of the profile. Earlier studies show that crustal thickness further decreases eastward to ca. 30 km below the fjord system, but details of the changes are unknown. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may indicate past collision tectonics or may be related or to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. The origin of the pronounced circum-Atlantic mountain ranges in Norway and eastern Greenland, which have

  6. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  7. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  8. Antibiotic policies in Central Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Cizman, Milan; Beovic, Bojana; Krcmery, Vladimir; Barsic, Bruno; Tamm, Eda; Ludwig, Endre; Pelemis, Mojimir; Karovski, Kliment; Grzesiowski, Pavel; Gardovska, Dace; Volokha, Alla; Keuleyan, Emma; Stratchounski, Leonid; Dumitru, Carstina; Titov, Leonid P; Usonis, Vytantas; Dvorák, Peter

    2004-09-01

    To assess the antibiotic policies in Central Eastern European (CEE) countries, a questionnaire on the prevalence of resistance, antibiotic consumption data for ambulatory and hospital care and antibiotic policies, was mailed to national representatives. Data on antibiotic resistance and consumption of antibiotics at national levels are limited and vary considerably among countries. The importance of surveillance data in altering perceptions of the prevalence of resistance is shown by the comparison of surveillance data and interview data. Interview data without surveillance data produced the widest range of estimates of the prevalence of resistance in streptococcus pneumonia -5% in Lithuania and 82% in Belarus. The average consumption of antibiotics in ambulatory care in eight CEE countries in 2001 was 19.35 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants per day, (range 13.1 - 24.8 DDD) and in hospitals in six CEE countries was 2.2 DDD/1000 inhabitants per day (range 1.3-4.5). Over the counter sales of antibiotics are available in some countries. Antibiotic policy interventions do not exist or only apply to specific problems or interventions. Better implementation of antibiotic interventions and education on antibiotic use should be a high priority in this region. An effective strategy requires close co-operation, consultations and partnership at national and international level in particular, via existing international organisations.

  9. Tectonic architecture of central Georgia Eastern Piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, H.D. Jr.; Brueggemann, M.; Pospisil, M. . Dept. of Geography and Geology); Boland, I.; Pray, J.; Secor, D.T.; Steinke, T.; West, T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Sacks, P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Recent work suggests the following for the tectonic architecture of the central Georgia Eastern Piedmont. The Alleghenian-age, Modoc fault zone (MZ), first defined in S. Carolina, continues along strike (c. S60W) at least to the Ocmulgee R. (net length = 250 km), where it converges with the Ocmulgee (OF) and Goat Rock (GR) faults. Diverging to the S from the MZ is a sharp contact between migmatitic amphibolites and gneisses of the Sinclair Lake terrane (SLt) and lower grade metapelites and metapsammites of the Milledgeville terrane (Mt). Both are introduced by post-kinematic granites (likely Alleghanian). A previously undescribed, 10 km long ultramafite belt within SLt, the Shoulderbone zone (Sz), is concordantly foliated with respect to surrounding rocks--hence emplacement is considered as pre- or synkinematic. Numerous smaller ultramafite bodies exist within SLt, Metavolcanic rocks N of SLt and the intervening MZ are interpreted as Carolina slate belt (CSB) rocks extending farther SW than often depicted. Arc volcanism and plutonism, terrane amalgamation and subsequent Alleghanian plutonism, dextral shear zones (some with extensional components), and local tight folding contributed to the present architecture. Locally, accretionary wedge material may exist, but the authors find published views and maps describing the entire area as primarily an accretionary wedge thrust stack to be inappropriate.

  10. INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  12. 6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER AND ASSOCIATED SUPERSTRUCTURE, AND CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION. NOTE THE JOIN BETWEEN EYE-BAR (LEFT) AND RIVETED CHANNEL (RIGHT) LOWER BRIDGE CHORDS AT CENTER LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. FACING NORTH. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  13. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  14. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  15. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  16. Central and Eastern Europe: Vocational Education and Training in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Olivier

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of recent developments in vocational education and training in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe brings out certain common problems. On the economic level, Hungary, Poland, Estonia, and Lithuania are undergoing a profound crisis. Consequences for training have included the closing of many company schools or workshops, absence of…

  17. Evolving Privatization in Eastern and Central European Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    With the fall of communism in 1989, Eastern and Central Europe would quickly become part of an already strong global tide of privatization in higher education. Nowhere else did private higher education rise so suddenly or strongly from virtual nonexistence to a major regional presence. A fresh database allows us to analyze the extent and…

  18. EPA's Role with the Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe provides assistance in solving environmental problems in Central and Eastern Europe by promoting cooperation among governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and others.

  19. Synthetic Seismogram Study of the Eastern Central Andes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    gaps located in the coupling zone of the Nazca and the South American plates. The above-mentioned earthquakes were here used to generate the...the limits of gaps located in the coupling zone of the Nazca and the South American plates. The above-mentioned earthquakes were here used to generate...surrounding areas. RESEARCH PERFORMED The area of study is located in the Eastern Central Andes, in the region where the Nazca Plate subducts at 300

  20. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  1. Jurassic petroleum trends in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain and central and eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1986-05-01

    Three Jurassic petroleum trends can be delineated in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico. These trends are recognized by characteristic petroleum traps, reservoirs, and hydrocarbon types. The source for the Jurassic hydrocarbons is Smackover algal mudstones. The Jurassic oil trend includes the area north of the regional peripheral fault systems in the tri-state area, and extends into the area north of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs and salt anticlines, with Smackover grainstones and dolostones and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones as reservoirs. This trend has potential for Jurassic oil accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic oil and gas-condensate trend includes the onshore area between the regional peripheral fault systems and Wiggins arch and extends into the area of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs, salt related anticlines, and extensional faults. Cotton Valley fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Haynesville carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Smackover grainstones, packstones, dolostones, and marine sandstones, and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones serve as reservoirs. This trend contains most of the Jurassic fields in the eastern Gulf coastal plain. The trend has high potential for significant petroleum accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic deep natural gas trend includes the onshore area south of the Wiggins arch and extends into the Mississippi-Alabama shelf. Traps are faulted salt anticlines with basement highs as potential traps. Cotton Valley deltaic-strandplain sandstones and Norphlet eolian sandstones are the reservoirs. Several gas discoveries below 20,000 ft have been made in this trend in Mississippi and offshore Alabama. The trend has excellent potential for major gas accumulations in coastal Alabama and central Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Eastern Pacific and central Pacific types of ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying

    In this study, I identify and contrast two types of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO): one located in the eastern Pacific near the South American coast (i.e. EP-ENSO), and the other in the central Pacific close to the date line (i.e. CP-ENSO). The EP-ENSO possesses the properties of the canonical ENSO and is related to thermocline variations. It is characterized by basin-wide surface and subsurface evolution, coupled with Southern Oscillation and dominated by 2 to 4 year timescale. In contrast, the CP-ENSO is characterized by in-situ evolution and local atmosphere-ocean coupling, and is likely driven by atmospheric forcing. From an upper-ocean heat budget analysis, the CP-ENSO is found to be related to the trade wind forcing associated with the variations of the northern subtropical high. Wind-induced surface heat flux forcing first warms up the upper ocean temperature in the Northeastern Subtropical Pacific. The SST anomalies later spread toward the central equatorial Pacific through heat-flux forcing and vertical advection processes, are further enhanced by zonal advection, and eventually terminate by surface heat flux. The budget results suggest a possible interaction pathway between the north-eastern subtropics and central equatorial Pacific. The CP-ENSO is dominated by a quasi-biennial (˜2.5 yr) periodicity that is also found in subtropical high and Asian-Australian monsoon variability. The possible linkage between CP-ENSO and monsoon variability is demonstrated by an Indian Ocean-decoupled experiment using a coupled GCM. The biennial CP-ENSO in the model is significantly reduced when the Indian Ocean coupling is turned off to weaken the biennial monsoon variability. This study suggests the existence of a distinct CP-ENSO that is a result of interactions among Asian-Australian monsoon, northern subtropical Pacific and central equatorial Pacific.

  3. Hydrocarbon potential of Central Monagas, Eastern Venezuela Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, F.; Daza, J.; Iusco, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Central Monagas area is part of the foreland sub-basin located on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The sedimentary column of the Central Monagas is at least 7500 in thick and consists of Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic rocks. Interpretations of 60 regional seismic sections have been integrated with data from 12 existing wells, which cover an area of 1200 km{sup 2}. From these interpretations, basin-wide structure and interval isopach maps were constructed in order to aid the depiction of the basin architecture and tectonic history. The sub-basin developed on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin is tightly linked to its evolution from a Mesozoic extensional regime into a Cenozoic compressional and strike-slip stage. The basin formed in the Middle Mesozoic by crustal extension of a rifting process. Regional northward tilting of the slab continued during the Late Cretaceous. Finally, the transpression of the Caribbean Plate during the Oligocene-Neogene induced the overprint of compressional deformation associated with the deposition of a foredeep wedge. Geochemical source rock analysis gave an average of 1.2 TOC, and R{sub o} of 0.66 indicating a mature, marine source. The modeling of the hydrocarbon generative history of the basin indicates that the oil migration started in the Middle Miocene, after the trap was formed. Analysis and mapping of reservoir rocks and seal rocks defined the effective area limits of these critical factors. The main play in the area is the extension of the Lower Oficina Formation which is the proven petroleum target in the Eastern Venezuela Basin.

  4. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001-2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951-2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%: Betula, Urtica, Pinus, Poaceae, and Alnus. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany) than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia).

  5. The lithosphere in the central-eastern Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, G.; D'Ingeo, F.; Farrugia, P.; Panza, G. F.

    1982-03-01

    The lithosphere beneath the central-eastern Mediterranean area has been investigated by the inversion of the regional dispersion relations derived from analysis of surface waves. It is possible to distinguish several types of crust with average S-wave velocities in the range 3.0 3.8 km/sec, and thicknesses varying from a minimum of about 30 km, which corresponds to the Apennines, Crete and Otranto Channel regions, to a maximum of about 51 km beneath the Ionian Sea, which can be considered as a submerged continent. Associated with these crustal features, large lateral variations have been detected in the lithosphere thickness, which varies from a minimum of about 30 km corresponding to the Tyrrhenian Sea and south of Crete to a maximum of about 130 km corresponding to south-eastern Alps and north-central Greece, while the sub-Moho S-wave velocity varies in the range 4.2 4.8 km/sec. The constraint furnished by our results to the geological-tectonic setting of the investigated area, characterized by the continent continent collision between Africa and Europe, is pointed out.

  6. Active shallow extension in central and eastern Betic Cordillera from CGPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Gil, A. J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Lacy, M. C.; García-Armenteros, J. A.; Ruano, P.; Ruiz, A. M.; Martínez-Martos, M.; Alfaro, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Betic Cordillera is an Alpine belt formed in the western Mediterranean by the westward displacement of the Alboran Domain in between the Eurasian and African convergent plates. New CGPS data from the central and eastern Betic Cordillera and its foreland-obtained mainly from the Topo-Iberia project-allowed us to precisely determine the rate of tectonic deformation. Most of the displacements of the central and eastern Betics are westward, with a variable southwestward component, in relation to the Eurasian stable plate. While in the Iberian foreland the displacements are extremely low, some deformation related to low compressional deformation occurs in the easternmost foreland basin and eastern Betic Cordillera. The displacement increases substantially southwards and westwards in relation to present-day extensional deformation. Major active discontinuities correspond to the NW-SE normal fault zones, which dip westwards; they are located in Almeria-Tabernas; Balanegra, and western Sierra de Gador; whereas the Padul fault zone located west of Sierra Nevada extends northwards to the Granada Basin. NW-SE extensional faults are also observed to the north, in the Baza Basin. Moreover, the activity of dextral faults along the Sorbas-Tabernas-Alpujarras-Guajares band, generally considered as a transfer fault zone, is evidenced by the displacement data. These results come to demonstrate the low activity or inactivity of the large northern E-W oriented folds of the central and eastern Internal Zone, such as the Sierra de Los Filabres antiform. They also point to the possible residual activity of the northern part of the NE-SW Sierra Nevada antiform, where the maximum relief of the Cordillera is found. Altogether, our data support a heterogeneous present-day westward extension that affects the upper crust of the Betic Cordillera and increases towards the thinned continental crust of the Alboran Sea and towards the west, which is compatible with roll-back subduction along

  7. Mitochondrial control region variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis populations from the central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

    2014-06-30

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  8. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  9. Sn Attenuation in Central and Eastern U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassminh, R.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The high frequency regional phase Sn is sensitive to the uppermostmantle structure and rheology. Furthermore, Sn Q values can help us to better determine if seismic anomalies originate from temperature or compositional variations in the uppermost mantle. The temperature, amount of partial melt, and composition of the lithospheric mantle all can strongly effect the Sn phase propagation. We have used Sn waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) are used to characterize Sn propagation and to estimate Sn attenuation in Central and eastern U.S. (CEUS). We analyzed 34 events occurring from 2011 to 2012 {Is this correct??} and ranging from magnitude 4 to magnitude 6. We have manually reviewed 4,600 waveforms and characterize Sn as either blocked, inefficient (weak and low frequency), or efficient (strong and high frequency). Using these efficiencies we have tomographically mapped regions of Sn blockage across the CEUS. The efficienty tomography shows that the Sn propagates efficiently in the Precambrian craton in northern portion of the CEUS and in and around western Virginia. On other hand, we found regions of Sn blockage along the Mississippi embayment, southern Pennsylvania, eastern Tennessee, and northern Georgia. By comparing this result with the tomographic Pn velocity, our result agrees with Zhang et al., (2009) except for Georgia blockage Sn zone and Minnesota high efficiency. The correlation between the intracontinental rifts and the inefficient Sn propagation appears in east of the Mid-Continent rift, Real Foot rift and the East continent rift By comparing this result with P and S waves tomography of the mantle using P and S teleseismic waves and Rayleigh waves (Schmandt et al., 2014). A good correlation was observed at depth 200 Km. Low velocity zones appear in New England , south Pennsylvania, eastern Tennessee , and Georgia and that can explain inefficient Sn propagation within these zones. To better constrain the result we will add more

  10. The situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), i.e. a group of 15 countries lying east of the Oder river-Trieste line and west of the present/planned EU eastern border. Together these countries have 106.6 million inhabitants, i.e. about a quarter of the population of the "European economic space". Its nuclear medicine, however, represents less than 10% of European nuclear medicine manpower and equipment. In these countries there are at least 245 nuclear medicine departments with 661 nuclear medicine specialists and at least 376 gamma cameras. There are six dedicated PET units and three PET/SPECT centres, as well as one manufacturer of gamma cameras, six radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and two nuclear medicine scientific journals. The biggest nuclear medicine communities are in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The scientific input of the CEE countries to European science is moderate-about 10% when measured by EANM congress abstracts, and 5% when measured by the number of papers in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Mean European bibliometric parameters are approached only by Hungary and-to some extent-the Czech Republic. This survey indicates the need for international cooperation to improve the level of nuclear medicine in the CEE countries so that it reaches European standards. The potential of these countries could also be better used to the benefit of European nuclear medicine.

  11. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  12. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  13. Netherlands to aid central, eastern Europe in halting pollution effects

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Last year, about 75 project proposals were made to the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment, and the number likely will be greater this year. They were submitted mainly by Dutch industrial and consultancy firms, and covered a broad area of activity - policy planning, support for environmental groups, environmental monitoring networks, emissions abatement, water quality research, and the like. Various criteria are used to evaluate project proposals - typically the priority of the problem being addressed, and the environmental benefit expected to arise from the solution. Special attention is given to Dutch initiatives centering on large-scale problems, such as curbing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants. This paper reports how expanded Dutch policy will bring economic, advisory aid aimed at abating pollution, managing environment to nations of central eastern Europe.

  14. Values and sexual behaviour in central and eastern europe.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Realo, Anu; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Kozlova, Alexandra; Luu, Lan Anh Nguyen; Nizharadze, George

    2002-01-01

    Despite the profusion of social cognitive models for the prediction of sexual behaviour, we have only limited knowledge as to the role of individual values in predicting risky sexual activity. This study assessed the relationship between a recently developed value structure and sexual behaviour in the context of rising HIV infection in central and eastern Europe. Five hundred and three respondents (business people, doctors and nurses) from Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Poland and Russia completed Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire and reported their condom use, partnership history and record of sexual disease. Results indicated that values had a moderate but consistent relationship with sexual behaviour, with riskier sexual activity reported by those high on Openness to Change, Hedonism and Self-Enhancement. These findings are discussed in the context of the need for culturally sensitive interventions in order to tackle the growing HIV epidemic in this region.

  15. Flood of December 1987 in central and eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Heavy rain fell across Arkansas during December 24-28, 1987. During this period, 6 to 12 inches of rain fell in a 100-mile wide belt extending roughly from Texarkana to West Memphis, Arkansas. The intense rainfall produced flooding throughout much of central and eastern Arkansas. Peak discharges associated with the flood had recurrence intervals of 100 years at two gaging stations. Peak stages, discharges, and recurrence intervals for this flood are documented profiles for 41 gaging stations. Also included in this report are flood profiles for Bayou Meto, Bayou Two Prairie, Cache River, L'Anguille River, and flood hydrographs for gaging stations on Bayou Meto near Lonoke and Cache River at Patterson. (USGS)

  16. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    de Labry Lima, Antonio Olry; Mochon, Leticia García; Martínez, Araceli Caro; Ruiz, Eva Martín; Balbino, Jaime Espin

    2016-02-01

    To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance.

  17. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  18. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Treesearch

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  19. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  20. The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bei; Xu, Wenliang

    2017-08-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends from the northern Eurasian continent in the west via Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and northeast part of China to the Russia Far East in the east. It is characterized by complex trench-arc-basin subduction system, exotic terrane (microcontinents) accretion, massive generation of juvenile crust during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic (e.g., Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; Sengör et al., 1993). A lot of papers about formation and evolution of the CAOB have been published and new field observations and geochemical data for key areas of the CAOB challenge to previous assessments. Several areas previously defined as juvenile are now shown to have mixed crustal compositions. For example, Kröner et al. (2014, in press) estimated that the distribution of various crustal provinces is truly juvenile crustal material ca. 20%, mixed crust ca. 30%, old crust ca. 50%,respectively, in the CAOB, similar to those in other accretionary orogens through Earth history. A two-stage model for the evolution of the CAOB has been suggested based on recent data from the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan (Gao et al., 2011; Su et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017), which suggests the process of the formation and evolution of the CAOB includes closure of the Paleo Asian ocean (PAO), formation of orogenic belt before the late Paleozoic and crustal extension and magmatism resulted from plume upon the young orogenic belt after the late Paleozoic. This new model changes previous concept that the CAOB developed through the Paleozoic and is supported by recent researches on the eastern CAOB.

  1. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    PubMed

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  3. An update of Quaternary faults of central and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, Ray J.; Fletcher, D.K.; Weldon, E.M.; Scharer, K.M.; McCrory, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. We have updated the eastern portion of our previous active fault map of Oregon (Pezzopane, Nakata, and Weldon, 1992) as a contribution to the larger USGS effort to produce digital maps of active faults in the Pacific Northwest region. The 1992 fault map has seen wide distribution and has been reproduced in essentially all subsequent compilations of active faults of Oregon. The new map provides a substantial update of known active or suspected active faults east of the Cascades. Improvements in the new map include (1) many newly recognized active faults, (2) a linked ArcInfo map and reference database, (3) more precise locations for previously recognized faults on shaded relief quadrangles generated from USGS 30-m digital elevations models (DEM), (4) more uniform coverage resulting in more consistent grouping of the ages of active faults, and (5) a new category of 'possibly' active faults that share characteristics with known active faults, but have not been studied adequately to assess their activity. The distribution of active faults has not changed substantially from the original Pezzopane, Nakata and Weldon map. Most faults occur in the south-central Basin and Range tectonic province that is located in the backarc portion of the Cascadia subduction margin. These faults occur in zones consisting of numerous short faults with similar rates, ages, and styles of movement. Many active faults strongly correlate with the most active volcanic centers of Oregon, including Newberry Craters and Crater Lake.

  4. Wolfcampian sequence stratigraphy of eastern Central Basin platform, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaria, M.P.; Entzminger, D.J.; Behnken, F.H. ); Sarg, J.F. ); Wilde, G.L. )

    1992-04-01

    Integrated study of well logs, cores, high-resolution seismic data, and biostratigraphy has established the sequence framework of the Atokan (Early Pennsylvanian)-Wolfcampian (Early Permian) stratigraphic section along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform in the Permian basin. Sequence interpretation of high-resolution, high-fold seismic data through this stratigraphic interval has revealed a complex progradational/retrogradational evolution of the platform margin that has demonstrated overall progradation of at least 12 km during early-middle Wolfcampian. Sequence stratigraphic study of the Wolfcamp interval has revealed details of the internal architecture and morphologic evolution of the contemporaneous platform margin. Two generalized seismic facies assemblages are recognized in the Wolfcampian. Platform interior facies are characterized by high-amplitude, laterally continuous parallel reflections; platform margin facies consist of progradational sigmoidal to oblique clinoforms and are characterized by discontinuous, low-amplitude reflections. Sequence interpretation of carbonate platform-to-basin strata geometries helps in predicting subtle stratigraphic trapping relationships and potential reservoir facies distribution. Moreover, this interpretive method assists in describing complex reservoir heterogeneities that can contribute to significant reserve additions from within existing fields.

  5. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed Central

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). METHODS: We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. FINDINGS: Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. CONCLUSION: The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease. PMID:16462984

  6. Seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, A.

    1995-12-31

    The USGS is preparing new national seismic hazard maps depicting probabilistic ground motions from earthquakes. These maps show ground motions with a specified annual probability of being exceeded. Such hazard maps are the basis for design value maps used in building codes. For the eastern and central U.S., we have developed an approach that uses multiple models of seismic hazard. The first model is derived from a spatially-smoothed distribution of magnitude 3 and greater earthquakes in the historic catalog. This model also adds the hazard from characteristic large earthquakes, such as New Madrid Charleston, Wabash Valley and Charlevoix. The second model uses a spatially-smoothed distribution of magnitude 5 and greater events since 1700. This model accounts for the possibility of near-repeats of damaging earthquakes from localized seismogenic structures. The third model is a broad background zone to include the possibility of future earthquakes in areas that have been quiescent in historical times. The models can be combined into a single probabilistic ground-motion map for a given probability of exceedance. We compare the results of this simple approach at 30 nuclear power plant sites with those derived by the study of the Electric Power Research Institute, which used multiple source zone models chosen by several teams of experts. When the same attenuation curves are used for peak acceleration, the probabilities of exceedance and hazard curves derived by both methods show very good agreement.

  7. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-12-01

    We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease.

  8. The Mantle Transition Zone in Central-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, H. A.; Thybo, H.; Vinnik, L. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of a Receiver Function (RF) study of the mantle transition zone (TZ) in Central-Eastern Greenland. The base of this study is data from 19 broad-band seismometers, which were temporarily installed from 2009 to 2012 in the region between Scoresbysund and Summit (~ 70º N) plus 5 permanent stations from the GLISN network. One half of these stations were installed on the ice, the other half on bedrock.Our analysis is based on low frequency PRF, which use the difference in travel times between converted and not converted phasesat discontinuities. Most of our RFs show clear signals for P410s and P660s. Their delay times suggest a surprisingly thin mantle transition zone for most parts of the study area in comparison to standard Earth models, and much thinner than below other continental shield and platform areas. This could indicate a fairly recent heating of the TZ. Another observation is an M-shaped signal around the 410 km - discontinuity at some of the stations mainly in the western part around Summit. This observation is contrary to the expected simple negative signal. It may indicate a thin low velocity layer between 410 km and 520 km, as it has previously been observed in several settings based on converted waves and also explosion data. Most of our stations show positive travel time anomalies for the upper mantle, which again is contrary to simple models of old continental shields.

  9. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana; Csanádi, Marcell; Kristensen, Finn Boerlum

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to healthcare financing decisions can improve the allocative efficiency of scarce resources. However, few CEE countries have a clear roadmap for HTA implementation. Examples from high‐income countries may not be directly relevant, as CEE countries cannot allocate so much financial and human resources for substantiating policy decisions with evidence. Our objective was to describe the main HTA implementation scenarios in CEE countries and summarize the most important questions related to capacity building, financing HTA research, process and organizational structure for HTA, standardization of HTA methodology, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully transferable without taking into account country‐specific aspects, such as country size, gross domestic product per capita, major social values, public health priorities, and fragmentation of healthcare financing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26763688

  10. Sedimentary provenance of Maastrichtian oil shales, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Mohamed, Ramadan S.; Zaki, Rafat

    2017-04-01

    Maastrichtian oil shales are distributed within the Central Eastern Desert in Egypt. In this study elemental geochemical data have been applied to investigate the probable provenance of the sedimentary detrital material of the Maastrichtian oil shale beds within the Duwi and the Dakhla formations. The Maastrichtian oil shales are characterized by the enrichment in Ca, P, Mo, Ni, Zn, U, Cr and Sr versus post-Archean Australian shales (PAAS). The chondrite-normalized patterns of the Maastrichtian oil shale samples are showing LREE enrichment, HREE depletion, slightly negative Eu anomaly, no obvious Ce anomaly and typical shale-like PAAS-normalized patterns. The total REE well correlated with Si, Al, Fe, K and Ti, suggesting that the REE of the Maastrichtian oil shales are derived from terrigenous source. Chemical weathering indices such as Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) indicate moderate to strong chemical weathering. We suggest that the Maastrichtian oil shale is mainly derived from first cycle rocks especially intermediate rocks without any significant inputs from recycled or mature sources. The proposed data illustrated the impact of the parent material composition on evolution of oil shale chemistry. Furthermore, the paleo-tectonic setting of the detrital source rocks for the Maastrichtian oil shale is probably related to Proterozoic continental island arcs

  11. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data.

  12. Lower Cambrian bioherms in central Nevada and eastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Rowland, S.M. . Dept. of Geoscience)

    1993-04-01

    The Lower Cambrian stratigraphic sequence in the Ravenswood area of central Nevada, consisting of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments, was formed in a shallow marine and storm-dominated environment. The limestone facies records deposition on a shallow subtidal, open shelf on which developed small isolated patch reefs constructed by archaeocyaths and microorganisms. These patch reefs, generally 5--10 m high and 10--25 m wide in outcrop, grew up on the foundation of bioclastic (brachiopod shells) layer or siltstone, differentiated into boundstone facies and flanked packstone facies, and are surrounded by siliciclastic facies. The Montenegro bioherms in the White-Inyo Mountains of eastern California, 6--8 m high and 25 m wide in the outcrop, consist of many kalyptrae which were stacked together to form a compound reef-like buildup. The bioherms are underlain by a silty, crossbedded argillite and interfingered with siliciclastic facies laterally. Most of the kalyptrae forming the bioherms were built by archaeocyaths bound by calcibionts. Closer inspection shows that each kalyptra (50 cm [times] 20 cm in dimension) is composed of many small lenses which were stacked together and filled by argillite. Both the Ravenswood patch reefs and the Montenegro bioherms represent the earliest preserved archaeocyathid-cyanobacteria carbonate buildups in the western Great Basin. These roughly coeval Lower Cambrian bioherms share many common features. On the other hand, they show some differences in structure, paleoecology, and taxonomic composition of archaeocyaths which evidently reflect the variation of environment from place to place.

  13. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  14. Mean meridional currents in the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Renellys C.; Hormann, Verena; Lumpkin, Rick; Brandt, Peter; Johns, William E.; Hernandez, Fabrice; Schmid, Claudia; Bourlès, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    Ship-based acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) velocity measurements collected by several major field programs in the tropical Atlantic are averaged and combined with estimates of the mean near-surface velocity derived from drifters and Argo float surface drifts (ADCP+D) to describe the mean cross-equatorial and vertical structure of the meridional currents along 23°W and 10°W. Data from moored ADCPs and fixed-depth current meters, a satellite-derived velocity product, and a global ocean reanalysis were additionally used to evaluate the mean ADCP+D meridional velocity. The dominant circulation features in the long-term mean ADCP+D meridional velocity in the upper 100 m are the tropical cells (TCs) located approximately between 5°S and 5°N, with near-surface poleward flow and subsurface equatorward flow that is stronger and shallower in the northern cell compared to the southern cell. The thickness of the surface limb of the TCs decreases and the northern cell is found to shift further south of the equator from the central to eastern tropical Atlantic. Analysis of two-season means estimated from the ship-based ADCP, near-surface drift, and moored velocity data, as well as the simulated fields, indicates that the maximum poleward velocity in the surface limb of the TCs intensifies during December-May along 23°W largely due to seasonal compensation between the geostrophic and ageostrophic (or wind-driven) components of the meridional velocity, whereas the maximum equatorward flow in the subsurface limb of the northern cell intensifies during June-November along both 23°W and 10°W due to the seasonality of the geostrophic meridional velocity.

  15. Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama.

    PubMed

    Cupp, Eddie W; Klingler, Kimberly; Hassan, Hassan K; Viguers, Leslie M; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2003-04-01

    A site near Tuskegee, Alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in 2001. More than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, Culiseta melanura, Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex erraticus, and Uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for EEE virus. Each species was infected at various times of the mosquito season (May-September) with different minimum infection rates (MIRs). Culiseta melanura had the highest MIR (20.2) and positive pools were detected from late May to mid-September. Aedes vexans had an MIR of 2.2 and was infected early in the season (June), while Cq. perturbans exhibited a much higher field infection rate (9.9) with all positive pools collected in August. Culiseta melanura is a likely endemic vector in central Alabama, while Ae. vexans and Cq. perturbans probably function as bridge vectors. Culex erraticus, the most common mosquito in the habitat (54% of total collections), had an MIR of 3.2, and was persistently infected from mid-June to mid-September. This is the first report of high rates of EEE virus infection in this species, a member of the tropical subgenus Melanoconion. Uranotaenia sapphirina, considered to feed on amphibians and possibly reptiles, had an MIR of 5.6, with positive pools spanning a four-month period. This suggests that species other than birds may serve as a reservoir for EEE in hardwood swamps in the Southeastern United States and elsewhere. The lengthy period of mosquito infection with EEE virus, coupled with the diverse habits of the vectors and their proximity to a population center, indicate the importance of monitoring EEE virus activity in the Mid-South.

  16. A revised magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Mio-Pliocene of the Eastern Paratethys domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palcu, D.; Krijgsman, W.

    2016-12-01

    During the Middle Miocene, the Eastern Paratethys Sea (former Black Sea/Caspian Sea domain) covered large parts of Central Eurasia. This large water mass was located in a tectonically active area where the uplift of the Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus mountains strongly influenced basin evolution. Paratethys was always separated from the open ocean by small and shallow sills which resulted in the development of severely restricted basins with extreme environmental conditions and highly endemic faunal assemblages. Consequently, biostratigraphic correlations to the standard Geological Time Scale are generally not possible, which favored the construction of a regional geolological time scale for Paratethys. In the last decade, serious efforts were undertaken to obtain more accurate age constraints on the key paleoenvironmental changes in this region by integrating magnetostratigraphy with biostratigraphy and radioisotopic dating. Here, we will present the state-of-the-art of the comprehensive work on the revised Paratethys chronology. We will explain how magnetostratigraphic correlations, combined with rock magnetic analyses, resolved crucial controversies regarding greigite formation, anoxia, salinity changes, and interbasinal connectivity events. Results that may be applicable to the other restricted basins of the world.

  17. Tectonic domains in the Eastern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Ted A.; Leff, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    The definition of boundaries of discrete structural provinces on the surface of Mars has previously been made by the assumptions of circular or radial symmetry (in the case of the Tharsis olateau), by artificial quadrangle boundaries for regional studies, or simply by regional geographical features. Much of the planetary structural mapping has been presented in a line or spot format in existing consortium data. Methods are being generated to convert the detailed maps of tectonic features to a format that can be used with standard image processing techniques. In this manner such data can be more readily compared to age and other attributes deduced from geological mapping, gravity results, and topography. The 24 photomosaics covering the Eastern Hemisphere of Mars have already been examined for four types of structural features: erosional remnants, ridges, graben, and scarps. When digitized, each feature was flagged according to feature type, azimuth and length. These values were stored as text files on a quad-by-quad basis for each quad studied.

  18. Phytophthora species associated with forest soils in central and eastern U.S. oak ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Y. Balci; S. Balci; J. Eggers; W.L. MacDonald; K.W. Gottschalk; J. Juzwik; R. Long

    2006-01-01

    The existence of native and exotic species of Phytophthora in soils of eastern and central oak ecosystems is largely unknown. This informational void and the potential threat of P. ramorum to eastern oak species provided the impetus for a multiple state survey of soils associated with oak cover types. The initial survey was...

  19. Decentralizing Education in Transition Societies: Case Studies from Central and Eastern Europe. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiszbein, Ariel, Ed.

    This book is about education system reform in Central and Eastern Europe, with emphasis on decentralization and management. In the past, local authorities served as implementation arms of the central ministry, while finance and decision-making were controlled by the central government, leaving local communities with little influence. New education…

  20. Netherlands to Aid Central, Eastern Europe in Halting Pollution Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are efforts originating in the Netherlands to assist the Soviet Union and Eastern European counties to form and carry out significant air and water pollution improvement policies. Examples of proposals and programs being formed are described. (CW)

  1. Netherlands to Aid Central, Eastern Europe in Halting Pollution Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are efforts originating in the Netherlands to assist the Soviet Union and Eastern European counties to form and carry out significant air and water pollution improvement policies. Examples of proposals and programs being formed are described. (CW)

  2. 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference and 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference.

    PubMed

    Kovarova, Hana; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Archakov, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    The 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference was organized together with the 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference in the TOP Hotel, Prague in the Czech Republic from the 29th to the 31st October, 2007. The aim was to strengthen links with scientists from Central and Eastern Europe including Russia, which until now have been weak or nonexistent, and to highlight the emergence of excellent proteomic studies from various countries, which until now were not visible.

  3. Mechanisms for the cooling of the central eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The sea surface temperature variation over the Central Eastern Pacific (CEP) controls the global mean surface temperature variation (Kosaka and Xie, 2013). The regional cooling over CEP is directly linked to the surface warming slowdown in last twenty years. It is important to understand the mechanisms of the CEP cooling in the warming climate in order to have a robust prediction of the future climate change. Previous studies showed the CEP cooling is related to the pronounced strengthening in Pacific trade winds over the past two decades, which is sufficient to account for the cooling of the CEP and a substantial slowdown in surface warming through increased subsurface ocean heat uptake in the Pacific shallow overturning cells and equatorial upwelling in the CEP (England et al., 2014). By analysing the cloud data, Zhou et al. (2016) showed the increase of the lower cloud cover (LCC) over the CEP area contributed to the cooling, resulting in positive local feedback and negative global feedback. Using the data from observations, ERA-Interim reanalysis and atmospheric climate simulations, our study shows that the increasing Latent Heat (LH) also plays an important role in the CEP cooling (Liu et al., 2015). After the sensitivity test using the bulk formula, it showed that both wind and total column water vapour content contribute to the cooling trends of the SST in CEP. The observed trends of the wind and LH in CEP also confirmed this. England et al. (2014) Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 222-227, doi:10.1038/nclimate2106. Kosaka, Y., and S. P. Xie (2013), Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling, Nature, 501, 403-407, doi:10.1038/nature12534. Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res. , Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  4. TolA central domain interacts with Escherichia coli porins.

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, R; Gavioli, M; Bénédetti, H; Prilipov, A; Lazdunski, C; Lloubès, R

    1996-01-01

    TolA is an inner membrane protein with three domains: a transmembrane N-terminus and periplasmic central and C-terminal domains. The interaction of TolA with outer membrane porins of Escherichia coli was investigated. Western blot analyses of cell extracts with anti-TolA antibodies indicated that TolA forms high molecular weight complexes specifically with trimeric OmpF, OmpC, PhoE and LamB, but not with OmpA. The interaction of purified TolA domains with purified porins was also studied. TolA interacted with OmpF, PhoE and LamB porins via its central domain, but not with either their denatured monomeric forms or OmpA. Moreover, the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharides associated with trimeric porins did not modify the interactions. These results suggest that the specific interaction of TolA with outer membrane porins might be relevant to the function of Tol proteins. Images PMID:8978668

  5. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  6. Earthquake relocations, crustal rheology, and active deformation in the central-eastern Alps (N Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Ranalli, Giorgio; Martin, Silvana; Della Vedova, Bruno; Spallarossa, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    A revised seismic catalogue (1994-2007) for the central-eastern Alps (N Italy) is presented. 396 earthquake relocations, for local magnitudes in the 1.2-5.3 range, are performed using a 3D crustal velocity structure and probabilistic locations. The location procedure is validated by computing a set of 41 quarry shot solutions and all the results, both about shots and seismic events, are compared with those obtained using the routine location procedure. Results are shown for five contiguous seismotectonic domains, as supported by geological and geophysical evidence (e.g., fault systems, crustal tomography, focal mechanisms types). Earthquake hypocentres are mostly located in the upper crust (0-15 km of depth), in good agreement with thermo-rheological models about the brittle-ductile transitions (8-9 km of depth) and total crustal strengths (1.0-2.0 TN m- 1). Epicentres are clustered and/or aligned along present-day active geological structures. The proposed seismotectonic model shows dominant compression along the Giudicarie and Belluno-Bassano-Montello thrusts, with strain partitioning along the dominant right-lateral strike-slip faults of the Schio-Vicenza domain. The present-day deformation of the Southern Alps and the internal Alpine chain is compatible with Adria indentation and the related crustal stress distribution.

  7. Geochronologic studies in central New England I: Evidence for pre-Acadian metamorphism in eastern Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, F.S. ); Harrison, T.M. )

    1989-02-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar geochronology on hornblendes from central New England reveals a Grenvillian cooling age (1026 {plus minus} 12 Ma) along the eastern margin of the Green Mountain massif, Acadian ages in east-central Vermont (350-397 Ma) and along the Bronson Hill anticlinorium in New Hampshire and Massachusetts (407-280 Ma), and Late Ordovician to Silurian ages (440-451 Ma) along a belt in eastern Vermont and central Massachusetts. These ages indicate a minimal Acadian overprint in eastern Vermont, the highest degree of Acadian overprint being located along the axis of the domes in the Connecticut Valley synclinorium. These data suggest that the formation of the domes occurred in the Acadian. Moreover, the Late Ordovician to Silurian cooling ages in eastern Vermont suggest that much of the metamorphic mineralogy and fabric observed in the Connecticut Valley synclinorium may be pre-Silurian in age.

  8. Fall harvest management of eastern gamagrass in central Wisconsin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG often recommend avoiding harvest within six weeks of first frost. However, pre...

  9. Yield Potential of Eastern Gamagrass in Central Wisconsin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, perennial warm-season grasses have received considerable interest, largely through bioenergy initiatives, but their suitability for limiting caloric intake by developing dairy heifers has not been explored. Our objective was to assess the yield potential of eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dac...

  10. Cigarette Smoking, Friendship Factors, and Social Norm Perceptions among Central and Eastern European High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating smoking behavior among adolescents living in post-communistic Central-European countries are sparse. This study focused on the relationship between cigarette smoking, certain friendship factors, and social norm perceptions among 1,886 Central-Eastern European adolescents from high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic,…

  11. Entrepreneurial and Vocational Education and Training: Lessons from Eastern and Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    The social, economic and political systems of former communist countries have faced considerable changes since the late 1980s. Most countries in Eastern and Central Europe have undergone their own individual brand of transition from a centrally planned, command system to a more or less liberalized, Western-style market economy. Many observers…

  12. A teleconnection between Atlantic sea surface temperature and eastern and central North Pacific tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Saravanan, R.; Chang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) predictability in both local and remote ocean basins. Unusually warm eastern-central equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) during El Niño tends to enhance eastern and central North Pacific (ECNP) TCs and suppress Atlantic TCs. Here we demonstrate that Atlantic SST variability likewise influences remote TC activity in the eastern-central Pacific through a Walker Circulation-type response analogous to the ENSO-Atlantic TC teleconnection, using observations and 27 km resolution tropical channel model (TCM) simulations. Observed and simulated ECNP TC activity is reduced during the positive Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM), which is characterized by warm northern and cool southern tropical Atlantic SST anomalies, and vice versa during the negative AMM. Large ensembles of TCM simulations indicate that SST variability, rather than internal atmospheric variability, drives extreme ECNP hurricane seasons.

  13. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  14. Satellite Movie Shows Three Storms in Eastern, Central Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 25 to 27 shows Tropical Storm Kilo in the Central Pacific followed by Hurricane Ignacio and Tropical Storm J...

  15. Extremes of precipitation in the changing Central/Eastern European climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Anna; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit

    2014-05-01

    Hot weather and increasingly warm climatic conditions are quite straightforward consequences of global warming. Connection to precipitation is not so clear since precipitation is one of the most variable meteorological elements both in time and space. However, it has a huge effect both on vegetation and human activities. Intense precipitation events may result in severe environmental, agricultural and economical damages. In order to avoid them or at least decrease these potential damages, it is necessary to assess the possible changes, and build appropriate regional adaptation strategies. To estimate the future trends, we used 11 regional climate model (RCM) simulations from the ENSEMBLES project. All the models used 25 km horizontal resolution and took into account the SRES A1B emission scenario. Three different global climate models provided the necessary initial and boundary conditions. Validation analyses for the Central/Eastern European region showed that simulated precipitation values usually significantly underestimate the observations in summer and overestimate in the rest of the year. Therefore, we applied bias correction in order to eliminate these systematic errors. We used a quantile matching technique for each RCM simulation: the monthly empirical distribution functions of each grid point were fitted to the observed distributions (reference: E-OBS database), then the calculated multiplicative bias correcting factors are applied to the raw outputs of RCM experiments. After the correction, we analyzed several precipitation-related indices (e.g., CDD, RR10, RR20, RX1, RX5, 90th pctl, 99th pctl) for 9 sub-regions as well as the 10 and 20 year return periods of the daily precipitation amount for the 1951-2100 time period on seasonal and annual scales. According to our results climate change results in more intense and more frequent precipitation extremes in Central/Eastern Europe. The return period of the daily precipitation amount is estimated to increase

  16. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  17. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  18. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  19. The last deglaciation event in the eastern central arctic ocean.

    PubMed

    Stein, R; Nam, S I; Schubert, C; Vogt, C; Futterer, D; Heinemeier, J

    1994-04-29

    Oxygen isotope records of cores from the central Arctic Ocean yield evidence for a major influx of meltwater at the beginning of the last deglaciation 15.7 thousand years ago (16,650 calendar years B.C.). The almost parallel trends of the isotope records from the Arctic Ocean, the Fram Strait, and the east Greenland continental margin suggest contemporaneous variations of the Eurasian Arctic and Greenland (Laurentide) ice sheets or increased export of low-saline waters from the Arctic within the East Greenland Current during the last deglaciation. On the basis of isotope and carbon data, the modern surface- and deep-water characteristics and seasonally open-ice conditions with increased surface-water productivity were established in the central Arctic at the end of Termination lb about 7.2 thousand years ago or 6,000 calendar years B.C.).

  20. Writing in Central and Eastern Europe: Stakeholders and Directions in Initiating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbord, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of writing initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, an area where prior to 1989, writing in universities played a very minor role. Using data gathered from eight institutions that currently have writing programs of some sort, I identify three typical paths writing initiatives…

  1. Transnational Analysis of Vocational Education and Training in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Vocational education and training (VET) in 10 Central and Eastern European countries--Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia--was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: socioeconomic context of VET reforms; VET at the start of reforms; the European Union Phare…

  2. Strategic Developments in Open and Distance Learning in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Based on work by the European Union's PHARE Multi-Country Programme in Distance Education, explores: (1) contextual issues related to the development of open and distance learning and the changing nature of higher education; (2) developments across Europe and associated problems; and (3) possible solutions in Central and Eastern Europe related to…

  3. The Development of Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe in the Aftermath of Recent Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadlak, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact of Marxism-Leninism on higher education in central and eastern Europe after World War II. Contends that the dramatic political changes in recent years call for a profound transformation in higher education. Asserts that, despite numerous difficulties, higher education in these nations has embarked on dramatic improvements.…

  4. Key Indicators on Vocational Education and Training. Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badescu, Mircea; Kennedy, Alison

    The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone substantial changes due, in part, to vocational education and training (VET). One of the most important objectives of the European Union (EU) enlargement process is to monitor key indicators of the educational systems and labor markets so that the different skills in demand and…

  5. Central and eastern United States: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    The GEOTHERM sample file contains 119 records for the central and eastern United States. The records contain data on location, sample description, analysis type, collection condition, flow rates, and the chemical and physical properties of the fluid. Stable and radioisotopic data are occasionally available. 7 refs. (ACR)

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  7. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on.

  8. Writing in Central and Eastern Europe: Stakeholders and Directions in Initiating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbord, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of writing initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, an area where prior to 1989, writing in universities played a very minor role. Using data gathered from eight institutions that currently have writing programs of some sort, I identify three typical paths writing initiatives…

  9. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Carmina; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

  10. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  11. Transformations in Higher Education in Agricultural and Food Sciences in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, P.; Barloy, J.

    1995-01-01

    From an analysis of educational reform and the teaching crisis in agricultural/food sciences in Central and Eastern Europe emerged three key issues: (1) redefinition of the role of agricultural/food science managers; (2) replacement of production orientation with a comprehensive approach to rural development; and (3) recognition of the educational…

  12. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  13. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  14. Eastern and Central Kansas Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sara E.

    Country schools in eastern and central Kansas are explored from six different aspects: country schools as historic sites; teachers (their roles, rules, and restrictions); reading, writing, arithmetic, and recitation (a day in a rural school); country schools and the Americanization of ethnic groups; country schools as community centers; and…

  15. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  16. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  17. Universities, the Information Technology Challenge, and Open and Distance Learning in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajos, Tamas; Szucs, Andras

    1998-01-01

    The educational needs of Eastern and Central Europe can be met by distance education. Since the 1990 founding of the European Distance Education Network, proponents of open and distance education have expanded the scope of their activities. Governments and institutions must find the best ways to use technology to integrate traditional and distance…

  18. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  19. Educational Reform and Educational Research in Central-Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report describes difficulties in educational reform faced by countries in transition, those post-communist countries from Eastern and Central Europe that have been changing their social, economic, and political systems since 1989. Romania is the case study used for this example and is viewed in terms of four stages: (1) deconstruction, an…

  20. Core Ideas of Democratic Civic Education and the Great Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the importance of civic education in the transformation from totalitarian communism to constitutional democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The primary question of civic education for this great transformation is: What are the few core ideas of democratic civic education that learners must know and support to prepare them…

  1. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  2. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  3. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  4. Forest fire weather in eastern Oregon and central Washington in 1960.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer; Howard E. Graham

    1961-01-01

    In 1960, the first analysis of fire season weather was made for forests east of the Cascade Range. Highlights were: The 1960 season was among the most severe since 1939 in eastern Oregon, was more severe than normal in central Washington, and will long be remembered for the rainless lightning storm that hit northeast Oregon with devastating effect the evening of July...

  5. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  6. Differentiation and Academic Control over Policy in Central and Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proteasa, Viorel; Andrescu, Liviu; Curaj Adrian

    This article adds a political perspective to the phenomenon of higher education de-differentiation, by building on Gary Rhoades' neo-institutionalist account. Diversity is operationalized on a hallmark dimension for Central and Eastern Europe: the public-private divide. Higher education is conceived of as a structured organizational field and its…

  7. Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007. PMID:25148518

  8. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  9. Laboratories of Reform? The Europeanization and Internationalization of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowska, Dorota; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article deals with higher education (HE) transformations in Central and Eastern Europe in the context of democratization and globalization. The authors first briefly survey the wider canvas of reform since 1989, particularly probing the extent to which the countries of the region may be treated as a distinctive or a cohesive…

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  11. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  12. Social Impact of the "Digital Divide" in a Central-Eastern European Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae-George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the social impact of the digital divide in Central-Eastern European countries as well as between them and industrialized developed countries, based on experiences in Romania. Highlights include facts relating to digital divide worldwide; transition to a democratic and market-based economy and from socialism to capitalism; barriers to…

  13. Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety Nets and Social Policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, Ed.; Sipos, Sandor, Ed.

