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Sample records for central europe part

  1. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  2. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  3. Central Statistical Libraries in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Lisa

    The paper tries to clarify the position special governmental libraries hold in the system of libraries of today by investigating only one specific type of library mainly from a formal and historical point of view. Central statistical libraries in Europe were first regarded as administrative and archival libraries. Their early holdings of foreign…

  4. Insect succession and carrion decomposition in selected forests of Central Europe. Part 3: Succession of carrion fauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Konwerski, Szymon; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2011-04-15

    The succession of insects on pig carrion was monitored in spring, summer and autumn, in three forest types and 2 years in Western Poland (Central Europe). In most forensically useful taxa, significant differences between seasons, forests and years in time of appearance on carrion were found. The lowest values of appearance time were recorded in summer and the highest in spring. In alder forest insects appeared on carcasses significantly earlier than in pine-oak forest and hornbeam-oak forest. In summer periods of insect presence on carrion were significantly shorter than in spring and autumn. In most taxa no significant effect of forest type or year on length of the presence period was found. In all seasons assemblages of adult taxa were clearly more aggregated than assemblages of larval taxa. Sequence of insects' appearance on carcasses was very similar in different seasons, forests and years. General seasonal models of insect succession on carrion are proposed for forests of Central Europe. Data on appearance time and length of the presence period in particular seasons, forests and years are presented for forensically useful taxa. Implications for methods of PMI estimation (particularly the succession-based method) are discussed.

  5. Insect succession and carrion decomposition in selected forests of Central Europe. Part 2: Composition and residency patterns of carrion fauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Konwerski, Szymon; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2010-02-25

    The insect fauna of pig carcasses was monitored in different seasons and forests of Western Poland (Central Europe). The composition of carrion fauna and selected features of residency in carrion in adults and larvae of particular taxa were analysed. A total of 131 adult and 36 larval necrophilous taxa were collected. Only 51 adult species and 24 larval taxa were minimally abundant (>or=10 specimens) at least on one carcass. As for the composition of carrion fauna, there were large differences between seasons, but no important differences between forest types. In most species of Diptera, length of the presence period of adults was between 35 and 65% of the sampling interval, while in most species of Coleoptera, it was above 60%. Only in a few species (e.g., Saprinus semistriatus, Necrodes littoralis or Creophilus maxillosus) was the presence period shorter than 35% of the sampling interval. Interestingly, in some adult Coleoptera (e.g., Necrobia violacea) very long presence periods were recorded. In most taxa, the length of the presence period of larvae was between 40 and 65% of the sampling interval. Only Calliphora vomitoria, Phormia regina, Hydrotaea dentipes, N. littoralis and C. maxillosus had shorter presence periods of larvae. As a rule, residency of adults was broken, whereas residency of larvae was unbroken. Moreover, in adults, two distinct residency patterns were observed; with breaks clumped in the final part of the presence period and with breaks evenly distributed inside the presence period. Almost in all taxa, the time of appearance showed the closest relationship to the onset of bloating. The relationship was significant, positive and strong in adults of P. regina, Fannia manicata, Hydrotaea ignava, Stearibia nigriceps, S. semistriatus, N. littoralis and C. maxillosus as well as larvae of P. regina, H. dentipes, H. ignava, S. nigriceps, N. littoralis, Oiceoptoma thoracicum, Thanatophilus sp., C. maxillosus and Philonthus sp. Interestingly, in some

  6. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  7. Analysis of long-range transport of particulate matters in connection with air circulation over Central and Eastern part of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Georgescu, Florinela

    The aim of this paper is to establish a practical methodology for examining the long-range transport of particulate matters (PM), named TSP. The daily concentration values of TSP from years 2001 and 2002, for three sites, Baia Mare (RO), Vienna (AU), Aosta (IT), were analyzed. In order to connect the main air circulation types with the aerosol concentrations at the selected sites, the catalogues of Circulation and Weather type Classification (COST733) were used. Spectral analysis was made using spectrum software based on Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and multiresolution analysis (MRA) technique based on Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) with Fejer-Korovkin in 22 points wavelet filter (waveslim package). Spectral analysis shows a dominant one-year periodicity for all the time series with a variance around 22% for each time series. In addition, several winters TSP pollution episodes from each city were analyzed using a back trajectory model (HYSPLIT4), in order to compare with the resulted air circulation types. Two important concluding remarks emerge: (i) the Eastern part of Europe shows a dominant easterly air circulation and central Europe is characterized by south-west air circulations, which drive the maxima of pollutant concentrations; (ii) the choice of the domain for analysis of the circulation types is very important.

  8. Does Europe have a centre? Reflections on the history of Western and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mout, Nicolette

    2006-05-01

    Any definition of Central Europe based on geographical and/or historical facts causes difficulties. The line dividing Europe during the Cold War has a very limited use because it does not take into account Central Europe as a special part of the continent. Historians such as Geoffrey Barraclough, Hugh Seton-Watson and Oskar Halecki discussed the idea of a separate identity of Central Europe during the Cold War. Especially after the fall of the Berlin Wall, this discussion was re-opened. From a historian's point of view, the most important contributions came from Piotr Wandycz and Jeno Szucs. An imaginary centre of Europe can only be found in the continent's common history.

  9. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  10. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  11. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  12. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  13. Why (not) go east? Comparison of findings from FDA Investigational New Drug study site inspections performed in Central and Eastern Europe with results from the USA, Western Europe, and other parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Caldron, Paul H; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Kropf, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, investigational sites in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have been increasingly utilized by pharmaceutical companies because of their high productivity in terms of patient enrolment into clinical trials. Based on the FDA's publicly accessible Clinical Investigator Inspection List, we present an analysis of findings and outcome classifications from FDA inspections during Investigational New Drug (IND) studies and compare the results for the CEE region to those from Western European countries and the USA. Data from all 5531 FDA clinical trials inspections that occurred between 1994 (when the FDA first performed inspections in CEE) and the end of 2010 were entered into the database for comparative analysis. Of these, 4865 routine data audit (DA) inspections were analyzed: 401 from clinical trials performed in Western Europe, 230 in CEE, 3858 in the USA, and 376 in other countries. The average number of deficiencies per inspection ranged between 0.99 for CEE and 1.97 in Western Europe. No deficiencies were noted during 16.6%, 39.0%, and 21.5% of the inspections in Western Europe, CEE and USA, respectively. The percentages of inspections after which no follow-up action was indicated were 36.9% for Western Europe, 55.7% for CEE, and 44.3% for US sites. CEE was also the region with the lowest percentage of inspections that required official or voluntary action. On the basis of FDA inspection data, the high productivity of CEE sites appears to be accompanied by regulatory compliance as well as by data quality standards that are not inferior to those in Western regions.

  14. Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Mosbrugger, Volker; Utescher, Torsten; Dilcher, David L

    2005-10-18

    Continental climate evolution of Central Europe has been reconstructed quantitatively for the last 45 million years providing inferred data on mean annual temperature and precipitation, and winter and summer temperatures. Although some regional effects occur, the European Cenozoic continental climate record correlates well with the global oxygen isotope record from marine environments. During the last 45 million years, continental cooling is especially pronounced for inferred winter temperatures but hardly observable from summer temperatures. Correspondingly, Cenozoic cooling in Central Europe is directly associated with an increase of seasonality. In contrast, inferred Cenozoic mean annual precipitation remained relatively stable, indicating the importance of latent heat transport throughout the Cenozoic. Moreover, our data support the concept that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, although linked to climate changes, were not the major driving force of Cenozoic cooling.

  15. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by nematodes (roundworms).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    The third part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" deals with the medically relevant nematodes (roundworms) and nematode-caused diseases occurring in Central Europe. The paper comprises data on the biology of the parasites and their ways of transmission, describes the symptomatology of the diseases, summarizes the possibilities of diagnosis and refers to the prophylactic means.

  16. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  17. Management of ischemic stroke in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Budincevic, Hrvoje; Tiu, Cristina; Bereczki, Daniel; Kõrv, Janika; Tsiskaridze, Alexander; Niederkorn, Kurt; Czlonkowska, Anna; Demarin, Vida

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability in Europe. Central and Eastern European countries have the highest incidence and mortality rates through Europe. The improvements in stroke prevention and treatment in Central and Eastern European countries did not completely reach the quality parameters present in Western European countries. We present features of current management of stroke in Central and Eastern European countries.

  18. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  19. Aerosol and cloud relations and weekly cycles over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, K.; Georgoulias, A.; Alexandri, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the aerosol and cloud relationships and weekly cycle patterns over Central Europe are examined using level-2 aerosol data from the TERRA MODIS satellite instrument to compile a decadal (2000-2010) 0.1 x 0.1 degree resolution gridded dataset as well as and total cloud cover (TCC) TERRA MODIS data and coarser resolution ISCCP TCC data. Aerosols and TCC were found to be positively correlated for all seasons, the slope of the correlation being slightly higher for low AOD values. A co-examination of AOD, TCC and NCAR/NCEP sea level pressure shows that the positive AOD-TCC correlation holds separately in all pressure bins, thus indicating that the correlation is not a synoptic artefact. A study of the weekly cycle of AOD shows that the main part of the positive (i.e. with midweek peak) weekly cycle plume extends over the central part of Central Europe, with the weekly cycle index (WCI) levels gradually decreasing until the weekly cycle becomes negative (i.e. with weekend peak) when moving away. No clear connection between the WCI patterns and topography was found while there is an apparent correlation between positive weekly cycles in summer and population density. A clear Monday minimum appears over regions with high positive WCI. Monday shifts to Tuesday when moving to the East, indicating aerosol transport from the dominating westerly wind flow. The WCI values and the average percent departures (APDs) for the day of weekly maximum and minimum were examined for 22 selected stations from previous ground-based weekly cycle studies. The weekly cycle is positive and statistically significant for only a few stations situated in France, Germany, Czech Republic and Belgium. A comparison with 1 x 1 degree level-3 MODIS TERRA data shows that in most cases level-3 data can give an indication of the local aerosol weekly cycle strength and phase. The satellite derived day of the weekly maximum and minimum is, generally, in line with results from ground-based studies

  20. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus in Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 1: Description of history and clinical evolution.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Gaby; Saegerman, Claude; Rijckaert, Joke; Amory, Helene; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshøj Delany, Rikke; Fouché, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika; Picavet, Tresemiek; Roscher, Katja; Verwilghen, Denis; Wehrli Eser, Meret; Westermann, Cornélie; Mair, Tim

    2017-09-28

    To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus. Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. One hundred fifty-five adult equids (>6 months) and 21 foals (<6 months) with tetanus. None. Information on geographic, annual and seasonal data, demographic- and management-related data, clinical history, clinical examination and blood analysis on admission, complications, treatments, and outcomes were described and statistically compared between adults and foals. The described cases were often young horses. In 4 adult horses, tetanus developed despite appropriate vaccination and in 2 foals despite preventive tetanus antitoxin administration at birth. Castration, hoof abscesses, and wounds were the most common entry sites for adults; umbilical cord infections and wounds for foals. Stiffness was the commonest observed initial clinical sign. Blood analyses frequently revealed an inflammatory response, hemoconcentration, muscle damage, azotemia, negative energy balance, liver damage, and electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Common complications or clinical signs developing during hospitalization included dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency, hyperthermia, seizures, hyperlipemia, gastrointestinal impactions, dysuria, and laryngeal spasms. Cases were supported with wound debridement, antimicrobial treatment, tetanus antitoxin, muscle spasm and seizure control, analgesia, anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid therapy, and nutritional support. Mortality rates were 68.4% in adult horses and 66.7% in foals. Foals differed from adult horses with respect to months of occurrence, signalment, management-related data, potential causative events, clinical signs on admission, blood analysis, complications, and severity grades. This is the first study that rigorously describes a large population of equids affected by tetanus. The information provided is

  1. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberle, E.

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  2. Silurian to Early Carboniferous plate tectonic model of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golonka, Jan; Barmuta, Jan; Barmuta, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The presented plate tectonic model focuses on Silurian to Early Carboniferous evolution of Central Europe with special attention given to the Sudetes region (north and north-east part of the Bohemian Massif). During our studies, we tested alternative models focused on the position of the Armorican terranes, known as the Armorican Terrane Assembly (ATA) (e.g.: Matte, 2001) and tried to refine the existing reconstructions, which describe Armorica as an individual continent during the Late Silurian and Devonian (e.g. Lewandowski, 2003, Winchester, 2002). Our plate tectonic model depict that these small blocks were scattered along the northern margin of Gondwana, where they formed the "Armorican Spour" as suggested by Kroner and Romer (2013). The seaways were present between blocks. Because of the north dipping subduction zone along the southern margin of the Laurussia continent the back-arc basin and island arc were formed. The narrowing of the Rheic ocean led to the complicated collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. Three main stages of this event can be distinguished: (1) collision of the Armorican Spour with the Laurussian island arc, (2) back-arc basin closure, (3) final Gondwana and Laurussian collision. Those stages correlate well with Variscan Subduction Zone System proposed by Kroner and Romer (2013). Interactive modeling performed in GPlates, shows that the presented model is valid from kinematic and geometrical point of view. Kroner U., Romer R., L., 2013, Two plates - many subduction zones: the Variscan orogeny reconsidered. Gondwana Research, 24: 298-329. Lewandowski M., 2003, Assembly of Pangea: Combined paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic approach, Advances in Geophysics, 46: 199-236 Matte P., 2001, The Variscan collage and orogeny (480 290 Ma) and the tectonic definition of the Armorica microplate: a review. Terra Nova, 13: 122¨C128. Winchester J., A., The Pace TMR Network Team, 2002, Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe: new results from recent

  3. Modeling neolithic dispersal in central Europe: demographic implications.

    PubMed

    Galeta, Patrik; Sládek, Vladimír; Sosna, Daniel; Bruzek, Jaroslav

    2011-09-01

    On the basis of new examination of ancient DNA and craniometric analyses, Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe has been recently explained as reflecting colonization or at least a major influx of near eastern farmers. Given the fact that Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe was very rapid and extended into a large area, colonization would have to be associated with high population growth and fertility rates of an expanding Neolithic population. We built three demographic models to test whether the growth and fertility rates of Neolithic farmers were high enough to allow them to colonize Central Europe without admixture with foragers. The principle of the models is based on stochastic population projections. Our results demonstrate that colonization is an unlikely explanation for the Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe, as the majority of fertility and growth rate estimates obtained in all three models are higher than levels expected in the early Neolithic population. On the basis of our models, we derived that colonization would be possible only if (1) more than 37% of women survived to mean age at childbearing, (2) Neolithic expansion in Central Europe lasted more than 150 years, and (3) the population of farmers grew in the entire settled area. These settings, however, represent very favorable demographic conditions that seem unlikely given current archaeological and demographic evidence. Therefore, our results support the view that Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe involved admixture of expanding farmers with local foragers. We estimate that the admixture contribution from foragers may have been between 55% and 72%. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    hippocastanum are well represented in the PEP725 database. Flowering of lilac Syringa vulgaris is also used in the US as spring indicator . The flowering and/or leaf unfolding dates of lilac, horse chestnut show a clear advance to an earlier entrance in the last two decades 1991 to 2000 and 2001 to 2010 compared with the reference period 1961 to 1990, being more pronounced in northwestern regions of Central Europe. The growing season defined here as time span between leaf unfolding and leaf coloration of birch and beech has been lengthening up to two weeks in 2001 to 2010 compared to 1961 to 1990 in northeastern parts of Central Europe.

  5. Key Indicators on Vocational Education and Training. Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badescu, Mircea; Kennedy, Alison

    The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone substantial changes due, in part, to vocational education and training (VET). One of the most important objectives of the European Union (EU) enlargement process is to monitor key indicators of the educational systems and labor markets so that the different skills in demand and…

  6. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by cestodes (tapeworms).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    The second part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is dedicated to the cestodes (tapeworms) and the diseases caused by cestodes. The overview comprises the spectrum of the most relevant species, describes their incidence, geographic distribution and the most important clinical symptoms and highlights the possibilities of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of cestode-caused diseases.

  7. [Protozoa and protozoan infections of humans in Central Europe].

    PubMed

    Walochnik, Julia; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    This article is a condensed review of the medically relevant protozoa in Central Europe and the infections and diseases caused by them. Information is given on modes and sources of infection, organs involved in the disease, prevalence, diagnostics, therapy, and prophylaxis. Moreover, travel-associated infections with protozoa are briefly outlined.

  8. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  9. Farewell to Parachute Professors in East-Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognianova, Ekaterina

    1995-01-01

    Examines the work of 10 North American journalism educators who taught in 15 midcareer training programs for journalists in East-Central Europe from 1991-93. Asks how North American journalists teach in intercultural settings and how they changed their methods to suit the setting. Concludes that North American journalists should continue their…

  10. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  11. Central and Eastern Europe: Vocational Education and Training in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Olivier

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of recent developments in vocational education and training in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe brings out certain common problems. On the economic level, Hungary, Poland, Estonia, and Lithuania are undergoing a profound crisis. Consequences for training have included the closing of many company schools or workshops, absence of…

  12. Historical Perspectives on Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Helmut

    1992-01-01

    Outlines special features of the national question faced by the Hapsburg monarchy that show similarities and differences in Central Europe today. Argues that the Austro-Hungarian Empire displayed surprising flexibility in dealing with internal ethnic conflicts. Compares the situation in Yugoslavia after World War II with that of the same area…

  13. Complete genome of a Puumala virus strain from Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Drewes, Stephan; Weber de Melo, Vanessa; Schlegel, Mathias; Freise, Jona; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2015-04-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) is one of the predominant hantavirus species in Europe causing mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Parts of Lower Saxony in north-western Germany are endemic for PUUV infections. In this study, the complete PUUV genome sequence of a bank vole-derived tissue sample from the 2007 outbreak was determined by a combined primer-walking and RNA ligation strategy. The S, M and L genome segments were 1,828, 3,680 and 6,550 nucleotides in length, respectively. Sliding-window analyses of the nucleotide sequences of all available complete PUUV genomes indicated a non-homogenous distribution of variability with hypervariable regions located at the 3'-ends of the S and M segments. The overall similarity of the coding genome regions to the other PUUV strains ranged between 80.1 and 84.7 % at the level of the nucleotide sequence and between 89.5 and 98.1 % for the deduced amino acid sequences. In comparison to the phylogenetic trees of the complete coding sequences, trees based on partial segments revealed a general drop in phylogenetic support and a lower resolution. The Astrup strain S and M segment sequences showed the highest similarity to sequences of strains from geographically close sites in the Osnabrück Hills region. In conclusion, a primer-walking-mediated strategy resulted in the determination of the first complete nucleotide sequence of a PUUV strain from Central Europe. Different levels of variability along the genome provide the opportunity to choose regions for analyses according to the particular research question, e.g., large-scale phylogenetics or within-host evolution.

  14. Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety Nets and Social Policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, Ed.; Sipos, Sandor, Ed.

    Organized in two parts, this book explores methods for incorporating concern for human needs into economic policies in eastern and central European countries that are making the transition to a market economy. Part I of the book considers economic reform, social policy, and child welfare in central and eastern Europe as a whole. Topics include:…

  15. Antibiotic policies in Central Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Cizman, Milan; Beovic, Bojana; Krcmery, Vladimir; Barsic, Bruno; Tamm, Eda; Ludwig, Endre; Pelemis, Mojimir; Karovski, Kliment; Grzesiowski, Pavel; Gardovska, Dace; Volokha, Alla; Keuleyan, Emma; Stratchounski, Leonid; Dumitru, Carstina; Titov, Leonid P; Usonis, Vytantas; Dvorák, Peter

    2004-09-01

    To assess the antibiotic policies in Central Eastern European (CEE) countries, a questionnaire on the prevalence of resistance, antibiotic consumption data for ambulatory and hospital care and antibiotic policies, was mailed to national representatives. Data on antibiotic resistance and consumption of antibiotics at national levels are limited and vary considerably among countries. The importance of surveillance data in altering perceptions of the prevalence of resistance is shown by the comparison of surveillance data and interview data. Interview data without surveillance data produced the widest range of estimates of the prevalence of resistance in streptococcus pneumonia -5% in Lithuania and 82% in Belarus. The average consumption of antibiotics in ambulatory care in eight CEE countries in 2001 was 19.35 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants per day, (range 13.1 - 24.8 DDD) and in hospitals in six CEE countries was 2.2 DDD/1000 inhabitants per day (range 1.3-4.5). Over the counter sales of antibiotics are available in some countries. Antibiotic policy interventions do not exist or only apply to specific problems or interventions. Better implementation of antibiotic interventions and education on antibiotic use should be a high priority in this region. An effective strategy requires close co-operation, consultations and partnership at national and international level in particular, via existing international organisations.

  16. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Raimon; Sachana, Magda; Caloni, Francesca; Croubels, Siska; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10 years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters, deliberate primary or secondary poisonings are of concern to all countries. Metals (particularly lead arising from sporting/hunting activities) and pesticides (mainly anticholinesterases and anticoagulants) are frequent causes of poisoning, and often have fatal consequences. A more unified and consistent approach throughout European countries to improve the reporting and the analytical confirmation of wildlife poisoning would help to reduce the number of cases of malicious or negligent animal poisoning. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FORECE: A forest succession model for southern Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kienast, F.

    1987-10-01

    A general forest succession model that simulates forest stand development for the most common site conditions in the southern part of Central Europe (with emphasis on Switzerland) is described. The model provides a useful tool for testing hypotheses about forest succession and enables the user to evaluate the impacts of natural and human disturbances on forest communities. Written in FORTRAN, it is a JABOWA-type simulator (Botkin et al., 1972) and is based on existing succession models for forests in eastern and western North America. Birth, growth, and death of 31 species of individual trees are simulated on a multitude of 1/12-ha plots. The successional characteristics of each replicate are subsequently averaged to obtain the forest development on a landscape level. Existing light in the forest stand, climatic conditions, soil properties, and other environmental factors control the growth of each individual tree. Species-specific input data such as light requirements and drought resistance were obtained from silvics information and phytosociological descriptions. Compared with previous simulators, some major modifications were made, including the incorporation of the indicator value concept of Ellenberg (1978). This approach is partially optional and is used to describe the ecophysiological behavior of the 31 different tree species incorporated in the model.

  18. Compound summer temperature and precipitation extremes over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, H.; Schädler, G.

    2017-02-01

    Reliable knowledge of the near-future climate change signal of extremes is important for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Especially compound extremes, like heat and drought occurring simultaneously, may have a greater impact on society than their univariate counterparts and have recently become an active field of study. In this paper, we use a 12-member ensemble of high-resolution (7 km) regional climate simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM over central Europe to analyze the climate change signal and its uncertainty for compound heat and drought extremes in summer by two different measures: one describing absolute (i.e., number of exceedances of absolute thresholds like hot days), the other relative (i.e., number of exceedances of time series intrinsic thresholds) compound extreme events. Changes are assessed between a reference period (1971-2000) and a projection period (2021-2050). Our findings show an increase in the number of absolute compound events for the whole investigation area. The change signal of relative extremes is more region-dependent, but there is a strong signal change in the southern and eastern parts of Germany and the neighboring countries. Especially the Czech Republic shows strong change in absolute and relative extreme events.

  19. Neotectonics of northern Central Europe: the legacy of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Steffen, H.; Wu, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Central Europe is regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1000 years. This historic seismicity is clearly concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic inversion phase in the Late Cretaceous. Here we show with numerical simulations that large parts of the observed seismicity in northern Central Europe is most likely an effect of stress changes induced by the decay of the Scandinavian ice sheet after the Weichselian glaciation and the interference with the background stress field related to the ongoing convergence of Africa and Europe. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrate for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust or at least along closely spaced faults like in the Gardelegen area. Such a distribution fits the characteristics of other intraplate seismic zones like the eastern United States and requires a re-evaluation of the seismic hazard potential of northern Central Europe, especially in view of the revived search for nuclear waste repositories and ongoing discussions about CO2 sequestration projects in the area.

  20. GIA induced intraplate seismicity in northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Steffen, Rebekka; Wu, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Though northern Central Europe is regarded as a low seismicity area (Leydecker and Kopera, 1999), several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII affected the area in the last 1200 years (Leydecker, 2011). The trigger for these seismic events is not sufficiently investigated yet. Based on the combination of historic earthquake epicentres with the most recent fault maps we show that the historic seismicity concentrated at major reverse faults. There is no evidence for significant historic earthquakes along normal faults in northern Central Europe. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (clusters that shift from time to time) implies that northern Central Europe behaves like a typical intraplate tectonic region as demonstrated for other intraplate settings (Liu et al., 2000) We utilized Finite Element models that describe the process of glacial isostatic adjustment to analyse the fault behaviour. We use the change in Coulomb Failure Stress (dCFS) to represent the minimum stress required to reach faulting. A negative dCFS value indicates that the fault is stable, while a positive value means that GIA stress is potentially available to induce faulting or cause fault instability or failure unless released temporarily by an earthquake. The results imply that many faults in Central Europe are postglacial faults, though they developed outside the glaciated area. This is supported by the characteristics of the dCFS graphs, which indicate the likelihood that an earthquake is related to GIA. Almost all graphs show a change from negative to positive values during the deglaciation phase. This observation sheds new light on the distribution of post-glacial faults in general. Based on field data and the numerical simulations we developed the first consistent model that can explain the occurrence of deglaciation seismicity and more recent historic earthquakes in northern Central Europe. Based on our model, the historic seismicity in northern Central Europe

  1. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  2. EPA's Role with the Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe provides assistance in solving environmental problems in Central and Eastern Europe by promoting cooperation among governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and others.

  3. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: general overview and diseases caused by trematodes (flukes).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    Parasitic helminths and helminthoses do not only occur in the tropics and subtropics but are also prevalent in Austria and other Central European countries. Their prevalence is, however, more or less rather low. In total, we know more than 20 helminth species, which are diagnosed regularly in Austria; some of them occur in Austria autochthonously, some others are acquired abroad and are transferred as souvenirs to Central Europe. The spectrum of helminths described in this overview comprises species of the trematodes (flukes), cestodes (tapeworms), and nematodes (roundworms).The topic "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is divided into three parts: The first part comprises a short introduction into the field of medical helminthology and is primarily dedicated to the description of trematodes and trematode-caused diseases.

  4. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced,…

  5. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced,…

  6. Germany, Russia, and Conditions for Stability in Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-04

    but it certainly will not be the first time that an empire has refused to learn from its mistakes. Military ties between Russia and East-Central...conventional and nuclear forces, Russia should not perceive a military threat from Germany; and, second , for the time being at least, and even with...changes in the politico- military and economic map of Europe, there are also powerful negative forces which threaten stability from the Atlantic to the

  7. Extreme Winter/Early-Spring Temperature Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Ardizzone, Joseph; Brakke, Thomas; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Jusem, Juan Carlos; Glantz, Michael; Rogers, Jeff; Sud, Yogesh; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Extreme seasonal fluctuations of the surface-air temperature characterize the climate of central Europe, 45-60 deg North Temperature difference between warm 1990 and cold 1996 in the January-March period, persisting for more than two weeks at a time, amounted to 18 C for extensive areas. These anomalies in the surface-air temperature stem in the first place from differences in the low level flow from the eastern North-Atlantic: the value of the Index 1na of southwesterlies over the eastern North-Atlantic was 8.0 m/s in February 1990, but only 2.6 m/ s in February 1996. The primary forcing by warm advection to positive anomalies in monthly mean surface temperature produced strong synoptic-scale uplift at the 700 mb level over some regions in Europe. The strong uplift contributed in 1990 to a much larger cloud-cover over central Europe, which reduced heat-loss to space (greenhouse effect). Thus, spring arrived earlier than usual in 1990, but later than usual in 1996.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    -resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  9. Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Neolithic Circular Ditch Systems ("Rondels") in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília; Barna, Judit P.; Zotti, Georg

    The most discussed structures of the Middle and Late Neolithic period in Central Europe are the rondels or Kreisgrabenanlagen (in German). In the Lengyel culture of the Carpathian Basin, these earthworks seem to follow a common set of architectural rules. The often empty space inside the enclosures is generally surrounded by one or more circular ditches, which are interrupted by two, three, or most often four causeways. The near symmetrically arranged causeways more or less face the main cardinal points. Through the investigation of more than 50 rondels belonging to the Central European Late Neolithic Lengyel culture, it is argued that the sun could be a good candidate to interpret the layout of most structures.

  11. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  12. Holocene winter climate variability in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Perșoiu, Aurel; Onac, Bogdan P; Wynn, Jonathan G; Blaauw, Maarten; Ionita, Monica; Hansson, Margareta

    2017-04-26

    Among abundant reconstructions of Holocene climate in Europe, only a handful has addressed winter conditions, and most of these are restricted in length and/or resolution. Here we present a record of late autumn through early winter air temperature and moisture source changes in East-Central Europe for the Holocene, based on stable isotopic analysis of an ice core recovered from a cave in the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. During the past 10,000 years, reconstructed temperature changes followed insolation, with a minimum in the early Holocene, followed by gradual and continuous increase towards the mid-to-late-Holocene peak (between 4-2 kcal BP), and finally by a decrease after 0.8 kcal BP towards a minimum during the Little Ice Age (AD 1300-1850). Reconstructed early Holocene atmospheric circulation patterns were similar to those characteristics of the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while in the late Holocene they resembled those prevailing in the positive NAO phase. The transition between the two regimes occurred abruptly at around 4.7 kcal BP. Remarkably, the widespread cooling at 8.2 kcal BP is not seen very well as a temperature change, but as a shift in moisture source, suggesting weaker westerlies and increased Mediterranean cyclones penetrating northward at this time.

  13. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  14. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data.

  15. Evaluation of extensive floods in western/central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvoždíková, Blanka; Müller, Miloslav

    2017-07-01

    This paper addresses the identification and evaluation of extreme flood events in the transitional area between western and central Europe in the period 1951-2013. Floods are evaluated in terms of three variants on an extremity index that combines discharge values with the spatial extent of flooding. The indices differ in the threshold of the considered maximum discharges; the flood extent is expressed by a length of affected river network. This study demonstrates that using the index with a higher flood discharge limit changes the floods' rankings significantly. It also highlights the high severity events. In general, we detected an increase in the proportion of warm half-year floods when using a higher discharge limit. Nevertheless, cold half-year floods still predominate in the lists because they generally affect large areas. This study demonstrates the increasing representation of warm half-year floods from the northwest to the southeast.

  16. Netherlands to aid central, eastern Europe in halting pollution effects

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Last year, about 75 project proposals were made to the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment, and the number likely will be greater this year. They were submitted mainly by Dutch industrial and consultancy firms, and covered a broad area of activity - policy planning, support for environmental groups, environmental monitoring networks, emissions abatement, water quality research, and the like. Various criteria are used to evaluate project proposals - typically the priority of the problem being addressed, and the environmental benefit expected to arise from the solution. Special attention is given to Dutch initiatives centering on large-scale problems, such as curbing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants. This paper reports how expanded Dutch policy will bring economic, advisory aid aimed at abating pollution, managing environment to nations of central eastern Europe.

  17. Values and sexual behaviour in central and eastern europe.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Realo, Anu; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Kozlova, Alexandra; Luu, Lan Anh Nguyen; Nizharadze, George

    2002-01-01

    Despite the profusion of social cognitive models for the prediction of sexual behaviour, we have only limited knowledge as to the role of individual values in predicting risky sexual activity. This study assessed the relationship between a recently developed value structure and sexual behaviour in the context of rising HIV infection in central and eastern Europe. Five hundred and three respondents (business people, doctors and nurses) from Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Poland and Russia completed Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire and reported their condom use, partnership history and record of sexual disease. Results indicated that values had a moderate but consistent relationship with sexual behaviour, with riskier sexual activity reported by those high on Openness to Change, Hedonism and Self-Enhancement. These findings are discussed in the context of the need for culturally sensitive interventions in order to tackle the growing HIV epidemic in this region.

  18. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  19. Sandflies and sandfly-borne infections of humans in Central Europe in the light of climate change.

    PubMed

    Aspöck, Horst; Gerersdorfer, Thomas; Formayer, Herbert; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    In Europe, sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are typical Mediterranean faunal elements of low expansivity, which are widely distributed in more than 20 species in many parts of Southern Europe. A few species have extended their distribution to the northwest invading extramediterranean regions (Western, Eastern Europe); any occurrence in Central Europe north of the Alps was excluded until recently. Since 1999 sandflies have been found in several parts in Germany and in Belgium; originally these records were ascribed to climate change and global warming. Meanwhile, the more likely assumption is that sandflies have always, probably since the Holocene climate optima (ca. 4500 and 2500 B.C.), been in Central Europe sporadically to where they have come as immigrants (or re-immigrants) from Mediterranean refugial areas. It is, however, without question that global warming will lead to an extension of the distributional areas of sandflies. A climatological analysis of the localities where sandflies have been found in Central Europe has revealed that temperature is the key factor. A comparison of climatological parameters in sandfly-localities with the climatic conditions in Austria (where sandflies have not yet been found) has shown that an increase of temperature by 1 degrees C in January (Ph. mascittii) or 1 degrees C in July (Ph. neglectus), respectively, would lead to suitable conditions for the occurrence of sandflies in certain parts of Austria. (The scenarios for an increase of temperature until the end of the century vary between 1.5 degrees C to 4.5 degrees C; 3 degrees C seem to be realistic also for critical climatologists.) Leishmaniae certainly do not occur in Central Europe primarily, but an increasing number of infections in humans, as well as in animals, acquired in Central Europe has been registered. It is highly likely that these infections are due to sandflies which have been infected by sucking blood on infected dogs. Dogs infected with

  20. Associations between mortality and air pollution in central Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A; Skorkovsky, J; Kotesovec, F; Brynda, J; Spix, C; Wichmann, H E; Heinrich, J

    2000-01-01

    Increased mortality has been observed in association with elevated concentrations of air pollutants in European cities and in the United States. We reassessed the effects of particulate matter in Central Europe. Mortality and air pollution data were obtained for a highly polluted region of the Czech Republic and a rural region in Germany. Poisson regression analyses were conducted considering trend, season, meteorology, and influenza epidemics as confounders in both a parametric and a nonparametric approach. The Czech Republic had a 3.8% increase in mortality [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-6.9%] in association with 100 microg/m(3) total suspended particles (TSP) (lagged 2 days) for the time period 1982-1994. During the last 2 years of study, 68% of the TSP consisted of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)). An increase of 100 microg/m(3) TSP (lagged 1 day) was associated with a 9.5% increase in mortality (CI, 1.2-18.5%) and 100 microg/m(3) PM(10 )(lagged 1 day) showed a 9.8% increase in mortality (CI, 0.7-19.7%). We found no evidence for an association between mortality and particulate matter in the rural area in Germany at the Czech border. Data from the coal basin in the Czech Republic suggested an increase in mortality associated with the concentration of particulate matter in a highly polluted setting in Central Europe that is consistent with the associations observed in other western European cities and in the United States. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753084

  1. HIV continuum of care in Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Drew, R S; Rice, B; Rüütel, K; Delpech, V; Attawell, K A; Hales, D K; Velasco, C; Amato-Gauci, A J; Pharris, A; Tavoschi, L; Noori, T

    2017-08-01

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) supports countries to monitor progress in their response to the HIV epidemic. In line with these monitoring responsibilities, we assess how, and to what extent, the continuum of care is being measured across countries. The ECDC sent out questionnaires to 55 countries in Europe and Central Asia in 2014. Nominated country representatives were questioned on how they defined and measured six elements of the continuum. We present our results using three previously described frameworks [breakpoints; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets; diagnosis and treatment quadrant]. Forty countries provided data for at least one element of the continuum. Countries reported most frequently on the number of people diagnosed with HIV infection (37; 93%), and on the number in receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (35; 88%). There was little consensus across countries in their approach to defining linkage to, and retention in, care. The most common breakpoint (>19% reduction between two adjacent elements) related to the estimated number of people living with HIV who were diagnosed (18 of 23; 78%). We present continuum data from multiple countries that provide both a snapshot of care provision and a baseline against which changes over time in care provision across Europe and Central Asia may be measured. To better inform HIV testing and treatment programmes, standard data collection approaches and definitions across the HIV continuum of care are needed. If countries wish to ensure an unbroken HIV continuum of care, people living with HIV need to be diagnosed promptly, and ART needs to be offered to all those diagnosed. © 2017 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  2. Baby-Plumes beneath Central Europe - Indications from seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achauer, U.; Granet, M.

    2011-12-01

    The most important result of the seismic investigations in the French Massif Central at the beginning of the 1990' (French-German co-operative project Limagne 91/92) was the proof of an ascending material stream from larger depth (250km), which due to its geochemical, petrological and temperature characteristics and its appearance was classified as a plume and which confirmed an already 20 years earlier expressed hypothesis. The really new of the results were that for the first time the exact size and shape of this plume at upper mantle depths was determined, as well as the fact that no plume head ("mushroom") could be found. This led to the expression of "baby plume" for this kind of material up-streaming in order to differentiate this feature to the classical idea of a plume (such as the model by Shilling). The results from the Massif Central triggered similar seismic experiments in other regions of Central Europe with variscan basement and recent volcanism, such as the Eifel plume project and BOHEMA and led to the proof of another such structure beneath the Eifel volcanic region. In contrast to that does the Bohemian massif anomaly more look like a classic asthenospheric upwarp. Recent investigations, in particularily based on additional data from a project across the southern Massif Central, let assume that the origin of these plume like structures lies in the mantle transition zone and that they might be connected to a fossil slab. In this lecture an overview will be given of the current state of affairs concerning the seismic research on baby plumes, as well as possible causes for their presence will be discussed.

  3. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

  4. An analysis of blogs from medical students on "English Parallel" courses in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, John F

    2013-12-01

    During the last 20 years, there has been a significant growth in the training of overseas students especially within the European Union. Informal discussions with past and present students revealed a marked reluctance to take part in interviews about the nature of "English Parallel" courses. Alternative sources of information include blogs and commentaries written on the internet by present and former students at these schools. Such blogs are relatively limited in number and of variable length. They have been written for a variety of reasons and range in content from commentaries on training to wider discussion of life in Central and Eastern Europe. Six blogs were identified from an internet search, and a qualitative approach was adopted for the analysis of text content. Their experience is assessed, and potential approaches to greater integration of training across Europe are considered.

  5. A dynamical basis for crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1983-01-01

    The stress field in the earth's crust as inferred from satellite gravity data causes crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe. The satellite-determined stresses in the crust of central Europe are consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms, joint-orientation and in situ stress measurements.

  6. Combined Control of Special Operations Forces in the Central Region of Allied Command Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Armed Services Committee, 25 Mal-ch 1987, p. 11. 50 2. Chalupa , Gen. Leopold, Commander Allied Forces Central Europe, "the Defence of Central Europe...34Fury form the Sea: Marines in Grenada," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, ML, 1984. Chalupa , Gen. Leopold

  7. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  8. Structure of the Lithosphere in Central Europe: Integrated Density Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielik, M.; Grinč, M.; Zeyen, H. J.; Plašienka, D.; Pasteka, R.; Krajňák, M.; Bošanský, M.; Mikuška, J.

    2014-12-01

    Firstly, we present new results related to the lithospheric structure and tectonics of the Central Europe and the Western Carpathians. For geophysical study of the lithosphere in Central Europe we calculated four original 2D lithosphere-scales transects crossing this area from the West European Platform in the North to the Aegean Sea in the South and from the Adriatic Sea in the West to the East European Platform in the East. Modelling is based on the joint interpretation of gravity, geoid, topography and surface heat flow data with temperature-dependent density. Wherever possible, crustal structure is constrained by seismic data. The thickness of the lithosphere decreases from the older and colder platforms to the younger and hotter Pannonian Basin with a maximum thickness under the Eastern and Southern Carpathians. The thickness of the Carpathian arc lithosphere varies between 150 km in the North (the Western Carpathians) and about 300 km in the Vrancea zone (the Eastern and Southern Carpathian junction). In the Platform areas it is between 120 and 150 km and in the Pannonian Basin it is about 70 km. The models show that the Moesian Platform is overthrust from the North by the Southern Carpathians and from the South by the Balkanides and characterized by bending of this platform. In all transects, the thickest crust is found underneath the Carpathian Mountains or, as in the case of the Vrancea area, under their immediate foreland. The thickest crust outside the orogens is modelled for the Moesian Platform with Moho depths of up to 45 km. The thinnest crust is located under the Pannonian Basin with about 26-27 km. Secondly, our presentation deals with construction of the stripped gravity map in the Turiec Basin, which represents typical intramontane Neogene depression of the Western Carpathians. Based on this new and original gravity map corrected by regional gravity effect we were able to interpret the geological structure and tectonics of this sedimentary basin

  9. Characteristics of radar-derived hailstreaks across Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Michael; Fluck, Elody; Schmidberger, Manuel; Jürgen Punge, Heinz; Baumstark, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Hailstorms are among the most damaging natural disasters in various parts of Europe. For example, two supercells in Germany, on 27 and 28 July 2013, bearing hailstones with a diameter of up to 10 cm, caused economic losses of around 4.0 billion EUR. Despite the large damage potential of severe hailstorms, knowledge about the probability and severity of hail events and hailstorm-favoring conditions in Europe still is limited. A large event set of past severe thunderstorms that occurred between 2004 and 2014 was identified for Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg from radar data considering a lower threshold of 55 dBZ of the maximum Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator (maxCAPPI). Additional filtering with lightning data and applying a cell tracking algorithm improves the reliability of the detected severe thunderstorm tracks. The obtained statistics show a gradual increase of the track density with increasing distance to the Atlantic and several local-scale maxima, mostly around the mountains. Both the seasonal and daily cycle of severe thunderstorms show large differences across the investigation area. For example, while in Southern France most events occur in June, the peak month in Northern Germany is August, which can be plausibly explained by differences in convective energy due to the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, ambient conditions in terms of convection-related quantities (e.g., CAPE, wind shear, lapse rate) and prevailing synoptic scale fronts were studied both for the entire event set and a subset, where radar-derived storm tracks were combined with hail observations provided by the European Severe Weather Database ESWD. Over Northern Germany, for example, up to 40% of all radar-derived thunderstorm tracks were associated with cold fronts, while in Southern Germany the ratio is only around 20%. Overall, around 25% of all hail streaks were associated with cold fronts.