    Organized in two parts, this book explores methods for incorporating concern for human needs into economic policies in eastern and central European countries that are making the transition to a market economy. Part I of the book considers economic reform, social policy, and child welfare in central and eastern Europe as a whole. Topics include:…

  14. L tectonites in the eastern-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. A.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of L tectonites is little understood and scarcely studied, however, it is likely an important part of penetrative plastic deformation in the crust. To improve our understanding of this strain phenomenon, I present a detailed case study of a km-wide domain of L tectonites developed in and around the ~2.05 Ga Boy Scout Camp Granodiorite (BSCG) in the Laramie Mountains, Wyoming. Detailed mapping and structural analyses allow for the reconstruction of the structural setting of this domain of apparent constrictional strain. Elongation lineations in and around the BSCG, including the L tectonites, are S to SW-trending and moderately plunging. In compositionally heterogeneous rocks (Archean banded gneiss and gneissic granite), hinge lines of minor folds are subparallel with the elongation lineation. The regional fold axes defined by poles to compositional banding and foliation measured from these rocks lies in the center of the lineation measurements from all the rock types in the area. Poles to foliation in the compositionally homogeneous BSCG and metamorphosed diabase dikes cluster in the NW quadrant and define the axial surface of the regional folds. These data show that the elongation lineations in and around the BSCG developed parallel with the local fold hinge lines and regional axes of folds with axial surfaces that strike ENE and dip moderately to the SE. Map- scale folds in this area verge towards the NW. Incorporation of 1) the constraints imposed by the shape fabric orientation data, 2) the constraints imposed by the orientation of the local and regional fold axes and 3) the constraints developed from map patterns and observations shows that the domain of L tectonites in and around the BSCG developed in the hinge zone of a large NW-vergent synform during bulk constrictional deformation as material was extruded from between two relatively ridged blocks. Therefore, L tectonites developed in response to both internal structural heterogeneities (hinge

  15. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 -a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting.

  16. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 –a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting. PMID:27846288

  17. Increasing summer rainfall in arid eastern-Central Asia over the past 8500 years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bing; Gasse, Françoise; Uchida, Masao; Hong, Yetang; Leng, Xuetian; Shibata, Yasuyuki; An, Ning; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A detailed and well-dated proxy record of summer rainfall variation in arid Central Asia is lacking. Here, we report a long-term, high resolution record of summer rainfall extracted from a peat bog in arid eastern-Central Asia (AECA). The record indicates a slowly but steadily increasing trend of summer rainfall in the AECA over the past 8500 years. On this long-term trend are superimposed several abrupt increases in rainfall on millennial timescales that correspond to rapid cooling events in the North Atlantic. During the last millennium, the hydrological climate pattern of the AECA underwent a major change. The rainfall in the past century has reached its highest level over the 8500-year history, highlighting the significant impact of the human-induced greenhouse effect on the hydrological climate in the AECA. Our results demonstrate that even in very dry eastern-Central Asia, the climate can become wetter under global warming. PMID:24923304

  18. Increasing summer rainfall in arid eastern-Central Asia over the past 8500 years.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bing; Gasse, Françoise; Uchida, Masao; Hong, Yetang; Leng, Xuetian; Shibata, Yasuyuki; An, Ning; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu

    2014-06-13

    A detailed and well-dated proxy record of summer rainfall variation in arid Central Asia is lacking. Here, we report a long-term, high resolution record of summer rainfall extracted from a peat bog in arid eastern-Central Asia (AECA). The record indicates a slowly but steadily increasing trend of summer rainfall in the AECA over the past 8500 years. On this long-term trend are superimposed several abrupt increases in rainfall on millennial timescales that correspond to rapid cooling events in the North Atlantic. During the last millennium, the hydrological climate pattern of the AECA underwent a major change. The rainfall in the past century has reached its highest level over the 8500-year history, highlighting the significant impact of the human-induced greenhouse effect on the hydrological climate in the AECA. Our results demonstrate that even in very dry eastern-Central Asia, the climate can become wetter under global warming.

  19. Manpower of neurologists in the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lisnic, V; Grisold, W; Müller, E

    2008-11-01

    Manpower of neurologists from the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe differs very much from the number of neurologists in most of the countries of Western Europe. With the enlargement of the European Union (EU), it is necessary to consider the tendencies of manpower evolution amongst the 'new' European countries to be able to consider future developments, particularly in regard to education and migration. A survey was performed to study distribution and tendencies to migrate amongst neurologists from the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The number of neurologists per 10,000 inhabitants varies from one country to another, but is higher in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe than in most Western European countries. There are almost no available positions for neurologists in Eastern Europe, and the majority of neurologists are keen to migrate to EU countries -- for further education and for financial reasons. The number of neurologists in the 'reforming and transition' countries is considerably higher than in the countries of the EU. Many neurologists from these countries would like to migrate to countries of the EU or USA, but the existing barriers are difficult to overcome.

  20. Moho Depth and Poisson's Ratio beneath Eastern-Central China and Its Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.; Chen, L.; Li, Z.; Ling, Y.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    Eastern-central China comprises a complex amalgamation of geotectonic blocks of different ages and undergone significant modification of lithosphere during the Meso-Cenozoic time. To better characterize its deep structure, we estimated the Moho depth and average Poisson's ratio of eastern-central China by H-κ stacking of receiver functions using teleseismic data collected from 1196 broadband stations. A coexistence of modified and preserved crust was revealed in eastern-central China, which was generally in Airy-type isostatic equilibrium. Crust is obviously thicker to the west of the North-South Gravity Lineament but exhibits complex variations in Poisson's ratio with an overall felsic to intermediate bulk crustal composition. Moho depth and Poisson's ratio show striking differences as compared to the surrounding areas in the rifts and tectonic boundary zones, where earthquakes usually occur. Similarities and differences in the Moho depth and average Poisson's ratio were observed among the Northeast China, North China Craton, South China, and the Qinling-Dabie Orogen as well as different areas within these blocks, which may result from their different evolutionary histories and strong tectonic-magma events since the Mesozoic. In addition, we observed an alteration of Moho depth by ~6 km and of Poisson's ratio by ~0.03 as well as striking E-W difference beneath and across the Xuefeng Mountains, suggesting that the Xuefeng Mountains may be a deep tectonic boundary between the eastern Yangtze Craton and western Cathaysia Block.

  1. A single cause for uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R.

    2014-12-01

    Regional observations suggest that the Central Anatolian plateau (central Turkey) has risen by > 1 km since the Tortonian (~ 8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. This uplift was preceded by the onset of widespread volcanism (~ 14-9 Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is however unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to the late-stage evolution of the northern Neotethys slab, resulting in delamination and slab breakoff. Recent tomographic results indicate that this slab extended beneath both below the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau just prior to delamination. We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution in the Aegean-Anatolian-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle. Following the Cretaceous-Eocene closure of the northern Neotethys, Africa-Eurasia convergence was accommodated by horizontal subduction at a trench that was located south of Anatolia. Like before the closure, the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture. In the early Miocene (~ 20-15 Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward to the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of this scenario is testable, whether delamination can explain the uplift of both the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau. In the east, uplift due to collision of Arabia is included. We use a coupled thermal-flexural model of the lithosphere. The model results show that delamination can explain the average present-day long-wavelength topography of the Central Anatolian plateau. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, delamination explains half the present-day elevation. We find that a single delamination event also accounts for the present-day surface heat flow and Curie-point depth in both plateaus. We therefore propose to refer to central and east

  2. A single cause for uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govers, Rob; Bartol, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Regional observations suggest that the Central Anatolian platearal (central Turkey) has risen by more than since the Tortonian (~8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. This uplift was preceded by the onset of widespread volcanism (~14-9Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is however unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to the late-stage evolution of the northern Neotethys slab, resulting in delamination and slab break-off. Recent tomographic results indicate that this slab extended beneath both below the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau just prior to delamination. We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution in the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle. Following Cretaceous-Eocene closure of the northern Neotethys, Africa-Eurasia convergence was accommodated by horizontal subduction at a trench that was located south of Anatolia. Like before the closure, the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture. In the early Miocene (~20-15Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward to the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of this scenario is testable, whether delamination can explain the uplift of both the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau. In the east, uplift due to collision of Arabia is included. We use a coupled thermal-flexural model of the lithosphere. Delamination can explain the average present-day long-wavelength topography of the Central Anatolian plateau. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, delamination explains half the present-day elevation: the other half resulted from crustal thickening. We therefore propose to refer to central and east Anatolia since the middle Miocene as "the Anatolian plateau".

  3. Prehistoric (Chalcolithic) Eastern Mediterranean tsunami deposit identified offshore central Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyuleneva, Natalia; Braun, Yael; Suchkov, Igor; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2017-04-01

    The shallow shelf area ( 15-30 m water depth) offshore Israel, bears great potential for paleo-tsunami studies. It was shown in the course of previous research that in these offshore marine deposits, tsunami generated sedimentary layers can be well preserved and readily identified; unlike in onshore sedimentary sequences, which experience continuous exogenous natural and anthropogenic influence. A sediment core, 219 cm long, was obtained from 15.3 m water depth, in about 4 km north of Caesarea. Grain size at 1 cm interval as well as XRD and XRF analyses at coarser resolution were performed. Previously carried out research allowed correlation of two anomalous layers in this core with well described sediment sequences offshore Caesarea. These two events correspond best with the proposed events of 749 AD and 1500 BC. Identified unusual layers in this core bear certain set of proxies that are characteristic for tsunami generated deposits and easily distinguished from the local normal marine setting. The latter is characterized by three dominating mineralogical components, such as carbonaceous sand derived either from biogenic material, namely shell fragments or from eroded limestones and dolomites that outcrop the mountains to the east; siliciclastic quartz for the sand fraction and mineral smectite for the clays. The supply of the two latter terrigenous sedimentary components comes from the Nile River, which has been a stable and predominant source of sediments for the past 8 ka. The aim of this study is to characterize the earliest unusual sedimentary layer found down core between 191 and 211 cm. This layer was attributed to a tsunami-generated sedimentary sequence in the studied core. Absolute age determination based on 14C gave the time frame from 5.6 to 6 ka BP, making this event the oldest identified in the Eastern Mediterranean to date. This tsunami corresponds to the Chalcolithic ('Copper Age') cultural period of the region. Prehistoric age of these sediments

  4. Holocene winter climate variability in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Perșoiu, Aurel; Onac, Bogdan P; Wynn, Jonathan G; Blaauw, Maarten; Ionita, Monica; Hansson, Margareta

    2017-04-26

    Among abundant reconstructions of Holocene climate in Europe, only a handful has addressed winter conditions, and most of these are restricted in length and/or resolution. Here we present a record of late autumn through early winter air temperature and moisture source changes in East-Central Europe for the Holocene, based on stable isotopic analysis of an ice core recovered from a cave in the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. During the past 10,000 years, reconstructed temperature changes followed insolation, with a minimum in the early Holocene, followed by gradual and continuous increase towards the mid-to-late-Holocene peak (between 4-2 kcal BP), and finally by a decrease after 0.8 kcal BP towards a minimum during the Little Ice Age (AD 1300-1850). Reconstructed early Holocene atmospheric circulation patterns were similar to those characteristics of the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while in the late Holocene they resembled those prevailing in the positive NAO phase. The transition between the two regimes occurred abruptly at around 4.7 kcal BP. Remarkably, the widespread cooling at 8.2 kcal BP is not seen very well as a temperature change, but as a shift in moisture source, suggesting weaker westerlies and increased Mediterranean cyclones penetrating northward at this time.

  5. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  6. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  7. Fluid-rock interaction and thermochemical evolution of the eastern Alice Springs Orogen, central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Jan; Hand, Martin; Raimondo, Tom; Kelsey, David

    2017-04-01

    The Harts Range rift and basement complex is located in the eastern Alice Springs Orogen, central Australia. For the period 450-320 Ma, this tectonic domain is characterised by large-scale deformation of the Harts Range Group rift sequence and pervasive reworking of its underlying basement. Fluid-rock interaction is evidenced by extensive pegmatite intrusion and retrogression occurring episodically throughout this 130 Myr period, possibly coeval with prograde upper-amphibolite facies metamorphism. The orthogneiss-dominated Entia Gneiss Complex (EGC) represents basement structurally underlying the Harts Range Group, and has evidence for associated deformation and fluid ingress between 390-320 Ma. The EGC also contains metapelites at various structural levels of the mid- to lower-crust, providing a means to constrain the thermobarometric record during a period of significant rheological weakening. Despite existing studies, the source of fluid that contributed to pervasive deformation and metamorphism is unresolved. Additionally, the role of fluid in the episodic history of crustal melting, and ultimately the generation of large-scale tectonic reworking in the Harts Range Group, remains unclear. In this contribution, we integrate U-Pb monazite geochronology, geochemistry, petrography and phase equilibria forward modelling from various metapelitic rocks at different structural levels of the Entia Gneiss Complex. Preliminary data show that the timing of metamorphism coincides with pegmatite crystallisation ages. These constraints form the basis for understanding the conditions and timing at which fluid flow occurred, and the potential sources of the fluid will be constrained by stable isotope analyses (δ18O and δD). The combination of in situ geochronological data with petrographic observations linked to P - T models is vital in providing temporal constraints on the physical and thermal evolution of the reworking event.

  8. Geochemical features of collision-related volcanic rocks in central and eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notsu, K.; Fujitani, T.; Ui, T.; Matsuda, J.; Ercan, T.

    1995-03-01

    In central and eastern Anatolia, volcanism related to continental collision occurred in Neogene to Quaternary times. Major-and trace-element compositions, 87Sr 86/Sr and K-Ar ages were determined for volcanic rocks from selected volcanoes in this region. 87Sr 86/Sr for basalts from Erciyes volcano in the eastern part of central Anatolia, as well as Ararat, Nemrut and Karacadag volcanoes in eastern Anatolia are in the range 0.7035-0.7040. These ratios are higher than those of N-type MORB but overlap arc volcanic rock values. This suggests that the mantle source, which was possibly contaminated by fluids and melts with higher 87Sr 86/Sr during the pre-collisional events, has similar Sr isotopic compositions in wide areas of the eastern part of central Anatolia and eastern Anatolia, even across the collision plate boundary. In addition, chemical compositions of the mantle source are not homogeneous with respect to HFS element contents, indicating that the slab-derived components resulting from past subductions are not homogeneously distributed. The mantle source beneath the western part of central Anatolia, which corresponds to the transitional region from collision tectonics in the east to subduction tectonics in the west, has different chemical and Sr isotopic signatures from other parts of Anatolia. In the western part of central Anatolia, the 87Sr 86/Sr of basaltic rocks from three regions characterized by monogenetic volcanoes are in the range 0.70427 to 0.70581 and differ from region to region, in spite of indistinguishable chemical compositions. This indicates either source heterogeneity on a small scale, or different contributions of local crustal contaminants. Calc-alkaline lavas from Ararat and Kars in eastern Anatolia have chemical compositions with subduction signatures inherited from pre-collision subduction events. In contrast, the chemical and Sr isotopic features of volcanic rocks from Erciyes volcano in central Anatolia indicate that the combined

  9. Locational Probabilities for Archeological Sites in the Eastern Rapides-South Central Avoyelles Region, Central Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    AD-A12 724 LOCATIONAL PROBAB IITES FOR ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES IN THE / EASTERN RAPIDES-S-.(U) ARCHAEOLOGY INC LAFAYETTE LA G IBSONl OCT 81 RR-3 DA-PD-RC...Unit No. Archaeology Inc. 11. ContractfC) or Grant(G- No. 120 Beta Drive Lafayette, Louisiana (clDACW2981-M-1470 (G) Sponsoring Organization Name and...Cultural Resources Section, USACOE, who has long appreciated the need for sound projec- tive information on cultural resources locations. Although

  10. A modeling study of the role of deforestation on the climate of central and eastern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Semazzi, F.H.M.; Sun, Liqiang; Giorgi, F.

    1997-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of deforestation on the physical climate system of eastern and central Africa. The model used was the regional climate model (RegCM2) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and customized for the region under study. In the anomaly simulation, the land cover was systematically altered to replace the tropical forest with grass and Savannah cover. The RegCM2 realistically simulated the main features of the climate over eastern and central Africas. It was found that: (1) the rainfall dramatically decreased in 2 subregions, decreased in two subregions, increased in 1 subregion, and remained the same in 1 subregion; (2) rainfall deficit mainly happened during night time over the TF subregion and daytime over the LV subregion; and (3) mean surface air temperature increased over 5 subregions and decreased in 1 subregions. Deforestation also increased the diurnal variation of surface air temperature over one subregion. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, D.S.; Oleksyn, J.

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  12. Notes on the distribution of eastern woodrats and hispid cotton rats in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wills, H.D.; Geluso, Keith; Smits, E.J.; Springer, J.T.; Newton, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana) and hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) reach distributional limits in southern Nebraska (Jones 1964, Farney 1975). In the last half century, both species have expanded their distributional ranges in the region (Kugler and Geluso 2009, Wright et al. 2010). Herein, we report new localities of occurrence for both species that extend known distributional boundaries in south-central Nebraska beyond those reported by Kugler and Geluso (2009) and Wright et al. (2010).

  13. Toxic, bioaccumulative and persistent chemicals in central and eastern Europe--state-of-the-art report.

    PubMed

    Holoubek, I

    2000-07-01

    Organic substances that are persistent, bioaccumulative and have toxic characteristics likely to cause adverse effects on human health or have environmental effects are called PBTs (Persistent, Bioaccumulative, Toxic substances). The report "Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals in Central and Eastern European Countries--State-of-the-art Report" was prepared by a group of scientists from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Estonia and was published on the Internet (http:¿recetox.chemi.muni.cz/).

  14. Seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Nyman, D.J.; Hammond, C.R.

    1992-04-01

    The status of knowledge on the seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States is reviewed. Types of ground response to earthquake motions that result in pipeline failure and pipeline response to such motions are discussed. The primary focus is on oil and gas transmission lines constructed of welded steel pipe. Results of vulnerability studies, the need for better determination of the potential for existing pipeline failures, and design procedures for new pipelines are presented.

  15. Spatial and temporal trends in distribution of forest fires in Central and Eastern Europe

    Treesearch

    Ryszard Szczygieł; Barbara Ubysz; Tomasz. Zawiła-Niedźwiecki

    2009-01-01

    Forest in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) covers 56,285,000 ha (5% of European total forested area). Forest cover in CEE makes 30% of land use. Almost 50% of the forest under study is formed by coniferous species and only 30% by deciduous ones. Forest younger than 60 years old grows on 57% of that area. These factors, together with climate conditions cause that on the...

  16. Notes on the distribution of eastern woodrats and hispid cotton rats in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wills, H.D.; Geluso, Keith; Smits, E.J.; Springer, J.T.; Newton, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana) and hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) reach distributional limits in southern Nebraska (Jones 1964, Farney 1975). In the last half century, both species have expanded their distributional ranges in the region (Kugler and Geluso 2009, Wright et al. 2010). Herein, we report new localities of occurrence for both species that extend known distributional boundaries in south-central Nebraska beyond those reported by Kugler and Geluso (2009) and Wright et al. (2010).

  17. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  18. Floods of May and June 2004 in Central and Eastern Ohio: FEMA Disaster Declaration 1519

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebner, Andrew D.; Straub, David E.; Lageman, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Several severe thunderstorms that passed through Ohio between May 17 and June 17, 2004, produced large amounts of rain in an already wet central and eastern Ohio, resulting in flooding in this region from May 18 to June 21, 2004. Record peak streamflow occurred at three U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages. Damages caused by the flooding resulting from these storms were severe enough that 25 counties in central and eastern Ohio were declared Federal disaster areas. In all, there were two storm- or flood-related deaths, 3,529 private structures damaged or destroyed, and an estimated $43 million in damages. This report describes the meteorological factors that resulted in severe flooding in central and eastern Ohio between May 18 and June 21, 2004, and addresses the damages caused by the storms and flooding. Peak-stage, peak-streamflow, and recurrence-interval data are reported for selected USGS streamgages. Flood profiles determined by the USGS are presented for selected streams.

  19. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  20. Dedicated energy crops and crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in the Central and Eastern U.S.A.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dedicated energy crops and crop residues will meet herbaceous feedstock demands for the new bioeconomy in the Central and Eastern USA. Perennial warm-season grasses and corn stover are well-suited to the eastern half of the USA and provide opportunities for expanding agricultural operations in the r...

  1. Circulation characteristics of persistent cold spells in central-eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Manson, Alan H.; Li, Yanping; Meek, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The circulation patterns of persistent cold weather spells with durations longer than 10 days in central-eastern North America (United States and Canada; 32°-52°N, 95°-65°W) are investigated by using NCEP reanalysis data from 1948 to 2014. The criteria for the persistent cold spells are: (1) three-day averaged temperature anomalies for the regional average over the central-eastern United States and Canada must be below the 10th percentile, and (2) such extreme cold spells must last at least 10 days. The circulation patterns associated with these cold spells are examined to find the common signals of these events. The circulation anomaly patterns of these cold spells are categorized based on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation (AO), and other climate indices. The atmospheric circulation patterns that favor the cold spells are identified through composites of geopotential height maps for the cold spells. Negative AO phases favor persistent cold spells. Phases of sea surface temperature (SST) modes that are associated with warm SSTs in the eastern extratropical Pacific also favor persistent cold events in the study region. Stratospheric polar vortex breakdown alone is not a good predictor for the regional extreme cold spells in central-eastern North America. The meridional dispersions of quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the Pacific-North America sector in terms of cut-off zonal wavenumber modulated by background flow are analyzed to provide insight into the difference in evolution of the cold spells under different mean AO phases. The waveguide for AO > 1 is in a narrow latitudinal band centered on 40°N, whereas the waveguide for AO <-1 is in a broader latitudinal band from 40° to 65°N. The circulation patterns and lower boundary conditions favorable for persistent cold spells identified by this study can be a stepping-stone for improving winter subseasonal forecasting in North America.

  2. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lindley, G.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 10{sup 20} dyne-cm to 690 bars at 10{sup 25} dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine Q{sub Lg} as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the M{sub b} 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake.

  3. Noise and children's health: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children's health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children's health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children's health in relation to noise exposure.

  4. Noise induced hearing loss: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zaborowski, Kamil; Zamojska, Malgorzata; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the studies on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) which were carried out in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and former Soviet Union countries or Newly Independent States in the period from 1970 to 2012. The papers were identified by literature search of all accessible medical and other databases (Scopus, PubMed, Medline, etc.) using the terms "noise; hearing loss, NIHL" as key words and country denomination (in alphabetical order: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, former Yugoslavia, Ukraine). This review comprises both papers published in peer-reviewed international journals and articles from local sources. The main papers' topics included the assessment of the noise hazards in occupational, and very seldom in communal environment, and the prevalence of hearing impairment in employees. Simultaneously, attempts were undertaken to establish the relationship between the degree of hearing impairment and noise exposure. The effect of combined exposures to noise and vibration and/or otoxic chemicals was assessed as well. The influence of environmental, individual, and genetic risk factors on NIHL development was intensively examined. In addition, studies concerning the role of otoacoustic emissions for NIHL monitoring and clinical examinations were conducted. Some animal researches, including molecular genetics, had been also performed. The majority of papers concerned occupational exposures, whereas only a few were dedicated to community noise.

  5. Measuring Central and Eastern Europe's Socio-Economic Development Using Time Lags.

    PubMed

    Paprotny, Dominik

    This paper applies the 'time lag' method to a set of social and economic indicators, examining the development of Central and Eastern Europe since the first world war. Originally used to assess technology diffusion, this method allows comparison of levels of development between states and through a long period of time. It presents how many years have elapsed between achieving a certain level of development between countries. The results show that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have only narrowly converged with a set of 23 highly-developed 'benchmark' states. Development in monetary terms (gross domestic product per capita) is the indicator where this region lags most. Employment structure, life expectancy or infant mortality show much smaller lags. Communist states were closest to the West in the 1960s-early 1970s and struggled thereafter. They are still mostly lagging more today than at their peak before transformation despite the progress achieved in absolute terms after the fall of centrally-planned economy.

  6. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  7. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Parízková, J

    2000-03-01

    The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.

  8. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the pediatric population in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Hanane; El Khoury, Antoine C; Goetghebeur, Mireille M

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotaviral gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under five years of age worldwide. This comprehensive review aims to estimate the burden of RVGE among children in Central and Eastern Europe. Results This literature search captured 38 studies pertaining to RVGE infection in the region. Among children under 15 years of age, RVGE accounted for between 22.0% and 55.3% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis per year. For most countries RVGE was most common in the winter months, although it was reported year round in Bulgaria. Geographical comparison of genotyping data revealed that three genotype combinations, G1P[8], G4P[8] and G2P[4] were present in all countries for which full genotyping data was available. Genotype predominance varied on a season to season basis within each country. Only limited data was available for healthcare resource utilization and economic burden for this region. Methods An extensive search of the biomedical literature (1999–2009) was conducted in major databases. Studies pertaining to the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus in Central and eastern Europe were captured and data from each country was systematically extracted and compared. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While three genotype combinations currently predominate in the region, the dominance of a certain serotype can change dramatically from year to year and from country to country. A vaccination program with broad serotype coverage may help to decrease the burden of RVGE in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:21422818

  9. Paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks: a comparison between central and eastern Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankarani, M.; Amini, A.; Mosadegh, H.

    2009-04-01

    The succession of Permian rocks in Alborz region is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate facies. All of the sediments were deposited in the Paleotethyan passive continental margin but they show different facies architecture and paleoenvironmental condition in various parts of the region. This study, as part of a wider project, has investigated sedimentary facies and paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks in central and eastern Alborz. The Permian rocks in central Alborz are dominated by siliciclastic facies (Doroud Formation) in the lower, and carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the upper half. Field studies and laboratory measurements resulted in recognition of 4 terrigenous and 13 carbonate facies in the succession. A siliciclastic shallow marine system was determined as depositional environment of the terrigenous facies. A homoclinal carbonate ramp, with scattered patch reefs, was determined as depositional environment of the carbonate facies. Dasycladacean green algae, ancestral red algae, hermatypic corals and bryozoans were the major bioconstructors of the ramp. The abundance of skeletal shoals respect to ooidal shoals in the ramp margin was high. The Permian rocks in eastern Alborz are dominated by mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the lower, and siliciclastic facies (Nesen Formation) in the upper half. The studies resulted in recognition of 5 terrigenous and 6 carbonate facies in the succession. A mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf with high sediment influx was determined as depositional environment of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies. Occurrence of the small patch reefs with high coral diversity in this mixed shelf indicates normal marine (hyposaline) condition. Upper terrigenous facies were deposited in fluvial-flood plain system. Difference in paleoclimate and tectonic activity of two sub-basins seems to be the major cause of the differences between the Permian facies in central and eastern Alborz.

  10. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Holmberg, Christine; Dokova, Klara G; Milevska-Kostova, Neda; Chicin, Gratiana; Ulrichs, Timo; Rechel, Bernd; Willich, Stefan N; Powles, John; Tinnemann, Peter

    2012-06-08

    There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify "best practices" of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently needed. The monitoring of health trends is

  11. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    PubMed

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  12. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently

  13. Review of HIV vulnerability and condom use in central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A

    2012-03-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in central and eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analysed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries - the most affected by HIV - also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive and locally tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention.

  14. Stratigraphic framework of Lower and Upper Cretaceous rocks in central and eastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    This study shows the lithology, thickness, distribution, and correlation of Lower and Upper Cretaceous rocks in central and eastern Montana. The described stratigraphic units range from the Aptian Kootenai Formation (oldest) to the Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation (youngest). An included text report describes the units, and most formations or members are also represented by isopach maps. Structure contour maps of three horizons are also included. Correlations across the study area are shown on a series of cross sections. All text and illustrations are included as Adobe PDF files.

  15. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Europeanization in making policies against domestic violence in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe's domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.

  17. Large Scale Winter Time Disturbances in Meteor Winds over Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greisiger, K. M.; Portnyagin, Y. I.; Lysenko, I. A.

    1984-01-01

    Daily zonal wind data of the four pre-MAP-winters 1978/79 to 1981/82 obtained over Central Europe and Eastern Europe by the radar meteor method were studied. Available temperature and satellite radiance data of the middle and upper stratosphere were used for comparison, as well as wind data from Canada. The existence or nonexistence of coupling between the observed large scale zonal wind disturbances in the upper mesopause region (90 to 100 km) and corresponding events in the stratosphere are discussed.

  18. Low Seroprevalence Indicates Vulnerability of Eastern and Central Sudan to Infection with Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Adam, Awadalkareem; Seidahmed, Osama M E; Weber, Christopher; Schnierle, Barbara; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reiche, Sven; Jassoy, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern and central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.

  19. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing drug injection, economic decline and failing health and healthcare systems. There is a need to address the professional and ideological opposition - even in countries considered to be fully functioning democracies - to evidence-based public health interventions like harm reduction, coupled with treating HIV/AIDS for all those in need, if countries are to provide a more effective response.

  20. Fossil Chondrichthyes from the central eastern Pacific Ocean and their paleoceanographic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D.; Aguilera, Orangel A.; Rodriguez, Félix

    2014-04-01

    The study of the chondrichthyan fauna from the Angostura, Onzole, Canoa and Jama formations, in the Neogene of Bordón and Manabí basins, Ecuador, reveals the presence of 30 taxa, including the deep water shark †Chlamydoselachus landinii sp. nov. The assemblages are dominated by tropical shallow and deep water chondrichthyans, suggesting paleoenvironments associated with a short platform shelf bordering a deep margin. These assemblages are the most diverse shark and ray association known from the Tropical Central Eastern Pacific Ocean in the South American coastal basin, and provide new information on the paleoecology and paleodiversity of Neogene chondrichthyans.

  1. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals.

  2. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  3. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  4. Central and eastern Anatolian crustal deformation rate and velocity fields derived from GPS and earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, N. M.; Nalbant, S. S.; Sunbul, F.; Komec Mutlu, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new strain-rate and associated kinematic model for the eastern and central parts of Turkey. In the east, a quasi N-S compressional tectonic regime dominates the deformation field and is partitioned through the two major structural elements of the region, which are the conjugate dextral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the sinistral strike slip East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The observed surface deformation is similar to that inferred by anisotropy studies which sampled the region of the mantle closer to the crust (i.e. the lithospheric mantle and the Moho), and is dependent on the presence or absence of a lithospheric mantle, and of the level of coupling between it and the overlaying crust. The areas of the central and eastern parts of Turkey which are deforming at elevated rates are situated above areas with strong gradients in crustal thickness. This seems to indicate that these transition zones, situated between thinner and thicker crusts, promote more deformation at the surface. The regions that reveal elevated strain-rate values are 1) the Elaziğ-Bingol segment of the EAFZ, 2) the region around the Karlıova triple-junction including the Yedisu segment and the Varto fault, 3) the section of the NAFZ that extends from the Erzincan province up to the NAFZ-Ezinepazarı fault junction, and 4) sections of the Tuz Gölü Fault Zone. Other regions like the Adana basin, a significant part of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ), the Aksaray and the Ankara provinces, are deforming at smaller but still considerable rates and therefore should be considered as areas well capable of producing damaging earthquakes (between M6 and 7). This study also reveals that the central part of Turkey is moving at a faster rate towards the west than the eastern part Turkey, and that the wedge region between the NAFZ and the EAFZ accounts for the majority of the counter clockwise rotation between the eastern and the central parts of Turkey. This

  5. Structure, Kinematics, and Thermal/Erosion History of the eastern Central Range, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, E.; Fisher, D. M.; Willett, S. D.; Greenan, S. L.

    2001-12-01

    Analyses of structure, incremental strain histories, and thermochronometry in the eastern Central Range of Taiwan provide insights into the kinematics within the metamorphic core of the Taiwan arc-continent collision. The results of these analyses are consistent with a three-dimensional displacement field that is fixed relative to the geometry of a thin-skinned double-sided wedge. The obliquity between the Luzon arc and the Asian passive margin results in a collision that propagates southward through time, and this time-space equivalence allows north to south variations in structural and thermal history to be evaluated in the context of mountain belt evolution. There are three general structural events in the eastern Central Range of Taiwan. D1 involves west-vergent folding and development of a slaty cleavage/schistosity with growth of fibrous overgrowths and ellipsoidal chlorite-mica aggregates. D2 is represented by east-vergent folds that deform the earlier fabrics and are associated with crenulation cleavages. D3 is defined by brittle normal faults that crosscut all the earlier fabrics. Strain analyses indicate 270 to 880 percentages of extension parallel to the mountain belt during D1. D1 strain histories, after restoring the rotations associated with D2 east-vergent folding, depict west-vergent thrusting followed by left-lateral shearing. This temporal variation in extension direction and shear direction from down-dip to along-strike is similar to the observed west-to-east variation in the orientation of the D1 stretching lineation across the Central Range. This observation, coupled with the reversal in vergence of structures from west-vergent during D1 to east-vergent during D2, indicates that the rocks of the Asian passive margin have advected from west to east relative to a displacement field that is fixed relative to the mountain belt topography. The consistency in D1 strain histories from south to north indicates that all the rocks of the eastern Central

  6. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    SciTech Connect

    Simeonova, K.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  7. First report on the Early Devonian (Lochkovian) brachiopods from eastern Central Pamirs, Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzalevskaya, Tatiana L.; Popov, Leonid E.; Ghobadi Pour, Mansoureh; Dufour, MiKhail S.

    2017-05-01

    A low diversity brachiopod fauna including Meristella? aksuensis sp. nov., Ouraniorhynchus dronovi gen. et. sp. nov., Nikiforovaena sp., Nucleospira sp., and Protathyris sp. aff. P. sibirica, has been recovered from quartzites assigned to the Burak Member. It is suggested the presence of Early Devonian (Lochkovian) deposits not previously reported from the Central Pamirs (south-eastern Tajikistan). The Pamirs brachiopod fauna shows mixed faunal signatures suggesting links with Lochkovian brachiopod faunas of the Rhenish-Bohemian Region of the Old World Realm, the Australian segment of Gondwana, the Zerafshan-Hyssar Region, and South China, while it was probably located outside the Silurian Sino-Australian Province. In addition, the paper gives a brief review of the poorly known Ordovician and Silurian stratigraphy of the Central Pamirs.

  8. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  9. Smooth Muscle Titin Zq Domain Interaction with the Smooth Muscle α-Actinin Central Rod*

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Richard J.; Simon, Alanna R.; Bienkiewicz, Ewa A.; Felix, Augustine; Keller, Thomas C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Actin-myosin II filament-based contractile structures in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells contain the actin filament-cross-linking protein α-actinin. In striated muscle Z-disks, α-actinin interacts with N-terminal domains of titin to provide a structural linkage crucial for the integrity of the sarcomere. We previously discovered a long titin isoform, originally smitin, hereafter sm-titin, in smooth muscle and demonstrated that native sm-titin interacts with C-terminal EF hand region and central rod R2-R3 spectrin-like repeat region sites in α-actinin. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA from human adult smooth muscles and cultured rat smooth muscle cells and Western blot analysis with a domain-specific antibody presented here revealed that sm-titin contains the titin gene-encoded Zq domain that may bind to the α-actinin R2-R3 central rod domain as well as Z-repeat domains that bind to the EF hand region. We investigated whether the sm-titin Zq domain binds to α-actinin R2 and R3 spectrin repeat-like domain loops that lie in proximity with two-fold symmetry on the surface of the central rod. Mutations in α-actinin R2 and R3 domain loop residues decreased interaction with expressed sm-titin Zq domain in glutathione S-transferase pull-down and solid phase binding assays. Alanine mutation of a region of the Zq domain with high propensity for α-helix formation decreased apparent Zq domain dimer formation and decreased Zq interaction with the α-actinin R2-R3 region in surface plasmon resonance assays. We present a model in which two sm-titin Zq domains interact with each other and with the two R2-R3 sites in the α-actinin central rod. PMID:18519573

  10. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  11. Shaking intensity from injection-induced versus tectonic earthquakes in the central-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Although instrumental recordings of earthquakes in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) remain sparse, the U. S. Geological Survey's “Did you feel it?” (DYFI) system now provides excellent characterization of shaking intensities caused by induced and tectonic earthquakes. Seventeen CEUS events are considered between 2013 and 2015. It is shown that for 15 events, observed intensities at epicentral distances greater than ≈ 10 km are lower than expected given a published intensity-prediction equation for the region. Using simple published relations among intensity, magnitude, and stress drop, the results suggest that 15 of the 17 events have low stress drop. For those 15 events, intensities within ≈ 10-km epicentral distance are closer to predicted values, which can be explained as a consequence of relatively shallow source depths. The results suggest that those 15 events, most of which occurred in areas where induced earthquakes have occurred previously, were likely induced. Although moderate injection-induced earthquakes in the central and eastern United States will be felt widely because of low regional attenuation, the damage from shallow earthquakes induced by injection will be more localized to event epicenters than shaking tectonic earthquakes, which tend to be somewhat deeper. Within approximately 10 km of the epicenter, intensities are generally commensurate with predicted levels expected for the event magnitude.

  12. Study of Magnetic Fabrics across the Central Part of the Chimei Fault, the Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, E. C.; Chu, Y. R.; Chou, Y. M.; Lee, T. Q.; Kuo, S. T.; Cai, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is an ongoing collisional mountain belt located in the conjunction of two subduction-arc systems with opposite vergences between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. The Coastal Range along the eastern Taiwan is the accreted Luzon arcs and surrounding basins onto the Eurasian crust. The Chimei fault, a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the Miocene volcanic Tuluanshan Formation over the Pleistocene sedimentary Paliwan Formation, is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range. To investigate the deformation pattern and strain history across the Chimei fault, we analyzed oriented samples of mudstone and volcanic rocks across the fault zone, fold zone, damage zone, and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). AMS can be represented as a susceptibility ellipsoid with 3 principal directions and values (Kmax, Kint, Kmin) and therefore is well known as a tool of magnetic fabrics to study the deformation. Results of AMS across the central part of the Chimei fault show that the direction of Kmax changed from N-S orientation to sub-vertical and the orientation of Kmin switched from 270/70 to N-S orientation when samples were closed to the fault zone. At the same time, anisotropy was increasing and susceptibility ellipsoid changed from oblate to prolate in the fold zone back to oblate in the fault zone. Based on identification works of magnetic minerals, the major magnetic carrier is magnetite with pseudo-single domain. As a result, it strongly speculated when samples were approaching to the central part of Chimei fault, stress altered from sub-vertical sedimentary loading to horizontally N-S tectonic compression. Due to increasing deformation, oblate ellipsoids with strong anisotropy developed within the fault zone highlighted the strain history of the central part of the Chimei fault.

  13. Surface control on contrasts in deformation between eastern and western margins of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, F.; Norton, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The deformation style and climate between the eastern and western escarpments of the Central Andes are strikingly different. The eastern side is in a tropical climate; it receives annual precipitation amounts of >3500 mm and experiences active shortening and thrusting, while the western side is one of the driest places on Earth and is deformed by long-wavelength warping. Indeed, climate is so dry that the western slopes can go decades without recorded rainfall. Here we show that the modern distribution of deformation in the Central Andes can be a result of enhanced orographic precipitation pattern beginning ca. 7-10 Ma (Norton and Schlunegger, 2011). Reduced erosion on the western side would have steepened the orogen, forcing deformation to shift to the east where high precipitation amounts would have enhanced erosion. We support this hypothesis with low erosion rates and a well-defined retreating knickzone in the Western Andes, and likewise by high erosion rates and channel morphologies indicative of transient orographic feedbacks in the east. Indeed, erosion rates as measured by cosmogenic nuclides are < 0.01 mm yr-1 in the west (Kober et al., 2007) and more than an order of magnitude higher, > 0.2 mm yr-1, in the east (Safran et al. 2005). Stream profiles from the Western Escarpment are indicative of slow knickzone retreat in the absence of modern tectonic forcing while streams on the Eastern Escarpment are the product of strong climate-tectonic feedbacks, indicated by steep and strongly concave segments in the orographically-affected reach. Reconstructions of the accretionary wedge geometry and high angle fault movements between the Miocene and today further support an erosion driven shift in the locus of deformation. In particular, at orogenic scales, critical taper calculations indicate that the near cessation of erosion on the western side ca. 7-10 Ma ago shifted the orogen into a super-critical state where deformation only occurs along the basal d

  14. The central domains of personality pathology in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Roger T; Newton-Howes, Giles; Crawford, Michael J; Tyrer, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    There is general agreement that the classification of personality disorders in DSM-IV is unsatisfactory. We systematically reviewed all studies that have analyzed patterns of personality disorder symptoms and signs in psychiatric patients; twenty-two papers were included in the final synthesis. There is reasonable consistency over the number and type of personality pathology traits reported despite differing samples, varying assessment methods, and different statistical manipulations. There are three or four high order traits; an externalizing factor incorporating borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, and antisocial traits (the latter is sometimes recorded as a separate trait); an internalizing factor incorporating avoidant and dependent traits; a schizoid factor; and often a compulsive factor. Using these domains of personality pathology would simplify classification, have higher clinical utility, and allow relatively easy translation of current research.

  15. A Dramatic Increase in Seismic Observations in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R.; Busby, R.; Simpson, D.; Alvarez, M.; Vernon, F.

    2009-05-01

    The USArray Transportable Array (TA) is a network of 400 seismograph stations that is systematically moving west-to-east across the contiguous United States. The TA is part of the National Science Foundation's multi- disciplinary EarthScope program. The TA has already occupied over 700 stations in the western US, and is continuing its multi-year migration towards the Atlantic coast before heading for Alaska. The stations use a grid-like deployment with 70 km separation between stations. At any given time there are approximately 400 stations operational, occupying a nominal 800 km by 2000 km "footprint." Each station is operated for two years. TA stations consist of three component broadband seismometers, with a few sites in the westernmost United States also including three component strong motion instruments. The instruments are installed about two meters below the surface, in thermally stable vaults. All stations transmit continuous data in near-real-time, and the data are freely distributed through the IRIS Data Management Center. TA stations can be upgraded to incorporate high frequency or strong motion instrument. Organizations can also "adopt" stations after installation by reimbursing the cost of the hardware, so that the stations become permanent. The TA is presently operating in the swath of the country extending from Texas to Montana. From 2010 to 2013 the TA will occupy ~800 sites in the central and eastern US. The array will be centered on the New Madrid, MO region during the bicentennial of the 1811-1812 earthquakes. During the TA deployment every existing or planned nuclear plant in the eastern US will be within 70 km of at least four new seismic stations. Thus, this station deployment in the eastern half of the US presents an unprecedented opportunity for improving source characterization, modeling the regional velocity and attenuation structure, and mapping seismic zones down to low magnitude thresholds. We will provide an overview of TA

  16. Central American Gyres, Tropical Cyclones, and Heavy Eastern U.S. Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosart, L. F.; Griffin, K. S.; Papin, P. P.; Torn, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Between late summer and mid-autumn, broad low-level cyclonic circulations with spatial scales of 1000-2000 km can develop over Central America on time scales of 1-2 days and persist for 3-5 days. These broad cyclonic circulation regions, which hereafter we will call gyres, can absorb westward-moving tropical cyclones (TCs) from the east (e.g., Matthew in September 2010), disgorge cyclonic circulations to the northeast that later develop into TCs (e.g., Nicole in September 2010), interact with remnant southward-moving cold fronts to encourage weak TC development (e.g., TC Nate in October 2011), or enable weak eastern Pacific tropical depressions (TDs) to make landfall in Central America (e.g., TD 12-E in October 2011). A distinguishing feature of a Central American gyre is that it can be directly associated with exceptionally heavy rainfall and damaging regional flooding, such as occurred in conjunction with the landfall of TD 12-E and TC Nate. Similarly, a deep poleward tropical moisture transport from a Central American gyre in response to amplified midlatitude flow can lead to flooding rains in midlatitudes such as occurred along the Atlantic coast in conjunction with TC Lee in September 2011. This presentation will focus on the large-scale flow contribution to the formation of a well-defined Central American gyre in late September 2010 during the PREDICT field experiment and the subsequent impact of the gyre on the midlatitude flow and weather over eastern North America. The gyre formed when a strong east-west oriented cyclonic shear zone that separated anomalous tropical westerlies in the eastern Pacific from anomalous tropical easterlies over the Caribbean and North Atlantic was disrupted by northerly flow across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec gap (Chivela Pass) into the tropical Pacific. Initially, anomalous easterly flow from the Caribbean that was deflected southward by higher terrain to the west provided the initial source of northerly flow through the gap

  17. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part B, historical earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax: the moment magnitude of the largest earthquake that is thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. The region specified in this report is the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. Parts A and B of this report describe the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes that occurred worldwide in tectonic analogs of the Central and Eastern United States. Examination of histograms of the magnitudes of these earthquakes allows estimation of Central and Eastern United States Mmax. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it are used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. Part A deals with prehistoric earthquakes, and this part deals with historical events.

  18. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959–2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD. PMID:27282140

  19. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959–2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  20. Domain specific effects of central traits in impression formation.

    PubMed

    Reich, Warren A; Ray, Suchismita

    2006-06-01

    In a procedure similar to that used in Asch's classic studies in 1946, 125 college students (54 men and 71 women, Mage=20.9 yr., SD=4.8) rated their impression of a hypothetical man or woman who was described by seven stimulus traits. This list included one of four central traits which appeared in the middle of the list: warm, cold, serious, or foolish. The dependent measures were factor scores derived from participants' ratings of 20 traits on social desirability and intellectual desirability. As hypothesized, warm and cold, prototypes of social desirability and undesirability, were associated with judgments of social but not intellectual desirability, and serious and foolish, prototypes of intellectual desirability and undesirability, were associated with judgments of intellectual but not social desirability. In addition, there was evidence of a subtle sex bias: ratings of "foolish" women were higher on social desirability than ratings of "foolish" men.

  1. Geochemistry of Florida Bay sediments: Nutrient history at five sites in eastern and central Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Holmes, C.W.; Kendall, C.; Lerch, H.E.; Bates, A.L.; Silva, S.R.; Boylan, A.; Corum, M.; Marot, M.; Hedgman, C.

    1999-01-01

    Recent seagrass dieoff and massive microalgal blooms have focused attention on the health of the Florida Bay ecosystem. Changes in nutrient input and the nutrient dynamics of Florida Bay are hypothesized to be linked to these problems, but crucial baseline information is still lacking. Efforts to restore Florida Bay to its natural condition will require information on the nutrient history of the bay. The purpose of this study was to examine distributions of organic C, total N, and total P in carbonate sediments from sites of continuous and known sedimentation rate (210Pb and 137Cs dated), in eastern and central Florida Bay. These sediments provide a record of historical changes in the C, N, and P load to the eastern and central bay. Analyses were conducted on sediments from cores collected at five sites, and on buried seagrass fragments at two sites. At three of the sites, sediments from seagrass-covered and adjacent barren areas were examined to determine differences in sedimentary geochemistry. Stable isotope analyses (??13C and ??15N) of sedimentary organic C and total N and of buried seagrass fragments were also carried out at two sites to examine possible changes in nutrient sources to the estuary. Results were consistent with recent increases in N and P in eastern Florida Bay, beginning in the early to mid 1980's. The timing of the increase in nutrient load observed in the sediment data directly preceded the first observations of massive microalgal blooms and seagrass dieoff in Florida Bay in 1987. The observed nutrification was greater for P than N, and was most pronounced at the most northeasterly site sampled (Pass Key). Isotope data (??15N) suggested that an increase in algal production accompanied the increase in N load at the Pass Key site. Along record of organic C, total N, and total P distributions from Whipray Basin in central Florida Bay showed historical peaks (mid 1700's and late 1800's) in organic C and total N, but not total P; these

  2. Linking slab break-off, Hellenic trench retreat, and uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Yıldırım, C.; Cosentino, D.; Strecker, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Central and Eastern Anatolian plateaus are integral parts of the world's third largest orogenic plateau. In the past decade, geophysical surveys have provided insights into the crust, lithosphere, and mantle beneath Eastern Anatolia. These observations are now accompanied by recent surveys in Central Anatolia and new data constraining the timing and magnitude of uplift along its northern and southern margins. Together with predictions from geodynamic models on the effects of various processes on surface deformation and uplift, the observations can be integrated to identify probable mechanisms of Anatolian Plateau growth.

  3. Ambient ozone in forests of the Central and Eastern European mountains.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Grodzińska, K; Fraczek, W; Musselman, R; Manning, W; Badea, O; Popescu, F; Fleischer, P

    2004-07-01

    Ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations in the forested areas of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) mountains measured on passive sampler networks and in several locations equipped with active monitors are reviewed. Some areas of the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Romania and parts of Poland, as well as the Sumava and Brdy Mountains in the Czech Republic are characterized by low European background concentrations of the pollutant (summer season means approximately 30 ppb). Other parts of the Carpathians, especially the western part of the range (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland), some of the Eastern (Ukraine) and Southern (Romania) Carpathians and the Jizerske Mountains have high O(3) levels with peak values >100 ppb and seasonal means approximately 50 ppb. Large portions of the CEE mountain forests experience O(3) exposures that are above levels recommended for protection of forest and natural vegetation. Continuation of monitoring efforts with a combination of active monitors and passive samplers is needed for developing risk assessment scenarios for forests and other natural areas of the CEE Region.

  4. Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ciglenečki, I; Eyema, R; Kabanda, C; Taafo, F; Mekaoui, H; Urbaniak, V

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a spastic paraparesis of sudden onset, linked to the exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava as staple food combined with low protein intake. Around 60,000 refugees from the Central African Republic sought refuge in villages in eastern Cameroon between 2005 and 2007. Médecins Sans Frontières was providing nutritional and medical assistance in the villages affected by displacement. We describe cases of konzo seen at the mobile clinics organized in these villages. Basic information including demographic data, history and clinical presentation was recorded for each konzo patient. All patients were given nutritional supplements, and selected cases were referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. A total of 469 patients were diagnosed with konzo. The majority (80%) were refugees. Children and women of reproductive age predominated. Most of the patients developed symptoms after 2007 in a seasonal pattern with most of the cases occurring during the dry winter season. Most of the patients complained about walking difficulties and weight loss and had exaggerated lower limb reflexes and muscle wasting on observation. Eastern Cameroon is an area with konzo. More effort needs to be put into preventive and educational measures. In addition, timely balanced food rations have to be provided to refugees.

  5. Paleoseismological Study of the Eastern Part of Venta de Bravo Fault, Acambay Graben, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León Loya, R. A.; Lacan, P.; Ortuňo, M.; Ana Paula, H.; Štěpančíková, P.; Stemberk, J.; Zuniga, R. R.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Intraplate earthquakes represent a significant risk to the cities located within the central part of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt as illustrated by the 1912 6.9 Mw Acambay earthquake. The epicenter was located 80 km northeast from Mexico City. The Acambay Graben is a part of a tectonic active intra-arc graben and bounded to the north by the 42 km south-dipping Acambay-Tixmadejé fault and to the south by the 73 km north-dipping Pastores (PF) and Venta de Bravo fault (VBF) zone. This last fault system has been linked to a 5.3 mb earthquake in 1979. In this study four trenches were dug exposing volcanic deposits, fluvio-lacustrine sediments, colluvial deposits and paleosols in the eastern part of the Venta de Bravo fault. We present evidence for two paleoearthquakes in the last 30 ka. The correlation of the events identified in a previous work in the western tip of the PF and our results in the eastern tip of the VBF is still an open question. However, using empirical relationships the expected maximum magnitude for joint rupture of these two faults with a 73 km trace is Mw=7, this magnitude is above the average of magnitudes estimations done in the other seismogenic sources in the region studied before, suggesting that the south border of the graben could be one of the most dangerous seismogenic source in the surrounding area of Mexico City.

  6. The phylogeographic system survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, W; Chang, H; Tsunoda, K; Musa, H H; Yang, Z P; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J

    2010-08-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogenetic survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia were assessed in the present study. The clustering, principal components, structure and F statistics all demonstrate that the native sheep breeds in these regions be classified into two genetic groups: Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group and South-Southeast Asia sheep group. The Mongolia sheep group and the Tibetan sheep group had a certain degree of gene communication from the ancient times. In the present study we demonstrated that the Chinese native sheep populations belonged to Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group. However, the relationships among the sheep populations in Mongolia sheep group in China were not closely related to the geographical distance among sheep populations.

  7. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  8. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  9. An analysis of blogs from medical students on "English Parallel" courses in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, John F

    2013-12-01

    During the last 20 years, there has been a significant growth in the training of overseas students especially within the European Union. Informal discussions with past and present students revealed a marked reluctance to take part in interviews about the nature of "English Parallel" courses. Alternative sources of information include blogs and commentaries written on the internet by present and former students at these schools. Such blogs are relatively limited in number and of variable length. They have been written for a variety of reasons and range in content from commentaries on training to wider discussion of life in Central and Eastern Europe. Six blogs were identified from an internet search, and a qualitative approach was adopted for the analysis of text content. Their experience is assessed, and potential approaches to greater integration of training across Europe are considered.

  10. A Decade of Transformation: Educational Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    The changes in Central and Eastern Europe caused by upheavals at the beginning of the 1990s had great impact on the formation and implementation of educational policies. A comparison of patterns in Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic shows common features which were rooted in the collapse of the communist system. At the same time these transformation processes were marked by considerable diversity. To elucidate these commonalities and differences, the following problem areas are examined: (a) decentralisation of responsibilities; (b) financing and privatisation; (c) structural reforms; (d) curricular reforms; and (e) evaluation, assessment and examinations. These developments are considered in the light of various theories about how periods of social transformation unfold. The article helps to throw light on the differences between the countries of the region in terms of how the educational changes were perceived and carried out.

  11. Psychosocial wellbeing in the Central and Eastern European transition: an overview and systematic bibliographic review.

    PubMed

    Eiroá Orosa, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the psychosocial wellbeing of populations in Central and Eastern Europe during the transition period subsequent to the fall of the SovietBloc. A revision of research addressing emotional wellbeing trends in this period and theoretical models was carried in order to verify their validity in the analysis of empirical studies. Hence, a systematic bibliographic review was conducted, aiming to find possible subjective mediators between social variables derived from change sand emotional wellbeing. The results of the review show that subjective mediators such as locus of control,perceived control, self-efficacy beliefs, perceived familial support, and the subjective evaluation of social change explain part of the relationship between macrosocial changes and emotional wellbeing. Results appear coherent with proposed multidimensional models of social change and mental health, although further research should be conducted to determine the specific weight of these phenomena in individual emotional wellbeing.

  12. Benefits of investment into modern medicines in Central-Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Inotai, András; Petrova, Guenka; Vitezic, Dinko; Kaló, Zoltán

    2014-02-01

    Transferability of current evidence and expressing value of innovative pharmaceuticals according to health system objectives Due to the scarcity of healthcare resources, decision-makers often expect monetary benefits--including cost savings or productivity gain--from innovative medicines. Manufacturers try to fulfill this expectation by expressing the benefits of innovative technologies in monetary units citing approaches from the scientific literature. Unfortunately, currently available evidence has limited relevance and transferability in Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries. This study aims to summarize how innovative pharmaceuticals in CEE countries may contribute to WHO-defined health system objectives, including health gain, equity in health, financial protection, responsiveness, equity in finance and financial sustainability. References in this study are also mainly based on international examples; therefore, additional policy research from CEE countries is necessary to validate assumptions. If CEE politicians can rely on credible arguments based on local research evidence, they may improve long-term strategies and policy decisions related to healthcare innovation.

  13. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  14. Persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds in central and eastern Europe--hot spots.

    PubMed

    Holoubek, I; Kocan, A; Holoubková, I; Hilscherová, K; Kohoutek, J; Falandysz, J; Roots, O

    2001-06-01

    The sources and environmental levels of the PBTs in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe are broadly described. Most of the countries in the region produce and/or formulate pesticides. The pesticide registration is a primary requirement for import, production and distribution. The special attention must be given to unwanted pesticides. The problem of unwanted and expired pesticides pose the greatest danger to the natural environment and people which is brought about by the use of chemicals in agriculture in CEE countries. Countries still have not solve the problem of safety storage for PBTs and other chemicals classified as poisons and they have no special sites or facilities for destruction of these chemicals. This region has very specific problems of environmental pollution, which are the results of the recent wars. Destruction of industrial facilities and spilling of chemicals have the worst effect for the environment (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro).

  15. Extreme cultural persistence in eastern-central Brazil: the case of Lagoa Santa Paleaeoindians.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Astolfo G M; Pugliese, Francisco A; Santos, Rafael O Dos; Okumura, Mercedes

    2017-07-24

    Lapa do Santo rockshelter, a Paleoindian site located in Eastern-Central Brazil, presented two main occupations; one during Early Holocene (12,460 to 8700 cal BP), and a latter in Middle Holocene (5100 to 4200 cal BP). In spite of this 3600 year gap, the stratigraphy and general characteristics of the material culture did not indicate any visible discontinuity. This led us to hypothesise a reoccupation of the rockshelter by the same cultural group, tested by means of statistical analyses comparing lithics, bone artifacts, and faunal remains from early and middle Holocene layers. No significant differences were found, and our results indicate the presence of a cultural tradition that persisted for 8240 years, or roughly 412 generations.

  16. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  17. Cancer mortality in central-eastern Europe: facts behind the figures.

    PubMed

    Döbrossy, Lajos

    2002-06-01

    An epidemiological assessment of the status and trends of cancer mortality shows that Europe is still divided by the rate of cancer death. Overall, cancer mortality in Europe has been steadily decreasing since the early 1990s. However, when the data are broken down, the burden of cancer in the central-eastern European countries is substantial, and mortality has actually continued to increase. Differences in lifestyle and environmental exposure are the most likely causes, and these are inevitably linked to political, social, and economic inequalities. For the time being, improvements in the health of the population are not a high priority for the new democratic governments. Even if attempts at cancer prevention are eventually realised, a major cancer burden will persist for many decades to come.

  18. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  19. Psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikhart, Hynek; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Topor, Roman; Sebakova, Helena; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Psychosocial factors at work have been found to predict a range of health outcomes but their effect on mental health outcomes has not been extensively studied. This paper explores the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The data come from a cross-sectional study of working men (n = 645) and women (n = 523) aged 45-64 years, randomly selected from population registers in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and Karvina-Havirov (Czech Republic). The questionnaire included questions on the effort and reward at work, job control, the full CES-D scale of depression, and a range of other characteristics. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between depression score and work characteristics: the logarithm of the effort-reward ratio, and continuous job control score. The means of the depression score were 10.5 for men and 14.2 for women. After controlling for age, sex and country, effort-reward ratio (logarithmically transformed) was strongly related to depression score; a 1 SD increase in the log transformed effort-reward ratio was associated with an increase in the depression of 2.0 points (95% CI 1.5; 2.4), and further adjustment did not materially change the effect. Job control was inversely associated with depression score in Poland and the Czech Republic (not in Russia) but the association was largely eliminated by controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. This study suggests that the effort-reward imbalance at work is related to prevalence of depression in these central and eastern European populations.

  20. The silica supersaturated waters of northern Evia and eastern central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatis, G.; Gartzos, E.

    1999-12-01

    The area of north Evia and eastern central Greece is characterized by strong geomorphological contrast and is built up mainly of consolidated rocks. Unconsolidated young sediments of Pleistocene to Holocene age cover the valley and basin flats, forming the most productive aquifers in this area. However, two more types of aquifers can be distinguished within the consolidated rock area. The first one is associated with karstified limestones and the second with strongly tectonized ultramafic rocks. The schist-chert formation, with intercalations of shales and cherts, seals the ultramafic masses underneath.Surface and spring waters associated with ultramafic rocks in north Evia and eastern central Greece were studied. Two types of water can be distinguished: (1) high Mg2+ and SiO2 , bicarbonate as the dominant anion, pH 7·4-9·2, temperature 9·5-16·3 °C, low TDS (total dissolved solutes) (459-1037 mg/l), found both in peridotite and serpentinite areas, classified as Mg-HCO3 type; (2) high Ca2+, low Mg2+ and SiO2 , hydroxyl ion as the major anion, pH 11·2, temperature 28 °C, very low TDS (122 mg/l), found in peridotite areas, classified as Ca-OH type. The studied waters are highly supersaturated with respect to quartz, amorphous silica, brucite and most low temperature magnesium silicates (antigorite, sepiolite, talc, etc.). These waters show relatively narrow SiO2 concentration ranges and a trend parallel to the amorphous silica saturation surface. The silica supersaturated waters have the potential to precipitate silica and consequently could affect the people of the local communities that use it as drinking water, causing health problems (kidney stones).

  1. Late Quaternary sea-level highstands in the central and eastern Indian Ocean: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2005-11-01

    The relative sea-level history of several atolls in the central and eastern Indian Ocean, including the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Chagos Archipelago, and the Maldives-Laccadive Archipelagoes, has been debated for over a century but takes on a particular significance in the face of anticipated climate change. For each of these central and eastern Indian Ocean atolls Pleistocene limestone is encountered at depths of 6-20 m below sea level. On the Cocos (Keeling) Islands this has been dated to Last Interglacial age. Conglomerate platform underlies the reef islands on Cocos within which a sequence of fossil microatolls of massive and branching Porites records a gradual fall of sea level relative to the atoll. In the Maldives, the significance of outcrops of 'reef rock' has been vigorously debated without resolving sea-level history. Although in situ Heliopora occurs on the reef flat of Addu Atoll, dated at around 2700 radiocarbon yrs BP, other evidence for higher sea level remains poorly constrained. Conglomerates of a similar age have been described from the Chagos Archipelago, but it has not been unequivocally demonstrated that they formed under conditions of relatively higher sea level. In contrast to reefs further west in the Indian Ocean, each of these atolls has living microatolls of massive Porites that have been constrained in their upward growth by sea level. Interpretation of the upper surface of two such specimens from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands indicates broad fluctuations in the sea surface over the past century; similar microatolls are described from the Maldives implying little change in sea level over recent years. Regardless of minor past fluctuations, most reef islands in the Maldives are particularly low-lying and appear vulnerable to inundation, and extracting a more detailed sea-level history remains an important challenge.

  2. HIV prevention nongovernmental organizations in Central and Eastern Europe: programs, resources and challenges.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Y A; Kelly, J A; Benotsch, E G; Somlai, A M; Brown, K D; Fernandez, M I; Opgenorth, K M

    2004-03-01

    HIV incidence is rising more rapidly in some areas of Central and Eastern Europe than anywhere else in the world. Carrying out effective HIV prevention programs requires the presence of "bridges" that can reach community populations most vulnerable to the disease. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are in a natural role to conduct HIV prevention programs. The Directors of 29 HIV prevention NGOs representing almost all countries in Central and Eastern Europe participated in in-depth interviews by telephone. The broad topics of these interviews included descriptions of the three largest programs conducted by each NGO during the past six months, at-risk target populations served, major barriers faced, and funding sources that sponsored HIV prevention activities. NGO programs most often targeted injection drug users (IDUs); other stigmatized groups were less frequently served by NGOs in the sample. The most common types of prevention activities were needle exchange, HIV prevention peer education, and delivering AIDS presentations and distributing educational materials. Among the major barriers that hampered effective conduct of HIV prevention programs were a shortage of available financial resources, governmental indifference or opposition, and AIDS-related stigma. National governments rarely provided substantial funds for NGO programs, and most funding came from United Nations agencies or private foundations. The information sources reported to be most helpful in assisting NGOs in program development were sharing ideas with other NGOs, participating in conferences, and accessing information from the Internet. A number of programs reported by the NGO Directors were innovative, outstanding, and comprehensive. Five such exemplary programs are described in this article. HIV epidemics in the region are still potentially controllable. NGOs need immediate support so that they can carry out their community-based activities on a larger scale.

  3. An overview of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism and tectonics in Eastern Paraguay and central Andes (Western Gondwana): Implications for the composition of mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarini, Ricardo H.; Gasparon, Massimo; De Min, Angelo; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero

    2016-12-01

    The amalgamation of the Western Gondwana (including the Greater Gondwana supercraton) occurred at 600 Ma during the Brazilian - Pan African orogeny. A plate junction related to this event is marked by the Transbrazilian lineament which separates the South American continent into two sectors: the Eastern Paraguay-Brazilian and Central Andean domains. An overview of the geodynamic data from these two sectors indicates that the two domains were subjected to distinct evolutions from the Proterozoic to the present. The Andean domain is characterized by long-lived subduction processes linked to the convergence and consequent collision of microplates since the Middle Proterozoic (western Amazonian Craton) with a peak at about 600-580 Ma. The Paraguay-Brazilian domain remained relatively stable but was affected by extension episodes that reactivated ancient (Early and Middle Proterozoic) suture zones. These different geodynamic evolutions seem to reflect broadly distinct mantle compositions. In the subduction zones of the Andean domain the mantle was deeply modified by metasomatic processes following the subduction of oceanic plates. Consequently, the Andean type magma sources show a clear HIMU imprint inherited from the MORB, whereas the Paraguay-Brazilian sector shows a prevalent EMI and subordinate EMII character. The petrological data mainly from Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic events in the two sectors are reviewed to investigate the current mantle plume and mantle dome models for the uprising of the asthenospheric (or sub-lithospheric) material.

  4. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf: 1999-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Waite, Janice M.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Moore, Sue E.

    2012-06-01

    Visual line transect surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf in association with pollock stock assessment surveys aboard the NOAA ship Miller Freeman in June and July of 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. Transect survey effort ranged from 1188 km in 1999 to 3761 km in 2002. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were the most common large whale in all years except 2004 when humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were more abundant. Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) were the most common small cetacean in all years. Abundance estimates were calculated by year for each oceanographic domain: coastal, middle, and outer/slope. The middle and outer/slope domains were divided into two strata ("north" and "south") because of variable survey effort. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales changed between the earlier (colder) and later (warmer) survey years. Fin whales consistently occupied the outer shelf and secondarily the middle shelf, and their abundance was an order of magnitude greater in cold compared to warm years. Humpback whales "lived on the margin" of the northern Alaska Peninsula, eastern Aleutian Islands and Bristol Bay; their preferred habitat is possibly associated with areas of high prey availability due to nutrient upwelling and aggregation mechanisms. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) occur shoreward of fin whales in the outer and middle shelf and in coastal habitats along the Alaska Peninsula. The highest abundance for this species was observed in a cold (1999) year. No clear relationship emerged for odontocetes with regard to warm and cold years. Dall's porpoise occupied both outer and middle domains and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) were more common in middle and coastal domains. This study provided a unique, broad-scale assessment of cetacean distribution and abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and a baseline for future comparisons.

  5. Simulation of air quality over Central-Eastern Europe - Performance evaluation of WRF-CAMx modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Katarzyna; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Reizer, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of presented work is to evaluate the accuracy of modelling the atmospheric transport and transformation on regional scale, performed with 25 km grid spacing. The coupled Mesoscale Weather Model - Chemical Transport Model (CTM) has been applied for Europe under European-American AQMEII project (Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative - http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The modelling domain was centered over Denmark (57.00°N, 10.00°E) with 172 x 172 grid points in x and y direction. The map projection choice was Lambert conformal. In the applied modelling system the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) from ENVIRON International Corporation (Novato, California) was coupled off-line to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). WRF-CAMx simulations have been carried out for 2006. The anthropogenic emisions database has been provided by TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) under AQMEII initiative. Area and line emissions were proceeded by emission model EMIL (Juda-Rezler et al., 2012) [1], while for the point sources the EPS3 model (Emission Processor v.3 from ENVIRON) was implemented in order to obtain vertical distribution of emission. Boundary conditions were acquired from coupling the GEMS (Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data) modelling system results with satellite observations. The modelling system has been evaluated for the area of Central-Eastern Europe, regarding ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. For each pollutant measured data from rural background AirBase and EMEP stations, with more than 75% of daily data, has been used. Original 'operational' evaluation methodology, proposed by Juda-Rezler et al. (2012) was applied. Selected set of metrics consists of 5 groups: bias measures, error measures, correlation measures, measures of model variance and spread, which

  6. The last glacial termination on the eastern flank of the central Patagonian Andes (47 ° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henríquez, William I.; Villa-Martínez, Rodrigo; Vilanova, Isabel; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Moreno, Patricio I.

    2017-07-01

    dispersal of hygrophilous trees and herbs from the eastern flank of the central Patagonian Andes, contributing to the afforestation of the western Andean slopes and pacific coasts of central Patagonia during T1.

  7. Neurotoxicity of Prion Peptides Mimicking the Central Domain of the Cellular Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Vilches, Silvia; Vergara, Cristina; Nicolás, Oriol; Sanclimens, Gloria; Merino, Sandra; Varón, Sonia; Acosta, Gerardo A.; Albericio, Fernando; Royo, Miriam; Río, José A. Del; Gavín, Rosalina

    2013-01-01

    The physiological functions of PrPC remain enigmatic, but the central domain, comprising highly conserved regions of the protein may play an important role. Indeed, a large number of studies indicate that synthetic peptides containing residues 106–126 (CR) located in the central domain (CD, 95–133) of PrPC are neurotoxic. The central domain comprises two chemically distinct subdomains, the charge cluster (CC, 95–110) and a hydrophobic region (HR, 112–133). The aim of the present study was to establish the individual cytotoxicity of CC, HR and CD. Our results show that only the CD peptide is neurotoxic. Biochemical, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy experiments demonstrated that the CD peptide is able to activate caspase-3 and disrupt the cell membrane, leading to cell death. PMID:23940658

  8. ATP interacts with the CPVT mutation-associated central domain of the cardiac ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Blayney, Lynda; Beck, Konrad; MacDonald, Ewan; D'Cruz, Leon; Nomikos, Michail; Griffiths, Julia; Thanassoulas, Angelos; Nounesis, George; Lai, F Anthony

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) central domain, a region associated with catecholamine polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) mutations, interacts with the RyR2 regulators, ATP and the FK506-binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6). Wild-type (WT) RyR2 central domain constructs (G(2236)to G(2491)) and those containing the CPVT mutations P2328S and N2386I, were expressed as recombinant proteins. Folding and stability of the proteins were examined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and guanidine hydrochloride chemical denaturation. The far-UV CD spectra showed a soluble stably-folded protein with WT and mutant proteins exhibiting a similar secondary structure. Chemical denaturation analysis also confirmed a stable protein for both WT and mutant constructs with similar two-state unfolding. ATP and caffeine binding was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Both ATP and caffeine bound with an EC50 of ~200-400μM, and the affinity was the same for WT and mutant constructs. Sequence alignment with other ATP binding proteins indicated the RyR2 central domain contains the signature of an ATP binding pocket. Interaction of the central domain with FKBP12.6 was tested by glutaraldehyde cross-linking and no association was found. The RyR2 central domain, expressed as a 'correctly' folded recombinant protein, bound ATP in accord with bioinformatics evidence of conserved ATP binding sequence motifs. An interaction with FKBP12.6 was not evident. CPVT mutations did not disrupt the secondary structure nor binding to ATP. Part of the RyR2 central domain CPVT mutation cluster, can be expressed independently with retention of ATP binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isotropic Crustal Velocity beneath Central Idaho/ Eastern Oregon using Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, P. M.; Panning, M. P.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V. I.; Stanciu, A. C.; Torpey, M.; Hongsresawat, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new, high resolution isotropic crustal velocity model beneath central Idaho and eastern Oregon. We produced the velocity model from vertical component Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements on data from the IDaho/ORegon (IDOR) Passive seismic network, 85 3-component broadband seismic stations, using ambient noise tomography and the method of Gallego et. al (2010). We calculated inter-station group velocities in narrow frequency bands from travel-time measurements of the stacked cross-correlations (bandpass filtered between 2 and 30 seconds), which we used to invert for velocity structure beneath the network. Goals of our work include refining models of crustal structure in the accreted Blue Mountain terranes in the western study area; determining the depth extent of the Salmon River Suture/ West Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), which crosses north-south through the middle of the network; determining the architecture of the Idaho batholith, an extensive largely crustal derived pluton; and examining the nature of the autochthonous (?) North American crust and lithosphere beneath the batholith. We cross-correlated seismograms for each IDOR Passive station pair in 24 hr segments, and then band-passed, removed mean and trend, whitened, and progressively stacked these cross-correlated seismograms for the number of days of available data for each station pair. We made travel-time measurements in relative width, narrow frequency bands by picking the peak of the envelope of the stacked seismograms. To overcome the loss of temporal resolution in the narrow bands, we measured 1-sided cross-correlated seismograms made by adding the negative side to the positive side of the stacked seismograms, and multiplying by a step function. We derived Rayleigh wave group velocity models for each frequency band using the least-squares inversion method of Tarantola (2005). We determined depth sensitivity of the various frequency bands from group velocity dispersion curves. Similarly

  10. Introducing Performance Measurements in the Evaluation of Assistance to Public Administration Reform in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxell, Ingrid T.; Ners, Krysztof J.

    This paper focuses on the experience of the Policy Education Centre on Assistance to Transition in providing monitoring and evaluation services to "Support for Improvement in Governance and Management in Central and Eastern European Countries" (SIGMA), a joint project of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the…

  11. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  12. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called "Partium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fényes, Hajnalka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of "The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development" project (N = 602, 2010). We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify…

  13. Variability and distribution of COL1A2 (type I collagen) polymorphisms in the central-eastern Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Scorrano, Gabriele; Lelli, Roberta; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Scano, Giuseppina; Contini, Irene; Hafez, Hani S; Rudan, Pavao; Rickards, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant of the collagen protein family, type I collagen is encoded by the COL1A2 gene. The COL1A2 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) EcoRI, RsaI and MspI in samples from several different central-eastern Mediterranean populations were analysed and found to be potentially informative anthropogenetic markers. The objective was to define the genetic variability of COL1A2 in the central-eastern Mediterranean and to shed light on its genetic distribution in human groups over a wide geographic area. PCR-RFLP analysis of EcoRI, RsaI and MspI polymorphisms of the COL1A2 gene was performed on oral swab and blood samples from 308 individuals from the central-eastern Mediterranean Basin. The genetic similarities among these groups and other populations described in the literature were investigated through correspondence analysis. Single-marker data and haplotype frequencies seemed to suggest a genetic homogeneity within the European populations, whereas a certain degree of differentiation was noted for the Egyptians and the Turks. The genetic variability in the central-eastern Mediterranean area is probably a result of the geographical barrier of the Mediterranean Sea, which separated European and African populations over time.

  14. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training…

  15. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  16. Retreating or standing: Responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid eastern central Asia

    Treesearch

    Hong-Xiang Zhang; Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively...

  17. Finding the Answers: A Look at Central and Eastern Europe. [and] Setting Up Special Services: The Trade Union Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poloni, Cesare; Flechsenhar, Ullrich H.

    1990-01-01

    Poloni reviews implications for unions of recent economic, social, technological, and political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Flechsenhar states that unions play a role in the development and restructuring of developing countries by providing special services to meet the economic and social needs of their members. (SK)

  18. Challenges for Teachers' Professional Learning for Inclusive Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Becirevic, Majda

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prepare teachers and other professionals for inclusive education in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS/CEE) region are heavily influenced by the legacy of Soviet defectology (the study of children with disabilities) and Soviet traditions of teacher education. The authors identify some…

  19. The Use of Cases in Teaching Business Courses in Central and Eastern Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramorski, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the differing use of case methodology in teaching business courses in Central and Eastern Europe and the United States. Presents a framework for developing and delivering case-based business courses with the objective of maximizing teaching effectiveness. (EV)

  20. Drug use, HIV, HCV and TB: major interlinked challenges in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kazatchkine, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the largest drug epidemic globally and the fastest and still expanding HIV epidemic. The Russian Federation and Ukraine together account for over 90% of the reported AIDS cases in the region. If small in absolute numbers, the epidemics are however significant in prevalence rate in most countries of Central Asia. Most heroin and many of the new synthetic or home-made drugs are injected, which has led to high prevalence levels (up to 90%) of HCV infection in people who inject drugs (PWID). The two epidemics of HIV and HCV are in turn interlinked with TB and MDR-TB that are highly prevalent among marginalized populations in the region. Despite progress in the last two years, access to antiretroviral treatment remains far below global levels and increases more slowly than new reported cases of HIV. Access to prevention is limited with low coverage of needle exchange programs and very low or inexistent access to opioid substitutive therapy. There are few exceptions to this situation, including Ukraine where harm reduction programs are being scaled up together with significant peer outreach programs for PWIDs. This is likely to be the reason why the epidemic curves in the Russian Federation and Ukraine are now diverging. The region faces many structural, cultural, societal and political obstacles in responding to these quadruple epidemics. Without a significantly expanded and strengthened response, these epidemics will remain major causes of illness and premature deaths in the region. PMID:25394010

  1. Holocene mammalian change in the central Columbia Basin of eastern Washington state, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2016-08-01

    Predictions of changes in the Holocene mammalian fauna of the central Columbia Basin in eastern Washington (USA) based on environmental changes are largely met. Taxonomic richness is greatest during periods of cool-moist climate. Rates of input of faunal remains to the paleozoological record may suggest greater mammalian biomass during periods of greater moisture but are difficult to interpret without data on sampling intensity in the form of volume of sediment excavated. Abundances of leporids and grazing ungulates fluctuate in concert with abundance of grass. Several biogeographic records are tantalizing but require additional study and data before being accepted as valid. Records of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) indicate this species was present in the central basin during the Holocene contrary to historic records and recent suggestions modern foxes there are escapees from fur farms. Bison (Bison bison) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) underwent diminution of body size during the Holocene. Modern efforts to conserve the Columbia Basin ecosystem are advised to consider the Holocene record as indicative of what may happen to that ecosystem in the future.

  2. Leveraging EarthScope USArray with the Central and Eastern United States Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, R.; Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Frassetto, A.; Brudzinski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent earthquakes, such as the 2011 M5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake, raised awareness of the comparative lack of knowledge about seismicity, site response to ground shaking, and the basic geologic underpinnings in this densely populated region. With this in mind, the National Science Foundation, United States Geological Survey, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy supported the creation of the Central and Eastern United States Seismic Network (CEUSN). These agencies, along with the IRIS Consortium who operates the network, recognized the unique opportunity to retain EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations in this region beyond the standard deployment duration of two years per site. The CEUSN project supports 159 broadband TA stations, more than 30 with strong motion sensors added, that are scheduled to operate through 2017. Stations were prioritized in regions of elevated seismic hazard that have not been traditionally heavily monitored, such as the Charlevoix and Central Virginia Seismic Zones, and in regions proximal to nuclear power plants and other critical facilities. The stations (network code N4) transmit data in real time, with broadband and strong motion sensors sampling at 100 samples per second. More broadly the CEUSN concept also recognizes the existing backbone coverage of permanently operating seismometers in the CEUS, and forms a network of over 300 broadband stations. This multi-agency collaboration is motivated by the opportunity to use one facility to address multiple missions and needs in a way that is rarely possible, and to produce data that enables both researchers and federal agencies to better understand seismic hazard potential and associated seismic risks. In June 2015, the CEUSN Working Group (www.usarray.org/ceusn_working_group) was formed to review and provide advice to IRIS Management on the performance of the CEUSN as it relates to the target scientific goals and objectives. Map shows

  3. First direct evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species (Cheirogaleus crossleyi) from the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Marina B; Rahalinarivo, Vololonirina

    2010-10-01

    The nocturnal dwarf lemurs of Madagascar (genus Cheirogaleus) are the only primates known to be obligate hibernators. Although the physiology of hibernation has been studied widely in the western, small-bodied species, Cheirogaleus medius, no direct evidence of hibernation, i.e., body temperature recordings, has been reported for any of the three recognized eastern dwarf lemur species. We present skin temperature data collected by external collar transmitters from two eastern dwarf lemur individuals (Cheirogaleus crossleyi) captured in the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar. Our study species is larger in body size than western dwarf lemurs and inhabits much colder environments. We present the first evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species, and we compare the results with data available for the western species. Although the hibernation period is shorter in dwarf lemurs from Tsinjoarivo, minimum body temperatures are lower than those reported for C. medius. Both individuals at Tsinjoarivo showed limited passive and extended deep hibernation during which they did not track ambient temperature as observed in most western dwarf lemurs. Because ambient temperatures at Tsinjoarivo never exceed 30°C, dwarf lemurs have to experience arousals to maintain homeostasis during periods of hibernation. We show that large dwarf lemurs (>400 g) are capable of undergoing deep hibernation and suggest that cold, high-altitude forests may render hibernation highly advantageous during periods of food scarcity. This study has implications for understanding the physiology of hibernation in small-bodied lemurs.

  4. First direct evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species ( Cheirogaleus crossleyi) from the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Marina B.; Rahalinarivo, Vololonirina

    2010-10-01

    The nocturnal dwarf lemurs of Madagascar (genus Cheirogaleus) are the only primates known to be obligate hibernators. Although the physiology of hibernation has been studied widely in the western, small-bodied species, Cheirogaleus medius, no direct evidence of hibernation, i.e., body temperature recordings, has been reported for any of the three recognized eastern dwarf lemur species. We present skin temperature data collected by external collar transmitters from two eastern dwarf lemur individuals ( Cheirogaleus crossleyi) captured in the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar. Our study species is larger in body size than western dwarf lemurs and inhabits much colder environments. We present the first evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species, and we compare the results with data available for the western species. Although the hibernation period is shorter in dwarf lemurs from Tsinjoarivo, minimum body temperatures are lower than those reported for C. medius. Both individuals at Tsinjoarivo showed limited passive and extended deep hibernation during which they did not track ambient temperature as observed in most western dwarf lemurs. Because ambient temperatures at Tsinjoarivo never exceed 30°C, dwarf lemurs have to experience arousals to maintain homeostasis during periods of hibernation. We show that large dwarf lemurs (>400 g) are capable of undergoing deep hibernation and suggest that cold, high-altitude forests may render hibernation highly advantageous during periods of food scarcity. This study has implications for understanding the physiology of hibernation in small-bodied lemurs.

  5. Eastern and Central Pacific ENSO and their relationships to the recharge/discharge oscillator paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Delcroix, T.

    2012-12-01

    Four major theories have been proposed to explain the oscillatory nature of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the largest signal on interannual timescales in the tropical Pacific Ocean. These theories, however, were proposed more than a decade ago, before the recent enhanced attention given to a 'new' flavor of El Niño referred to here as central Pacific (CP) El Niño. Different structures between eastern Pacific (EP) and CP events have been found and documented by looking at the location of anomalous patterns in usual climate and biological variables (e.g., sea surface temperature and salinity, wind stress, precipitation, surface zonal currents and chlorophyll). The contrasted EP and CP ENSO features were, however, very poorly documented in terms of dynamics. Consequently, this study aims to test the applicability of one of the leading ENSO theories, the recharge/discharge (RD) oscillator paradigm, to explain the EP and CP ENSO features. In brief, the RD paradigm emphasizes that there is an inward flux of warm waters entering the equatorial band (recharge) at the onset and an outward flux (discharge) during an El Niño event. Accordingly, a key element of the RD paradigm, as well as a notable ENSO precursor, is warm water volume (WWV) and a good proxy for this is sea level anomaly (SLA). We first show the existence of the different flavors of ENSO in the tropical Pacific using monthly 1993-2010 SLA obtained from altimetry, and a validated 1958-2007 DRAKKAR model simulation. An Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) technique performed on the observed and modeled WWV, together with the corresponding sea surface temperature, shows the existence of four distinct clusters, which are reminiscent of the conventional EP El Niño and La Niña, and CP El Niño and La Niña. The patterns of EP El Niño and La Niña clusters are almost symmetrical and show a zonal see-saw pattern pivoted near the eastern edge of the western Pacific warm pool (at around 180

  6. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results.

    PubMed

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pajak, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-03-01

    The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002-05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7-6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6-10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations.

  7. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results

    PubMed Central

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pająk, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods and results The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7–6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6–10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. Conclusion The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations. PMID:23786858

  8. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Design Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Setting Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. Subjects In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45–69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40–60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21 326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Results Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII) = 2·02–5·17) and women (RII = 2·09–3·57). Conclusions The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position. PMID:20843403

  10. Shallow crustal structure of eastern-central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Ramón, V. M.; Lermo-Samaniego, J.

    2015-12-01

    Central-eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is featured by large basins (i.e., Toluca, Mexico, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Libres-Oriental). It has been supposed that major crustal faults limit these basins. Sierra de Las Cruces range separates the Toluca and Mexico basins. The Sierra Nevada range separates Mexico basin from the Puebla-Tlaxcala basin. Based in gravity and seismic data we inferred the Toluca basin is constituted by the Ixtlahuaca sub-basin, to the north, and the Toluca sub-basin to the south, which are separated by a relative structural high. The Toluca depression is more symmetric and bounded by sub-vertical faults. In particular its eastern master fault controlled the emplacement of Sierra de Las Cruces range. Easternmost Acambay graben constitutes the northern and deepest part of the Ixtlahuaca depression. The Toluca-Ixtlahuaca basin is inside the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault system, and limited to the west by the Guerrero terrane which continues beneath the TMVB up to the Acambay graben. Mexico basin basement occupies an intermediate position and featured by a relative structural high to the north-east, as established by previous studies. This relative structural high is limited to the west by the north-south Mixhuca trough, while to the south it is bounded by the east-west Copilco-Xochimilco-Chalco sub-basin. The Puebla-Tlaxcala basin basement is the shallowest of these 3 tectonic depressions. In general, features (i.e., depth) and relationship between these basins, from west to east, are controlled by the regional behavior of the Sierra Madre Oriental fold and thrust belt basement (i.e., Oaxaca Complex?). This study indicates that an active east-west regional fault system limits to the south the TMVB (from the Nevado de Toluca volcano through the Popocatepetl volcano and eastward along southern Puebla-Tlaxcala basin). The Tenango and La Pera fault systems constituting the western part of this regional fault system coincide with northern

  11. Structural lineaments in the basement rocks of the central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, A. F.

    The Egyptian basement rocks outcrop in Eastern Desert, southern Sinai and southwestern Desert. The rocks belong to Precambrian and consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks which are characterized by crystalline character. Not much work has been done on the tectonics and structure of the basement rocks in Eastern Desert. The present work is a photogeological interpretation of the structural lineaments representing dykes, faults and joints in central Eastern Desert to differentiate between igneous and metamorphic rocks. The photogeological interpretation was carried out using normal aerial photographs scale 1:40 000 and photomosaics scale 50 000. The main trends of lineaments in the studied area are: E-W, ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE, constituting 58.4% of the total length and 54.5% of the total number. Correlating the structural lineaments in igneous rocks of Gebel El Bakriya locality with those in the metamorphic rocks of Gebel Abu Mireiwa shows that there is a marked difference between the two types. Lineaments in igneous rocks are elongated and widely spaced while those in metamorphic rocks are short and closely spaced. The different trends of joints in igneous rocks can be arranged as follows: WNW>E-W>NW>NNW>ENE>NE>N-S>NNE while the different trends of lineaments in metamorphic rocks can be arranged as follows: E-W>ENE>WNW>NW>NNW>NE>N-S>NNE. Comparison between the structural contour maps constructed for the total length of all lineaments and those representing joints in igneous and metamorphic rocks indicates that igneous rocks have lower density of lineaments than metamorphic rocks. The total length of all lineaments in Gebel El Bakriya amounts to 375 km, while lineaments representing joints have a total length of 150 km. In the metamorphic rocks of Gebel Abu Mireiwa, the total length of all lineaments is 425 km and those representing joints have a total length of 175 km. It was found that there is a relationship between the structural lineaments and radioactivity of

  12. 21 Ma Eclogite From the Main Central Thrust Sheet, Eastern Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Vervoort, J. D.; Parkinson, C. D.

    2007-12-01

    Though uncommon throughout the Himalaya, eclogites have been documented in the Kaghan Valley of Pakistan, the Tso Morari dome in India, the Kharta region of Tibet, and the Makalu-Everest region of the Arun River valley in eastern Nepal. The Kaghan and Tso Morari UHP eclogites have been dated at ~50 Ma, and are commonly viewed as reflecting aborted subduction of the leading edge of the Indian plate during the initial stages of Indo- Asian collision. Here we show that the Arun eclogites are significantly younger, only ~21 Ma, so reflect either different origins, or substantial time lags in tectonics along strike. The Arun eclogites are stratigraphically continuous with the surrounding Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) felsic gneisses, and have been interpreted as metamorphosed basaltic sills. P-T conditions have been estimated at >14 kbar at 670-710 °C. The GHS in this region overlies Lesser Himalayan rocks along the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which can be traced for over 2000 km along strike. Lu-Hf dates from garnet separates in one relict eclogite indicate an age of 20.7±0.4 Ma (MSWD = 2.2). Five garnet amphibolites from nearby were also dated via Lu-Hf, and their ages range from 14-20 Ma (13.9±2.5, 14.1±0.3, 14.5±2.8, 15.1±0.6, and 19.8±1.1 Ma). The ~21 Ma age obtained from the eclogite postdates eclogite ages from the western Himalaya (Kaghan and Tso Morari) by ~30 Myr, and has important implications for tectonic models of Himalayan orogenesis. One possible model is that (aborted) subduction, slab breakoff, and ascent of India's leading edge occurred diachronously: ~50 Ma in the western Himalaya, ~20 Ma in eastern Nepal, and presumably even younger in the eastern Himalaya. Alternatively, because the Arun eclogites did not reach ultra-high pressure conditions seen by western eclogites (only ≥45, not ≥90 km depth), they may simply reflect deepening or longer transport of the MCT in the Arun area. Regardless, a ~21 Ma age for these eclogites combined with

  13. Paleozoic tectonics in the eastern part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Weimin; Feng, Zhiqiang; Neubauer, Franz

    2017-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest accretionary orogen in the world, which is responsible for considerable Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth. The NE China and its adjacent areas compose the eastern segment of the CAOB, which is a key area for providing important evidence of the CAOB evolution and understanding the NE Asian tectonics. The eastern segment of the CAOB is composed tectonically of four micro-blocks and four sutures, i.e. Erguna block (EB), Xing'an block (XB), Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB), Jiamusi block (JB), Xinlin-Xiguitu suture (XXS), Heihe-Hegenshan suture (HHS), Mudanjiang-Yilan suture (MYS) and Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun-Yanji suture (SXCYS). The EB and XB were amalgamated by westward subduction, oceanic island accretions and final collision in ca. 500 Ma. The XB and SXB were amalgamated by subduction-related Early Paleozoic marginal arc, Late Paleozoic marginal arc and final collision in the late Early Carboniferous to early Late Carboniferous. The JB probably had been attached to the SXB in the Early Paleozoic, but broken apart from the SXB in the Triassic and collided back in the Jurassic. The closure of Paleo-Asian Ocean had experienced a long continue/episodic subduction-accretion processes on margins of the NCC to the south and the SXB to the north from the Early to Late Paleozoic. The final closure happened along the SXCYS, from west Solonker, Sonid Youqi, Kedanshan (Keshenketengqi), Xar Moron River through Songliao Basin via Kailu, Tongliao, Horqin Zuoyizhongqi, Changchun, to the east Panshi, Huadian, Dunhua, Yanji, with a scissors style closure in time from the Late Permian-Early Triassic in the west to the Late Permian-Middle Triassic in the east. The amalgamated blocks should compose a united micro-continent, named as Jiamusi-Mongolia Block (JMB) after Early Carboniferous, which bounded by Mongo-Okhotsk suture to the northwest, Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture to the south and the eastern margin of JB to the

  14. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-07-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  15. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70–50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15–10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  16. Diversity of Haemaphysalis-associated piroplasms of ruminants in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; György, Zsolt; Micsutka, Attila; Iceton, Serena; Flaisz, Barbara; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-12-09

    Increasing numbers of genetic variants are being recognized among piroplasms, but the precise taxonomical status, the tick vector and the geographical range of several species or genotypes are still unknown. Bovine piroplasmosis was reported to re-emerge in north-east Hungary. Because Theileria-infection was newly diagnosed in one cattle herd in the same region of the country, the aim of this study was to molecularly identify the relevant agent, to find its local vector tick species, and to examine the range of Babesia/Theileria spp. of ruminants in Haemaphysalis sp. ticks collected previously in Hungary. Blood samples were drawn on two occasions from 90 dairy cattle in northern Hungary, and ticks were collected on their pastures. In addition, questing ticks (315 Haemaphysalis inermis, 259 H. concinna and 22 H. punctata), which originated mainly in the same region of the country from 2007, were included in the study. DNA was extracted from these samples, followed by molecular analysis for piroplasms. In the cattle Theileria orientalis was identified, with 100 % sequence homology to isolates from Japan, China, South-Africa and Australia. Based on GenBank data this genotype has not been previously reported in Europe. The prevalence of infection in the herd remained almost constant in the main tick season, suggesting exposure in previous years. Retrospective analysis of ticks revealed the presence of Babesia crassa in H. inermis, for the first time in Europe and in this tick species. On the other hand, H. concinna carried five different piroplasms, including B. motasi that was also newly detected in Central-Eastern Europe and in this tick species; whereas H. punctata harboured Theileria sp. OT3, hitherto known to occur in the Mediterranean region. Results of this study broaden the range of piroplasms that are infective for ruminants in Central-Eastern Europe. Although bovine babesiosis and theileriosis was known to occur in Hungary, molecular evidence is provided

  17. The Central and Eastern U.S. Seismic Network: Legacy of USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, J. A.; Astiz, L.; Benz, H.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Reyes, J. C.; Sharer, G.; Vernon, F.; Woodward, R.

    2014-12-01

    As the USArray Transportable Array entered the central and eastern United States, several Federal agencies (National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy) recognized the unique opportunity to retain TA stations beyond the original timeline. The mission of the CEUSN is to produce data that enables researchers and Federal agencies alike to better understand the basic geologic questions, background earthquake rates and distribution, seismic hazard potential, and associated societal risks of this region. The selected long-term sub-array from Transportable Array (TA) stations includes nearly 200 sites, complemented by 100 broadband stations from the existing regional seismic networks to form the Central and Eastern United States Network (CEUSN). Multiple criteria for site selection were weighed by an inter-agency TA Station Selection (TASS) Working Group: seismic noise characteristics, data availability in real time, proximity to nuclear power plants, and homogeneous distribution throughout the region. The Array Network Facility (ANF) started collecting data for CEUSN network stations since late 2013, with all stations collected since May 2014. Regional seismic data streams are collected in real-time from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). TA stations selected to be part of CEUSN, retain the broadband sensor to which a 100 sps channel is added, the infrasound and environmental channels, and, at some stations, accelerometers are deployed. The upgraded sites become part of the N4 network for which ANF provides metadata and can issue remote commands to the station equipment. Stations still operated by TA, but planned for CEUSN, are included in the virtual network so all stations are currently available now. By the end of 2015, the remaining TA stations will be upgraded. Data quality control procedures developed for TA stations at ANF and at the DMC are currently performed on N4 data. However

  18. Age and Origin of the Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly (NW Spain): Constraints on the Understanding of the Central Iberian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayarza, P.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.; Villalain, J. J.; Alvarez Lobato, F.; Durán-Oreja, M.; Joven Romero, P.

    2016-12-01

    The EGMA (Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly) is the most intense anomaly of the Iberian Massif. It overlaps the Lugo-Sanabria extensional dome, suggesting a link with it. However, models of the anomaly, all based on low resolution aeromagnetic data, do not establish a relationship between magnetization and tectonics. Surprisingly, a closer look into this dataset shows that magnetic anomalies defining the Central-Iberian Arc bend also coincide with extensional gneiss domes. In this regard, Ayarza and Martínez Catalán (2007) suggested that the source of the EGMA were migmatites and inhomogeneous granites outcropping in the northern Lugo dome, but did not inferred any process as source of the anomaly. In 2015-16, a high resolution (2x2 km) magnetic land survey over a 750 km2 area was carried out in the N of the Lugo dome. In addition, magnetic rocks were sampled in order to characterize their mineralogy and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibily (AMS).The resulting map shows that the anomaly maxima coincide with outcropping extensional detachments. These structures are related to igneous rocks produced by crustal melting during the thermal event that triggered the extension. However, detachments also affect metasediments that, in these areas, show high magnetic susceptibilities. Similarly, 2D models indicate that the magnetization is concentrated on these detachments and AMS exhibits planar anisotropy coincident with that of the extensional structures. Finally, rockmag studies indicate that multi-domain magnetite is the main magnetic mineral although a younger remanence has been addressed to hematite. These results constrain the models about the origin of the EGMA and the rest of the anomalies defining the Central Iberian Arc. We suggest that the former was developed during thermal and extensional events (E1 and E2: 330-300 Ma) that followed crustal thickening during the Variscan collision in present NW Iberia. These events developed thermal gneiss domes and

  19. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  20. Weak central coherence: a cross-domain phenomenon specific to autism?

    PubMed

    Hoy, James A; Hatton, Chris; Hare, Dougal

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated whether evidence for the weak central coherence theory could be specifically associated with a group of children with autism compared with normally developing children (n=17 per group). Two tasks were employed, one involving visual illusions and the other verbal homophones. Both were based on tasks used in previous central coherence research. Incorporation of tasks involving the use of different domains (verbal versus visual) also enabled the investigation of claims that weak central coherence is a cross-domain processing style or deficit. The autistic group were found to be no different to the control group in performance on the visual illusions task. The autistic group made more errors than the normally developing group on the rare condition of the homophone task. However, analysis suggests this difference is mediated by verbal ability level and not diagnostic status per se. Theoretical implications and alternative explanations are discussed.

  1. Crustal structure of the Central-Eastern Greenland: results from the TopoGreenland refraction profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Until present, seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coasts of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up. We present the deep seismic structure of the crust of the interior of Greenland, based on the new and the only existing so far seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass, made acquisition of geophysical data logistically complicated. The profile extends 310 km inland in E-W direction from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near the Scoresby Sund across the center of the ice cap. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 125 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Given that the data acquisition was affected by the thick ice sheet, we questioned the quality of seismic records in such experiment setup. We have developed an automatic routine to check the amplitudes and spectra of the selected seismic phases and to check the differences/challenges in making seismic experiments on ice and the effects of ice on data interpretation. Using tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modelling we have obtained the two-dimensional velocity model down to a 50 km depth. The model shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western part of the profile to 40 km in its eastern part. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3 km/s) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may result from past collision tectonics or, alternatively, may be related to the speculated passage of the Iceland mantle plume. Comparison of our results

  2. Eastern segment of the Azores-Gibraltar line (central-eastern Atlantic) : An oceanic plate boundary with diffuse compressional deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, R.; Torelli, L.; Zitellini, N.; Peis, D.; Lodolo, E.