  10. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Parízková, J

    2000-03-01

    The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.

  11. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D; Herman, Jeremy S; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A; Searle, Jeremy B; Wójcik, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential 'northern glacial refugium', i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe.

  12. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J.; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Wójcik, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential ‘northern glacial refugium’, i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe. PMID:27992546

  13. Comparison of local magnitude scales in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Cipciar, Andrej; Csicsay, Kristian; Srbecky, Miroslav; Kristekova, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Efficient monitoring of earthquakes and determination of their magnitudes are necessary for developing earthquake catalogues at a regional and national levels. Unification and homogenization of the catalogues in terms of magnitudes has great importance for seismic hazard assessment. Calibrated local earthquake magnitude scales are commonly used for determining magnitudes of regional earthquakes by all national seismological services in the Central Europe. However, at the local scale, each seismological service uses its own magnitude determination procedure. There is no systematic comparison of the approaches and there is no unified procedure. We present a comparison of the local magnitude scales used by the national seismological services of Slovakia (Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Austria (ZAMG), Hungary (Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and Poland (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences), and by the local network of seismic stations located around the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. The comparison is based on the national earthquake catalogues and annually published earthquake bulletins for the period from 1985 to 2011. A data set of earthquakes has been compiled based on identification of common events in the national earthquake catalogues and bulletins. For each pair of seismic networks, magnitude differences have been determined and investigated as a function of time. The mean and standard deviations of the magnitude differences as well as regression coefficients between local magnitudes from the national seismological networks have been computed. Results show relatively big scatter between different national local magnitudes and its considerable time variation. A conversion between different national local magnitudes in a scale 1:1 seems inappropriate, especially for the compilation of the

  14. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  15. Treatment cost of narcolepsy with cataplexy in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Maresova, Petra; Novotny, Michal; Klímová, Blanka; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Background Narcolepsy is a lifelong, rare neurological sleep disorder characterized by chronic, excessive attacks of daytime sleepiness. This disease is often extremely incapacitating, interfering with every aspect of life, in work and social settings. Objective The purpose of this study is to specify the treatment costs of patients in Central Europe (Czech Republic), while the attention is mainly paid to the drugs that were fully or partially covered by public health insurance. Furthermore, concomitant therapy is also evaluated, since it incurs a certain financial burden for patients and their family members. On the basis of the calculated costs, impact on the public budget is evaluated. Patients and methods This study monitors the direct costs of the drugs for 13 patients, who represent ~1.3% of the total number of diagnosed patients in the Czech Republic, and evaluates the costs associated with their treatment during the period from January 9, 2011 to April 23, 2013. Results Most of the treatment costs (~80%) were covered by publicly available sources. This finding is also true for the concomitant therapy of comorbidities. Additional payments for the drugs constitute about 20% of the total costs. PMID:27920540

  16. The situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), i.e. a group of 15 countries lying east of the Oder river-Trieste line and west of the present/planned EU eastern border. Together these countries have 106.6 million inhabitants, i.e. about a quarter of the population of the "European economic space". Its nuclear medicine, however, represents less than 10% of European nuclear medicine manpower and equipment. In these countries there are at least 245 nuclear medicine departments with 661 nuclear medicine specialists and at least 376 gamma cameras. There are six dedicated PET units and three PET/SPECT centres, as well as one manufacturer of gamma cameras, six radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and two nuclear medicine scientific journals. The biggest nuclear medicine communities are in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The scientific input of the CEE countries to European science is moderate-about 10% when measured by EANM congress abstracts, and 5% when measured by the number of papers in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Mean European bibliometric parameters are approached only by Hungary and-to some extent-the Czech Republic. This survey indicates the need for international cooperation to improve the level of nuclear medicine in the CEE countries so that it reaches European standards. The potential of these countries could also be better used to the benefit of European nuclear medicine.

  17. Mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wapler, Kathrin; Hengstebeck, Thomas; Groenemeijer, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence and characteristics of mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar are analysed. A three year analysis shows an annual and diurnal cycle with a wider maximum in the late afternoon/evening compared to the diurnal cycle of general thunderstorms. Analysis of F2 tornado events and over a hundred hail storms show the characteristics of the corresponding mesocyclones as seen by radar. For all of the six F2 tornadoes in the three-year period in Germany a corresponding mesocyclone could be detected in radar data. Furthermore the analysis reveals that about half of all hail storms in Germany are associated with a mesocyclone detected in radar data within 10 km and 10 min. Some mesocyclone attributes, e.g. depth and maximum shear, and of the associated convective cell, e.g. reflectivity related parameters VIL, VILD and echotop, have predictive skill for indicating the occurrence of hail. The mesocyclone detection algorithm may support the analysis and nowcasting of severe weather events and thus support the warning process.

  18. The Genetic Legacy of Multiple Beaver Reintroductions in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Christiane; Kraus, Robert H. S.; Angst, Christof; Allgöwer, Rainer; Michaux, Johan; Teubner, Jana; Nowak, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The comeback of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) throughout western and central Europe is considered a major conservation success. Traditionally, several subspecies are recognised by morphology and mitochondrial haplotype, each linked to a relict population. During various reintroduction programs in the 20th century, beavers from multiple source localities were released and now form viable populations. These programs differed in their reintroduction strategies, i.e., using pure subspecies vs. mixed source populations. This inhomogeneity in management actions generated ongoing debates regarding the origin of present beaver populations and appropriate management plans for the future. By sequencing of the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite genotyping of 235 beaver individuals from five selected regions in Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium we show that beavers from at least four source origins currently form admixed, genetically diverse populations that spread across the study region. While regional occurrences of invasive North American beavers (n = 20) were found, all but one C. fiber bore the mitochondrial haplotype of the autochthonous western Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU). Considering this, as well as the viability of admixed populations and the fact that the fusion of different lineages is already progressing in all studied regions, we argue that admixture between different beaver source populations should be generally accepted. PMID:24827835

  19. An interpretation of the Magsat anomalies of central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. T.; Ravat, D.

    1995-12-01

    Magsat studies of central Europe have revealed correspondence between tectonic elements /geological structures and long-wavelength satellite-altitude anomalies. The most striking correlation is the two Magsat anomalies (one positive and the other negative) associated with either side of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone (TTZ). The TTZ, which extends from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea, represents the structural boundary (suture) between the younger, thinner, and hotter crust of the Hercynide or Paleozoic block (negative anomaly) and the older, thicker, and colder crust of the East European Precambrian Platform (positive anomaly). This produces a gradient of approximately 18 nT (peak-to-trough) and a half-wavelength of 720 km along a Magsat orbit at 325 km altitude. This anomaly pair is the result of the juxtaposition of these two significantly different crustal blocks. To model this field, two irregular three-dimensional bodies were used to represent the Precambrian and Paleozoic crust. The former was modeled with a normal magnetization vector while the latter was modeled with a reverse vector. Aeromagnetic anomalies in western Germany and rock magnetic measurements from Germany and Scandinavia support a model in which reversely magnetic geologic units, extending from upper-crustal metasediments to mid-crustal sources produce this negative anomaly.

  20. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, F M; Vrana, K; Zhovinsky, E; Povoroznuk, V; Toth, G; Hope, B C; Iljinsky, U; Baker, J

    2007-04-01

    Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts, but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentrations causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently sets water quality guidelines for the element. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg l-1 are widespread and effects on health of high fluoride in water have been reported. The aim of the current project was to develop a geographic information system (GIS) to aid the identification of areas where high-fluoride waters and fluorosis may be a problem; hence, where water treatment technologies should be targeted. The development of the GIS was based upon the collation and digitisation of existing information relevant to fluoride risk in Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Slovakia assembled for the first time in a readily accessible form. In addition, geochemistry and health studies to examine in more detail the relationships between high-fluoride drinking waters and health effects in the population were carried out in Moldova and Ukraine demonstrating dental fluorosis prevalence rates of 60-90% in adolescents consuming water containing 2-7 mg l-1 fluoride.

  1. Is the Central Europe more inclinable to wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Virag, M.; Bares, D.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Hlavinka, P.

    2009-09-01

    Many studies indicate a gradual increase in danger of wildfire in Central Europe. The risk of wildfire differs greatly among individual areas (whether regions or districts), and this difference remains, irrespective of the methods used to describe the danger of wildfires. For this study was used the calculation of the FDI (Fire Danger Index) for 200 stations on the territory of Czech Republic in the period 1961-2008. The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. During processing the model compute upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the speed of spread of wildfire. Between years 1991-2008 there was an increase in the average monthly FDI indices in comparison to the period 1961-1990. During this period, a statistically significant trend toward higher indices was found (0.02 FDI index/year). The trend of danger of wildfires growth was evident in all months.

  2. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    cervical cancer in the countries within the two regions. It is hoped that the expanded second edition of the European Guidelines will finally kick-start effective interventions in many of these countries that still lack organised programmes. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  3. Towards a Dense Velocity Field for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Twelve measurement campaigns between 1994 and 2011 with epoch and permanent GNSS stations make the CEGRN network one of the most regularly and accurately surveyed networks for scientific applications. Recently, the CEGRN GNSS data have been reprocessed with consistent orbits and IGS05 antenna models. On the other hand, the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) represents the backbone geodetic infrastructure for Europe and realizes the ETRS89 system prescriptions with the ETRF2000 reference frame. Recently EUREF prepared its densification of the ITRF2008 and the IGS08 reference frames and resulting in cumulative SINEX files: by stacking reprocessed weekly normal equation files from 1996 to present, high accuracy positions and velocities of IGS and EPN stations in Europe could be obtained in a consistent reference frame throughout the temporal range. It is finally worth noting that both the IAG Working Group on "Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF" and the EUREF Working Group on Deformation Models encourage initiatives aiming at estimating velocities of GNSS sites in a rigorous manner, both for reference frame applications and 3D tectonic deformation problems. Within this framework it is then natural to attempt a combination of the EPN and CEGRN networks with the intent to bring down to regional, i.e. Central European, scale the same standard of accuracy of the EPN long-term solution, without reprocessing the entire set of raw GNSS data. This paper presents the first results of the EPN+CEGRN combination: we review the common properties of the input SINEX files, the processing software Bernese 5.0 and CATREF, the adopted processing strategies and the results, in terms of positions, velocities and Helmert parameters. We discuss the pros and cons of three possible processing strategies: one consists in stacking the individual, weekly CEGRN campaign solutions with the cumulative EPN solution; the second consists in stacking the two cumulative solutions, CEGRN and

  4. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  5. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  6. A Treasure Chest of Nanogranites: the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, S.; O'Brien, P. J.; Walczak, K.; Wunder, B.; Ziemann, M. A.; Hecht, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite 150 years of investigation of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe), it is only recently that the investigation of old and new samples displayed the occurrence of tiny portions of crystallized anatectic melt in regional migmatites. These vestiges of magma, called "nanogranites", are natural probes of the partial melting processes in the crust. Original melt composition and water content can be directly analyzed after piston cylinder re-homogenization. When compared to classic re-melting experiments, nanogranites are ideal "natural" experimental charges of anatectic melt. They are encapsulated in peritectic garnet immediately after production - both phases are products of the same partial melting reaction. Sheltered inside garnet, they remain unaffected by the physico-chemical changes which affected the host migmatites during their slow cooling, unlike leucosomes and anatexis-related plutons. Five different case studies of nanogranite-bearing high-grade rocks have been identified so far: three in metapelites from the Moldanubian Zone, and two in metagranitoids from the Granulitgebirge and Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Their characterization provides insights into how the continental crust melts at different depths, from shallow levels to mantle depths, during different moments of its metamorphic history (prograde vs. decompressional melting). For example, the investigation and experimental re-melting of nanogranites from Grt+Ky leucogranulites (Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome) recently provided evidence of prograde melting of metagranitoids under eclogite-facies conditions (T≥875°C and P~2.7 GPa), close to the stability field of coesite. The melt generated is granitic, hydrous (6 wt% H2O) and metaluminous (ASI=1.03), and is at the moment the "deepest" glass obtained through re-homogenization of primary polycrystalline inclusions in natural rocks. This work confirms that nanogranites in migmatites 1) are a powerful tool to constrain anatexis in natural rocks, and 2) can

  7. Directly observable optical properties of sprites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-04-01

    Luminous optical emissions accompanying streamer-based natural electric breakdown processes initiating in the mesosphere are called sprites. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68N, 16.58E, 230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. On the basis of these observations, characteristic morphological properties of sprites, i.e. basic forms (e.g. column, carrot, angel, etc.) as well as common morphological features (e.g. tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, etc.), have been identified. Probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with each of the basic sprite forms. It is speculated that different sequences of streamer propagation directions can result in very similar final sprite shapes. The number and type variety of sprite elements appearing in an event as well as the total optical duration of an event was analyzed statistically. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events were considered as special subsets of sprite clusters. It was found that more than 90% of the recorded sprite elements appeared in clusters rather than alone and more than half of the clusters contained more than one basic sprite forms. The analysis showed that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites featuring glows and tendrils do not tend to have optical lifetimes longer than 80 ms. Such very long optical lifetimes have not been observed in sprite clusters containing more than 25 elements of any type, either. In contrast to clusters containing sprite entities of only one form, sprite events showing more sprite forms seem to have extended optical durations more likely. The need for further investigation and for finding theoretical concepts to link these observations to electric conditions ambient for sprite formation is emphasized.

  8. Modelling of stable water isotopes in Central Europe with COSMOiso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Emanuel; Pfahl, Stephan; Schädler, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric water in form of vapor or clouds is responsible for ˜75 % of the natural greenhouse effect and carries huge amounts of latent heat. For this reason, a best possible description of the hydrological cycle is a prerequisite for reliable climate modelling. As the stable isotopes H216O, H218O and HDO differ in vapor pressure, they are fractionated during phase changes and contain information about the formation of precipitation, evaporation from the ground, etc. Therefore, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water is an useful tracer to test and improve our understanding of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere. Within the project PalMod the isotope-enabled limited-area model COSMOiso will be used for high-resolution isotope simulations of paleo-climates. For validation with modern observations we compare 12 years of modelled isotope ratios from Central Europe to observations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and to observations of isotope ratios of water vapor at different locations in Germany. We find a good agreement of modelled and observed isotope ratios in summer. In winter, we observe a systematic overestimation of modelled isotope ratios in precipitation and low-level water vapor. We relate those differences to specific circulation regimes with predominantly easterly moisture transport and the corresponding strong dependence of modelled isotope ratios on lateral boundary data. Furthermore, we investigate the dependence of modelled isotope ratios in winter on the type of isotope fractionation during surface evaporation at skin temperatures close to the freezing point.

  9. Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    AD-A214 057 Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region Paul K. Davis DTIG ELECTEfl NOVO TIM D A Report...USDP toCVED Toward A Conceptual Framework for Operational interim IIAArms Control in Europe’s Central Region PE. 0IORMING OJIG RIE UMUER 111"hI 7...CLAgOIIFCA11N OPP TWOS PA441WhOM 0... 4CR.,.aI 177 R-3704-USDP Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region Paul

  10. Strategic Developments in Open and Distance Learning in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Based on work by the European Union's PHARE Multi-Country Programme in Distance Education, explores: (1) contextual issues related to the development of open and distance learning and the changing nature of higher education; (2) developments across Europe and associated problems; and (3) possible solutions in Central and Eastern Europe related to…

  11. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe: potential for biological control and comments on its taxonomy

    Treesearch

    H.P. Ravn; N.P. Havill; S. Akbulut; R.G. Foottit; M. Serin; M. Erdem; S. Mutun; M. Kenis

    2013-01-01

    The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe, where its...

  12. The magnetic low of central Europe: analysis and interpretation by a multi scale approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Maurizio; Fedi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    -SE direction. So, a simple contact model was performed in order to demonstrate that the main source that generates the EML is the complex fault system of the TESZ. However, the |T| maxima are positioned not only along the suture zone, but also in Central Europe, showing that the contributions to the EML derive also from sources placed in the Paleozoic platform with a reverse dipolar aspect. From these results it appears that the contributions responsible for the nature of this anomaly are to be reconnected first to the presence of the TESZ, which puts in contact two different platforms with different thicknesses, and also to the presence of bodies with a strong remanent component, which characterize part of the Central European crust.

  13. Decentralizing Education in Transition Societies: Case Studies from Central and Eastern Europe. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiszbein, Ariel, Ed.

    This book is about education system reform in Central and Eastern Europe, with emphasis on decentralization and management. In the past, local authorities served as implementation arms of the central ministry, while finance and decision-making were controlled by the central government, leaving local communities with little influence. New education…

  14. Development of the HLA proficiency testing for Central and East Europe.

    PubMed

    Bogunia-Kubik, K; Lange, A

    2008-08-01

    In order to increase the reliability of histocompatibility testing, several external proficiency testing (EPT) schemes have been established within Europe. All the laboratories trying to obtain European Federation for Immunogenetics (EFI) accreditation are obliged to take part in standardization trials for human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing and to participate in EPT programme(s) to cover all techniques in use for accredited activities. We started our activity in 1999. At that time, the Quality Control Workshop was run for Polish laboratories involved in HLA typing. A year later, our activity was expanded to the Central East European area. As a result, the third national workshop was combined with the Proficiency Testing of HLA Class I Typing for Central and East Europe. In total, until year 2005, 38 institutions from 14 countries have participated in our workshop. During that period the results of HLA class I A, B and C locus typing by serology and at the DNA low resolution level were expected. To meet the further requirements of participating laboratories starting with year 2006 and the XI trial of the workshop we plan to increase the number of HLA loci to be tested (HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1) and include also high resolution typing. Our EPT is organized under the auspices of the Polish Society for Immunogenetics (PSI) and all laboratories within Poland involved in HLA typing for donor selection within Poltransplant and seeking the PSI accreditation are obliged to participate in our workshop.

  15. The Impact of Urban Emissions on Chemistry and Climate over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of city emissions of short lived gases and aerosols on the tropospheric chemistry and climate is examined over Central Europe. A coupled modelling system consisting of the regional climate model RegCM4 and the chemistry transport model CAMx is implemented over a 10 km x 10 km resolution domain. For each period of 2001-2010, 2026-2035 and 2046-2055 a pair of experiments is performed: one with urban emissions removed and one with urban emissions scaled by the factor. The chemistry-climate impact is evaluated as the difference between the corresponding experiments divided by this factor. This choice was important to obtain statistically significant results. The linearity is examined to justify this approach. The radiative feedbacks of tropospheric ozone, primary (black and organic carbon) and secondary inorganic aerosols (sulfates and nitrates) are taken into account including the 1st and 2nd indirect aerosol effect. Due to city emissions, we found significant ozone titration especially over the western and northern part of the domain. City emissions contribute to ozone production over southern Europe. An increase of sulfate, nitrate aerosols and black/organic is significant as well and is modelled not only over urbanized areas but all over the computational domain. Evaluating the radiative impacts, we found that the total urban impact on 2 m temperature over central Europe is characterized by cooling up to -0.015 K as a 2001-2010 average. The radiative impact of the individual constituents (ozone, sulfate-, nitrate aerosols etc.) is examined as well.

  16. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  17. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

  18. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  19. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleobiogeography of the genus Apodemus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Knitlová, Markéta; Horáček, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are an essential component of small mammal communities throughout Europe. Molecular data suggest the postglacial colonization of current ranges from south European glacial refugia, different in particular species. Yet, details on the course of colonization and Holocene history of particular species are not available, partly because of a lack of reliable criteria for species identification in the fossil record. Using a sample of extant species, we analyzed variation patterns and between-species overlaps for a large set of metric and non-metric dental variables and established the criteria enabling the reliable species identification of fragmentary fossil material. The corresponding biometrical analyses were undertaken with fossil material of the genus (2528 items, 747 MNI) from 22 continuous sedimentary series in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, from LGM to Recent. In Central Europe, the genus is invariantly absent in LGM assemblages but regularly appears during the Late Vistulian. All the earliest records belong to A. flavicollis, the species clearly predominating in the fossil record until the Late Holocene. A. uralensis accompanied it in all regions until the late Boreal when disappeared from the fossil record (except for Pannonia). A few items identified as A. sylvaticus had already appeared in the early Holocene assemblages, first in the western part of the region, yet the regular appearance of the species is mostly in the post-Neolithic age. A. agrarius appeared sparsely from the Boreal with a maximum frequency during the post-Neolithic period. The results conform well to the picture suggested by molecular phylogeography but demonstrate considerable differences among particular species in dynamic of the range colonization. Further details concerning Holocene paleobiogeography of individual species in the medium latitude Europe are discussed.

  20. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleobiogeography of the genus Apodemus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Knitlová, Markéta; Horáček, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are an essential component of small mammal communities throughout Europe. Molecular data suggest the postglacial colonization of current ranges from south European glacial refugia, different in particular species. Yet, details on the course of colonization and Holocene history of particular species are not available, partly because of a lack of reliable criteria for species identification in the fossil record. Using a sample of extant species, we analyzed variation patterns and between-species overlaps for a large set of metric and non-metric dental variables and established the criteria enabling the reliable species identification of fragmentary fossil material. The corresponding biometrical analyses were undertaken with fossil material of the genus (2528 items, 747 MNI) from 22 continuous sedimentary series in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, from LGM to Recent. In Central Europe, the genus is invariantly absent in LGM assemblages but regularly appears during the Late Vistulian. All the earliest records belong to A. flavicollis, the species clearly predominating in the fossil record until the Late Holocene. A. uralensis accompanied it in all regions until the late Boreal when disappeared from the fossil record (except for Pannonia). A few items identified as A. sylvaticus had already appeared in the early Holocene assemblages, first in the western part of the region, yet the regular appearance of the species is mostly in the post-Neolithic age. A. agrarius appeared sparsely from the Boreal with a maximum frequency during the post-Neolithic period. The results conform well to the picture suggested by molecular phylogeography but demonstrate considerable differences among particular species in dynamic of the range colonization. Further details concerning Holocene paleobiogeography of individual species in the medium latitude Europe are discussed. PMID:28282422

  1. Have "new" methods in medical education reached German-speaking Central Europe: a survey.

    PubMed

    Fandler, Martin; Habersack, Marion; Dimai, Hans P

    2014-08-16

    Simulation-based-training (SBT) in the education of health professionals is discussed as an effective alternative for knowledge and skills enhancement as well as for the establishment of a secure learning environment, for learners and patients. In the Anglo-American region, SBT and simulation and training centers (STC) are numbered as standard for medical training. In German-speaking Central Europe, priority is still given to the establishment of SBT and STC. The purpose of this study was (i) to survey the status quo relating to the existence and facilities of simulation and training centers at medical universities in German-speaking Central Europe and (ii) the evaluation of training methods, especially in the area of emergency medicine skills. All public and private medical universities or medical faculties in Germany (36), Austria (4) and German-speaking Switzerland (3) were interviewed. In the survey, information regarding the existence and facilities of STCs and information with regards to the use of SBT in the area of emergency medicine was requested. The questions were partly posed in a closed-ended-, in an open-ended- and in a multiple choice format (with the possibility of selecting more than one answer). Of a total of 43 contacted medical universities/medical faculties, 40 ultimately participated in the survey. As decisive for the establishment of a STC the potential to improve the clinical-practical training and the demand by students were listed. Obligatory training in a STC during the first and sixth academic year was confirmed only by 12 institutions, before the first invasive procedure on patients by 17 institutions. 13 institutions confirmed the use of the STC for the further training of physicians and care-staff. Training for the acute care and emergency medicine skills in the field of pediatrics, for the most part, occurs decentralized. New methods in medical training have reached German-speaking Central Europe, but the simulation and training

  2. Direct terrestrial–marine correlation demonstrates surprisingly late onset of the last interglacial in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sier, Mark J.; Roebroeks, Wil; Bakels, Corrie C.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Brühl, Enrico; De Loecker, Dimitri; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine; Hesse, Norbert; Jagich, Adam; Kindler, Lutz; Kuijper, Wim J.; Laurat, Thomas; Mücher, Herman J.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Richter, Daniel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically important event at 3400 ± 350 yr. More importantly, the Neumark Nord 2 data enables precise terrestrial–marine correlation for the Eemian stage in central Europe. This shows a remarkably large time lag of ca. 5000 yr between the MIS 5e ‘peak’ in the marine record and the start of the last interglacial in this region. PMID:26523075

  3. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  4. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  5. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-30

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  6. Entrepreneurial and Vocational Education and Training: Lessons from Eastern and Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    The social, economic and political systems of former communist countries have faced considerable changes since the late 1980s. Most countries in Eastern and Central Europe have undergone their own individual brand of transition from a centrally planned, command system to a more or less liberalized, Western-style market economy. Many observers…

  7. Employment of Tacair in Central Europe: Problems and Possible Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Europe in the initial phase of an armed conflict as well as in support of the FOFA concept. In the foreseeable future, no effective alternatives to...still offer a large potential for improvements, which could in turn increase the combat effectiveness of NATO air forces. 8 The foregoing threat analysis ...Pact is considered to be of decisive importance for the European theater of war (follow-on-forces attack/ FOFA ). 23 It has to be stated that suppression

  8. European Security and NATO Enlargement: A View from Central Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    and free, to the benefit of all its peoples . Making this commitment at the highest political level marks the beginning of a fundamentally new...on the Baltic states’ future membership in NATO, it is by no means certain that the present level of integration in and of itself makes Europe as a...sing, but actually to have solos for a time until the orchestra hopefully comes together and makes a decision. Therefore, integration also enhances

  9. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  10. Geomorphological and sedimentary evidence of probable glaciation in the Jizerské hory Mountains, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Křížek, Marek; Kasprzak, Marek; Traczyk, Andrzej; Hložek, Martin; Krbcová, Klára

    2017-03-01

    The Jizerské hory Mountains in the Czech Republic have traditionally been considered to be a highland that lay beyond the limits of Quaternary glaciations. Recent work on cirque-like valley heads in the central part of the range has shown that niche glaciers could form during the Quaternary. Here we report geomorphological and sedimentary evidence for a small glacier in the Pytlácká jáma Hollow that represents one of the most-enclosed valley heads within the range. Shape and size characteristics of this landform indicate that the hollow is a glacial cirque at a degraded stage of development. Boulder accumulations at the downslope side of the hollow probably represent a relic of terminal moraines, and the grain size distribution of clasts together with micromorphology of quartz grains from the hollow indicate the glacial environment of a small glacier. This glacier represents the lowermost located such system in central Europe and provides evidence for the presence of niche or small cirque glaciers probably during pre-Weichselian glacial periods. The glaciation limit (1000 m asl) and paleo-ELA (900 m asl) proposed for the Jizerské hory Mountains implies that central European ranges lower than 1100 m asl were probably glaciated during the Quaternary.

  11. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  12. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  13. Opportunities and challenges in rheumatology research in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szekanecz, Zoltán; Anic, Branimir; Héjj, Gábor; Holc, Iztok; Hunka, Aniella; Kucharz, Eugene; Machold, Klaus; Mayer, Miroslav; Pahor, Artur; Puchner, Rudolf; Rovensky, Jozef; Senolt, Ladislav; Tuchynova, Alena; Vencovsky, Jiri; Smolen, Josef S

    2017-09-04

    The Central European Congress of Rheumatology (CECR) has been organized by seven Central European countries: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. These countries have lots of similarities, but also differences, with respect to rheumatology research. In this paper, based on questionnaires, we wish to demonstrate achievements and difficulties in rheumatology research performed in our region.

  14. "out of The Cold": On Late Neanderthal Population Dynamics In Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöris, O.

    During the last several years, analyses of fossil Neanderthal DNA have shown not only the degree to which the genetic fingerprints of Neanderthals differ from those of anatomically modern humans, but have also lent credibility to the hotly debated "Out- of-Africa" hypothesis. Perhaps more important than the observed genetic differences is the fact that Neanderthals - according to their reconstructed DNA sequences - were genetically highly homogeneous, indicating rapid population growth that may have followed a demographic 'bottleneck' during the first cold maximum (CM-1 = second part of OIS 4) of the last glacial, some 60 to 70 ka ago. Central European Middle Palaeolithic sites characterised by broad spectra of bifacially-worked tools, namely different forms of backed knives ("Keilmesser") com- monly attributed to Neanderthals, fall within the age-range 85 and 45 ka calBP and thus both pre- and post-date the proposed 'bottleneck' that occurred during CM-1. Di- rectly comparable sites dating within this critical period are lacking. Based on strati- graphic, palaeoenvironmental, and radiometric evidence, a series of sites can tenta- tively be age-calibrated with the high-resolution GISP2 Greenland ice core record of last glacial climate change. With the aid of improved chronological frameworks and additional palaeoenvironmen- tal information (e.g. glacier mass balance models), we have developed a three-step model with which to investigate this period. We begin with (1) pre-CM-1 populations in Central and northern Central Europe which (2) were forced into southern Euro- pean refugia (i.e. SW France and the Pannonian Basins) by the rapid expansion of the northern hemispheric ice-cover at the beginning of CM-1 (a process that could be named 'preglacial dislocation'). Finally, some 10 ka later, their descendants may have re-occupied the southern part of Central Europe during the climatic amelioration (OIS 3) following CM-1. Changes in lithic technology, as expressed in

  15. Diet and Mobility in the Corded Ware of Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Price, T. Douglas; Kristiansen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic investigations of two cemetery populations from the Corded Ware Culture in southern Germany reveal new information on the dating of these graves, human diet during this period, and individual mobility. Corded Ware Culture was present across much of temperate Europe ca. 2800–2200 cal. BC and is represented by distinctive artifacts and burial practices. Corded Ware was strongly influenced by the Yamnaya Culture that arose in the steppes of eastern Europe and western Eurasia after 3000 BC, as indicated by recent aDNA research. However, the development of CW on different chronological and spatial scales has to be evaluated. Examination of the CW burials from southern Germany supports an argument for substantial human mobility in this period. Several burials from gravefields and larger samples from two large cemeteries at Lauda-Königshofen "Wöllerspfad" and at Bergheinfeld “Hühnerberg” contributed the human remains for our study of bone and tooth enamel from the Corded Ware Culture. Our results suggest that Corded Ware groups in this region at least were subsisting on a mix of plant and animal foods and were highly mobile, especially the women. We interpret this as indicating a pattern of female exogamy, involving different groups with differing economic strategies. PMID:27223117

  16. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services.

  17. Geodynamic model for the Palaeozoic crustal consolidation of Western and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, P. A.

    1986-06-01

    The crystalline basement of Western and Central Europe consists of a mosaic of crustal elements which were consolidated during pre-Grenvillian, the Grenvillian-Dalslandian, Morarian, Cadomian, Caledonian and Hercynian orogenic cycles. Contemporaneous with the Caledonian suturing of the Precambrian Laurentia-Greenland and Fennosarmatian shields a number of Gondwana-derived Cadomian micro-cratons were accreted to the southern margin of Laurasia. Following the Late Caledonian paroxysm, the Devonian and Early Carboniferous evolution of Europe was dominated by continued northward subduction of the Proto Tethys plate at an arc-trench system parallelling the southern margin of Laurasia, the accretion of additional Gondwana-derived continental fragments, back-arc rifting and a sinistral translation of major proportions between the Laurentia-Greenland and the Fennosarmatian sub-plates. The Acadian and Bretonian orogenies were of the Pacific type. The Visean collision of Gondwana with Laurasia marked the onset of the Himalayan-type Variscan orogeny, during which collision-related compressive stresses overpowered the Devonian-Early Carboniferous back-arc rift systems and caused the development/reactivation of A-subduction zones. The Central Armorican and Saxothuringian successor basins became folded and destroyed during the latest Visean, whilst the Variscan foredeep became scooped out, in part by nappes involving the basement, during the Late Westphalian. Major crustal shortening during the Variscan diastrophism was accompanied by the anatectic remobilisation of subducted crustal and upper mantle material and a widespread syn- and late-orogenic magmatism. The latest Carboniferous-Early Permian reorientation of the convergence direction between Gondwana and Laurasia induced the development of a complex wrench-fault system transecting the Variscan fold belt and an extensive post-orogenic volcanism. The hypotheses summarised here require confirmation by further palaeomagnetic

  18. Regional precipitation extremes in Central Europe in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Markus; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    In order to estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under ongoing climate change, an evaluation of the relationship between atmospheric circulation types and regional precipitation events took place in the bilateral research project WETRAX (WEather Patterns Cyclone TRAcks and related precipitation EXtremes). For parts of Central Europe, a data set of gridded daily precipitation with 6km horizontal resolution has been generated for the period 1951-2006 by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG). S-mode principal component analysis has been applied to determine regions with similar precipitation variability. These regional precipitation records have been calculated as the regional arithmetic mean of daily precipitation during the standard seasons (DJF, MAM, JJA and SON). Extreme precipitation events have been defined by the 95th percentile for each 'rainfall region'. Large-scale atmospheric circulation types have been derived by different statistical methods and variables applying the COST733 classification software to gridded daily NCEP1 reanalysis data. To evaluate the performance of a particular circulation type classification with respect to regional precipitation extremes, multiple regression models have been derived between the circulation type frequencies as predictor variables and monthly frequencies of extreme precipitation. The application of suitable models to 21st century GCM data reveals that the use of different GCMs results in partial significant trends in the frequencies of regional precipitation extremes. Increasing frequencies of regional precipitation events (up to +10%) are shown for ECHAM6 and RCP8.5 scenario in nearer future (2021-2050), while the same scenario leads to significant decreases in occurrences of regional precipitation extremes (up to -16%) in the later projection period (2071-2100). In other seasons, varying trends in regional precipitation extremes are determined. These uncertainties

  19. The broad spectrum of hantaviruses and their hosts in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Klempa, B; Radosa, L; Kruger, D H

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are considered to be emerging viruses due to their increasing significance as human pathogens and their cyclic reappearance during outbreaks. Central Europe is an important endemic region for hantavirus infections. Reflecting the presence of all relevant small mammals serving as reservoir hosts, close to all recognized European hantaviruses occur also in Central Europe. Important human pathogens, Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade viruses, are present and cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome of various severities. Moreover, several of the newly recognized shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses are present. In this review, we summarize current data on molecular detection of hantaviruses in reservoir hosts as well as on molecular epidemiology of human hantavirus infections in Central Europe.

  20. Hungarian travertine: a historic and current stone resource of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    Travertine is a widespread dimension stone that was used worldwide in monuments. The best known examples are known from the Roman Empire from Italy, where this porous stone belonged to one of the favourite stone types. Ancient quarries of Tivoli provided material to major construction works to Rome. Other occurrences belonging to the Roman Empire outside of Rome were also used by the Romans. Some of the most important European deposits are known from Hungary. Exploitable travertine layers are found at many places in Hungary but at least two major areas were actively quarried by the Romans. One major deposit was not far away from the provincial capital of Roman Pannonia - called Aquincum, which currently forms a part of Budapest, while the other even larger occurrence is at Süttő, at the riverside of Danube some 50 km NE from the past capital. River Danube provided an excellent pathway of transport ting stone to the capital. Evidences indicate that quarrying activity in Süttő area has already begun during the 1st century BC and the travertine has been exploited with some interruptions since then. The present day quarries form the parts of the largest active dimension quarry system of Hungary. The exposed very thick banks (3 to 4m) of travertine were deposited from lukewarm springs during the Pleistocene period. Various types of travertine were used for constructing Roman aqueducts, fortresses, amphitheatre until the 4th century AD and were also transported to other parts of that Roman Province which extended to the present territory of Hungary, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. Although the use of travertine has significantly decreased after the fall of Roman Empire in Central Europe and in Hungary, the presence of this stone was also documented from numerous Gothic and Baroque buildings from the area. The use of this stone became more popular again in the Carpathian Basin, when major constructions of larger cities such as Bratislava, Vienna or Budapest accelerated

  1. Climate change impacts on hydrological extremes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An increase of hydro-climatic extremes can be observed worldwide and is challenging national and regional risk management and adaptation plans. Our study presents and discusses possible trends in climate drivers and hydro-climatic extremes in Europe observed and under future climate conditions. In a case study for Germany, impacts of different regional climate scenario ensembles are compared. To this end, a hydrological model was applied to transform the scenarios data into river runoff for more than 5000 river reaches in Germany. Extreme Value Distributions have been fitted to the hydrographs of the river reaches to derive the basic flood statistics. The results for each river reach have been linked to related damage functions as provided by the German Insurance Association considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The robust result is that under scenario conditions a significant increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany, while also the number of low flow events may rise.

  2. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Lebedev, S.; Cristiano, L.; Meier, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid growth in the no. of seismic stations globally, manual data processing for routine analysis as well as determination of seismic observables becomes more and more impractical. Therefore, automated schemes are inevitable to handle these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We measure inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical component (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. We have developed a scheme to automate this well established inter-station method, which automatically selects the smooth parts of observed phase velocity dispersion curves, and thus obtain path average phase velocity dispersion curve of each inter-station path. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we finally confined the method to three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the parameters and obtained optimal values of these three parameters. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe which involved more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of the data of the permanent networks. The method was also tested on temporary deployments e.g. TOR, PASSEQ, SVEKALPKO etc, across Europe. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 100 kilometers. Well known features of upper mantle structure in central Europe are well resolved in our phase velocity maps. Distinct differences

  3. Emergence of Blastoschizomyces capitatus Yeast Infections, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bertschy, Sonja; Aebersold, Franziska; Mueller, Nicolas J.; Achermann, Yvonne; Muehlethaler, Konrad; Zimmerli, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We report 5 cases of disseminated infection caused by Blastoschizomyces capitatus yeast in central Switzerland. The emergence of this yeast in an area in which it is not known to be endemic should alert clinicians caring for immunocompromised patients outside the Mediterranean region to consider infections caused by unfamiliar fungal pathogens. PMID:22261201

  4. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  5. Manpower of neurologists in the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lisnic, V; Grisold, W; Müller, E

    2008-11-01

    Manpower of neurologists from the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe differs very much from the number of neurologists in most of the countries of Western Europe. With the enlargement of the European Union (EU), it is necessary to consider the tendencies of manpower evolution amongst the 'new' European countries to be able to consider future developments, particularly in regard to education and migration. A survey was performed to study distribution and tendencies to migrate amongst neurologists from the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The number of neurologists per 10,000 inhabitants varies from one country to another, but is higher in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe than in most Western European countries. There are almost no available positions for neurologists in Eastern Europe, and the majority of neurologists are keen to migrate to EU countries -- for further education and for financial reasons. The number of neurologists in the 'reforming and transition' countries is considerably higher than in the countries of the EU. Many neurologists from these countries would like to migrate to countries of the EU or USA, but the existing barriers are difficult to overcome.

  6. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP

  7. Writing in Central and Eastern Europe: Stakeholders and Directions in Initiating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbord, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of writing initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, an area where prior to 1989, writing in universities played a very minor role. Using data gathered from eight institutions that currently have writing programs of some sort, I identify three typical paths writing initiatives…

  8. The Development of Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe in the Aftermath of Recent Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadlak, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact of Marxism-Leninism on higher education in central and eastern Europe after World War II. Contends that the dramatic political changes in recent years call for a profound transformation in higher education. Asserts that, despite numerous difficulties, higher education in these nations has embarked on dramatic improvements.…

  9. The Legal Status of Home Education in Post-Communist Countries of Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelecka, Yvona

    2012-01-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia,…

  10. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on.

  11. Writing in Central and Eastern Europe: Stakeholders and Directions in Initiating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbord, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of writing initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, an area where prior to 1989, writing in universities played a very minor role. Using data gathered from eight institutions that currently have writing programs of some sort, I identify three typical paths writing initiatives…

  12. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Carmina; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

  13. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  14. Positions, Dispositions and Practices in Education Policy in Central and South East Europe (Research in Progress)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kos Kecojevic, Živa; Gaber, Slavko

    2012-01-01

    In the article, we present the conceptualisation and selected results of ongoing research dealing with the particular area of top decision making in education in Central and South East Europe. Aiming at a Bourdieuian type of objectification of key agents of decision making in education--ministers--a group of researchers from the region is in the…

  15. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  16. Transformations in Higher Education in Agricultural and Food Sciences in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, P.; Barloy, J.