    1994-06-01

    New seismic-reflection images across the eastern segment of the Azores-Gibraltar line west of the collisional area between the African and Iberian plates have revealed a complex pattern of compressional deformation involving the Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The compressional deformation developed in a region of slow plate convergence and is diffused, at different lithospheric levels, across an area spanning ˜200 km from the Gorringe Ridge to the Seine Plain. The convergence between the African and Iberian plates has been active since Tertiary time, and our results indicate that no subduction zone exists across this part of the plate boundary.

  3. The crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus cyclophilin reveals 3D domain swapping of a central element.

    PubMed

    Limacher, Andreas; Kloer, Daniel P; Flückiger, Sabine; Folkers, Gerd; Crameri, Reto; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2006-02-01

    The crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus cyclophilin (Asp f 11) was solved by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method and was refined to a resolution of 1.85 A with R and R(free) values of 18.9% and 21.4%, respectively. Many cyclophilin structures have been solved to date, all showing the same monomeric conformation. In contrast, the structure of A. fumigatus cyclophilin reveals dimerization by 3D domain swapping and represents one of the first proteins with a swapped central domain. The domain-swapped element consists of two beta strands and a subsequent loop carrying a conserved tryptophan. The tryptophan binds into the active site, inactivating cis-trans isomerization. This might be a means of biological regulation. The two hinge loops leave the protein prone to misfolding. In this context, alternative forms of 3D domain swapping that can lead to N- or C-terminally swapped dimers, oligomers, and aggregates are discussed.

  4. Estimating earthquake magnitudes from reported intensities in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver; Cramer, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    A new macroseismic intensity prediction equation is derived for the central and eastern United States and is used to estimate the magnitudes of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, and 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquakes. This work improves upon previous derivations of intensity prediction equations by including additional intensity data, correcting magnitudes in the intensity datasets to moment magnitude, and accounting for the spatial and temporal population distributions. The new relation leads to moment magnitude estimates for the New Madrid earthquakes that are toward the lower range of previous studies. Depending on the intensity dataset to which the new macroseismic intensity prediction equation is applied, mean estimates for the 16 December 1811, 23 January 1812, and 7 February 1812 mainshocks, and 16 December 1811 dawn aftershock range from 6.9 to 7.1, 6.8 to 7.1, 7.3 to 7.6, and 6.3 to 6.5, respectively. One‐sigma uncertainties on any given estimate could be as high as 0.3–0.4 magnitude units. We also estimate a magnitude of 6.9±0.3 for the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. We find a greater range of magnitude estimates when also accounting for multiple macroseismic intensity prediction equations. The inability to accurately and precisely ascertain magnitude from intensities increases the uncertainty of the central United States earthquake hazard by nearly a factor of two. Relative to the 2008 national seismic hazard maps, our range of possible 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquake magnitudes increases the coefficient of variation of seismic hazard estimates for Memphis, Tennessee, by 35%–42% for ground motions expected to be exceeded with a 2% probability in 50 years and by 27%–35% for ground motions expected to be exceeded with a 10% probability in 50 years.

  5. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Jian; Ding, Aijun; Cooper, Owen R.; Lin, Meiyun; Xu, Pengju; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xinfeng; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Tianshu; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai - the highest mountain over the North China Plain - during 2003-2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr-1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr-1 for the July-August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3) with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980-2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  6. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  7. Shaking from injection-induced earthquakes in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study I consider the ground motions generated by 11 moderate (Mw4.0-5.6) earthquakes in the central and eastern United States that are thought or suspected to be induced by fluid injection. Using spatially rich intensity data from the USGS “Did You Feel It?” system, I show that the distance decay of intensities for all events is consistent with that observed for tectonic earthquakes in the region, but for all of the events, intensities are lower than values predicted from an intensity prediction equation that successfully characterizes intensities for regional tectonic events. I introduce an effective intensity magnitude, MIE, defined as the magnitude that on average would generate a given intensity distribution. For all 11 events, MIE is lower than the event magnitude by 0.4-1.3 magnitude units, with an average difference of 0.82 units. This suggests that stress drops of injection-induced earthquakes are systematically lower than tectonic earthquakes by an estimated factor of 2-10. However, relatively limited data suggest that intensities for epicentral distances less than 10 km are more commensurate with expectations for the event magnitude, which can be reasonably explained by the shallow focal depth of the events. The results suggest that damage from injection-induced earthquakes will be especially concentrated in the immediate epicentral region.

  8. Dental caries at Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil: An Early Holocene archaeological site.

    PubMed

    DA-Gloria, Pedro; Oliveira, Rodrigo E; Neves, Walter A

    2017-02-06

    The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses. The results show a high prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition (5.50%, n=327 teeth; 69.23%, n=13 individuals) compared to other samples of hunter-gatherers worldwide. In addition, dental caries in deciduous teeth start occurring as early as 3 to 4 years old, suggesting an early start to caries. Compared with other samples from Lagoa Santa, Lapa do Santo shows statistically similar prevalence of overall caries but different caries location pattern. We believe that a subsistence adaptation to a tropical environment rich in sources of carbohydrates, such as fruits, is the best explanation for the overall caries prevalence.

  9. Periodic fever syndromes in Eastern and Central European countries: results of a pediatric multinational survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence of diagnosed and suspected autoinflammatory diseases in Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries, with a particular interest on the diagnostic facilities in these countries. Methods Two different strategies were used to collect data on patients with periodic fever syndromes from ECE countries- the Eurofever survey and collection of data with the structured questionnaire. Results Data from 35 centers in 14 ECE countries were collected. All together there were 11 patients reported with genetically confirmed familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), 14 with mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD), 11 with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and 4 with chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA). Significantly higher numbers were reported for suspected cases which were not genetically tested. All together there were 49 suspected FMF patients reported, 24 MKD, 16 TRAPS, 7 CINCA and 2 suspected Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) patients. Conclusions The number of genetically confirmed patients with periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries is very low. In order to identify more patients in the future, it is important to organize educational programs for increasing the knowledge on these diseases and to establish a network for genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries. PMID:21539753

  10. Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Rahimi, H.; Allameh Zadeh, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, more than 380 local earthquakes (2 < ML < 4.5) have been used to estimate the direct-shear waves (Qd), coda (Qc), intrinsic (Qi) and scattering quality factor (QSc) in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region. The events were recorded by one temporary and two permanent networks. The quality factors of shear and coda waves have been individually estimated at different frequency bands by using coda normalization (CNM) method and single backscattering (SBS) method, respectively. Average frequency-dependent relationships have been estimated for Qd and Qc as 111 ± 4f0.85±0.04 and 112 ± 8f1.02±0.06, respectively. The intrinsic quality factor, Qi, has been separated from the scattering quality factor QSc by using individually estimated Qc and Qd values. The average frequency-dependent relationships of Qi and QSc have been calculated in the form of 108f1.00 and 784f0.56, respectively. The results of this study suggest that S-wave's attenuation (Qd-1) is dominated by the intrinsic attenuation. The attenuation of coda waves has been observed similar to the intrinsic attenuation, which indicates, the coda decay is mostly caused by the intrinsic attenuation. It has been observed that the scattering mean free path is frequency independent at frequencies greater than 6 Hz. The results of this study are similar to the tectonically active regions.

  11. The influence of atmospheric circulation on plant phenological phases in central and eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasa, Anto; Jaagus, Jaak; Ahas, Rein; Sepp, Mait

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse relationships between the start dates of spring phenological phases and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. The timing of phenological phases in temperate zones is driven by temperature, and temperature regime is generally determined by atmospheric circulation. The database analysed consists of the first dates of flowering of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.), of birch (Betula pendula Roth.) leaf unfolding and of flowering of lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.); the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic oscillation (AO) indices, frequencies of the circulation forms classified by Vangengeim and Girs, and of the groups of Grosswetterlagen presented by Hess and Brezowsky. The study area covers central and eastern Europe, and the period considered is 1951-98.The results show that the influence of the westerly airflow is more pronounced in the winter half-year, and weakens and even disappears as spring advances. Phases have the highest correlation with NAO and AO indices during winter (December-March) and the first three months of the year (January-March), which have correlations stronger than -0.5 in the Baltic Sea region. Among the phenological phases, flowering of coltsfoot is the most strongly correlated with the NAO and AO indices, followed by leafing of birch and flowering of lilac. Airflow from the north and from the east has a greater influence in springtime, particularly in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the study area.

  12. The inability to pay for health services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Out-of-pocket payments for health services constitute a major financial burden for patients in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Individuals who are unable to pay use different coping strategies (e.g. borrowing money or foregoing service utilization), which can have negative consequences on their health and social welfare. This article explores patients’ inability to pay for outpatient and hospital services in six CEE countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine. Methods: The analysis is based on quantitative data collected in 2010 in nationally representative surveys. Two indicators of inability to pay were considered: the need to borrow money or sell assets and foregoing service utilization. Statistical analyses were applied to investigate associations between the indicators of inability to pay and individual characteristics. Results: Patient payments are most common in Bulgaria, Ukraine, Romania and Lithuania and often include informal payments. Romanian and, particularly, Ukrainian patients most often face difficulties to pay for health services (with approximately 40% of Ukrainian payers borrowing money or selling assets to cover hospital payments and approximately 60% of respondents who need care foregoing services). Inability to pay mainly affects those with poor health and low incomes. Conclusion: Widespread patient payments constitute a major financial barrier to health service use in CEE. There is a need to formalize them where they are informal and to take measures to protect vulnerable population groups, especially those with limited possibilities to deal with payment difficulties. PMID:24065370

  13. Crustal deformation rates in Central and Eastern U.S. inferred from GPS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gan, Weijun; Prescott, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of continuous GPS observations between 1996 and 2000 at 62 stations distributed throughout the central and eastern United States suggests that the area is generally stable. Seven of the 62 stations show anomalous velocities, but there is reason to suspect their monument stability. Assuming the remaining 55 stations are stable with respect to interior North America, we have found the North America-ITRF97 Euler vector (-1.88o ± 1.04oN, 77.67o ± 0.39oW, 0.201o ± 0.004o Myr-1) that minimizes the RMS station velocity. Referred to fixed North America, all of these velocities are less than 3.2 mm yr-1. Motion of several stations suggests the Mississippi embayment may be moving southward away from the rest of the continent at a rate of 1.7±0.9 mm yr-1. The motion of the embayment produces a large gradient in velocity which, in turn, implies the highest seismic moment accumulation rate that we found. Although the highest rate is only marginally significant, the fact that it occurs near New Madrid, where earthquake risk is thought to be high, argues that the anomaly may be real. Nevertheless, the identification of the anomaly remains tentative.

  14. Future scenarios for earthquake and flood risk in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Schäfer, A. M.; Ward, P. J.; Winsemius, H. C.; Simpson, A.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2017-07-01

    We report on a regional flood and earthquake risk assessment for 33 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Flood and earthquake risk were defined in terms of affected population and affected gross domestic product (GDP). Earthquake risk was also quantified in terms of fatalities and capital loss. Estimates of future population and GDP affected by earthquakes vary significantly among five shared socioeconomic pathways that are used to represent population and GDP in 2030 and 2080. There is a linear relationship between the future relative change in a nation's exposure (population or GDP) and its future relative change in annual average population or GDP affected by earthquakes. The evolution of flood hazard was quantified using a flood model with boundary conditions derived from five different general circulation models and two representative concentration pathways, and changes in population and GDP were quantified using two shared socioeconomic pathways. There is a nonlinear relationship between the future relative change in a nation's exposure (population or GDP) and its future relative change in its annual average population or GDP affected by floods. Six regions can be defined for positive and negative relative change in population that designate whether climate change can temper, counter, or reinforce relative changes in flood risk produced by changes in population or exposure. The departure from the one-to-one relationship between a relative change in a nation's population or GDP and its relative change in flood risk could be used to inform further efforts at flood mitigation and adaptation.

  15. The creation and progress of the J Project in Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Maródi, László

    2011-11-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have now become recognized as a worldwide health problem. Rapid development of immunological and genetic technologies has led to the discovery of more than 200 PIDs and more than 150 disease-related genes. Progress in the field is expected to take a new turn after the introduction of new-generation sequencing technologies that will enable searches for currently unknown PID-related genes. By contrast, even with progress in molecular genetics, many patients remain ill and die early because of the lack of diagnostic or treatment facilities, or both. Thus, the gap between the knowledge accumulated and the appropriate management of patients with PIDs in everyday clinical practice has widened, necessitating PID awareness, particularly in countries with poor socioeconomic conditions. The J Project, established as a physician education and research collaboration program in Eastern and Central Europe, demonstrates how professional responsibility and long-term joint efforts can make a beneficial difference for patients with inborn errors of immunity.

  16. Snow occurrence changes over the central and eastern United States under future warming scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liang; Bradley, Raymond S

    2015-11-20

    Changes of snow occurrence across the central and eastern United States under future warming for the late 21(st) century are investigated by applying an empirical hyperbolic tangent function to both observed and downscaled high spatial resolution (~12.5 km) daily temperature and precipitation, to compare the historical (1981-2000) and future (2081-2100) snow occurrence. The observed distributions of snow frequency show that snow-rain transition zones are mainly zonally distributed, since they are largely determined by temperature, with slight shifts to the south over the Appalachian Mountains. The snow-rain transition zone is located around 38-46°N for November and March, and 32-42°N for winter months (DJF). These observed patterns are reproduced well for the historical period by an ensemble average of multiple general circulation models (GCMs). The probabilistic projections show that the snow-rain transition zone will shift to the north under the background of global warming at magnitudes of 2-6 °C, indicating that large areas will experience a partial, or even a very large, loss of snow occurrence in the future. The northward shifts are about 2° latitude under the representative concentration pathways 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario and 4° latitude under the RCP8.5 scenario. The percentages of the area losing snow occurrence are also assessed.

  17. Cycle stratigraphy and porosity in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian shelf limestones, eastern Central Basin Platform, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Saller, A.H.; Dickson, J.A.D.; Boyd, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Pennyslvanian and Lower Permian shelfal limestones were studied in core and wireline logs on the eastern side of the Central Basin platform in west Texas. Sixty-three (63) cycles were delineated in the study interval, which includes 200-250 m of Canyon (Missourian), Cisco (Virgilian), and Wolfcamp strata. Four general lithofacies are present: fossiliferous wackestones and packstones, grainstones, phylloid algal boundstones, and shales. These lithologies typically occur in 1-18-m-thick cycles bounded by subaerial exposure surfaces. Grainstones in the upper part of some cycles indicate a shallowing of environments prior to subaerial exposure. Many cycles have subaerial exposure surfaces developed on subtidal fossiliferous wackestones or packstones suggesting rapid falls in sea level. Long-term transgressive intervals (transgressive systems tracts or TST) are dominated by thick (>4 m) cycles, whereas long-term regressive intervals (highstand systems tract or HST) are dominated by thinner cycles. Stable carbon isotope data suggest that thick cycles in TSTs were subjected to short periods of subaerial exposure, whereas thin cycles in the HSTs were subjected to much longer subaerial exposure. Where present, reservoir-grade porosity occurs in the upper part of cycles, 0.3-5 m below subaerial exposure surfaces. Prolonged subaerial exposure apparently reduced matrix porosity by allowing more time for calcite precipitation, which was especially effective in reducing porosity in micritic strata below exposure surfaces.

  18. The inability to pay for health services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries.

    PubMed

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-06-01

    Out-of-pocket payments for health services constitute a major financial burden for patients in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Individuals who are unable to pay use different coping strategies (e.g. borrowing money or foregoing service utilization), which can have negative consequences on their health and social welfare. This article explores patients' inability to pay for outpatient and hospital services in six CEE countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected in 2010 in nationally representative surveys. Two indicators of inability to pay were considered: the need to borrow money or sell assets and foregoing service utilization. Statistical analyses were applied to investigate associations between the indicators of inability to pay and individual characteristics. Patient payments are most common in Bulgaria, Ukraine, Romania and Lithuania and often include informal payments. Romanian and, particularly, Ukrainian patients most often face difficulties to pay for health services (with approximately 40% of Ukrainian payers borrowing money or selling assets to cover hospital payments and approximately 60% of respondents who need care foregoing services). Inability to pay mainly affects those with poor health and low incomes. Widespread patient payments constitute a major financial barrier to health service use in CEE. There is a need to formalize them where they are informal and to take measures to protect vulnerable population groups, especially those with limited possibilities to deal with payment difficulties. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  19. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-06

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states.

  20. Petrogenesis of selected A-type granitic intrusions from Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Tharwat; Asran, Asran; Amron, Taha; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The Pan-African orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield was terminated by intrusion of A-type granites (~ 595 Ma; Greenberg, 1981) and its volcanic equivalents. Subsequent to the intrusions of these granitic bodies the shield was exhumed. Eroded A-type granite pebbles were found in the molasse sediments that were deposited in intermountain basins. Therefore the A-type granites provide information about the last stage of the Pan-African geochemical system. Preliminary whole-rock geochemical data of three granitic intrusions (Kadabora, Um Naggat and El shiekh Salem) from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt; indicate that all of them are peraluminous and with A-type characteristics. These intrusions show low CaO content (average 0.43 %wt), high FeOT/MgO ratio (10.46-121.88), high Na2O+K2O (average 8.04 %wt), marked enrichment of high field strength elements (Y, Nb and Ga except Zr), depletion in MgO (0.01-0.11 %wt) and with low concentration of Sr and Ba. The studied granitoids were emplaced in within plate tectonic regime. References: Greenberg, J.K. (1981): Characteristic and origin of Egyptian younger granites. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. Part 1, v.92: 224-232.

  1. Significant Increase of Summertime Ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Xue, L.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Ding, A.; Cooper, O. R.; Lin, M.; Yang, L.; Chen, J.; Wang, W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai - the highest mountain over the North China Plain - during 2003-2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr-1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr-1 for the July-August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3) with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980-2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOCs controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  2. Horizontal crustal motion in the central and eastern Mediterranean inferred from Satellite Laser Ranging measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Robbins, John W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Torrence, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    Four campaigns to acquire Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements at sites in the Mediterranean region have been completed. These measurements to the LAGEOS satellite, made largely by mobile systems, cover a time span beginning in November 1985 and ending in June 1993. The range data from 18 sites in the central and eastern Mediterranean have been simultaneously analyzed with data acquired by the remainder of the global laser tracking network. Estimates of horizontal motion were placed into a regional, northern Europe-fixed, kinematic reference frame. Uncertainties are on the order of 5 mm/yr for sites having at least four occupations by mobile systems and approach 1 mm/yr for permanently located sites with long histories of tracking. The resulting relative motion between sites in the Aegean exhibit characteristics of broadly distributed pattern of radial extension, but at rates that are about 50% larger than those implied from studies of seismic strain rates based on seismicity of magnitude 6 or greater or across the region. The motion estimated for sites in Turkey exhibit velocity components associated with the westward motion of the Anatolian Block relative to Eurasia. These results provide a present-day 'snapshot' of ongoing deformational processes as experienced by the locations occupied by SLR systems.

  3. Professional training in nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe: current status and opportunities for capacity development.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Novaković, Romana; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Nikolić, Marina; Milešević, Jelena; Ranić, Marija; Glibetić, Marija

    2015-02-01

    To examine the availability of academic programmes in nutrition and identify nutrition training needs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). A questionnaire with close-ended and open-ended questions was distributed to the members of the United Nations University Standing Committee on Nutrition, Regional Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in CEE (NCDN CEE). Participants' responses to the questionnaire including the comments of their colleagues from home institutions were obtained in group discussions during NCDN CEE meetings in 2010-2013. Sixteen CEE countries' experts and their colleagues from home institutions involved in NCDN CEE activities 2007-2013. The responses were obtained from fourteen out of sixteen participating countries; five countries have established Bachelor, Master and PhD studies in nutrition (Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia), whereas in Latvia and Republic of Macedonia only Bachelor and Master studies are set up. Seven countries have no Bachelor, Master or PhD studies: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia. Introduction to data analysis and Nutritional epidemiology are the most needed nutrition trainings that would increase working competence of nutritionists and nutrition-related professionals in CEE. Availability of academic programmes in nutrition in CEE countries is limited. Opportunities for improving the competence of existing and future nutrition-related professionals should be addressed at national and regional level; distance learning courses and creation of a regional centre for nutrition training were seen as opportunities for sustainable capacity development in nutrition in CEE.

  4. Carbonate platform facies development of the Turonian Wata Formation in central and eastern Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, M. A.; Farouk, S.; Hassan, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Wata carbonate platform in central and eastern Sinai show a clear pattern of evolutionary development during sedimentation. Three facies are recognized in the carbonate platform. Inner-platform in the south, inter-platform basin in the middle, and outer-platform in the northwest. Such classification was probably performed by the effect of Syrian Arc System that culminated during Turonian in Sinai. Inner-platform includes fining-upward cycles, each begins with packstone, followed by wackestone and capped by lime-mudstone or claystone or molluscan bioclastic wackestone at the base capped by sandy oolitic packstone or dolostone. The dominant faunal associations are molluscs, and echinoids. Inter-platform basin occurs north of inner-platform and extends northwest-southeast direction and comprises fining-upward cycles, each of which begins with bioclastic ostracodal packstone, calcisphere packstone, bioclastic packstone, capped by wackestone and lime-mudstone The faunal association includes, sponge spines, ostracodes, molluscan debris and calcispheres. They were deposited in shoal marine and barrier. The outer-platform occurs at Gebel Giddi and extended northwestwards. The lithofacies are entirely represented by calcisphere wackestone/packstone, with a reduced thickness of 20 m.

  5. Horizontal crustal motion in the central and eastern Mediterranean inferred from Satellite Laser Ranging measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Robbins, John W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Torrence, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    Four campaigns to acquire Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements at sites in the Mediterranean region have been completed. These measurements to the LAGEOS satellite, made largely by mobile systems, cover a time span beginning in November 1985 and ending in June 1993. The range data from 18 sites in the central and eastern Mediterranean have been simultaneously analyzed with data acquired by the remainder of the global laser tracking network. Estimates of horizontal motion were placed into a regional, northern Europe-fixed, kinematic reference frame. Uncertainties are on the order of 5 mm/yr for sites having at least four occupations by mobile systems and approach 1 mm/yr for permanently located sites with long histories of tracking. The resulting relative motion between sites in the Aegean exhibit characteristics of broadly distributed pattern of radial extension, but at rates that are about 50% larger than those implied from studies of seismic strain rates based on seismicity of magnitude 6 or greater or across the region. The motion estimated for sites in Turkey exhibit velocity components associated with the westward motion of the Anatolian Block relative to Eurasia. These results provide a present-day 'snapshot' of ongoing deformational processes as experienced by the locations occupied by SLR systems.

  6. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  7. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  8. Strain histories from the eastern Central Range of Taiwan: A record of advection through a collisional orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondro, Claire A.; Fisher, Donald; Yeh, En-Chao

    2017-05-01

    In the eastern Central Range of Taiwan there is a regional variation in the orientation of maximum finite stretch across the slate belt, with down-dip maximum stretch found in the western Central Range and along-strike maximum stretch in the eastern Central Range. Incremental strain histories from syntectonic fibers in pyrite pressure shadows indicate a progressive change in extension direction from down dip to along strike during deformation, there is a corresponding temporal variation in stretching direction shown in samples from the eastern edge of the Central Range, a pattern that mimics the regional west-to-east spatial variation. These observed temporal and spatial strain distributions are used to evaluate the kinematics associated with slaty cleavage development during advection through the Taiwan orogenic system. The subduction zone beneath the island of Taiwan is influenced by two types of obliquity that have the potential to generate the observed along-strike stretching. First, the plate motion vector of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate is slightly oblique to the regional strike of the mountain range, which could result in partitioning of strike slip shearing into the interior of the collision. Second, the north-south Luzon volcanic arc on the Philippine Sea Plate is obliquely oriented relative to the northeast-southwest edge of the Eurasian continental margin, which could result in lateral extrusion of the ductile core of the range. Incremental strain histories in cleavage-parallel samples represent a time-for-space equivalence where the stretching direction is fixed relative to the position within the mountain belt architecture (e.g., the topographic divide), and temporal variations in the eastern central Range reflect lateral advection through the strain field in response to accretionary and erosional fluxes. Incremental strain histories in cleavage perpendicular samples show both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of

  9. Dissolution of bedded rock salt: A seismic profile across the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member, central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, N.L.; Hopkins, J.; Martinez, A.; Knapp, R.W.; Macfarlane, P.A.; Watney, W.L.; Black, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since late Tertiary, bedded rock salt of the Permian Hutchinson Salt Member has been dissolved more-or-less continuously along its active eastern margin in central Kansas as a result of sustained contact with unconfined, undersaturated groundwater. The associated westward migration of the eastern margin has resulted in surface subsidence and the contemporaneous sedimentation of predominantly valley-filling Quarternary alluvium. In places, these alluvium deposits extend more than 25 km to the east of the present-day edge of the main body of contiguous rock salt. The margin could have receded this distance during the past several million years. From an environmental perspective, the continued leaching of the Hutchinson Salt is a major concern. This predominantly natural dissolution occurs in a broad zone across the central part of the State and adversely affects groundwater and surface-water quality as nonpoint source pollution. Significant surface subsidence occurs as well. Most of these subsidence features have formed gradually; others developed in a more catastrophic manner. The latter in particular pose real threats to roadways, railways, and buried oil and gas pipelines. In an effort to further clarify the process of natural salt dissolution in central Kansas and with the long-term goal of mitigating the adverse environmental affects of such leaching, the Kansas Geological Survey acquired a 4-km seismic profile across the eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt in the Punkin Center area of central Kansas. The interpretation of these seismic data (and supporting surficial and borehole geologic control) is consistent with several hypotheses regarding the process and mechanisms of dissolution. More specifically these data support the theses that: 1. (1) Dissolution along the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member was initiated during late Tertiary. Leaching has resulted in the steady westward migration of the eastern margin, surface subsidence, and the

  10. Large-scale circulation classification and its links to observed precipitation in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Deliang; Tu, Kai; Ruan, Chengqing; Hu, Zengyun

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the large-scale circulation dynamics and regional precipitation regime in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has so far not been well understood. In this study, we classify the circulation types using the self-organizing maps based on the daily field of 500 hPa geopotential height and link them to the precipitation climatology in the eastern and central TP. By virtue of an objective determining method, 18 circulation types are quantified. The results show that the large amount of precipitation in summer is closely related to the circulation types in which the enhanced and northward shifted subtropical high (SH) over the northwest Pacific and the obvious cyclconic circulation anomaly over the Bay of Bengal are helpful for the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon to take abundant low-latitude moisture to the eastern and southern TP. On the contrary, the dry winter in the central and eastern Tibet corresponds to the circulation types with divergence over the central and eastern TP and the water vapor transportations of East Asian winter monsoon and mid-latitude westerly are very weak. Some circulation types are associated with some well-known circulation patterns/monsoons influencing the TP (e.g. East Atlantic Pattern, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Indian Summer Monsoon and the mid-latitude westerly), and exhibit an overall good potential for explaining the variability of regional seasonal precipitation. Moreover, the climate shift signals in the late 1970s over the eastern Pacific/North Pacific Oceans could also be reflected by both the variability of some circulation types and their correspondingly composite precipitations. This study extends our understandings for the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and their linkages with regional precipitation and is beneficial for the climate change projection and related adaptation activities in the highest and largest plateau in the world.

  11. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

  12. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  13. Biostratigraphic data from Upper Cretaceous formations-eastern Wyoming, central Colorado, and northeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Obradovich, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lithological and paleontological studies of outcrops of Upper Cretaceous formations were conducted at 12 localities in eastern Wyoming, central Colorado, and northeastern New Mexico. The sequence extends upward from the top of the Mowry Shale, or age-equivalent rocks, through the Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formation, Pierre Shale, and Fox Hills Sandstone, or age-equivalent formations, to the top of the Laramie Formation, or laterally equivalent formations. The strata are mainly siliciclastic and calcareous, with thicknesses ranging from about 3,300 ft in northeastern New Mexico to as much as 13,500 ft in eastern Wyoming. Deposition was mainly in marine environments and molluscan fossils of Cenomanian through Maastrichtian ages are common. Radiometric ages were determined from beds of bentonite that are associated with fossil zones. The Upper Cretaceous formations at the 12 study localities are herein divided into three informal time-stratigraphic units based on fossil content and contact relations with adjacent strata. The basal unit in most places extends from the base of the Graneros to the top of the Niobrara, generally to the horizon of the fossil Scaphites hippocrepis, and spans a period of about 14 million years. The middle unit generally extends from the top of the Niobrara to the approximate middle of the Pierre, the horizon of the fossil Baculites gregoryensis, and represents a period of about 5 million years. The upper unit includes strata between the middle of the Pierre and the top of the Upper Cretaceous Series, which is the top of the Laramie Formation or of laterally equivalent formations; it represents a period of deposition of as much as 11 million years. Comparisons of the collections of fossils from each outcrop with the complete sequence of Upper Cretaceous index fossils can indicate disconformable contacts and lacunae. Widespread disconformities have been found within the Carlile Shale and between the Carlile

  14. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  15. Full waveform inversion of seismic reflection data from the Forsmark planned repository for spent nuclear fuel, eastern central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out extensive studies at the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site in the eastern part of central Sweden since 2002. Identification of subhorizontal to gently dipping seismic reflections is especially important since these may represent transport routes for radionuclides. Studies have shown that such reflections can be generated by water filled fracture zones that have a lower velocity than the surrounding bedrock. Lithological changes, that is, mafic sills, may also be responsible for reflections in some cases. At the Forsmark site, it is difficult to distinguish fracture zones from mafic sills in the standard reflection seismic processed sections. However, since mafic sills usually have a positive velocity contrast with the background velocity field compared to fractures zones that have a negative one, the two possibilities could be differentiated if we could reconstruct the underground velocity field. Seismic full waveform inversion has the potential to perform this reconstruction, allowing us to discriminate between fractures zones and mafic sills. In this study, we apply a 2-D waveform inversion code on crooked line data sets acquired at the Forsmark site. This implies we are dealing with a 3-D geometry. We handle this problem by applying 3-D to 2-D coordinate projections. First, we perform a synthetic benchmark test with a similar geometry to that of the projected real data. We test both amplitude and phase inversion and phase only inversion on the synthetic data. The results show that the phase only inversion has fewer artefacts and is more stable. After successful application on the synthetic data, we apply the phase only waveform inversion on the real data. The resulting velocity fields show more details compared with the starting model based on first arrival traveltime tomography. Time domain synthetic data sets generated from the final velocity fields

  16. The eastern Central Pamir Gneiss Domes: temporal and spatial geometry of burial and exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutte, Daniel; Stearns, Michael; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2013-04-01

    We present a structural and thermochronologic study of the Gneiss Domes and their cover in the Central Pamir. Emphasis is laid on presentation and discussion of new 40Ar-39Ar dates embedded in two structural profiles through the central Muskol and western Shatput domes. The structure of the Central Pamir is dominated by Cenozoic deformation related to the India-Asia collision. Only few structures of the Phanerozoic amalgamation of the Pamir were not reactivated. The Cenozoic structural development of the Central Pamir can be simplified into three phases: 1) Between initial collision of India and Asia to 28-20 Ma (peak metamorphism, U-Pb monazite) the emplacement of large thrust sheets led to strong north-south shortening;" in the eastern Central Pamir the major thrust sheet has a minimum displacement of 35 km. The stratigraphic thickness of this nappe is ~7 km but its internal structure and thus its true thickness is weakly constrained by the available data. Klippen of Early Paleozoic strata of this thrust sheet south of the Central Pamir Muskol and Shatput domes cover Carboniferous to Triassic strata of the footwall; they can be linked to the Akbaital nappe previously mapped by Russian geologists north of the domes. In the Sasaksu valley of the Muskol dome, the thrust sheet is intruded by a ~36 Ma granodiorite (new U-Pb zircon dates). (2) This crustal imbricate stack is cut by east-trending normal faults and shear zones that define the Central Pamir Gneiss Domes. Normal shear is concentrated along the northern margin of the domes and was the main process associated with exhumation of the domes from ~30 km depth at 20-15 Ma (U-Th/Pb titanite and monazite, Ar-Ar, fission-track geo-thermochronology). One granite at ~35 Ma (U-Pb zircon) pre-dates exhumation while three leucocratic dykes (18-20 Ma U-Pb monazite and zircon) are dated to be coeval with the initial stages of exhumation. Detrital U-Pb zircon ages of the high-grade metasediments indicate that the protoliths

  17. The CEECHE: a practical approach for reducing exposures and disease outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    While each region of the world faces unique challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) present a significant public health challenge. Environmental pollution is widespread, resulting from the consequences of rapid industrialization during the Soviet Union era. To help address these concerns, a meeting, sponsored in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP), was convened in 1994. The meeting, "Hazardous Wastes - Exposure, Remediation, and Policy," brought together representatives of the governments of seven countries in the region, scientists from the United States and Western Europe, and representatives from international organizations to explore hazardous waste problems in the region. Since 1994, the SRP and partners have been holding meetings throughout CEE to share important information regarding environmental health. The general sessions have shifted from a focus on describing the problems in each country related to hazardous waste, exposure assessment, risk reduction, and risk communication, to an exchange of information to better define links between health and the environment and strategies to improve regional problems. The 1994 meeting and subsequent meetings raised issues such as heavy metal contamination, exposures from hazardous waste, and pollution caused by deficiencies in disposal of waste overall. Research priorities that were identified included development of reliable biomarkers, better understanding of the relationship between nutrition and chemical toxicity, more epidemiological studies in CEE, better methods of environmental data analysis, and development of remediation tools. Here, we review examples of research from current SRP grantees that address many of these issues. In 2004, the first official Central and Eastern European Conference on Health and the Environment (CEECHE) was held

  18. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries.

  19. Overview of seismic potential in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schweig, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    The seismic potential of any region can be framed in terms the locations of source zones, the frequency of earthquake occurrence for each source, and the maximum size earthquake that can be expect from each source. As delineated by modern and historical seismicity, the most important seismic source zones affecting the eastern United States include the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones of the central U.S., the southern Appalachians and Charleston, South Carolina, areas in the southeast, and the northern Appalachians and Adirondacks in the northeast. The most prominant of these in terms of current seismicity and historical seismic moment release in the New Madrid seismic zone, which produced three earthquakes of moment magnitude {ge} 8 in 1811 and 1812. The frequency of earthquake recurrence can be examined using the instrumental record, the historical record, and the geological record. Each record covers a unique time period and has a different scale of temporal resolution and completeness of the data set. The Wabash Valley is an example where the long-term geological record indicates a greater potential than the instrumental and historical records. This points to the need to examine all of the evidence in any region in order to obtain a credible estimates of earthquake hazards. Although earthquake hazards may be dominated by mid-magnitude 6 earthquakes within the mapped seismic source zones, the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake is just the most recent example of the danger of assuming future events will occur on faults known to have had past events and how destructive such an earthquake can be.

  20. Arenig volcanic and sedimentary strata, central New Brunswick and eastern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poole, W.H.; Neuman, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Arenig strata in the Napadogan area of the Miramichi Highlands of west-central New Brunswick are similar to those of the Lunksoos anti-clinorial area of eastern Maine. Strata from both areas were deposited in a volcanic back-arc setting upon Cambrian-Tremadoc, deep-water, turbiditic quartzose strata on the northwest-facing Gander margin of Gondwana. Tremadoc southeastward obduction of the Penobscot Arc, formed in the lapetus Ocean to the northwest of the margin, was followed by local uplift, rift faulting, erosion, and finally by local deposition of late Arenig gravel within the early stages of a subsiding back-arc basin that was related to a younger, northwest-facing, early Arenig-Llanvirn Popelogan Arc lying to the northwest. These strata became overlain by late Arenig marine felsic tuff, sandy and silty tuff and mudstone, coarse textured and many hundreds of metres thick in the Lunksoos area but much finer and only a few metres thick farther from the volcanic centres, in the Napadogan area. During Llanvirn, the strata became covered with deep-water, commonly manganiferous, ferruginous shale-chert in a basin shielded from currents carrying coarse detritus. Arenig strata of the Napadogan area probably developed to the southeast of the main rift-volcanism zone that perhaps extended between the Lunksoos and northeastern Miramichi Highlands during the Arenig. Brachiopods of the Celtic paleogeographic assemblage colonized newly formed shelves flanking islands along the zone. Shell beds developed upon fresh layers of ash in a nutrient-rich environment between episodes of volcanism. These Celtic brachiopods developed in cool waters of high southern latitudes off Gondwana, different from those on the Laurentian margin in warm waters of low southern latitudes.

  1. Increased Earthquake Rates in the Central and Eastern US Portend Higher Earthquake Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Mueller, C. S.; Michael, A. J.; McGarr, A.; Petersen, M. D.; Weingarten, M.; Holland, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2009 the central and eastern United States has experienced an unprecedented increase in the rate of M≥3 earthquakes that is unlikely to be due to natural variation. Where the rates have increased so has the seismic hazard, making it important to understand these changes. Areas with significant seismicity increases are limited to areas where oil and gas production take place. By far the largest contributor to the seismicity increase is Oklahoma, where recent studies suggest that these rate changes may be due to fluid injection (e.g., Keranen et al., Geology, 2013; Science, 2014). Moreover, the area of increased seismicity in northern Oklahoma that began in 2013 coincides with the Mississippi Lime play, where well completions greatly increased the year before the seismicity increase. This suggests a link to oil and gas production either directly or from the disposal of significant amounts of produced water within the play. For the purpose of assessing the hazard due to these earthquakes, should they be treated differently from natural earthquakes? Previous studies suggest that induced seismicity may differ from natural seismicity in clustering characteristics or frequency-magnitude distributions (e.g., Bachmann et al., GJI, 2011; Llenos and Michael, BSSA, 2013). These differences could affect time-independent hazard computations, which typically assume that clustering and size distribution remain constant. In Oklahoma, as well as other areas of suspected induced seismicity, we find that earthquakes since 2009 tend to be considerably more clustered in space and time than before 2009. However differences between various regional and national catalogs leave unclear whether there are significant changes in magnitude distribution. Whether they are due to natural or industrial causes, the increased earthquake rates in these areas could increase the hazard in ways that are not accounted for in current hazard assessment practice. Clearly the possibility of induced

  2. Access to biologic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries

    PubMed Central

    Orlewska, Ewa; Ancuta, Ioan; Anic, Branimir; Codrenau, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja; Djukic, Predrag; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Marinchev, Lubomir; Nasonov, Evgeny L.; Peets, Tonu; Praprotnik, Sonja; Rashkov, Rasho; Skoupa, Jana; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Tomsic, Matija; Veldi, Tiina; Vojinovic, Jelena; Wiland, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess and compare patients’ access to biologic anti-RA drugs in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and to analyze the determinants of differences between countries. Material/Methods This is a multi-country survey study, based on a combination of desk research and direct contact with national RA stakeholders. Data was collected using a pre-defined questionnaire. Affordability was measured using an affordability index, calculated comparing the index of health care expenditures to the price index, using Poland as an index of 1. Results The percentage of patients on biologic treatment in 2009 was highest in Hungary (5% RA patients on biologic treatment), followed by Slovenia (4.5%), Slovakia (3.5%), Czech Republic (2.92%), Romania (2.2%), Estonia (1.8%), and Croatia, Serbia, Poland (below 1.5%). Infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and rituximab were included in the reimbursement system in all countries, but abatacept and tocilizumab were included only in Slovakia. In Slovenia, public payer covered 75% of the price, and 25% is covered by supplementary health insurance; in Bulgaria public payer covered 50% of etanercept and adalimumab costs, and 75% of rituximab cost. In other countries, biologic drugs are reimbursed at 100%. Affordability index for biologic drugs was the lowest in Slovenia (0.4). In each country national guidelines define which patients are eligible for biologic treatment. Disease Activity Score (DAS28) of over 5.1 and failure of 2 or more disease-modifying anti-RA drugs, including methotrexate, are commonly used criteria. Conclusions The most important factors limiting access to biologic anti-RA treatment in the CEE region are macroeconomic conditions and restrictive treatment guidelines. PMID:21455121

  3. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Eastern and Central groups of the Azores - Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontiela, João; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Borges, José; Rodrigues, Francisco; Caldeira, Bento

    2017-04-01

    Azores islands of the Eastern and Central groups are located at the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and Nubian plates inducing a large number of low magnitude earthquakes. Since its settlement in the 15th century, 33 earthquakes with intensity ≥ VII have caused severe damage and high death toll. The most severe ones occurred in 1522 at São Miguel Island with a maximum MM intensity of X; in 1614 at Terceira Island (X) in 1757 at São Jorge Island (XI); 1852 at São Miguel Island (VIII); 1926 at Faial Island (Mb 5.3-5.9); in 1980 at Terceira Island (Mw7.1) and in 1998 at Faial Island (Mw6.2). The analysis of the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were carried out using the classical Cornell-McGuire approach using seismogenic zones recently defined by Fontiela et al. (2014). We create a new earthquake catalogue merging local and global datasets with a large time span (1522 - 2016) to calculate recurrence times and maximum magnitudes. In order to reduce the epistemic uncertainties, we test several ground motion prediction equations in agreement with the geological heterogeneities typical of young volcanic islands. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps are proposed for 475 and 975 years returns periods as well as hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra for the main cities. REFERENCES: Fontiela, J. et al., 2014. Azores seismogenic zones. Comunicações Geológicas, 101(1), pp.351-354. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 of Regional Science Fund of the Regional Government Azores and this study is co-funded by the European Union through the European fund of Regional Development, framed in COMPETE 2020 (Operational Competitiveness Programme and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID/GEO/04683/2013) with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690.

  4. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Agnes; Adam, Balazs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Adany, Roza; Kosa, Karolina

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  5. Mapping the Influence of Prior Tectonism on Seismicity in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Levandowski, W.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Zellman, M.; Briggs, R.

    2015-12-01

    From the Atlantic margin to the Rockies, most earthquakes in the central and eastern U.S. occur in ancient tectonic zones, yet many such features have been historically quiescent. If all intraplate stress were transferred from plate boundaries or bases, the stress field would be broadly uniform, with all well-oriented faults equally likely to slip. But faults are not the only product of tectonism; intrusions, metamorphism, or any number of other alterations may modify crustal and/or upper mantle density, leaving behind lithostatic pressure gradients that can locally elevate or reduce stress on faults. With data provided by Earthscope, we are working to map lithospheric density across the U.S. and to quantify gravitational body-forces using analytical and finite-element methods. Regional-scale 3D models show that gravitational forces focus seismicity and reorient principal stress both in the New Madrid seismic zone and the western Great Plains. Sedimentary fill and low elevation encourage Reelfoot Rift-normal contraction, yet along-strike variations in lower crustal density rotate body-forces beneath New Madrid to interfere constructively with far-field compression, augmenting differential stress by 5-10 MPa. On the plains of SE Colorado and SE Wyoming, the Cheraw and Wheatland/Whalen faults collocate with multiply reactivated Proterozoic sutures, enigmatic Quaternary extension, and focused seismicity with regionally anomalous NW-SE moment tensor T-axes. Earthscope data help reveal anomalously buoyant lower crust beneath each suture -­- which we hypothesize reflects hydration by Farallon slab-derived fluids that have preferentially migrated along ancient fracture networks -- that generates 10 MPa of localized suture-normal tension, consistent with geomorphic strain- and seismic stress-indicators. As continent-wide seismic models emerge from Earthscope data, we will continue to map regions where inherited structures encourage intraplate seismicity.

  6. Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deep gas reservoir play, central and eastern Gulf coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancini, E.A.; Li, P.; Goddard, D.A.; Ramirez, V.O.; Talukdar, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deeply buried gas reservoir play in the central and eastern Gulf coastal plain of the United States has high potential for significant gas resources. Sequence-stratigraphic study, petroleum system analysis, and resource assessment were used to characterize this developing play and to identify areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior salt basins with potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs. These reservoir facies accumulated in Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Norphlet, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, and Hosston continental, coastal, and marine siliciclastic environments and Smackover and Sligo nearshore marine shelf, ramp, and reef carbonate environments. These Mesozoic strata are associated with transgressive and regressive systems tracts. In the North Louisiana salt basin, the estimate of secondary, nonassociated thermogenic gas generated from thermal cracking of oil to gas in the Upper Jurassic Smackover source rocks from depths below 3658 m (12,000 ft) is 4800 tcf of gas as determined using software applications. Assuming a gas expulsion, migration, and trapping efficiency of 2-3%, 96-144 tcf of gas is potentially available in this basin. With some 29 tcf of gas being produced from the North Louisiana salt basin, 67-115 tcf of in-place gas remains. Assuming a gas recovery factor of 65%, 44-75 tcf of gas is potentially recoverable. The expelled thermogenic gas migrated laterally and vertically from the southern part of this basin to the updip northern part into shallower reservoirs to depths of up to 610 m (2000 ft). Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical and physical defense traits in two sexual forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; León Solano, Héctor Javier; Solache Rámos, Lupita Tzenyatze; Mendoza Reyes, Citlalli Hypatia; Oro Cerro, María del Carmen; Mariezcurrena Berasain, María Dolores; Rivas Manzano, Irma Victoria; Manjarrez, Javier; Villareal Benitez, José Luis; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1) Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2) Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3) Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4) among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1) hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs) than female ones. In addition, 2) hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3) and 4) we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes.

  8. Carbon exchange of an old-growth eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest in central New England.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Julian L; Schedlbauer, Jessica L

    2002-11-01

    Carbon (C) exchange of an approximately 200-year-old eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) forest in central Massachusetts, USA, was estimated from mid-October 2000 through October 2001 based on eddy covariance measurements and statistical modeling from microclimatic data. Measurements were made in 68% of the hours during the year of study, with > 50% coverage in all months except December and August. Data were filtered by wind direction and atmospheric turbulence to remove invalid measurements. Analysis of filtered data showed that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was significant in predicting C exchange, except during the winter. Daily minimum air temperature affected C exchange in autumn and winter, whereas time of day, water vapor pressure deficit and air temperature had significant effects on C storage in spring, summer and fall. Most C storage in the stand occurred in April through July and in October 2001, with maximum rates in April and May. Persistent cold weather prevented C storage in December through March. In early spring 2001, C uptake was sensitive to nocturnal frost: daily minimum air temperatures below 0 degrees C reduced C fixation, and minima below -5 degrees C caused its virtual cessation. Soil temperature was a poor predictor of C balance during this period. In August, high soil and air temperatures (averaging 16.7 and 21.1 degrees C, respectively) drove high ecosystem respiration, which approximately balanced C uptake. These patterns show potential for stimulated C storage in hemlock forests in a warmer climate with fewer spring and autumn frosts, but reduced C storage during warmer summers. Estimated annual C storage was 3.0 Mg ha(-1), which is higher than for younger coniferous and deciduous forests during earlier years in the northeastern USA. Long-term data are needed to determine if the estimated high C storage in this hemlock forest is a result of interannual climate variation or an effect of forest composition.

  9. 21st century projections of snowfall and winter severity across central-eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Lorenz, D. J.; Hoving, C.; Schummer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Statistically downscaled climate projections from nine global climate models (GCMs) are used to force a snow accumulation and ablation model (SNOW-17) across the central-eastern North American Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) to develop high-resolution projections of snowfall, snow depth, and winter severity index (WSI) by the mid- and late 21st century. Here, we use projections of a cumulative WSI (CWSI) known to influence autumn-winter waterfowl migration to demonstrate the utility of SNOW-17 results. The application of statistically downscaled climate data and a snow model leads to a better representation of lake processes in the Great Lakes Basin, topographic effects in the Appalachian Mountains, and spatial patterns of climatological snowfall, compared to the original GCMs. Annual mean snowfall is simulated to decline across the region, particularly in early winter (December-January), leading to a delay in the mean onset of the snow season. Due to a warming-induced acceleration of snowmelt, the percentage loss in snow depth exceeds that of snowfall. Across the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC and Upper Midwest and Great Lakes LCC, daily snowfall events are projected to become less common, but more intense. The greatest reductions in the number of days per year with a present snowpack are expected close to the historical position of the -5°C isotherm in DJFM, around 44°N. The CWSI is projected to decline substantially during December-January, leading to increased likelihood of delays in timing and intensity of autumn-winter waterfowl migrations.

  10. Depositional facies and eustatic effects in Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Ripley Formation, central and eastern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Skotnicki, M.C.; King, D.T. Jr. )

    1989-09-01

    In eastern and central Alabama, the Upper Cretaceous Ripley Formation (40-175 m thick) is comprised of five depositional facies. Facies 1 (barrier-island shoreface and tidal-inlet fill) is a medium to coarse, intraclastic quartzose sand that is planar and trough cross-stratified and has abundant Ophiomorpha traces. Facies 2 (back-barrier lagoon or marsh) is a bioturbated, micaceous, carbonaceous silt that contains macerated plant debris and bivalve molds and impressions. Interbedded with facies 2 is facies 3 (storm-washover deposits), a hummocky cross-stratified, micaceous fine sand. Facies 4 (back-barrier tidal flat) is a micaceous silty clay lacking body fossils and plant debris. Facies 5 (lower shoreface) is a glauconitic, clayey and micaceous, fine to medium sand that is highly bioturbated and commonly has abundant marine macrofauna. The Ripley is divided into two genetic packages of facies; the genetic packages are bounded by stratigraphic breaks or discontinuities. The package-bounding breaks are correlated biostratigraphically with discrete third-order eustatic drops on the world sea level curve. The basal Ripley break is correlated with the end of Campanian (about 74 Ma) eustatic drop, and the middle Ripley break (separating the two genetic packages) marks the mid-Maastrichtian (71 Ma) sea level drop. The basal and middle Ripley breaks are low-relief surfaces marked by sharp facies discontinuities (correlatable across 130 km) and terminal coarsening-upward cycles (5 m thick); the estimated eustatic sea level fall in both instances was about 50 m. The break at the top of the Ripley has 70 m of erosional relief and a bone bed up to 80 cm thick. This break represents a late Maastrichtian (about 68 Ma) sea level fall estimated to have been nearly 95 m. Facies of the superjacent Prairie Bluff Chalk and Providence Sand overlie the erosional surface.

  11. Paleoenvironmental signals and paleoclimatic condition of the Early Maastrichtian oil shales from Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Zaki, Rafat; Mohamed, Ramadan S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Early Maastrichtian oil shales are hosted in the Duwi Formation of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. The examined member represents up to 20% of the total Duwi Formation. This interval is mainly composed of siliciclastic facies, phosphorites facies and carbonate facies. Oil shales microfacies is mainly composed of smectite, kaolinite, calcite, fluorapatite, quartz and pyrite. They are enriched in a number of major elements and trace metals in particular Ca, P, V, Ni, Cr, Sr, Zn, Mo, Nb, U and Y compared to the post-Archaean Australian shale (PAAS). Chondrite-normalized REEs patterns of oil shales for the studied area display light rare earth elements enrichment relatively to heavy rare earth elements with negative Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* anomalies. The most remarkable indicators for redox conditions are enrichments of V, Mo, Ni, Cr, U content and depletion of Mn content. Besides, V/V+Ni, V/Ni, U/Th, Ni/Co, authigentic uranium ratios with presence of framboidal shape of pyrite and its size are reflecting the deposition of these shales under marine anoxic to euxinic environmental conditions. Additionally, the ratio of Strontium (Sr) to Barium (Ba) Sr/Ba reflected highly saline water during deposition. Elemental ratios critical to paleoclimate and paleoweathering (Rb /Sr, Al2O3/TiO2), CIA values, binary diagram between (Al2O3+K2O+Na2O) and SiO2 and types of clay minerals dominated reflect warm to humid climate conditions prevailing during the accumulation of these organic-rich petroleum source rocks.

  12. Earthquake Rate Models for Evolving Induced Seismicity Hazard in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Injection-induced earthquake rates can vary rapidly in space and time, which presents significant challenges to traditional probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies that are based on a time-independent model of mainshock occurrence. To help society cope with rapidly evolving seismicity, the USGS is developing one-year hazard models for areas of induced seismicity in the central and eastern US to forecast the shaking due to all earthquakes, including aftershocks which are generally omitted from hazards assessments (Petersen et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of the earthquake rates make them difficult to forecast even on time-scales as short as one year. An initial approach is to use the previous year's seismicity rate to forecast the next year's seismicity rate. However, in places such as northern Oklahoma the rates vary so rapidly over time that a simple linear extrapolation does not accurately forecast the future, even when the variability in the rates is modeled with simulations based on an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, JASA, 1988) to account for earthquake clustering. Instead of relying on a fixed time period for rate estimation, we explore another way to determine when the earthquake rate should be updated. This approach could also objectively identify new areas where the induced seismicity hazard model should be applied. We will estimate the background seismicity rate by optimizing a single set of ETAS aftershock triggering parameters across the most active induced seismicity zones -- Oklahoma, Guy-Greenbrier, the Raton Basin, and the Azle-Dallas-Fort Worth area -- with individual background rate parameters in each zone. The full seismicity rate, with uncertainties, can then be estimated using ETAS simulations and changes in rate can be detected by applying change point analysis in ETAS transformed time with methods already developed for Poisson processes.

  13. [Legislation concerning reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe: new facts].

    PubMed

    Fluss, S S

    1994-05-01

    In this article, WHO reports on certain laws promulgated in different central and eastern European countries in the early 1990s. Russia has passed a law creating a Coordinating Committee on Problems of the Family, Motherhood, and Childhood. It brings together governmental agencies, public organizations, and citizens to identify ways to improve women's status and protection of maternal and child health. Russia has also adopted Legislative Orientations of the Russian Federation concerning the Sanitary Protection of Citizens. For example, this law guarantees pregnant women the right to work under conditions adapted to their physiological and sanitary state. A whole chapter is dedicated to family planning and regulation of human procreation. Only women have the right to decide whether to terminate or continue their pregnancy. A law in Kyrgyzstan states that every woman has the right to make her own decisions concerning motherhood. With their consent, women also have the right to modern contraceptive methods. Sterilization can only be done with the consent of the woman or for medical reasons. The Counsel of Ministers in the Ukraine adopted a program aiming to improve the condition of women and the family and to protect mothers and children. A Hungarian law does not consider abortion to be a family planning method or a means of fertility control. At the same time, it considers family planning to be a right and a duty of parents. It calls for considerable education on the value of health and life, the healthy life, responsibilities accompanying relations between partners, a family life compatible with human dignity, and contraceptive methods. Albania first approved family planning activities in May 1992. Romania approved technical norms relative to hormonal contraceptives and to IUDs. In January 1993, Poland passed a law restricting abortion to cases of medical indications, fetal death, a grave abnormality, and illicit acts.

  14. The mantle transition zone and the upper mantle in Central-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anja Kraft, Helene; Thybo, Hans; Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    We present a receiver function (RF) study of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) and upper mantle in central-eastern Greenland. Our results are based on data from 18 temporary broad-band seismometers and 5 additional stations from the GLISN and GLATIS networks. The stations were operating in the region between Scoresby Sund and Summit (~ 70 ° N) with half of them installed on ice, the other half on bedrock. For our analysis we calculated low frequency PRF and SRF, which use the difference in travel times between converted and not converted phases at discontinuities. We see clear signals from P410s and P660s in most of our PRF and from S410p in the SRF. Their delay times suggest a surprisingly thin MTZ for most parts of the study area with up to 25 km of thinning compared to standard Earth models. The only exception is a small region in the centre of the study area, which shows times close to standard. It is mainly the delay time for P410s, that varies, while P660s is stable throughout our study area. This indicates, that the thinning of the MTZ is mainly due to topography on the 410-discontinuity. We furthermore observe an M-shaped signal for P410s at stations in the western part around Summit. A similar, complicated signal has been observed previously in different settings and is interpreted as a thin low velocity layer between 410 km and 520 km. In addition we jointly inverted the PRF and SRF for upper mantle velocities. These results show velocities slower than IASP91 for the entire study area. Both the low velocities in the upper mantle and the thinning of the MTZ are in contrary to simple models of old continental shields and might indicate a fairly recent heating event.

  15. Melampsora rust species on biomass willows in central and north-eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bubner, Ben; Wunder, Sebastian; Zaspel, Irmtraut; Zander, Matthias; Gloger, Jan; Fehrenz, Steffen; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Melampsora willow rusts are the most important fungal pathogens in short rotation coppices of biomass willows. In the past, breeding programmes for rust resistant biomass willows concentrated on the distinction of races within the forma specialis Melampsora larici-epitea f. sp. larici-epitea typica that colonized Salix viminalis and related clones. In a new breeding program that is based on a wider range of willow species it is necessary to identify further Melampsora species and formae specialis that are pathogens of willow species other than S. viminalis. Therefore, three stock collections with Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, and other shrub willow species (including S. viminalis) species were sampled in north-eastern Germany. A fourth stock collection in central Germany contributed rusts of tree willows (Salix fragilis and Salix alba) and the large shrub Salix caprea. Out of 156 rust samples, 149 were successfully sequenced for ITS rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis combining Neighbour-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian analysis revealed six species: Melampsora ribesii-purpureae, Melampsora allii-salicis-albae, Melampsora sp. aff. allii-fragilis, Melampsora larici-pentandrae, Melampsora larici-caprearum, and Melampsora larici-epitea. The first four species were found exclusively on the expected hosts. Melampsora larici-caprearum had a wider host range comprising S. caprea and S. viminalis hybrids. Melampsora larici-epitea can be further differentiated into two formae speciales. The forma specialis larici-epitea typica (59 samples) colonized Salix viminalis clones, Salix purpurea, Salix×dasyclados, and Salix×aquatica. In contrast to this relatively broad host range, f. sp. larici-daphnoides (65 samples) was found exclusively on Salix daphnoides. With the distinction and identification of the rust species/formae speciales it is now possible to test for race-specific resistances in a more targeted manner within the determined pairings of rust and willow

  16. Chemostratigraphy of the Gohan Formation in the eastern central Korea : implications for the Capitanian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyosang; Lee, Yong Il; Lim, Hyoun Soo

    2017-04-01

    The Gohan Formation in the Pyeongan Supergroup in central eastern Korea was deposited in a marginal marine to terrestrial setting in the Capitanian. It is 450 m thick and comprises alternation of gray-greenish medium-grained sandstone and mudrock. A detailed carbon isotope profile along with some paleoenvironmental proxies are presented for the Gohan Formation at Danyang site. CN ratios of organic matters reveal the presence of both vascular and non vascular plants. Excursion of carbon isotope ratios represents disturbance of carbon cycle. Carbon isotope values indicated a 3‰ negative excursion in the lower part of the studied section. This can be interpreted carbon cycle disturbance from the Capitanian extinction event. Mercury concentration is a proxy of volcanic activity. The horizon of a mercury peak near the bottom of the section is consistent with that of negative carbon isotope excursion and the coincidence between negative carbon isotope excursion and high mercury concentration may represent the influence from Emeishan volcanism, which has been regarded as a possible cause of the Capitanian extiction. Two more mercury peaks are noted in the upper part of the section but they are not related to carbon cycle disturbance which suggests effect of local volcanic eruptions as supported by the presence of volcanic rock fragments in coarse-grained sediment. Trace metal redox proxies indicate that the depositional basin was ventillated. TOC values tend to increase when the concentration of redox elements rise. However, the TOC and trace metal redox proxies trends are observed to behave independently of changes in carbon isotope and mercury concentrations suggesting transitions in local paleoenvironmental conditions.

  17. Late Neoproterozoic basement rocks of Meatiq area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrography and remote sensing characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; El kazzaz, Yahiya A.; Taha, Maysa M. N.; Mohammad, Abdullah T.

    2017-07-01

    Meatiq dome is one of the mysteries of the basement rocks in Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. Its mode of formation, and tectonic evolution are still controversial and not fully understood. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool for geologic applications, especially in inaccessible regions of the Earth's surface. In this study, three proposed Landsat-8 band ratios (6/2, 6/7, (6/4*4/3)), (6/7, 6/4, 4/2), and (7/5, 7/6, 5/3) are successfully used for detailed geological mapping of the different lithological rock units exposed in Meatiq dome area in the CED. Landsat-8 Principal component (PC) images is also used for refinement the boundaries between the widely-exposed rock units in the study area. Fourteen spectral bands of Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data are successfully used to emphasize the distribution of some rock forming minerals (i.e. muscovite, quartz, ferrous oxides, ferrous silicates and hydroxyl-bearing minerals) in the lithological rock units of Meatiq dome area. ASTER muscovite index (B7/B6) and quartz index (B14/B12), ferrous iron index (B5/B3), ferrous silicates index (B5/B4), mafic index (B12/B13) and hydroxyl-bearing minerals index ((B7/B6)*(B4/B6)) discriminate muscovite bearing rocks, Granitoids, and other felsic rocks, amphibolite and other mafic rocks. The proposed image processing methods effectively discriminates between four granitic varieties existed in Meatiq area. They are namely; Abu Ziran, Ariki, Fawakhir and Atalla Plutons. This study reveals that the applied data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images produced a modified geological map with well emphasized rock units which are verified with field observations, and petrographic study.

  18. Late Devonian glacigenic and associated facies from the central Appalachian Basin, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.

    2010-01-01

    Late Devonian strata in the eastern United States are generally considered as having been deposited under warm tropical conditions. However, a stratigraphically restricted Late Devonian succession of diamictite- mudstonesandstone within the Spechty Kopf and Rockwell Formations that extends for more than 400 km along depositional strike within the central Appalachian Basin may indicate other wise. This lithologic association unconformably overlies the Catskill Formation, where a 3- to 5-m-thick interval of deformed strata occurs immediately below the diamictite strata. The diamictite facies consists of several subfacies that are interpreted to be subglacial, englacial, supraglacial meltout, and resedimented deposits. The mudstone facies that overlies the diamictite consists of subfacies of chaotically bedded, clast-poor mudstone, and laminated mudstone sub facies that represent subaqueous proximal debris flows and distal glaciolacustrine rhythmites or varvites, respectively. The pebbly sandstone facies is interpreted as proglacial braided outwash deposits that both preceded glacial advance and followed glacial retreat. Both the tectonic and depositional frameworks suggest that the facies were deposited in a terrestrial setting within the Appalachian foreland basin during a single glacial advance and retreat. Regionally, areas that were not covered by ice were subject to increased rainfall as indicated by wet-climate paleosols. River systems eroded deeper channels in response to sea-level drop during glacial advance. Marine facies to the west contain iceborne dropstone boulders preserved within contemporaneous units of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale.The stratigraphic interval correlative with sea-level drop, climate change, and glacigenic succession represents one of the Appalachian Basin's most prolific oil-and gas-producing intervals and is contemporaneous with a global episode of sea-level drop responsible for the deposition of the Hangenberg Shale

  19. Paleoenvironmental conditions across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in central-eastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Yáñez, Mario; Núñez-Useche, Fernando; López Martínez, Rafael; Gardner, Rand D.

    2017-08-01

    The Padni section of central-eastern Mexico is characterized by pelagic, organic-rich carbonates and shales dated in this study by calpionellid biostratigraphy to the late Tithonian-late Berriasian time interval. Microfacies, pyrite framboid size, spectrometric gamma-ray and mineralogical data are herein integrated in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental change during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. Deposits of the late Tithonian-early Berriasian are characterized by laminated, organic-rich facies with abundant radiolarian, tiny pyrite framboids and low Th/U ratios. They are linked to upwelling in a semi-restricted basin, high marine productivity and anoxic bottom waters. The early incursions of Tethyan oceanic waters into the proto-Gulf of Mexico occurred during late Tithonian as attested the appearance of calpionellids. Short and intermittent accumulations of saccocomids during early Berriasian suggest episodes of sporadic connection between the Tethys, the proto-Atlantic and the Pacific ocean during sea-level rise events. A full and stable connection between the Tethys and proto-Gulf of Mexico was established until the late Berriasian. This event is supported by the presence of open marine and bioturbated facies with a framboid population typical of dysoxic conditions, higher Th/U ratios and a decreasing pattern of the total organic carbon content. In addition to highlighting the replenishment of the oxygen supply to the basin, this facies also points to a younger age for the finalization of the Yucatán Block rotation and the end of the Gulf of Mexico opening. Deposition of the studied section occurred mostly during a Tithonian-Berriasian arid phase reported in other Tethyan and Atlantic regions. The similarity between the discrete segments of the standard gamma-ray curve defined in the studied outcrop and those reported from subsurface implies their regional continuity allowing their use for correlation purposes.

  20. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r2 = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r2 = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states. PMID:20427332

  1. The Implementation of Managed Entry Agreements in Central and Eastern Europe: Findings and Implications.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Alessandra; Arāja, Diāna; Bochenek, Tomasz; Čatić, Tarik; Dankó, Dávid; Dimitrova, Maria; Fürst, Jurij; Greičiūtė-Kuprijanov, Ieva; Hoxha, Iris; Jakupi, Arianit; Laidmäe, Erki; Löblová, Olga; Mardare, Ileana; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Meshkov, Dmitry; Novakovic, Tanja; Petrova, Guenka; Pomorski, Maciej; Tomek, Dominik; Voncina, Luka; Haycox, Alan; Kanavos, Panos; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Godman, Brian

    2017-08-23

    Managed entry agreements (MEAs) are a set of instruments to facilitate access to new medicines. This study surveyed the implementation of MEAs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) where limited comparative information is currently available. We conducted a survey on the implementation of MEAs in CEE between January and March 2017. Sixteen countries participated in this study. Across five countries with available data on the number of different MEA instruments implemented, the most common MEAs implemented were confidential discounts (n = 495, 73%), followed by paybacks (n = 92, 14%), price-volume agreements (n = 37, 5%), free doses (n = 25, 4%), bundle and other agreements (n = 19, 3%), and payment by result (n = 10, >1%). Across seven countries with data on MEAs by therapeutic group, the highest number of brand names associated with one or more MEA instruments belonged to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)-L group, antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents (n = 201, 31%). The second most frequent therapeutic group for MEA implementation was ATC-A, alimentary tract and metabolism (n = 87, 13%), followed by medicines for neurological conditions (n = 83, 13%). Experience in implementing MEAs varied substantially across the region and there is considerable scope for greater transparency, sharing experiences and mutual learning. European citizens, authorities and industry should ask themselves whether, within publicly funded health systems, confidential discounts can still be tolerated, particularly when it is not clear which country and party they are really benefiting. Furthermore, if MEAs are to improve access, countries should establish clear objectives for their implementation and a monitoring framework to measure their performance, as well as the burden of implementation.

  2. Medical and economic burden of influenza in the elderly population in central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gábor; Kaló, Zoltán; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Kyncl, Jan; Csohan, Agnes; Pistol, Adriana; Leleka, Mariya; Kipshakbaev, Rafail; Durand, Laure; Macabeo, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    Influenza affects 5-15% of the population during an epidemic. In Western Europe, vaccination of at-risk groups forms the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, vaccination coverage of the elderly (> 65 y) is often low in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE); potentially because a paucity of country-specific data limits evidence-based policy making. Therefore the medical and economic burden of influenza were estimated in elderly populations in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. Data covering national influenza vaccination policies, surveillance and reporting, healthcare costs, populations, and epidemiology were obtained via literature review, open-access websites and databases, and interviews with experts. A simplified model of patient treatment flow incorporating cost, population, and incidence/prevalence data was used to calculate the influenza burden per country. In the elderly, influenza represented a large burden on the assessed healthcare systems, with yearly excess hospitalization rates of ~30/100,000. Burden varied between countries and was likely influenced by population size, surveillance system, healthcare provision, and vaccine coverage. The greatest burden was found in Poland, where direct costs were over EUR 5 million. Substantial differences in data availability and quality were identified, and to fully quantify the burden of influenza in CEE, influenza reporting systems should be standardized. This study most probably underestimates the real burden of influenza, however the public health problem is recognized worldwide, and will further increase with population aging. Extending influenza vaccination of the elderly may be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden of influenza in CEE.

  3. Medical and economic burden of influenza in the elderly population in central and eastern European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Gábor; Kovács, Gábor; Kaló, Zoltán; Kaló, Zoltán; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Kyncl, Jan; Kyncl, Jan; Csohan, Agnes; Csohan, Agnes; Pistol, Adriana; Pistol, Adriana; Leleka, Mariya; Leleka, Mariya; Kipshakbaev, Rafail; Kipshakbaev, Rafail; Durand, Laure; Durand, Laure; Macabeo, Bérengère; Macabeo, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    Influenza affects 5–15% of the population during an epidemic. In Western Europe, vaccination of at-risk groups forms the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, vaccination coverage of the elderly (>65 y) is often low in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE); potentially because a paucity of country-specific data limits evidence-based policy making. Therefore the medical and economic burden of influenza were estimated in elderly populations in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. Data covering national influenza vaccination policies, surveillance and reporting, healthcare costs, populations, and epidemiology were obtained via literature review, open-access websites and databases, and interviews with experts. A simplified model of patient treatment flow incorporating cost, population, and incidence/prevalence data was used to calculate the influenza burden per country. In the elderly, influenza represented a large burden on the assessed healthcare systems, with yearly excess hospitalization rates of ~30/100 000. Burden varied between countries and was likely influenced by population size, surveillance system, healthcare provision, and vaccine coverage. The greatest burden was found in Poland, where direct costs were over EUR 5 million. Substantial differences in data availability and quality were identified, and to fully quantify the burden of influenza in CEE, influenza reporting systems should be standardized. This study most probably underestimates the real burden of influenza, however the public health problem is recognized worldwide, and will further increase with population aging. Extending influenza vaccination of the elderly may be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden of influenza in CEE. PMID:24165394

  4. Anthropophilic mosquitoes and malaria transmission in the eastern foothills of the central highlands of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Domarle, Olivier; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Le Goff, Gilbert; Talman, Arthur; Ariey, Frédéric; Robert, Vincent

    2010-12-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar, as it is the first cause of morbidity in health care facilities. Its transmission remains poorly documented. An entomological study was carried out over 1 year (October 2003-September 2004) in Saharevo, a village located at an altitude of 900m on the eastern edge of the Malagasy central highlands. Mosquitoes were sampled weekly upon landing on human volunteers and in various resting-places. Out of 5515 mosquitoes collected on humans, 3219 (58.4%) were anophelines. Eleven anopheline species were represented, among which Anopheles funestus, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles mascarensis. Out of 677 mosquitoes collected in bedrooms by pyrethrum spray catches and in Muirhead-Thomson pits, 656 (96.9%) were anopheline belonging to these four latter species. The proportion of mosquitoes that fed on human varied according to the resting-places and the mosquito species: 86% of An. funestus resting in bedrooms fed on humans, whereas only 16% of An. funestus and 0% of An. mascarensis resting in pits fed on humans. The proportion of anopheline mosquitoes infected with human Plasmodium was measured by circumsporozoite protein-ELISA: 10/633 An. funestus (1.58%), 1/211 An. gambiae s.l. (0.48%) and 2/268 An. mascarensis (0.75%). The annual entomological inoculation rate (number of bites of infected anophelines per adult) was estimated at 2.78. The transmission was mainly due to An. funestus and only observed in the second half of the rainy season, from February to May. These results are discussed in the context of the current malaria vector control policy in Madagascar.

  5. Strain geometry, microstructure and metamorphism in the dextral transpressional Mubarak Shear Belt, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Wahed, M. A.; Thabet, I. A.

    2017-07-01

    Mubarak shear belt provides an opportunity to investigate quantitative finite strain (Rs), proportions of pure shear and simple shear components, sense of shear indicators, subhorizontal to steeply plunging mineral lineations, in a dextral transpressional zone. The structural style of the Mubarak shear belt is consistent with dextral transpression within the Central Eastern Desert where dextral and reverse shear have developed simultaneously with the regional foliation. The high strain zone of the Mubarak shear belt is characterized by steeply dipping foliation with sub-horizontal stretching lineation (simple shear) surrounded by thrust imbrications with slightly plunging stretching lineations. Strain estimates from the Mubarak shear belt are used to determine how pure and simple shear components of deformation are partitioned. The axial ratios in XZ sections range from 1.16 to 2.33 with the maximum stretch, S X , ranges from 1.06 to 1.48. The minimum stretch, S Z , ranges from 0.65 to 0.92 indicating a moderate variation in vertical shortening. Volcaniclastic metasediments and metagabbros were subjected to prograde low-grade regional metamorphism in the range of greenschist to lower amphibolite facies (450-650°C at 2-4 kbar). Medium pressure (6-8 kbar at 530°C) was estimated from the high strain zone within the dextral strike-slip shear zones. Retrograde metamorphism occurred at a temperature range of 250-280°C. There is a trend towards decreasing the ratio of 100Mg/(Mg + Fetot + Mn) away from the high strain zone of the Mubarak shear belt. Integrated strain and temperature estimates indicate that the simple shear (non-coaxial) components of deformation played a significant role in formation and exhumation of the Mubarak shear belt during the accumulation of finite strain and consequently during progressive transpression and thrusting.

  6. Chemical and Physical Defense Traits in Two Sexual Forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; León Solano, Héctor Javier; Solache Rámos, Lupita Tzenyatze; Mendoza Reyes, Citlalli Hypatia; Oro Cerro, María del Carmen; Mariezcurrena Berasain, María Dolores; Rivas Manzano, Irma Victoria; Manjarrez, Javier; Villareal Benitez, José Luis; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1) Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2) Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3) Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4) among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1) hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs) than female ones. In addition, 2) hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3) and 4) we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes. PMID:24599143

  7. Prevalence and temporal trends of crack injection among injection drug users in eastern central Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Elise; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Arruda, Nelson; Blanchette, Caty; Blouin, Karine; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about crack injection and its temporal trends in North America. This article describes the extent of crack injection and examines temporal trends among injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from 2003 to 2010 in the SurvUDI network. IDUs who injected recently (past 6 months) were recruited in harm reduction and health programs in eastern central Canada. Trend analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations. Some IDUs participated multiple times; first interview was retained for the descriptive analyses, while first interview per year was retained for the trend analyses. Of the 4088 IDUs recruited, 15.2% (621) reported crack injection; large variations across sites were noted (range: 0.3-39.5%). Trend analyses were limited to Ottawa (449 crack injectors) and Montréal (121). For Ottawa, a significant decline was observed, from 48.3% to 36.9%, with a prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.97 per year (95% CI: 0.94-0.99). For Montréal, a significant rise was observed, from 6.0% to 18.4%, with a PR of 1.29 per year (95% CI: 1.19-1.40). Strong variations in crack injection exist throughout the SurvUDI network, and reversed temporal trends have been observed in Ottawa and Montréal. These data will be useful to local harm reduction programs to evaluate the need to distribute items required by crack injectors and to develop prevention messages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Red Sea rift-related Quseir basalts, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrogenesis and tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Esam S.; Ali, Shehata; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Mineral and whole-rock chemistry of Red Sea rift-related Tertiary basalts from south Quseir city, central Eastern Desert of Egypt is presented to investigate their petrogenesis and relationship to tectonic processes. The south Quseir basalts (SQB) are classified as high-Ti (TiO2 >2 wt.%) subalkaline transitional lava emplaced in an anorogenic tectonic setting. Their Mg# varies from 48 to 53 indicating the evolved nature of the SQB. Pearce element ratios suggest that the SQB magmas evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase, but the absence of Eu anomalies argues against significant plagioclase fractionation. Clinopyroxene compositions provide evidence for polybaric fractionation of the parental mafic magmas. Estimated temperatures of crystallization are 1015 to 1207 °C for clinopyroxene and 1076 to 1155 °C for plagioclase. These values are interpreted to result from early stage crystallization of clinopyroxene followed by concurrent crystallization of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The incompatible trace element signatures of the SQB (La/Ba = 0.08-0.10 and La/Nb = 0.89-1.04) are comparable to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) generated from an asthenospheric mantle source unaffected by subduction components. Modeling calculations indicate that the SQB primary magmas were derived from 4-5% partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. The NE Egyptian basaltic volcanism is spatially and temporally related to Red Sea rifting and to the local E-W striking faults, confirming a relationship to tectonic activity. Our results suggest that the extensional regime associated with Red Sea rifting controlled the generation of the Egyptian basalts, likely as a result of passive upwelling of asthenospheric mantle.

  9. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  10. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gotsadze, George; Chikovani, Ivdity; Goguadze, Ketevan; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2010-07-27

    Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided.

  11. Palaeohydrological changes during the mid and late Holocene in the Carpathian area, central-eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haliuc, Aritina; Veres, Daniel; Brauer, Achim; Hubay, Katalin; Hutchinson, Simon M.; Begy, Robert; Braun, Mihaly

    2017-05-01

    Multi-proxy, high-resolution analyses (lithological, geochemical, environmental magnetism) anchored by 22 14C dates, of a 5.53 m long sediment core from Lake Ighiel (Romanian Carpathians, central-eastern Europe) allowed the reconstruction of key local, catchment-lacustrine dynamics and an appraisal of palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatic gradients acting regionally over the last 6000 years. The first sedimentological phase of the record from 6030 to 4200 cal yr BP is characterised by low productivity and high detrital input indicating surface runoff processes due to enhanced rainfall. This interpretation is in agreement with other hydrological reconstructions reporting increased precipitation also in CE Europe, NE Mediterranean and also inferred summer and winter latitudinal temperature gradients (LTG) (as defined by Davis and Brewer, 2009), showing a strong connectivity between basin-lacustrine dynamics and the establishment of the dominant, Atlantic atmospheric circulation pattern in the area. The lacustrine system was more stable between 4200 and 2500 cal yr BP when clastic inputs diminished and biological productivity increased. During this interval, the coherence of Lake Ighiel's multi-century detrital events, identified in a range of proxy-data (albeit different in frequency and magnitude), with flood activity in central Europe (the Alps) suggests a common moisture forcing (Atlantic and periodically Mediterranean influences). In contrast, different reconstructions from the NE Mediterranean indicate a distinct NW-SE hydro-climatic gradient. A more complex and variable trend is depicted in Lake Ighiel sedimentation during the last 2500 years showing a variable detrital trend likely reflecting an intriguing hydrological pattern which is in agreement with intervals of increased aridity phases during a generally moister period. Comparing our sedimentological results with published pollen records from the nearby area clearly indicates anthropogenic imprints during

  12. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  13. Interseismic strain and rotation rates in the northeast Mojave domain, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Prescott, II W.

    2004-01-01

    The northeast Mojave domain, a type locality for bookshelf faulting, is a region of east striking, left-lateral faults in the northeast comer of the Mojave block, a block otherwise dominated by ??N40??W striking, right-lateral faults. Paleomagnetic evidence suggests that blocks within the domain have rotated clockwise about a vertical axis as much as 60?? since 12.8 Ma [Schermer et al., 1996]. In 1994, and again in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed an array of 14 geodetic monuments distributed across the northeast Mojave domain. The 2002 survey results were adjusted to remove the coseismic offsets imposed by the nearby Hector Mine earthquake (16 October 1999, Mw = 7.1). The adjusted deformation across the array appears to be uniform and can be approximated by the principal strain rates ??:1 = 28.9 ?? 9.1 N77.2??W ?? 4.8?? and ??2 = -48.2 ?? 8.9 N12.8??E ?? 4.8?? nstrain yr-1; extension reckoned positive, and quoted uncertainties are standard deviations. That strain accumulation could be released by slip . on faults striking N32??W but not by bookshelf faulting on the east striking faults alone. The vertical axis rotation rate of the northeast Mojave domain as a whole relative to fixed North America is 71.0 ?? 6.4 nrad yr-1 (4.07?? ?? 0.37?? Myr-1) clockwise, about twice the maximum tenser shear strain rate. The observed rotation rate acting over 12.8 Myr would produce'a clockwise rotation of 52.1?? ?? 4.7??, exclusive of possible coseismic rotations. That rotation is in rough agreement with the paleomagnetic rotation accumulated in the individual fault blocks within the northeast Mojave domain since 12.8 Ma.

  14. Fertilizer use and wheat yield in Central and Eastern European countries from 1986 to 2005 and its implication for developing sustainable fertilizer management practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Central-Eastern European countries (CEE) face economic and political challenges that have implications for agricultural production. The challenge for agriculturalists is to increase agricultural production after years of misguided policies and resource constraints (primarily nutrients). We tested th...

  15. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  16. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific

  17. Columbite and fergusonite from rare metal granitoids, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.; Farahat, Esam S.

    2017-04-01

    The Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt, as a part of the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) belt, hosts more than 14 rare metal granitoids plutons. The garnet bearing muscovite granite (GBMG) from Gabal Abu-Diab and alkali-feldspar granite (AFG) from Gabal El-Ineigi were selected to study their rare metal mineralization. The GBMG and AFG are a metaluminous to weakly peraluminous consists of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and muscovite in both types with subordinate amounts of garnet in GBMG and biotite + fluorite in AFG. Columbite, zircon, thorite, rutile, ilmenite and monazite are the common accessories in both types, while fergusonite are exclusively encountered in AFG. Both granitoids are highly fractionated calc-alkaline characterized by high Rb, Nb, Y, U and many other HFSE contents, and extremely low Sr and Ba. Texturally, the columbite and fergusonite crystals occur as homogeneous disseminated grains between the major minerals phases and as inclusion in protolithonite, zircon and fluorite. In few cases, they have a well-developed normal and oscillatory zoning pattern, suggesting their primary magmatic crystallization. Compositional variation (results of electron microprobe analyses) of columbite and fergusonite from these granitoids is evaluated. Columbites from AFG are mostly represented by Ta rich columbite-(Fe) with average chemical composition of Nb2O5 (88 wt. %), Ta2O5 (up to 31 wt. %), FeO (17 wt. %) and MnO (5 wt. %). While columbites from GBMG, are classified as Ta poor columbite-(Mn) and are chemically consists of Nb2O5 (73 wt. %), Ta2O5 (6 wt. %), FeO (9 wt. %) and MnO (12 wt. %). Fergusonite-(Y) occur as homogenous crystals with an average concentration of Nb2O5 (44 wt. %), Y2O3 (24 wt. %), Ta2O5 (2.3 wt. %), UO2 (2.1 wt. %) and ThO2 (1.2 wt. %). The ΣREE2O3 dominated by HREE (Yb2O3, Er2O3, Dy2O3, Gd2O3, Lu2O3 and Tm2O3), ranges from 15.3 to 16.6 wt. % and Ce2O3 (up to 3.3 wt. %). The Metamictized fergusonite contain ubiquitous subordinate amounts

  18. Pricing and Reimbursement of Biosimilars in Central and Eastern European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the

  19. Polyfluorinated and perfluorinated chemicals in precipitation and runoff from cities across eastern and central China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijie; Zhou, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-three polychlorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water phase and particulate matters of 19 precipitation samples (18 snow samples and 1 rain sample) from different cities across eastern and central China collected in February 2010. The PFCs in samples of 9e precipitation events during more than half a year at 1 site in Tianjin and 6 successive samples during 1 precipitation event were measured to elucidate the change of PFC in precipitation. In addition, PFCs in 3 runoffs at different kinds of sites in Tianjin were compared with those in the corresponding precipitation. The results showed that the particulate matters separated from the precipitation contained undetectable PFCs. The total PFC concentration ranged between 4.7 and 152 ng L(-1) in water phase of the precipitation samples, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being detected at all of the sampling sites and the dominant PFC at most of the sampling sites. Some potential precursors of environmentally concerned PFCs and their degradation intermediates were measured simultaneously, among which 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 8:2 FTUCA, and  × (3, 4, 5, 7):3 acid [F(CF(2))xCH(2)CH(2)COOH] were measured for the first time in Chinese precipitations; however, their concentrations were all lower than the limits of detection except that 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA could be detected in 3 and 8 precipitation samples, respectively. No clear seasonal variation in PFC concentrations in precipitation was observed during half a year; however, a relatively greater average concentration of total PFCs was observed during winter and summer compared with spring. The concentration of individual PFCs showed an obvious descending trend in the successive samples of the precipitation event. PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid in runoffs collected from different sites showed the following similar pattern-gas station > highway > university campus-whereas the other

  20. Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Graizer, V.

    2015-12-01

    New ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) G15 model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) is presented. It is based on the modular filter based approach developed by Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009) for active tectonic environment in the Western US (WUS). The G15 model is based on the NGA-East database for the horizontal peak ground acceleration and 5%-damped pseudo spectral acceleration RotD50 component (Goulet et al., 2014). In contrast to active tectonic environment the database for the CEUS is not sufficient for creating purely empirical GMPE covering the range of magnitudes and distances required for seismic hazard assessments. Recordings in NGA-East database are sparse and cover mostly range of M<6.0 with limited amount of near-fault recordings. The functional forms of the G15 GMPEs are derived from filters—each filter represents a particular physical phenomenon affecting the seismic wave radiation from the source. Main changes in the functional forms for the CEUS relative to the WUS model (Graizer and Kalkan, 2015) are a shift of maximum frequency of the acceleration response spectrum toward higher frequencies and an increase in the response spectrum amplitudes at high frequencies. Developed site correction is based on multiple runs of representative VS30 profiles through SHAKE-type equivalent-linear programs using time histories and random vibration theory approaches. Site amplification functions are calculated for different VS30 relative to hard rock definition used in nuclear industry (Vs=2800 m/s). The number of model predictors is limited to a few measurable parameters: moment magnitude M, closest distance to fault rupture plane R, average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m of the geological profile VS30, and anelastic attenuation factor Q0. Incorporating anelastic attenuation Q0 as an input parameter allows adjustments based on the regional crustal properties. The model covers the range of magnitudes 4.0

  1. Alternative (G-16v2) Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Central and Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graizer, V.

    2016-12-01

    Introduced is the ground motion prediction equations model for the Central and Eastern North America that represents an alternative more physically justified approach to ground motion attenuation modeling then previous Graizer (2016) G-16 model. The new model has a bilinear slope of R-1 within 70 km from the fault with a slope of R-0.5 at larger distances corresponding to the geometrical spreading of body and surface waves. The new (G-16v2) model is based in part on the NGA-East database for the horizontal peak ground acceleration and 5%-damped pseudo spectral acceleration (SA) and also on comparisons with the Western U.S. data and ground motion simulations. Based on data, I estimated the average slope of the distance attenuation within the 50-70 km distance from the fault to be -1.0 at most of the frequencies supporting regular geometrical spreading of body waves. Multiple inversions are performed to estimate apparent (combined intrinsic and scattering) attenuation of SA amplitudes from the NGA-East database for incorporation into the model. These estimates demonstrate a difference between seismological Q(f) and the above mentioned attenuation factor that I recommend calling QSA(f). I adjusted previously developed site correction which was based on multiple runs of representative VS30 (time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) profiles through SHAKE-type equivalent-linear codes. Site amplifications are calculated relative to the hard rock definition used in nuclear industry (VS=2800 m/s). These improvements resulted in a modest reduction in standard deviation in the new G-16v2 relative to the G-16 model. The number of model predictors is limited to a few measurable parameters: moment magnitude M, closest distance to fault rupture plane Rrup, VS30, and apparent attenuation factor QSA(f). The model is applicable for the stable continental regions and covers the following range: 4.0≤M≤8.5, 0≤Rrup≤1000 km, 450≤VS30≤2800 m/s and frequencies 0.1

  2. Reconstructing the history of eastern and central Florida Bay using mollusk-shell isotope records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R.B.; Roulier, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stable isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen (??13C and ??18O) from mollusk shells reflect the water quality characteristics of Florida Bay and can be used to characterize the great temporal variability of the bay. Values of ?? 18O are directly influenced by temperature and evaporation and may be related to salinity. ??13C values of ??13C are sensitive to organic and inorganic sources of carbon and are influenced by productivity. Analyses of eight mollusk species from five short-core localities across Florida Bay show large ranges in the values of ??13C and ??18O, and reflect the variation of the bay over decades. Samples from southwestern Florida Bay have distinct ??13C values relative to samples collected in northeastern Florida Bay, and intermediate localities have intermediate values. 13C values of ??13C grade from marine in the southwest bay to more estuarine in the northeast. Long cores (> 1 m) with excellent chronologies were analyzed from central and eastern Florida Bay. Preliminary analyses of Brachiodontes exustus and Transenella spp. from the cores showed that both ??13C and ??18O changed during the first part of the twentieth century. After a century of relative stability during the 1800s, ??13C decreased between about 1910 and 1940, then stabilized at these new values for the next five decades. The magnitude of the reduction in ??13C values increased toward the northeast. Using a carbon budget model, reduced ??13C values are interpreted as resulting from decreased circulation in the bay, probably associated with decreased freshwater flow into the Bay. Mollusk shell ??18O values display several negative excursions during the 1800s, suggesting that the bay was less evaporitic than during the twentieth century. The isotope records indicate a fundamental change took place in Florida Bay circulation early in the twentieth century. The timing of the change links it to railroad building and early drainage efforts in South Florida rather than to flood control

  3. Comparative Epidemiologic Characteristics of Pertussis in 10 Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Heininger, Ulrich; André, Philippe; Chlibek, Roman; Kristufkova, Zuzana; Kutsar, Kuulo; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Petrović, Vladimir; Prymula, Roman; Usonis, Vytautas; Zavadska, Dace

    2016-01-01

    We undertook an epidemiological survey of the annual incidence of pertussis reported from 2000 to 2013 in ten Central and Eastern European countries to ascertain whether increased pertussis reports in some countries share common underlying drivers or whether there are specific features in each country. The annual incidence of pertussis in the participating countries was obtained from relevant government institutions and/or national surveillance systems. We reviewed the changes in the pertussis incidence rates in each country to explore differences and/or similarities between countries in relation to pertussis surveillance; case definitions for detection and confirmation of pertussis; incidence and number of cases of pertussis by year, overall and by age group; population by year, overall and by age group; pertussis immunization schedule and coverage, and switch from whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP) to acellular pertussis vaccines (aP). There was heterogeneity in the reported annual incidence rates and trends observed across countries. Reported pertussis incidence rates varied considerably, ranging from 0.01 to 96 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates generally reported in Estonia and the lowest in Hungary and Serbia. The greatest burden appears for the most part in infants (<1 year) in Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, and Serbia, but not in the other participating countries where the burden may have shifted to older children, though surveillance of adults may be inappropriate. There was no consistent pattern associated with the switch from wP to aP vaccines on reported pertussis incidence rates. The heterogeneity in reported data may be related to a number of factors including surveillance system characteristics or capabilities, different case definitions, type of pertussis confirmation tests used, public awareness of the disease, as well as real differences in the magnitude of the disease, or a combination of these factors. Our study highlights the

  4. Basement structural control on Cretaceous pull-apart basins of the central Eastern Egypt Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, K.; El Kazzaz, Y.; Holdsworth, B.

    2006-12-01

    The present-day Red Sea / Gulf of Suez rift system is attributed to extensional block faulting with along-axis segmentation into sub-basins with different dip polarities. The northwestern margin of the Red Sea - Gulf of Suez rift system is exposed for about 400 km along the northwestern Red Sea coast near Quseir to the tip of the Gulf of Suez at Suez City. This area contains elements of the pre-Red Sea structural pattern which has been viewed in similar terms as one of fault-related basin formation. Four distinct depocenters (sub-basins) separated by complex accommodation zones are present containing 500-700m thick section ranging in age from the Late Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Each sub-basin is asymmetric, bounded on one side by a major NW-trending border fault system with large throws (3-6 km in general) with a dominant strata dip direction toward the border fault system. These basins are arranged in en echelon patterns and now form separate elongated ridges surrounded by basement rocks. Our study of the tectonic evolution of the central eastern section of the Gulf of Suez rift and the Northwestern Red Sea has focused on the interaction of pre-existing basement fabrics with the pre-Red Sea structural development. The study involved analysis of LandsatTM images and aerial photographs integrated with results from reconnaissance geological mapping. Our provisional results indicate that the Gebel Um Hammad/Duwi and Hammadat sub-basins were sited in pull-apart structures created by dextral reactivation of E-W to ENE-WSW trending basement fault zones. We show how the basin-bounding fault systems, lower order normal faults and folds in both hangingwall sequences and in basement are compatible with a Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene strike-slip regime. In contrast, the main Red Sea Gulf of Suez rift shows no evidence for strike-slip influence with the main boundary faults cutting across basement fabrics, however, as pointed out by previous authors, rift segmentation

  5. Calibrated Multiple Event Relocations of the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, W. L.; Benz, H.; McNamara, D. E.; Bergman, E.; Herrmann, R. B.; Myers, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake locations are a first-order observable which form the basis of a wide range of seismic analyses. Currently, the ANSS catalog primarily contains published single-event earthquake locations that rely on assumed 1D velocity models. Increasing the accuracy of cataloged earthquake hypocenter locations and origin times and constraining their associated errors can improve our understanding of Earth structure and have a fundamental impact on subsequent seismic studies. Multiple-event relocation algorithms often increase the precision of relative earthquake hypocenters but are hindered by their limited ability to provide realistic location uncertainties for individual earthquakes. Recently, a Bayesian approach to the multiple event relocation problem has proven to have many benefits including the ability to: (1) handle large data sets; (2) easily incorporate a priori hypocenter information; (3) model phase assignment errors; and, (4) correct for errors in the assumed travel time model. In this study we employ bayseloc [Myers et al., 2007, 2009] to relocate earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States from 1964-present. We relocate ~11,000 earthquakes with a dataset of ~439,000 arrival time observations. Our dataset includes arrival-time observations from the ANSS catalog supplemented with arrival-time data from the Reviewed ISC Bulletin (prior to 1981), targeted local studies, and arrival-time data from the TA Array. One significant benefit of the bayesloc algorithm is its ability to incorporate a priori constraints on the probability distributions of specific earthquake locations parameters. To constrain the inversion, we use high-quality calibrated earthquake locations from local studies, including studies from: Raton Basin, Colorado; Mineral, Virginia; Guy, Arkansas; Cheneville, Quebec; Oklahoma; and Mt. Carmel, Illinois. We also add depth constraints to 232 earthquakes from regional moment tensors. Finally, we add constraints from four historic (1964

  6. Soil geochemical survey of abandoned mining sites in the Eastern-Central Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Consenza, A.; Lima, A.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.; Albanese, S.; Messina, A.; De Vivo, B.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation focused on topsoils (n = 122) and vertical profiles (n = 6) distributed over an area of 250 km2 in the eastern-central Peloritani Mountains, northeastern Sicily. Georeferenced concentration of 53 elements (including potentially harmful ones), determined by ICP-MS after an aqua regia leach, were used to produce geochemical maps by means of a GIS-aided spatial interpolation process. Results show that there are two distinct areas: the larger, located between the Fiumendinisi, Budali and Ali villages, and the other between C. Postlioni and Femmina Morta, which contain anomalous As (up to 727 mg/kg), Sb (up to 60 mg/kg), Ag (up to 1 mg/kg) and Au (up to 0.1 mg/kg) concentrations. Most of the investigated areas have high contamination levels for As, Zn, Sb, and Pb that exceed the threshold values (As = 20 mg/kg, Zn = 150 mg/kg, Sb = 10 mg/kg and Pb = 100 mg/kg) established for soils by the Italian Environmental Law (Decreto Legislativo 2006, number 152).The isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb have been measured in selected soils on both leaches [using 1M HNO3–1.75M HCl (50:50)] and residues thereof. Soil leach reflects possible anthropogenic contamination, whereas soil residues indicate geogenic contributions. Results suggest that most of contamination in the soils is related to the presence of sulphide and sulphosalt rock-forming minerals in the surveyed area. The soil fraction contains a Pb value >1600 mg/kg and has ratios of 1.1695 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.4606 for 208Pb/207Pb. Only one soil leach isotopic composition could reflect possible anthropogenic contamination. The correlation among As, Zn, Pb contents v. Pb isotopic signatures of 206Pb/207Pb indicates that surface and deep soils collected from profiles are dominated by geogenic compositions.

  7. Cascading training the trainers in ophthalmology across Eastern, Central and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Melanie C; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Zondervan, Marcia; Astbury, Nick

    2017-07-10

    The Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) and the College of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa (COECSA) are collaborating to cascade a Training the Trainers (TTT) Programme across the COECSA Region. Within the VISION 2020 Links Programme, it aims to develop a skilled motivated workforce who can deliver high quality eye care. It will train a lead, faculty member and facilitator in 8 countries, who can cascade the programme to local trainers. In phase 1 (2013/14) two 3-day courses were run for 16/17 selected delegates, by 3 UK Faculty. In phase 2 (2015/16) 1 UK Faculty Member ran 3 shorter courses, associated with COECSA events (Congress and Examination). A COECSA Lead was appointed after the first course, and selected delegates were promoted as Facilitators then Faculty Members on successive courses. They were given appropriate materials, preparation, training and mentoring. In 4 years the programme has trained 87 delegates, including 1 COECSA Lead, 4 Faculty Members and 7 Facilitators. Delegate feedback on the course was very good and Faculty were impressed with the progress made by delegates. A questionnaire completed by delegates after 6-42 months demonstrated how successfully they were implementing new skills in teaching and supervision. The impact was assessed using the number of eye-care workers that delegates had trained, and the number of patients seen by those workers each year. The figures suggested that approaching 1 million patients per year were treated by eye-care workers who had benefited from training delivered by those who had been on the courses. Development of the Programme in Africa initially followed the UK model, but the need to address more extensive challenges overseas, stimulated new ideas for the UK courses. The Programme has developed a pyramid of trainers capable of cascading knowledge, skills and teaching in training with RCOphth support. The third phase will extend the number of facilitators and faculty

  8. Advancing human rights in patient care through higher education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Tamar; Overall, Judy

    2013-12-12

    In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, for society's most marginalized people, health systems are too often places of violations of basic rights, rather than of treatment and care. At the same time, health practitioners are largely unaware of how to incorporate human rights norms in their work. Additionally, they may face abuses themselves, such as unsafe working conditions and sanctions for providing evidence-based care. Similarly, legal professionals have limited experience working in the health sector, trying to address abuses that occur. Republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have emerged from communism and experienced continued restructuring of their health care systems. As faculties of law, public health, and medicine have sought to incorporate these rapid changes into their curricula, this period of reform and openness to new approaches presented a particular opportunity to integrate human rights education. The Open Society Foundations have attempted to respond to the need to build health and human rights capacity by supporting the development of over 25 courses in human rights in patient care in nine countries. Targeted at different audiences, these courses are now part of the regular offerings at the academic institutions where they are taught. Student evaluations point to the strength of the interdisciplinary approach and the need to integrate practical examples and exercises. Faculty response has led to the development of a virtual community of practice and series of workshops to gain exposure to new ideas, strengthen interactive teaching, and share materials and experiences. Critical to this initiative has been working with faculty champions in each university, who shaped this initiative to meet the needs in their context. It quickly became apparent that teaching methodology is as important as content in human rights education. Meaningful engagement with health practitioners has entailed connections to day-to-day practice, participatory

  9. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  10. Styles of footwall uplift along the Simplon and Brenner normal fault systems, central and Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniec, Tim F.; Selverstone, Jane; Axen, Gary J.