    1995-01-01

    From an analysis of educational reform and the teaching crisis in agricultural/food sciences in Central and Eastern Europe emerged three key issues: (1) redefinition of the role of agricultural/food science managers; (2) replacement of production orientation with a comprehensive approach to rural development; and (3) recognition of the educational…

  17. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  18. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  19. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  20. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  1. Universities, the Information Technology Challenge, and Open and Distance Learning in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajos, Tamas; Szucs, Andras

    1998-01-01

    The educational needs of Eastern and Central Europe can be met by distance education. Since the 1990 founding of the European Distance Education Network, proponents of open and distance education have expanded the scope of their activities. Governments and institutions must find the best ways to use technology to integrate traditional and distance…

  2. Educational Reform and Educational Research in Central-Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report describes difficulties in educational reform faced by countries in transition, those post-communist countries from Eastern and Central Europe that have been changing their social, economic, and political systems since 1989. Romania is the case study used for this example and is viewed in terms of four stages: (1) deconstruction, an…

  3. Core Ideas of Democratic Civic Education and the Great Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the importance of civic education in the transformation from totalitarian communism to constitutional democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The primary question of civic education for this great transformation is: What are the few core ideas of democratic civic education that learners must know and support to prepare them…

  4. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  5. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  6. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  7. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  8. Buffer or Highway: Cyclical Patterns of Security Development in East Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    been particularly sensitive to the dangers of Russian might." The signal manifesto of this European self identity is by Milan Kundera , "The Tragedy of...constructive.* *The President’s News Conference in Rome, Italy, November 8, 1991,1 1605. 1 81Milan Kundera , *The Tragedy of Central Europe," 217. It is all very

  9. Continental Responsibility: European and International Support for Higher Education and Research in East Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Mary E., Ed.; Rhodes, Aaron A., Ed.

    This publication provides a comprehensive inventory of initiatives undertaken by European institutions and international organizations to assist the transformation of higher education and research in East Central Europe. Section 1 contains five papers, each highlighting one of five institutions that have developed innovative approaches to address…

  10. The Legal Status of Home Education in Post-Communist Countries of Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelecka, Yvona

    2012-01-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia,…

  11. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  12. Differentiation and Academic Control over Policy in Central and Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proteasa, Viorel; Andrescu, Liviu; Curaj Adrian

    This article adds a political perspective to the phenomenon of higher education de-differentiation, by building on Gary Rhoades' neo-institutionalist account. Diversity is operationalized on a hallmark dimension for Central and Eastern Europe: the public-private divide. Higher education is conceived of as a structured organizational field and its…

  13. Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007. PMID:25148518

  14. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  15. Laboratories of Reform? The Europeanization and Internationalization of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowska, Dorota; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article deals with higher education (HE) transformations in Central and Eastern Europe in the context of democratization and globalization. The authors first briefly survey the wider canvas of reform since 1989, particularly probing the extent to which the countries of the region may be treated as a distinctive or a cohesive…

  16. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  17. The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Stefen, C.; Mors, T.

    2008-09-15

    New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

  18. Statistical attribution of mid-term droughts in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikšovský, Jiří; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf

    2017-04-01

    Occurrence and intensity of meteorological droughts are determined by a number of factors, both anthropogenic and natural. Besides the trend-like components, often attributable to local or global man-induced changes to the climate system, manifestations of internal climate oscillatory modes are also of great importance in establishing the hydrological regime. In this presentation, we focus on identification and quantification of factors responsible for central European drought variability at seasonal time scales. Using multivariable regression analysis applied to predictands reflecting various definitions of meteorological droughts (based on Standardized Precipitation Index, Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index and Palmer's Z-index, over the 1883-2010 period), components attributable to external and internal climate-forming agents are extracted and evaluated with regard to their statistical significance. Our results confirm presence of strong links of central European droughts to the anthropogenic radiative forcing and to the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, but also existence of connections to the climate oscillations originating from the Pacific area. In this context, we demonstrate that prominence of components related to the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation generally surpasses that of El Niño - Southern Oscillation, although the related transfer mechanisms still remain unclear. Finally, it is shown that noteworthy deviations from linearity exist in some of the drought responses, particularly for the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  19. Estimation of the SO2 source term for the Holuhraun event and its influence on central Europe air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Delia; Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; Maurer, Christian; Wotawa, Gerhard; Stebel, Kerstin; Holla, Robert; Gilge, Stefan; Flemming, Johannes; Stohl, Andreas; Hirtl, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    On 29 August 2014 a fissure eruption began in Holuhraun, Northeastern Iceland, associated with increased volcanic activity in the Bárdarbunga system. For more than 150 days, the eruption released large quantities of SO2 into the atmosphere affecting not only the local Icelandic air quality, but also leading to periods of increased ambient SO2 concentrations in parts of mainland Europe. During the second half of September, significant amounts of SO2 were rapidly transported southward by favourable meteorological conditions and several countries in Central Europe experienced high ground-level SO2 concentrations. The measured concentrations reached and even exceeded the EC directive health thresholds. In this work, we evaluate the air quality effects in Europe during this targeted period using both ground-based and satellite observations (GOME2B and OMI) as well as dispersion modelling with the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. We estimate the volcanic SO2 source emissions by comparing the satellite observations with atmospheric transport model simulations in an inverse modelling approach. The estimated source term is evaluated against independent ground-based observational data (e.g. MAX-DOAS, Brewer) and used as emission term in dispersion model forecasts for evaluating the air quality effects in Europe. In addition, the potential use of air quality data to perform the source term estimation by inversion with ground-based data will also be investigated.

  20. Blackbirds and song thrushes constitute a key reservoir of Borrelia garinii, the causative agent of borreliosis in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Taragel'ová, Veronika; Koci, Juraj; Hanincová, Klára; Kurtenbach, Klaus; Derdáková, Markéta; Ogden, Nick H; Literák, Ivan; Kocianová, Elena; Labuda, Milan

    2008-02-01

    Blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were found to carry 95% of all spirochete-infected tick larvae among 40 bird species captured in Central Europe. More than 90% of the infections were typed as Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana. We conclude that thrushes are key players in the maintenance of these spirochete species in this region of Central Europe.

  1. Qualitative Description of Obscuration Factors in Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    obscuration is produced by smoke munitions or equipment. Screening smokes produced with inventory munitions are emphasized. he environmental factors which...is the coldest part of the atmosphere, about -901C. Ionization and molecular dissociation processes and various chemical reactions caused by the sun’s...interrupted only by frequent early morning fog. The main pressure centers gradually intensify, and by mid -November the four main pressure fields of

  2. Patterns and drivers of Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming of the Holocene induced the rearrangement of vegetation across Europe, including the widely synchronous and rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana) at around 10.6 ka BP (Giesecke et al., 2011). The simultaneity of the hazel expansion across large parts of Europe suggests that a climate shift has triggered that expansion. However, it remains poorly understood, which climate parameter has been effective (Huntley, 1993) because hazel expanded simultaneously in areas that today clearly differ in climate. To better understand the causes we studied Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in NE Germany in high temporal and spatial resolution. Analysis combines pollen data from 60 sites, including high resolution data sets, with present-day site patterns of soil and relief using the extended downscaling approach. Using forward modeling of pollen deposition in each sample site the method seeks that vegetation composition on each site type that produces modeled pollen deposition most similar to empiric pollen deposition. The results (Theuerkauf et al., 2014) indicate that first populations of hazel established soon after the Holocene warming at 11.2 ka. These populations were still small and possibly restricted to warm loving slopes, indicating that low summer warmth was the limiting factor. The widespread expansion of hazel started only after 10.8 ka, possibly following a shift to greater summer warmth. Hazel primarily expanded on sites that are today covered by gleyic soils, from which it largely expelled tree birch. Hazel thus obviously could only expand on sites that received additional wetness from ground- and stagnant water. Giesecke T., Bennett K.D., Birks H.J.B., Bjune A.E., Bozilova E., Feurdean A., Finsinger W., Froyd C., Pokorný P., Rösch M., Seppä H., Tonkov S., Valsecchi V., & Wolters S. (2011) The pace of Holocene vegetation change - testing for synchronous developments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2805-2814. Huntley B. (1993) Rapid

  3. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 2: Companion animals.

    PubMed

    Berny, Philippe; Caloni, Francesca; Croubels, Siska; Sachana, Magda; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Davanzo, Franca; Guitart, Raimon

    2010-03-01

    This is the second in a series of three review articles on animal poisoning in Europe and focuses on cases in pet animals and horses in five European countries (Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain) reported over the last decade. In the participating countries, dogs were the most commonly poisoned species, particularly younger animals. The majority of cases in companion animals resulted from exposure to insecticides, although rodenticides (especially anticoagulants and strychnine) posed a significant risk. In all five countries, horses and cats appeared to be more susceptible to plant toxins. Intoxications with herbicides, metals, household products and drugs for veterinary and human use were reported sporadically. The review demonstrates the importance of increased awareness so as to minimise poisoning episodes and emphasises the need to establish a European system for the recording of poisoning data. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address

  5. Potential bioindicator plant species for ambient ozone in forested mountain areas of central Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B; Musselman, R

    2002-01-01

    From 1993 to 2000, trees, shrubs, forbs and vines were evaluated for symptoms of probable ozone injury in the vicinity of passive ozone samplers or active ozone monitors in forest condition assessment networks in mostly mountainous regions, principally the Carpathian Mountain Range, in the central European countries Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine. Each country was visited at least twice during the time period. Over the course of eight seasons, 29 species of native plants were identified as potential bioindicators of ozone. This is the first report of probable ozone injury on native plants in central Europe. Forbs and shrubs made up the bulk of the species (21 of 29). Potential bioindicators that are widely distributed include the forbs Centaurea nigra. and Impatiens parviflora and the shrubs Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Sambucus racemosa. Ozone concentrations in forcsted areas of central Europe appear to be high enough and of sufficient duration to cause foliar injury on a wide variety of native plants.

  6. First autochthonous cases of canine thelaziosis in Slovakia: a new affected area in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Čabanová, Viktória; Kocák, Peter; Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina

    2017-04-13

    The spirurid nematode Thelazia callipaeda, also called the "Oriental eyeworm", is the causative agent of canine and human ocular thelaziosis. In the past few years it has started to spread across central Europe and new endemic areas have been established. The present study reports on the first four autochthonous cases of canine ocular thelaziosis in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe. All cases were recorded in dogs living in eastern Slovakia, near the border with the Ukraine. All worms collected were investigated morphologically and their identification further confirmed at the molecular level by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Nucleotide sequences of partial T. callipaeda cox1 and 28S rDNA gene fragments isolated from Slovak dogs were submitted to the GenBank database under accession numbers KY476400 and KY476401, respectively. Considering that all four cases were diagnosed in animals that had never travelled abroad, there is clear evidence of an autochthonous occurrence and thereby the further spread of T. callipaeda across Europe. Moreover, at latitude of 48°N, these cases might be considered as the northernmost recorded cases of autochthonous in western and Central Europe.

  7. Europeanization in making policies against domestic violence in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe's domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.

  8. Large Scale Winter Time Disturbances in Meteor Winds over Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greisiger, K. M.; Portnyagin, Y. I.; Lysenko, I. A.

    1984-01-01

    Daily zonal wind data of the four pre-MAP-winters 1978/79 to 1981/82 obtained over Central Europe and Eastern Europe by the radar meteor method were studied. Available temperature and satellite radiance data of the middle and upper stratosphere were used for comparison, as well as wind data from Canada. The existence or nonexistence of coupling between the observed large scale zonal wind disturbances in the upper mesopause region (90 to 100 km) and corresponding events in the stratosphere are discussed.

  9. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Mądra, Anna; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2015-06-01

    Sarcophagidae are an important element of carrion insect community. Unfortunately, results on larval and adult Sarcophagidae from forensic carrion studies are virtually absent mostly due to the taxonomic problems with species identification of females and larvae. The impact of this taxon on decomposition of large carrion has not been reliably evaluated. During several pig carcass studies in Poland, large body of data on adult and larval Sarcophagidae was collected. We determined (1) assemblages of adult flesh flies visiting pig carrion in various habitats, (2) species of flesh flies which breed in pig carcasses, and (3) temporal distribution of flesh fly larvae during decomposition. Due to species identification of complete material, including larvae, females, and males, it was possible for the first time to reliably answer several questions related to the role of Sarcophagidae in decomposition of large carrion and hence define their forensic importance. Fifteen species of flesh flies were found to visit pig carcasses, with higher diversity and abundance in grasslands as compared to forests. Sex ratio biased towards females was observed only for Sarcophaga argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. similis and S. carnaria species group. Gravid females and larvae were collected only in the case of S. argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. melanura and S. similis. Sarcophaga caerulescens and S. similis bred regularly in carcasses, while S. argyrostoma was recorded only occasionally. First instar larvae of flesh flies were recorded on carrion earlier or concurrently with first instar larvae of blowflies. Third instar larvae of S. caerulescens were usually observed before the appearance of the third instar blowfly larvae. These results contest the view that flesh flies colonise carcasses later than blowflies. Sarcophaga caerulescens is designated as a good candidate for a broad forensic use in Central European cases.

  10. E-health development policies in new member states in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Duplaga, Mariusz

    2007-01-01

    The paper brings insights on the process of e-health development in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, which joined European Union in 2004 years. The main part of the activities resulting in this review were carried out within the eHealth European Research Area (eHealth ERA) project established under the EU 6. Framework Programme. The research team involved in the project activities in the Centre of Innovation, Technology Transfer and University Development, Jagiellonian University focused the inquiries on the six countries: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia. The tool for data collection elaborated by the STAKES, Finland was applied. The main areas covered within the analysis included: health system characteristics, e-health policies definition process and deployment, specific activities in e-health subdomain as well as research and development programmes held in European countries. It seems that general background and intensive process of system and economy transformation was key factor influencing greatly the perception and status of the e-health domain in these countries. The opportunities related to the inclusion in the European Union was another essential factor bringing additional important impact on the e-health formation. All these countries started painful reform in early 90s after the fall of the communist governments. The health care system in general was not the prime benefactors of these changes.

  11. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    PubMed

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air.

  12. Molecular and morphological circumscription of Mesocestoides tapeworms from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hrčkova, Gabriela; Miterpáková, Martina; O'Connor, Anne; Šnábel, Viliam; Olson, Peter D

    2011-04-01

    Here we examine 3157 foxes from 6 districts of the Slovak Republic in order to determine for the first time the distribution, prevalence and identity of Mesocestodes spp. endemic to this part of central Europe. During the period 2001-2006, an average of 41.9% of foxes were found to harbour Mesocestoides infections. Among the samples we confirmed the widespread and common occurrence of M. litteratus (Batsch, 1786), and report the presence, for the first time, of M. lineatus (Goeze, 1782) in the Slovak Republic, where it has a more restricted geographical range and low prevalence (7%). Using a combination of 12S rDNA, CO1 and ND1 mitochondrial gene sequences together with analysis of 13 morphometric characters, we show that the two species are genetically distinct and can be differentiated by discrete breaks in the ranges of the male and female reproductive characters, but not by the more commonly examined characters of the scolex and strobila. Estimates of interspecific divergence within Mesocestoides ranged from 9 to 18%, whereas intraspecific variation was less than 2%, and phylogenetic analyses of the data showed that despite overlapping geographical ranges, the two commonly reported European species are not closely related, with M. litteratus more closely allied to North American isolates of Mesocestoides than to M. lineatus. We confirm that morphological analysis of reproductive organs can be used to reliably discriminate between these often sympatric species obtained from red foxes.

  13. Hail hazard derived from historic hail footprints; a probabilistic hail storm catalogue for central Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Maximilian; Bonassi, Alessandro; Oramas-Dorta, Delioma; De Aguinaga, Jose; Cheetham, Rebecca; Moehrlein, Matthias; Riso, Silvia; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe models are widely used in reinsurance risk assessment from natural perils. In this context Guy Carpenter, a reinsurance intermediary, has developed a probabilistic hail model for Central Europe. As part of the hazard development, Guy Carpenter has tasked meteorologists at nowcast GmbH to identify historic hail patterns and individual hail storm tracks over an 8-year period from a continuous lightning dataset, issuing from their lightning detection system, "LINET". Based on historic hail footprints provided by nowcast GmbH, Guy Carpenter has developed a stochastic event generator in order to compute a catalogue consisting of synthetic, but meteorologically reasonable events, representing an 800-year history. The goal of stochastic event generation is to extend the observed hail history to extreme hail scenarios that could cause catastrophic losses to insurance portfolios and to quantify corresponding storm probabilities. Reflecting geographical dependencies, the method uses key attributes of the historic hail tracks and footprints, such as the storm track, length and bearing direction, footprint centre point and storm genesis date. A bootstrapping technique was used to associate simulated hail footprints with a likely storm track, based on historic distributions. The poster shows work in progress on the event set generation results, the computed geographic hazard maps and validation of the frequency and intensity assumptions, using data from nowcast GmbH, the European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) and spatial statistics on insurance claims information.

  14. Statistics of Lightning Distribution Over Central Europe on the Various Temporal and Spatial Scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, U.

    2005-12-01

    A climatology of lightning and storm distribution for Central Europe is presented. It bases on lightning location data for the years 1992-2005. Besides the North-South gradient a strong dependency on meso-scale orography and on the land-sea temperature difference with its seasonal variation is found. For the most parts of the area the annual lightning density is dominated by only a few strongest storms. This results in a fractal structur of the lightning distribution characteristics. The analysis of propagation characteristics of storms such as speed and direction show that more than the half of all storms are closely connected with synoptic front systems. From the lightning data the frequency of 'thunderdays' and 'thunderhours' is derived for any location. These measures are more robust against inhomogeneities and changes in the lightning detection networks. The statistics of the temporal and spatial distribution of lightning over the whole scale range (from the clustering of lightning events up to to storm patterns) is analyzed in a unified way using data from local area and regional ground based networks and global satellite observations.

  15. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment as a key to understand the neotectonics of northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Northern Central Europe is generally regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1200 years (Leydecker, 2009). In a pilot study we analysed the Osning Thrust, which is a one of the major Mesozoic fault zones in northern Central Europe. Several soft-sediment deformation structures like fault-arrays and a sand volcano developed in aeolian sediments, were caused by earthquakes along the Osning Thrust. The growth-strata of faults was dated with the OSL method and showed that the deformation took place between 15.9 ± 1.6 to 13.1 ± 1.5 ka (Brandes et al., 2012, Brandes & Winsemann, 2013). Numerical simulations support the results regarding the timing of the the seismicity and imply that the Late Pleistocene activity of the Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment (Brandes et al., 2012). In a second step we analysed more faults in northern Central Europe. It is evident that the historic seismicity was concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic contraction phase that effected Central Europe in the Late Cretaceous. Between these faults, the seismic activity was almost absent. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrated for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust, the Aller Valley Fault and the Tornquist Zone. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (clusters that shift from time to time) implies that northern Central Europe behaves like a typical intraplate tectonic region. To analyse, if the faults that show pronounced historic seismicity are postglacial faults, we used the Fault Stability Margin (FSM), which is described in more detail in Wu & Hasegawa (1996). The Fault Stability Margins for the major reverse faults that showed historic seismicity in northern Central Europe reach the δFSM=0

  16. A Signal of Ice Loading in Late Pleistocene Activity of the Sudetic Marginal Fault (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartvich, F.; Stepancikova, P.; Rockwell, T. K.; Nývlt, D.; Stemberk, J.; Rood, D. H.; Hók, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Myers, M.; Luttrell, K. M.; Wechsler, N.

    2014-12-01

    We combine paleoseismic trench and cosmogenic dating results to study the late Pleistocene-Holocene history of morphologically pronounced NW-SE trending Sudetic Marginal Fault (SMF) situated at the northeastern limit of the Bohemian Massif in central Europe. Eighteen trenches were excavated at the Bila Voda site to study 3D distribution of a beheaded alluvial fan on the NE block of the fault and to find the offset "feeder channel" that sourced the deposits. We interpret a small drainage of about 40-60 m to the SE of the fan apex as the feeder channel. A 2.5 m depth profile was collected for cosmogenic exposure dating from a well-preserved part of the fan. Using a simple model that accounts for pre-depositional exposure (inheritance) and assuming no surface erosion, 10Be concentrations are well-fit with an apparent exposure age of ~12 ka. However, this is a minimum limiting age if the surface was eroded by gelifluction in the late Pleistocene. Assuming a ~25 ka OSL age for the base of the fan apex it gives a left-lateral slip rate of ~2 mm/yr. As the Holocene deposits do not show significant displacement, most of the recorded slip took place during Late Pleistocene with corresponding slip rate of 2.8 to 3.5 mm/yr. Bila Voda site lies ~150 km south from the Late Pleistocene Weichselian maximum (~20 ka) ice-sheet front. Thus, we hypothesize that the slip rate acceleration was due to ice-loading and subsequent unloading during deglaciation. To test this, we calculated the stress induced in the lithosphere from ablation of the Weichselian ice sheet modeled as a flexing elastic plate. Preliminary modeling results indicate that complete deglaciation alters the stress field such that it would inhibit left lateral failure on the SMF, consistent with observations suggesting no slip occurred during the Holocene. Although the SMF is ~150 km from the Weichselian ice sheet front, it is well within the flexural rebound area of the ice sheet, causing normal stress on the SMF to

  17. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH < 1.5x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 are found for p,p'-DDT, kOH < 0.75x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDE and kOH < 1.0x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDD. The kOH values for DDE and DDD are significantly lower than estimated (QSAR). References

  18. Three years of bluetongue disease in central Europe with special reference to Germany: what lessons can be learned?

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2010-10-01

    With few exceptions, vector-borne diseases have long been considered of minor importance in central and northern Europe. Since the advent of bluetongue disease (BTD) in 2006 and the 2007 chikungunya fever outbreak in Italy this attitude has changed. It is due to continuing globalization rather than to climate change that even central and northern Europe are at risk of new pathogens as well as vectors of disease entering and establishing. BTD was the first 'exotic' disease to arrive: it did not slowly spread northwards but jumped in through a still unknown entry point. Although indigenous Culicoides biting midge species had formerly been considered to be the vectors of the bluetongue virus (BTV) in the Mediterranean, nobody had expected BTD in more northern European areas free of C. imicola. When the disease broke out, the authorities were completely unprepared, particularly as neither data on the putative vectors nor biting midge specialists were available. Starting with about 2000 affected ruminant farming facilities in 2006 in the central western part of Europe, the virus managed to overwinter and spread in all directions in 2007, producing almost 60,000 outbreaks (farms affected) in ten European countries up to early 2008. At that time, vaccine administration against BTV serotype 8 was initiated, significantly decreasing the total number of holdings affected in the third transmission season (May 2008 to April 2009). From May 2009 onwards, relatively few cases of BTV-8 infections were notified in a total of only six European countries. Unfortunately, while the further fate of BTV-8 in Europe remains to be awaited, BTV-1 appears to be approaching from the south, with some 4900 outbreaks in France in 2008. Meanwhile, the results from various entomological monitoring projects have suggested biting midges of the C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris complexes as well as some other ceratopogonid species as the most likely BTV vectors in central Europe. The lesson to be

  19. A case of Distributed Continental Collision: Late Cretaceous Intraplate Shortening from Central Europe to North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Jaehne, F.

    2008-12-01

    Intraplate thrusting and basin inversion affected west-central Europe in Late Cretaceous time. The timing of this event is fairly well constrained between c. 90 and 65 Ma. The dominantly NW-trending European intraplate structures were often interpreted to have been dextrally transpressive, reflecting a northward push induced by the early collision of the Adria microplate with Europe's southern margin. However, many fault kinematic and other structural data from central Europe indicate dip-slip contraction essentially perpendicular to the main faults, suggesting a push from the southwest. In addition, recent plate reconstructions of the Mediterranean around 85 Ma place Adria far to the southeast and roughly along strike of the central European intraplate structures. The early Alpine nappe stack on Adria's leading edge was still separated from Europe by subducting oceanic lithosphere and had entered a phase of extension after the first orogenic event. All this makes Alpine collision an unlikely cause for intraplate thrusting in Europe. Rather, the timing, kinematics and location of structures suggest that intraplate shortening in Europe was a direct effect of convergence with the Iberian and African plates, with stresses transmitted across the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone. This hypothesis is supported by structures of Late Cretaceous age indicating SW-NE to S-N shortening in France, Spain (particularly the onset of convergence in the Pyrenees) and northwestern Africa. In contrast to other examples such as the Laramides, intraplate thrusting in this case was not a foreland phenomenon related to a coeval orogen. It does not reflect a transition from subduction to continental collision, but the beginning of convergence across two former transform boundaries. This system which included no strongly thickened and weakened crust was mostly governed by far-field stresses and therefore responded rapidly to plate reorganizations. Specifically, the onset of thrusting

  20. Pyogenic liver abscess: differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-05-28

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients.

  1. Lightning, overshooting top and hail characteristics for strong convective storms in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurković, Petra Mikuš; Mahović, Nataša Strelec; Počakal, Damir

    2015-07-01

    Lightning activity in storms with overshooting tops and hail-producing storms over Central Europe is studied, in order to find typical lightning characteristics that can be useful in nowcasting of the severity of the storm and its ability to produce hail. The first part of the study gives the analysis of lightning activity in thunderstorms with overshooting tops (OT) for the warm part of the year (May-September) from 2009 to 2010 over central and southeastern Europe. Deep convective clouds with OT were detected in Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, using methods based on the infrared window (IRW, 10.8 μm) channel and absorption channels of water vapor (WV, 6.2 μm) and ozone (O3, 9.7 μm) in the form of brightness temperature differences. The locations and times of the detected OT were compared to the distribution and types of lightning strokes, which were provided by the LINET Lightning Location System. The results show that the spatial distribution of lightning generally coincides with the spatial distribution of the detected OT. The largest numbers of lightning strokes and OT were found in western Hungary, southeastern Austria, northeastern Slovenia and the northern Adriatic. The largest number of OT occurred between 1600 and 1800 UTC, whereas from 0600 to 1000 UTC OT detections were rather rare. Lightning activity showed a similar temporal distribution, with an increase in lightning activity evident at or close to the time of the OT detections. At the time of and close to the location of the OT, the lightning was found to occur well above the tropopause and was clearly related to the OT of cumulonimbus clouds. In the second part of the study, lightning characteristics are studied for 35 events of hail-producing thunderstorms over Croatia in the summer months (May to September), from 2008 to 2012. The lightning distribution, also registered by LINET, was compared to hail parameters based on measurements

  2. Links between large-scale circulation patterns and streamflow in Central Europe: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steirou, Eva; Gerlitz, Lars; Apel, Heiko; Merz, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    We disentangle the relationships between streamflow and large-scale atmospheric circulation in Central Europe (CE), an area affected by climatic influences from different origins (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Continental) and characterized by diverse topography and flow regimes. Our literature review examines in detail the links between mean, high and low flows in CE and large-scale circulation patterns, with focus on two closely related phenomena, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Western-zonal circulation (WC). For both patterns, significant relations, consistent between different studies, are found for large parts of CE. The strongest links are found for the winter season, forming a dipole-like pattern with positive relationships with streamflow north of the Alps and the Carpathians for both indices and negative relationships for the NAO in the south. An influence of winter NAO is also detected in the amplitude and timing of snowmelt flows later in the year. Discharge in CE has further been linked to other large-scale climatic modes such as the Scandinavia pattern (SCA), the East Atlantic/West Russian pattern (EA/WR), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and synoptic weather patterns such as the Vb weather regime. Different mechanisms suggested in the literature to modulate links between streamflow and the NAO are combined with topographical characteristics of the target area in order to explain the divergent NAO/WC influence on streamflow in different parts of CE. In particular, a precipitation mechanism seems to regulate winter flows in North-Western Germany, an area with short duration of snow cover and with rainfall-generated floods. The precipitation mechanism is also likely in Southern CE, where correlations between the NAO and temperature are low. Finally, in the rest of the study area (Northern CE, Alpine region), a joint precipitation-snow mechanism influences floods not only in winter, but also in the spring/snowmelt period, providing

  3. Changes in the Ozone Content over Central Europe During Reversals of Stratospheric Circulation in Late Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entzian, G.; Grasnick, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A superposed epoch analysis during late winter zonal wind reversals was carried out from 18 year observation series (1963 to 1980) of the meridional geopotential height gradient in the 30 mb level (latitude mean) and of the ozone content over central Europe. Experimental data suggest that if planetary waves are responsible for the additional meridional ozone transport during stratospheric warmings, this transport has to take place at heights other than those up to the ozone maximum in the middle latitudes.

  4. Logistics: The Soviets’ Nemesis to Conventional War in Central Europe?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    OTIC FILE COPY" AIR WAR COLLEGE InN4 RESEARCH REPORT LOGISTICS: THE SOVIETS’ NEMESIS TO ICONVENTIONAL WAR IN CENTRAL EUROPE? LT COL GILBERT H...explosive, conventional weapons. (8:74) Publications addressing a conventional war in a European scenario have also increased notably. Research ...weaknesses of Soviet logistical capabilities to sustain maneuver war- fare. Accepting the fact that time is a restricting fac- tor to the research

  5. Spatial and temporal trends in distribution of forest fires in Central and Eastern Europe

    Treesearch

    Ryszard Szczygieł; Barbara Ubysz; Tomasz. Zawiła-Niedźwiecki

    2009-01-01

    Forest in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) covers 56,285,000 ha (5% of European total forested area). Forest cover in CEE makes 30% of land use. Almost 50% of the forest under study is formed by coniferous species and only 30% by deciduous ones. Forest younger than 60 years old grows on 57% of that area. These factors, together with climate conditions cause that on the...

  6. Modelling and Observation of Mineral Dust Optical Properties over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilinski, Michał T.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Zawadzka, Olga; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Kumala, Wojciech; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemysław; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zagajewski, Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    This paper is focused on Saharan dust transport to Central Europe/Poland; we compare properties of atmospheric Saharan dust using data from NAAPS, MACC, AERONET as well as observations obtained during HyMountEcos campaign in June 2012. Ten years of dust climatology shows that long-range transport of Saharan dust to Central Europe is mostly during spring and summer. HYSPLIT back-trajectories indicate airmass transport mainly in November, but it does not agree with modeled maxima of dust optical depth. NAAPS model shows maximum of dust optical depth ( 0.04-0.05, 550 nm) in April-May, but the MACC modeled peak is broader ( 0.04). During occurrence of mineral dust over Central-Europe for 14% (NAAPS) / 12% (MACC) of days dust optical depths are above 0.05 and during 4% (NAAPS) / 2.5% (MACC) of days dust optical depths exceed 0.1. The HyMountEcos campaign took place in June-July 2012 in the mountainous region of Karkonosze. The analysis includes remote sensing data from lidars, sun-photometers, and numerical simulations from NAAPS, MACC, DREAM8b models. Comparison of simulations with observations demonstrates the ability of models to reasonably reproduce aerosol vertical distributions and their temporal variability. However, significant differences between simulated and measured AODs were found. The best agreement was achieved for MACC model.

  7. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  8. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902) (Coleoptera, Apionidae) in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase.

    PubMed

    Wanat, Marek; Podlussány, Attila; Schön, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Perapion connexum (Schilsky) is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented.

  9. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902) (Coleoptera, Apionidae) in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Marek; Podlussány, Attila; Schön, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Perapion connexum (Schilsky) is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented. PMID:22451784

  10. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Raimon; Croubels, Siska; Caloni, Francesca; Sachana, Magda; Davanzo, Franca; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the national situation in the five European countries and concludes that information for livestock and poultry is limited and fragmentary compared to other animal groups. The analysis has revealed that clinical cases of poisoning are only occasionally studied in depth and that cattle are the species most frequently reported. Several plants and mycotoxins, a few pesticides and metals, together with contaminants of industrial origin, such as dioxins, are responsible for most of the recorded cases. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil Climate over US High Plains and Central Europe During 21st Century - Trends and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalud, Z.; Trnka, M.; Hlavinka, P.; Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Semeradova, D.; Hunt, E.; Eitzinger, J.

    2009-12-01

    Soils are an important control on water fluxes in the landscape and, in many parts of the world, act as the most important water reservoir mitigating the effects of rainfall variability. Soil moisture and temperature parameters, as well as hydric and thermic soil regimes, are inherently more stable and quantifiable than their atmospheric counterparts and are essential in determining the environmental conditions of any region. To investigate the impacts of climate change in the selected regions, the SoilClim model was utilized. SoilClim is based on an enhanced daily water balance model that incorporates interactions between the soil and atmosphere through a dynamic module of vegetation cover. In addition, effects of snow cover on the water balance (through freezing and thawing) and CO2 concentration on the evapotranspiration, are taken into account. The model was extensively tested over the area of Central Europe and the U.S. High Plains region in terms of its ability to reproduce observed soil moisture and temperature as well as values of reference and actual evapotranspiration estimated by other methods (e.g. Bowen ratio, eddy covariance and ETgage) over a number of different canopies. The present contribution summarizes the most recent experiments that were carried out in the U.S. High Plains region and in Central Europe (Czech Republic and Austria), focusing on the impact of expected climate change. The issues that will be discussed include: 1) an assessment of the expected change of key soil climate parameters (e.g. overall soil water balance, soil temperature at 50 cm, soil water content or frequency of dry days) during the 21st century; 2) a comparison of the present soil hydric and thermic regimes with those expected under the climate change and the possible consequences (e.g. shifts of Pedalfer and Pedocal boundary); 3) a comparison of SoilClim outputs based on a set of downscaled GCMs (IPCC-AR4 dataset) under various emission scenarios and time horizons

  12. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Holmberg, Christine; Dokova, Klara G; Milevska-Kostova, Neda; Chicin, Gratiana; Ulrichs, Timo; Rechel, Bernd; Willich, Stefan N; Powles, John; Tinnemann, Peter

    2012-06-08

    There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify "best practices" of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently needed. The monitoring of health trends is

  13. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    PubMed

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  14. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently

  15. Trends of spring time frost events and phenological dates in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheifinger, H.; Menzel, A.; Koch, E.; Peter, Ch.

    Over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere's continents temperature has been increasing during the last century. Particularly minimum temperatures show a more pronounced increase than maximum temperatures. Not only the phenological seasons, but also the potentially plant damaging late frost events are governed by the atmosphere. In case of a rise of minimum temperatures one would expect phenological phases and spring late frost events to occur earlier. In this work the question is elucidated whether plant phenology shifts at a higher or lower rate towards earlier occurrences than potential plant damaging events, like spring late frost events. Frost events based on the last occurrence of daily minimum temperatures below a certain threshold have been moving faster to earlier occurrence dates than phenological phases during the last decades at 50 climate stations in Central Europe. Trend values of frost time series range around -0.2 days/year and of phenological time series are between -0.2 and 0.0 days/year over the period from 1951-1997. `Corylus avellana beginning of pollination' is the only one of the 13 phases considered here with a lower trend value of -0.28 days/year. Early phases are more adapted to below zero temperatures and therefore follow more closely the temperature variability. Later phases seem to have more reason to be concerned about possible late frost events and react more cautiously towards higher spring temperatures and earlier last frost dates. The risk of late frost damage for plants should have been lower during the last decade as compared to the previous decades.

  16. Statistical analysis of soil moisture content changes in Central Europe using GLDAS database over three past decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Kȩdzior, Mateusz

    2014-09-01

    This paper examine soil moisture trends changes in inhomogeneous area of Central European countries — Poland, the Czech Republic and neighbouring territories. The area suffered from the lack of large-scale soil parameters research. Most of them are limited to ground measurements performed for a small part of land. Although there were extensive water conditions studies performed for the whole Europe, such as drought analysis, they were focused on Western European countries, neglecting situation in Central Europe (taking exception to Austria). The NOAH model of Global Land Data Assimilation System database has been used as a data source. It delivers one degree spatial resolution data and variables which describe soil moisture values for four depth levels (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm and 100-200 cm). Data covering years 1979-2011 has been averaged in order to analyse summer and winter terms separately. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis have been prepared on the software Statistica, Research reveals that area is losing water content. Due to promising results of water content trend analysis, the authors plan to run a large-scale analysis using other variables from the GLDAS database, especially concerning soil temperature and evapotranspiration.

  17. Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. The main characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East-Central Europe from 1871 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of the paper concerns the determination of the annual and multi-annual variability of air flow over East-Central Europe in the period 1871-2010. Daily mean sea-level pressure and values of physical quantities provided the basis for distinguishing 27 circulation types, i.e., eight directional cyclonic, transitional, and anticyclonic types, and one non-directional cyclonic, anticyclonic, and an undefined type. Over the area of East-Central Europe, the highest frequency is recorded for air flow from the western sector, with a maximum in the period from December to January. In spring, a higher than average frequency of cyclonic and easterly circulation is observed, and in summer—anticyclonic and northerly. Increased zonal circulation was recorded in the years 1910-1930, and particularly after 1970, and eastern at the end of the nineteenth century and in the 1930s and 1940s. An increase in the frequency of days with non-directional anticyclonic type and westerly air flow, and a simultaneous decrease in frequency of days with south-easterly and easterly circulation were observed throughout the study period. Among the three classes of circulation types, the highest persistence (particularly in winter) was recorded for anticyclonic types, i.e., when the high pressure system occurred over the Scandinavian Peninsula or East Europe.

  19. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  20. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. Methodology/Principal Findings Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles) in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895–1899 and 1935–1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos) partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. Conclusions/Significance Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long-term maintenance of oak

  1. Cancer mortality in central-eastern Europe: facts behind the figures.

    PubMed

    Döbrossy, Lajos

    2002-06-01

    An epidemiological assessment of the status and trends of cancer mortality shows that Europe is still divided by the rate of cancer death. Overall, cancer mortality in Europe has been steadily decreasing since the early 1990s. However, when the data are broken down, the burden of cancer in the central-eastern European countries is substantial, and mortality has actually continued to increase. Differences in lifestyle and environmental exposure are the most likely causes, and these are inevitably linked to political, social, and economic inequalities. For the time being, improvements in the health of the population are not a high priority for the new democratic governments. Even if attempts at cancer prevention are eventually realised, a major cancer burden will persist for many decades to come.

  2. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuletić, Dijana; Potočić, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletković, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Galić, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijašič, Dragan; Zupanič, Matjaž; Simončič, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public

  3. The CEECHE: a practical approach for reducing exposures and disease outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    While each region of the world faces unique challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) present a significant public health challenge. Environmental pollution is widespread, resulting from the consequences of rapid industrialization during the Soviet Union era. To help address these concerns, a meeting, sponsored in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP), was convened in 1994. The meeting, "Hazardous Wastes - Exposure, Remediation, and Policy," brought together representatives of the governments of seven countries in the region, scientists from the United States and Western Europe, and representatives from international organizations to explore hazardous waste problems in the region. Since 1994, the SRP and partners have been holding meetings throughout CEE to share important information regarding environmental health. The general sessions have shifted from a focus on describing the problems in each country related to hazardous waste, exposure assessment, risk reduction, and risk communication, to an exchange of information to better define links between health and the environment and strategies to improve regional problems. The 1994 meeting and subsequent meetings raised issues such as heavy metal contamination, exposures from hazardous waste, and pollution caused by deficiencies in disposal of waste overall. Research priorities that were identified included development of reliable biomarkers, better understanding of the relationship between nutrition and chemical toxicity, more epidemiological studies in CEE, better methods of environmental data analysis, and development of remediation tools. Here, we review examples of research from current SRP grantees that address many of these issues. In 2004, the first official Central and Eastern European Conference on Health and the Environment (CEECHE) was held

  4. Using historical ecology to reassess the conservation status of coniferous forests in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Švarcová, Markéta Gabriela; Křížová, Lucie; Suchánková, Silvie; Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim

    2017-02-01

    Forests cover approximately one-third of Central Europe. Oak (Quercus) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are considered the natural dominants at low and middle elevations, respectively. Many coniferous forests (especially of Picea abies) occur primarily at midelevations, but these are thought to have resulted from forestry plantations planted over the past 200 years. Nature conservation and forestry policy seek to promote broadleaved trees over conifers. However, there are discrepancies between conservation guidelines (included in Natura 2000) and historical and palaeoecological data with regard to the distribution of conifers. Our aim was to bring new evidence to the debate on the conservation of conifers versus broadleaved trees at midelevations in Central Europe. We created a vegetation and land-cover model based on pollen data for a highland area of 11,300 km(2) in the Czech Republic and assessed tree species composition in the forests before the onset of modern forestry based on 18th-century archival sources. Conifers dominated the study region throughout the entire Holocene (approximately 40-60% of the area). Broadleaved trees were present in a much smaller area than envisaged by current ideas of natural vegetation. Rather than casting doubt on the principles of Central European nature conservation in general, our results highlight the necessity of detailed regional investigations and the importance of historical data in challenging established notions on the natural distribution of tree species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Measuring Central and Eastern Europe's Socio-Economic Development Using Time Lags.

    PubMed

    Paprotny, Dominik

    This paper applies the 'time lag' method to a set of social and economic indicators, examining the development of Central and Eastern Europe since the first world war. Originally used to assess technology diffusion, this method allows comparison of levels of development between states and through a long period of time. It presents how many years have elapsed between achieving a certain level of development between countries. The results show that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have only narrowly converged with a set of 23 highly-developed 'benchmark' states. Development in monetary terms (gross domestic product per capita) is the indicator where this region lags most. Employment structure, life expectancy or infant mortality show much smaller lags. Communist states were closest to the West in the 1960s-early 1970s and struggled thereafter. They are still mostly lagging more today than at their peak before transformation despite the progress achieved in absolute terms after the fall of centrally-planned economy.