    2001-10-01

    The Simplon and Brenner extensional shear zones of the central and Eastern Alps, respectively, are low-angle detachments that accommodated orogen-parallel extension and unroofed midcrustal rocks in their footwalls. An integrated field and fluid inclusion study of the Simplon low-angle shear zone reveals several postmylonitic structure types that are consistent with passage of a complex rolling hinge through the Simplon footwall, including synthetic (west down) and antithetic (east down) semibrittle and brittle structures, and strike-slip, extensional, and contractional structures, all of which are consistent with southwest directed extension along the main detachment zone. Fluid inclusion analysis of kinematically referenced inclusion arrays indicates that west down, semibrittle, and brittle shears were active at conditions above 300°-450°C and 14-26 km. Antithetic deformation along brittle faults occurred at much shallower conditions of <300°C and 3-7 km. Deformation along these structures accommodated footwall uplift by a subvertical simple shear mechanism in the southern part of the Simplon region. These results are strikingly similar to those from the Brenner shear zone. In contrast with the Brenner region, however, the northern Simplon footwall shows strike-slip dominated postmylonitic deformation related to slip along the Rhône Line. The footwalls of these detachment systems define a unique class of core complex characterized by the development of a midcrustal, synthetic lower hinge that acts to steepen the detachment system and accommodate footwall uplift by a subvertical simple shear mechanism. Both systems have poorly developed upper hinges that flatten the middle to upper crustal ramp by only a few degrees of dip, which is in contrast to detachment fault systems of the western United States, where evidence of a deep hinge is rarely observed, and the upper hinge acts to deactivate the flattened, updip part of the detachment. Our results emphasize the

  11. Large Scale Site Response variation in the Central and Eastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassminh, R.; Sandvol, E. A.; Gallegos, A. C.; Ranasinghe, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Central and eastern United States (CEUS) is considered to be less seismically active compared with western United States; however, these few earthquakes are felt over much larger distances and have the potential to cause damages over a very large area. The earthquake ground motions vary due to the site conditions that effect strongly the propagation and localized amplification of regional seismic waves. Lg, is the most destructive regional phase for stable continental paths due to its large amplitudes due to low attenuation. The United States combined seismic network that includes EarthScope Transportable Array (TA), offer excellent station coverage for all of the CEUS. The availability of regional and local seismic records provided the resources to study and understand the characteristics of the site amplification of high frequency regional waves. The goal of this project to understand the physical characteristics of regional high frequency phases and the factors effecting these phases. We have used 40 earthquakes with magnitudes between 4 and 5 Mw and distances range between 20 - 2000 km. We collected approximately 8000 seismograms recorded on Transport Array (TA) component of USArray. We employed to methods to estimate the site effect: Nakamura technique (Nakamura, 1989), Horizontal over vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), applied on the shear wave part of seismic event and on the ambient noise. We also employed a Reverse two station method (RTS), which eliminates the source effect and includes the attenuation factor Q in calculating the site response (Chun et al., 1987). In order to correlate the site effect results, the shear wave velocity was calculated for each TA stations by modeling Horizontal/ vertical ratio of the first part of the P waves. The comparison between the two methods suggests we are able to estimate regional variations in site amplification of regional waves. Comparisons of this site amplification with Vs30m suggest that there is only a weak

  12. Red Sea Rift-Related Quseir Basalts, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrogenetic and Geodynamic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Esam; Ali, Shehata; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Mineral and whole rock chemistry of Tertiary Red Sea rift-related basalts occurred in south Quseir city, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt has been presented to investigate their petrogenetic and geodynamic evolution. The South Quseir basalts (SQB) have been classified as high-Ti tholeiitic lava (TiO2 >2 wt. %) emplaced in anorogenic tectonic setting. Their Mg# varies from 48 to 53. Pearce element ratios (PER) suggest that the SQB magmas have evolved through fractional crystallization of olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase assemblages, however, the absence of Eu-anomaly argues against plagioclase fractionation. The clinopyroxene compositions provide evidence for polybaric fractionation of the parental mafic magma. Estimated temperatures of crystallization range from 1143 to 1323 oC for olivines, 1031 to 1207 oC for clinopyroxenes, 600 to 900 oC for feldspars, and 638 to 787 oC for Fe-Ti oxides. Oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) values range from -15.16 to -19.5. The incompatible trace element signatures of the SQB (La/Ba = 0.08-0.10 and La/Nb = 0.89-1.04) are similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) generated from asthenospheric mantle source unaffected by subduction components. Modelling calculations indicate that the SQB primary magmas were derived from 4-5% partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source which had a potential temperature (Tp= 1334-1432 °C; based on olivine liquid equilibria) corresponding to ambient temperature of MORB (i.e. passive rifting). This ambient mantle would have to rise to shallower depths (< 100 km) in the upper mantle to cross the dry mantle solidus and stimulate adiabatic partial melting. These estimates along with absence of HIMU (high μ refers to high 238U/204Pb) components (based on trace element data) show that the SQB volcanism isn't associated with thermally driven mantle plumes. Thus, the SQB magma generation is related to extensional regime through passive upwelling and adiabatic decompression melting of an

  13. Ozone Enhancement in the Lower Troposphere over Central and Eastern China as Observed from the space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ono, A.; Kayaba, S.; Kajino, M.; Deushi, M.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Yamaji, K.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The recent roducts of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) retrieved by Liu et al. (2010) revealed spatial and temporal variations in ozone distributions in multiple tropospheric layers. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with the airborne measurements conducted by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The reliability of the OMI ozone retrievals was verified at the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions (Hayashida et al. 2015). Ozone enhancement was clearly observed over Central and Eastern China (CEC), with Shandong Province as its center and most notably in June in any given year. The seasonality of the ozone enhancement was similar throughout the nine-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. As introduced by Hayashida et al. (2015), we have defined ΔO3 as the difference between the retrieved ozone and a priori value. To identify the area of significant ozone enhancement in further detail, the areas whose ΔO3 show similar seasonal variation were grouped into a cluster using the statistical tool R. As a result, the area covering the provinces of Shandong, Hebei, and Shanxi presents a clear seasonal variation, with the maximum in June. The time series of ΔO3 at around 115-125°E along 36°N indicate clear seasonal variation with significant enhancement in June or July every year. At the western locations (<110°E), there is only a slight ozone enhancement in summer. In the east of the CEC, the amplitude of ozone enhancement in summer diminishes toward the east, as observed at 130°E, suggesting an outflow of ozone plumes from China. The lower tropospheric ozone distribution maps retrieved using OMI products are generally consistent with the results from the model simulations by MRI-CCM2 of the Meteorological Research Institute Japan as far as emissions due to industrial activities and automobile exhaust are concerned, although there are still a few differences in the ozone mixing

  14. Deaggregation of Probabilistic Ground Motions in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmsen, S.; Perkins, D.; Frankel, A.

    1999-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a technique for estimating the annual rate of exceedance of a specified ground motion at a site due to known and suspected earthquake sources. The relative contributions of the various sources to the total seismic hazard are determined as a function of their occurrence rates and their ground-motion potential. The separation of the exceedance contributions into bins whose base dimensions are magnitude and distance is called deaggregation. We have deaggregated the hazard analyses for the new USGS national probabilistic ground-motion hazard maps (Frankel et al., 1996). For points on a 0.2?? grid in the central and eastern United States (CEUS), we show color maps of the geographical variation of mean and modal magnitudes (M??, M??) and distances (D??, D??) for ground motions having a 2% chance of exceedance in 50 years. These maps are displayed for peak horizontal acceleration and for spectral response accelerations of 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec. We tabulate M??, D??, M??, and D?? for 49 CEUS cities for 0.2- and 1.0-sec response. Thus, these maps and tables are PSHA-derived estimates of the potential earthquakes that dominate seismic hazard at short and intermediate periods in the CEUS. The contribution to hazard of the New Madrid and Charleston sources dominates over much of the CEUS; for 0.2-sec response, over 40% of the area; for 1.0-sec response, over 80% of the area. For 0.2-sec response, D?? ranges from 20 to 200 km, for 1.0 sec, 30 to 600 km. For sites influenced by New Madrid or Charleston, D is less than the distance to these sources, and M?? is less than the characteristic magnitude of these sources, because averaging takes into account the effect of smaller magnitude and closer sources. On the other hand, D?? is directly the distance to New Madrid or Charleston and M?? for 0.2- and 1.0-sec response corresponds to the dominating source over much of the CEUS. For some cities in the North Atlantic states, short

  15. Noise characteristics of Continuous GPS time series of Central and Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. D.; Vijayan, M. S. M.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global positioning system measurements with its millimetre level accuracy have been widely used to monitor the crustal dynamics. Geodetic crustal deformation studies require accurate estimate of the parameters which demands realistic estimate of the uncertainties in order to constrain the signal. GPS based crustal deformation studies in tectonically active region, such as Central and Eastern Himalaya have been carried out by several groups however, proper noise characteristics of GPS time series of this study region are unknown. In this work, we attempt to address the noise characteristics of GPS position time series by analysing the GPS time series of 22 stations from North-East India, Bhutan and Nepal Himalaya spanning 2002-2013. We have employed Spectral analysis and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to study the noise characteristics. Power spectrum obtained by using Lomb-Scargle method reveals characteristics of white noise at the high frequencies and power law noise at lower frequencies. Estimation of the spectral index by finding the slope of the spectral curve suggests fractal white noise with overall index of -0.61. MLE was performed in two ways. First, by assuming the time series to be composed of (a) white (WN), (b) white plus flicker (FL) and (c) white plus random walk noise (WRN) and then by estimating spectral index assuming the noise to be composition of white and power law noise (WPN). The comparison of MLE values of three noise model suggest that white plus flicker noise model (FL) is the most preferred noise model. Comparison of velocity uncertainties between white noise and white plus flicker noise, obtained from MLE, suggest that velocity uncertainty is under estimated by factor of ~8 when simple white noise model is used. The spectral index estimated using MLE is -1.1 (~1) which suggests that flicker noise is the main power law noise in time series of all 22 GPS stations. A slight difference of noise amplitudes of two different monument types

  16. The Central Executive as a Search Process: Priming Exploration and Exploitation across Domains

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Thomas T.; Todd, Peter M.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The trade-off between exploration and exploitation is common to a wide variety of problems involving search in space and mind. The prevalence of this trade-off and its neurological underpinnings led us to propose domain-general cognitive search processes (Hills, Todd, & Goldstone, 2008). Here, we propose further that these are consistent with the idea of a central executive search process that combines goal-handling across subgoal hierarchies. The present study investigates three aspects of this proposal. First, the existence of a unitary central executive search process should allow priming from one search task to another, and at multiple hierarchical levels. We confirm this by showing cross-domain priming from a spatial search task to two different cognitive levels within a lexical search task. Second, given the neural basis of the proposed generalized cognitive search process and the evidence that the central executive is primarily engaged during complex tasks, we hypothesize that priming should require ‘search’ in the sense of a self-regulated making and testing of sequential predictions about the world. This was confirmed by showing that when participants were allowed to collect spatial resources without searching for them, no priming occurred. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the underlying search process and investigate three alternative hypotheses for subgoal hierarchies using the Central Executive as a Search Process model (CESP). CESP envisions the central executive as having both emergent and unitary processes, with one of its roles being a generalized cognitive search process that navigates goal hierarchies by mediating persistence on and switching between subgoals. PMID:21038983

  17. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  18. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part A, Prehistoric earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax, the maximum earthquake magnitude thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. This report is Part A of an Open-File Report that describes the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes, from which one can estimate Mmax for most of the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it were used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. This Part A discusses prehistoric earthquakes that occurred in eastern North America, northwestern Europe, and Australia, whereas a separate Part B deals with historical events.

  19. Genetic isolation among the northwestern, southwestern and central-eastern Indian Ocean populations of the pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-05-26

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566-571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986-1.0000 and π = 0.031593-0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  20. Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme assembly, activation, and inhibition by domains of the p50 central hub.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyungah; Upton, Heather; Miracco, Edward J; Jiang, Jiansen; Zhou, Z Hong; Feigon, Juli; Collins, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    The eukaryotic reverse transcriptase, telomerase, adds tandem telomeric repeats to chromosome ends to promote genome stability. The fully assembled telomerase holoenzyme contains a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) catalytic core and additional proteins that modulate the ability of the RNP catalytic core to elongate telomeres. Electron microscopy (EM) structures of Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme revealed a central location of the relatively uncharacterized p50 subunit. Here we have investigated the biochemical and structural basis for p50 function. We have shown that the p50-bound RNP catalytic core has a relatively low rate of tandem repeat synthesis but high processivity of repeat addition, indicative of high stability of enzyme-product interaction. The rate of tandem repeat synthesis is enhanced by p50-dependent recruitment of the holoenzyme single-stranded DNA binding subunit, Teb1. An N-terminal p50 domain is sufficient to stimulate tandem repeat synthesis and bridge the RNP catalytic core, Teb1, and the p75 subunit of the holoenzyme subcomplex p75/p19/p45. In cells, the N-terminal p50 domain assembles a complete holoenzyme that is functional for telomere maintenance, albeit at shortened telomere lengths. Also, in EM structures of holoenzymes, only the N-terminal domain of p50 is visible. Our findings provide new insights about subunit and domain interactions and functions within the Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  2. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  3. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  4. Meeting of the Central and Eastern U.S. (CEUS) Earthquake Hazards Program October 28–29, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Martitia; Boyd, Oliver; McCallister, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    On October 28th and 29th, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program held a meeting of Central and Eastern United States investigators and interested parties in Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the Central and Eastern United States earthquake-hazards community to present and discuss recent research results, to promote communication and collaboration, to garner input regarding future research priorities, to inform the community about research opportunities afforded by the 2010–2012 arrival of EarthScope/USArray in the central United States, and to discuss plans for the upcoming bicentennial of the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The two-day meeting included several keynote speakers, oral and poster presentations by attendees, and breakout sessions. The meeting is summarized in this report and can be subdivided into four primary sections: (1) summaries of breakout discussion groups; (2) list of meeting participants; (3) submitted abstracts; and (4) slide presentations. The abstracts and slides are included “as submitted” by the meeting participants and have not been subject to any formal peer review process; information contained in these sections reflects the opinions of the presenter at the time of the meeting and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands.

    PubMed

    Rulison, Eric L; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2014-10-01

    The eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus , is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (prevalence = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white-footed mice and other small mammals (prevalence = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi , compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey, S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  6. Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX Central America domain with a regionally coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, Arturo I.; Sein, Dmitry; Martinez-Lopez, Benjamin; Cabos, William; Ochoa-Moya, Carlos-Abraham

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, there has been a concerted effort by several research groups to model precipitation variability for North America and Central America in the context of the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). One important objective of CORDEX is to dynamically downscale global output from coupled and non-coupled models and to objectively gauge a measure of added value from higher resolution boundary conditions forcing regional atmospheric and ocean models at their lateral walls. Up to now, a sufficiently large computational domain covering from the southern US to the north of South America including the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern Atlantic and the Caribbean Seas has been lacking. Such a computational domain permits the analysis of an ample range of inter-annual and intra-seasonal time-scales phenomena and the possibility of exploring sensitivity to horizontal resolution. To date, most simulations performed for the region remain too coarse to be of any use at the regional scale but also, and most importantly, most modeling studies of the region rely on regional atmospheric models forced at their lower boundaries by prescribed sea surface temperature. In this work we explore both, climate sensitivity to coupling and, to the choice of horizontal resolution, using a regional atmospheric model (REMO) coupled to a global ocean model (MPI-OM). External atmospheric forcing is applied to REMO at its lateral walls and over the ocean surface that is not coupled to REMO. In order to gain insight into the sensitivity to the choice of the atmospheric forcing, two sources are used: 1) ERA-Interim and 2) a global free run of the MPI-ESM coupled system. Preliminary results suggest that the original biases between the ERA-Interim and the MPI-ESM forcing data tend to become similar when comparing the downscaled simulations at 50 km and 25 km atmospheric resolutions. Additionally, biases at 25 km tend to become smaller over most of the computational

  7. Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Central and Eastern Europe: Self-Reported Practice of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    PALKA, Małgorzata; KRZTOŃ-KRÓLEWIECKA, Anna; TOMASIK, Tomasz; SEIFERT, Bohumil; WÓJTOWICZ, Ewa; WINDAK, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal disorders account for 7–10% of all consultations in primary care. General practitioners’ management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern European countries is largely unknown. Aims To identify and compare variations in the self-perceived responsibilities of general practitioners in the management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of primary care physicians from 9 countries was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire was sent via post to primary care doctors. Results We received 867 responses; the response rate was 28.9%. Over 70% of respondents reported familiarity with available guidelines for gastrointestinal diseases. For uninvestigated dyspepsia in patients under 45 years, the “test and treat” strategy was twice as popular as “test and scope”. The majority (59.8%) of family physicians would refer patients with rectal bleeding without alarm symptoms to a specialist (from 7.6% of doctors in Slovenia to 85.1% of doctors in Bulgaria; p<0.001). 93.4% of respondents declared their involvement in colorectal cancer screening. In the majority of countries, responding doctors most often reported that they order fecal occult blood tests. The exceptions were Estonia and Hungary, where the majority of family physicians referred patients to a specialist (p<0.001). Conclusions Physicians from Central and Eastern European countries understood the need for the use of guidelines for the care of patients with gastrointestinal problems, but there is broad variation between countries in their management. Numerous efforts should be undertaken to establish and implement international standards for digestive disorders’ management in general practice. PMID:27669515

  8. Deep-tow geophysical survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Sauter, D.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.

    2012-04-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the easternmost part of the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining multibeam bathymetric data, magnetic data, geology mapping from sidescan sonar (TOBI) images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the sidescan sonar images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. We investigate the possibility that magnetic anomalies are either caused by serpentinized peridotites and/or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may result from fluid-rock interactions along the detachment faults as well as from the occurrence of small sized and thin volcanic patches and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in

  9. Design of climate scenarios with application to agriculture and forestry in central and eastern north America. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Richman, M.B.

    1996-06-01

    A research program supported by a USEPA cooperative agreement concentrated on statistical and climatological issues related to designing climate scenarios useful for agricultural and forestry in central and eastern North America. Results can be categorized into the areas of statistical techniques for scenario development and evaluation, climate system research, and data set development. A review of the meteorological use of clustering algorithms and an extensive comparison of cluster methods was undertaken. The last major methodological research was development of target analysis, which allows direct incorporation of climate scenarios into a data reduction and pattern matching algorithm. This was tested successfully on GCM output for realistic climate scenarios.

  10. The Central domain of RyR1 is the transducer for long-range allosteric gating of channel opening

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Zhen; Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Yan, Nieng

    2016-01-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium channels responsible for rapid release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) to the cytoplasm, which is essential for the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling of cardiac and skeletal muscles. The near-atomic resolution structure of closed RyR1 revealed the molecular details of this colossal channel, while the long-range allosteric gating mechanism awaits elucidation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of rabbit RyR1 in three closed conformations at about 4 Å resolution and an open state at 5.7 Å. Comparison of the closed RyR1 structures shows a breathing motion of the cytoplasmic platform, while the channel domain and its contiguous Central domain remain nearly unchanged. Comparison of the open and closed structures shows a dilation of the S6 tetrahelical bundle at the cytoplasmic gate that leads to channel opening. During the pore opening, the cytoplasmic “O-ring” motif of the channel domain and the U-motif of the Central domain exhibit coupled motion, while the Central domain undergoes domain-wise displacement. These structural analyses provide important insight into the E-C coupling in skeletal muscles and identify the Central domain as the transducer that couples the conformational changes of the cytoplasmic platform to the gating of the central pore. PMID:27468892

  11. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the Kaon Factory central control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inwood, Clifford; Ludgate, G. A.; Dohan, D. A.; Osberg, E. A.; Koscielniak, S.

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements.

  12. The Role of the State in the Repression and Revival of Religiosity in Central Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tim; Neundorf, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present two different roles of the state affecting individuals' religiosity. First, we provide evidence for the effectiveness of socialist regimes in influencing citizens' opinions by comparing religious beliefs among several generations of Eastern Europeans. Second, the article explores whether the democratization…

  13. Unique Dairy Applications for Eastern Gamagrass in Central Wisconsin: II. Nutritive Value and Energy Density

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, perennial warm-season grasses have received considerable interest, largely through bioenergy initiatives, but their suitability for limiting caloric intake by fiber demanding livestock, such as dairy heifers and dry cows has not been explored. Our objectives were to evaluate eastern gamagr...

  14. Unique Dairy Applications for Eastern Gamagrass in Central Wisconsin: I. Yield Potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replacement dairy heifers offered diets comprised largely of corn (Zea mays L.) silage or other high-energy forages often become overconditioned, which may damage their future performance as lactating cows. Our objective was to assess the yield potential of a perennial C4 grass, eastern gamagrass [T...

  15. The Role of the State in the Repression and Revival of Religiosity in Central Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tim; Neundorf, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present two different roles of the state affecting individuals' religiosity. First, we provide evidence for the effectiveness of socialist regimes in influencing citizens' opinions by comparing religious beliefs among several generations of Eastern Europeans. Second, the article explores whether the democratization…

  16. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, J. A.; SOMLAI, A. M.; BENOTSCH, E. G.; AMIRKHANIAN, Y. A.; FERNANDEZ, M. I.; STEVENSON, L. Y.; SITZLER, C. A.; MCAULIFFE, T. L.; BROWN, K. D.; OPGENORTH, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention. PMID:16282071

  17. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; Benotsch, E G; Amirkhanian, Y A; Fernandez, M I; Stevenson, L Y; Sitzler, C A; McAuliffe, T L; Brown, K D; Opgenorth, K M

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention.

  18. Petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic granitic plutons, eastern Llano Uplift, central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. K.; Gray, Walt; Gibbs, Tyson; Gallegos, M. A.

    2010-08-01

    The Llano Uplift of central Texas is a gentle structural dome exposing ˜ 1370 to 1230 Ma metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks of Grenville affinity along the southern margin of Laurentia. The metamorphic rocks were subsequently intruded by ˜ 1119 to 1070 Ma late syn- to post-tectonic granites collectively known as the Town Mountain Granite (TMG). The eastern most of the TMG, the Marble Falls (MF), Kingsland (KL), and Lone Grove (LG) plutons, are metaluminous to marginally peraluminous, high-K, calc-alkaline, ferroan, biotite-calcic amphibole granites [Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.71-0.92 and 0.78-0.91 for biotite and calcic amphibole, respectively] displaying distinct variation trends with increasing silica content. They are chemically and texturally zoned and have mineralogical and chemical characteristics similar to A-type granites; i.e., 1) Fe-rich biotites, calcic amphiboles, accessory fluorite, and sporadic rapakivi texture, 2) high K 2O (> 4 wt.%), 3) low Al 2O 3 (< 16 wt.%) and CaO (< 3 wt.%), 4) high Fe/(Fe + Mg), 5) enrichments in Zr, Nb, REE, Ga/Al, and 6) depleted Eu. However, in contrast to typical A-type granites (having low Sr and Ba) the MF, KL,and LG plutons are enriched in Sr and Ba; i.e., up to 229 ppm and 1090 ppm, respectively. On granite discrimination diagrams [(K 2O + Na 2O)/CaO vs. Zr + Nb + Ce + Y (ppm) and Zr (ppm) vs. Ga/Al*10,000] the KL and MF plutons plot within the A-type field, whereas the LG pluton compositions are divided between A-type and fractionated granite fields (I-, S- and M-types). On tectonic discrimination diagrams (Y vs. Nb ) the MF and KL granites plot in the "within-plate" granite field, but the LG pluton plots across several fields including "within-plate" and "volcanic arc plus syn-collisional" fields. Consequently the tectonic classification on a geochemical basis for the LG pluton is unclear. Based on thermal metamorphic mineral assemblages, normative Q-Ab-Or plots, and Q-Ab-Or-H 2O experimental data (Johannes and Holtz

  19. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Diabetes: From Evidence to Clinical Reality in Central and Eastern Europe—Recommendations from the International Central-Eastern European Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Barkai, László; Bolgarska, Svetlana; Bronisz, Agata; Broz, Jan; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Honka, Marek; Janez, Andrej; Krnic, Mladen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Martinka, Emil; Rahelic, Dario; Roman, Gabriela; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Várkonyi, Tamás; Wolnik, Bogumił; Zherdova, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is universally considered to be an integral part of type 1 diabetes management and crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of complex insulin regimens. This extends to type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy, and there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that structured SMBG is beneficial for all type 2 diabetes patients, regardless of therapy. However, access to SMBG can be limited in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A consensus group of diabetes experts from 10 countries in this region (with overlapping historical, political, and social environments)—Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine—was formed to discuss the role of SMBG across the spectrum of patients with diabetes. The group considered SMBG to be an essential tool that should be accessible to all patients with diabetes, including those with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. The current article summarizes the evidence put forward by the consensus group and provides their recommendations for the appropriate use of SMBG as part of individualized patient management. The ultimate goal of these evidence-based recommendations is to help patients and providers in Central and Eastern Europe to make optimal use of SMBG in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies, to prevent complications, and to empower the patient to play a more active role in the management of their diabetes. PMID:24716890

  20. Yield of bedrock wells in the Nashoba terrane, central and eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The yield of bedrock wells in the fractured-bedrock aquifers of the Nashoba terrane and surrounding area, central and eastern Massachusetts, was investigated with analyses of existing data. Reported well yield was compiled for 7,287 wells from Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection and U.S. Geological Survey databases. Yield of these wells ranged from 0.04 to 625 gallons per minute. In a comparison with data from 103 supply wells, yield and specific capacity from aquifer tests were well correlated, indicating that reported well yield was a reasonable measure of aquifer characteristics in the study area. Statistically significant relations were determined between well yield and a number of cultural and hydrogeologic factors. Cultural variables included intended water use, well depth, year of construction, and method of yield measurement. Bedrock geology, topography, surficial geology, and proximity to surface waters were statistically significant hydrogeologic factors. Yield of wells was higher in areas of granites, mafic intrusive rocks, and amphibolites than in areas of schists and gneisses or pelitic rocks; higher in valleys and low-slope areas than on hills, ridges, or high slopes; higher in areas overlain by stratified glacial deposits than in areas overlain by till; and higher in close proximity to streams, ponds, and wetlands than at greater distances from these surface-water features. Proximity to mapped faults and to lineaments from aerial photographs also were related to well yield by some measures in three quadrangles in the study area. Although the statistical significance of these relations was high, their predictive power was low, and these relations explained little of the variability in the well-yield data. Similar results were determined from a multivariate regression analysis. Multivariate regression models for the Nashoba terrane and for a three-quadrangle subarea included, as significant variables, many of the cultural and

  1. Aeolian dust deposition during the Eocene-Oligocene in central to eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, Jef; Abels, Hemmo; van Cappelle, Marijn

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian dust deposition during the Eocene-Oligocene in central to eastern Asia Jef Vandenberghe1, Hemmo Abels2 and Marijn van Cappelle3 1Dept. of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2Dept. of Earth Sciences, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CD, Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, U.K. The deposition of loess is generally attributed to a monsoonal climate system. Recently it has been shown that such a system existed already at the end of the Eocene on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (Licht et al., 2014). One of the main arguments to prove the supply of loess by monsoonal winds is the use of grain size properties. The lower part of the Shuiwan section (Eocene) consists of metre-scale alternations of mudstone and gypsum beds; the upper part (Oligocene) is mainly mudstone (Dupont-Nivet et al., 2007; Abels et al., 2010). Sediments are categorized in six grain-size types based on the grain-size distribution and the mode of the silt grain sizes as measured using laser diffraction. Sediments of type 1, the only type with a unimodal grain-size distribution, consist exclusively of clay-sized particles (modal value of 2-2.5 µm). Types 2-6 have a multimodal composition. They contain an additional silt-sized fraction with a modal size of c. 16 µm in type 2; c. 26 µm in type 3 and c. 31 µm in type 4. Type 5 is a mixture of previous types, and type 6 contains in addition a slight amount of sand. Similar bimodal grain-size distributions occur in the Neogene Red Clay and in the Pleistocene loess of the Chinese Loess Plateau. All three silt fractions (with modal sizes 16, 26 and 31 µm) represent typical loess sediments, transported by dust storms in suspension at different altitudes. Their exact grain size depends on wind velocity, source material and transport distance. The 'clay component' may have settled from high suspension clouds in the air down to dry ground or to

  2. Mid-Oligocene climate dynamics using benthic foraminifera from the Central Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirkel, Jessica; Herrle, Jens; Pälike, Heiko; Liebrand, Diederik; Batenburg, Sietske

    2014-05-01

    The Oligocene marks the onset of major Antarctic ice sheets and hence the first step into a "icehouse" world, which continues to the present day. To understand the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, it is fundamental to assess and quantify changes in the ocean circulation pattern and the intensity of Pacific equatorial upwelling (PEU) since the initiation of southern hemisphere ice caps during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. It is well known that combined variations in the eccentricity, obliquity and precession of Earth's orbit influence long-term climate fluctuations, notably the build up and decay of ice volume. To unravel the importance of orbital forcing on ice volume changes and to estimate its impact on paleoproductivity in the Central Eastern Pacific Ocean, we focused on the Oi-2b event about 26.8 Ma ago, being the most important glacial episode in the mid-Oligocene (Pälike et al., 2006). We calculated benthic foraminifer accumulation rates (BFAR) to reconstruct organic matter flux to the sea floor and hence surface water productivity. Furthermore, to assess and differentiate between changes in productivity and dissolution, a planktic foraminifera-based fragmentation index (FI) was calculated. BFAR values range between 16 and 217 NBF/cm-2/kyr (average: 65 NBF/cm-2/kyr). Increased BFAR indicate phases of higher supply of organic matter to the sea floor and thus enhanced surface water productivity. Our BFAR record indicates variable but generally lower productivity conditions during the glacial event compared to pre- and post-Oi-2b conditions. However, the transition into the Oi-2b event which is documented in heavier δ18O of Cibicidoides grimsdalei (2.1 per mil to 3.0 per mil ) and Oridorsalis umbonatus (1.7 per mil and 2.6 per mil) is characterized by a higher productivity, which is also supported by the assumption of increased productivity for the onset of Oi-2b based on Δδ13C variations of planktic and benthic foraminifera from ODP Site 1218 (Wade

  3. Seasonal Equability in Late Cretaceous Central-Eastern Iberia? Inferences from Isotopic Data on Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, L.; Barroso-Barcenilla, F.; Cambra-Moo, O.

    2013-12-01

    calculate temperature values. As expected, temperature values estimated from theropods are lower (G1: 17.5×4.4°C, G2: 21.0×3.8°C), representing mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas temperature values yielded by crocodilians (G1: 19.6×4.4°C, G2: 24.4×3.8°C) and turtles (G1: 18.8×4.4°C, G2: 23.5×3.8°C) are slightly higher, reflecting the temperature of the warmest months (TWMs). Our record shows an increase in temperature values between G1 and G2, but they remain within expected temperature estimates based on other independent proxies (palynomorphs, vertebrates) and paleoclimatic models for the Late Cretaceous and the 'Lo Hueco' paleo-latitude. Maximum differences between TWMs and MAT are 2.1°C and 3.4°C for G1 and G2, respectively. These differences are in the low end-member of those observed in modern subtropical settings (~2.8-8.1°C) pointing to a slightly lower seasonal thermal varibility in central-eastern Iberia during the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian.

  4. Reinterpretation of the eastern platform-to-basin facies transition, Winnipegosis Formation, north-central North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W. )

    1991-03-01

    Previous interpretations of the eastern platform-to-basin facies transition of the Winnipegosis Formation in north-central North Dakota were part of more extensive, regional studies of the Middle Devonian Elk Point basin sediments (Jones, 1965; Holter, 1969; Ehrets and Kissling, 1987). These studies apparently did not take into account (1) the known spatial distribution of wells penetrating the Ratner Member of the Winnipegosis Formation, which is diagnostic of basinal environments, versus the distribution of known basinal Winnipegosis carbonate buildups; and (2) the control of structural movement along the north-south trending Precambrian Churchill-Superior Boundary on Winnipegosis sedimentation, particularly the eastern platform-to-basin facies transition and basinal carbonate buildups of the Winnipegosis Formation. As a result, the location and configuration of the eastern platform-to-basin facies transition was misinterpreted to be along a north-south trending series of basinal carbonate buildups along the Glenburn-Wiley trend, 20-25 mi west of the present interpretation.

  5. A regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt, Grenville Province, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo Alvarez, Vincenzo; Dunlop, David J.

    1998-04-01

    We have made a regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt of the Grenville Province in Ontario along ten N-S and E-W traverses up to 200 km in length. Although originally intended to clarify the tectonic mechanism by which these exotic terranes were assembled and welded to the Archean Superior craton during the ˜1150-Ma Grenvillian orogeny, we actually learned much more about the timing of post-orogenic uplift of the various domains around 1000-900 Ma as they stabilized and became part of the Rodinia supercontinent. The normal (N) and reverse (R) natural remanent magnetizations (NRMs) of all domains, as well as those of reactivated regions flanking the Grenville Front (GF, the Superior-Grenville boundary) to the north and south, have paleomagnetic poles falling on the 980-920-Ma ( 40Ar/ 39Ar calibrated) portion of the Grenville apparent polar wander track for Laurentia. There is a general tendency for paleopoles to young with increasing distance of domains from the GF, implying that more southerly domains were uplifted and magnetized later, but two of the domains do not fit this pattern. Previously reported younging trends away from the GF, based on K/Ar thermochron maps and paleomagnetic 'zone poles', are untrustworthy because of hydrothermal alteration, which causes chemical remagnetization and anomalously old K/Ar ages near the GF. Another trend in our data is a regular increase in the R/N ratio with increasing distance south of the GF. In the reactivated zones flanking the GF, NRMs are overwhelmingly of N polarity, whereas well away from the GF, R/N is close to 50:50. Also, NRM intensities and susceptibility values increase 100-fold away from the GF, peaking ≈10 km south of the front, with a pulse-like pattern similar to that documented in anomalously high 40Ar/ 39Ar dates in the same region. Both the magnetic and Ar/Ar results are likely due to a 'wave' of hydrothermal alteration and remagnetization during which fluids

  6. Supporting Reform in Science Education in Central and Eastern Europe--Reflections and Perspectives from the Project TEMPUS-SALiS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapanadze, Marika; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, many Central and Eastern European countries underwent significant change in their political and educational systems, among them Georgia and Moldova. Reforms in education sought to overcome the highly centralized educational system of the former Soviet Union as well as to conquer the teacher-centred…

  7. Supporting Reform in Science Education in Central and Eastern Europe--Reflections and Perspectives from the Project TEMPUS-SALiS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapanadze, Marika; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, many Central and Eastern European countries underwent significant change in their political and educational systems, among them Georgia and Moldova. Reforms in education sought to overcome the highly centralized educational system of the former Soviet Union as well as to conquer the teacher-centred…

  8. Paleotectonic reconstruction of the central Tethys domain since the Late Permian: the DARIUS Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno; Brunet, Marie-Françoise; Robertson, Alastair; Sosson, Marc; Zanchi, Andrea; Brouillet, Jean-françois; Kaveh, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    The DARIUS Programme is a 4-years consortium sponsored by Major Oil Companies and Research Organizations. DARIUS drive together a group of academic scientific teams whose expertise includes several domains of tectonics (structural analysis, paleotectonic reconstructions, basin analysis, subsidence modeling), stratigraphy (paleontology, sequence stratigraphy, organic matter analysis), modeling, kinematics, and geophysics. The main objective is characterizing the tecto-stratigraphic evolution of a vast domain around Central Tethys extending from Black-Sea Anatolia in the west to western Central Asia in the east. One of the final products of the DARIUS Programme is a set of 20 paleotectonic maps of the DARIUS domain ranging in age from the Late Permian to Pliocene. In these maps we propose paleotectonic reconstructions of the south-central Eurasian and north African-Arabian plates starting after the Late Paleozoic Hercynian orogeny. These palinspastic maps are based on an up-to-date kinematics reconstruction of the African, Indian and Arabian plates with respect to Eurasia. For each map we depict the major tectonic-geodynamic features (i.e. the rifts, different types of basins, major orogens and fold belts, main transcurrent faults, subduction zones, accretionary prisms...) as well as the main paleofacies. Our reconstructions are based on an accurate timing of the tectonic events that have succeeded in the central Tethyan margins since the Late Paleozoic. These events include both the main orogenies resulting from collisions of major plates and blocks and the series of openings and inversions of basins that developed in the northern and southern Tethyan margins between the main collisions. Following the Variscian orogeny that ended in the Early Permian, the Mid to Late Triassic Eo- and Mid-Cimmerian orogenies are related to the collision of Gondwanian blocs with the Pangea margin after closure of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic domain. Then, for the rest of the Mesozoic and

  9. Structure of a Spumaretrovirus Gag Central Domain Reveals an Ancient Retroviral Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Moumita; Pollard, Dominic J.; Goldstone, David C.; Ramos, Andres; Müllers, Erik; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Taylor, William R.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. However, there is a paucity of structural information for FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. To probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag we have determined the structure of a central region of Gag from the Prototype FV (PFV). The structure comprises two all α-helical domains NtDCEN and CtDCEN that although they have no sequence similarity, we show they share the same core fold as the N- (NtDCA) and C-terminal domains (CtDCA) of archetypal orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA). Moreover, structural comparisons with orthoretroviral CA align PFV NtDCEN and CtDCEN with NtDCA and CtDCA respectively. Further in vitro and functional virological assays reveal that residues making inter-domain NtDCEN—CtDCEN interactions are required for PFV capsid assembly and that intact capsid is required for PFV reverse transcription. These data provide the first information that relates the Gag proteins of Spuma and Orthoretrovirinae and suggests a common ancestor for both lineages containing an ancient CA fold. PMID:27829070

  10. Gondwana subduction-modified mantle domain prevents magmatic seafloor generation in the Central Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, T.; Nakamura, K.; Senda, R.; Suzuki, K.; Kumagai, H.; Sato, H.; Sato, T.; Shibuya, T.; Minoguchi, K.; Okino, K.

    2013-12-01

    The creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges is essential to understanding the genesis of oceanic plate and the evolution of the Earth. Detailed bathymetric measurements coupled with dense sample recovery at mid-ocean ridge revealed a wide range of variations in the ridge and seafloor morphologies, which cannot be simply explained by a spreading rate, but also by ridge geometry, mantle compositions and thermal structure (Dick et al., 2003 Nature; Cannat et al. 2006 Geology). It is now widely accepted that very limited magmatic activity with tectonic stretching generates oceanic core complex and/or smooth seafloor surface in the slow to ultraslow-spreading ridges, where serpentinized peridotite and gabbros are expected to be exposed associated with detachment faults (Cann et al., 1997 Nature; Cannat et al., 2006), although magmatism might be an essential role for the formation of oceanic core complexes (Buck et al., 2005 Nature; Tucholke et al 2008 JGR). A rising question is why magmatic activity is sometimes prevented during the oceanic plate formation. Ancient melting domain, that are too refractory to melt even in adiabatically upwelling to the shallow upper mantle, might cause the amagmatic spreading ridges (Harvey et al., 2006 EPSL, Liu et al.,2008 Nature). Its origin and effect on seafloor generations are, however, not well understood yet. We report an oceanic hill as an example of an ancient subduction-modified mantle domain, probably formed at continental margin of the Gondwanaland~Pangea supercontinent, existing beneath the Central Indian Ridge. This domain is the most likely to have prevented magmatic seafloor generation, resulting in creation of very deep oceanic valley and serpentine diaper (now the studied oceanic hill) at the present Central Indian ridge.

  11. Seismic depth-domain stratigraphic classification of the Golan Heights, central Dead Sea Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiler, Miki; Reshef, Moshe; Shulman, Haim

    2011-10-01

    A set of twenty five 2-D seismic profiles acquired over the Golan Heights basaltic plateau, central Dead Sea Fault segment, was processed and analyzed in the depth domain. The data were processed by the Pre-Stack Depth Migration techniques and, despite the thick basaltic layer entirely covering the plateau, shows surprisingly good quality. The study presents stratigraphic identification of eleven seismic markers recognized on the output depth-domain sections and their correlation with the adjacent Syrian, Jordanian and Israeli stratigraphic columns. Based on this regional correlation, the deep-seated structure and stratigraphic column underlying the extensive basaltic cover are addressed through structural mapping and isopach calculations, as well as through compilation of regional geological cross-sections. Results of the depth-domain seismic interpretation suggest that the Golan Heights covers a structural depression in which more than 8500 m of Late Proterozoic to Neogene sedimentary succession has accumulated, amid the Jordanian Highlands and the Mt. Hermon Anticline. The Infracambrian-Paleozoic succession attains a thickness of 3000-3500 m, while as much as 1500 m of this figure is attributed to the Late Proterozoic Saramuj Formation. The Mesozoic succession, outlined by the significant northward and north-western thickening of the Triassic and Jurassic successions, attains a cumulative thickness of 5 km in the Northern Golan. The Senonian-Cenozoic succession outlines the syncline nature of the Golan Plateau, attaining a thickness of 1.5-2 km at the central parts of the plateau. The estimated thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene basalt flows that cover the study area locally exceeds 1000 m. Two fault strands of the Dead Sea Fault System are recognized in the subsurface of the plateau: the Sheikh-Ali and Shamir Faults. The strands are interpreted beneath the basalt cover, extending into the plateau at a considerable distance from their surface expression next to

  12. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-01-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity. PMID:22423333

  13. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-02-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity.

  14. Estimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in eastern and central North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Gay, D.A.; Prestbo, E.M.; Risch, M.R.; Johnson, D.; Narayan, J.; Zsolway, R.; Holsen, T.M.; Miller, E.K.; Castro, M.S.; Graydon, J.A.; St. Louis, V.L.; Dalziel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dry deposition of speciated mercury, i.e., gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), was estimated for the year 2008–2009 at 19 monitoring locations in eastern and central North America. Dry deposition estimates were obtained by combining monitored two- to four-hourly speciated ambient concentrations with modeled hourly dry deposition velocities (Vd) calculated using forecasted meteorology. Annual dry deposition of GOM+PBM was estimated to be in the range of 0.4 to 8.1 μg m−2 at these locations with GOM deposition being mostly five to ten times higher than PBM deposition, due to their different modeled Vd values. Net annual GEM dry deposition was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 26 μg m−2 at 18 sites and 33 μg m−2 at one site. The estimated dry deposition agrees very well with limited surrogate-surface dry deposition measurements of GOM and PBM, and also agrees with litterfall mercury measurements conducted at multiple locations in eastern and central North America. This study suggests that GEM contributes much more than GOM+PBM to the total dry deposition at the majority of the sites considered here; the only exception is at locations close to significant point sources where GEM and GOM+PBM contribute equally to the total dry deposition. The relative magnitude of the speciated dry deposition and their good comparisons with litterfall deposition suggest that mercury in litterfall originates primarily from GEM, which is consistent with the limited number of previous field studies. The study also supports previous analyses suggesting that total dry deposition of mercury is equal to, if not more important than, wet deposition of mercury on a regional scale in eastern North America.

  15. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    PubMed Central

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  16. Early Jurassic tectonism occurred within the Basu metamorphic complex, eastern central Tibet: Implications for an archipelago-accretion orogenic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Qin; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Li, Tian-Fu; Ma, Shi-Wei; Huang, Xue-Meng

    2017-04-01

    The Basu metamorphic complex, surrounded by ophiolitic melanges and intruded by a large volume of undeformed granitoid rocks along the eastern segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture, holds one of the keys to understanding the pre-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of central Tibet. Zircon U-Pb dating of rocks from the Basu metamorphic complex reveals that meta-igneous rocks yield Early Paleozoic crystallization ages of 500-492 Ma and an Early Jurassic metamorphic age of 173 Ma, and that undeformed granitoid rocks yield crystallization ages of approximately 186-174 Ma. Whole rock geochemical and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that the undeformed granitoid rocks originated mainly from partial melting of ancient crustal sources, which may reflect a collisional orogenic setting. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite from a sillimanite-garnet-biotite paragneiss shows cooling to 300 ± 50 °C at 165 Ma. These data indicate significant Early Jurassic tectonism, during which most of the Basu metamorphic complex was formed. Furthermore, the age data resemble those of the Amdo metamorphic complex located approximately 500 km to the west along the Bangong-Nujiang suture. Together, these complexes may represent a ;destroyed or unrecognized; block, i.e., the Amdo-Tongka block, which may be the eastern extension of the South Qiangtang terrane. Based on the tectonic outlines of the multiple ophiolitic zones and magmatic belts, we suggest a new archipelago-accretion model that attributes the Early Jurassic tectonism to an arc-continent/micro-continent collision. This model further enables the reconstruction of the eastern Tethyan Ocean and the orogenic processes of central Tibet during the Mesozoic.

  17. Regional Climate Change Scenarios in High Resolution for Impact Assessment in Central and Eastern Europe - Project CECILIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, T.

    2009-09-01

    Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. Project EC FP6 CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied within the project, and precise information from regional climate simulations is necessary. Basic validation and verification of ERA40 driven simulations by RegCM and ALADIN-Climate used for simulations in targeted regions as well as discussion of the climate change signal in these regions for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 is provided with respect to control period 1961-1990. Some impact applications in the sectors mentioned above will be shown as well.

  18. Mass loading of size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in the ambient air during fireworks episodes in eastern Central India.

    PubMed

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deb, Manas K; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Verma, Santosh K

    2013-04-01

    The effects of combustion of the fire crackers on the air quality in eastern Central India were studied for the first time during Diwali festival. This case study analyzes the size distribution and temporal variation of aerosols collected in the rural area of eastern Central India during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period for the year of 2011. Fifteen aerosol samples were collected during the special case study of Diwali period using Andersen sampler. The mean concentrations of PM10 (respirable particulate matter) were found to be 212.8 ± 4.2, 555.5 ± 20.2 and 284.4 ± 5.8 during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. During Diwali festival PM10 concentration was about 2.6 and 1.9 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. PM2.5 (fine) and PM1 (submicron) concentrations during Diwali festival were more than 2 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali.

  19. Infertility in Poland--present status, reasons and prognosis as a reflection of Central and Eastern Europe problems with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2003-03-01

    Poland has been considered a representative country for the population of Central and Eastern Europe as it has genetically homogenous population and reveals profound similarities in economical and historical processes common for all countries of the region. According to our observations there is approximately 20% of infertile couples in Poland (lack of concentration after at least 12 month of unprotected intercourse) and 40-60% of them are infertile because of the male factor. However, studies of infertility in Poland that have been conducted so far need to be verified. The changes connected with the style of life and new tendencies observed during the tedious political changes had considerable influence on childbearing rate in Poland. Additional factors diminishing the fertility rate are: the change of the status of women in a society, raising amount of everyday stress, the high rate (17%) of unemployment and the low average income. Furthermore, in Poland, the diagnostics and treatment (assisted reproductive technology) are entirely financed from the private funds of a patient. Summing up, the problem of childlessness in Central and Eastern Europe is a complex one and very alarming therefore it is necessary to work out and to implement research, preventative and therapeutic programmes strengthened through the international cooperation of specialized centers of excellence.

  20. Seismicity and recent faulting in eastern California and western and central Nevada: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator); Silverstein, J.; Tubbesing, L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery covering the eastern California-Nevada seismic belt were utilized to study the fault pattern in relation to the distribution of earthquake epicenters and Quaternary volcanic rocks. Many suspected faults not previously mapped were identified. These include several suspected shear zones in Nevada, faults showing evidence of recent breakage, and major lineaments. Highly seismic areas are generally characterized by Holocene faulting and Quaternary volcanic activity. However, several major fault segments showing evidence of recent breakage are associated with little or no seismicity. The tectonic pattern strongly suggests that the eastern California-Nevada seismic belt coincides with a major crustal rift associated with zones of lateral shear. New data on potentially active fault zones have direct practical applications in national and local earthquake hazard reduction programs. Positive contacts have been made with Kern and Ventura Counties to make results of this investigation available for application to their earthquake hazards definition projects.