  6. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  7. Various environments of interglacials recorded by Pleistocene paleosoils in Hungary (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Kis, Éva

    2015-04-01

    Based on stable isotope analyses of worldwide reference curves from deep sea, ice core and speleothem records, it has long been apparent that duration, intensity and climatic conditions of different interglacial periods were significantly diverse. As a consequence of negligible fresh, detrital material admixture during interglacials, the soil formation intensity and maturity of various kinds of past soils have been holding vital information on the environmental conditions at the time the soils formed. This, in turn, means that several physical and chemical properties of soils allow us to reconstruct past climatic regimes. Loess-paleosol sequences in Hungary (Central Europe) provide insight into the cyclic nature of glacial-interglacial variations of the last 1 million years. The paleosoils have been recognized as the product of warmer and moister interglacials, when the (glacial) loess material was altered by chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. 12 pedogene units from MIS-19 to MIS-5 strata were analysed in the course of this study, with a special attention to MIS-11 and MIS-19 periods, because of these can be regarded as analogues of the Holocene interglacial (due to the similarities in obliquity and eccentricity). Grain size, geochemical and (clay)mineralogical studies were elaborated and were gathered from previously published papers to quantify past weathering intensity and paleoenvironmental conditions by geochemical climofunctions. The Upper and partly, the Middle Pleistocene loess deposits are intercalated by steppe, forest-steppe and brown forest soils, while the older pedogene horizons are different kinds; these are red, Mediterranean-type soils. The MIS-5 pedocomplex consist of three parts at several Hungarian sites, however the pedogene units cannot be correlated unequivocally with the three MIS-5 warmer substages, due to the scarce absolute age data. The MIS-7 and MIS-9 stages are represented by three forest steppe soils. The MIS-11 pedocomplex

  8. The Structure of the Mantle Lithosphere in Central Europe from S-Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Data from about 650 permanent and temporary seismic broadband stations accessed from the open EIDA Archive yielded about 49.000 S-receiver functions. Selection criteria were a signal-to-noise ratio of at least two of the S signal on the SV component, low noise on the P component before the S arrival time and a relatively good approximation of the delta im- pulse on the SV component after deconvolution. All traces were checked visually. The time domain traces were migrated to depth domain by back projection along the ray path. Smooth images of major discontinuities in the upper mantle were obtained by applying an eight-seconds low-pass filter. Observations of the Moho and the discontinuity at 410 km depth serve as a check of the quality of the analysis. We observe two widespread negative (i.e., downward reduction in velocity) discontinuities. The shallower one in about the 50 km to 150 km depth interval occurs everywhere in the study area and is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in Phanerozoic Europe. According to similar observations in the north American craton, it is interpreted as mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) in the east European craton (EEC). The second negative discontinuity seen beneath the EEC, the Trans-European Suture Zone, the Bohemian Massive, and parts of the Pannonian Basin lies at a depth interval of about 150 km to 300 km. It is interpreted as cratonic LAB reaching well the S and E of the Torn- quist-Teisseyre Zone, which is considered the boundary of the EEC at the shallower levels. The deeper cratonic LAB has anomalous topography: Below the Pannonian Basin it shal- lows to c. 150 km but deepens to c. 300 km below the Bohemian Massif. There is a jump in the cratonic LAB along the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif, where the LAB sud- denly changes depth from 200 km in the north to 300 km in the south. We tentatively inter- pret these observations as a result of overthrusting the EEC mantle lithosphere during the

  9. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  10. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the pediatric population in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Hanane; El Khoury, Antoine C; Goetghebeur, Mireille M

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotaviral gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under five years of age worldwide. This comprehensive review aims to estimate the burden of RVGE among children in Central and Eastern Europe. Results This literature search captured 38 studies pertaining to RVGE infection in the region. Among children under 15 years of age, RVGE accounted for between 22.0% and 55.3% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis per year. For most countries RVGE was most common in the winter months, although it was reported year round in Bulgaria. Geographical comparison of genotyping data revealed that three genotype combinations, G1P[8], G4P[8] and G2P[4] were present in all countries for which full genotyping data was available. Genotype predominance varied on a season to season basis within each country. Only limited data was available for healthcare resource utilization and economic burden for this region. Methods An extensive search of the biomedical literature (1999–2009) was conducted in major databases. Studies pertaining to the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus in Central and eastern Europe were captured and data from each country was systematically extracted and compared. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While three genotype combinations currently predominate in the region, the dominance of a certain serotype can change dramatically from year to year and from country to country. A vaccination program with broad serotype coverage may help to decrease the burden of RVGE in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:21422818

  11. Review of HIV vulnerability and condom use in central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A

    2012-03-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in central and eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analysed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries - the most affected by HIV - also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive and locally tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention.

  12. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  13. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing drug injection, economic decline and failing health and healthcare systems. There is a need to address the professional and ideological opposition - even in countries considered to be fully functioning democracies - to evidence-based public health interventions like harm reduction, coupled with treating HIV/AIDS for all those in need, if countries are to provide a more effective response.

  14. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 -a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting.

  15. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 –a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting. PMID:27846288

  16. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism.

    PubMed

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-11-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.

  17. Urban eddy covariance measurements reveal significant missing NOx emissions in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Karl, T; Graus, M; Striednig, M; Lamprecht, C; Hammerle, A; Wohlfahrt, G; Held, A; von der Heyden, L; Deventer, M J; Krismer, A; Haun, C; Feichter, R; Lee, J

    2017-05-30

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution is emerging as a primary environmental concern across Europe. While some large European metropolitan areas are already in breach of EU safety limits for NO2, this phenomenon does not seem to be only restricted to large industrialized areas anymore. Many smaller scale populated agglomerations including their surrounding rural areas are seeing frequent NO2 concentration violations. The question of a quantitative understanding of different NOx emission sources is therefore of immanent relevance for climate and air chemistry models as well as air pollution management and health. Here we report simultaneous eddy covariance flux measurements of NOx, CO2, CO and non methane volatile organic compound tracers in a city that might be considered representative for Central Europe and the greater Alpine region. Our data show that NOx fluxes are largely at variance with modelled emission projections, suggesting an appreciable underestimation of the traffic related atmospheric NOx input in Europe, comparable to the weekend-weekday effect, which locally changes ozone production rates by 40%.

  18. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kolár, Filip; Lucanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomás; Chrtek, Jindrich; Fér, Tomás; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-06-01

    Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the evolutionary dynamics and speciation rates in the

  19. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fér, Tomáš; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. Methods DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. Key Results The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Conclusions The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the

  20. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described.

  1. Morbus Behçet – a rare disease in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Jurowski, Piotr; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Kot, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. The entity is endemic in countries of Eastern and Central Asia, especially Turkey and Iran, but rarely seen in Central Europe. As there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should be based on clinical criteria. Frequently a definitive diagnosis is established within several years or months after the first manifestations appear. The increased number of cases, recently described worldwide also in the Polish population, indicates that the disease could spread out of endemic areas. The aim of this manuscript is to present the clinical picture, diagnosis criteria and therapeutic approaches of this “international disease” which currently is observed not only in emigrants from Asia but also in native Polish citizens. PMID:26788079

  2. Seismic imaging of the geodynamic activity at the western Eger rift in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, N.; Buske, S.; Hrubcova, P.; Ruzek, B.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.; Fischer, T.

    2015-04-01

    The western Eger rift at the Czech-German border in central Europe is an important geodynamically active area within the European Cenzoic rift system (ECRS) in the forelands of the Alps. Along with two other active areas of the ECRS, the French Massif Central and the east and west Eifel volcanic fields, it is characterized by numerous CO2-rich fluid emission points and frequent micro-seismicity. Existence of a plume(s) is indicated in the upper mantle which may be responsible for these observations. Here we reprocess a pre-existing deep seismic reflection profile '9HR' and interpret the subsurface structures as mapped by seismic reflectivity with previous findings, mainly from seismological and geochemical studies, to investigate the geodynamic activity in the subsurface. We find prominent hints of pathways which may allow magmatic fluids originating in the upper mantle to rise through the crust and cause the observed fluid emanations and earthquake activity.

  3. Chemical characteristics (REE, etc.) of Paleozoic and Mesozoic graywackes and sandstones from Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedepohl, Karl Hans; Simon, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    During the Variscan orogeny in Central Europe, partial melting in the lower continental crust formed granitic magmas, which intruded into the upper crust and left compounds of Ca (plus Eu2+), Mg, etc. in the lower crust. From the late Paleozoic decomposition of the tonalitic upper crust, sedimentary graywackes were produced reflecting the composition of this crust. The repeated reworking of the sedimentary cover caused the formation of sands. Sandstones as their products of consolidation contain increasing fractions of quartz and decreasing feldspar from Carboniferous and Triassic to Cretaceous age. A distinct negative Eu anomaly characterizes the majority of these rocks. The latter is imprinted by the Variscan magmatism. Quartz as used for numerous Medieval wood ash glasses is marked for its Central European origin by a distinct negative Eu anomaly in contrast to many soda glasses produced outside Germany mostly with a small or none Eu anomaly.

  4. Development of microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing in Galium trifidum (Rubiaceae), a rare species in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Sawicki, Jakub; Chwiałkowska, Karolina; Szandar, Kamil; Pisarek, Włodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    We identify a large number of microsatellites from Galium trfidum, a plant species considered rare and endangered in Central and Western Europe. Using a combination of a total enriched genomic library and small-scale 454 pyrosequencing, we determined 9755 contigs with a length of 100 to 6192 bp. Within this dataset, we identified 153 SSR motifs in 144 contigs. Here, we tested 14 microsatellite loci in 2 populations of G. trifidum. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity were 1-8 (mean 3.2) and 0.00-0.876 (0.549 on average), respectively. The markers described in this study will be useful for evaluating genetic diversity within and between populations, and gene flow between G. trifidum populations. These markers could also be applied to investigate the biological aspects of G. trifidum, such as the population dynamics and clonal structure, and to develop effective conservation programs for the Central European populations of this species.

  5. Development of Microsatellite Markers Using Pyrosequencing in Galium trifidum (Rubiaceae), a Rare Species in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szczecińska, Monika; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Sawicki, Jakub; Chwiałkowska, Karolina; Szandar, Kamil; Pisarek, Włodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    We identify a large number of microsatellites from Galium trfidum, a plant species considered rare and endangered in Central and Western Europe. Using a combination of a total enriched genomic library and small-scale 454 pyrosequencing, we determined 9755 contigs with a length of 100 to 6192 bp. Within this dataset, we identified 153 SSR motifs in 144 contigs. Here, we tested 14 microsatellite loci in 2 populations of G. trifidum. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity were 1–8 (mean 3.2) and 0.00–0.876 (0.549 on average), respectively. The markers described in this study will be useful for evaluating genetic diversity within and between populations, and gene flow between G. trifidum populations. These markers could also be applied to investigate the biological aspects of G. trifidum, such as the population dynamics and clonal structure, and to develop effective conservation programs for the Central European populations of this species. PMID:22949837

  6. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, D.S.; Oleksyn, J.

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  7. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  8. From the Party/State to Multiethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in Europe and Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews anecdotal and field experience in Europe and Central Asia in meeting the challenges of social cohesion and draws some comparisons between the social cohesion of education systems in the European and Central Asian regions and that of the United States. Outlines ways in which public education has contributed to social cohesion in the West.…

  9. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  10. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  11. From the Party/State to Multiethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in Europe and Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews anecdotal and field experience in Europe and Central Asia in meeting the challenges of social cohesion and draws some comparisons between the social cohesion of education systems in the European and Central Asian regions and that of the United States. Outlines ways in which public education has contributed to social cohesion in the West.…

  12. The identity and genetic characterization of Simulium reptans (Diptera: Simuliidae) from central and northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kúdela, Matúš; Brúderová, Tatiana; Jedlička, Ladislav; Bernotienė, Rasa; Celec, Peter; Szemes, Tomáš

    2014-05-27

    Although Simulium reptans Linnaeus is one of the first two blackfly species ever described its identity and taxonomy are still not precisely defined. S. reptans and closely related species from central and northern Europe were characterized based on genetic variability, haplotype number and haplotype distribution. S. galeratum can be considered a synonym of S. reptans, but despite this, two distinct species are present in Great Britain and central Europe. The available name S. reptantoides Carlsson can be used for the second species; earlier reported as S. reptans from Great Britain and central Europe. A total of 80 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences were analyzed: 44 S. reptans, 36 S. reptantoides; 38 from Great Britain, 19 from Slovakia, 8 from Lithuania, 3 from Latvia and 12 from Sweden. In 73 individuals a 606 bp section (long sequences), and in all 80 individuals a fully overlapping 453 bp section (short sequences) were analyzed. Results confirmed that S. reptans and S. reptantoides are two genetically isolated species. The variation between these species is 80.01% of total variation; approximately six times higher than the variation among the populations within species. The genetic divergence between species is 7.02% in long sequences and 7.46% in short ones. The genetic divergence within species is 1.18% in S. reptans and 0.83% in S. reptantoides in long sequences, and 1.38% and 1.05% in short sequences. Maximum likelihood trees, maximum parsimony trees and the haplotype network constructed using TCS showed that each species consists of two units, labelled as A and B forms. The distribution of the S. reptans forms is not identical-in Slovakia and the Baltic area only S. reptans B was found, meanwhile both A and B forms were present in Great Britain and Sweden; with the A form clearly dominant. In contrast, both forms of S. reptantoides were present in Great Britain and Slovakia, and absent in Scandinavia and the Baltic area. Additional

  13. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  14. [Canine leishmaniosis in Central Europe: retrospective survey and serological study of imported and travelling dogs].

    PubMed

    Mettler, Maik; Grimm, Felix; Naucke, Torsten J; Maasjost, Christiane; Deplazes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a common parasitic disease in Central Europe affecting dogs imported or returning from endemic countries around the Mediterranean basin. Through an internet discussion forum owners of dogs with suspected or proven leishmaniosis living in Central Europe (D, A, CH), were questioned about the dog's history. Additionally, serologic examinations of the dogs for anti-Leishmania antibodies (ELISA using antigen of promastigote stages) were offered to the participants. From February to October 2003, 291 dogs imported or returning from Southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, France, Malta, Portugal and others) were analysed. Serologically, 111 dogs (38%) were classified positive; 103 being imported and eight travelling dogs. The majority of seropositive dogs originated from Spain (67%). No significant correlation could be established between race, sex and age and the incidence of the disease. The clinical symptoms in the seropositive dogs varied widely and ranged from mild general symptoms to visceral manifestations with chronic renal failure. Skin disorders were found in 78% of the seropositive, symptomatic animals. In the country of origin or after import or return, 174 out of 291 dogs (60%) had been tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by different immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT). Discrepancies between the ELISA and the various IFATs used were noted in 55 cases (32%), especially in cases of low IFAT titers. Most of the seropositive dogs (80%) had been treated against leishmaniosis. In 91% of these cases, Allopurinol as monotherapy or in combination with Glucantime had been used. For diagnostics and therapy, dog owners had spent an average of 1,100 euros (median 900 euros, maximum 5,800 euros).

  15. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  16. Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Heintzenberg, Jost; Lehmann, Katrin

    2001-12-01

    Atmospheric particle number size distributions determined over 1.5 years at a central European site were statistically analyzed in terms of their relation to time of day, season, meteorology, and synoptic-scale air masses. All size distributions were decomposed into lognormal particle modes corresponding to the accumulation, Aitken, aged nucleation, and nucleation modes. The concentration of nucleation mode particles (<30 nm) behaved in a strongly diurnal fashion as a result of both anthropogenic source influence and secondary new particle formation events. The concentrations of Aitken and accumulation mode particles (>30 nm) lacked such diurnal behavior, and proved to be indicative of different synoptic-scale air mass types. Over 70% of the time, air masses of Atlantic origin and maritime character prevailed, showing obvious signs of anthropogenic influence most of the time (accumulation mode: 500 cm-3; Aitken mode: 2300 cm-3). During a limited period of time (10%), however, continentally aged air with significantly enhanced concentrations of aerosol was observed (accumulation mode: 1200 cm-3; Aitken mode: 3300 cm-3). These air masses were advected from source regions in Russia, and eastern, southeastern, and central Europe, mainly under anticyclonic and high-pressure influence. The analysis provides a refined picture of the behavior of the particle number size distribution and provides parameterizations that are representative for a variety of air masses in Europe and thus suitable for future climate modeling applications.

  17. Responses of large volcanic eruptions in the instrumental and documentary climatic data over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Písek, Jan; Brázdil, Rudolf

    2006-03-01

    Responses of large volcanic eruptions in selected long temperature series from Austria, the Czech Republic and Germany as well as in three global radiation series in Central Europe are studied. In the example of seven large tropical eruptions (Krakatau 1883; Pelée, Soufriére and Santa María 1902; Agung, 1963; El Chichón, 1982; Mt Pinatubo, 1991) it has been demonstrated that volcanic signal in regional series is not so strongly expressed as in the hemispheric scale owing to different local effects and circulation patterns. This is also valid in the case of two further discussed eruptions of Tambora (1815) and Katmai (1912). The responses of eruptions in areas closer to Central Europe such as Iceland or Italy are more important. In nine analysed cases with VEI = 4-5 with a single exception of the Hekla eruption (1917), cold seasons were observed to follow the eruption. Responses to the Lakagígar eruption (1783) of Iceland with important impacts are also discussed in detail. Moreover, correlation between temperatures (annual and winter half-year series) and NAOI is prevailingly smaller for the period following eruptions than in the period preceding eruptions. The importance of documentary evidence as a valuable source of the information about the impacts of volcanic eruptions is demonstrated.

  18. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  19. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  20. On the assessment of urban land-surface impacts on climate in regional climate model simulations over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    When aiming higher resolution in dynamical downscaling, which is common trend in CORDEX activities, the effects of land use and land use changes are playing increasing role. This is especially true for the urban areas, which in high resolution can occupy significant part of a single gridbox, if not being even bigger in case of big cities or megacities. Moreover, the role of cities will increase in future, as the population within the urban areas is growing faster, with the estimate for Europe of about 84% living in cities. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been coupled with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM), which can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Additionally, the version of land-surface scheme using CLM is tested and effect of the urban environment, which is included in the CLM scheme, will be assessed. Both versions will be compared and validated using EOBS data.

  1. Bridging global and microregional scales: ploidy distribution in Pilosella echioides (Asteraceae) in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Kubátová, Barbora; Szeląg, Zbigniew; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A detailed knowledge of cytotype distribution can provide important insights into the evolutionary history of polyploid systems. This study aims to explore the spatial distribution of different cytotypes in Pilosella echioides at various spatial scales (from the whole distributional range to the population level) and to outline possible evolutionary scenarios for the observed geographic pattern. Methods DNA-ploidy levels were estimated using DAPI flow cytometry in 4410 individuals of P. echioides from 46 populations spread over the entire distribution range in central Europe. Special attention was paid to the cytotype structure in the most ploidy-diverse population in south-west Moravia. Key Results Five different cytotypes (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x and 6x) were found, the last being recorded for the first time. Although ploidy-uniform (di- or tetraploid) sites clearly prevailed, nearly one-quarter of the populations investigated harboured more (up to all five) cytotypes. Whereas penta- and hexaploids constituted only a minority of the samples, a striking predominance of the triploid cytotype was observed in several populations. Conclusions The representative sampling confirmed previous data on cytotype distribution, i.e. the spatial aggregation of mixed-ploidy populations in south-west Moravia and Lower Austria and the predominance of ploidy-uniform populations in other parts of the area investigated. Recurrent origin of polyploids from diploid progenitors via unreduced gametes and their successful establishment are considered the key factors promoting intrapopulational ploidy mixture (‘primary hybrid zones’). As an alternative to the generally accepted theory of cytotype co-existence based on the development of different means of inter-ploidy reproductive isolation, it is suggested that a long-term ploidy mixture can also be maintained in free-mating populations provided that the polyploids originate with a sufficient frequency. In addition, the

  2. Advancing human rights in patient care through higher education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Tamar; Overall, Judy

    2013-12-12

    In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, for society's most marginalized people, health systems are too often places of violations of basic rights, rather than of treatment and care. At the same time, health practitioners are largely unaware of how to incorporate human rights norms in their work. Additionally, they may face abuses themselves, such as unsafe working conditions and sanctions for providing evidence-based care. Similarly, legal professionals have limited experience working in the health sector, trying to address abuses that occur. Republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have emerged from communism and experienced continued restructuring of their health care systems. As faculties of law, public health, and medicine have sought to incorporate these rapid changes into their curricula, this period of reform and openness to new approaches presented a particular opportunity to integrate human rights education. The Open Society Foundations have attempted to respond to the need to build health and human rights capacity by supporting the development of over 25 courses in human rights in patient care in nine countries. Targeted at different audiences, these courses are now part of the regular offerings at the academic institutions where they are taught. Student evaluations point to the strength of the interdisciplinary approach and the need to integrate practical examples and exercises. Faculty response has led to the development of a virtual community of practice and series of workshops to gain exposure to new ideas, strengthen interactive teaching, and share materials and experiences. Critical to this initiative has been working with faculty champions in each university, who shaped this initiative to meet the needs in their context. It quickly became apparent that teaching methodology is as important as content in human rights education. Meaningful engagement with health practitioners has entailed connections to day-to-day practice, participatory

  3. Strain Distribution in Central Europe: FEM Modeling and Comparison with GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araszkiewicz, A.; Bogusz, J.; Jarosinski, M.; Lenik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of this research is to demonstrate how the results of permanent GPS measurements can be understand in terms of recent geodynamics by applying numerical modeling method. On the other hand, the results of modeling are testing the consistency of the GPS measurements. The method of finite element analysis was applied to develop two-dimensional model of strain and stress field in Central Europe. The FEM model was prepared in the ABAQUS software, consisting of graphic modules and ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS Standard modules for solving the static task. The structure of the model was created in the plane Cartesian coordinate system, assuming that for this size of model the earth curvature will not affect the stress and strain direction significantly. Simplified elastic model with frictional contact elements was used for defining mechanical properties of the model. The model consists of 48 parts representing major tectonic units/blocks characterized by different material properties. The stiffness of tectonic blocks expressed by Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was determined based on the lithospheric thickness, surface heat flow and simplified lithological column of the lithosphere. For dislocations, different values of friction coefficient was tested in course of the trial-and-error modeling than the best fitted options were finally adopted in the model. The dynamic (force and pressure) boundary conditions were applied to the elastic model based on the recent tectonic stress directions from the World Stress Map Database. To allow fast changes of the loads the model boundary were designed normal to tectonic stresses. After each computing round the simulated stress and strain were compared with that measured, paying special attention to the GPS measurements from Poland and the adjacent areas. We have used coordinates and velocities from EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densified by Polish national Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) ASG-EUPOS. They were obtained

  4. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M.; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A.; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest. PMID:26835186

  5. Diversity of Haemaphysalis-associated piroplasms of ruminants in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; György, Zsolt; Micsutka, Attila; Iceton, Serena; Flaisz, Barbara; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-12-09

    Increasing numbers of genetic variants are being recognized among piroplasms, but the precise taxonomical status, the tick vector and the geographical range of several species or genotypes are still unknown. Bovine piroplasmosis was reported to re-emerge in north-east Hungary. Because Theileria-infection was newly diagnosed in one cattle herd in the same region of the country, the aim of this study was to molecularly identify the relevant agent, to find its local vector tick species, and to examine the range of Babesia/Theileria spp. of ruminants in Haemaphysalis sp. ticks collected previously in Hungary. Blood samples were drawn on two occasions from 90 dairy cattle in northern Hungary, and ticks were collected on their pastures. In addition, questing ticks (315 Haemaphysalis inermis, 259 H. concinna and 22 H. punctata), which originated mainly in the same region of the country from 2007, were included in the study. DNA was extracted from these samples, followed by molecular analysis for piroplasms. In the cattle Theileria orientalis was identified, with 100 % sequence homology to isolates from Japan, China, South-Africa and Australia. Based on GenBank data this genotype has not been previously reported in Europe. The prevalence of infection in the herd remained almost constant in the main tick season, suggesting exposure in previous years. Retrospective analysis of ticks revealed the presence of Babesia crassa in H. inermis, for the first time in Europe and in this tick species. On the other hand, H. concinna carried five different piroplasms, including B. motasi that was also newly detected in Central-Eastern Europe and in this tick species; whereas H. punctata harboured Theileria sp. OT3, hitherto known to occur in the Mediterranean region. Results of this study broaden the range of piroplasms that are infective for ruminants in Central-Eastern Europe. Although bovine babesiosis and theileriosis was known to occur in Hungary, molecular evidence is provided

  6. Palaeohydrological changes during the mid and late Holocene in the Carpathian area, central-eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haliuc, Aritina; Veres, Daniel; Brauer, Achim; Hubay, Katalin; Hutchinson, Simon M.; Begy, Robert; Braun, Mihaly

    2017-05-01

    Multi-proxy, high-resolution analyses (lithological, geochemical, environmental magnetism) anchored by 22 14C dates, of a 5.53 m long sediment core from Lake Ighiel (Romanian Carpathians, central-eastern Europe) allowed the reconstruction of key local, catchment-lacustrine dynamics and an appraisal of palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatic gradients acting regionally over the last 6000 years. The first sedimentological phase of the record from 6030 to 4200 cal yr BP is characterised by low productivity and high detrital input indicating surface runoff processes due to enhanced rainfall. This interpretation is in agreement with other hydrological reconstructions reporting increased precipitation also in CE Europe, NE Mediterranean and also inferred summer and winter latitudinal temperature gradients (LTG) (as defined by Davis and Brewer, 2009), showing a strong connectivity between basin-lacustrine dynamics and the establishment of the dominant, Atlantic atmospheric circulation pattern in the area. The lacustrine system was more stable between 4200 and 2500 cal yr BP when clastic inputs diminished and biological productivity increased. During this interval, the coherence of Lake Ighiel's multi-century detrital events, identified in a range of proxy-data (albeit different in frequency and magnitude), with flood activity in central Europe (the Alps) suggests a common moisture forcing (Atlantic and periodically Mediterranean influences). In contrast, different reconstructions from the NE Mediterranean indicate a distinct NW-SE hydro-climatic gradient. A more complex and variable trend is depicted in Lake Ighiel sedimentation during the last 2500 years showing a variable detrital trend likely reflecting an intriguing hydrological pattern which is in agreement with intervals of increased aridity phases during a generally moister period. Comparing our sedimentological results with published pollen records from the nearby area clearly indicates anthropogenic imprints during

  7. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  8. 16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART OF THE INTERIOR, RECENTLY USED FOR A BASKETBALL, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE ROLL-UP DOOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at left and plant switch house at right (series 1 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  11. Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Giesecke, Thomas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Feeser, Ingo; Behre, Karl-Ernst; Beug, Hans-Jürgen; Chen, Su-Hwa; Christiansen, Jörg; Dörfler, Walter; Endtmann, Elisabeth; Jahns, Susanne; de Klerk, Pim; Kühl, Norbert; Latałowa, Małgorzata; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Rasmussen, Peter; Stockholm, Jette Raal; Voigt, Ricarda; Wiethold, Julian; Wolters, Steffen

    2012-07-01

    By applying the recently developed model REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) (Sugita, 2007) to pollen data from a large number of sites across Northern Germany and Denmark, we construct maps of regional patterns in landscape openness and in cover abundance of key plant taxa in the cultural landscape of north-central Europe for selected time slices in the Holocene. The results indicate that the pattern of landscape openness across the regions of northern Germany and Denmark prior to the introduction of agriculture was affected by soil conditions and degree of continentality. The 8.2 ka climate event did not lead to a general decrease in tree cover, although some changes in species composition were observed. The early phases of agriculture also had little effect on landscape openness at the regional scale, but later human impact lead to large scale deforestation and development of arable areas, grasslands and of heathlands in the north-western part of the region. The timing and degree of deforestation, and the weight between arable and grazing areas varied in space, partly due to differences in natural conditions, partly due to differences in cultural impact.

  12. Detection of a new Sub-Lithospheric Discontinuity in Central Europe with S-Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas; Kämpf, Horst; Riaz, Soomro

    2017-04-01

    S-receiver functions (i.e. S-to-P converted signals) are useful for studying seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle between the Moho and the 410 km discontinuity. We obtained c. 49.000 S-receiver functions from c. 700 permanent and temporary broadband stations in central Europe as made available by the open EIDA archives. Knowledge of the existence and topography of upper mantle discontinuities sheds light on the dynamics of continental collision events which formed Europe. Below Phanerozoic Europe we observed the expected discontinuities like Moho, Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), Lehmann discontinuity and the 410 km discontinuity with an additional low velocity zone above. Below the East European Craton (EEC) we observed the Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD) and in addition the controversial cratonic LAB at c. 200 km depth. At the boundary of the EEC but below the Phanerozoic surface and below LAB we observed large regions with another sharp downward velocity reduction between 150 and 300 km depth which we named Sub-Lithospheric Discontinuity (SLD). These regions are: the North German-Polish Plain where we observed it at about 200 km depth; the Bohemian Massif where it is north-west dipping and reaching about 300 km depth; and the Pannonian Basin where it is at about 150 km depth and north-east dipping to 200 km depth below the western Carpathians and the EEC. At the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif we see a sharp vertical step of about 100 km in this discontinuity. It is too early for a lasting interpretation of these new findings. However, a possibility could be that a prong of the cratonic mantle lithosphere penetrated at the western and south-western edges of the EEC into the Phanerozoic asthenosphere during continental collision.

  13. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine

  14. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3− increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  15. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  16. Seismo-acoustic signals of the 2013 Russian meteor recorded across Central and Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The meteor over Russia entering the Earth's atmosphere on 15 February 2013 around 03:20UT near the city of Chelyabinsk was the largest since the 1908 Tunguska fireball. As such the shock waves generated by this event were observed at infrasonic stations globally, in particular the network of some 45 of the planned 60 infrasound systems of the International Monitoring System (IMS) being deployed for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Furthermore the shock waves coupling into the ground near the source location were observed as Rayleigh waves at seismic stations to distances of more than 4000 km. Beyond the acoustic observations that were made at infrasound sensors we report here on additional observations of the acoustic waves which have coupled into the Earth at the receiver. The corresponding observations were made in Central Europe, in particular at the Gräfenberg broad-band array, as well as in Northern Europe (NORSAR in Scandinavia and on Spitsbergen), where also broad-band seismic array stations are located. That indeed the acoustic arrival from the bolide was recorded can be confirmed by frequency-wavenumber analyses giving compatible velocities and back-azimuths for the ground-truth source location over Russia. Theses observations are compatible with IMS station observations and also with shock wave arrivals on seismic stations on the Eurasian platform.

  17. Using BeiDou system for precise positioning in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniak, Dawid; Cellmer, Slawomir; Nowel, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    In 2012 the Chinese navigation satellite system called BeiDou System (BDS) has reached the regional operational capabilities over the area of East Asia. Currently the BDS system consists of 5 medium orbit satellites MEO, 6 geosynchronous satellites IGSO and 5 geostationary satellites GEO and provides regional coverage by its navigation signals. Also in Europe BDS satellites can be used to determine position. In 2015 the third phase of BSD system development has started, aimed at providing global coverage and compatibility with other GNSS systems. As a result, BDS will broadcast signals at the same frequency as GPS L1 and L5 and Galileo E1, E5a and E5b. In the presented research we carried out relative positioning using the MAFA method. This was the first time when this method was applied to process BDS signals. The results show that it is possible to obtain precise position in central Europe using BDS signals only. However, with its current constellation, this is not possible 24/7, but in periodic time windows.

  18. Puumala hantavirus infections in bank vole populations: host and virus dynamics in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Reil, Daniela; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Imholt, Christian; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Eccard, Jana A; Jacob, Jens

    2017-02-28

    In Europe, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) are widely distributed and can transmit Puumala virus (PUUV) to humans, which causes a mild to moderate form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, called nephropathia epidemica. Uncovering the link between host and virus dynamics can help to prevent human PUUV infections in the future. Bank voles were live trapped three times a year in 2010-2013 in three woodland plots in each of four regions in Germany. Bank vole population density was estimated and blood samples collected to detect PUUV specific antibodies. We demonstrated that fluctuation of PUUV seroprevalence is dependent not only on multi-annual but also on seasonal dynamics of rodent host abundance. Moreover, PUUV infection might affect host fitness, because seropositive individuals survived better from spring to summer than uninfected bank voles. Individual space use was independent of PUUV infections. Our study provides robust estimations of relevant patterns and processes of the dynamics of PUUV and its rodent host in Central Europe, which are highly important for the future development of predictive models for human hantavirus infection risk.

  19. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals.

  20. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3(-) increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank.

  1. The New Faces of Europe. Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," offers some basic data on the contemporary human geography of the European continent, with a focus on central and eastern Europe. The document first describes civic issues in the teaching of geography and cartography of the new Europe. The basic…

  2. Links between central Greenland stable isotopes, blocking and extreme climate variability over Europe at decadal to multidecadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Werner, M.; Ionita, M.

    2016-10-01

    The link between central Greenland stable oxygen isotopes, atmospheric blocking frequency and cold temperature extremes at decadal to multidecadal time scales is investigated using observed and proxy data as well as model experiments. A composite analysis reveals that positive stable isotope anomalies in central Greenland are associated with enhanced blocking activity in the Atlantic European region. Several indices of blocking activity in the Atlantic European region are higher correlated with central Greenland stable isotope time series than with the North Atlantic Oscillation indices both in observations and model simulation. Furthermore, the blocking frequency anomaly pattern associated with central Greenland stable isotope variability is similar to the blocking anomaly pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. A composite analysis reveals that stable isotope variations in central Greenland are related to a large-scale pattern in the frequency of extreme low temperature events with significant positive anomalies over Europe and a southwest to northeast dipolar pattern over Asia. During observational period central Greenland isotope records, blocking and extreme temperature indices over Europe show enhanced variability 10-30 and 50-70 years. Similar quasi-periodicities dominate the spectrum of central Greenland isotope variability during the last millennium. We argue that long-term variations of climate extreme indices over Europe and Asia, as derived from observational data, can be put into a long-term perspective using central Greenland stable isotope ice core records.

  3. Links between central Greenland stable isotopes, blocking and extreme climate variability over Europe at decadal to multidecadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Werner, M.; Ionita, M.

    2017-07-01

    The link between central Greenland stable oxygen isotopes, atmospheric blocking frequency and cold temperature extremes at decadal to multidecadal time scales is investigated using observed and proxy data as well as model experiments. A composite analysis reveals that positive stable isotope anomalies in central Greenland are associated with enhanced blocking activity in the Atlantic European region. Several indices of blocking activity in the Atlantic European region are higher correlated with central Greenland stable isotope time series than with the North Atlantic Oscillation indices both in observations and model simulation. Furthermore, the blocking frequency anomaly pattern associated with central Greenland stable isotope variability is similar to the blocking anomaly pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. A composite analysis reveals that stable isotope variations in central Greenland are related to a large-scale pattern in the frequency of extreme low temperature events with significant positive anomalies over Europe and a southwest to northeast dipolar pattern over Asia. During observational period central Greenland isotope records, blocking and extreme temperature indices over Europe show enhanced variability 10-30 and 50-70 years. Similar quasi-periodicities dominate the spectrum of central Greenland isotope variability during the last millennium. We argue that long-term variations of climate extreme indices over Europe and Asia, as derived from observational data, can be put into a long-term perspective using central Greenland stable isotope ice core records.

  4. Remote Sensing and Remote Control Activities in Europe and America: Part 2--Remote Sensing Ground Stations in Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.

  5. Multi-agent simulations of the electricity market in central Europe.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Koritarov, V.; Thimmapuram, P. R.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-01-01

    Researchers use agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) and applications in electricity markets in Central Europe. They look at production cost, impact of CO{sub 2} emission allowances, strategic bidding in Germany and demand response. Advantages of using ABMS for market power analysis are more realistic market behavior than equilibrium models and detailed representation of physical system and market rules. Some challenges with ABMS are complex process to analyze results which makes it often necessary to run a high number of simulations and it is difficult to draw general conclusions. The case study looked at CO{sub 2} scheme that increases price and GenCo profits and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. Price responsive demand an important countermeasure to market power.

  6. A Decade of Transformation: Educational Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    The changes in Central and Eastern Europe caused by upheavals at the beginning of the 1990s had great impact on the formation and implementation of educational policies. A comparison of patterns in Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic shows common features which were rooted in the collapse of the communist system. At the same time these transformation processes were marked by considerable diversity. To elucidate these commonalities and differences, the following problem areas are examined: (a) decentralisation of responsibilities; (b) financing and privatisation; (c) structural reforms; (d) curricular reforms; and (e) evaluation, assessment and examinations. These developments are considered in the light of various theories about how periods of social transformation unfold. The article helps to throw light on the differences between the countries of the region in terms of how the educational changes were perceived and carried out.

  7. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Central and Northern Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species) and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates. PMID:21738431

  8. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  9. Persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds in central and eastern Europe--hot spots.

    PubMed

    Holoubek, I; Kocan, A; Holoubková, I; Hilscherová, K; Kohoutek, J; Falandysz, J; Roots, O

    2001-06-01

    The sources and environmental levels of the PBTs in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe are broadly described. Most of the countries in the region produce and/or formulate pesticides. The pesticide registration is a primary requirement for import, production and distribution. The special attention must be given to unwanted pesticides. The problem of unwanted and expired pesticides pose the greatest danger to the natural environment and people which is brought about by the use of chemicals in agriculture in CEE countries. Countries still have not solve the problem of safety storage for PBTs and other chemicals classified as poisons and they have no special sites or facilities for destruction of these chemicals. This region has very specific problems of environmental pollution, which are the results of the recent wars. Destruction of industrial facilities and spilling of chemicals have the worst effect for the environment (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro).

  10. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  11. Types of geographical distribution of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in Central Europe *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107

  12. The "Geomorphologic Diagonal" of Central Europe - towards a new morphotectonic interpretation of macroforms in average mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    Modern methods of low temperature thermochronology are able to throw light on the geomorphological development of macrorelief landforms. A rarely investigated problem concerns the orientation and morphotectonic evolution of Central European uplands (low to mid-elevation mountain ranges). A conspicuous NW-SE striking boundary takes course through Germany from the Osning and Teutoburg Forest in the NW to the Bavarian Forest in the SE. I call this line the "geomorphological diagonal". East of this line, more or less NW-SE striking morphotectonic features (e.g., Harz Mountains, Sudety) dominate the macrorelief up to the eastern border of Central Europe (Thornquist-Teysseire Lineament), with the exception of the Ohre Rift and Central Bohemia. West of this line, the macrorelief is either characterized by NNE-SSW to N-S oriented structures (e.g., Upper Rhine Rift) and, to a lesser extent, by (S)SW-(E)NE mountain ranges (southern Rhenish Slate Mountains and Ore Mountains) or by no predominance at all. In the Lower Rhine Embayment and along the Middle Rhine River, (N)NW-(S)SE directed morphotectonic features influence the low mountain ranges. In several cases geologists have proven that NW-SE morphotectonic structures are related to the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian to Campanian) "basin inversion" (e.g., von Eynatten et al. 2008). A compilation of low temperature thermochronological data (AFT, [U-Th]/He) from Central Europe clearly supports strong crustal cooling during the Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary in morphotectonically protruded crustal blocks east of the geomorphological diagonal, whereas west of it the age data available so far exhibit a much larger scatter from Upper Paleozoic to Tertiary without clear evidence of an outstanding Upper Cretaceous crustal cooling event. Based on this data I hypothesize that east of the diagonal macroforms of uplifted denudation surfaces ("peneplains" or "etchplains") may be inherited from the Cretaceous whereas west of it

  13. Ultrafine and Fine Particles and Hospital Admissions in Central Europe. Results from the UFIREG Study.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Stefanie; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Stafoggia, Massimo; Erzen, Ivan; Dostal, Miroslav; Pastorkova, Anna; Bastian, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Zscheppang, Anja; Kolodnitska, Tetiana; Peters, Annette

    2016-11-15

    Evidence of short-term effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) on health is still inconsistent and few multicenter studies have been conducted so far especially in Europe. Within the UFIREG project, we investigated the short-term effects of UFP and fine particulate matter (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm [PM2.5]) on daily cause-specific hospital admissions in five Central and Eastern European cities using harmonized protocols for measurements and analyses. Daily counts of cause-specific hospital admissions focusing on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were obtained for Augsburg and Dresden (Germany), 2011-2012; Chernivtsi (Ukraine), 2013 to March 2014; and Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Prague (Czech Republic), 2012-2013. Air pollution and meteorologic data were measured at fixed monitoring sites in all cities. We analyzed city-specific associations using confounder-adjusted Poisson regression models and pooled the city-specific effect estimates using metaanalysis methods. A 2,750 particles/cm(3) increase (average interquartile range across all cities) in the 6-day average of UFP indicated a delayed and prolonged increase in the pooled relative risk of respiratory hospital admissions (3.4% [95% confidence interval, -1.7 to 8.8%]). We also found increases in the pooled relative risk of cardiovascular (exposure average of lag 2-5, 1.8% [0.1-3.4%]) and respiratory (6-d average exposure, 7.5% [4.9-10.2%]) admissions per 12.4 μg/m(3) increase (average interquartile range) in PM2.5. Our findings indicated delayed and prolonged effects of UFP exposure on respiratory hospital admissions in Central and Eastern Europe. Cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions increased in association with an increase in PM2.5. Further multicenter studies are needed using harmonized UFP measurements to draw definite conclusions on health effects of UFP.