  1. Mesoproterozoic continental arc magmatism and crustal growth in the eastern Central Tianshan Arc Terrane of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Geochronological and geochemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhen-Yu; Klemd, Reiner; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Zong, Ke-Qing; Sun, Li-Xin; Tian, Zuo-Lin; Huang, Bo-Tao

    2015-11-01

    Numerous microcontinents are known to occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), one of the largest accretionary orogens and the most significant area of Paleozoic crustal growth in the world. The evolution of the Precambrian crust in these microcontinents is central to understanding the accretionary and collisional tectonics of the CAOB. Here, we present systematic zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope studies of Mesoproterozoic gneissic granitoids from the eastern Central Tianshan Arc Terrane (CTA) of the southern CAOB. The investigated intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 60.48-78.92 wt.%) granitoids belong to the calcic- to calc-alkaline series and usually have pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, relative enrichments of light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) while heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs) are depleted, revealing typical active continental margin magmatic arc geochemical characteristics. These spatially-distant rocks show consistent zircon U-Pb crystallization ages from ca. 1.45 to 1.40 Ga and thus constitute a previously unknown Mesoproterozoic continental magmatic arc covering hundreds of kilometers in the eastern segment of the CTA. Furthermore the high and mainly positive zircon εHf(t) values between - 1.0 and + 8.6 and the zircon Hf model ages of 1.95 to 1.55 Ga, which are slightly older than their crystallization ages, suggest that they were mainly derived from rapid reworking of juvenile material with a limited input of an ancient crustal component. Therefore, the formation of these granitoids defines an extensive Mesoproterozoic intermediate to felsic, subduction-related intrusive magmatic arc activity that was active from at least 1.45 to 1.40 Ga, involving significant juvenile continental growth in the eastern segment of the CTA. Furthermore the zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data challenge the common belief that the CTA was part of the Tarim Craton during Paleo

  2. A contribution to the SHA of Eastern Thessaly, Central Greece: archaeological and historical evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helly, B.; Caputo, R.; Tsafalias, A.

    2003-04-01

    Eastern Thessaly region (Central Greece) shows numerous evidences of seismic activity ranging from structural, morphological, palaeoseismological, archaeological and historical. In the present note, we focus on the latter two aspects. A fundamental source of historic data are the "Chronicles" of the monasteries of the area. Doubtless, the most important ones are those located in the Meteora region (western Thessaly). In the "Chronicles" of these monasteries few events are reported relative to the investigated region and particularly the August 1668, occurred in the area of Larissa, the 1731, the November 9, 1766 and the August 28, 1781. Maximum inferred intensity of the three latter earthquakes has been estimated of the VIII degree. Based on the tectonic setting of the possible seismogenic structures, these events are tentatively located in the Tyrnavos Basin, while no other events are known in this sector neither before the 16th century nor in more recent times, except the March 1941 earthquake occurred East of Larissa. Archaeological information from the broader area concerns several sectors. i) Along the Rodià Fault, which is the major antithetic structure bordering to the north the Tyrnavos Basin, near the Arghyropouli village, the ancient site of Leimoné has been occupied since Neolithic times but it also represents an important Mycenaean site (13th-10th century BC). According to the historian Rhianos (3rd century BC), the town was still there during the Classical Period (5th-4th century BC) but according to Strabo it was disappeared at the end of the 1st century BC. ii) In Larissa, an inscription of the end of the 3rd century BC ascertain the bad conditions of a certain number of shrines and public buildings, reporting several damages like fallen columns. iii) Along the Tyrnavos Fault, the ancient settlement and ruins found on the rocky hill of the present-day Damasi village has been correlated to the ancient town of Phalanna and the alluvial plain

  3. Horizontal velocities in the central and eastern United States from GPS surveys during the 1987-1996 interval

    SciTech Connect

    Snay, R.A.; Strange, W.E.

    1997-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission jointly organized GPS surveys in 1987, 1990, 1993, and 1996 to search for crustal deformation in the central and eastern United States (east of longitude 108{degrees}W). We have analyzed the data of these four surveys in combination with VLBI data observed during the 1979-1995 interval and GPS data for 22 additional surveys observed during the 1990-1996 interval. These latter GPS surveys served to establish accurately positioned geodetic marks in various states. Accordingly, we have computed horizontal velocities for 64 GPS sites and 12 VLBI sites relative to a reference frame for which the interior of the North American plate is considered fixed on average. None of our derived velocities exceeds 6 mm/yr in magnitude. Moreover, the derived velocity at each GPS site is statistically zero at the 95% confidence level except for the site BOLTON in central Ohio and the site BEARTOWN in southeastern Pennsylvania. However, as statistical theory would allow approximately 5% of the 64 GPS sites to fall our zero-velocity hypothesis, we are uncertain whether or not these estimated velocities for BOLTON and BEARTOWN reflect actual motion relative to the North American plate. We also computed horizontal strain rates for the cells formed by a 1{degrees} by 1{degrees} grid spanning the central and eastern United States. Corresponding shearing rates are everywhere less than 60 nanoradians/yr in magnitude, and no shearing rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level except for a grid cell near BEARTOWN whose rate is 57 {+-} 26 nanoradians/yr. Also corresponding areal dilatation rates are everywhere less than 40 nanostrain/yr in magnitude, and no dilatation rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level.

  4. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multicanonical Simulations of Five Tetrapeptide Sequences in the Central Domain of HMW Glutenin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkin, Handan; Yaşar, Fatih; Çelik, Tarik; Çelik, Süeda; Köksel, Hamit

    The application of the multicanonical simulation method to small proteins and peptides seems to be feasible and should be undertaken. In this work, the three-dimensional structures of five common tetrapeptide sequences (QPGQ, QSGQ, YPTS, SPQQ and QPGY, in one letter code) in the repetitive central domain of HMW glutenin subunits are investigated by using the multicanonical simulation procedure. Ramachandran plots were prepared and analyzed to predict the relative occurrence probabilities of β-turn and γ-turn structures and helical states. Structural predictions of the five tetrapeptide sequences indicated the presence of high level of β-turns and considerable level of γ-turns. It was also possible to distinguish different type of turns and their occurrence probabilities.

  6. Dissection of the Adenoviral VA RNAI Central Domain Structure Reveals Minimum Requirements for RNA-mediated Inhibition of PKR*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jo L.; Vachon, Virginia K.; Sunita, S.; Schwartz, Samantha L.; Conn, Graeme L.

    2014-01-01

    Virus-associated RNA I (VA RNAI) is a short (∼160-nucleotide) non-coding RNA transcript employed by adenoviruses to subvert the innate immune system protein double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). The central domain of VA RNAI is proposed to contain a complex tertiary structure that contributes to its optimal inhibitory activity against PKR. Here we use a combination of VA RNAI mutagenesis, structural analyses, as well as PKR activity and binding assays to dissect this tertiary structure and assess its functional role. Our results support the existence of a pH- and Mg2+-dependent tertiary structure involving pseudoknot formation within the central domain. Unexpectedly, this structure appears to play no direct role in PKR inhibition. Deletion of central domain sequences within a minimal but fully active construct lacking the tertiary structure reveals a crucial role in PKR binding and inhibition for nucleotides in the 5′ half of the central domain. Deletion of the central domain 3′ half also significantly impacts activity but appears to arise indirectly by reducing its capacity to assist in optimally presenting the 5′ half sequence. Collectively, our results identify regions of VA RNAI critical for PKR inhibition and reveal that the requirements for an effective RNA inhibitor of PKR are simpler than appreciated previously. PMID:24970889

  7. Neogene Tectonics And Paleomagnetism Of The Western And Eastern Of Palu Bay, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muin, M. R.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Warmada, I. W.; Suryanto, W.

    2017-04-01

    Geologic observations and paleo magnetic studies of the western and eastern Palu Bay was undertaken, in order to study the extent of rotated areas and to develop constraints on tectonic models concerning the formation of this bay. Characteristic of remanent magentization (ChRM) results from Palu bay, the western show that; yield a pole at -39.116°N, 119.895°E with R=13.99, α95 =0,42, Dm/Im=61.76/-26.7 and the Eastern Palu bay show that; yield a pole at -81.855°N, 52.913°E, R=8.99, α95=0.29, Dm/Im =67.1/-5.42. The granitic rocks in these areas are dominated by granite and Monzonit-Quartz in composition, with high-K calc-alkaline photasik (KAP) and show metaluminous-peraluminous affinity. This suggests that the rotational motion on both sides of the bay are similar during the Neogen.

  8. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  9. Analysis of long-range transport of particulate matters in connection with air circulation over Central and Eastern part of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Georgescu, Florinela

    The aim of this paper is to establish a practical methodology for examining the long-range transport of particulate matters (PM), named TSP. The daily concentration values of TSP from years 2001 and 2002, for three sites, Baia Mare (RO), Vienna (AU), Aosta (IT), were analyzed. In order to connect the main air circulation types with the aerosol concentrations at the selected sites, the catalogues of Circulation and Weather type Classification (COST733) were used. Spectral analysis was made using spectrum software based on Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and multiresolution analysis (MRA) technique based on Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) with Fejer-Korovkin in 22 points wavelet filter (waveslim package). Spectral analysis shows a dominant one-year periodicity for all the time series with a variance around 22% for each time series. In addition, several winters TSP pollution episodes from each city were analyzed using a back trajectory model (HYSPLIT4), in order to compare with the resulted air circulation types. Two important concluding remarks emerge: (i) the Eastern part of Europe shows a dominant easterly air circulation and central Europe is characterized by south-west air circulations, which drive the maxima of pollutant concentrations; (ii) the choice of the domain for analysis of the circulation types is very important.

  10. Early-Middle Pleistocene eastward migration of the Abruzzi Apennine (central Italy) extensional domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galadini, Fabrizio; Messina, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the Apennine arc is related to the flexural retreat of the Adriatic lithosphere plate, the NE migration of the compressive front and the contemporaneous rifting of the Tyrrhenian basin. Evidence of the NE migration of the orogen can also be inferred from the analysis of the intra-Apennine Quaternary extensional tectonics. Stratigraphic and structural data collected along NE-SW transects in the Abruzzi Apennines (central Italy), indeed, indicate that the westernmost normal faults (activated during the Pliocene) have to be considered inactive since the Early Pleistocene (Turano valley fault) or the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene (Salto valley and Liri valley faults). In contrast, the easternmost faults (Campo Imperatore and Mt. Morrone faults) were activated during the Early Pleistocene and are still active, as demonstrated by the displacement of Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits and landforms. Within the innermost portion of the extensional domain, the Fucino and upper Aterno valley fault systems show persistent activity since the Pliocene. Besides the evidence of a progressively NE-shifted intra-Apennine extension, available data suggest that a period of co-existing activity of the presently inactive and newly activated faults (e.g. Liri valley and Mt. Morrone faults, respectively) occurred during the Early Pleistocene. This indicates that for a few hundred thousand years active faults in the central Apennines were more numerous than in the period of the present tectonic regime. This may have resulted in a reduced activity per fault (lower slip rates) or an increased intra-Apennine extension rate. Quaternary faults in the Abruzzi Apennines generally coincide with pre-existing discontinuities such as old thrust ramps or syn-orogenic normal faults. Based on a simple geometric criteria, i.e. direction, dip, length of the pre-existing discontinuities located east of the investigated area, and assuming a still active NE-migration of the

  11. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (F ST = 0.08-0.44, P < 0.005). Central and eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary "graveyards", serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation.

  12. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (FST = 0.08–0.44, P < 0.005). Central and eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary “graveyards”, serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation. PMID:25540693

  13. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of ophiolitic ultramafics from central Eastern Desert, Egypt: A case for contaminated mantle-derived magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Ali, Shehata; El-Safei, Shymaa A.

    2017-04-01

    The ophiolitic ultramafics are widely distributed in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The present study is focused on two different localities of ophiolitic ultramafics in the central Eastern Desert (CED); Um Halham and Fawakhir. These ultramafic sections consist of serpentinites, serpentinized peridotites together with talc- and quartz-carbonates. Chromite is the most common original magmatic phase recorded in these rocks then olivine and pyroxene. The chemistry of the Al-chromite indicates a temperature of 500-550 oC consistent with lower amphibolite facies metamorphism. The high Cr# (> 60) of Al-chromites in the studied ultramafics resembles supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites. Moreover, their higher Cr# suggests that they originated from the deeper portion of the mantle section with boninitic affinity. These mantle rocks equilibrated with boninitic melt have been generated by high melting degrees. The estimated melting degrees ( 19-24 %) of these mantle rocks lie within the range of SSZ peridotites. The Serpentinized peridotite and serpentinites have low Al2O3/SiO2 ratios (mostly < 0.03) similar to fore-arc mantle wedge serpentinites and further indicate that their mantle protolith had experienced partial melting before serpentinization process. The LREE-enriched patterns of the ophiolitic ultramafics arose from crustal contamination of their mantle source but not from melt/rock reaction. A higher mantle contamination by crustal materials and/or subduction-related slab fluids of the CED ophiolites relative to that of the SED ophiolites is also proved.

  14. Stratigraphy of the Mesaverde Group in the central and eastern greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies and correlates lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic units and maps the paleogeography of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the central and eastern greater Green River basin of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. The purpose is to develop a stratigraphic framework for a group of formations in a large area where previous investigations were incomplete and partly inaccurate. The stratigraphic information presented contributes to the understanding of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the greater Green River basin and to the origin and distribution of mineral resources. The paper is entirely stratigraphic in approach. Correlations are based on the physical continuity of lithologic units and are supported by ammonite zonation. Maps and cross sections are constructed to scale. The consistent use of stylized columnar sections, hypothetical depositional models, and cartoons for illustrations has been avoided. No new stratigraphic names are introduced, and no nomenclature problems are discussed.

  15. Restoration of the depression structure at the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan by means of dislocation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Takemura, Keiji; Fukuda, Yoichi; Takemoto, Shuzo

    1999-02-01

    We have attempted to restore a subsurface structure in the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan, by combining fault motions which were modeled as dislocation planes embedded in an elastic isotropic half space. The simulated crustal deformation pattern was compared with the subsurface structures estimated from gravity anomalies and/or seismic prospecting. The modeling procedure successfully restored all tectonic basins in the area without any need for motive forces for uplift or subsidence. The results also suggest that two major tectonic events have occurred in this region. Those are (1) the formation of half-graben caused by north-south extension, and (2) the formation of the pull-apart basin caused by east-west compression.

  16. Status of decentralised wastewater treatment systems and barriers for implementation of nature-based systems in central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Istenic, Darja; Bodík, Igor; Bulc, Tjaša

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a survey on the current status of wastewater treatment systems in 11 central and eastern European (CEE) countries, with a focus on rural areas and on small treatment wetlands for settlements of below 2,000 people. The results indicate that CEE countries have insufficient sanitation systems with different performance efficiencies. These differences stem from the different historical, political and economic developments as well as legislation in the previous five to six decades. CEE settlements with less than 2,000 inhabitants represent almost 30.0 % of the overall number of persons living in CEE countries. These data show that CEE countries have a mainly rural character, but this is slowly decreasing. Over 42 million inhabitants are waiting for proper sanitation systems. This requirement will be ever-growing in the next future, and it is important to know and to prepare appropriate steps for progressive realisation.

  17. A new colorful species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central in Colombia .

    PubMed

    Rivera-Prieto, Diego A; Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; Daza, Juan M

    2014-12-22

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid forests on the eastern flank of the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia (6º 23' 19.3554" N, 75º 1' 24.0594" W; ca. 1150 m.a.s.l.). Pristimantis jaguensis sp. nov. is characterized by an extraordinary variation in color and is readily distinguished from congeneric species by lacking nuptial pads, discoidal fold and conical calcar tubercles; flanks and belly white to cream without blotches as well as iris yellow ocher to copper with thick brown reticulation and cream sclera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species in a clade with species mostly distributed in Ecuador. Our finding suggests that new taxa can still be discovered in the Middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia despite the extensive sampling this region has received during the last decades. 

  18. Attribution of the July-August 2013 heat event in Central and Eastern China to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuangmei; Zhou, Tianjun; Stone, Dáithí A.; Angélil, Oliver; Shiogama, Hideo

    2017-05-01

    In the midsummer of 2013, Central and Eastern China (CEC) was hit by an extraordinary heat event, with the region experiencing the warmest July-August on record. To explore how human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and natural internal variability contributed to this heat event, we compare observed July-August mean surface air temperature with that simulated by climate models. We find that both atmospheric natural variability and anthropogenic factors contributed to this heat event. This extreme warm midsummer was associated with a positive high-pressure anomaly that was closely related to the stochastic behavior of atmospheric circulation. Diagnosis of CMIP5 models and large ensembles of two atmospheric models indicates that human influence has substantially increased the chance of warm mid-summers such as 2013 in CEC, although the exact estimated increase depends on the selection of climate models.

  19. Task force for the urgent response to the epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases in eastern Europe and central Asia.

    PubMed

    Waugh, M A

    1999-01-01

    In summary, members of the TF/STD: share the common goal of reducing the STD burden and slowing the spread of HIV in the most affected and vulnerable countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Contribute financially, technically or in-kind to the implementation of a joint strategy which aims: -- to create an enabling environment for STD prevention and control, and -- to strengthen the local capacity for STD prevention and care; engage in a continuous exchange of information, collaborative partnerships and coordination of activities at regional as well as country level through the TF/STD and in-country interagency working groups, respectively; concur with the priority areas for international support consisting of advocacy and policy, STD drugs, condoms, educational materials, training, applied research and surveillance; meet twice a year to review implementation progress and the need for additional assistance; as advocates of TF/STD, call on partners and other organizations to join in this important new initiative.

  20. Attribution of the July–August 2013 heat event in Central and Eastern China to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Shuangmei; Zhou, Tianjun; Stone, Dáithí A.; ...

    2017-05-19

    In the midsummer of 2013, Central and Eastern China (CEC) was hit by an extraordinary heat event, with the region experiencing the warmest July-August on record. To explore how human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and natural internal variability contributed to this heat event, we compare observed July-August mean surface air temperature wit h that simulated by climate models. We find that both atmospheric natural variability and anthropogenic factors contributed to this heat event. This extreme warm midsummer was associated with a positive high-pressure anomaly that was closely related to the stochastic behavior of atmospheric circulation. Diagnosis of CMIP5 models and largemore » ensembles of two atmospheric models indicates that human influence has substantially increased the chance of warm mid-summers such as 2013 in CEC, although the exact estimated increase depends on the selection of climate models.« less

  1. ScreenPro FH - Screening Project for Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe: Rationale and Design.

    PubMed

    Češka, Richard; Paragh, György; Reiner, Željko; Banach, Maciej; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Susekov, Andrey V; Rašlová, Katarína; Freiberger, Tomáš; Vohnout, Branislav; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Goudev, Assen; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Gaiţă, Dan; Pojskić, Belma; Pećin, Ivan; Kayıkçıoğlu, Meral; Mitchenko, Olena; Ezhov, Marat V; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Petrulionienė, Žaneta; Fras, Zlatko; Tasić, Nebojsa; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Murataliev, Tolkun; Shek, Alexander B; Tuka, Vladimír; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Moubarak, Elie M; Rasadi, Khalid Al

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with well-known genetic transmission and clinical course. Despite great recent progress, FH is still underestimated, under-diagnosed and thus undertreated. Furthermore it represents a significant healthcare challenge as a common risk factor for the premature development of coronary heart disease. The ScreenPro FH Project is an international network project aiming at improving complex care - from timely screening, through diagnosis to up-to-date treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe. An important task for the project is to harmonise and unify diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in participating countries, where the situation differs from country to country. Countries with more experience should serve as a model for countries developing the FH network.Key words: diagnosis - familial hypercholesterolemia - screening - treatment optimization.

  2. Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa.

  3. The structure of the Ishtar Terra central and eastern parts and some tectonic problems of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazilevskiy, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Moving from the Maxwell Montes to the eastern edge of Ishtar Terra there is a gradual shift in submeridional meandering folded ranges in the western section of the area to straight intersecting disjunctive systems of connected faults and sublatitudinal shifts. These disjunctive systems evidently transform older structures; the major axis of the stresses created by them is primarily oriented sublatitudinally. Relative to younger structures, in the western they occupy a higher hypsometric position. The reason for the formation of this entire system may be a large astenospheric flow wihch rise in the region of Lakashmi Planum and Maxwell Montes and which spreads and plunges in an easterly direction, taking with it deformed blocks of the lithosphere.

  4. Epigenetic Salt Accumulation and Water Movement in the Active Layer of Central Yakutia in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Caceres, M.; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A.; Fukuda, M.

    2005-12-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in Eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity (ECe) of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost, 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1m to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-as well as HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. Higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in alas occurs from spring through the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in alas in comparison to forest is controlled by annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization which has already contributed to change the landscape by hindering the growth of forests.

  5. Epigenetic salt accumulation and water movement in the active layer of central Yakutia in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, C. M. Larry; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as an alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity ECe of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost: 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1 m, to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, a maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of the alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site, indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. A higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in the alas occurs from spring through into the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in the forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in the alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in the alas in comparison with the forest is controlled by the annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization, which has already contributed to changing the landscape by hindering the growth of forest. Copyright

  6. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes emitted by Tapajos National Forest, eastern central Amazonian rainforest, Santarem-PA, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Park, J. H.; Seco, R.; Tota, J.; Santana, R. A. S. D.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.; Smith, J. N.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. It is known that tropical forests are the biggest source of the dominant BVOCs (i.e. isoprene and monoterpenes) emitted to the atmosphere. Nevertheless, Amazonian rainforest, the world's largest tropical rainforest, has been poorly explored for isoprene and monoterpene emissions. Recently (June and July 2014), we deployed a PTR-TOF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometer) to quantify isoprene and monoterpene emissions using the eddy covariance flux method at the FLONA Tapajos (Floresta Nacional do Tapajos; Tapajos National Forest) in the eastern central Amazon rainforest, Santarem-PA, Brazil. The sample inlet and a 3D-sonic anemometer were located above the forest canopy (~65m), and the air was sampled through a long Teflon tube (100m) with high flow rate (40L/min) to the PTR-TOF-MS. From preliminary results for the first 3 days, concentrations and fluxes of m/z 69 (isoprene; C5H8-H+) and m/z 137 (total monoterpenes; C10H16-H+) showed a clear circadian cycle (high during daytime and low at nighttime), suggesting the emissions of these compounds are light and temperature dependent. Our study provides the first PTR-TOF-MS flux observations of isoprene and total monoterpenes at the Flona Tapajos. Moreover, since there are variations on the emissions, when comparing different environments of the huge Amazon basin, these results from eastern central Amazonia will contribute to improving regional and global BVOC emission model estimates.

  7. A new leaf-tailed gecko of the Uroplatus ebenaui group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar's central eastern rainforests.

    PubMed

    Ratsoavina, Fanomezana Mihaja; Ranjanaharisoa, Fiadanantsoa Andrianja; Glaw, Frank; Raselimanana, Achille P; Miralles, Aurélien; Vences, Miguel

    2015-08-21

    We describe a new leaf-tailed gecko species of the Uroplatus ebenaui group from the eastern central rainforests of Madagascar, which had previously been considered as a confirmed candidate species. Our description of Uroplatus fiera sp. nov. relies on integrating evidence from molecular and morphological characters and is based on newly collected material from two localities. A phylogenetic analysis based on multiple mitochondrial DNA fragments places the new species as sister to a lineage of uncertain status (Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca8]), and the clade consisting of these two lineages is sister to a further undescribed candidate species (U. ebenaui [Ca1]). This entire clade is sister to U. phantasticus plus another candidate species. The new species differs from these close relatives, and all other congenerics, by strong differences in DNA sequences of mitochondrial genes (>8.5% uncorrected p-distance in 16S rDNA to all nominal species of the genus) and lacks shared alleles with any of the nominal species in the nuclear CMOS gene. From its closest relatives the new species further differs in its much smaller tail size (relative to U. phantasticus), and a narrower tail, fewer supralabials, and more toe lamellae (relative to U. ebenaui [Ca1]). Morphologically the new species is most similar to U. ebenaui but differs in its larger body size and unpigmented oral mucosa. Given its distribution in central eastern Madagascar, with records from near Fierenana and Ambatovy, its range overlaps with that of U. phantasticus. Based on examination of the U. phantasticus holotype, we confirm that this latter has a blackish pigmented oral mucosa as do those specimens typically attributed to this nomen, thereby confirming its distinctness from U. fiera sp. nov., in which the mucosa is unpigmented.

  8. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Rupert R A; Jonas, Jost B; Flaxman, Seth R; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Parodi, Maurizio B; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R

    2014-05-01

    To assess prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment in high-income regions and in Central/Eastern Europe in 1990 and 2010. Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60 in the better eye) and blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) was estimated for 1990 and 2010. Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased from 0.2% to 0.1% (3.314 million to 2.736 million people) and from 1.6% to 1.0% (25.362 million to 22.176 million), respectively. Women were generally more affected than men. Cataract was the most frequent cause of blindness in all subregions in 1990, but macular degeneration and uncorrected refractive error became the most frequent causes of blindness in 2010 in all high-income countries, except for Eastern/Central Europe, where cataract remained the leading cause. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were fourth and fifth most common causes for blindness for all regions at both times. Uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, was the most common cause for MSVI in 1990 and 2010. In highly developed countries, prevalence of blindness and MSVI has been reduced by 50% and 38%, respectively, and the number of blind people and people with MSVI decreased by 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, even with the increasing number of older people in the population. In high-income countries, macular degeneration has become the most important cause of blindness, but uncorrected refractive errors continue to be the leading cause of MSVI.

  9. Nonlinearity Modulating Central Pacific- and Eastern Pacific-El Niño Events in Intensities and Spatial Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wansuo; Huang, Chaoming; Xu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    The influence of nonlinearity on the intensities and spatial structures of central Pacific (CP-) El Niño and eastern Pacific (EP-) El Niño is comparatively investigated in the intermediate-complexity Zebiak-Cane model. The nonlinear component of the perturbed temperature advection (NTA), as the source of nonlinearities in the Zebiak-Cane model, shows warming rate in the central equatorial Pacific for CP-El Niño events and makes less contributions to the CP-El Niño structure selection; but it presents warming rate in the eastern equatorial Pacific for EP-El Niño event and significantly promotes EP-El Niño events in El Niño-type selection. The NTA associated with CP- and EP-El Niño events also shows to be different in amplitudes and the former is smaller than the latter, which causes that CP-El Niño are weakly modulated by small NTA in intensities and may be controlled by weak nonlinearity while EP-El Niño are significantly enhanced by large NTA in amplitudes and likely to be modulated by relative strong nonlinearity. Then the CP-El Niño is often weaker than the EP-El Niño. In terms of the NTA associated with CP- and EP-El Niño having different characteristics in spatial structures and intensities and its role in selecting El Niño modes, it can be thought of as that the diversity of El Niño events may be closely related to the change of nonlinear characteristics in the tropical Pacific.

  10. Retreating or standing: responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid Eastern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Sanderson, Stewart C

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively. We employed a combined approach of molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) to predict the future responses of these two species to climate change, utilizing evidence of responses from the past. Genetic data for C. sibirica shows a significant phylogeographical signal (N ST > F ST, P<0.05) and demographic contraction during the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene. This forest species would likely experience range reduction, though without genetic loss, in the face of future climate change. In contrast, SDMs predict that C. songorica, a steppe species, should maintain a consistently stable potential distribution under the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the future climatic conditions referring to its existing potential distribution. Molecular results indicate that the presence of significant phylogeographical signal in this steppe species is rejected and this species contains a high level of genetic differentiation among populations in cpDNA, likely benefiting from stable habitats over a lengthy time period. Evidence from the molecular phylogeography of these two species, the forest species is more sensitive to past climate changes than the steppe species. SDMs predict that the forest species will face the challenge of potential range contraction in the future more than the steppe species. This provides a perspective on ecological management in arid Eastern Central Asia, indicating that increased attention should be paid to montane forest species, due to their high sensitivity to disturbance.

  11. Retreating or Standing: Responses of Forest Species and Steppe Species to Climate Change in Arid Eastern Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Sanderson, Stewart C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed a combined approach of molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) to predict the future responses of these two species to climate change, utilizing evidence of responses from the past. Genetic data for C. sibirica shows a significant phylogeographical signal (NST > FST, P<0.05) and demographic contraction during the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene. This forest species would likely experience range reduction, though without genetic loss, in the face of future climate change. In contrast, SDMs predict that C. songorica, a steppe species, should maintain a consistently stable potential distribution under the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the future climatic conditions referring to its existing potential distribution. Molecular results indicate that the presence of significant phylogeographical signal in this steppe species is rejected and this species contains a high level of genetic differentiation among populations in cpDNA, likely benefiting from stable habitats over a lengthy time period. Conclusions/Significance Evidence from the molecular phylogeography of these two species, the forest species is more sensitive to past climate changes than the steppe species. SDMs predict that the forest species will face the challenge of potential range contraction in the future more than the steppe species. This provides a perspective on ecological management in arid Eastern Central Asia, indicating that increased attention should be paid to montane forest species, due to their high sensitivity to disturbance. PMID

  12. Temporal changes in risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion among injection drug users in eastern central Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Elise; Richer, Isabelle; Morissette, Carole; Leclerc, Pascale; Parent, Raymond; Claessens, Christiane; Blanchette, Caty; Alary, Michel

    2011-09-24

    To investigate temporal trends in HIV incidence rates and to assess changes over time in associated risk factors. Since 1995, the SurvUDI network has conducted surveillance among IDUs recruited in harm reduction programmes in eastern central Canada. Among the 11,731 participants, 2903 repeaters were initially HIV-negative. HIV incidence was calculated and compared for two time periods (1995-2002 vs. 2003-2009). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to assess risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Interactions between covariates and time periods were examined. The overall HIV incidence rate was 2.7 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-3.1]. It significantly decreased from 3.1 per 100 person-years in 1995-2002 to 2.2 person-years in 2003-2009. Sex, needle borrowing, and cocaine as most often injected drug were independent and stable determinants of HIV seroconversion. Age, daily injection, sex work and being recruited in an urban area showed significant interactions with time. Being aged 25 years and older, injecting daily and being recruited in an urban area predicted HIV incidence in 1995-2002 but were no longer risk factors in 2003-2009. HIV incidence increased significantly among younger IDUs and sex work emerged as a new determinant of HIV incidence in 2003-2009. HIV incidence has decreased over time but remains high among IDUs in eastern central Canada. Associations between risk factors and HIV incidence have changed. Further research is needed to better understand HIV transmission among younger IDUs and IDU sex workers.

  13. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL).

  14. Obstacles in provision of anti-retroviral treatment to drug users in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a regional overview.

    PubMed

    Bobrova, Natalia; Sarang, Anya; Stuikyte, Raminta; Lezhentsev, Konstantin

    2007-08-01

    Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is currently the region with the fastest growing HIV epidemic, mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs). This study explored access to anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment among IDUs and evaluated obstacles to gaining access to treatment. Semi-structured questionnaires were collected from 21 countries from agencies which deliver services to IDUs (N=55), including AIDS centres, drug treatment institutions and Non-governmental Organisations. Results showed that there was poor access to ARV treatment for IDUs. The major obstacles reported were: limited range of institutions for the provision of ARVs, lack of treatment due to high cost of ARVs, lack of clear policies and regulations in providing treatment for IDUs, lack of infrastructure and trained staff to provide treatment, and in some countries, absence of mechanisms such as methadone substitution programmes to support IDUs receiving ARV. There is a need for human and capital resources to bring ARV treatment to IDU populations in the region. Regulations and treatment protocols need to be developed to address this particular group of HIV positive clients to insure better adherence and monitoring of clients with HCV co-infection. Integration of provision of ARV treatment with drug treatment and low-threshold services is advised. Substitution therapy should be advocated for in countries where it is not available or where access is limited. Finally, more research needs to be conducted to understand what will work best in each country, region or setting.

  15. 2016 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-03-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a 1-year seismic hazard forecast for 2016 for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes. The model assumes that earthquake rates calculated from several different time windows will remain relatively stationary and can be used to forecast earthquake hazard and damage intensity for the year 2016. This assessment is the first step in developing an operational earthquake forecast for the CEUS, and the analysis could be revised with updated seismicity and model parameters. Consensus input models consider alternative earthquake catalog durations, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground motion estimates, and represent uncertainties in earthquake occurrence and diversity of opinion in the science community. Ground shaking seismic hazard for 1-percent probability of exceedance in 1 year reaches 0.6 g (as a fraction of standard gravity [g]) in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2 g in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in north-central Texas near Dallas. Near some areas of active induced earthquakes, hazard is higher than in the 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model (NHSM) by more than a factor of 3; the 2014 NHSM did not consider induced earthquakes. In some areas, previously observed induced earthquakes have stopped, so the seismic hazard reverts back to the 2014 NSHM. Increased seismic activity, whether defined as induced or natural, produces high hazard. Conversion of ground shaking to seismic intensity indicates that some places in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arkansas may experience damage if the induced seismicity continues unabated. The chance of having Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) VI or greater (damaging earthquake shaking) is 5–12 percent per year in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, similar to the chance of damage caused by natural earthquakes

  16. Identification of avian coronavirus in wild aquatic birds of the central and eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Poulson, Rebecca; Stallknecht, David E; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and difficult to control because of their extensive genetic diversity, short generation time, and high mutation rates. Genetically diverse CoVs have been reported from wild aquatic birds that may represent a potential reservoir for avian CoVs as well as hosts for mutations and recombination events leading to new serotypes or genera. We tested 133 pooled samples representing 700 first-passage (in eggs) and 303 direct cloacal swab transport media samples from wild aquatic birds in the US that were avian influenza-negative. We isolated RNA from frozen samples and performed reverse transcriptase-PCR using a published universal CoV primer set. Of the samples tested, one from a Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) was positive for CoV, showing nucleotide sequence similarity to a duck coronavirus (DK/CH/HN/ZZ2004). These data indicate a possible low prevalence of CoVs circulating in wild aquatic birds in the eastern half of the US.

  17. New thermochronometric constraints on the Tertiary landscape evolution of the central and eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, John P.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Kelley, S.A.; Pederson, J.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Ehlers, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal histories are modeled from new apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission-track data in order to quantitatively constrain the landscape evolution of the Grand Canyon region. Fifty new samples and their associated thermochronometric ages are presented here. Samples span from Lee’s Ferry in the east to Quartermaster Canyon in the west and include four age-elevation transects into Grand Canyon and borehole samples from the Coconino Plateau. Twenty-seven samples are inversely modeled to provide continuous thermal histories. This represents the most extensive and complete dataset on patterns of long-term exhumation in the Grand Canyon region, and it enables us to constrain the timing and magnitude of erosion and also discriminate between canyon incision and broader planation. The new data suggest that the early Cenozoic landscape in eastern Grand Canyon was low in relief and does not indicate the presence of an early Cenozoic precursor to the modern Grand Canyon. However, there is evidence for the incision of a smaller-scale canyon across the Kaibab Uplift at 28–20 Ma. This middle-Cenozoic denudation event was accompanied by the removal of a majority of remaining Mesozoic strata west of the Kaibab Uplift. In contrast, just upstream in the area of Lee’s Ferry, ∼2 km of Mesozoic strata remained over the middle Cenozoic and were removed after 10 Ma.

  18. Characterizing the Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly (NW Spain): Origin of the mineralization and implications on the age of the Central Iberian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayarza, Puy; Ramón Martínez Catalán, Jose; José Villalaín, Juan; Alvarez Lobato, Fernando; Durán Oreja, Manuela; de Prada Galende, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The EGMA (Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly) is the most conspicuous anomaly of the Central Iberian Arc. It coincides with the Lugo-Sanabria extensional dome, a structure developed during the final stages of Variscan deformation in the NW Iberian Massif, where important crustal thickening triggered overheating and extension of the crust. In fact, every extensional dome at the Central Iberian Arc is also coincident with a, less intense but equally important, magnetic anomaly. The bend featured by these anomalies is one of key attributes of the aforementioned arc. As yet, models of the EGMA, all based on low resolution aeromagnetic data, have not established a relationship between magnetization and tectonics. Ayarza and Martínez Catalán (2007) suggested that the source of the EGMA were syntectonic igneous rocks outcropping at the northern Lugo-Sanabria dome, but did not inferred any process as source of the mineralization. A high resolution (2x2 km) magnetic land survey carried out recently at the northern part of the dome has shed some light on this issue. The new magnetic anomaly map shows that the maxima coincide with identified extensional detachments and not with the center of the dome. These structures are often related to migmatites and inhomogeneous granites produced by crustal melting during the thermal event that triggered the extension. However, detachments also affect metasediments that, in these areas, show high magnetic susceptibilities. 2D models also indicate that the magnetization is concentrated along detachments and AMS studies show a planar anisotropy coincident with that of these extensional structures. Finally, rockmag studies indicate that multi-domain magnetite is the main magnetic mineral. A younger, probably Cretaceous, remanence has been addressed to hematite. These results constrain the models about the origin of the EGMA and probably that of the rest of anomalies defining the Central Iberian Arc. We suggest they developed during thermal

  19. Local Governance in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Central and Eastern Europe: A Skills Exchange Workshop (Romania, April 4-7, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This report describes a skills exchange workshop, co-organized by Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and the Liga Pro Europa, on local governance in multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Civil servants, members of minority communities, non-governmental organization (NGO) activists, and public officials from Bulgaria,…

  20. The Role of Technical Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries. The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States. Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    In comparison with the context in which reforms usually occur, the current vocational education and training (VET) reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and New Independent States (NIS) have these two unusual aspects: breadth, range, and depth of VET reforms are extremely large; and the reform process is exceptionally rapid. The European…

  1. Local Governance in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Central and Eastern Europe: A Skills Exchange Workshop (Romania, April 4-7, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This report describes a skills exchange workshop, co-organized by Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and the Liga Pro Europa, on local governance in multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Civil servants, members of minority communities, non-governmental organization (NGO) activists, and public officials from Bulgaria,…

  2. Ten Years After and Looking Ahead: A Review of the Transformations of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bucharest (Romania). European Centre for Higher Education.

    This volume consists of representative case studies from institutions in Central and Eastern European countries engaged in the reform of higher education. The case studies are structured with the aid of a questionnaire completed by the contributors. The studies are: (1) "Bulgaria: The University of Ruse--Institutional Change in the Bulgarian…

  3. Persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds in the central and eastern European countries--the-state-of-the-art report--human exposure.

    PubMed

    Holoubek, I; Kocan, A; Holoubková, I; Hilscherová, K; Kohoutek, J; Falandysz, J; Roots, O

    2001-06-01

    This review describes problems with persistent and bioaccumulative organic substances which posses toxic characteristics likely to cause adverse human health or environmental effects in countries of Central and Eastern Europe as far as human exposure is concerned. This paper is a part of a more detailed report on the subject.

  4. New records of the genus Diodontus Curtis, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) from Bulgaria, Montenegro and Poland, with a key to Central and Eastern European species.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Piotr; Ljubomirov, Toshko; Wiśniowski, Bogdan; Kowalczyk, Jan Krzysztof; Krzyżyński, Maciej

    2016-01-05

    First records of Diodontus medius Dahlbom, 1844 and D. insidiosus Spooner, 1938 from Poland, and of D. handlirschi Kohl, 1888 from Bulgaria and Montenegro are provided. An illustrated key for the identification of Central and Eastern European species of the genus Diodontus is given.

  5. Prevalence of mutations in the antifolates resistance-associated genes (dhfr and dhps) in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Eastern and Central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pirahmadi, Sekineh; Talha, Badawi Abdelbagi; Nour, Bakri Y M; Zakeri, Sedigheh

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread species, and its burden has been increasingly documented in Eastern and Central Sudan. P. vivax becomes the crucial challenge during elimination programs; thus an effective treatment is necessary to prevent the development and the spread of resistant parasites. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of molecular markers in two genes (pvdhfr and pvdhps) associated with SP resistance after nine years of AS+SP deployment among P. vivax parasites from Eastern and Central Sudan using PCR-RFLP. During 2012-2013, a number of 66 blood spots were obtained on filter paper. The samples were collected before treatment from febrile patients who were microscopically positive for P. vivax, from three states in Eastern and Central Sudan (Gezira, Gedarif, and Kassala). Mutations were detected in three codons of pvdhfr (I13L, S58R, and S117N) and none in pvdhps. The majority of P. vivax parasites had double mutations (58R/117N, 58%) in dhfr gene, while all parasites were wild type in dhps gene. In addition, limited distinct haplotypes (n=4) were detected. In conclusion, the prevalence of mutations associated with SP resistance is low in Eastern and Central Sudan. Such information is necessary for guiding malaria control measures in the frame of Roll Back Malaria strategies for the elimination of malaria in the world.

  6. Follow-Up Study of Work Study Graduates in Special Education Programs Located in the Eastern and Central Zones of Heartland Area Education Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussie, Richard A.; And Others

    The study was undertaken to investigate the post high school status of 76 mildly retarded graduates (1974-78) of the work/study programs of the eastern and central zones of the Heartland Area Education Agency. Interviews of the Ss yielded data which were analyzed in four main categories: social adjustment, community resources, vocational…

  7. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The vocational education and training (VET) reforms currently under way in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States are distinguished by the breadth, range, depth, and speed of the reforms proposed or already initiated. The European Union has assisted the reform process through its Phare and Tacis programs. The following have been…

  8. Evidence for multiple foci of eastern equine encephalitis virus (Togaviridae:Alphavirus) in central New York State.

    PubMed

    Howard, J J; Grayson, M A; White, D J; Oliver, J

    1996-05-01

    A regional surveillance system for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus was established in central New York in 1984 after the 2nd human EEE fatality occurred in 1983. Extensive mosquito surveillance activities were coordinated with the rapid laboratory processing of mosquito specimens for EEE virus. Active surveillance for EEE infections in humans and equines also was initiated. Results of long-term surveillance detected the presence of multiple Culiseta breeding swamps. A 6-yr interepizootic period (1984-1989) was followed by 2 yr of equine EEE. In 1990, there were 7 equine cases and a record number of EEE virus isolations from mosquitoes (n = 86), wild birds (n = 27), and sentinel pheasants (n = 7). In 1991, 7 equine cases also occurred, although there were fewer isolations from mosquitoes (n = 40). The sequence to the appearance of EEE virus at swamps and upland sites and at individual swam complexes, and the spatial and temporal distribution of equine cases provide evidence for multiple foci of EEE virus in central New York. The role of infected Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) in the transfer of EEE virus between swamp and upland areas and among swamp complexes is advanced.

  9. Tropical cyclones in an ensemble of regional climate change projections with RegCM4 for the CORDEX Central America domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefera Diro, Gulilat; Giorgi, Filippo; Fuentes-Franco, Ramon; Walsh, Kevin; Giuliani, Graziano; Coppola, Erika

    2013-04-01

    The characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Central America CORDEX domain is examined for present and future climate conditions using an ensemble of RegCM4 projections nested in two CMIP5 global models. The regional climate model is first tested in a 22 year (1982-2003) simulation with lateral and surface boundary forcing from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, showing a generally good performance in reproducing the observed TC climatology. Four scenario simulation (1970-2100, RCP8.5) are generated using two model configuration (CLM-EMAN and BATS-Grell) and two driving GCMs (HadGEM2-ES and MPI-ESM). The simulations employing the Grell scheme produced too low TC counts, while those using the Emanuel scheme reproduced the observed climatology, especially when driven by the MPI-ESM model. The simulation of TCs was thus sensitive to both the model convections scheme and forcing GCM. Comparison of future and present day TC climatologies indicates that the frequency of future TCs decreases over the tropical Atlantic and the eastern Pacific coastal areas while it increases over the Central Pacific and the northern part of the Atlantic. We also find a consistent increase in the frequency of intense TCs and a northward shift of TC tracks over the Atlantis. These findings are generally consistent with previous global and regional modeling studies and are suggestive of important effects of global warming on the characteristics of TCs in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific basins.

  10. Overcoming data scarcity: Seasonal forecasting of reservoir inflows using public domain resources in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Management of large hydropower reservoirs can be politically and strategically problematic. Traditional flow forecasting techniques rely on accurate ground based observations, a requirement not met in many areas of the globe (Artan et al., 2007). In particular, access to real-time observational data in transnational river basins is often not possible. In these regions, novel techniques are required to combat the challenges of flow forecasting for efficient reservoir management. Near real time remotely sensed information regarding flow predictors (e.g. satellite precipitation estimates) could combat data availability issues, improving the utility of seasonal reservoir inflow forecasts. This study investigates the potential for river flow forecasting using public domain resources, including satellite and re-analysis precipitation as well as climate indices for several strategically important reservoirs throughout Central Asia (including Toktogul, Andijan, Kayrakkum and Nurek). Using reservoir inflows from 2001-2010, parsimonious numerical models were created for each study site using selected significant predictors for lead times of 1-3 months as well half year averages. Preliminary investigation has shown that parsimonious statistical models can explain over 80% of the variance in monthly inflows with three month lead to the Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan (Dixon and Wilby, 2015). Such findings show promise for improving the safety and efficiency of reservoir operations as well as reducing risks emerging from climate change.

  11. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  12. Sediment-Basalt Architecture, Pliocene and Pleistocene Eastern and Central Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm-Clark, C. M.; Link, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation is a synthesis of known stratigraphic studies of the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene basalts and interbedded sedimentary beds on the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This information is important for understanding the post-caldera tectonic evolution of the ESRP, especially for tracking patterns of volcanic eruption and changes in topography. Geophysical surveys and existing well logs indicate the depth of the basalt sequence is usually 2 km or less, even near the axis of the Plain. An alteration horizon, the product of high heat-flow in the wake of the Yellowstone hot spot, moderated by cold-water recharge in the thick and highly-transmissive Snake River Aquifer, has variable depth. The surface and near-surface of the lava fields are mainly basalts less than a half a million years old, from Island Park to Twin Falls/Shoshone. Near the junction of the Eastern and Western Snake River Plains, these youngest late Pleistocene basalts, many less than 100,000 years old, overlie early Pleistocene basalts more than a million and a half years old. Most basalt flows have been erupted from NW-trending volcanic rift zones like the Great Rift of Idaho or from the Axial Volcanic High (AVH). The AVH is a constructional axial ridge formed by multiple volcanic vents, small shield volcanoes and rhyolitic domes which run the length of the ESRP. A combination of previous and new stratigraphic and geochronology studies, including U-Pb detrital-zircon geochronology on sediments, reveals several lake sequences, formed by the damming of rivers. These tend to be thickest in upstream, valley-mouth, and Plain-marginal locations where the rivers were trapped. The lake beds generally pinch out toward the AVH. The most notable of these are the Mid-Pleistocene Raft Formation, the Late Pleistocene American Falls Lake Beds, at least two mid-Pleistocene sequences of ponded sediment from the Big Lost River at its egress onto the ESRP, and a 2.5 to 1.6 Ma sequence in the Big Lost

  13. Late Neoproterozoic Nuqara Dokhan Volcanics, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geochemistery and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Tharwat; Asran, Asran; Amron, Taha; Natflos, Theo

    2014-05-01

    The Nuqara volcanic is one of the northernmost outcrops of the Arabian-Nubian Shield Dokhan volcanics. The origin and tectonic setting of the late Neoproterozoic Dokhan volcanics (ca. 610-560 Ma) in the Egyptian Eastern Desert is highly debated. The debate concerns the tectonic setting where they formed during transition between convergent to extensional regime or after the East- and the West-Gondwana collision (~600Ma). In order to solve this problem, lavas from Nuqara area were studied geologically and geochemically. Nuqara Dokhan volcanics comprises two main rock suites: (a) an intermediate volcanic suite, consisting of basaltic andesite, andesite and their associated pyroclastics rocks; and (b) a felsic volcanic suite composed of dacite, rhyolite and ignimbrites. The two suites display well-defined major and trace element trends and continuum in composition with wide ranges in SiO2 (52-75.73%), CaO (9.19-0.22%), MgO (5.29-0.05%), Sr (1367-7.4 ppm), Zr (688.5-172.7 ppm), Cr (207-0.4 ppm), and Ni (94.3-0.2 ppm). The Nuqara Dokhan volcanics are characterized by strong enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and affiliated to the calc-alkaline subducted - related magmatism. Geochemical Modeling displays that the evolution of these rocks was governed by fractional crystallization of plagioclase, amphiboles, pyroxene, magnetite and apatite in the intermediate varieties and plagioclase, amphibole, magnetite, apatite and zircon in the felsic varieties. The obtained mineral chemistry of these volcanics reveals: (a) Plagioclase range in composition from An55 to An40 in basaltic andesite and from An39 to An24 in andesite. (b) Alkali feldspars have sanidine composition. (c) Clinopyroxenes have augite composition. The low Al2O3 contents (1.94-5.588 wt %) indicate that clinopyroxene crystallized at low - pressure conditions. (d) Amphiboles have magnesio- hornblende composition.

  14. The Effects of Climate and Fire on Peatland Carbon Dynamics in Central and Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, D.; Adams, C.; Westervelt, A.; Bourakovsky, A.; Hamley, C.; Hall, A.; Camill, P.; Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in subarctic peatlands could change significantly in response to high-latitude warming. To examine the sensitivity of peatland carbon storage to changes in regional climate, moisture, and disturbance, we measured carbon accumulation and peat characteristics in cores through the transition from the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, ~6-4 ka cal. yr. BP) to the Neoglacial cooling (NGC, ~4-0 ka) as possible analogs to future climate change. We sampled six cores from northern Manitoba and seven cores across southeast Labrador, Canada. These regional contrasts permitted analysis of net moisture regimes on carbon accumulation. We used calibrated 14C dates, percent carbon, and bulk density measurements to determine long-term carbon accumulation rates for the Holocene. Areal charcoal concentrations were measured as a proxy for historic fire severity, which may mediate the climate-carbon accumulation relationship. Carbon accumulation rates in Labrador showed a clear increase of 29.6 ± 2.4 g C m-2 yr-1 during the local HTM and a subsequent decrease of 15.9 ± 2.9 g C m-2 yr-1 during the NGC indicating possible influence of regional temperature on carbon dynamics in eastern Canada. In contrast, the Manitoba peatlands did not show a clear relationship between climate and carbon accumulation. Fires were common and severe in Manitoba and often slowed sedimentation rate and C storage, but were rarely present in Labrador. Local variables, including peatland development and fire, may therefore play a larger role in controlling carbon accumulation in the continental interior. The results from these two subaratic regions complicate general hypotheses that high latitude peatlands will be either carbon sinks or sources in the upcoming decades.

  15. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, "NEMO-SN1", deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz-1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9-22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise.

  16. Reconstructing late Cenozoic stream gradients from high-level chert gravels in central Eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, J.W.; Merriam, D.F.; Howard, H.H.

    2007-01-01

    Interpreting the evolution of Kansas' landscape east of the Flint Hills provides major challenges. In the Neogene (late Tertiary) and perhaps part of the Pleistocene, streams transported a variety of sedimentary materials, including chert gravels derived from the Flint Hills. Gentle intermittent uplift stimulated the system system to cut down, locally removing and reworking the gravels to create stream-terrace deposits that consist mostly of chert pebbles, which now lie well above the floodplains of modern streams. By correlating the elevations of these gravels, the gradients of the trunk streams that deposited them can be reconstructed. Interestingly, these ancient streams flowed southeast at a little more than a foot per mile (0.2 m/km), roughly the same as the gradient of the trunk streams in the region today. The evolving landscape in eastern Kansas also has been strongly influenced by an extensive network of fractures that is widespread in the midcontinent region and may be worldwide in extent. In northeastern Kansas, glaciation during the Pleistocene disrupted the southeasterly drainage and established the present location of the Kansas River. South of the Kansas River and its immediate tributaries, however, the general southeasterly drainage has been preserved. We have made use of the wealth of topographic-elevation data now available in digital form known as DEMs or digital elevation models. Coupled with GIS procedures, the DEMs helped link the mapped distribution of chert gravels with hypothetical fitted surfaces that represent ancient stream gradients. Furthermore, DEM data placed in shaded-relief map form emphasize the influence of fractures in evolution of the drainage system.

  17. Modeling of petrological and geophysical rock parameters in the Central Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wind, Sandra; Bousquet, Romain; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    Intensely studied regions as the Alps allow interdisciplinary approaches for better understanding complex structure of the lithosphere in orogens. For this reason a geophysical 3D-density model of the Eastern Alps has been reworked from the petrological perspective. By modeling the metamorphic density of rocks using the Theriak-Domino software package the influence of temperature, pressure and chemical composition on the density has been analysed. Density-isopleth-plots of orthogneisses, metabasites, ultramafics and metapelites, which are typical rocks of the Tauern Window, have been calculated showing characteristic density trends for each rock type, depending on stable mineralogical phases and changes of reactions influenced by the chemical composition. To further investigation the influence of the chemical composition on rock densities various Zentralgneiss samples were analysed. Chemical compositions of 45 Zentralgneiss samples from literature were used in addition to five reworked and newly measured samples. By the usage of the corresponding thin sections, information on the metamorphic grade, weathering state and water content were gained. For the used temperature and pressure conditions a complex relation between the density and composition was observed, depending mainly on an increasing iron content. Based on the petrological findings a geophysical density model has been reinvestigated using the IGMAS+ software. With respect to the results of the TRANSALP working group and information about the Moho depth, a good correlation between the measured and modeled gravity field was reached in the new petrological 3D-density model. This model has been used to further analyse the impact of the Zentralgneiss unit on the short waves of the modeled gravity field, resulting in a shifting to a lower gravity anomaly of -15 % and +8 % for the calculated maximum and minimum density. In this study we emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to enable good

  18. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  19. Along-Strike Tectonic Segmentation of the Mesozoic Central Orogenic Belt, China: Insights from the Eastern Qinling Magmatic Syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Sun, Y.; Li, J.; Xu, W.; magmatism; mineralization

    2011-12-01

    Along-strike tectonic segmentation is an important feature of the active continental margin. However, the tectonic segmentation of collisional orogenic belts is yet not to be well constrained. The Triassic Central Orogenic belt in China extends nearly 5,000 km, and is a collisional belt between the North China and Yangtze cratons. Influenced by the subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate, and the lithospheric thinning of the North China craton, this Orogenic belt is superimposed on multi-stage magmatism and mineralization, showing a typical along-strike segmentation. This paper takes the Eastern Qinling magmatic syntaxis as an example, and attempts to understand the manifestation of the structural segmentation and its formation mechanism. The Eastern Qinling magmatic syntaxis can be divided into two parts bounded by a line extending from the Xiaoqinling - Xiong'ershan region in the southern North China craton to Ankang region in the southern Qinling zone(hereafter referred to Xiao-an line). Both sides of the line have distinct geological and geophysical characteristics. (1) Middle-Late Triassic intrusive rocks are widespread in the west of the Xiao-an line, and their rock types include adakitic and shoshonite-series granitoids, rapakivi granites and a small volume of lamprophyre dykes. Triassic igneous rocks are lack in the east of the Xiao-an line, but the late Jurassic (~153Ma) monzogranites and granodiorite, and early Cretaceous (130-108 Ma) alkali-feldspar granites and syenites are widely distributed in the east, probably in response to the subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate and the lithosphere thinning of the North China craton. (2) In the east of the Xiao-an line, the gold mineralization of quartz-veins and altered-rock took place in the late Mesozoic, while in the west, the carlin-like gold deposits formed in the early Mesozoic.In the east of the line there is late Mesozoic molybdenum ore belt, the largest molybdenum ore belt in China. However, in the west

  20. Inferred Tectonic Segmentation in the Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean and the African Margin From Mantle Bouguer Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes Estrada, P.; ten Brink, U.; Canales, J.; Carbo Gorosabel, A.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution, wavelength and amplitude of the Mantle Bouguer Anomalies (MBA) in the Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean reveal regional variations in crust and-or upper mantle structure. The MBA variations of such anomalies define four corridors, limited by the Oceanographer, D, Kane, South Cape Verde and Vema fracture zones. Within these corridors second order variations are sometimes present, also limited by facture zones. There is no significant change in the MBA across the Atlantis fracture zone, in contrast to observations from the conjugate Western Atlantic Ocean, which we hypothesize, are related to asymmetry in Mid-Atlantic Ridge processes. The MBA segmentation appears to follow flowlines up to the very old oceanic lithosphere adjacent to the continental margin. However, this segmentation does not mimic the MBA segmentation found along the African continental margin, which is characterized by a narrow and intermittent band of high amplitude mantle Bouguer anomalies. The location and shape of the gravity highs and lows along the margin follow the coastal morphology, with gravity lows located in front of capes and highs in front of gulfs. We conclude that the deep structure of the continental margin has been inherited from the first stages of the rifting processes and differs from the general segmentation later produced by sea-floor spreading along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Intraplate volcanism, such as the Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands and Madeira Island is not responsible for the existence of the MBA corridors or their boundaries in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, but instead generates broad areas of large negative MBA that modify the pre- existing gravity signature of the ocean floor.

  1. Natural radionuclide concentrations in granite rocks in Aswan and Central-Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt and their radiological implications.

    PubMed

    Issa, Shams A M; Uosif, M A M; Abd el-Salam, L M

    2012-07-01

    Different types of granites, used extensively in local construction, were collected from five localities in Egypt, namely: Abu Ziran (Central Eastern Desert), Gabal El Maesala (Aswan) and three areas from Wadi Allaqi, (Gabal Abu Marw, Gabal Haumor and Gabal um Shalman), in the South Eastern Desert. Granite samples were studied radiologically, petrographically and geochemically. The contents of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3'×3']. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the selected granite samples ranged from 9±0.5 to 111±7, 8±1 to 75±4 and 100±6 to 790±40 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The external hazard index (H(ex)), absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated radium equivalents were lower than the values recommended for construction materials (370 Bq kg(-1)). The excess lifetime cancer risks were also calculated. Petrographically, the granites studied are varied in the form of potash-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, mica and hornblende. The accessory minerals are zircon, apatite and allanite. Geochemically, the chemical composition of the granite is studied especially for major oxides. They are characterized to have SiO(2), K(2)O, Na(2)O and Al(2)O(3) with depletion in CaO, MgO, TiO(2) and P(2)O(5).

  2. Investigation of the climate-driven periodicity of shallow groundwater level fluctuations in a Central-Eastern European agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamhegyi, Tamás; Kovács, József; Pongrácz, Rita; Tanos, Péter; Hatvani, István Gábor

    2017-09-01

    The distribution and amount of groundwater, a crucial source of Earth's drinking and irrigation water, is changing due to climate-change effects. Therefore, it is important to understand groundwater behavior in extreme scenarios, e.g. drought. Shallow groundwater (SGW) level fluctuation under natural conditions displays periodic behavior, i.e. seasonal variation. Thus, the study aims to investigate (1) the periodic behavior of the SGW level time series of an agriculturally important and drought-sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe - the Carpathian Basin, in the north-eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain, and (2) its relationship to the European atmospheric pressure action centers. Data from 216 SGW wells were studied using wavelet spectrum analysis and wavelet coherence analyses for 1961-2010. Locally, a clear relationship exists between the absence of annual periodic behavior in the SGW level and the periodicity of droughts, as indicated by the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index and the Aridity Index. During the non-periodic intervals, significant drops in groundwater levels (average 0.5 m) were recorded in 89% of the wells. This result links the meteorological variables to the periodic behavior of SGW, and consequently, drought. On a regional scale, Mediterranean cyclones from the Gulf of Genoa (northwest Italy) were found to be a driving factor in the 8-yr periodic behavior of the SGW wells. The research documents an important link between SGW levels and local/regional climate variables or indices, thereby facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, as these must take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.

  3. A long-term earthquake rate model for the central and eastern United States from smoothed seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moschetti, Morgan P.

    2015-01-01

    I present a long-term earthquake rate model for the central and eastern United States from adaptive smoothed seismicity. By employing pseudoprospective likelihood testing (L-test), I examined the effects of fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and the effects of catalog duration and composition on the ability of the models to forecast the spatial distribution of recent earthquakes. To stabilize the adaptive smoothing method for regions of low seismicity, I introduced minor modifications to the way that the adaptive smoothing distances are calculated. Across all smoothed seismicity models, the use of adaptive smoothing and the use of earthquakes from the recent part of the catalog optimizes the likelihood for tests with M≥2.7 and M≥4.0 earthquake catalogs. The smoothed seismicity models optimized by likelihood testing with M≥2.7 catalogs also produce the highest likelihood values for M≥4.0 likelihood testing, thus substantiating the hypothesis that the locations of moderate-size earthquakes can be forecast by the locations of smaller earthquakes. The likelihood test does not, however, maximize the fraction of earthquakes that are better forecast than a seismicity rate model with uniform rates in all cells. In this regard, fixed smoothing models perform better than adaptive smoothing models. The preferred model of this study is the adaptive smoothed seismicity model, based on its ability to maximize the joint likelihood of predicting the locations of recent small-to-moderate-size earthquakes across eastern North America. The preferred rate model delineates 12 regions where the annual rate of M≥5 earthquakes exceeds 2×10−3. Although these seismic regions have been previously recognized, the preferred forecasts are more spatially concentrated than the rates from fixed smoothed seismicity models, with rate increases of up to a factor of 10 near clusters of high seismic activity.

  4. Lg Attenuation in the Central and Eastern United States as Revealed by the EarthScope Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, A. C.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Ni, J.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lg waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) were used to determine interstation crustal attenuation in the central and eastern United States (CEUS). Attenuation was calculated based on Lg spectral amplitudes filtered at a narrow band from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. The two-station and reverse two-station techniques were used to invert the spectral amplitudes for Q. 39 events occurring from 2010 to 2012 and ranging from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 were used in this study. 39,258 and 4,627 interstation Q values were determined using the two-station and reverse two-station techniques respectively. The results show northeast trending high Q regions (low attenuation) ranging from eastern New Mexico to Wisconsin. Regions of low Q (high attenuation) are seen along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP), along the South Dakota-Nebraska border, and along the Oklahoma-Texas border. A positive correlation between heat flow, sediment thickness, recent tectonic activity, fluids, and low Q was observed. Areas with low heat flow, thin sediment cover, no recent tectonic activity, and a lack of fluids were observed to have consistently high Q. These new models use a greater amount of data and attain more coverage than previous studies and better constrain attenuation. The attenuation maps generated are highly detailed. This increase in detail can improve high frequency ground motion predictions of future large earthquakes for more accurate hazard assessment and improve overall understanding of the structure and assemblage of the CEUS.

  5. Lg attenuation in the central and eastern United States as revealed by the EarthScope Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Andrea; Ranasinghe, Nishath; Ni, James; Sandvol, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Lg waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) are used to estimate Lg Q0 in the central and eastern United States (CEUS). Attenuation is calculated based on Lg spectral amplitudes filtered at a narrow band from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. Two-station and reverse two-station techniques are used to calculate Q0 values. 39 events occurring from 2010 to 2012 and ranging from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 are used in this study. 39,258 and 4,627 interstation Q0 values are determined using the two-station and reverse two-station techniques, respectively. The results show northeast trending high Q0 regions (low attenuation) ranging from eastern New Mexico to Wisconsin. Regions of low Q0 (high attenuation) are seen along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP), along the South Dakota-Nebraska border, and along the Oklahoma-Texas border. A positive correlation between heat flow, sediment thickness, recent tectonic activity, fluids, and low Q0 was observed. Areas with low heat flow, thin sediment cover, no recent tectonic activity, and a lack of fluids were observed to have consistently high Q0. These new models use a greater amount of data, attain more coverage than previous studies, and better constrain attenuation. This increase in detail can improve high frequency ground motion predictions of future large earthquakes for more accurate far field hazard assessment and improve the overall understanding of the structure and assemblage of the CEUS.

  6. Detrital Mineral Record of the Central Myanmar Basin and implications for the evolution of the eastern Himalayan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezina, C. A.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Barfod, D. N.; Carter, A.; Parrish, R. R.; Horstwood, M. S.; Thein, M.; Win Oo, N.

    2014-12-01

    Single grain detrital thermochronology (40Ar/39Ar white mica, zircon fission track and Lu-Hf analysis) of Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Central Myanmar Basin permits the identification of tectonothermal events in the source areas, and an understanding of how exhumation histories and changing provenance are related to the palaeogeography of the West Burma block during India-Asia collision. Robinson et al. (2014) used detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis to show that Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks were primarily sourced from the Gangdese magmatic arc that lies exclusively within the southern Lhasa terrane, and that the Yarlung Tsangpo and Irrawaddy River were connected at this time. Detrital thermochronology reveal these Paleogene deposits contain broadly distributed, mainly pre-Himalayan 40Ar/39Ar white mica cooling ages, reflecting the contribution from multiple source areas with a cooling history that is similar to the Lhasa terrane. A distinct change in provenance to a single, sustained source area during deposition of the Miocene units is recorded by a white mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling age peak of 37 Ma and a lesser peak of 17 - 21 Ma that is also observed in detrital zircon fission track age data. These two age peaks, 37 Ma and 17 - 21 Ma, likely reflect an initial period of crustal thickening, metamorphism and exhumation in the southern Mogok Metamorphic Belt, and a later phase of exhumation associated with deformation in the eastern syntaxis and the onset of extension in Myanmar and other parts of SE Asia. The latter events are also associated with the disconnection of the Yarlung Tsangpo from the Irrawaddy River around 18 Ma (Robinson et al., 2014). The combined dataset provides constraints on the position and movement of the West Burma block from the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, supports an Oligocene (~37 Ma) age for the timing of India-West Burma-Sibumasu coupling, and an Early Miocene age for extension

  7. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv>Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  8. Proterozoic Eastern Sayan ophiolites (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) record subduction initiation in vicinity of continental block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vasilii; Gornova, Marina; Medvedev, Alexander; Dril, Sergey; Karimov, Anas

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical study of cumulate and volcanic rocks from ˜ 1020 Ma Eastern Sayan ophiolites1 (Siberia, Russia) is used to provide a correlation between two ophiolitic belts and link them to subduction initiation setting. Studied areas include Ospin and Ilchir massifs to the East and Dunzhugur to the West of Early Precambrian Gargan block. Ophiolitic cumulates represent peridotite-pyroxenite-gabbro-norite suite with crystallization orders of Cr-Sp - Ol - Cpx - Opx - Plag, and Cr-Sp - Ol - Opx - Amph - (Cpx) - Plag. Clinopyroxene is augite-diopside with Mg# 85-95, low Al2O3 (1-2.5%) and TiO2 (0.05-0.2%). Amph is Mg-hornblende to edenite (Mg# 84-86, 5-8% Al2O3, 0.3-0.6% TiO2). Cr-Sp has Cr# 65-83 and 0.05-0.3% TiO2 in cumulates with high Opx proportion, while in Cpx-dominating pyroxenites chemistry of Cr-Sp is variable (Cr# 40-75, 0.05-0.5% TiO2). Due to alteration, Ol and Opx chemistry is available only for some samples (Ol: Mg# 88, 0.2-0.3% NiO; Opx: Mg# 89, 1.6% Al2O3). Whole-rock MgO ranges 9 to 38%. Amph-free pyroxenites and gabbro-norites show flat to slightly depleted REE pattern with negative HFSE anomalies. Amph-pyroxenites have fractionated trace-element pattern with LREE enrichment, Nb-Ti minima at slightly higher HFSE abundances. In-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of Cpx in Amph-free pyroxenites and gabbro-norites revealed moderately depleted to flat REE and Nb-Zr-Hf-Ti depletion, with low trace element abundances (La/SmPM = 0.14-0.9, Zr 0.6-2.3, Nd = 0.2-1.1, Yb = 0.2-0.7 ppm). Melts calculated to be in equilibrium with Cpx using distribution coefficients2 are REE-flat to slightly LREE-enriched (La/SmPM = 1-4) at low HREE abundances (0.5-1.5 ppm Yb). Overall, crystallization orders, mineral and whole-rock chemistry suggest origin of ophiolitic cumulates from low-Ca boninites or primitive andesites (higher Opx or Amph proportion) to high-Ca boninites or primitive island arc tholeiites (Cpx-dominating, Amph-free associations with subordinate Opx). Ophiolitic

  9. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  10. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean - potential impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-07-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates), natural (desert dust, sea salt) and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust) aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode) are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment). The sodium (sea salt related) aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  11. A new method to compare hourly rainfall between station observations and satellite products over central-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haoming; Yu, Rucong; Shen, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This study employs a newly defined regional-rainfall-event (RRE) concept to compare the hourly characteristics of warm-season (May-September) rainfall among rain gauge observations, China merged hourly precipitation analysis (CMPA-Hourly), and two commonly used satellite products (TRMM 3B42 and CMORPH). By considering the rainfall characteristics in a given limited area rather than a single point or grid, this method largely eliminates the differences in rainfall characteristics among different observations or measurements over central-eastern China. The results show that the spatial distribution and diurnal variation of RRE frequency and intensity are quite consistent among different datasets, and the performance of CMPA-Hourly is better than the satellite products when compared with station observations. A regional rainfall coefficient (RRC), which can be used to classify local rain and regional rain, is employed to represent the spatial spread of rainfall in the limited region defining the RRE. It is found that rainfall spread in the selected grid box is more uniform during the nocturnal to morning hours over central-eastern China. The RRC tends to reach its diurnal maximum several hours after the RRE intensity peaks, implying an intermediate transition stage from convective to stratiform rainfall. In the afternoon, the RRC reaches its minimum, implying the dominance of local convections on small spatial scale in those hours, which could cause large differences in rain gauge and satellite observations. Since the RRE method reflects the overall features of rainfall in a limited region rather than at a fixed point or in a single grid, the widely recognized overestimation of afternoon rainfall in satellite products is not obvious, and thus the satellite estimates are more reliable in representing sub-daily variation of rainfall from the RRE perspective. This study proposes a reasonable method to compare satellite products with rain gauge observations on the sub

  12. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M.; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6–8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4–3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large

  13. PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in Central and Eastern Europe: . results from the Cesar study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Hoek, Gerard; Vaskövi, Éva; Miháliková, Eva; Pastuszka, Jozef S.; Jirik, Vitezslav; Sachelarescu, Stela; Lolova, Dobrinka; Meliefste, Kees; Uzunova, Evtimia; Marinescu, Carmen; Volf, Jaroslav; de Leeuw, Frank; van de Wiel, Henk; Fletcher, Tony; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert

    Between November 1995 and October 1996, particulate matter concentrations (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were measured in 25 study areas in six Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovak Republic. To assess annual mean concentration levels, 24-h averaged concentrations were measured every sixth day on a fixed urban background site using Harvard impactors with a 2.5 and 10 μm cut-point. The concentration of the coarse fraction of PM 10 (PM 10-2.5) was calculated as the difference between the PM 10 and the PM 2.5 concentration. Spatial variation within study areas was assessed by additional sampling on one or two urban background sites within each study area for two periods of 1 month. QA/QC procedures were implemented to ensure comparability of results between study areas. A two to threefold concentration range was found between study areas, ranging from an annual mean of 41 to 98 μg m -3 for PM 10, from 29 to 68 μg m -3 for PM 2.5 and from 12 to 40 μg m -3 for PM 10-2.5. The lowest concentrations were found in the Slovak Republic, the highest concentrations in Bulgaria and Poland. The variation in PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations between study areas was about 4 times greater than the spatial variation within study areas suggesting that measurements at a single sampling site sufficiently characterise the exposure of the population in the study areas. PM 10 concentrations increased considerably during the heating season, ranging from an average increase of 18 μg m -3 in the Slovak Republic to 45 μg m -3 in Poland. The increase of PM 10 was mainly driven by increases in PM 2.5; PM 10-2.5 concentrations changed only marginally or even decreased. Overall, the results indicate high levels of particulate air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe with large changes between seasons, likely caused by local heating.

  14. Evidences for the austroalpine - southalpine up-doming after the end of the variscan orogenesis (central and eastern alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S.; Tumiati, S.

    2003-04-01

    The structural and petrographic studies of the basement units in the Alpine region, independently from their present tectonic setting in the nappe pile, suggest that at the end of the Variscan orogenesis they were in such a position that they suffered relevant up-doming and cooling since Late Carboniferous (Thöni, 1981; Mottana et al., 1985; Martin et al., 1996; Bertotti et al., 1999). This up-doming has been interpreted as due to an isostatic rebound related to the detachment of the slab after the cessation of the subduction at the end of the Variscan orogenesis (Neubauer and Handler, 2000; Ranalli, 2003). The metamorphic setting of the Southalpine basement between the Tonale pass and Lake Maggiore in the Southern Alps, is due to processes which, by extension denudation and erosion, locally took to the surface portions of middle-to-high grade basement, within a horst-graben environment (Cassinis et al., 1997). The basements of the Orobic, Lake Como and Lake Maggiore areas are composed of kyanite-garnet or sillimanite-bearing schists (e.g., Gneiss di Morbegno, Scisti di Edolo, Scisti dei Laghi; Boriani et al., 1990; Siletto et al., 1993), or of low grade schists (e.g., Filladi di Ambria) intruded by Early Permian plutons, covered by continental and volcanic deposits of Late Carboniferous to Permian age, after a marked unconformity (Cadel et al., 1996). The thickness of this clastic cover ranges between a few hundreds to thousands of meters; the clast compositions suggest a low-grade basement as a dominant source; the structures indicate alternance of uplift and collapse and continue deformation during sedimentation (Cassinis et al., 1974). Most of the Upper Austroalpine units of the central and eastern Alps (e.g., Tonale nappe, Languard, Ortles and Campo units) have structural and lithological similarities with the Orobic, Lake Como and Lake Maggiore basement units confirming their appartenance to the same pre-Alpine paleogeographic environment which suffered up

  15. Impact of central hypovolemia on photoplethysmographic waveform parameters in healthy volunteers. Part 1: time domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Alian, Aymen A; Galante, Nicholas J; Stachenfeld, Nina S; Silverman, David G; Shelley, Kirk H

    2011-12-01

    Our study sought to explore changes in photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveform param- eters, during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) which simulated hypovolemia, in spontaneously breathing volunteers. We hypothesize that during progressive LBNP; there will be a preservation of ear PPG parameters and a decrease in finger PPG parameters. With IRB approval, 11 volunteers underwent a LBNP protocol at baseline, 30, 75, and 90 mm Hg (or until the subject became symptomatic). Subjects were monitored with finger and ear pulse oximeter probes, an ECG, and a finger arterial blood pressure monitor. The square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) which is the time domain analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) was measured. PPG waveforms were analyzed for height, area, width 50, maximum and minimum slope. Data are presented as median and inter-quartile range. Friedman ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests were used to identify changes in hemo- dynamic and PPG parameters, P < 0.017 was considered statistically significant. There were no significant changes in the blood pressure variables at LBNP(30), but at and beyond LBNP(75), the decreases in systolic, mean and pulse pressure were significant as was the increase in diastolic pressure. Heart rate increased significantly at LBNP(30), reaching a maximum of 75.4% above baseline at the symptomatic phase while RMSSD showed significant reduction at LBNP(75). Finger PPG height, area, width 50, and maximum slope decreased significantly at LBNP(30) and during symptomatic phase they showed a reduction of 59.4, 76.9, 27.4 and 51.6%, respectively. Ear PPG height, area, width 50 and maximum slope did not change significantly until the LBNP(75), reached. During symptomatic phase, the respective declines reached 39.3, 61.0, 21.4 and 34.9%. PPG waveform parameters may prove to be sensitive and specific as early indicators of blood loss. These PPG changes were observed before profound decreases in arterial

  16. Wide-field spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Carrai, Paola; Pichi, Francesco; Bonsignore, Francesco; Ciardella, Antonio P; Nucci, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The aim the study was to describe wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography morphologic relationships of the vitreous, retina, and choroid in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) eyes. Standardized horizontal, vertical, and two oblique (supertemporal to inferonasal and supranasal to inferotemporal) SD-OCT sections were collected for 40 patient with CSCR. For extramacular imaging, images were obtained from eight locations: (1) nasal to the optic disk, (2) extreme nasal periphery, (3) superior to the superotemporal vascular arcade, (4) extreme superior periphery, (5) inferior to the inferotemporal vascular arcade, (6) extreme inferior periphery, (7) temporal to the macula, and (8) extreme temporal periphery. Wide-angle montage images of OCT from equator to equator were composed with a montaging software. Average subfoveal choroidal thickness was 478 ± 114 µm (range 232-695 µm) at the macular level, 367 ± 94 µm in the superior periphery, 257 ± 103 µm in the inferior periphery, 431 ± 121 and 280 ± 88 µm in the nasal and in the temporal periphery, respectively. Wide-field EDI-OCT revealed a relative thinning of the inner choroidal layer in the periphery, including the small and medium large vessels, which ranged from 86 µm nasally to 120.1 µm superiorly, with a mean of 98.8 ± 13.6 µm. Beneath the thinned inner choroidal layer, hyporeflective lumina, corresponding to the outer choroidal layer, were identified in the periphery of all eyes. The outer choroidal layer thickness ranged from 175.5 µm temporally to 235.5 µm superiorly, with a mean of 217.8 ± 41.4 µm. The novel approach of montaging SD-OCT images to examine relationships between the choroid, retina, and associated structures adjacent to and outside of the macula may have a number of relevant applications in the study of pathologic features of central serous chorioretinopathy.

  17. Extension of the Najd Shear System from Saudi Arabia to the central eastern desert of Egypt based on integrated field and LANDSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Duncan, Ian J.; Stern, Robert J.; El Kaliouby, Baher

    1988-12-01

    The Najd Shear System in Saudi Arabia extends over 1200 km in a NW-SE direction and has a width of approximately 300 km. A digital color mosaic, compiled from seven Landsat thematic mapper scenes, was used to delineate characteristic structural features of the Najd System in the Midyan region of Saudi Arabia and to search for similar features in the Egyptian Eastern Desert. The digital mosaic was generated using ratios of Landsat thematic mapper bands (bands 5/4 × 3/4, 5/1, 5/7) that are sensitive to the rock content of Fe-bearing aluminosilicates, spectrally opaque phases, and hydroxyl-bearing or carbonate minerals, respectively. The mosaic covers approximately 130,000 km² of late Proterozoic exposures of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and has the Eastern Desert and the Midyan region placed in their approximate pre-Red Sea locations. The Ajjaj Shear Zone (AJZ) marks the termination of the Najd System against the eastern margin of the Red Sea in the Midyan region. The AJZ aligns with the central Eastern Desert, based on analysis of pre-Red Sea locations. Analyses of Landsat data and field observations show that the Ajjaj Shear Zone and the central Eastern Desert exhibit the following features in common: (1) outcrops that are generally elongate in a NW-SE direction as a result of folding, with fine-scale lithologic heterogeneity at the outcrop scale related to deformation associated with faulting; (2) NW trending left-lateral faults and ductile shear zones; (3) subhorizontal, NW trending mineral lineations, and variably dipping NW trending foliations, with local changes in attitude around large competent (e.g., granitic) bodies; and (4) lithologic contacts that are generally tectonic in nature and related to faulting. These features are less common to the north and south of both the Ajjaj Shear Zone and the central Eastern Desert. Results are consistent with the Najd Shear System extending into the Eastern Desert and dominating the structural patterns within the

  18. Pleistocene To Holocene Human, Climatic and Environmental Changes In Central and Eastern Java (indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sémah, A.-M.; Sémah, F.; Simanjuntak, H. T.

    The period between 21,000 and 6000 BP, which includes the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, is likely to have known drastic environmental changes in the Indones ian archipelago, as seen from various sedimentary, pollen analytic, and archaeological records. In a low altitude swampy basin of central Java which yielded a thick clay and peat stratigraphy, several steps can be pointed between the driest period noticed prior 15,000 BP up to a climatic optimum c. 8,000 BP: a significant increase in humidity from c. 15,000 BP onwards, an extension of the forest after 10,500 BP, completion of almost everwet conditions c. 8,500 BP before a forest regression at c.6000 BP. Correlative excavations of the cave fillings near the coast of the Indian ocean, in the Southern Mountains of Java island, reflect conspicuous changes in the archaeological record: a more or less occasional human occupation of the caves during the late Plaistocene is followed by an intensive one in the early Holocene. Human groups, who brought new technologies (like sophisticated bone tools) had to adapt to and get their subsistence in an extending rain forest like environment, with a faunal turnover (Macaca and Presbytis dominance) or in the numerous flooded basins which formed during that period (fresh water molluscs gathering and smaller tortoise hunting). They carried out close contacts with the coastal area and used also the caves as burial places.

  19. Evaluation of abyssal meiobenthos in the eastern central Pacific (Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud-Mornant, Jeanne; Gourbault, Nicole

    Meiobenthos were sampled from 17 stations in the abyssal deep-sea system of the central Pacific centered around 14°N, 130°W at depths 4960-5154m, during the Nixo 47 R/V Jean Charcot cruise. Meiofaunal density range from 45-89 ind. 10cm 2. Predominant taxa are nematodes (84-100%) and copepods (0-10%). Rotifera, Polychaeta, and Acarina also occur. Nematodes are uniformly distributed spatially with 45 species or so; Monhysteridae is the dominant taxon, and Syringolaimus sp. (Ironidae) co-occurs faithfully. Low biomass (0.4-70.6μg 10cm 2) are attributed to supposed dwarfism of metazoan meiofauna and very high proportion (60-80%) of juveniles and pre-adult forms. The majority of protozoans and metazoans are detritus- or deposit-feeders; in addition symbiotic associations, coprophagy and gardening activities are frequent. In such an oligotrophic environment, low food supply may limit meiofaunal abundance, biomass and maturation, and to a lesser extent species richness.

  20. Conserved central domains control the quaternary structure of Type I and Type II Hsp40 molecular chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Carlos H.I.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Yang-Fan, Chung; Torriani, Iris L.; Cyr, Douglas M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hsp40s play an essential role in protein metabolism by regulating the polypeptide binding and release cycle of Hsp70. The Hsp40 family is large and specialized family members direct Hsp70 to perform highly specific tasks. Type I and Type II Hsp40s, such as yeast Ydj1 and Sis1, are homodimers that dictate functions of cytosolic Hsp70, but how they do so is unclear. Type I Hsp40s contain a conserved centrally located Cysteine-rich domain that is replaced by a Glycine and Methionine rich region in Type II Hsp40s, but the mechanism by which these unique domains influence Hsp40 structure and function is unknown. This is the case because high-resolution structures of full-length forms of these Hsp40s have not been solved. To fill this void we built low-resolution models of the quaternary structure of Ydj1 and Sis1 with information obtained from biophysical measurements of protein shape, small angle X-ray scattering and ab initio protein modeling. Low resolution models were also calculated for the chimeric Hsp40s YSY and SYS, in which the central domains of Ydj1 and Sis1 were exchanged. Similar to their human homologs, Ydj1 and Sis1 each has a unique shape with major structural differences apparently being the orientation of the J-domains relative to the long axis of the dimers. Central domain swapping in YSY and SYS correlates with the switched ability of YSY and SYS to perform unique functions of Sis1 and Ydj1, respectively. Models for the mechanism by which the conserved Cysteine-rich domain and Glycine and Methionine rich region confer structural and functional specificity to Type I and Type II Hsp40s are discussed. PMID:18723025

  1. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Longitudinal Trajectories of Physical Functioning in Central and Eastern Europe: A 10-Year Follow-up of HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Besala, Agnieszka; Bell, Steven; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical functioning (PF) is an essential domain of older persons’ health and quality of life. Health behaviors are the main modifiable determinants of PF. Cross-sectionally, alcohol consumption appears to be linked to better PF, but longitudinal evidence is mixed and very little is known about alcohol consumption and longitudinal PF trajectories. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of 28,783 men and women aged 45–69 years from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and seven towns of the Czech Republic. At baseline, alcohol consumption was measured by a graduated frequency questionnaire and problem drinking was evaluated using the CAGE questionnaire. PF was assessed using the Physical Functioning Subscale of the SF-36 instrument at baseline and three subsequent occasions. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the associations between alcohol consumption and PF trajectories over 10-year follow-up. Results: PF scores declined during follow-up in all three cohorts. Faster decline in PF over time was found in Russian female frequent drinkers, Polish female moderate drinkers, and Polish male regular heavy drinkers, in comparison with regular and/or light-to-moderate drinkers. Nondrinking was associated with a faster decline compared with light drinking only in Russian men. Problem drinking and past drinking were not related to the decline rate of PF. Conclusions: This large longitudinal study in Central and Eastern European populations with relatively high alcohol intake does not strongly support the existence of a protective effect of alcohol on PF trajectories; if anything, it suggests that alcohol consumption is associated with greater deterioration in PF over time. PMID:26748094

  3. Alluvial evidence for major climate and flow regime changes during the middle and late Quaternary in eastern central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; Price, David M.; Jones, Brian G.; Maroulis, Jerry C.; Coleman, Maria; Bowman, Hugo; Cohen, Timothy J.; Pietsch, Timothy J.; Larsen, Joshua R.

    2008-10-01

    As a low-gradient arid region spanning the tropics to the temperate zone, the Lake Eyre basin has undergone gentle late Cenozoic crustal warping leading to substantial alluvial deposition, thereby forming repositories of evidence for palaeoclimatic and palaeohydrological changes from the Late Tertiary to the Holocene. Auger holes and bank exposures at five locations along the lower 500 km of Cooper Creek, a major contributor to Lake Eyre in the eastern part of the basin, yielded 85 luminescence dates (TL and OSL) that, combined wit a further 142 luminescence dates from northeastern Australia, have established a chronology of multiple episodes of enhanced flow regime from about 750 ka to the Holocene. Mean bankfull discharges on Cooper Creek upstream of the Innamincka Dome at 250-230 ka or oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 7-6 are estimated to have been 5 to 7 times larger than those of today, however, substantially less reworking has occurred during and after OIS 5 than before. Lower Cooper Creek appears to have similarly declined. In the Tirari Desert adjacent to Lake Eyre there is evidence of widespread alluvial activity, perhaps during but certainly before the Middle Pleistocene, yet the river became laterally restricted in OIS 7 to 5. While the Quaternary has been characterised by a dramatically oscillating wet-dry climate, since oxygen isotope stage OIS 7 or 6 there has been a general decline in the magnitude of the episodes of wetness to which the eastern part of central Australia has periodically returned. During the last full glacial cycle, Cooper Creek's periods of greatest runoff and sand transport were not during the last interglacial maximum of OIS 5e (132-122 ka) but later in OIS 5 when sea levels and global temperatures were substantially below those of 5e or today. Fluvial activity returned in OIS 4 and 3, but not to the extent of mid and late OIS 5; strongly seasonal but still powerful flows transported sand and fed source-bordering dunes in OIS 5 and 3

  4. The role of the Variscan eastern Gondwana-Laurussia/Laurasia boundary in the evolution of the central Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovano, M.; Elter, F. M.; Pandeli, E.

    2010-12-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the central Mediterranean area is linked to the interaction between Gondwana and Laurussia/Laurasia plates. The interaction between these plates led to the development of Variscan, Alpine and Apennine Orogenic belts. In spite of the different ages of the orogenic systems, it is possible to hypothesize that their geodynamic evolution was linked to the complex interactions between the eastern boundary of Gondwana and the western boundary of Laurussia/Laurasia. This irregular boundary could have played the role of a pre-existing tectonic barrier which started to develop during the Upper Carboniferous. The kinematic along the boundary was related to a transpressive regime which evolved through a shear zones system (“snake” strike-slip and oblique shear zones). The transpressive environment led to the formation of restraining/releasing bends along the boundary between the two plates. The exhumation of middle/deep crustal rocks by telescoping processes, coeval with the transcurrent movement, occurred in the core of this narrow shear zone. The first occurrences of restraining/releasing bends are related to the Early Visean-Bashkirian (Variscan orogeny). The Variscan eastern boundary between the two colliding plates is characterized by a long-narrow band of HT rocks (East Variscan Shear Zone, EVSZ). From South to North they are: Calabria-Peloritani Terrane (Calabria and Sicily), deep basement of northern Apennines, Sardinia, Corsica, Maures-Tanneron Massif and Alpine Massifs. The same boundary was later reworked by the opening of the Alpine Tethys, dated at the Middle-Upper Jurassic. The opening of the Alpine Tethys led to the separation of the Variscan crust which will represent the future Alpine Massifs (External and Internal Massifs). The closure of the Alpine Tethys and the beginning of the Alpine Orogeny (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) re-assembled the system. The roto-translation of the Sardinia-Corsica and Calabrian-Peloritan blocks

  5. Detrital mineral thermochronology of Cenozoic deposits of Central Myanmar and implications for the evolution of the eastern Himalayan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezina, Cynthia; Robinson, Ruth; Barfod, Dan; Carter, Andrew; Thein, Myint; Win Oo, Nay

    2013-04-01

    Detrital low temperature thermochronology of single grains of white mica using 40Ar/39Ar methods, and double dating of zircon by fission track and U/Pb combined with Lu-Hf geochemistry methods, have been applied to a suite of Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene samples from the Central Myanmar Basin in order to identify the tectonothermal events and source terranes that are recorded in the sedimentary rocks. By combining multiple provenance tools, it is possible to determine how changes in provenance from Late Eocene to early Miocene time are related to exhumation and landscape evolution in the eastern sector of the Himalayan orogen. To discriminate between source terranes, we compare our ages to published low temperature thermochronology data from Jurassic-Tertiary bedrock of the Lhasa terrane, and the Transhimalayan rocks of the eastern syntaxis, eastern to southeastern Myanmar, and western Thailand. Detrital white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Eocene and Oligocene deposits reflect a broad range of cooling events that are Jurassic to Oligocene in age and the majority of the 40Ar/39Ar ages are older than 60 Ma. In contrast, the detrital micas from Miocene deposits have a narrow range of 40Ar/39Ar ages with one dominant peak of 30 - 40 Ma, and about 90% of the ages are younger than 60 Ma. Multi-modal detrital zircon fission track ages are evident in all samples and span the last 200 Ma, and the majority are younger than 60 Ma. The combined dataset supports our previous interpretations that the Yarlung Tsangpo of Tibet and the Irrawaddy River of Myanmar were connected in Late Eocene and Oligocene time, and that the timing of river disconnection and capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra is an early Miocene event (between 18 - 19 Ma). The 40Ar/39Ar age distributions of detrital muscovite in Palaeogene samples reflect multiple sources within the Lhasa terrane and represent episodic cooling following intrusion of the Gangdese Batholith from the Jurassic to Tertiary

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the population of Central Asia on the example of inhabitants of Eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    Parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a major health problem worldwide, especially in the Third World countries, where poor standards of hygiene and sanitation as well as the lack of medical care facilitate the spread of food and waterborne infections. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Central Asia on the example of the population inhabiting the Ghazni Province in eastern part of the country and to assess the validity of the WHO recommended mass deworming campaign carried out in Afghanistan. Taking into consideration the fact that hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Asia and Africa have recently been flooding into Europe, it has become necessary to investigate the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in areas characterized by different climatic conditions and poor standards of sanitation. The study was conducted in eastern Afghanistan between November 2011 and April 2014. Parasitological examination was performed on 3 different study groups: 110 soldiers from the Afghan National Army (adults), 1,167 patients hospitalized at the Ghazni Provincial Hospital (807 children and adolescents aged 1–18 and 360 adults), and 1,869 students (7–18 years) frequenting local schools. The study involved 3,146 people including: 2,248 females and 898 males; 2,676 children and adolescents (1–18 years) and 460 adults (19–85 years). Three stool samples were collected from each study subject at the intervals of 2 to 3 days. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then transported by air to the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine (Military Institute of Medicine) in Poland, where they were examined by light microscopy using 3 different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation). In total, 1,220 Afghans were found to be infected with pathogenic intestinal parasites (38.8%): 44/110 soldiers (40.0%), 322/807 hospitalized children and adolescents

  7. Density structure inferred from gravity anomalies in the eastern area of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komazawa, Masao

    2004-12-01

    A gravity survey was conducted between October 2002 and December 2003 in and around the eastern area of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). The total number of measurement points amounted to about 436 and 326 stations were taken at the same points as the seismic survey points. The location and altitude were decided by differential GPS and the accuracy is thought to be within several ten-centimeters. The data was compiled from existing data (Geological Survey of Japan, 2000), so the total number of compiled gravity maps is about 3,540 points. All measured gravity data were referred to the International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 (IGSN71) and the normal gravity values were estimated according to the gravity formula of 1980. Terrain corrections were conducted within a range of 60 km by approximating the real topography to an assemblage of annular prisms interpolated by mesh terrain data and random terrain data of the gravity points. The effect of the sinking of the topography due to the Earth's curvature was taken into consideration. Bouguer corrections within a range of 60 km in arc distances were made using a spherical cap crust formula. The density for both terrain correction and Bouguer corrections was chosen to be 2,670 kg/m3, because the mean surface density of the whole area is estimated to be a slightly large density by the CVUR method. The features of Bouguer anomalies is characterized by a low anomaly in Omachi city, in the northern parts of Matsumoto basin, and a high anomaly in the central highlands, Central Uplift Zone, about 10 km west of Ueda city. The low anomaly shows that the thickness of the sedimentary layer is more than 1 km from 2D/3D automatic analysis.

  8. Establishment and work of ethics committees in central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Glasa, Jozef

    2002-01-01

    The genuine reform efforts in medicine and health care in Central and East European (CEE) countries have continued to pose important and thought-provoking challenges to the newly reborn disciplines of medical ethics (or bioethics). They are embodied in the bulk of new ethical problems, concepts and quandaries brought about by the developments, changes, clashes, and "real life" issues of the CEE countries' health care systems and biomedical sciences. Certain part, quite variable from country to country, of this bio-ethical endeavour has been confined to the work and activities of ethics committees (ECs) or similar bodies. They have emerged in varying number, shape, composition, competence, legal status, responsibility and time of appearance, in almost all transition countries of CEE. They may be considered as a kind of "field workplaces" of medical ethics/bioethics within the countries' HCSs or biomedical research structures. Despite some shortcomings and drawbacks, a lot has already been achieved. In some countries the progress has been quick and systematic. The major pitfalls were mostly due to the missing, weak or unclear legal backing of ECs' establishment and work; lack of education and training of their members; insufficient support from health care administrators; misconceptions concerning their mission, procedures, scope of responsibility, and reporting; insufficient or missing funding; low profile societal esteem for ECs' work; but some drawbacks were due also to the underdeveloped 'dialogic' culture of the impartial discussion and democratic discourse in the 'post-totalitarian' CEE transition countries. The future of ECs in CEE will be connected to the countries' integration and harmonization efforts towards research, health systems, and other international structures in Europe and beyond. This should need an extensive and non-discriminatory international partnership, exchange and co-operation.

  9. Effect of kaolinite as a key factor controlling the petrophysical properties of the Nubia sandstone in central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassab, Mohamed A.; Abu Hashish, Mohamed F.; Nabawy, Bassem S.; Elnaggar, Osama M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive petrographical and petrophysical investigation for the Late Cretaceous Nubia sandstone from Wadi Kareem in central Eastern Desert to measure their fluid flow properties and to investigate the effect of kaolinite on their petrophysical characteristics. From the petrographical analyses, scanning electron microscope 'SEM' and the X-ray diffraction 'XRD' analysis, it is shown that the studied sandstone samples are quite homogeneous in mineralogy and can be distinguished into four sedimentary microfacies: quartz arenite as a clean sandstone as well as three kaolinitic microfacies; namely they are kaolinitic quartz arenite, kaolinitic subarkose, and calcareous to kaolinitc quartz arenite. The main recognized diagenetic processes that prevailed during the post-depositional history of the Nubia sandstone are; compaction, cementation, alteration and dissolution of feldspar into kaolinite. The petrophysical potentiality of the studied sandstones was studied using the helium pycnometer, gas permeability and mercury injection confining pressure 'MICP' techniques. The investigated sandstones can be classified into three petrophysical facies with varying reservoir performances. The petrophysical behaviour of these facies is dependent mostly on their kaolinite content and its impact on porosity, permeability, irreducible water saturation, R35 (pore aperture corresponding to mercury saturation of 35% pore volume), R50 (median pore-throat radius), and MHR (the mean hydraulic radius). Therefore, the studied petrophysical facies are comparable to the distinguished petrographical facies.

  10. Multistation template matching to characterize frequency-magnitude distributions of induced seismicity in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Skoumal, R.; Currie, B.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the frequency-magnitude distribution (FMD) of recent seismic sequences thought to be induced by wastewater injection and hydraulic fracturing in the Central and Eastern U.S. to investigate their physical origin and improve hazard estimates. Multistation template matching is utilized to increase the number of events analyzed by lowering the magnitude of detection. In cases where local deployments are available, we demonstrate that the FMD obtained through template matching using regional data are comparable to those obtained from traditional detection using the local deployment. Since deployments usually occur after seismicity has already been identified, catalogs constructed with regional data offer the advantage of providing a more complete history of the seismicity. We find two primary groups of FMDs for induced sequences: those that generally follow the Gutenberg-Richter power-law and those that generally do not. All of the induced sequences are typically characterized by swarm-like behavior, but the non-power-law FMDs are also characterized by a clustering of events at low magnitudes and particularly low aftershock productivity for a continental interior. Each of the observations in the non-power law FMD cases is predicted by numerical simulations of a seismogenic zone governed by a viscoelastic damage rheology with low effective viscosity in the fault zone. Such a reduction in effective viscosity is expected if fluid injection increases fluid pressures in the fault zone to the point that the fault zone begins to dilate.

  11. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.