  14. HIV prevention nongovernmental organizations in Central and Eastern Europe: programs, resources and challenges.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Y A; Kelly, J A; Benotsch, E G; Somlai, A M; Brown, K D; Fernandez, M I; Opgenorth, K M

    2004-03-01

    HIV incidence is rising more rapidly in some areas of Central and Eastern Europe than anywhere else in the world. Carrying out effective HIV prevention programs requires the presence of "bridges" that can reach community populations most vulnerable to the disease. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are in a natural role to conduct HIV prevention programs. The Directors of 29 HIV prevention NGOs representing almost all countries in Central and Eastern Europe participated in in-depth interviews by telephone. The broad topics of these interviews included descriptions of the three largest programs conducted by each NGO during the past six months, at-risk target populations served, major barriers faced, and funding sources that sponsored HIV prevention activities. NGO programs most often targeted injection drug users (IDUs); other stigmatized groups were less frequently served by NGOs in the sample. The most common types of prevention activities were needle exchange, HIV prevention peer education, and delivering AIDS presentations and distributing educational materials. Among the major barriers that hampered effective conduct of HIV prevention programs were a shortage of available financial resources, governmental indifference or opposition, and AIDS-related stigma. National governments rarely provided substantial funds for NGO programs, and most funding came from United Nations agencies or private foundations. The information sources reported to be most helpful in assisting NGOs in program development were sharing ideas with other NGOs, participating in conferences, and accessing information from the Internet. A number of programs reported by the NGO Directors were innovative, outstanding, and comprehensive. Five such exemplary programs are described in this article. HIV epidemics in the region are still potentially controllable. NGOs need immediate support so that they can carry out their community-based activities on a larger scale.

  15. A tectonic model for the spatial occurrence of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits - applications to Central Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A structural-tectonic model, which was developed to assess the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits and associated polymetallic vein systems for the Matra Mountains, Hungary, has been expanded here and applied to other parts of central Europe. The model explains how granitoid stocks are emplaced and hydrothermal fluids flow within local strain features (duplexes) within strike-slip fault systems that develop in continental crust above subducting plates. Areas of extension that lack shear at the corners and along the edges of the fault duplexes are structural traps for the granitoid stocks associated with porphyry copper deposits. By contrast, polymetallic vein deposits are emplaced where shear and extension are prevalent in the interior of the duplexes. This model was applied to the Late Cretaceous-age porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Banat-Timok-Srednogorie region of Romania-Serbia-Bulgaria and the middle Miocene-age deposits in Romania and Slovakia. In the first area, porphyry copper deposits are most commonly located at the corners, and occasionally along the edges, of strike-slip fault duplexes, and the few polymetallic vein deposits identified are located at interior sites of the duplexes. In the second area, the model accounts for the preferred sites of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) and central Slovakian volcanic field (Slovakia).

  16. Human impact and colluvial sediment storages in Central Europe since the Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlummer, Manuela; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The adoption of agricultural techniques during the early Neolithic persistently affected sediment fluxes in geomorphic hillslope and adjacent river systems. Since then soil erosion and colluviation has become important geomorphic processes in hillslope-channel-systems. Soil erosion in turn affected human societies by soil degradation causing dramatic shifts of settlement centres. Erosion induced soil degradation initiated by land use activities is considered as a major link between the interaction of humans and their environment. To test this hypothesis a large-scale synoptic analysis of local case studies is currently under progress within the Collaborative Research Centre "Our Way to Europe", which deals with human environmental interaction and human mobility in the late Quaternary. In this study it is intended to achieve the following four aims: i) a reconstruction of the spatial trajectory of the beginning colluvial process, ii) the identification of crucial controlling factors of colluviation, iii) the quantification of colluvial sediment storage in Central Europe, iv) a spatio-temporal analysis of the colluviation process. The methodological approach includes the compilation of a colluvial database for Central Europe containing information on sediment depth, volumes, sedimentation rates and sediment ages. The database will be completed by own data collections in a small catchment and by calculating a sediment budget for the Pleisbach catchment (Pleiser Hügelland, near Bonn, Germany). Based on this colluvial data an isoline map of the spatial variable starting times of colluviation is generated. The isolines will be compared to archaeological maps of European neolithisation in order to identify stagnancies in expansion of Neolithic techniques in colluvial sediment archives. Furthermore a semi-quantitative erosion index will be developed that integrates qualitative information on controlling factors of colluviation, i. e. vegetation, land use, settlement

  17. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  18. Distribution of invasive Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in the East-Central Europe is driven by climatic and local environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Gagala, Ilona; Jasser, Iwona; Karosiene, Jurate; Kasperoviciene, Jurate; Kobos, Justyna; Koreiviene, Judita; Soininen, Janne; Szczurowska, Agnieszka; Woszczyk, Michal; Mankiewicz-Boczek, Joanna

    2017-03-09

    Mechanisms behind expansion of an invasive cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii have not been fully resolved and different hypotheses, such as global warming, are suggested. In the East-Central Europe, it is widely occurring in western part of Poland but only in single locations in the East due to some limiting factors. Therefore, broad scale phytoplankton survey including 117 randomly selected lakes in Poland and Lithuania was conducted. The results showed that C. raciborskii occurred widely in western part of Poland but was absent from other regions and Lithuania except one lake. The regions in which C. raciborskii was present had higher annual mean air temperature, higher maximum air temperature of the warmest month and higher minimum temperature of the coldest month demonstrating that average air temperature, and indirectly, the duration of growing season might be more important factor driving C. raciborskii distribution than measured in situ water temperature. In turn, the presence of C. raciborskii in single localities may be more related to physiological adaptations of separated ecotype. Collectively, these results provide novel evidence on the influence of temperature on C. raciborskii distribution in East-European regions but also indicate high ecological plasticity of this species.

  19. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  20. Drug use, HIV, HCV and TB: major interlinked challenges in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kazatchkine, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the largest drug epidemic globally and the fastest and still expanding HIV epidemic. The Russian Federation and Ukraine together account for over 90% of the reported AIDS cases in the region. If small in absolute numbers, the epidemics are however significant in prevalence rate in most countries of Central Asia. Most heroin and many of the new synthetic or home-made drugs are injected, which has led to high prevalence levels (up to 90%) of HCV infection in people who inject drugs (PWID). The two epidemics of HIV and HCV are in turn interlinked with TB and MDR-TB that are highly prevalent among marginalized populations in the region. Despite progress in the last two years, access to antiretroviral treatment remains far below global levels and increases more slowly than new reported cases of HIV. Access to prevention is limited with low coverage of needle exchange programs and very low or inexistent access to opioid substitutive therapy. There are few exceptions to this situation, including Ukraine where harm reduction programs are being scaled up together with significant peer outreach programs for PWIDs. This is likely to be the reason why the epidemic curves in the Russian Federation and Ukraine are now diverging. The region faces many structural, cultural, societal and political obstacles in responding to these quadruple epidemics. Without a significantly expanded and strengthened response, these epidemics will remain major causes of illness and premature deaths in the region. PMID:25394010

  1. Does intraplate brittle deformation indicate far-field stress signals? A case study of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navabpour, Payman; Kley, Jonas; Le Breton, Eline; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    Even though Central Europe has been located within a plate interior since the end of the Variscan orogeny, its intracontinental basins and highs recorded a succession of different tectonic regimes throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which were coeval with events at distant plate margins. A long Triassic-Cretaceous period of weak subsidence with intermittent extension was followed by NNE-SSW contraction in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. Renewed extension led to the formation of the Cenozoic Rift System and eventually evolved to the present-day variable stress regimes with a consistent NW-SE-oriented maximum horizontal shortening, SHmax. The detailed knowledge of this evolution relies on exhaustive lithostratigraphy and geochronological datasets, as well as on reconstruction of successive states of paleostress that controlled the formation and/or inversion of intracontinental basins. In combination, these data provide an excellent opportunity of linking the intracontinental deformation to the lithospheric plate boundary kinematics. Regional-scale analysis of fault kinematics in Central Europe unveiled a succession of consistent stress states for the crystalline basement and sedimentary cover of the brittle crust. These states of stress include a post-Triassic normal faulting regime with NE-SW-trending σ3 axis, strike-slip and thrust faulting regimes with NNE-SSW-trending σ1 axis, supposedly of Late Cretaceous age, and two younger events of normal and strike-slip faulting regimes with NW-SE-trending σ3 and σ1 axes, respectively. In this study, we report on the first attempts of linking the central European intraplate kinematics to changes in relative motion between the plates. The integration of stress fields with plate boundary kinematics suggests that the Late Cretaceous contraction may be explained by a change in African plate motion with respect to Eurasia from SE-directed sinistral transform to NNE-directed convergence. The reorientation of contraction to

  2. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  3. National Bibliographies and the International Conference on National Bibliographic Services Recommendations: Europe; North, Central and South America; and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langballe, Anne M. Hasund

    This paper discusses the findings of a survey that examined the national bibliographies of 81 countries in Europe, North America, Central America, South America, and Oceania. Results are presented in the following areas: (1) the connection between legal deposit laws and national bibliographies; (2) coverage and scripts of the national…

  4. Poverty and Ethnicity: A Cross-Country Study of Roma Poverty in Central Europe. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenga, Ana; Ringold, Dena; Tracy, William Martin

    Roma, or "gypsies," are the main poverty risk group in many countries of central and eastern Europe. Living standards for the Roma have deteriorated more severely during the region's transition to a market economy than they have for other population groups, and Roma have been poorly positioned to take advantage of emerging economic and…

  5. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training…

  6. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  7. Finding the Answers: A Look at Central and Eastern Europe. [and] Setting Up Special Services: The Trade Union Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poloni, Cesare; Flechsenhar, Ullrich H.

    1990-01-01

    Poloni reviews implications for unions of recent economic, social, technological, and political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Flechsenhar states that unions play a role in the development and restructuring of developing countries by providing special services to meet the economic and social needs of their members. (SK)

  8. Challenges for Teachers' Professional Learning for Inclusive Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Becirevic, Majda

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prepare teachers and other professionals for inclusive education in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS/CEE) region are heavily influenced by the legacy of Soviet defectology (the study of children with disabilities) and Soviet traditions of teacher education. The authors identify some…

  9. Poverty and Ethnicity: A Cross-Country Study of Roma Poverty in Central Europe. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenga, Ana; Ringold, Dena; Tracy, William Martin

    Roma, or "gypsies," are the main poverty risk group in many countries of central and eastern Europe. Living standards for the Roma have deteriorated more severely during the region's transition to a market economy than they have for other population groups, and Roma have been poorly positioned to take advantage of emerging economic and…

  10. The Use of Cases in Teaching Business Courses in Central and Eastern Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramorski, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the differing use of case methodology in teaching business courses in Central and Eastern Europe and the United States. Presents a framework for developing and delivering case-based business courses with the objective of maximizing teaching effectiveness. (EV)

  11. Evaluation of Enviro-HIRLAM model and aerosols effect during wildfires episodes in Europe and Central Russia in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuterman, Roman; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Baklanov, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil

    2014-05-01

    The summer of 2010 was characterized by severe weather events such as floods, heat waves and droughts across Middle East, most of Europe and European Russia. Among them the wildfires in Portugal and European Russia were some of the most prominent and led to substantial increase of atmospheric aerosols concentration. For instance, pollution from Russian wildfires, which were the most noticeable, spread around the entire central part of the country and also dispersed towards the Northern Europe. This study is devoted to Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model evaluation and analysis of radiation balance change due to increased aerosol burden caused by wildfires in Russia. For this purpose the model was forced by boundary and initial conditions produced by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) IFS and MOZART models for meteorology and atmospheric composition, respectively. The model setup included aerosol microphysics module M7 with simple tropospheric sulfur chemistry, anthropogenic emissions by TNO, wildfires emissions by FMI and interactive sea-salt and dust emissions. During the model run surface data assimilation of meteorological parameters was applied. The HIRLAM Savijarvi radiation scheme has been improved to account explicitly for aerosol radiation interactions. So that the short-wave radiative transfer calculations are performed as standard 2-stream calculations for averages of aerosol optical properties weighted over the entire spectrum. The model shows good correlation of particulate matter (PM) concentrations on diurnal cycle as well as day-to-day variability, but one always has negative bias of PM. The Enviro-HIRLAM is able to capture concentration peaks both from short-term and long-term trans boundary transport of PM and predicted the Aerosol Optical Thickness (at 550 nm) up to 2 over wildfire-polluted regions. And the direct radiative forcing is less than -100 W/m2.

  12. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  13. A New Generation of Large Seismic Refraction Experiments in Central Europe (1997-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Grad, M.; Spicak, A.; Brueckl, E.; Hegedus, E.; Keller, G. R.; Thybo, H.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1997, Central Europe has been covered by an unprecedented network of seismic refraction experiments. These experiments (POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, SUDETES 2003) have only been possible due a massive international cooperative effort. The total length of all profiles is about 19,000 km, and over 300 explosive sources were employed. The result is a network of seismic refraction profiles that extends along the Trans-European Suture Zone region of Poland and the Bohemian massif, Pannonian basin, trough the Carpathians and Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the Dinarides. As reflected in structures within these areas, Central Europe has experienced a complex tectonic history that includes the Caledonian, Variscan, and Alpine orogenies. The related TESZ region is a broad zone of deformation that extends across Europe from British Isles to the Black Sea region that formed as Europe was assembled from a complex collage of terranes during the late Palaeozoic. For example, the Bohemian massif is mostly located in the Czech Republic and is a large, complex terrane whose origin can be traced to northern Gondwana (Africa). These terranes were accreted along the margin of Baltica that was formed during the break-up of Rodinia. The tectonic evolution of this region shares many attributes with the Appalachian/Ouachita origin and is certainly of global important to studies in terrane tectonics and continental evolution. In southern Poland, several structural blocks are located adjacent to Baltica and were probably transported laterally along it similar to the Cenozoic movement of terranes along the western margin of North America. The younger Carpathian arc and Pannonian back-arc basin were also targeted by these experiments. Thickness of the crust in the area of investigations changes from 22-25 km in the Pannonian basin to about 55 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland. Together, these experiments are providing an unprecedented 3-D image of the

  14. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results.

    PubMed

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pajak, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-03-01

    The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002-05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7-6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6-10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations.

  15. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results

    PubMed Central

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pająk, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods and results The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7–6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6–10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. Conclusion The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations. PMID:23786858

  16. Occurrence of atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe: clinical and virological examinations.

    PubMed

    Farsang, A; Makranszki, L; Dobos-Kovács, M; Virág, Györgyi; Fábián, Katalin; Barna, Tímea; Kulcsár, G; Kucsera, L; Vetési, F

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of the atypical form of myxomatosis struck a rabbit farm in Hungary. The animals had previously been vaccinated with a vaccine containing Shope rabbit fibroma virus strain. The disease appeared in winter when the presence of mosquitoes and fleas is not common. The virus was isolated from an eyelid specimen of a naturally infected rabbit. The surviving animals were observed for four weeks, blood samples were collected and, after euthanasia, organ specimens were also examined by morphological methods including pathology and electron microscopy. Serum samples were examined by virus neutralisation for antibodies. Genetic analysis of the isolated virus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The primers were designed on the basis of the major envelope gene (Env) of the Lausanne reference strain in the GenBank. The viral proteins were examined by SDS-PAGE. The isolated virus (ref. no.: BP04/2001) was able to infect the susceptible animals directly, by contact. The disease was characterised by respiratory symptoms of the upper tracheal tract, conjunctivitis and high mortality by the 11th-14th day. Aerogenic infection with strain BP04/2001 resulted in 100% morbidity among the susceptible animals. Sequencing of the amplified 400-bp-long DNA revealed 97% homology with the Env gene of the Lausanne strain, which proves that strain BP04/2001 is a variant of the Lausanne strain having been enzootic throughout Europe. The live vaccine strain used in Hungary against myxomatosis, which is also a Lausanne-derived strain, protected the animals. According to the protein analysis a protein of 200 kDa in size is not expressed in strain BP04/2001. This is the first report on atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe. The virus spreads by airborne transmission and may cause severe losses in the rabbit population.

  17. Detection of a new sub-lithospheric discontinuity in Central Europe with S-receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark R.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas; Kämpf, Horst; Soomro, Riaz

    2017-03-01

    We used S-receiver functions (i.e. S-to-P converted signals) to study seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle between the Moho and the 410 km discontinuity beneath central Europe. This was done by using c. 49,000 S-receiver functions from c. 700 permanent and temporary broadband stations made available by the open EIDA Archives. Below Phanerozoic Europe we observed expected discontinuities like the Moho, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), the Lehmann discontinuity and the 410 km discontinuity with an additional overlying low velocity zone. Below the East European Craton (EEC), we observed the Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD) at c. 100 km depth as well as the controversial cratonic LAB at c. 200 km depth. At the boundary of the EEC but still below the Phanerozoic surface, we observed downward velocity reductions below the LAB in the following regions: the North German-Polish Plain at about 200 km depth; the Bohemian Massive, north-west dipping from 200 to 300 km depth; the Pannonian Basin, north-east dipping from 150 to 200 km depth underneath the western Carpathians and the EEC. We named this newly observed structure Sub-Lithospheric Discontinuity (SLD). At the northern edge of the Bohemian Massive, we see a sharp vertical step of about 100 km between the SLD below the Bohemian Massive and the North German-Polish Plain. This step follows the surface trace of the Rheic Suture between the continental Saxo-Thuringian and Rheno-Herzynian zones of the Variscan orogen. A preliminary interpretation of these features is that a prong of the cratonic mantle lithosphere penetrated the Phanerozoic asthenosphere during the continental collision at the western and south-western edges of the EEC.

  18. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  19. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  20. Georeference of the 1:200,000 'degree maps' of Central Europe (about 1910)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timár, G.; Molnár, G.; Crăciunescu, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Institute of Military Geography in Vienna has completed the mapping of central Europe in the scale of 1:200,000 in the first decade of the 20th century. The map sheets cover a one degree (latitude) by one degree (longitude) extent piece of the terrain, that's why these sheets are referred to as 'degree maps'. The longitude is shown with respect to the Ferro prime meridian. The integer degree lines are the horizontal and vertical central lines of the sheets. The map sheets has no uniform projections, not even inside one sheet. The basic units of these maps were the 1:75,000 scale sheets of the cartography of the Habsburg Monarchy, each covering a half degree (longitude) by quarter degree (latitude) piece of terrain. Each 1:75,000 sheets have their own oblique Stereographic projection, with the projection centre at the geometric centre of the sheet. The set of these Stereographic systems is called Lichtenstern-type polyedric projection system. Each degree maps contains eight of the 1:75,000 sheets, without reprojection but simply drawn them in an approximate mosaic. Thus, the exact method of the georeference would be to cut these degree maps into eight pieces along the borders of the 1:75,000 sheets and rectify them separately in their own Stereographic systems. As it raises a huge work, we suggest to define substituting projections. Namely, a sinusoidal projection for each degree column should be defined with a projection center at the crossing of the central meridian and the Equator. The degree maps can be rectified using their corners as control points in the respective sinusoidal projection. After the rectification, we can crop the map content of the sheets and reproject them to any selected projection to make a real map mosaic. Using the georeference, we can provide combinations of these sheets and the modern databases or elevation models.

  1. Field evaluation of four widely used mosquito traps in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    regard to trapping efficacy for most common mosquito species in Germany, including diversity of mosquito species and number of mosquitoes per trapping period. Thus, the BG trap is probably the best solution for general monitoring or surveillance programs of adult mosquitoes in Central Europe. PMID:24924481

  2. Field evaluation of four widely used mosquito traps in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Renke; Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Börstler, Jessica; Garms, Rolf; Huber, Katrin; Schork, Nino; Steinke, Sonja; Kiel, Ellen; Becker, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Krüger, Andreas

    2014-06-12

    common mosquito species in Germany, including diversity of mosquito species and number of mosquitoes per trapping period. Thus, the BG trap is probably the best solution for general monitoring or surveillance programs of adult mosquitoes in Central Europe.

  3. Multiple sclerosis distribution in England and Wales and parts of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Percy

    1971-01-01

    Scotland and Ireland have the highest death rates from multiple sclerosis and high rates are recorded in an area extending south-eastward from Britain through central Europe. The rates tend to diminish with rising latitude and longitude. In England and Wales the county boroughs with notably high rates during 1958-67 were mostly textile towns with cotton and wool mills, situated in the area recording the lowest average levels of sunshine. In the London area mortality from multiple sclerosis was high in those western boroughs and adjacent counties most exposed to the noise of aircraft using the airports of London. The geographical pattern in England suggests that noise and vibration of particular kinds may be a factor in causation along with a climatic factor, but this hypothesis is speculative until further evidence is found to support it. PMID:5285941

  4. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  5. On the Risk of Mediterranean and Sub-tropical Climate Expansion into Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farda, Ales; Štěpánek, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Szabó-Takács, Beata

    2015-04-01

    Many contemporary studies of climate change focused on or including Central Europe suggest significant changes of future climate characteristics. The scope of this transformation includes increased mean annual temperature, increased frequency and intensity of heat waves and droughts and changes in spatiotemporal precipitation characteristic including the tendency to occurrence of dangerous torrential rains. This makes from the region one of the particularly vulnerable area increasing the necessity of providing reliable, precise and comprehensible information both to the decision makers and general public. In our study we decided to examine climate change signal using the Köppen-Geiger climate classification on corrected output of high resolution simulations performed with the RCMs ALADIN-Climate/CZ and RegCM, nested in GCM ARPÉGE 5.0 lateral boundary conditions and ECHAM4 respectively. Both experiments were forced by IPCC SRES A1B scenario. Climate classifications like that of Köppen-Geiger are useful in wider range of ecological disciplines including forestry and agriculture as they correlate with their bio-ecologically oriented classification systems. In order to address regional and local character of climate change signal we decided to study simulations performed in 10km resolution, which is capable to capture even relatively fine scale geomorphological details. To retain as much fine scale signal as possible, model output was corrected using measured data from the dense observation networks operated by the national meteorological services of Austria (north to the Alps), Czech Republic and Slovakia. Thus, we are able to detect changes in climate characteristics affecting small scale geomorphological features like individual Alps and Carpathian mountain ranges, individual mountain systems of Bohemian massif, rift and river valleys, which are usually poorly represented in more coarse resolution. Our findings among other suggest the risk of large scale

  6. Optically perceptible characteristics of sprites observed in Central Europe in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-01-01

    Sprites are luminous optical emissions accompanying electric discharges in the mesosphere. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68°N, 16.58°E, ˜230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. Characteristic sprite forms, i.e., column, wishbone, tree, angel, and carrot have been identified in the set of records. Characteristic morphological properties corresponding to each type are given; earlier definitions and observations as well as the related theoretical considerations are reviewed. Based on the knowledge and experience from high-speed imaging in sprite observations, probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with the characteristic sprite types. It is suggested that different streamer propagation sequences corresponding to different dynamic processes may result in similar sprite forms. Several occasionally detectable sprite features are noted and described: tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, and spots. Spots are distinguished from the similar beads by their characteristic brightness, size, and location relative to the bright body of the sprite. The events observed in Central Europe have been classified by the number of individual sprites and by the variety of types appearing in them. More than 90% of the recorded sprites were found to occur in clusters rather than alone, and more than half of the sprite clusters contained more than one sprite types. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events are described as being special subsets of sprite clusters. Statistical analysis of the occurrences of morphological types, various sprite features, and event durations indicated that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites with glows and tendrils do not tend to have long optical lifetimes. Sprite events with more morphological types, on the other hand, more likely have extended durations. The maximum of the encountered event duration was lower for events with many sprite

  7. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in central and northern Europe from automated, broad-band, interstation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They

  9. Tsunamis in the central part of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, E. A.; Kuzin, I. P.; Yakovenko, O. I.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the geotectonics of the Caspian Sea basin and the seismicity of its central part. The seismicity analysis enables us to identify the most probable zones of tsunami generation. We also present a brief review of the historical records of tsunamis in the Caspian Sea. In order to estimate the tsunami risk, we used the method of numerical hydrodynamic simulation while taking into account the real topography of the Caspian Sea. The computation of the wave field for the possible tsunamis occurring in the central part of the Caspian Sea allowed us to estimate the maximum expected heights of the waves along the coast of the CIS countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan). On the basis of the earthquake statistics in the region and the results of numerical experiments, we show that the extreme wave heights can reach 10 m at certain parts of the coast. Such extreme events correspond to extended (up to 200 km) seismic sources with M S ˜ 8 and a recurrence period of T ≈ 1600 years. The tsunami wave heights are expected to be as high as 3 m for sources of lesser extent (<50 km) with earthquake magnitudes of M S ˜ 7 and a recurrence period of 200 years.

  10. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  11. Part-time work among older workers with disabilities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pagán, R

    2009-05-01

    To analyse the use of part-time work among older workers with disabilities compared with their non-disabled counterparts within a European context. Cross-sectional. Data were drawn from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The key advantage of this dataset is that it provides a harmonized cross-national dimension, and contains information for European individuals aged 50 years or over on a wide range of health indicators, disability, socio-economic situation, social relations, etc. Older people with disabilities (aged 50-64 years) are more likely to have a part-time job compared with their non-disabled counterparts. Although there is an important employment gap between the two groups, many older workers with disabilities use part-time work to achieve a better balance between their health status and working life. The econometric analysis corroborated that being disabled has a positive effect on the probability of working on a part-time basis, although this effect varies by country. Policy makers must encourage part-time employment as a means of increasing employment opportunities for older workers with disabilities, and support gradual retirement opportunities with flexible and reduced working hours. It is crucial to change attitudes towards older people with disabilities in order to increase their labour participation and reduce their levels of poverty and marginalization.

  12. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05–74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57–9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  13. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy.

  14. Chondritic Xenon in the Earth's mantle: new constrains on a mantle plume below central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Bernard, Peter; Furi, Evelin; Marty, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    data support the notion that the fraction of plutonium-derived Xe in plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) is higher than in the MORB source reservoir. Hence, the MORB - type reservoirs appear to be well distinguished and more degassed than the plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) supporting the heterogeneity of Earth's mantle. Finally this study highlights that xenon isotopes in the Eifel gas have preserved a chemical signature that is characteristic of other mantle plume sources. This is very intriguing because the presence of a mantle plume in this sector of Central Europe was already inferred from geophysical and geochemical studies(Buikin et al., 2005; Goes et al., 1999). Notably, tomographic images show a low-velocity structure down to 2000 km depth, representing deep mantle upwelling under central Europe, that may feed smaller upper-mantle plumes (Eifel volcanic district-Germany). References Buikin A., Trieloff M., HoppJ., Althaus T., Korochantseva E., Schwarz W.H. &Altherr R., (2005), Noble gas isotopessuggestdeepmantleplume source of late Cenozoicmaficalkalinevolcanism in Europe, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 230, 143-162. Goes S., Spakman W. &BijwaardH., (1999), A lowermantle source for centraleuropeanvolcanism, Science, 286, 1928-1931.G. Holland, M. Cassidy, C.J. Ballentine, Meteorite Kr in the Earth's mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere, Science, 326, 1522-1525, (2009). Marty, B. Neon and xenon isotopes in MORB: implications for the Earth-atmosphere evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 94, 45-56 (1989). Mukhopadhyay S., Early differentiation and volatile accretion recorded in deep-mantle neon and xenon
, Nature, 486, 101-106, (2013).

  15. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  16. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam

    2014-02-01

    A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. Exposure ages and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An exposure age of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.

  17. Pushing the limits – two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Pteromalus briani sp. n. and Pteromalus janstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalus briani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglais urticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalus janstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world. PMID:26261432

  18. Pushing the limits - two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology.

    PubMed

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Two new species, Pteromalusbriani sp. n. and Pteromalusjanstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalusbriani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessaatalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglaisurticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalusjanstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world.

  19. Psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikhart, Hynek; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Topor, Roman; Sebakova, Helena; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Psychosocial factors at work have been found to predict a range of health outcomes but their effect on mental health outcomes has not been extensively studied. This paper explores the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The data come from a cross-sectional study of working men (n = 645) and women (n = 523) aged 45-64 years, randomly selected from population registers in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and Karvina-Havirov (Czech Republic). The questionnaire included questions on the effort and reward at work, job control, the full CES-D scale of depression, and a range of other characteristics. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between depression score and work characteristics: the logarithm of the effort-reward ratio, and continuous job control score. The means of the depression score were 10.5 for men and 14.2 for women. After controlling for age, sex and country, effort-reward ratio (logarithmically transformed) was strongly related to depression score; a 1 SD increase in the log transformed effort-reward ratio was associated with an increase in the depression of 2.0 points (95% CI 1.5; 2.4), and further adjustment did not materially change the effect. Job control was inversely associated with depression score in Poland and the Czech Republic (not in Russia) but the association was largely eliminated by controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. This study suggests that the effort-reward imbalance at work is related to prevalence of depression in these central and eastern European populations.

  20. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  1. Two thousand years of geomagnetic field direction over central Europe revealed by indirect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Péter

    2010-04-01

    Supplemented by 32 new directions, the Hungarian archaeomagnetic data set now consists of 217 archaeologically dated directions ranging in age from 300 BC to 1800 AD. From this data set, reference curves of secular variation of the geomagnetic field direction were computed using hierarchical modelling and curve estimation by moving average technique. Thanks to some of the new data, the gap in the earlier reference curves around 500 AD has now been filled up. For comparison's sake, directional records of comparable length from central Europe were also processed by the same curve building method. For this purpose, all dated directional data (declination and inclination with statistics) were drawn from the GEOMAGIA50 database for France, Germany, the Ukraine and Moldavia, Bulgaria and Italy and transferred via their virtual geomagnetic poles to a reference point of their respective countries. The resulting reference curves, including those for Hungary, show more or less similar temporal behaviour to the corresponding CALS7K.2 model curves (also available from the GEOMAGIA50 database), but significant deviations from the low-order CALS7K.2 predictions are also discernible owing to the likely presence of additional higher-order complications in the regional field. Therefore, the regional field and its secular variation are suggested to be approximated by the reference rather than the predicted curves. At any other location within the study area, the direction of the regional field can be obtained by spatial interpolation from the reference curves as illustrated by isogonic and isoclinic maps shown for selected times. Local time-series of interpolated directions for other central European countries lacking reference curves might serve as master curves for magnetic dating.

  2. Microevolution of sympatry: landscape genetics of hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bolfíková, B; Hulva, P

    2012-03-01

    We used the mitochondrial control region and nuclear microsatellites to assess the distribution patterns, population structure, demography and landscape genetics for the hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and Erinaceus roumanicus in a transect of the mid-European zone of sympatry. E. roumanicus was less frequent and restricted to regions with lower altitudes. Demographic analyses suggested recent population growth in this species. A comparison of patterns in the spatial variability of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA indicated less sex-biased dispersal and higher levels of gene flow in E. roumanicus. No evidence of recent hybridisation or introgression was detected. We interpreted these results by comparing with phylogeographic and palaeontological studies as well as with the occurrence of hybridisation in the Russian contact zone. We propose that Central Europe was colonised by E. roumanicus by the beginning of the Neolithic period and that there was a subsequent reinforcement stage as well as the formation of a zone of sympatry after the complete reproductive isolation of both species.

  3. Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes - the 2013 smoke season over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Flentje, H.; Ries, L.

    2015-08-01

    In July 2013 very strong boreal fire plumes were observed at the northern rim of the Alps by lidar and ceilometer measurements of aerosol, ozone and water vapour for about 3 weeks. In addition, some of the lower-tropospheric components of these layers were analysed at the Global Atmosphere Watch laboratory at the Schneefernerhaus high-altitude research station (2650 m a.s.l., located a few hundred metres south-west of the Zugspitze summit). The high amount of particles confirms our hypothesis that fires in the Arctic regions of North America lead to much stronger signatures in the central European atmosphere than the multitude of fires in the USA. This has been ascribed to the prevailing anticyclonic advection pattern during favourable periods and subsidence, in contrast to warm-conveyor-belt export, rainout and dilution frequently found for lower latitudes. A high number of the pronounced aerosol structures were positively correlated with elevated ozone. Chemical ozone formation in boreal fire plumes is known to be rather limited. Indeed, these air masses could be attributed to stratospheric air intrusions descending from remote high-latitude regions, obviously picking up the aerosol on their way across Canada. In one case, subsidence from the stratosphere over Siberia over as many as 15-20 days without increase in humidity was observed although a significant amount of Canadian smoke was trapped. These coherent air streams lead to rather straight and rapid transport of the particles to Europe.

  4. Microevolution of sympatry: landscape genetics of hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bolfíková, B; Hulva, P

    2012-01-01

    We used the mitochondrial control region and nuclear microsatellites to assess the distribution patterns, population structure, demography and landscape genetics for the hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and Erinaceus roumanicus in a transect of the mid-European zone of sympatry. E. roumanicus was less frequent and restricted to regions with lower altitudes. Demographic analyses suggested recent population growth in this species. A comparison of patterns in the spatial variability of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA indicated less sex-biased dispersal and higher levels of gene flow in E. roumanicus. No evidence of recent hybridisation or introgression was detected. We interpreted these results by comparing with phylogeographic and palaeontological studies as well as with the occurrence of hybridisation in the Russian contact zone. We propose that Central Europe was colonised by E. roumanicus by the beginning of the Neolithic period and that there was a subsequent reinforcement stage as well as the formation of a zone of sympatry after the complete reproductive isolation of both species. PMID:21863052

  5. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  6. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-05-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  7. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    de Labry Lima, Antonio Olry; Mochon, Leticia García; Martínez, Araceli Caro; Ruiz, Eva Martín; Balbino, Jaime Espin

    2016-02-01

    To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance.

  8. Evaluation of major heat waves' mechanisms in EURO-CORDEX RCMs over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) to simulate major heat waves in Central Europe and their associated meteorological factors. Three reference major heat waves (1994, 2006, and 2015) were identified in the E-OBS gridded data set, based on their temperature characteristics, length and spatial extent. Atmospheric circulation, precipitation, net shortwave radiation, and evaporative fraction anomalies during these events were assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The analogous major heat waves and their links to the aforementioned factors were analysed in an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCMs driven by various global climate models in the 1970-2016 period. All three reference major heat waves were associated with favourable circulation conditions, precipitation deficit, reduced evaporative fraction and increased net shortwave radiation. This joint contribution of large-scale circulation and land-atmosphere interactions is simulated with difficulties in majority of the RCMs, which affects the magnitude of modelled major heat waves. In some cases, the seemingly good reproduction of major heat waves' magnitude is erroneously achieved through extremely favourable circulation conditions compensated by a substantial surplus of soil moisture or vice versa. These findings point to different driving mechanisms of major heat waves in some RCMs compared to observations, which should be taken into account when analysing and interpreting future projections of these events.

  9. The influence of atmospheric circulation on plant phenological phases in central and eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasa, Anto; Jaagus, Jaak; Ahas, Rein; Sepp, Mait

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse relationships between the start dates of spring phenological phases and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. The timing of phenological phases in temperate zones is driven by temperature, and temperature regime is generally determined by atmospheric circulation. The database analysed consists of the first dates of flowering of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.), of birch (Betula pendula Roth.) leaf unfolding and of flowering of lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.); the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic oscillation (AO) indices, frequencies of the circulation forms classified by Vangengeim and Girs, and of the groups of Grosswetterlagen presented by Hess and Brezowsky. The study area covers central and eastern Europe, and the period considered is 1951-98.The results show that the influence of the westerly airflow is more pronounced in the winter half-year, and weakens and even disappears as spring advances. Phases have the highest correlation with NAO and AO indices during winter (December-March) and the first three months of the year (January-March), which have correlations stronger than -0.5 in the Baltic Sea region. Among the phenological phases, flowering of coltsfoot is the most strongly correlated with the NAO and AO indices, followed by leafing of birch and flowering of lilac. Airflow from the north and from the east has a greater influence in springtime, particularly in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the study area.

  10. Atmospheric circulation types and extreme areal precipitation in southern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobeit, Jucundus; Homann, Markus; Philipp, Andreas; Beck, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Gridded daily rainfall data for southern central Europe are aggregated to regions of similar precipitation variability by means of S-mode principal component analyses separately for the meteorological seasons. Atmospheric circulation types (CTs) are derived by a particular clustering technique including large-scale fields of SLP, vertical wind and relative humidity at the 700 hPa level as well as the regional rainfall time series. Multiple regression models with monthly CT frequencies as predictors are derived for monthly frequencies and amounts of regional precipitation extremes (beyond the 95 % percentile). Using predictor output from different global climate models (ECHAM6, ECHAM5, EC-EARTH) for different scenarios (RCP4.5, RCP8.5, A1B) and two projection periods (2021-2050, 2071-2100) leads to assessments of future changes in regional precipitation extremes. Most distinctive changes are indicated for the summer season with mainly increasing extremes for the earlier period and widespread decreasing extremes towards the end of the 21st century, mostly for the strong scenario. Considerable uncertainties arise from the predictor use of different global climate models, especially during the winter and spring seasons.

  11. Future scenarios for earthquake and flood risk in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Schäfer, A. M.; Ward, P. J.; Winsemius, H. C.; Simpson, A.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2017-07-01

    We report on a regional flood and earthquake risk assessment for 33 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Flood and earthquake risk were defined in terms of affected population and affected gross domestic product (GDP). Earthquake risk was also quantified in terms of fatalities and capital loss. Estimates of future population and GDP affected by earthquakes vary significantly among five shared socioeconomic pathways that are used to represent population and GDP in 2030 and 2080. There is a linear relationship between the future relative change in a nation's exposure (population or GDP) and its future relative change in annual average population or GDP affected by earthquakes. The evolution of flood hazard was quantified using a flood model with boundary conditions derived from five different general circulation models and two representative concentration pathways, and changes in population and GDP were quantified using two shared socioeconomic pathways. There is a nonlinear relationship between the future relative change in a nation's exposure (population or GDP) and its future relative change in its annual average population or GDP affected by floods. Six regions can be defined for positive and negative relative change in population that designate whether climate change can temper, counter, or reinforce relative changes in flood risk produced by changes in population or exposure. The departure from the one-to-one relationship between a relative change in a nation's population or GDP and its relative change in flood risk could be used to inform further efforts at flood mitigation and adaptation.

  12. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  13. The creation and progress of the J Project in Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Maródi, László

    2011-11-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have now become recognized as a worldwide health problem. Rapid development of immunological and genetic technologies has led to the discovery of more than 200 PIDs and more than 150 disease-related genes. Progress in the field is expected to take a new turn after the introduction of new-generation sequencing technologies that will enable searches for currently unknown PID-related genes. By contrast, even with progress in molecular genetics, many patients remain ill and die early because of the lack of diagnostic or treatment facilities, or both. Thus, the gap between the knowledge accumulated and the appropriate management of patients with PIDs in everyday clinical practice has widened, necessitating PID awareness, particularly in countries with poor socioeconomic conditions. The J Project, established as a physician education and research collaboration program in Eastern and Central Europe, demonstrates how professional responsibility and long-term joint efforts can make a beneficial difference for patients with inborn errors of immunity.

  14. Database citation in supplementary data linked to Europe PubMed Central full text biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Pi, Xingjun; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of data citation practices in full text research articles and their corresponding supplementary data files, made available in the Open Access set of articles from Europe PubMed Central. Our aim is to investigate whether supplementary data files should be considered as a source of information for integrating the literature with biomolecular databases. Using text-mining methods to identify and extract a variety of core biological database accession numbers, we found that the supplemental data files contain many more database citations than the body of the article, and that those citations often take the form of a relatively small number of articles citing large collections of accession numbers in text-based files. Moreover, citation of value-added databases derived from submission databases (such as Pfam, UniProt or Ensembl) is common, demonstrating the reuse of these resources as datasets in themselves. All the database accession numbers extracted from the supplementary data are publicly accessible from http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11771. Our study suggests that supplementary data should be considered when linking articles with data, in curation pipelines, and in information retrieval tasks in order to make full use of the entire research article. These observations highlight the need to improve the management of supplemental data in general, in order to make this information more discoverable and useful.

  15. Cergop-2, A Multipurpose and Interdisciplinary Sensor Array For Environmental Research In Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesec, P.

    The project CERGOP-2 (second phase of the Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project)was initiated 1998, as a successor of CERGOP 1993/1998. During the follow- ing 3 years a new concept was worked out which finally was submitted for EU-support under the Sub-Programme Environment and Sustainable Development (5. FP) Octo- ber 2001. In the meanwhile the proposal received a "go" which implies a ranking in the final set of proposals forseen for eventual financial support. 14 contractors out of 13 countries contributed to the formulation of the proposal, the planned actions comprize the consolidation of the GPS-network,which covers about 15 % of the European territory, the final aim being the establishment of a velocity field which allows for the derivation of strain-fields and the monitoring of energy transfer for geodynamic studies and hazard mitigation. This paper will give an overview of the required actions and the expected results, paying special attention to near real-time information and regional geodynamic inves- tigations of seismic active regions.

  16. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-06

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states.

  17. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of Lochkovian to Eifelian limestones from the Devonian of central and southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buggisch, Werner; Mann, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Lower to Middle Devonian carbonates of the Prague Syncline, the Carnic Alps, the Montagne Noire, and the Cantabrian Mountains were investigated for δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg. These values were measured on bulk rocks, selected components and cements. Many carbonates exhibit primary marine values, but some are altered by diagenesis. A δ13C curve can be presented for the latest Pridolian to Emsian time interval. Several sharp or broad positive excursions are obvious in the woschmidti-postwoschmidti, sulcatus, kitabicus, Late serotinus, and kockelianus conodont zones. The excursion at the Silurian Devonian boundary is known worldwide and therefore considered global in nature. Some of the others are described for the first time from central and southern Europe, and their global nature has to be verified by further investigations in other regions. Most excursions relate to and/or started during major regressions whereas sea-level highstands correspond to minimal δ13C values. Similar relationships between sea-level changes and δ13C have been observed from other early Palaeozoic intervals. The transgressive Choteč (?) and Kačák events are marked by positive isotope excursions, this type of combination is usually observed in late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic black shale events.

  18. Professional training in nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe: current status and opportunities for capacity development.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Novaković, Romana; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Nikolić, Marina; Milešević, Jelena; Ranić, Marija; Glibetić, Marija

    2015-02-01

    To examine the availability of academic programmes in nutrition and identify nutrition training needs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). A questionnaire with close-ended and open-ended questions was distributed to the members of the United Nations University Standing Committee on Nutrition, Regional Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in CEE (NCDN CEE). Participants' responses to the questionnaire including the comments of their colleagues from home institutions were obtained in group discussions during NCDN CEE meetings in 2010-2013. Sixteen CEE countries' experts and their colleagues from home institutions involved in NCDN CEE activities 2007-2013. The responses were obtained from fourteen out of sixteen participating countries; five countries have established Bachelor, Master and PhD studies in nutrition (Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia), whereas in Latvia and Republic of Macedonia only Bachelor and Master studies are set up. Seven countries have no Bachelor, Master or PhD studies: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia. Introduction to data analysis and Nutritional epidemiology are the most needed nutrition trainings that would increase working competence of nutritionists and nutrition-related professionals in CEE. Availability of academic programmes in nutrition in CEE countries is limited. Opportunities for improving the competence of existing and future nutrition-related professionals should be addressed at national and regional level; distance learning courses and creation of a regional centre for nutrition training were seen as opportunities for sustainable capacity development in nutrition in CEE.

  19. Multiple extreme environmental conditions of intermittent soda pans in the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe)

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Emil; Katalin, V.-Balogh; Vörös, Lajos; Horváth, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Soda lakes and pans represent saline ecosystems with unique chemical composition, occurring on all continents. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the main environmental gradients and trophic state that prevail in the soda pans (n=84) of the Carpathian Basin in Central Europe. Underwater light conditions, dissolved organic matter, phosphorus and chlorophyll a were investigated in 84 pans during 2009–2010. Besides, water temperature was measured hourly with an automatic sensor throughout one year in a selected pan. The pans were very shallow (median depth: 15 cm), and their extremely high turbidity (Secchi depth median: 3 cm, min: 0.5 cm) was caused by high concentrations of inorganic suspended solids (median: 0.4 g L–1, max: 16 g L–1), which was the dominant (>50%) contributing factor to the vertical attenuation coefficient in 67 pans (80%). All pans were polyhumic (median DOC: 47 mg L–1), and total phosphorus concentration was also extremely high (median: 2 mg L–1, max: 32 mg L–1). The daily water temperature maximum (44 °C) and fluctuation maximum (28 °C) were extremely high during summertime. The combination of environmental boundaries: shallowness, daily water temperature fluctuation, intermittent hydroperiod, high turbidity, polyhumic organic carbon concentration, high alkalinity and hypertrophy represent a unique extreme aquatic ecosystem. PMID:28572691

  20. Detection of Dry Intrusion on Water Vapor Images Over Central Europe - June 2010 TO September 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, J.; Dejmal, K.; Hudec, F.; Kolar, P.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of evaluation of the intensity of cyclogenesis which could be connected with the weather having a significant impact on Earth's surface is quite useful. If, as one of the basic assumptions, the existence of connection between dry intrusions, dry bands, tropopause height and warm dark areas distribution on water vapor images (WV images) is considered, it is possible to set up a method of detecting dry intrusions on searching and tracking areas with higher brightness temperature compared with the surrounding environment. This paper covers the period between June 2010 and September 2011 over Central Europe. The ISIS method (Instrument de Suivi dans I'Imagerie satellitaire), originally developed for detection of cold cloud tops, was used as an initial ideological point. Subsequently, this method was modified by Michel and Bouttier for usage on WV images. Some of the applied criteria and parameters were chosen with reference to the results published by Michel and Bouttier as well as by Novotny. The procedure can be divided into two steps: detection of warm areas and their tracking. Cases of detection of areas not evidently connected with dry intrusions can be solved by filtering off based on the connection between detected warm areas to the cyclonic side of jet streams and significant lowering of the tropopause.

  1. Large-scale slope remodelling by landslides - Geomorphic diversity and geological controls, Kamienne Mts., Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoń, Piotr; Jancewicz, Kacper; Różycka, Milena; Duszyński, Filip; Kasprzak, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The Kamienne Mts. in the Sudetes, Central Europe, bear widespread evidence of landsliding which mainly occurred at the boundary between Carboniferous and Permian clastic sedimentary rocks and overlying Permian volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. 47 individual landslides have been delimited using a combination of LiDAR-derived DEM analysis and field mapping. They have been characterized through a range of geomorphometric parameters and cluster analysis reveals four major groups in terms of surface expression and consequently, likely origin and history. Spatial analysis confirms distinct association of landslides with the steepest terrain and north to east aspect of slopes, but distance from lithological contact emerges as the critical parameter. > 80% of the total landslide area is located within 200 m of a contact, on either side of it. Joint measurements within head scarps at selected landslides indicate that displacements took place along steeply dipping joints in the volcanic cap, but the existence of low angle detachment surfaces in the underlying sedimentary formations is inferred. The spatial distribution of slope deformations coupled with apparently different (although yet unspecified) ages of individual landslides suggests that remodelling of the mountain range by landslides is an ongoing process. Geomorphic history of the area excludes glacial or fluvial erosion and resultant slope de-buttressing as the cause of instability. Rather, landslides are considered as mechanisms by which slopes which have become too high and steep due to long-term differential erosion restore their strength equilibrium.

  2. Rapid Climate Shifts during last Deglaciation over Central to Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, F.; Muschitiello, F.; Brandefelt, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Tarasov, L.; Naslund, J. O.; Johansson, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Abrupt climate shifts during the last deglaciation provide test cases for analyzing the transient response of our climate system to changes in external forcings and internal feedbacks. The regional imprints of rapid climate shifts, their timing and hence connection to local vs. large-scale mechanisms are however still poorly understood owing to a limited number of records with usually large age uncertainties and low sampling rates. In this study we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of rapid climate shifts over central Europe and Scandinavia during Bølling-Allerød (14.7-12.7kyr BP) and Younger Dryas (~12kyr BP) by means of pollen data and climate simulations. For a better understanding of physical mechanisms behind regional imprints of climate shifts, time slice experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CCSM1.0.5) are set up at high resolution (1°x1°) using different topographies and ice sheets (ICE-5G and a new version of GLAC). Matching these time slice experiments with the spatial temperature pattern derived from pollen records, we estimate the extent to which environmental conditions (pollen) represent the direct large-scale influence of climate over the Euro-Atlantic sector vs. regional-scale climate effects e.g. caused by shrinking ice sheets and coastal transgression due to sea-level rise.

  3. Focal bird species and risk assessment approach for nonagricultural grassland scenarios in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schabacker, Jens; Gerlach, Jochen; Münderle, Marcel; Dietzen, Christian; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter

    2014-09-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guideline on risk assessment identifies pesticide exposure scenarios for nontarget wildlife; however, this scheme is not applicable to nonagricultural grassland. For example, different habitats and human utilization on golf courses attract bird communities that differ from those found in agricultural fields with annual crop cycles. The present study determined focal bird species for amenity grasslands such as golf courses following the EFSA guideline. Based on published data and bird surveys, a total of 102 species were found on 13 golf courses in Central Europe. Approximately 58% of the species were recorded on >20% of the golf course and were classified as focal species candidates. Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), common linnet (Carduelis cannabina), wood pigeon (Columba palumbus), yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella), white wagtail (Motacilla alba), and gray heron (Ardea cinerea) are the most adequate candidate focal species for exposure scenarios of carnivorous, granivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous, insectivorous, and piscivorous birds, respectively. Candidate species were verified on 3 golf courses in southwestern Germany in spring 2012. Observations on feeding behavior identified the main foraging areas of focal species. The results of the field work combined with data from the literature identified reliable exposure scenarios to assess the risk of pesticides to birds found on golf courses.

  4. The legal status of home education in post-communist countries of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2012-08-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland and Hungary. This analysis of the legal environment for home education confirms on the one hand that these countries' approach is similar in many aspects. Generally, laws tend to regulate home education rather strictly, all home-educated children must be enrolled at some school, and these schools are mandated by the state to serve as supervisory bodies for home-educated children. This legal arrangement puts the parents of home-schooled children in a very subordinate position in relation to the school. Despite these restrictions, however, the states have gradually opened up the option for home education to quite a broad pool of potentially interested people. On the other hand, the findings show that there are also significant differences between individual countries. These differences provide a good illustration of the fact that, despite historical, economic and cultural similarities, political institutions and state bureaucracies in individual states act autonomously, which leads to different policy outcomes.

  5. Optimization and application of satellite observations for air quality monitoring in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Brunner, D.; Boersma, F.

    2009-12-01

    operational product will be compared with those from a regional model and with in-situ measurements, the impact on the retrieved NO2 accuracy will be discussed. In this study, we will present our improved retrieval methodology and demonstrate its application to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) observations over Central Europe. We will investigate spatial and temporal patterns such as the weekly and seasonal cycles and the distribution of emission sources, and will study meteorological effects such as transport across country borders. Our data set will be compared with atmospheric model simulations allowing constraining emission inventories of nitrogen oxides (NOx).

  6. Parasites of parasites of bats: Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycota) on bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W; Pfister, Donald H

    2017-02-21

    Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. In Europe, members of the Nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus Arthrorhynchus. We carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fungus-bat fly associations of the genus in central Europe (Hungary, Romania). We encountered the bat fly Nycteribia pedicularia and the fungus Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae as new country records for Hungary. The following bat-bat fly associations are for the first time reported: Nycteribia kolenatii on Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis blythii, Myotis capaccinii and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Penicillidia conspicua on Myotis daubentonii; and Phthiridium biarticulatum on Myotis capaccinii. Laboulbeniales infections were found on 45 of 1,494 screened bat flies (3.0%). We report two fungal species: Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae on Nycteribia schmidlii, and A. nycteribiae on N. schmidlii, Penicillidia conspicua, and P. dufourii. Penicillidia conspicua was infected with Laboulbeniales most frequently (25%, n = 152), followed by N. schmidlii (3.1%, n = 159) and P. dufourii (2.0%, n = 102). Laboulbeniales seem to prefer female bat fly hosts to males. We think this might be due to a combination of factors: female bat flies have a longer life span, while during pregnancy female bat flies are significantly larger than males and accumulate an excess of fat reserves. Finally, ribosomal DNA sequences for A. nycteribiae are presented. We screened ectoparasitic bat flies from Hungary and Romania for the presence of ectoparasitic Laboulbeniales fungi. Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae and A. nycteribiae were found on three species of bat flies. This study extends geographical and host

  7. Large Scale Cooling in Tertiary Central Europe as inferred by the MBT/CBT Paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S.; Schwark, L.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's climate experienced dramatic changes throughout the last 65 Ma. Starting at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum, the global climate underwent a gradual cooling that eventually resulted in the glaciations in the Neogene. Most reconstructions of climate variability are derived from the marine realm using global deep sea oxygen isotope curves or molecular paleotemperature proxies. In contrast, only little information on the changes of the continental climate is available, which is mainly due to a lack of continuous high resolution records and suitable quantitative temperature proxies. The MBT/CBT paleothermometer is a novel temperature proxy based on temperature-driven changes in the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) content of soil-living bacteria. These changes have been demonstrated to correlate well with ambient air temperature and the MBT/CBT proxy has thus been used to reconstruct paleotemperature records of terrestrial as well as coastal marine sediments (1). In this study, we employed the MBT/CBT paleothermometer on a number of maar lake deposits that - due to their exceptional well preserved organic matter content and finely-laminated sediments - comprise excellent archives of a continental climate. The analysed lacustrine deposits were all situated in the middle European Tertiary volcanic belt and ranged in age from the Early Eocene to the Late Oligocene, allowing for the detailed reconstruction of climate evolution of the Central European continent. Calculated mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of the Messel oil shale, deposited during the Eocene climate optimum, averaged at 25 °C. This agrees well with previous temperature estimates based on paleontological observations, suggesting a paratropical climate in Eocene Central Europe with an average air temperature of ca. 25-30 °C (2). In contrast, to the green house period of the Early Eocene, the climate of the Oligocene was significantly cooler reflected by low MAAT of 8-15

  8. Surface Wave Propagation Imaging in Central Europe with Implications for Regional and Local Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolinsky, P.; Valenta, J.; Gazdova, R.; Malek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Records of seven Aegean Sea, Greece, (2007-2008) earthquakes with magnitudes 5.0 - 6.9 are studied at more than 130 broadband stations across Central Europe. Records from all stations are decomposed into harmonic components from 5 to 100 s. Multiple filtering technique as a standard method of the Fourier transform-based frequency-time analysis is used. Propagation times of all wavegroups before and after the fundamental mode are picked at these filtered harmonic components. Spatio-temporal relation of these picks is used to identify direct propagation modes such as fundamental and higher modes, as well as modes reflected and converted along the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone. This approach, using all wavegroup travel times from many stations and several earthquakes at once allows to identify also the modes which would not be recognized using a single record from one station. However, simple travel time analysis does not allow the determination of true propagation paths. A follow-up method based on the array approach is further implemented. Harmonic components of records from the neighboring stations are correlated with the central station of the array and the time differences are used to compute the local phase velocity as well as the true backazimuths of propagation for each period of the surface waves. By correlating different time windows of records, we may observe the velocities and propagation backazimuths of different modes of surface waves. When we move behind the fundamental mode wavegroup, we observe coherent signals coming from different directions as surface waves reflect and scatter at inhomogeneities. Local phase velocity dispersion curve for particular array is constructed for the fundamental mode and inverted for the shear wave velocity structure. Moving the central point of the array from one station to another allows the lateral heterogeneity to be mapped. Using events of different epicentral distances and hence of various surface wave period ranges

  9. Molecular investigations of the bat tick Argas vespertilionis (Ixodida: Argasidae) and Babesia vesperuginis (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) reflect "bat connection" between Central Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Szőke, Krisztina; Görföl, Tamás; Földvári, Gábor; Tu, Vuong Tan; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; Sándor, Attila D; Estók, Péter; Epis, Sara; Boldogh, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2017-05-01

    Argas vespertilionis is a geographically widespread haematophagous ectoparasite species of bats in the Old World, with a suspected role in the transmission of Babesia vesperuginis. The aims of the present study were (1) to molecularly screen A. vespertilionis larvae (collected in Europe, Africa and Asia) for the presence of piroplasms, and (2) to analyze mitochondrial markers of A. vespertilionis larvae from Central Asia (Xinjiang Province, Northwestern China) in a phylogeographical context. Out of the 193 DNA extracts from 321 A. vespertilionis larvae, 12 contained piroplasm DNA (10 from Hungary, two from China). Sequencing showed the exclusive presence of B. vesperuginis, with 100% sequence identity between samples from Hungary and China. In addition, A. vespertilionis cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (cox1) and 16S rRNA gene sequences had 99.1-99.2 and 99.5-100% similarities, respectively, between Hungary and China. Accordingly, in the phylogenetic analyses A. vespertilionis from China clustered with haplotypes from Europe, and (with high support) outside the group formed by haplotypes from Southeast Asia. This is the first molecular evidence on the occurrence of B. vesperuginis in Asia. Bat ticks from hosts in Vespertilionidae contained only the DNA of B. vesperuginis (in contrast with what was reported on bat ticks from Rhinolophidae and Miniopteridae). Molecular taxonomic analyses of A. vespertilionis and B. vesperuginis suggest a genetic link of bat parasites between Central Europe and Central Asia, which is epidemiologically relevant in the context of any pathogens associated with bats.

  10. Meso-Cenozoic intraplate contraction in Central and Western Europe: a unique tectonic event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, Jonas; Jähne, Fabian; Malz, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    From the British Isles to Poland, Europe experienced contractional deformation in Late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. The closest contemporaneous plate margins were the incipient Mid-Atlantic rift in the west and northwest, and the Mediterranean system of subduction zones in the south. Each of these plate margins was located more than 1000 km away from the site of deformation. This tectonic event thus represents an outstanding example of large-scale intraplate shortening and may serve as a template for comparison with modern examples. Its effects are seen in a ca. 500 km wide strip that stretches in NW-SE-direction along the Tornquist Line, a regional fault zone separating thick lithosphere of the Baltic Shield from much thinner lithosphere to the southwest. Most faults and folds also trend NW-SE, but some are linked by large N-S-striking transfer zones. In the southeast, the shortening structures are truncated by the Neogene Carpathian thrust front; their original extent is unknown. In the west, the fault zones fan out into more northerly trends in the Central North Sea and more easterly trends in the Channel area before dying out on the shelf. Late Cretaceous (ca. 90-70 Ma) shortening dominates from Poland to the North Sea, while the main shortening event in Southern Britain is of Paleogene age. Many Late Cretaceous to Paleogene structures have been conditioned by Permian or Triassic through Early Cretaceous extensional faulting, whereas some large basement uplifts and reverse faults have no demonstrable inheritance from earlier extension. The thick, mobile Zechstein salt has modified extensional and contractional structures, but both extend beyond its depositional borders. Even where thick evaporates underlie the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, the basement is typically involved in the deformation, except for localized thin-skinned imbricate thrusting and salt-cored anticlines. Different structural styles do not appear to correlate with the magnitude of shortening

  11. "Resident as teacher" in pediatric surgery: Innovation is overdue in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Zundel, S; Stocker, M; Szavay, P

    2017-06-15

    We set out to evaluate how residents in pediatric surgery learn and how they teach. We hypnotized that European residents learn as much from their peers and teach as much as their fellows worldwide, but that they receive comparably less educational training. An online questionnaire was distributed to the participants of the combined annual meeting for German, Swiss and Austrian residents in pediatric surgery. Participants were asked whom they learn from in different workplace environments (ward, operating room, emergency department), how, when and why they adopt the role of teacher and how they were prepared for this role. Response rate was 48%. 65 questionnaires were analyzed. Residents stated that they predominantly learn from each other on wards and in the emergency department, less frequently in the operating room. They ranked fellow residents as first or second most important source of instruction. 53% of participants have never had any educational training, for another 33% the instruction was being done by fellow residents without any set curriculum. 93% of the participating residents had no or did not know about any resident as teacher training program available to them. Nevertheless, motivation to teach was stated to be high and interest in educational training was assured. Our data delivers evidence that peer teaching during residency is the rule rather than the exception in Central Europe. Educational training however is scarce. Resident as teacher-training programs need to be introduced. Next to local initiatives, we strongly recommend national initiatives powered by regulatory authorities and surgical associations. Research paper. II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Baseline Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 inventory assessment for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Borelli, Pasquale; Evrard, Olivier; Ketterer, Michael; Mabit, Lionel; van Oost, Kristof; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 released as products of the thermonuclear weapons testing that took place from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s and from nuclear power plant accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) are useful tools to quantify soil redistribution. In combination with geostatistics, FRNs may have the potential to bridge the gap between small scale process oriented studies and modelling that simplifies processes and effects over large spatial scales. An essential requirement for the application of FRNs as soil erosion tracers is the establishment of the baseline fallout at undisturbed sites before its comparison to those inventories found at sites undergoing erosion/accumulation. For this purpose, undisturbed topsoil (0-20cm) samples collected in 2009 within the framework of the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) have been measured by gamma-spectrometry and ICP-MS to determine 137Cs (n=145) and 239+240Pu (n=108) activities. To restrict the analysis to undisturbed reference sites a geospatial database query selecting only sites having a slope angle <2 degree, outside riparian zones (to avoid depositional sites) and under permanent grassland cover (according to CORINE Land Cover and Landsat) was applied. This study reports preliminary results on the feasibility of establishing a 137Cs and 239+240Pu baseline inventory map for Central Europe. The 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratios will further allow assessing the rate and the spatial variability of 137Cs Chernobyl fallout. The establishment of such baseline inventory map will provide a unique opportunity to assess soil redistribution for a comparable time-frame (1953-2009) following a harmonised methodological protocol across national boundaries.

  13. Central Europe Flood June 2013 - Rapid estimation of extent and depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millinship, Ian; Busby, Kathryn; Schröter, Kai

    2014-05-01

    Following flooding in central Europe in June 2013, we have produced a flood footprint describing the maximum extent and depth of flooding. Rapid damage estimation for a flood event such as this is useful for the re/insurance industry, in which companies need to estimate the impact of flooding on their business. An early understanding of the geographical scope and severity of an event allows claims adjusters to be deployed effectively and an estimation of the potential loss ensures adequate release of funds to pay for claims. Following reports of heavy rainfall in the headwaters of the Isar, Saale, Inn, and Elbe during the first week of June 2013, we began monitoring the http://www.hochwasserzentralen.de/ website and extracted peak flow for the affected gauges. Using extreme value statistical analysis of the historic flow records, we assessed the return period of the flow generated by the 2013 event for each gauged location. This return period was then interpolated along each river reach taking into consideration catchment characteristics. Then, using previously developed Germany design hazard maps containing information on the extent and depth of flooding associated with a range of return periods at 10m resolution, we pieced together a flood footprint along the course of the affected rivers and tributaries. With much of the Elbe/Danube heavily defended and regulated, we then undertook a detailed manual exercise to account for defences and any breach locations. Here georeferenced ground / aerial photographs and satellite footprint maps produced by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and available through the media were used to establish the integrity of defences and to validate our flood footprint. The resulting footprint was licensed by a number of companies within the re/insurance sector and is being used by academic partners for further research into damage assessment.

  14. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The earthworm activity is generally recognized as an important factor changing the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil environment including the microbial constituents. In central Europe, about 40% of earthworm species are endemic to this region, some of them dominating forest and grassland ecosystems and playing a keystone role in the soil food-web. However, current knowledge about the effects of earthworms on soil microorganisms derives from studies on a few peregrine species only. Our study brought a view on the microbial component of the steppe soil affected by the activity of Allolobophora hrabei, an endemic earthworm fragmentary distributed in the border regions of the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The study was carried out in three steppe fragments, where A. hrabei represented a key earthworm species. Comprehensive approach based on bio-indicating quantitative and qualitative options of extended phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) of bulk soil, drilosphere sensu lato and casts was used on data from two-years monitoring. In situ observation was completed by detailed observation of the casts-microbiota succession under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results showed that A. hrabei significantly affected soil microorganisms mainly via its extremely high casting activity. The doubled biomass, new qualitative composition, better growth and nutritional status of microbial community together with significantly higher availability of phosphorus and organic carbon in casts in contrast to bulk soil confirmed beneficial impact of A. hrabei on the soil environment. A. hrabei has burrowed up to more than one metre depths and produced more than 3 kg . m-2 of casts per year.

  15. Equipment for pre-hospital airway management on Helicopter Emergency Medical System helicopters in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Schüttler, J; Ey, K; Reichenbach, M; Trimmel, H; Mang, H

    2011-05-01

    For advanced out-of-hospital airway management, skilled personnel and adequate equipment are key prerequisites. There are little data on the current availability of airway management equipment and standards of medical staff on Helicopter Emergency Medical System (HEMS) helicopters in central Europe. An internet search identified all HEMS helicopters in Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg. We identified 15 HEMS helicopter bases in Switzerland, 28 in Austria and three in Luxembourg. A questionnaire was sent to all bases, asking both for the details of the clinical background and experience of participating staff, and details of airway management equipment carried routinely on board. Replies were received from 14 helicopter bases in Switzerland (93%), 25 bases in Austria (89%) and all three bases in Luxembourg. Anaesthesiologists were by far the most frequent attending physicians (68-85%). All except one bases reported to have at least one alternative supraglottic airway device. All bases had capnometry and succinylcholine. All bases in the study except two in Austria had commercial pre-packed sets for a surgical airway. All helicopters were equipped with automatic ventilators, although not all were suitable for non-invasive ventilation (NIV; Switzerland: 43%, Austria: 12%, Luxembourg: 100%). Masks for NIV were rarely available in Switzerland (two bases; 14%) and in Austria (three bases; 12%), whereas all three bases in Luxembourg carried those masks. Most HEMS helicopters carry appropriate equipment to meet the demands of modern advanced airway management in the pre-hospital setting. Further work is needed to ensure that appropriate airway equipment is carried on all HEMS helicopters.

  16. Dust transport and palaeoclimate during the Oldest Dryas in Central Europe - implications from varves (Lake Constance)

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, F.; Lister, G.; Giovanoli, F.

    1992-10-01

    This paper evaluates evidence for seasonal loess deposits in peri-Alpine Lake Constance at the end of the last Glacial (Oldest Dryas chronozone). The sedimentology of laminated couplets comprising yellow and grey silts evaluates the couplets as varves comprising alternations of loess and glacial silt and clay. The laminae, less than 1 mm thick, include from bottom to top: (1) a matrix of well-sorted, non-graded fine yellow silt with sand-size intraclasts, (2) coarsening-upward grey silt with a cap of fining-upward silt to clay. This is typical and reflects summer and winter deposits (silt and clay, respectively). The authors propose that the lack of grading and the matrix supported fabric is indicative of aeolian transport and interpret the yellow laminae as loess deposits. Volcanic glass intraclasts in the loess layers are probably derived from volcanic terrain to the west of the lake, indicating an easterly palaeowind direction. Deposition of loess in the lake occurred regularly at the beginning of each annual cycle, suggesting the palaeowinds were associated with winter and/or spring conditions. Two transport scenarios are suggested to explain the sand grains scattered in this deep-water lacustrine record. 1. The grains may have been transported as bedload over the annual winter ice-cover of the lake under moderate wind strengths, frozen into the ice, and released for deposition during spring melt. 2. The sand grains were blown directly out onto the lake water by very strong winds during spring. The first scenario is contrary to the general view that loess was transported during summer, and that loess deposits thus reflect summer conditions only. Loess input to the lake shows a transitional decrease after ca. 14.3 kyr BP and cessation at ca. 14 kyr BP, probably as a result of a change of wind behaviour, increased humidity and/or vegetational changes during the Oldest Dryas in central Europe. 62 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  18. Low Usutu virus seroprevalence in four zoological gardens in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused bird die-offs in Austria, Hungary and Switzerland between 2001 and 2009. While the zoological gardens of Vienna and Zurich recorded USUV-associated mortality in different species of birds during this period, incidences in Budapest were limited to areas outside the zoo, and in the greater Basel area avian mortality due to USUV infection was not observed at all. The objectives of this investigation were to gain insight into USUV infection dynamics in captive birds in zoos with varying degrees of virus exposure and to study differences in susceptibility to USUV of different species of birds. Results 372 bird sera were collected between October 2006 and August 2007. The samples were tested in parallel by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and 90% plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT-90). 8.75%, 5.3% and 6.59% of birds in the zoos of Vienna, Zurich and Basel, respectively, showed USUV-specific antibodies by PRNT-90. No antibodies to USUV were detected in birds of the Budapest zoo. The order Strigiformes (owls) exhibited the highest USUV-seroprevalence, compared to other orders of birds. Conclusions USUV seems not to pose an imminent threat to zoo bird populations in central Europe at the moment. Depending on a variety of especially environmental factors, however, this may change at any time in the (near) future, as experienced with West Nile virus (WNV). It is therefore strongly suggested to continue with combined WNV and USUV surveillance activities in affected areas. PMID:23919825

  19. Home range size of Tengmalm's owl during breeding in Central Europe is determined by prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Tomášek, Václav; Popelková, Alena; Šťastný, Karel; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Animal home ranges typically characterized by their size, shape and a given time interval can be affected by many different biotic and abiotic factors. However, despite the fact that many studies have addressed home ranges, our knowledge of the factors influencing the size of area occupied by different animals is, in many cases, still quite poor, especially among raptors. Using radio-telemetry (VHF; 2.1 g tail-mounted tags) we studied movements of 20 Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) males during the breeding season in a mountain area of Central Europe (the Czech Republic, the Ore Mountains: 50° 40' N, 13° 35' E) between years 2006-2010, determined their average hunting home range size and explored what factors affected the size of home range utilised. The mean breeding home range size calculated according to 95% fixed kernel density estimator was 190.7 ± 65.7 ha (± SD) with a median value of 187.1 ha. Home range size was affected by prey abundance, presence or absence of polygyny, the number of fledglings, and weather conditions. Home range size increased with decreasing prey abundance. Polygynously mated males had overall larger home range than those mated monogamously, and individuals with more fledged young possessed larger home range compared to those with fewer raised fledglings. Finally, we found that home ranges recorded during harsh weather (nights with strong wind speed and/or heavy rain) were smaller in size than those registered during better weather. Overall, the results provide novel insights into what factors may influence home range size and emphasize the prey abundance as a key factor for breeding dynamics in Tengmalm's owl.

  20. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r2 = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r2 = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states. PMID:20427332

  1. The Implementation of Managed Entry Agreements in Central and Eastern Europe: Findings and Implications.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Alessandra; Arāja, Diāna; Bochenek, Tomasz; Čatić, Tarik; Dankó, Dávid; Dimitrova, Maria; Fürst, Jurij; Greičiūtė-Kuprijanov, Ieva; Hoxha, Iris; Jakupi, Arianit; Laidmäe, Erki; Löblová, Olga; Mardare, Ileana; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Meshkov, Dmitry; Novakovic, Tanja; Petrova, Guenka; Pomorski, Maciej; Tomek, Dominik; Voncina, Luka; Haycox, Alan; Kanavos, Panos; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Godman, Brian

    2017-08-23

    Managed entry agreements (MEAs) are a set of instruments to facilitate access to new medicines. This study surveyed the implementation of MEAs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) where limited comparative information is currently available. We conducted a survey on the implementation of MEAs in CEE between January and March 2017. Sixteen countries participated in this study. Across five countries with available data on the number of different MEA instruments implemented, the most common MEAs implemented were confidential discounts (n = 495, 73%), followed by paybacks (n = 92, 14%), price-volume agreements (n = 37, 5%), free doses (n = 25, 4%), bundle and other agreements (n = 19, 3%), and payment by result (n = 10, >1%). Across seven countries with data on MEAs by therapeutic group, the highest number of brand names associated with one or more MEA instruments belonged to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)-L group, antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents (n = 201, 31%). The second most frequent therapeutic group for MEA implementation was ATC-A, alimentary tract and metabolism (n = 87, 13%), followed by medicines for neurological conditions (n = 83, 13%). Experience in implementing MEAs varied substantially across the region and there is considerable scope for greater transparency, sharing experiences and mutual learning. European citizens, authorities and industry should ask themselves whether, within publicly funded health systems, confidential discounts can still be tolerated, particularly when it is not clear which country and party they are really benefiting. Furthermore, if MEAs are to improve access, countries should establish clear objectives for their implementation and a monitoring framework to measure their performance, as well as the burden of implementation.

  2. Atmospheric circulation and sounding-derived parameters associated with thunderstorm occurrence in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolendowicz, Leszek; Taszarek, Mateusz; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the influence of atmospheric circulation patterns and sounding-derived parameters on thunderstorm occurrence in Central Europe. Thunderstorm activity tends to increase as one moves from the north to the south of the research area. Maximal thunderstorm occurrence is observed in the summer months, while between October and March such activity is much lower. Thunderstorms are also more frequent in spring than in autumn. In the warm season, the occurrence of thunderstorm is associated with the presence of a trough associated with a low located over the North Sea and Scandinavia. In the cold season, the synoptic pattern indicates a strong zonal flow from the west with significantly higher horizontal pressure gradient compared to the warm season. Thunderstorms are more likely to form when the boundary layer's mixing ratios are higher than 8 g kg- 1. Deep convection is also more likely to occur when the vertical temperature lapse rates (between 800 and 500 hPa pressure layers) exceed 6 °C km- 1. During the cold season, considerably higher lapse rates are needed to produce thunderstorms. The values obtained for the convective available potential energy indicate that at least 50 J kg- 1 is needed to produce a thunderstorm during wintertime and 125 J kg- 1 during summertime. Cold season thunderstorms are formed with a lower instability but with a more dynamic wind field having an average value of deep layer shear that exceeds 20 ms- 1. The best parameter to distinguish thunderstorm from non-thunderstorm days for both winter and summer months is a combination of the square root of the convective available potential energy multiplied by the deep layer shear.

  3. Ozone pollution during heat wave periods over last 15 years in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2012-04-01

    Periods characterized with the high ozone concentrations are usually associated with very high air temperature and antycyclonic conditions or meridional circulation. A 15-year (1997 - 2011) maximum daily temperature records from GSOD NOAA archive was analyzed for 20 stations in Central Europe. For each year the number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and 30oC was calculated. For years with a positive anomaly of the number of the hot days the data were analyzed to identify exact dates and the duration of such events. This allows classification of the high temperature period as "heat waves" (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 30oC lasting at least 3 consecutive days) and hot weather periods (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and high daily average temperature). These two types of high temperature are usually associated with different air masses inflow - subtropical from the south or transformed polar from westerly directions. This indicates also the differences in contribution of transboundary transport of ozone and its precursors. For selected high temperature episodes the ozone pollution was assessed based on AirBase (1997-2009) and national database (2010-2011). The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum concentration of ozone near the surface. Also, the contribution to the SOMO35 index during selected episodes will be calculated as a diagnostic for adverse health effects. Since the two analyzed types of hot weather periods have different origin in terms of synoptic scale situation, an attempt will be made to answer whether there are differences in the intensity of ozone episodes during selected hot weather periods. The outcome from the study will be useful for the interpretation of modelling results for air quality in future climate.

  4. Parasitism, life history traits and immune defence in cyprinid fish from Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between

  5. Direct evidence for the existence of dairying farms in prehistoric Central Europe (4th millennium BC).

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Matuschik, Irenaus; Jacomet, Stephanie; Schibler, Joerg

    2008-06-01

    The molecular and isotopic chemistry of organic residues from archaeological potsherds was used to obtain further insight into the dietary trends and economies at the Constance lake-shore Neolithic settlements. The archaeological organic residues from the Early Late Neolithic (3922-3902 BC) site Hornstaad-Hornle IA/Germany are, at present, the oldest archaeological samples analysed at the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Lausanne. The approach includes 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of the bulk organic residues, fatty acids distribution and 13C/12C ratios of individual fatty acids. The results are compared with those obtained from the over 500 years younger Neolithic (3384-3370 BC) settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3/Switzerland and with samples of modern vegetable oils and fat of animals that have been fed exclusively on C3 forage grasses. The overall fatty acid composition (C9 to C24 range, maximizing at C14 and C16), the bulk 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios (delta13C, delta15N) and the 13C/12C ratios of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic acids (C18:1) of the organic residues indicate that most of the studied samples (25 from 47 samples and 5 from 41 in the delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C16:0 and delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C18:1 diagrams, respectively) from Hornstaad-Hornle IA and Arbon Bleiche 3 sherds contain fat residues of pre-industrial ruminant milk, and young suckling calf/lamb adipose. These data provide direct proof of milk and meat (mainly from young suckling calves) consumption and farming practices for a sustainable dairying in Neolithic villages in central Europe around 4000 BC.dagger.

  6. Too early and too northerly: evidence of temperate trees in northern Central Europe during the Younger Dryas.

    PubMed

    Robin, Vincent; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Grootes, Pieter M; Bork, Hans-Rudolf; Nelle, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents highly unexpected paleobotanical data. Eight (14) C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates of soil macrocharcoal pieces, identified taxonomically, indicate the presence of oak and beech in the Younger Dryas, and pine in the Allerød, in the northernmost low mountain range of Central Europe, the Harz Mountains, in Germany. If the presence of pine at such latitude and periods is not surprising, the presence of temperate-adapted trees is highly improbable, because they are assumed to have reached the area from a southern location several thousand years later. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain this record. Both are related to the warm periods of the Bølling and Allerød: the classically 'short' duration of this warm period makes the migration of the temperate trees from the identified refuge areas in the southern location implausible, and so the presence of intermediary microrefugia at a medium latitude in Central Europe is postulated; recent data reveal that the warm period of the Late Glacial phase was much longer than considered in the classical view and, thus, would be long enough for a northward migration of temperate-adapted trees. Although our dataset does not permit disentanglement of these hypotheses, it provides significant innovative insights for the biogeography of Central Europe.

  7. Record-breaking 2015 heat waves in Central Europe: how to view them in the climate change context?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ondrej; Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The 2015 summer was the warmest summer ever observed in Central Europe according to many characteristics, including the overall severity of heat waves. We assess how unusual this summer was by i) comparing the seasonal temperature anomalies and severity of heat waves against long-term temperature records at Central European stations, ii) evaluating its temperature characteristics at the continental scale against hot summers and major heat waves affecting Europe recently (including the 2003 western-European heat waves and the 2010 Russian heat waves), and iii) identifying time slices in climate change scenarios for the 21st century in which similar events are projected to occur over Central Europe at least once per decade. In the last point, we make use of a large ensemble of RCM simulations from CORDEX and ENSEMBLES projects and critically evaluate their ability to simulate events such as the 2015 summer (in terms of both seasonal temperature anomalies and heat waves, including their spatial extent). We examine also how results for the climate change scenarios depend on radiative forcing and driving global models.

  8. Variability of summer droughts in Central Europe and relation to large-scale circulation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.

    2009-04-01

    Summer droughts are a recurrent feature of Central European climate with distinct relevance for natural and social systems. In this contribution spatiotemporal variations in Central European summer drought severity during the period 1957 and 2000 are depicted and relations to large-scale North Atlantic-European circulation types are investigated. Temporal variations in drought incidence are estimated via calculation of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on the basis of 0.5° by 0.5° gridded monthly precipitation sums from the global VASClimO data set available for the period 1951 to 2000. Corresponding variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics are described by frequency and within-type variations of 18 North Atlantic-European circulation types for the domain 30.0° - 76°N and 37°W - 56°E. Circulation types are derived by applying an automated circulation classification scheme to daily 1.0° by 1.0° gridded MSLP data from the ERA40 reanalysis data-set covering the period 1957 - 2002. The relationship between 3-month (JJA) SPI and circulation type frequencies during the respective 3-month period are analysed using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The relative importance of individual circulation types is assessed by the LMG-estimator and the skill of the multiple regression models is estimated by applying several skill-score statistics to the cross-validated SPI-series. Results highlight the relevance - in terms of relative importance - of anticyclonic and northerly and northeasterly circulation types for Central European summer drought dynamics. Multiple regression models show considerable skill especially in western and north-western parts of the Central European domain. However, a distinct decrease in model skill has to be noticed towards the more continental central and eastern parts. These deficiencies of the approach point to the fact that frequency variations of circulation types are not sufficient to capture the drought

  9. Role of genetics in adapting forests under climate change: lessons learned from common garden experiments in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive management aiming at reducing vulnerability and enhancing the resilience of forested ecosystems is a key to preserving the potential of forests to provide multiple ecosystem services under climate change. Planting alternative or non native tree species adapted to future conditions and also utilizing the genetic variation within tree species has also been suggested as an important adaptive management strategy under climate change. Therefore, knowledge on suitable provenances/populations is a key issue. Provenance trial experiments, where several populations of a species are planted in a particular climate or throughout an appropriate climatic gradient offers a great opportunity to understand adaptive genetic variation within a tree species. These trials were primarily established, for identifying populations with desired growth and fitness characteristics. Due to the increasing interest in climate change, such trials were revisited to understand the relation between growth performance and climate and to recommend suitable populations for future conditions. Here we present the lessons learned from provenance trials of Norway spruce and Douglas -fir in central Europe. With data from provenance trials planted across a wide range of environmental conditions in central Europe we developed multivariate models, Universal Response Functions (URFs). The URFs predict growth performance as a function of climate of planting locations (i.e. environmental factors) and provenance/ population origin (i.e. genetic factors). The flexibility of the URFs as a decision making tool is remarkable. The model can be used as to identify suitable planting material for a give site, and vice versa and also as a species distribution model (SDM) with integrated genetic variation. Under current and climate change scenarios, the URFs were applied to predict populations with higher growth performance in central Europe and also as species distribution models for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga

  10. Winter thunderstorms in central Europe in the past and the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzar, Jan; Franc, Marek

    Thunderstorms in the territories of the Czech Republic and neighbouring countries are almost exclusively the only phenomena occurring in the warm season. In the cold half of the year, from October to March, an average incidence of thunderstorms is only 2%, with the least occurrence being recorded in January. Yet, winter thunderstorms are dangerous particularly for air traffic because during them, the cloud base is rapidly falling down and visibility is suddenly worsening due to heavy snowfall. Notwithstanding these facts, the issue of their occurrence in the central European space has been paid little attention so far. Long years of study into historical weather extremes in the territory of the Czech Republic revealed over 10 chronicle entries on the occurrence of winter thunderstorms in the period between November and February from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. The irregular phenomenon was even devoted three occasional prints in central Europe in the second half of the 16th century, two of which were issued in Germany. Fires caused by winter thunderstorms were no sporadic cases. The occurrence of thunderstorms in winter was apparently associated with the passage of pronounced cold fronts. This can be documented on cases from the end of December 1555 when heavy thunderstorms and consequent fires were recorded within a short period of time in Holland, Germany and in Czech lands. It is assumed that the situation in 1627 was similar when a winter thunderstorm was recorded in Prague and in Holešov, southeastern Moravia on 28 December. In February 1581, a thunderstorm in Prague became one of three unusual events publicized by the local occasional newspaper. The beginning of modern studies into winter thunderstorms dates back to the 1960s with the use of lightning flash counters and later also with the use of systems for large-scale lightning flash detection and localization. However, more comprehensive meteorological and climatological assessments of

  11. Abiotic predictors and annual seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus, the major disease vector of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Milan; Malý, Marek; Danielová, Vlasta; Kříž, Bohumír; Nuttall, Patricia

    2015-09-18

    , in Central Europe. Co-occurrence data for larvae and nymphs support the notion of intrastadial rather than interstadial co-feeding pathogen transmission. Annual questing tick numbers recover quickly from the impact of extreme weather events.

  12. The regional impact of urban emissions on climate over central Europe: present and future emission perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszár, Peter; Belda, Michal; Karlický, Jan; Pišoft, Petr; Halenka, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    with the temperature decrease. The impact on the boundary layer height is small but statistically significant and decreases by 1 and 6 m in DJF and JJA respectively. We did not find any statistically significant impact on precipitation and wind speed. Regarding future emissions, the impacts are, in general, smaller as a consequence of smaller emissions, resulting in smaller urban-induced chemical perturbations.In overall, the study suggest that the non-CO2 emissions play rather a minor role in modulating regional climate over central Europe. Much more important is the direct climate impact of urban surfaces via the urban canopy meteorological effects as we showed earlier.

  13. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  14. Coeval dust accumulation minima in Greenland and East Central Europe over 31-23 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Varga, György; Kovács, János; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    As reflected in δ18O values in ice cores, the North Atlantic area experienced a series of abrupt, dramatic climatic fluctuations over the last glacial during which oceanic and atmospheric conditions alternated between full glacial (stadial) and relatively mild (interstadial) conditions [1,2]. Beyond the δ18O profiles, calcium ion concentration data (hereafter [Ca2+]) also exhibit particularly clear stadial/interstadial contrasts [3]. The Ca2+/dust concentration records are considered as a proxy for the amount of terrestrial dust reaching the ice sheet [4] and/or changing dust storm activity in the source areas around the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in East Asia [5,6]. The mode of the dust size distributions is thought to reflect transit times during transport, with larger modes indicating shorter transit times and transport routes, i.e. changed atmospheric circulation patterns [5]. However, based on clay mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of loess sediments Újvári, et al. [7] suggested that Central European dust cannot be excluded as a potential source of Greenland dust. As such, it is vital to analyze dust deposition in the key dust depocentres of Eastern Europe. As a record of Carpathian Basin dust source activity, we therefore studied loess sedimentation and grain size changes in the Dunaszekcsö loess sequence in Southern Hungary. For this record, we developed the highest resolution geochronological dataset for European loess based on 61 AMS 14C dates from molluscs and charcoal fragments. This allowed us to establish a uniquely high precision Bayesian age-depth model, with the mean 95% confidence ranges that vary between 119 and 798 yr. Sedimentation rates (SR) calculated from the age-depth model vary between 0.36-1.7 mm yr-1 and the estimated bulk dust mass accumulation rates (MAR) range from 551 to 2525 g m-2 yr-1. Both the SR and MAR display millennial/sub-millennial scale variations, visible uniquely due to the high precision dating, together

  15. Characterization of a Novel Chimeric Swine Enteric Coronavirus from Diseased Pigs in Central Eastern Europe in 2016.

    PubMed

    Belsham, G J; Rasmussen, T B; Normann, P; Vaclavek, P; Strandbygaard, B; Bøtner, A

    2016-12-01

    During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these coronaviruses. However, further analyses, using other TGEV- and PEDV-specific RT-qPCR assays, provided results inconsistent with infection by either of these viruses. Sequencing of an amplicon (ca. 1.6 kb), generated by an RT-PCR specific for the PEDV S-gene, indicated a very close similarity (ca. 99% identity) to recently described chimeric viruses termed swine enteric coronaviruses (SeCoVs). These viruses (with an RNA genome of ca. 28 kb) were first identified in Italy in samples from 2009 but have not been detected there since 2012. A closely related virus was detected in archived samples in Germany from 2012, but has not been detected subsequently. Building on the initial sequence data, further amplicons were generated and over 9 kb of sequence corresponding to the 3'-terminus of the new SeCoV genome was determined. Sequence comparisons showed that the three known SeCoVs are ≥98% identical across this region and contain the S-gene and 3a sequences from PEDV within a backbone of TGEV, but the viruses are clearly distinct from each other. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that pigs from within the SeCoV-infected herd seroconverted against PEDV but tested negative in a TGEV-specific ELISA that detects antibodies against the S protein. These results indicate that SeCoV is continuing to circulate in Europe and suggest it can cause a disease that is very similar to PED. Specific detection of the chimeric SeCoVs either requires development of a new diagnostic RT-qPCR assay or the combined use of assays targeting the PEDV S-gene and another part of the TGEV genome. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  17. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gotsadze, George; Chikovani, Ivdity; Goguadze, Ketevan; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2010-07-27

    Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided.

  18. The 1996-2002 Plunge in the North-Atlantic Oscillation Index Produces Cold Spring Temperatures in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, Dennis; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Koslowsky, Dirk; Rogers, Jeffrey; Wos, Alojzy

    2002-01-01

    Surface-air temperatures in winter and spring in central Europe rose over the second half of the 20th century, reported for different data-spans, and by different approaches (Ross et al., 1996; Angell, 1999; Hansen et al., 1999; Demaree et al., 2002). Analysis with a finer temporal resolution shows that late-winter and early-spring (February and March) trends are much stronger than the 3-month season averages (Otterman et al., 2002a). Responding to this need for finer than 3- month resolution, observations at meteorological stations in central Europe are analyzed here for the years 1951-2002, computing six-pentad (5-day period) averages (effectively monthly averages for January, February, and March). The daily minimum surface-air temperature, T(sub min), and the daily maximum temperature, T(sub max), rose steeply in Berlin and Poznan' in the years 1951-1995. Based on sensitivity studies, the bulk of this sharp warming is due to stronger southwesterlies over the North Atlantic, with which the temperatures in Europe are strongly correlated (Otterman et al., 1999; 2002a). However, for the most recent seven years, a pronounced downturn of the warming is observed, which we attribute to the concurrent, 1996-2002, sharp downturn of the ocean-surface southwesterlies over the North Atlantic (Otterman et al., 2002b). Such changes in the ocean winds and variations in the storm tracks are associated with changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO (Rogers, 1997). The NAO index, the difference in the surface pressure between Iceland and Azores, constitutes a measure of the zonal winds over the eastern North Atlantic, and thus is a critically important factor influencing the flow of maritime air into Europe (but the temperature of the advected airmasses depends on the meridional component, as we discuss). The recent (1996-2002) downturn in this index resulted in much colder spring temperatures in Europe, with adverse significance for the growing season.

  19. Regional subsidence history and 3D visualization with MATLAB of the Vienna Basin, central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Novotny, J.; Wagreich, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study reconstructed the subsidence history by the backstripping and 3D visualization techniques, to understand tectonic evolution of the Neogene Vienna Basin. The backstripping removes the compaction effect of sediment loading and quantifies the tectonic subsidence. The amount of decompaction was calculated by porosity-depth relationships evaluated from seismic velocity data acquired from two boreholes. About 100 wells have been investigated to quantify the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin. The wells have been sorted into 10 groups; N1-4 in the northern part, C1-4 in the central part and L1-2 in the northernmost and easternmost parts, based on their position within the same block bordered by major faults. To visualize 3D subsidence maps, the wells were arranged to a set of 3D points based on their map location (x, y) and depths (z1, z2, z3 ...). The division of the stratigraphic column and age range was arranged based on the Central Paratethys regional Stages. In this study, MATLAB, a numerical computing environment, was used to calculate the TPS interpolation function. The Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) can be employed to reconstruct a smooth surface from a set of 3D points. The basic physical model of the TPS is based on the bending behavior of a thin metal sheet that is constrained only by a sparse set of fixed points. In the Lower Miocene, 3D subsidence maps show strong evidence that the pre-Neogene basement of the Vienna Basin was subsiding along borders of the Alpine-Carpathian nappes. This subsidence event is represented by a piggy-back basin developed on top of the NW-ward moving thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, Group C and N display a typical subsidence pattern for the pull-apart basin with a very high subsidence event (0.2 - 1.0 km/Ma). After the event, Group N shows remarkably decreasing subsidence, following the thin-skinned extension which was regarded as the extension model of the Vienna Basin in the literature. But the subsidence in

  20. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    for this part of Europe and below the expected levels of phytotoxicity.

  1. Late cenozoic history of the genus Micromys (mammalia, rodentia) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Horáček, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4-4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6-0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European-C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus.

  2. Holocene landscape and land-use change under human impact. Examples from Central Europe (Lower Rhine Embayment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Protze, Jens; Gerlach, Renate

    2015-04-01

    In the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), as in other parts of Central Europe, several main periods of colluvial deposition (mainly Metal Ages, Roman time, Medieval time) and four main periods of alluvial and overbank deposition in the floodplains (Early Holocene, Metal Ages, partially Roman time, Medieval, Early Modern time) can be divided. The summary of colluvial sedimentation can be shown by using interdisciplinary methods, consisting of sedimentological, geochemical and archaeological methods. This allowed reconstructing a detailed land-use history. To clarify the origin of the colluvial deposits loess-sequences also have been studied geochemically and were compared to loess- and loess-like deposits from adjacent areas, such as the Northern Eifel Mountains or the Middle Rhine. The results clearly show that only the combination of methods of natural sciences and the humanities allow optimal processing of these complex findings. To sum up these results the following cycles cause by human activities can be found in the LRE: 8 periods with soil formation (P = pedogenesis), followed by a phase with mainly stable land surfaces but some rill / gully erosion (R) and succeeded by intensive erosion and colluviation (E) caused by mainly sheet floods in an more open landscape. Especially during the Metal Ages and High Middle Ages erosion is clearly detectable. In the woodlands strong deforestation took place especially due to the production of charcoal and firewood as well as grazing activities. In addition, the development of mining and related industries in the 15th to 16th centuries and further increase in 19th century produced a strong contamination of floodplain deposits. Different periods of an increasing grassland since Medieval time cause by socio-economic effects that results in a reduction of soil erosion can be distinguished.

  3. Comparison of regional and local horizontal strain field on the area of Central Europe determined from GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, B.

    2012-04-01

    Permanent GPS observations on EPN stations are being continued already about 15 years and so velocities of horizontal and vertical movements of the sites are determined with the great credibility. However density of the EPN sites on the area of Central Europe allow to determine only a very general model of deformation field. For determining the local strain field epoch-making GPS observations in local research networks can be used. As en example the GEOSUD GPS Network located in the area of the Sudeten mountains in South-West Poland were used. Velocities of GPS points were estimated from observations of annually repeated two-day measuring campaigns, connected to the EPN stations. On the basis of these velocities local velocity field and local strain field were estimated. The toolbox grid_strain (Teza, Pesci and Galgaro, 2008) was used. Areas of the maximum compressions and extensions were outlined as well as they were confronted with the tectonic structure of area. In the picture of the deformation field clearly four principal zones of deformations are standing out. The presence of the Sudetic Marginal Fault is becoming scratched slightly in south-eastern his parts. Values of deformations in the vicinity of fault zone are generally smaller than in more distant area. It is proving the hypothesis on interseismic character of changes and the weak tectonic activity of the fault. Such an image of horizontal deformations in which extensions are perpendicular to main direction of the fault line, is matching with the hypothesis on normal character of the SMF. On the entire research area however compression deformations are dominating.

  4. Divergence in male and female manipulative behaviors with the intensification of metallurgy in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    Humeral morphology has been shown to reflect, in part, habitual manipulative behaviors in humans. Among Central European agricultural populations, long-term social change, increasing task specialization, and technological innovation all had the potential to impact patterns of habitual activity and upper limb asymmetry. However, systematic temporal change in the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region has not been well-characterized. This study investigates diachronic patterns in humeral biomechanical properties and lengths among 174 adult Central European agriculturalists through the first ∼ 5400 years of farming in the region. Greater asymmetry in biomechanical properties was expected to accompany the introduction of metallurgy, particularly in males, while upper limb loading patterns were expected to be more similar between the Bronze and Iron Ages. Results revealed a divergence in the lateralization of upper limb biomechanical properties by sex between the Early/Middle Neolithic and Early/Middle Bronze Age. Neolithic females had significantly more variable properties than males in both humeri, while Bronze Age female properties became homogeneous and very symmetrical relative to the right-biased lateralization of contemporaneous males. The Bronze Age to Iron Age transition was associated with morphological change among females, with a significant increase in right-biased asymmetry and a concomitant reduction in sexual dimorphism. Relative to biomechanical properties, humeral length variation and asymmetry were low though some significant sexual dimorphism and temporal change was found. It was among females that the lateralization of humeral biomechanical properties, and variation within them, changed most profoundly through time. This suggests that the introduction of the ard and plow, metallurgical innovation, task specialization, and socioeconomic change through ∼ 5400 years of agriculture impacted upper limb loading in Central

  5. Divergence in Male and Female Manipulative Behaviors with the Intensification of Metallurgy in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Humeral morphology has been shown to reflect, in part, habitual manipulative behaviors in humans. Among Central European agricultural populations, long-term social change, increasing task specialization, and technological innovation all had the potential to impact patterns of habitual activity and upper limb asymmetry. However, systematic temporal change in the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region has not been well-characterized. This study investigates diachronic patterns in humeral biomechanical properties and lengths among 174 adult Central European agriculturalists through the first ∼5400 years of farming in the region. Greater asymmetry in biomechanical properties was expected to accompany the introduction of metallurgy, particularly in males, while upper limb loading patterns were expected to be more similar between the Bronze and Iron Ages. Results revealed a divergence in the lateralization of upper limb biomechanical properties by sex between the Early/Middle Neolithic and Early/Middle Bronze Age. Neolithic females had significantly more variable properties than males in both humeri, while Bronze Age female properties became homogeneous and very symmetrical relative to the right-biased lateralization of contemporaneous males. The Bronze Age to Iron Age transition was associated with morphological change among females, with a significant increase in right-biased asymmetry and a concomitant reduction in sexual dimorphism. Relative to biomechanical properties, humeral length variation and asymmetry were low though some significant sexual dimorphism and temporal change was found. It was among females that the lateralization of humeral biomechanical properties, and variation within them, changed most profoundly through time. This suggests that the introduction of the ard and plow, metallurgical innovation, task specialization, and socioeconomic change through ∼5400 years of agriculture impacted upper limb loading in Central

  6. Full stellar kinematical profiles of central parts of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vudragović, A.; Samurović, S.; Jovanović, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. We present the largest catalog of detailed stellar kinematics of the central parts of nearby galaxies, which includes higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) function represented by the Gauss-Hermite series. The kinematics is measured on a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (Alfalfa) survey using spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Aims: The SDSS DR7 offers measurements of the LOSVD based on the assumption of a pure Gaussian shape of the broadening function caused by the combination of rotational and random motion of the stars in galaxies. We discuss the consequences of this oversimplification since the velocity dispersion, one of the measured quantities, often serves as the proxy to important modeling parameters such as the black-hole mass and the virial mass of galaxies. Methods: The publicly available pPXF code is used to calculate the full kinematical profile for the sample galaxies including higher moments of their LOSVD. Both observed and synthetic stellar libraries were used and the related template mismatch problem is discussed. Results: For the whole sample of 2180 nearby galaxies reflecting morphological distribution characteristic for the local Universe, we successfully recovered stellar kinematics of their central parts, including higher order moments of the LOSVD function, for signal-to-noise above 50. Conclusions: We show the consequences of the oversimplification of the LOSVD function with Gaussian function on the velocity dispersion for the empirical and the synthetic stellar library. For the empirical stellar library, this approximation leads to an increase in the virial mass of 13% on average, while for the synthetic library the effect is weaker, with an increase of 9% on average. Systematic erroneous estimates of the velocity dispersion comes from the use of the synthetic stellar library instead of the empirical one and is much larger than the value imposed by

  7. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe.

  8. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th–12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  9. How cold was it for Neanderthals moving to Central Europe during warm phases of the last glaciation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2011-03-01

    Precise estimates of mean annual temperature (MAT) for when Neanderthals occupied Central Europe are critical for understanding the role that climatic and associated environmental factors played in Neanderthal migrations and in their ultimate extinction. Neanderthals were continuously present in the relatively warm regions of southern and Western Europe in the Pleistocene but only temporarily settled Central Europe (CE), presumably because of its colder and less hospitable climate. Here, we present a new approach for more spatially and temporally accurate estimation of palaeotemperatures based on the stable oxygen isotope composition of phosphates extracted from animal teeth found at sites linked directly to concurrent Neanderthal occupation. We provide evidence that Neanderthals migrated along the Odra Valley of CE during warmer periods throughout the Upper Pleistocene. The MATs during these migrations were about 6.8 °C for the warm phase of Oxygen Isotope Stage OIS 5a-d (prior to the OIS4 cold event) at ˜115-74,000 yr BP and about 6.3 °C during the early OIS 3 warm phase ˜59-41,000 yr BP. Our results show that temperatures during these phases peaked 2-4 °C above longer term estimates from ice cores and pollen records. We argue that our approach can provide valuable insights into evaluating the role of climate in human migration patterns in the Pleistocene.

  10. Validation of Ionosonde Electron Density Reconstruction Algorithms with IONOLAB-RAY in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, Gokhan; Mosna, Zbysek; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Erdem, Esra

    2016-07-01

    for various purposes including calculation of actual height and generation of ionograms. In this study, the performance of electron density reconstruction algorithm of IONOLAB group and standard electron density profile algorithms of ionosondes are compared with IONOLAB-RAY wave propagation simulation in near vertical incidence. The electron density reconstruction and parameter extraction algorithms of ionosondes are validated with the IONOLAB-RAY results both for quiet anddisturbed ionospheric states in Central Europe using ionosonde stations such as Pruhonice and Juliusruh . It is observed that IONOLAB ionosonde parameter extraction and electron density reconstruction algorithm performs significantly better compared to standard algorithms especially for disturbed ionospheric conditions. IONOLAB-RAY provides an efficient and reliable tool to investigate and validate ionosonde electron density reconstruction algorithms, especially in determination of reflection height (true height) of signals and critical parameters of ionosphere. This study is supported by TUBITAK 114E541, 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  11. Tropospheric mercury vertical profiles between 500 and 10 000 m in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Pirrone, N.; Bieser, J.; Bödewadt, J.; Esposito, G.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the CARIBIC passenger aircraft observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212) in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured with a Tekran 2537X analyser and a Lumex RA-915-AM. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured using a Tekran 2537B analyser and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) was sampled onto 8 denuders for post flight analysis (one for each profile, three during the transfer flights, and two blanks). In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, NO2, as well as basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity) have been measured. Additional ground based speciated mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof (Germany) were used to extend the profile to the ground. No vertical gradient was found inside the well mixed boundary layer (variation by less than 0.1 ng m-3) at different sites with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m-3 (STP; standard conditions: p = 1013.25 hPa, T = 273.15 K). At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m-3 (STP) when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013, over Leipzig (Germany) with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to Frankfurt airport (Germany) at approximately the same time provide a unique central European vertical profile from inside the

  12. Tropospheric mercury vertical profiles between 500 and 10 000 m in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Pirrone, Nicola; Bieser, Johannes; Bödewadt, Jan; Esposito, Giulio; Slemr, Franz; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg) plays an important role in determining the transport and cycling of mercury. However, measurements of the vertical distribution are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212) in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and total gaseous mercury (TGM) were measured with Tekran 2537X and Tekran 2537B analysers. In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, and NO2, basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity) have been measured. Additional ground-based mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof, Germany and measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft were used to extend the profile to the ground and upper troposphere respectively. No vertical gradient was found inside the well-mixed boundary layer (variation of less than 0.1 ng m-3) at different sites, with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m-3 (standard temperature and pressure, STP: T = 273.15 K, p = 1013.25 hPa). At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m-3 (STP) when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013 over Leipzig, Germany, with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to Frankfurt Airport, Germany, taken at

  13. The predictability of wind gusts associated with winter storms over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantillon, Florian; Knippertz, Peter; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Wind storms associated with low-pressure systems from the North Atlantic are the most important natural hazard for central Europe. Although the forecast of winter storms has generally improved over the last decades, a detailed prediction of the associated wind gusts is still challenging due to the multiple scales involved. Here we report about new insights into the synoptic-scale predictability of 25 severe storms of the 1995-2015 period using data from the recently available homogeneous re-forecast dataset from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) evaluated against ERA-Interim reanalysis. In contrast to operational predictions, the re-forecast dataset is generated with an identical data assimilation and forecasting system over a time period long enough to allow a statistical analysis of historical events. The predictability of the storms is assessed with two sets of metrics: (a) the position and intensity to investigate the storms' propagation and dynamics and (b) the Storm Severity Index (SSI) to estimate the impact of wind gusts associated with the storms. This analysis shows that the storms are captured by the ensemble re-forecasts up to 2-4 days ahead only, which restricts the use of ensemble mean and spread to relatively short lead times. However, the metrics also show that the storms are correctly predicted at least by some ensemble members up to one week ahead. Following this result, the Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) and Shift of Tails (SOT) are computed from the individual re-forecasts and the model climate. Using these indices, we show that the model has some skill in forecasting the area covered by extreme wind gusts up to 10 days, which indicates clear potential for the early warning of storms. However, a large variability is found between the predictability of individual storms, which does not appear to be related to the storms' characteristics. This may be due to the limited sample of 25 cases, but also suggests that each

  14. The first stages of erosion by ice sheets: Evidence from central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. M.; Migoń, P.

    2010-11-01

    In almost all former and presently glaciated areas of the world, glaciers have modified or even transformed pre-glacial terrain during the many cold stages of the Pleistocene. In consequence, the early stages in the development of glacial landscapes have been overprinted or erased by later phases of erosion. The Sudetes in central Europe provide exceptional opportunities to examine the inception of glacial erosion. Evidence of a long geomorphic evolution before glaciation, with the development of etch surfaces, deep weathering covers and the preservation of Neogene kaolinitic sediments, provides a direct analogue to other lowland crystalline terrains as existed immediately prior to Pleistocene glaciation. Large granite intrusions exist in the Sudetes and its Foreland that support hills that range in size from small tors to large domes. These terrains experienced only thin ice cover for short periods when the Scandinavian ice sheet reached its Pleistocene maximum limits in Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 (Elsterian) at 440-430 ka and MIS 8 (Early Saalian) at 250-240 ka. In each of four study areas beyond, at and within the limits of glaciation we have mapped Glacial Erosion Indicators, glacial landform assemblages that indicate progressive glacial modification of the pre-glacial granite terrain. We find that glacial erosion increases with distance from the ice margin, due to greater ice thickness and longer ice cover, but has had only limited impact. On hills, regolith was stripped by moving ice, tors were demolished, and blocks were entrained. However, indicators of more advanced glacial erosion, such as lee-side cliffs and glacial streamlining, are absent, even from granite domes that lay beneath ~ 500 m of ice. The survival of tors beneath ice cover and the removal of tor superstructure by glacial erosion are confirmed. The presence of glacially-modified tors in areas covered only by Elsterian ice implies that the tors existed before 440 ka. Moreover, the contrast

  15. High-resolution climate simulations for Central Europe: An assessment of dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Huth, R.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.; Stepanek, P.

    2009-12-01

    To bridge the resolution gap between the outputs of global climate models (GCMs) and finer-scale data needed for studies of the climate change impacts, two approaches are widely used: dynamical downscaling, based on application of regional climate models (RCMs) embedded into the domain of the GCM simulation, and statistical downscaling (SDS), using empirical transfer functions between the large-scale data generated by the GCM and local measurements. In our contribution, we compare the performance of different variants of both techniques for the region of Central Europe. The dynamical downscaling is represented by the outputs of two regional models run in the 10 km horizontal grid, ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (co-developed by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Meteo-France) and RegCM3 (developed by the Abdus Salam Centre for Theoretical Physics). The applied statistical methods were based on multiple linear regression, as well as on several of its nonlinear alternatives, including techniques employing artificial neural networks. Validation of the downscaling outputs was carried out using measured data, gathered from weather stations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Hungary for the end of the 20th century; series of daily values of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity were analyzed. None of the regional models or statistical downscaling techniques could be identified as the universally best one. For instance, while most statistical methods misrepresented the shape of the statistical distribution of the target variables (especially in the more challenging cases such as estimation of daily precipitation), RCM-generated data often suffered from severe biases. It is also shown that further enhancement of the simulated fields of climate variables can be achieved through a combination of dynamical downscaling and statistical postprocessing. This can not only be used to reduce biases and other systematic flaws in the generated time

  16. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  17. Folate metabolism genes, vegetable intake and renal cancer risk in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee E; Hung, Rayjean; Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Berndt, Sonya; Hsu, Charles C; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helen; Bencko, Vladmir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, Dana; Mukeria, Anush; Holcatova, Ivana; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Rothman, Nat; Chow, Wong-Ho; Brennan, Paul

    2008-04-15

    In a multicenter case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) conducted in central and eastern Europe, we reported a strong inverse association with high vegetable intake and RCC risk. The odds ratio (OR) for high compared to the lowest tertile of vegetable intake was OR = 0.67; (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.83; p-trend < 0.001). We hypothesized that variation in key folate metabolism genes may modify this association. Common variation in 5 folate metabolism genes (CBS: Ex9+33C > T (rs234706), Ex13 +41C > T (rs1801181), Ex18 -391 G > A (rs12613); MTHFR: A222V Ex5+79C > T (rs1801133), Ex8-62A > C (rs1801131); MTR: Ex26 20A > G (rs1805087), MTRR: Ex5+136 T > C (rs161870), and TYMS:IVS2-405 C > T (rs502396), Ex8+157 C > T (rs699517), Ex8+227 A > G (rs2790)) were analyzed among 1,097 RCC cases and 1,555 controls genotyped in this study. Having at least 1 variant T allele of MTHFR A222V was associated with higher RCC risk compared to those with 2 common (CC) alleles (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17-1.77; p = 0.001). After stratification by tertile of vegetable intake, the higher risk associated with the variant genotype was only observed in the low and medium tertiles (p-trend = 0.001), but not among those in the highest tertile (p-interaction = 0.22). The association remained robust after calculation of the false discovery rate (FDR = 0.05). Of the 3 TYMS SNPs examined, only the TYMS IVS2 -405 C (rs502396) variant was associated with a significantly lower risk compared to the common genotype (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.93). Vegetable intake modified the association between all 3 TYMS SNPs and RCC risk (p-interaction < 0.04 for all). In summary, these findings suggest that common variation in MTHFR and TYMS genes may be associated with RCC risk, particularly when vegetable intake is low.

  18. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  19. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  20. The Glueckstadt Graben, a sedimentary record between the North and Baltic Sea in north Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy; Bayer, Ulf; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2005-03-01

    The Glueckstadt Graben is one of the deepest post-Permian structures within the Central European Basin system and is located right at its "heart" at the transition from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and from the Lower Saxony Basin to the Rynkoebing-Fyn High. The Mesozoic to recent evolution is investigated by use of selected seismic lines, seismic flattening and a 3D structural model. A major tectonic event in the latest Middle-Late Triassic (Keuper) was accompanied by strong salt tectonics within the Glueckstadt Graben. At that time, a rapid subsidence took place within the central part, which provides the "core" of the Glueckstadt Graben. The post-Triassic tectonic evolution of the area does not follow the typical scheme of thermal subsidence. In contrast, it seems that there is a slow progressive activation of salt movements triggered by the initial Triassic event. Starting with the Jurassic, the subsidence centre partitioned into two parts located adjacent to the Triassic "core." In comparison with other areas of the Central European Basin system, the Glueckstadt Graben was not strongly affected by additional Jurassic and Cretaceous events. During the late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, the area around the Glueckstadt Graben was affected by relative uplift with regional erosion of the elevated relief. However, subsidence was reactivated and accelerated during the Cenozoic when a strong subsidence centre developed in the North Sea. During Paleogene and Quaternary-Neogene, the two centres of sedimentation moved gradually towards the flanks of the basin. The data indeed point toward a control of post-Permian evolution by gradual withdrawal of salt triggered by the initial exhaustion along the Triassic subsidence centre. In this sense, the Glueckstadt Graben was formed at least partially as "basin scale rim syncline" during post-Permian times. The present day Hamburger, East and Westholstein Troughs are the actual final state of this long-term process which still

  1. Paleoseismic evidence for dynamic surface rupturing in an intraplate setting (Lower Rhine Embayment, central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, S.; Friedrich, A. M.; Strecker, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most enigmatic problems in intraplate earthquake geology is the spatio-temporal recurrence pattern of large earthquakes. Intraplate regions such as the New Madrid seismic zone or the central European rift system are subject to considerable seismic hazards, because fault activity is highly disparate in space and time and our knowledge about the recurrence of large earthquakes is still rudimentary. The current debate in central Europe ranges from slip dominated by repeated large coseismic events to slip dominated by aseismic creep. Here, field evidence in support of the former is sparse, and hence, some authors concluded that many faults move by slow aseismic creep rather than by ground rupturing earthquakes. We report new results from a paleoseismic study carried out in the Lower Rhine Embayment across a subsidiary normal fault in the area of Germany's largest historical earthquake (1756 AD, ML 6.2±0.2) that clearly revealed field evidence of dynamic surface faulting. At the trench site, the fault is covered by <5 m-thick Holocene fluvial gravel and flood deposits overlaying Devonian shale. We mapped a surface offset of ~1 m and a ~10 m wide zone of localized deformation expressed by abundant fractures with aligned and broken clasts extending vertically throughout the entire gravel. Mapping of 237 fractured clasts and the long-axis orientation of ~10.000 clasts defines a deformation zone coinciding with the surface offset and two offset markers within the gravel layers. We interpret these features as the result of coseismic deformation at the near-surface end of the rupture. We rule out alternative processes which may lead to fracturing of pebbles such as freeze-thaw weathering or sediment loading effects, since both the gravel fabric and fracture planes coincide well with the fault orientation. We preclude slow deformation due to aseismic creep as governing process to cause rupturing of pebbles this close to the surface, as this would require an

  2. Enriched mantle source for the Central Atlantic magmatic province: New supporting evidence from southwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegaro, Sara; Rapaille, Cedric; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Chiaradia, Massimo; Reisberg, Laurie; Bellieni, Giuliano; Martins, Línia; Madeira, José; Mata, João; Youbi, Nasrrddine; De Min, Angelo; Azevedo, Maria Rosário; Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil

    2014-02-01

    Remnants of the Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP), emplaced ca. 201 Ma during the rifting phases leading to Pangaea breakup, are still preserved in southwestern Europe (SWE) in the form of sills, dykes and lava flows. Low-Ti (TiO2 0.48-1.46 wt.%) tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites crop out as sills only in the Pyrenean area, as dykes (especially the Messejana-Plasencia dyke) from central Spain to the Atlantic coast, and as lava flows within sedimentary basins in Southern Portugal. Here we present new geochemical data (major and trace elements, mineral chemistry and combined Sr-Nd-Pb-Os analyses) on 132 samples, aiming to investigate the mantle source of these rocks and correlate them with magmatism from other areas of the CAMP. Crustal-like signatures in incompatible element patterns (Nb-Ta troughs, Pb peaks, generally shared by most CAMP rocks) and the enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characters (87Sr/86Sr200 Ma 0.70529-0.70657; 143Nd/144Nd200 Ma 0.51238-0.51225; 206Pb/204Pb200 Ma 18.15-18.48; 207Pb/204Pb200 Ma 15.57-15.68; 208Pb/204Pb200 Ma 37.99-38.52) apparently argue in favor of crustal assimilation playing an important role in the evolution of these magmas. However, the low initial 187Os/188Os values (0.1298 ± 0.0056) as well as the restricted geochemical variations shown by SWE-CAMP rocks over such a large area limit the crustal assimilation of various Iberian lithologies to small amounts. We thus locate this enrichment in the mantle source, in the form of upper and lower crustal material recycled during earlier subduction-related events. This process, while imparting crustal signatures to incompatible elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, would not alter the Os isotopic signature, dominated by the peridotite. The mixed contribution of 3-7% of local upper (pelitic) and lower (felsic granulitic) crust is sufficient to enrich a depleted mantle source, which can be either the sub-SWE lithosphere or the upper depleted asthenosphere. Similar processes of

  3. An imported case of echinococcosis of the liver in a Korean who traveled to western and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sun-Ju; Moon, Kyung Chul; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2010-06-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, an intestinal tapeworm of dogs and other canids, infects humans in its larval stage and causes human echinococcosis or hydatid disease. In the Republic of Korea, 31 parasite-proven human echinococcosis cases have been reported, most of which were imported from the Middle East. We recently examined a 61-year-old Korean man who had a large cystic mass in his liver. ELISA was negative for tissue parasitic infections, including echinococcosis, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, and sparganosis. The patient underwent surgery to remove the cyst, and the resected cyst was processed histopathologically for microscopic examinations. In sectioned cyst tissue, necrotizing protoscolices with disintegrated hooklets of E. granulosus were found. In some areas, only freed, fragmented hooklets were detected. The patient had traveled to western and central Europe in 1996, and had no other history of overseas travel. We report our patient as a hepatic echinococcosis case which was probably imported from Europe.

  4. A TEX86 lake record suggests simultaneous shifts in temperature in Central Europe and Greenland during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaga, Cornelia I.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Lotter, André F.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution quantitative temperature records from continents covering glacial to interglacial transitions are scarce but important for understanding the climate system. We present the first decadal resolution record of continental temperatures in Central Europe during the last deglaciation (~14,600-10,600 cal. yr B.P.) based on the organic geochemical palaeothermometer TEX86. The TEX86-inferred temperature record from Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee, Switzerland) reveals typical oscillations during the Late Glacial Interstadial, followed by an abrupt cooling of 2°C at the onset of Younger Dryas and a rapid warming of 4°C at the onset of the Holocene, within less than 350 years. The remarkable resemblance with the Greenland and regional stable oxygen isotope records suggests that temperature changes in continental Europe were dominated by large-scale reorganizations in the northern hemispheric climate system.

  5. Sources and pathways of polycyclic aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons in the Arkona Basin (Southern Baltic Sea, Central Europe)

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltic Sea (Central Europe) is surrounded by coastal regions with long histories of industrialization. The heavy metal profiles in the sediments in the center of the Arkona Basin, one of the depressions of the southern Baltic Sea area, clearly reflect the historical anthropogenic influence. The Arkona Basin-is the final sink for materials derived from the Oder river which drains a highly polluted industrial area of Eastern Europe. Surficial muddy sediments from a close-meshed field of sampling-points were analyzed for distribution patterns of aliphatics and quantities and ratios of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These compounds are thought to reflect anthropogenic pollution related to emissions from traffic, heating, etc. We use these marker substances to test if the basin sediments reflect riverine input, and if additional sources can be identified.

  6. Geophysical investigations of the central part of Niger State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniyi, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    The structural and tectonic nature of the Nupe basin and the adjacent basement complex was studied. Gravity and magnetic surveys were made in the central part of Niger State, Nigeria. The interpretation given here is of a rift origin for the Nupe basin. The initiation of rifting started in the adjacent Benue trough in the early Cretaceous, this gave rise to other rifted troughs in the Cretaceous period. The gravity measurements suggest the existence of up warping of the Moho in the Nupe basin. A mantle rise of the order of 5 km was calculated. Models were fit to the residual Bouguer anomalies. The greatest sandstone thickness obtained from the models is about 3.5 km. The modeled lower crust rises to the surface between Minna and Paiko, and also near Kataeregi. The structural trend of this rise coincides with the trend of the quartz mica schist belt in the northeastern section of the surveyed area. Magnetic models lead to an estimated thickness of overburden in the basement complex area of about 10.4 km. An aeromagnetic map of a portion of the region indicates that magnetic minerals of economic importance are unlikely to be present in this area.

  7. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part A, Prehistoric earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax, the maximum earthquake magnitude thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. This report is Part A of an Open-File Report that describes the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes, from which one can estimate Mmax for most of the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it were used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. This Part A discusses prehistoric earthquakes that occurred in eastern North America, northwestern Europe, and Australia, whereas a separate Part B deals with historical events.

  8. International migration in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the outlook for East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Drbohlav, D

    1994-01-01

    This article "is devoted to the international migration issue in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Czechoslovakia). Besides the contemporary trends, the international migration situation is briefly traced back to the communist era. The probable future scenario of international migration development--based especially on migration patterns that Western Europe has experienced--is also sketched, whilst mainly economic, social, political, demographic, psychological and geographical aspects are mentioned." Some consideration is also given to other countries in Eastern Europe. The different types of migration are analyzed, including illegal migration, labor migration, and refugees and asylum seekers.

  9. Vegetation and climate in the Early- and Pleni-Weichselian in northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Gerfried; Freund, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of numerous pollen diagrams from north and central Germany and from the adjacent lowlands of The Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Belarus have facilitated a regional comparison of the vegetation and climatic evolution from the beginning of the Early Weichselian glaciation to the Weichselian pleniglacial. Data from geological studies and analysis of fossil beetles and plant macroremains have been used to supplement the palaeoclimatic reconstruction.Up to the end of the Oerel Interstadial the palaeoclimate was characterised by increasing continentality. The winter temperatures in particular tended to fall continuously during the stadials and the interstadials of the Early Weichselian and early Pleniglacial. In the Brörup and Odderade Interstadials summer temperatures where sufficiently high to enable boreal forests to grow, whereas in the Oerel Interstadial summer temperatures were such that tree growth was inhibited. It is probable that falling sea-level and the consequent extension northwards of the North Sea coast were the main causes of increasing continentality.In the latter part of the Pleniglacial, peat accumulation frequently took place and humic silts were deposited under lacustrine conditions. Correlation between various sites is extraordinarily difficult. Pollen diagrams from the so-called interstadials of the Glinde, Moershoofd Complex, Hengelo and Denekamp are similar to those of the known Early Weichselian stadials. It is proposed therefore that these interstadials should be called intervals, and that the term interstadial be reserved for climatic variations that result in distinctive pollen assemblages and which, in turn, reflect distinctive vegetation dynamics. Interstadials should be capable of being characterised on a biostratigraphical basis and it should be possible to establish correlations over considerable distances. According to this definition, the first three warm oscillations of the Weichselian glaciation in the central European

  10. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia.

    PubMed

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo; López-Martínez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe's alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene.

  11. Applications of a MODIS-adjusted NDVI3g dataset in Central Europe between 1982 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Anikó; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Bognár, Péter; Pásztor, Szilárd; Barcza, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used to study vegetation greenness, production, phenology and the responses of ecosystems to climate fluctuations. The extended global NDVI3g dataset created by Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) has an exceptional 32 years temporal coverage for the period of 1982-2013. Due to the methodology that was used to create NDVI3g inherent noise and uncertainty is present in the dataset. We used Collection-6 MOD13 NDVI data for the overlapping period of 2000-2013 as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of NDVI3g at a regional scale and to perform statistical harmonization (adjustment) of the NDVI3g dataset for Central Europe. The applied MOD13A2 is one of the official products of vegetation indices created from measurements of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board satellite Terra with 1 km × 1 km horizontal, and 16-day temporal resolution. Mean seasonal NDVI profiles, start, end and length of the growing season, anomalies, magnitude and timing of peak NDVI were calculated from NDVI3g (original, noise filtered and harmonized) and MODIS NDVI and compared with each other between 2000-2013. Results indicate that the harmonization of NDVI3g with MODIS NDVI is promising since the newly created dataset has improved quality for diverse vegetation metrics. As further application of the MODIS-adjusted dataset, we performed temporal trend analysis and crop yield estimations of winter wheat for the whole 1982-2013 period, indicating the reasonable applicability of the harmonized dataset in Central Europe. The presented results can help researchers to assess the expected quality of the NDVI3g-based studies in Central Europe and to exploit the information content of the adjusted NDVI3g. Keywords: NDVI; NDVI3g; MODIS; phenology; trend analysis; crop yield estimation

  12. The "Heart" of the European "Body Politic". British and German Perspectives on Europe's Central "Organ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolff, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a corpus of British and German press coverage of European Union (EU) politics over the 1990s, the paper analyses uses of the geopolitical HEART metaphor. Over the course of the 1990s, successive British governments promised to work "at" the "heart of Europe". However, no one ever claimed that Britain was…

  13. Assessing the completeness of historical earthquake records in Austria and surrounding Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Asma; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    formula for each country. In order to get the completeness periods for various magnitude ranges, the combined catalogue as well as each subcatalogue have been analyzed following the method of Stepp (1972). We can show that the new composite catalogue fulfills the critical minimum observation period for all intensity classes except IX and higher. A stable estimate of mean recurrence period of intensity IV is 80 years of homogeneous observations from 1900 to 1980 and for intensity V, the observation period is 120 years. A stable estimate of mean recurrence period for intensity VI is about 115 years and for intensity vii is 30 years. The homogeneous interval for maximum intensity VIII is 200 years. Maximum intensity IX earthquakes are not completely definitive for whole 962 years period. In addition, the analysis of each subcatalogue leads to similar results, except the ACORN catalogue. Therefore, the newly complied catalogue for Austria and surrounding areas is a suitable data base for seismic hazard assessment in Austria. References: ACORN, 2004, Catalogue of Earthquakes in the Region of the Alps - Western Carpathians - Bohemian Massif for the period from 1267 to 2004, Computer File, Vienna (Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Department of Geophysics) - Brno (Institute of Physics of the Earth, University Brno). Van Gils, J.M. and G. Leydecker (1991): Catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4. -- Commission of the European Communities - nuclear science and technology. 353 pp., 14 fig., 1 tab.- ISBN 92-826-2506-0, Catalogue number: CD-NA-13406-EN-C. Brussels - Luxembourg 1991. Shebalin, N. V., Leydecker, G., et al. (1998): Earthquake Catalogue for Central and Southeastern Europe 342 BC - 1990 AD. -- European Commission, Report No. ETNU CT 93 - 0087, Brussels. Stepp, J.C., 1972. Analysis of completeness of the earthquake sample in the Puget Sound area and its effect on statistical estimates of earthquake hazard. Proc. of the 1st Int

  14. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values <1 per mil. At the remaining two sites (Letnany and Velesin), the Cr isotope signature of the source of contamination was not known. At all four sites, most del53/52Cr values were positive, with means higer than 1 per mil: At Zlate Hory, del53/52Cr ranged between -2.2 and +3.0 per mil (mean of +1.5 per mil); at Loucna, del53/52Cr ranged between 0 and +4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of

  15. Morphology of preimaginal stages and taxonomical relationship of Synanthedon spuleri (Fuchs, 1908) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) with closely related species in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bąkowski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The egg, last larval instar, and pupa of Synanthedon spuleri Fuchs are described and illustrated. In Central Europe there is a group of four closely related species including S. spuleri, S. tipuliformis Clerck, S. loranthi Králíček, and S. cephiformis Ochsenheimer. Thus far S. spuleri has been classified as closely related to S. tipuliformis. However, the results of molecular analyses and partly studies of the morphology of the preimaginal stages indicate that S. spuleri is more closely related to S. cephiformis than to S. tipuliformis. In terms of the response of males to similar attractants it appears that S. spuleri is more closely related to S. tipuliformnis; however, further research needs to be conducted in this respect.

  16. Interactions of glyphosate use with farm characteristics and cropping patterns in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Armin; Schulte, Michael; Theuvsen, Ludwig; Steinmann, Horst-Henning

    2017-02-02

    Although glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the European Union, little is known about the patterns of its usage in arable farming. Therefore, a nationwide survey of 2026 German farmers was analysed to obtain further knowledge about glyphosate applications in conventional European arable farming. Given its broad range of agri-environmental and farm-type conditions, Germany can be regarded as a suitable study region to represent Central European farming. The growing season 2013/2014 was set as a reference. Farmers who participated in the survey employ diverse patterns of glyphosate use. While 23% stated that they did not use glyphosate in the season in question, others applied glyphosate to their total arable area. However, most applications occurred on specific parts of the farm. Application patterns of oilseed rape, winter wheat, maize and sugar beet were studied in detail, and U-shaped distributions of glyphosate use intensity were observed. The effects of farm type and management practices on glyphosate use patterns were mixed in the various crops. Motivation for glyphosate use differs widely within the farming community. Agricultural researchers, extension services and policy makers are recommended to mitigate vulnerabilities associated with glyphosate use, such as routine spraying and practices that increase selection pressure for the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ≤10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere.

  18. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ≤10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

  19. Beyond the Warsaw Pact: Russian Foreign Policy in East Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Western Overview." Problems of Communism 37 (May/August 1988): 56-60. 134 Brzezinski , Zbigniew. "East-West Relations and Eastern Europe...A Special...Bonn Press EC Superpower Role." Times (London), 17 October 1991, 10. Brzezinski , Zbigniew. "A Common House, a Common Home." The New York Times, 15...December 1990): 27. Aleksandrowicz, Piotr . "October Economic Performance Indicators Reported" (text). Warsaw Rzeczvospolita in Polish, 10-11 November

  20. Insects colonising carcasses in open and forest habitats of Central Europe: search for indicators of corpse relocation.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Szafałowicz, Michał; Jarmusz, Mateusz

    2013-09-10

    Several traces may reveal the post-mortem relocation of a corpse. Insects are particularly useful for that purpose. The use of insects for inferring the transfer of a corpse rests on a premise that particular species colonise corpses in different habitats. However, only some insects reveal a strong preference for a given type of habitat. In order to find those insects which colonise corpses exclusively in open habitats, as opposed to forest habitats, a pig carrion study was made in rural open and rural forest habitats of Central Europe. Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Dermestes frischi, Dermestes laniarius (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), Omosita colon, some species of Nitidula (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Necrobia rufipes (Coleoptera: Cleridae) were found to breed exclusively in open habitats. Only Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Coleoptera: Silphidae) avoided definitely breeding in open habitats. Sarcophaga caerulescens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) regularly bred in open habitats but rarely bred in forests. Accordingly, L. sericata, D. frischi, O. colon, species of Nitidula and supposedly N. rufipes may be classified as indicators of corpse relocation from rural open to rural forest habitats of Central Europe. Only O. thoracicum may be classified as an indicator of the relocation in an opposite direction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional Climate Change Scenarios in High Resolution for Impact Assessment in Central and Eastern Europe - Project CECILIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, T.

    2009-09-01

    Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. Project EC FP6 CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied within the project, and precise information from regional climate simulations is necessary. Basic validation and verification of ERA40 driven simulations by RegCM and ALADIN-Climate used for simulations in targeted regions as well as discussion of the climate change signal in these regions for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 is provided with respect to control period 1961-1990. Some impact applications in the sectors mentioned above will be shown as well.

  2. Are the Pyrenees a barrier for the transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Central Europe to the Iberian Peninsula?

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; De Linares, Concepción; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Belmonte, Jordina

    2017-01-01

    This work provides a first assessment of the possible barrier effect of the Pyrenees on the atmospheric transport of airborne pollen from Europe to the North of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerobiological data recorded in three Spanish stations located at the eastern, central and western base of the Pyrenees in the period 2004-2014 have been used to identify the possible long range transport episodes of Betula pollen. The atmospheric transport routes and the origin regions have been established by means of trajectory analysis and a source receptor model. Betula pollen outbreaks were associated with the meteorological scenario characterized by the presence of a high-pressure system overm over Morocco and Southern Iberian Peninsula. France and Central Europe have been identified as the probable source areas of Betula pollen that arrives to Northern Spain. However, the specific source areas are mainly determined by the particular prevailing atmospheric circulation of each location. Finally, the Weather Research and Forecasting model highlighted the effect of the orography on the atmospheric transport patterns, showing paths through the western and easternmost lowlands for Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bellaterra respectively, and the direct impact of air flows over Vielha through the Garona valley. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Infertility in Poland--present status, reasons and prognosis as a reflection of Central and Eastern Europe problems with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2003-03-01

    Poland has been considered a representative country for the population of Central and Eastern Europe as it has genetically homogenous population and reveals profound similarities in economical and historical processes common for all countries of the region. According to our observations there is approximately 20% of infertile couples in Poland (lack of concentration after at least 12 month of unprotected intercourse) and 40-60% of them are infertile because of the male factor. However, studies of infertility in Poland that have been conducted so far need to be verified. The changes connected with the style of life and new tendencies observed during the tedious political changes had considerable influence on childbearing rate in Poland. Additional factors diminishing the fertility rate are: the change of the status of women in a society, raising amount of everyday stress, the high rate (17%) of unemployment and the low average income. Furthermore, in Poland, the diagnostics and treatment (assisted reproductive technology) are entirely financed from the private funds of a patient. Summing up, the problem of childlessness in Central and Eastern Europe is a complex one and very alarming therefore it is necessary to work out and to implement research, preventative and therapeutic programmes strengthened through the international cooperation of specialized centers of excellence.

  4. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  5. The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmens, Karin F.

    2014-02-01

    characterized the climate variability of MIS 3. Mild climate conditions in early MIS 3 caused large-scale deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, and ice-free conditions with Betula-dominated vegetation (including tree birch) persisted over large parts of Fennoscandia, possibly interrupted by glaciation, during major part of MIS 3 till ca 35 ka BP. Overall, MIS 5 was mostly mild with warmest or peak interglacial conditions at the very start during MIS 5e. MIS 4-2 was mostly cold with most extreme or peak glacial conditions in the closing phase during MIS 2. This points to a subdivision of the last climate cycle into an early, overall mild interglacial half and a late, overall cold glacial half, each with duration of ca 50 ka. This review also shows that the climate variability in central and northern Europe during the LI-G cycle was mostly in degrees of continentality with major shifts in winter temperature and precipitation values; summer temperatures, on the other hand, remained largely unchanged. It points to the waxing and waning of sea-ice over the North Atlantic Ocean as a possible characteristic feature of the Late Pleistocene. The present compilation, based on long terrestrial sequences, high-resolution multi-proxy data from the oceans, and quantified paleo-climate data, strongly favors a definition of entire Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 as the Last Interglacial similar as in the original marine stratigraphy and the stratigraphy at La Grande Pile in France. The proxy-based climate data places the start of the Last Glacial at the base of MIS 4 and the northwest European Pleniglacial. It shows that the division between the Eemian (MIS 5e) and the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-a) is not useful, as not relevant from a climate point of view.

  6. Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe and the Balkans: A Framework and U.S. Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    760,000 7,000,000 Ukrainians 60,000 350,000 600,000 Bulgarians 12,000 30,000 130,000 Upovans 12,000 100,000 SOURCE: Andre Uebich, "Minorities in Eastern...the obstacles to an accurate count, see Andre Liebich, "Minorities in Eastern Europe: Obstacles to a Reliable Count," RFEIRL Research Report Vol. 1, No...13For one example of the change in the type of nationalism, see Raymond Breton , "From Ethnic to Civic NaionalIsm: English Canada and Quebec,- Ethnic

  7. Audio Visual Aids. Part 4 (i); Regional Geography: 1, General and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundation for Visual Aids, London (England).

    Audiovisual aids for teaching about the geography of Europe, that may be bought or rented from suppliers in Britain, are listed in this 120-page catalog. Audiovisual materials available include films, filmstrips, slides, overhead projector transparencies, wallsheets, prints, records, tapes, and teaching kits. Each catalog entry describes the…

  8. Audio Visual Aids. Part 4 (i); Regional Geography: 1, General and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundation for Visual Aids, London (England).

    Audiovisual aids for teaching about the geography of Europe, that may be bought or rented from suppliers in Britain, are listed in this 120-page catalog. Audiovisual materials available include films, filmstrips, slides, overhead projector transparencies, wallsheets, prints, records, tapes, and teaching kits. Each catalog entry describes the…

  9. Plastic Surgery Training Worldwide: Part 1. The United States and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Parisa; van Paridon, Maaike W.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Paul, Marek A.; Winters, Henri A.; Martinot-Duquennoy, Veronique; Noah, Ernst Magnus; Pallua, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major differences exist in residency training, and the structure and quality of residency programs differ between different countries and teaching centers. It is of vital importance that a better understanding of the similarities and differences in plastic surgery training be ascertained as a means of initiating constructive discussion and commentary among training programs worldwide. In this study, the authors provide an overview of plastic surgery training in the United States and Europe. Methods: A survey was sent to select surgeons in 10 European countries that were deemed to be regular contributors to the plastic surgery literature. The questions focused on pathway to plastic surgery residency, length of training, required pretraining experience, training scheme, research opportunities, and examinations during and after plastic surgery residency. Results: Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States differ from the various (selected) countries in Europe and are described in detail. Conclusions: Plastic surgery education is vastly different between the United States and Europe, and even within Europe, training programs remain heterogeneous. Standardization of curricula across the different countries would improve the interaction of different centers and facilitate the exchange of vital information for quality control and future improvements. The unique characteristics of the various training programs potentially provide a basis from which to learn and to gain from one another. PMID:27257571

  10. A case of extreme particulate matter concentrations over Central Europe caused by dust emitted over the southern Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmili, W.; Schepanski, K.; Ansmann, A.; Spindler, G.; Tegen, I.; Wehner, B.; Nowak, A.; Reimer, E.; Mattis, I.; Müller, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Althausen, D.; Schladitz, A.; Tuch, T.; Löschau, G.

    2008-02-01

    On 24 March 2007, an extraordinary dust plume was observed in the Central European troposphere. Satellite observations revealed its origins in a dust storm in Southern Ukraine, where large amounts of soil were resuspended from dried-out farmlands at wind gusts up to 30 m s-1. Along the pathway of the plume, maximum particulate matter (PM10) mass concentrations between 200 and 1400 μg m-3 occurred in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Germany. Over Germany, the dust plume was characterised by a volume extinction coefficient up to 400 Mm-1 and a particle optical depth of 0.71 at wavelength 0.532 μm. In-situ size distribution measurements as well as the wavelength dependence of light extinction from lidar and Sun photometer measurements confirmed the presence of a coarse particle mode with diameters around 2-3 μm. Chemical particle analyses suggested a fraction of 75% crustal material in daily average PM10 and up to 85% in the coarser fraction PM10-2.5. Based on the particle characteristics as well as a lack of increased CO and CO2 levels, a significant impact of biomass burning was ruled out. The reasons for the high particle concentrations in the dust plume were twofold: First, dust was transported very rapidly into Central Europe in a boundary layer jet under dry conditions. Second, the dust plume was confined to a relatively stable boundary layer of 1.4-1.8 km height, and could therefore neither expand nor dilute efficiently. Our findings illustrate the capacity of combined in situ and remote sensing measurements to characterise large-scale dust plumes with a variety of aerosol parameters. Although such plumes from Southern Eurasia seem to occur rather infrequently in Central Europe, its unexpected features highlights the need to improve the description of dust emission, transport and transformation processes needs, particularly when facing the possible effects of further anthropogenic desertification and climate change.

  11. Ancient DNA Analysis Reveals High Frequency of European Lactase Persistence Allele (T-13910) in Medieval Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71–80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  12. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    PubMed

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  14. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  15. Patient characteristics associated with treatment initiation among paediatric patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in a naturalistic setting in Central Europe and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Treuer, Tamás; Montgomery, William; Haynes, Virginia S; Wu, Shenghu; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-10-30

    Cultural views of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), differing healthcare systems and funding mechanisms, and the availability of mental health services can greatly influence the perceptions, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD. There is, however, lack of information about treatment practice and the treatment decision-making process for ADHD, particularly in non-Western countries. Our study compared characteristics of paediatric patients newly diagnosed with ADHD symptoms who did and who did not initiate treatment, and also examined whether any differences varied by region in Central Europe and East Asia. Data were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included 1,068 paediatric patients newly diagnosed with ADHD symptoms. Clinical severity was measured using the Clinical Global Impression-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) checklist. Logistic regression was used to explore patient characteristics associated with treatment initiation (pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy) at baseline for each region. A total of 74.3% of patients initiated treatment at baseline (78.3% in Central Europe and 69.9% in East Asia). Of these, 48.8% started with both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in Central Europe, and only 17.1% did so in East Asia. The level of clinical severity was highest in the combination treatment group in Central Europe, but was highest in the psychotherapy only group in East Asia. In East Asia, treatment initiation was associated with being older, being male, and having a higher CGI-ADHD-S score. In Central Europe, treatment initiation was associated with parental psychological distress, having a higher CSI-4 score, and not being involved in bullying. Although factors associated with treatment initiation differed to some extent between Central Europe and East Asia, clinical severity appeared to be one of the most important determinants of treatment initiation in both regions. However, the

  16. Noise and children's health: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children's health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children's health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children's health in relation to noise exposure.

  17. Noise induced hearing loss: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zaborowski, Kamil; Zamojska, Malgorzata; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the studies on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) which were carried out in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and former Soviet Union countries or Newly Independent States in the period from 1970 to 2012. The papers were identified by literature search of all accessible medical and other databases (Scopus, PubMed, Medline, etc.) using the terms "noise; hearing loss, NIHL" as key words and country denomination (in alphabetical order: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, former Yugoslavia, Ukraine). This review comprises both papers published in peer-reviewed international journals and articles from local sources. The main papers' topics included the assessment of the noise hazards in occupational, and very seldom in communal environment, and the prevalence of hearing impairment in employees. Simultaneously, attempts were undertaken to establish the relationship between the degree of hearing impairment and noise exposure. The effect of combined exposures to noise and vibration and/or otoxic chemicals was assessed as well. The influence of environmental, individual, and genetic risk factors on NIHL development was intensively examined. In addition, studies concerning the role of otoacoustic emissions for NIHL monitoring and clinical examinations were conducted. Some animal researches, including molecular genetics, had been also performed. The majority of papers concerned occupational exposures, whereas only a few were dedicated to community noise.

  18. The Atlantic Crises: Britain, Europe, and Parting from the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    strategic thinking. Grand strategy has itself undergone profound alteration. It is not, and never was, sim- ply military; in the sixteenth century...has hampered Britain’s ability to play a role in Europe. That has operated both on outside actors, as in Charles de Gaulle’s rejection of the United...the Sea: Issues for the Maritime Component Com- mander, by Commander Charles C. Swicker, U.S. Navy (no. 14, August 1998). Sailing New Seas, by

  19. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  20. Efficient Usage of Dense GNSS Networks in Central Europe for the Visualization and Investigation of Ionospheric TEC Variations.

    PubMed

    Nykiel, Grzegorz; Zanimonskiy, Yevgen M; Yampolski, Yuri M; Figurski, Mariusz

    2017-10-10

    The technique of the orthogonal projection of ionosphere electronic content variations for mapping total electron content (TEC) allows us to visualize ionospheric irregularities. For the reconstruction of global ionospheric characteristics, numerous global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers located in different regions of the Earth are used as sensors. We used dense GNSS networks in central Europe to detect and investigate a special type of plasma inhomogeneities, called travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID). Such use of GNSS sensors allows us to reconstruct the main TID parameters, such as spatial dimensions, velocities, and directions of their movement. The paper gives examples of the restoration of dynamic characteristics of ionospheric irregularities for quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of ionospheric disturbances stimulated by the magnetic storms of two St. Patrick's Days (17 March 2013 and 2015). Additional opportunities for the remote sensing of the ionosphere with the use of dense regional networks of GNSS receiving sensors have been noted too.

  1. Vector affinity and diversity of Geosmithia fungi living on subcortical insects inhabiting Pinaceae species in central and northeastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Jankowiak, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Fungi from the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), though little is known about ecology, diversity, and distribution of these fungi across beetle and its host tree species. This study surveyed the diversity, distribution and vector affinity of Geosmithia isolated from subcortical insects that colonized trees from the family Pinaceae in Central and Northeastern Europe. Twelve Geosmithia species were isolated from 85 plant samples associated with 23 subcortical insect species (including 14 bark beetle species). Geosmithia community composition was similar across different localities and vector species; although the fungal communities associated with insects that colonized Pinus differed from that colonizing other tree species (Abies, Larix, and Picea). Ten Geosmithia species from four independent phylogenetic lineages were not reported previously from vectors feeding on other plant families and seem to be restricted to the vectors from Pinaceae only. We conclude that presence of such substrate specificity suggests a long and stable association between Geosmithia and bark beetles.

  2. Emergence of Usutu virus, an African mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Weissenböck, Herbert; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Url, Angelika; Lussy, Helga; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Nowotny, Norbert

    2002-07-01

    During late summer 2001 in Austria, a series of deaths in several species of birds occurred, similar to the beginning of the West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in the United States. We necropsied the dead birds and examined them by various methods; pathologic and immunohistologic investigations suggested a WNV infection. Subsequently, the virus was isolated, identified, partially sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The isolates exhibited 97% identity to Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne Flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group; USUV has never previously been observed outside Africa nor associated with fatal disease in animals or humans. If established in central Europe, this virus may have considerable effects on avian populations; whether USUV has the potential to cause severe human disease is unknown.

  3. Uncoupling of microbial community structure and function in decomposing litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Purahong, Witoon; Schloter, Michael; Pecyna, Marek J; Kapturska, Danuta; Däumlich, Veronika; Mital, Sanchit; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Gutknecht, Jessica L M; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-11-12

    The widespread paradigm in ecology that community structure determines function has recently been challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we investigate the patterns of and connections between microbial community structure and microbially-mediated ecological function across different forest management practices and temporal changes in leaf litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe. Our results clearly indicate distinct pattern of microbial community structure in response to forest management and time. However, those patterns were not reflected when potential enzymatic activities of microbes were measured. We postulate that in our forest ecosystems, a disconnect between microbial community structure and function may be present due to differences between the drivers of microbial growth and those of microbial function.

  4. Task force for the urgent response to the epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases in eastern Europe and central Asia.

    PubMed

    Waugh, M A

    1999-01-01

    In summary, members of the TF/STD: share the common goal of reducing the STD burden and slowing the spread of HIV in the most affected and vulnerable countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Contribute financially, technically or in-kind to the implementation of a joint strategy which aims: -- to create an enabling environment for STD prevention and control, and -- to strengthen the local capacity for STD prevention and care; engage in a continuous exchange of information, collaborative partnerships and coordination of activities at regional as well as country level through the TF/STD and in-country interagency working groups, respectively; concur with the priority areas for international support consisting of advocacy and policy, STD drugs, condoms, educational materials, training, applied research and surveillance; meet twice a year to review implementation progress and the need for additional assistance; as advocates of TF/STD, call on partners and other organizations to join in this important new initiative.

  5. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-02-20

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass.

  6. ScreenPro FH - Screening Project for Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe: Rationale and Design.

    PubMed

    Češka, Richard; Paragh, György; Reiner, Željko; Banach, Maciej; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Susekov, Andrey V; Rašlová, Katarína; Freiberger, Tomáš; Vohnout, Branislav; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Goudev, Assen; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Gaiţă, Dan; Pojskić, Belma; Pećin, Ivan; Kayıkçıoğlu, Meral; Mitchenko, Olena; Ezhov, Marat V; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Petrulionienė, Žaneta; Fras, Zlatko; Tasić, Nebojsa; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Murataliev, Tolkun; Shek, Alexander B; Tuka, Vladimír; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Moubarak, Elie M; Rasadi, Khalid Al

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with well-known genetic transmission and clinical course. Despite great recent progress, FH is still underestimated, under-diagnosed and thus undertreated. Furthermore it represents a significant healthcare challenge as a common risk factor for the premature development of coronary heart disease. The ScreenPro FH Project is an international network project aiming at improving complex care - from timely screening, through diagnosis to up-to-date treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe. An important task for the project is to harmonise and unify diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in participating countries, where the situation differs from country to country. Countries with more experience should serve as a model for countries developing the FH network.Key words: diagnosis - familial hypercholesterolemia - screening - treatment optimization.

  7. Extreme floods in central Europe over the past 500 years: Role of cyclone pathway ``Zugstrasse Vb''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, M.; BöRngen, M.; Tetzlaff, G.; Grünewald, U.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropogenically induced climate change has been hypothesized to add to the risk of extreme river floods because a warmer atmosphere can carry more water. In the case of the central European rivers Elbe and Oder, another possibility that has been considered is a more frequent occurrence of a weather situation of the type "Zugstrasse Vb," where a low-pressure system travels from the Adriatic region northeastward, carrying moist air and bringing orographic rainfall in the mountainous catchment areas (Erzgebirge, Sudeten, and Beskids). Analysis of long, homogeneous records of past floods allows us to test such ideas. M. Mudelsee and co-workers recently presented flood records for the middle parts of the Elbe and Oder, which go continuously back to A.D. 1021 and A.D. 1269, respectively. Here we review the reconstruction and assess the data quality of the records, which are based on combining documentary data from the interval up to 1850 and measurements thereafter, finding both the Elbe and Oder records to provide reliable information on heavy floods at least since A.D. 1500. We explain that the statistical method of kernel occurrence rate estimation can overcome deficiencies of techniques previously used to investigate trends in the occurrence of climatic extremes, because it (1) allows nonmonotonic trends, (2) imposes no parametric restrictions, and (3) provides confidence bands, which are essential for evaluating whether observed trends are real or came by chance into the data. We further give a hypothesis test that can be used to evaluate monotonic trends. On the basis of these data and methods, we find for both the Elbe and Oder rivers (1) significant downward trends in winter flood risk during the twentieth century, (2) no significant trends in summer flood risk in the twentieth century, and (3) significant variations in flood risk during past centuries, with notable differences between the Elbe and Oder. The observed trends are shown to be both robust against

  8. Centralized Authorization Using a Direct Service, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A

    2004-06-09

    Authorization is the process of deciding if entity X is allowed to have access to resource Y. Determining the identity of X is the job of the authentication process. One task of authorization in computer networks is to define and determine which user has access to which computers in the network. On Linux, the tendency exists to create a local account for each single user who should be allowed to logon to a computer. This is typically the case because a user not only needs login privileges to a computer but also additional resources like a home directory to actually do some work. Creating a local account on every computer takes care of all this. The problem with this approach is that these local accounts can be inconsistent with each other. The same user name could have a different user ID and/or group ID on different computers. Even more problematic is when two different accounts share the same user ID and group ID on different computers: User joe on computer1 could have user ID 1234 and group ID 56 and user jane on computer2 could have the same user ID 1234 and group ID 56. This is a big security risk in case shared resources like NFS are used. These two different accounts are the same for an NFS server so that these users can wipe out each other's files. The solution to this inconsistency problem is to have only one central, authoritative data source for this kind of information and a means of providing all your computers with access to this central source. This is what a ''Directory Service'' is. The two directory services most widely used for centralizing authorization data are the Network Information Service (NIS, formerly known as Yellow Pages or YP) and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).

  9. Using Landsat time series for characterizing forest disturbance dynamics in the coupled human and natural systems of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senf, Cornelius; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-08-01

    Remote sensing is a key information source for improving the spatiotemporal understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics. Yet, the mapping and attribution of forest change remains challenging, particularly in areas where a number of interacting disturbance agents simultaneously affect forest development. The forest ecosystems of Central Europe are coupled human and natural systems, with natural and human disturbances affecting forests both individually and in combination. To better understand the complex forest disturbance dynamics in such systems, we utilize 32-year Landsat time series to map forest disturbances in five sites across Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia. All sites consisted of a National Park and the surrounding forests, reflecting three management zones of different levels of human influence (managed, protected, strictly protected). This allowed for a comparison of spectral, temporal, and spatial disturbance patterns across a gradient from natural to coupled human and natural disturbances. Disturbance maps achieved overall accuracies ranging from 81% to 93%. Disturbance patches were generally small, with 95% of the disturbances being smaller than 10 ha. Disturbance rates ranged from 0.29% yr-1 to 0.95% yr-1, and differed substantially among management zones and study sites. Natural disturbances in strictly protected areas were longer in duration (median of 8 years) and slightly less variable in magnitude compared to human-dominated disturbances in managed forests (median duration of 1 year). However, temporal dynamics between natural and human-dominated disturbances showed strong synchrony, suggesting that disturbance peaks are driven by natural events affecting managed and unmanaged areas simultaneously. Our study demonstrates the potential of remote sensing for mapping forest disturbances in coupled human and natural systems, such as the forests of Central Europe. Yet, we also highlight the complexity of such systems in terms

  10. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Rupert R A; Jonas, Jost B; Flaxman, Seth R; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Parodi, Maurizio B; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R

    2014-05-01

    To assess prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment in high-income regions and in Central/Eastern Europe in 1990 and 2010. Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60 in the better eye) and blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) was estimated for 1990 and 2010. Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased from 0.2% to 0.1% (3.314 million to 2.736 million people) and from 1.6% to 1.0% (25.362 million to 22.176 million), respectively. Women were generally more affected than men. Cataract was the most frequent cause of blindness in all subregions in 1990, but macular degeneration and uncorrected refractive error became the most frequent causes of blindness in 2010 in all high-income countries, except for Eastern/Central Europe, where cataract remained the leading cause. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were fourth and fifth most common causes for blindness for all regions at both times. Uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, was the most common cause for MSVI in 1990 and 2010. In highly developed countries, prevalence of blindness and MSVI has been reduced by 50% and 38%, respectively, and the number of blind people and people with MSVI decreased by 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, even with the increasing number of older people in the population. In high-income countries, macular degeneration has become the most important cause of blindness, but uncorrected refractive errors continue to be the leading cause of MSVI.

  11. Transnational Analysis of Vocational Education and Training in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Vocational education and training (VET) in 10 Central and Eastern European countries--Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia--was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: socioeconomic context of VET reforms; VET at the start of reforms; the European Union Phare…

  12. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  13. Agricultural Adjustment and the Diversification of Farm Households and Corporate Farms in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Hannah; Davidova, Sophia; Gorton, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual and corporate farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation and household incomes is investigated. The results…

  14. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  15. Agricultural Adjustment and the Diversification of Farm Households and Corporate Farms in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Hannah; Davidova, Sophia; Gorton, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual and corporate farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation and household incomes is investigated. The results…

  16. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  17. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  18. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL).

  19. Simulation of air quality over Central-Eastern Europe - Performance evaluation of WRF-CAMx modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Katarzyna; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Reizer, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of presented work is to evaluate the accuracy of modelling the atmospheric transport and transformation on regional scale, performed with 25 km grid spacing. The coupled Mesoscale Weather Model - Chemical Transport Model (CTM) has been applied for Europe under European-American AQMEII project (Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative - http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The modelling domain was centered over Denmark (57.00°N, 10.00°E) with 172 x 172 grid points in x and y direction. The map projection choice was Lambert conformal. In the applied modelling system the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) from ENVIRON International Corporation (Novato, California) was coupled off-line to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). WRF-CAMx simulations have been carried out for 2006. The anthropogenic emisions database has been provided by TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) under AQMEII initiative. Area and line emissions were proceeded by emission model EMIL (Juda-Rezler et al., 2012) [1], while for the point sources the EPS3 model (Emission Processor v.3 from ENVIRON) was implemented in order to obtain vertical distribution of emission. Boundary conditions were acquired from coupling the GEMS (Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data) modelling system results with satellite observations. The modelling system has been evaluated for the area of Central-Eastern Europe, regarding ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. For each pollutant measured data from rural background AirBase and EMEP stations, with more than 75% of daily data, has been used. Original 'operational' evaluation methodology, proposed by Juda-Rezler et al. (2012) was applied. Selected set of metrics consists of 5 groups: bias measures, error measures, correlation measures, measures of model variance and spread, which

  20. A higher-level classification of the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands (Central and Eastern Europe).

    PubMed

    Willner, Wolfgang; Kuzemko, Anna; Dengler, Jürgen; Chytrý, Milan; Bauer, Norbert; Becker, Thomas; Biţă-Nicolae, Claudia; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Čarni, Andraž; Csiky, János; Igić, Ruzica; Kącki, Zygmunt; Korotchenko, Iryna; Kropf, Matthias; Krstivojević-Ćuk, Mirjana; Krstonošić, Daniel; Rédei, Tamás; Ruprecht, Eszter; Schratt-Ehrendorfer, Luise; Semenishchenkov, Yuri; Stančić, Zvjezdana; Vashenyak, Yulia; Vynokurov, Denys; Janišová, Monika

    2017-01-01

    What are the main floristic patterns in the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands? What are the diagnostic species of the major subdivisions of the class Festuco-Brometea (temperate Euro-Siberian dry and semi-dry grasslands)? Carpathian Basin (E Austria, SE Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, N Croatia and N Serbia), Ukraine, S Poland and the Bryansk region of W Russia. We applied a geographically stratified resampling to a large set of relevés containing at least one indicator species of steppe grasslands. The resulting data set of 17 993 relevés was classified using the TWINSPAN algorithm. We identified groups of clusters that corresponded to the class Festuco-Brometea. After excluding relevés not belonging to our target class, we applied a consensus of three fidelity measures, also taking into account external knowledge, to establish the diagnostic species of the orders of the class. The original TWINSPAN divisions were revised on the basis of these diagnostic species. The TWINSPAN classification revealed soil moisture as the most important environmental factor. Eight out of 16 TWINSPAN groups corresponded to Festuco-Brometea. A total of 80, 32 and 58 species were accepted as diagnostic for the orders Brometalia erecti, Festucetalia valesiacae and Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis, respectively. In the further subdivision of the orders, soil conditions, geographic distribution and altitude could be identified as factors driving the major floristic patterns. We propose the following classification of the Festuco-Brometea in our study area: (1) Brometalia erecti (semi-dry grasslands) with Scabioso ochroleucae-Poion angustifoliae (steppe meadows of the forest zone of E Europe) and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati (meadow steppes on deep soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and E Europe); (2) Festucetalia valesiacae (grass steppes) with Festucion valesiacae (grass steppes on less developed soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and

  1. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in household dust in Central Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Karásková, Pavlína; Venier, Marta; Melymuk, Lisa; Bečanová, Jitka; Vojta, Šimon; Prokeš, Roman; Diamond, Miriam L; Klánová, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of 20 perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in dust samples from 41 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic, and United States in the spring-summer of 2013. The most frequently detected compounds were perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had the highest concentrations of PFASs in all countries. PFOS median concentrations for the three countries were between 9.1 and 14.1ng/g, and PFOA medians ranged between 8.2 and 9.3ng/g. In general, concentrations in North America were higher than in the Czech Republic, which is consistent with usage patterns. No differences were found for perfluorooctane sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols (FOSA/Es) levels due to the low number of detections. Homologue profiles suggest that the shift from longer to shorter chain PFASs is more advanced in North America than in Europe. Significant relationships were found among individual homologues and between PFAS concentrations in dust and type of floor, number of people living in the house, and building age.

  2. [Contact allergy to Anacardiaceae. A review and case reports of poison ivy allergy in central Europe].

    PubMed

    Ippen, H

    1983-01-01

    In Europe, as opposed to North America, poison-ivy rash is hardly known. For this reason a detailed review of the allergenic members of the Anacardiaceae family is given, and the misleading nomenclature of "poison ivy", "poison oak", and some other species of this family are discussed. An up-to-date representation of the chemical structure of the allergenic substance group (denoted as "Urushiol") from this family is provided as well as botanical information regarding the plants themselves. Prevention of this dangerous sensitization and the therapy of this allergic reaction are discussed. The four cases presented are as follows: a young German woman who became sensitized to poison ivy or poison oak while in the USA and showed a cross reaction to other Rhus species (R. copallina, R. javanica (semialata), R. trichocarpa) as well as to Choerospondias axillaris var. japonica and to mangoes; a landscape gardener with an occupationally acquired allergy to Anacardium occidentale; and two control persons giving positive results to skin tests with Urushiol and Rhus trichocarpa respectively, to which the source of sensitization could not be clarified. Tests with three kinds of pistachio and two native-European Anacardiaceae (Rhus typhina and Cotinus coggygria) yielded negative results in each case. Prophylaxis to sensitization requires familiarity with the numerous Anacardiaceae and derivative products to which one could come in contact. These substances, summarized in a table, include mango, cashew and "sweet pepper".

  3. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, J. A.; SOMLAI, A. M.; BENOTSCH, E. G.; AMIRKHANIAN, Y. A.; FERNANDEZ, M. I.; STEVENSON, L. Y.; SITZLER, C. A.; MCAULIFFE, T. L.; BROWN, K. D.; OPGENORTH, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention. PMID:16282071

  4. Obstacles in provision of anti-retroviral treatment to drug users in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a regional overview.

    PubMed

    Bobrova, Natalia; Sarang, Anya; Stuikyte, Raminta; Lezhentsev, Konstantin

    2007-08-01

    Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is currently the region with the fastest growing HIV epidemic, mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs). This study explored access to anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment among IDUs and evaluated obstacles to gaining access to treatment. Semi-structured questionnaires were collected from 21 countries from agencies which deliver services to IDUs (N=55), including AIDS centres, drug treatment institutions and Non-governmental Organisations. Results showed that there was poor access to ARV treatment for IDUs. The major obstacles reported were: limited range of institutions for the provision of ARVs, lack of treatment due to high cost of ARVs, lack of clear policies and regulations in providing treatment for IDUs, lack of infrastructure and trained staff to provide treatment, and in some countries, absence of mechanisms such as methadone substitution programmes to support IDUs receiving ARV. There is a need for human and capital resources to bring ARV treatment to IDU populations in the region. Regulations and treatment protocols need to be developed to address this particular group of HIV positive clients to insure better adherence and monitoring of clients with HCV co-infection. Integration of provision of ARV treatment with drug treatment and low-threshold services is advised. Substitution therapy should be advocated for in countries where it is not available or where access is limited. Finally, more research needs to be conducted to understand what will work best in each country, region or setting.

  5. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; Benotsch, E G; Amirkhanian, Y A; Fernandez, M I; Stevenson, L Y; Sitzler, C A; McAuliffe, T L; Brown, K D; Opgenorth, K M

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention.

  6. Toxic, bioaccumulative and persistent chemicals in central and eastern Europe--state-of-the-art report.

    PubMed

    Holoubek, I

    2000-07-01

    Organic substances that are persistent, bioaccumulative and have toxic characteristics likely to cause adverse effects on human health or have environmental effects are called PBTs (Persistent, Bioaccumulative, Toxic substances). The report "Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals in Central and Eastern European Countries--State-of-the-art Report" was prepared by a group of scientists from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Estonia and was published on the Internet (http:¿recetox.chemi.muni.cz/).

  7. Stalagmite geochemistry and the timing of the last interglacial-glacial transition in Central Europe (NE Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siklosy, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems can provide accurate chronologies for reconstructions of climate change by combination of U/Th dating and climate-related geochemical compositions. Geochemical studies of speleothems from Central Europe are mostly based on stable C and O isotope analyses, thus, complex geochemical studies combining isotope and trace element measurements are needed for more reliable climate models for this transitional area between oceanic and continental regions. We present stable H-C-O isotope and trace element records obtained on speleothems covering the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) and the transition to MIS 5d. A stalagmite from Baradla Cave grew from 127.5 to 110 ka. Accelerated growth rates have been detected by U/Th age data in the 127 to 126 ka and 119 to 117 ka parts. Trace element compositions and 230Th/232Th ratios suggest changes in the hydrological regime, whereby early calcite precipitates formed in fissures during the dry and cold glacial period were dissolved by the starting flux of infiltrating meteoric water (producing elevated dissolved ion concentration but low detrital Th component), then the increasing amount of dripwater during the interglacial period resulted in trace element dilution. Temperature and precipitation amount variations are also reflected by the stable isotope compositions. Oxygen isotope composition shows a continuous increase from 127.5 ka until about 118 ka most probably related to temperature rise, whereas C isotope values are shifted in negative direction suggesting increasing humidity in accordance with trace element contents. The presumably warmest period at ca. 118 ka is associated with rather arid climate as indicated by peak d18O values coinciding with the highest dD values of fluid inclusion water. This is followed by a pronounced negative shift in both O and H isotope values, similarly to recent Alpine studies (Meyer et al., 2008), most probably related to cooling. Hydrogen isotope compositions of fluid inclusion water

  8. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  9. Decadal variability of drought conditions over the southern part of Europe based on Principal Oscillation Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Scholz, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    This study introduces a novel method of estimating the decay time, mean period and forcing statistics of drought conditions over large spatial domains, demonstrated here for southern part of Europe (10°E - 40°E, 35°N - 50°N). It uses a two-dimensional stochastically forced damped linear oscillator model with the model parameters estimated from a Principal Oscillation Pattern (POP) analysis and associated observed power spectra. POP is a diagnostic technique that aims to derive the space-time characteristics of a data set objectively. This analysis is performed on an extended observational time series of 114 years (1902 - 2015) of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for an accumulation period of 12 months (SPEI12), based on the Climate Research Unit (CRU TS v. 3.24) data set. The POP analysis reveals four exceptionally stable modes of variability, which together explain more than 62% of the total explained variance. The most stable POP mode, which explains 16.3% of the total explained variance, is characterized by a period of oscillation of 14 years and a decay time of 31 years. The real part of POP1 is characterized by a monopole-like structure with the highest loadings over Portugal, western part of Spain and Turkey. The second stable mode, which explains 15.9% of the total explained variance, is characterized by a period of oscillation of 20 years and a decay time of 26.4 years. The spatial structure of the real part of POP2 has a dipole-like structure with the highest positive loadings over France, southern Germany and Romania and negative loadings over southern part of Spain. The third POP mode, in terms of stability, explains 14.0% of the total variance and is characterized by a period of oscillation of 33 years and a decay time of 43.5 years. The real part of POP3 is characterized by negative loadings over the eastern part of Europe and positive loadings over Turkey. The fourth stable POP mode, explaining 15.5% of the total variance

  10. Misperceived invasion: the Lusitanian slug (Arion lusitanicus auct. non-Mabille or Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon 1855) is native to Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pfenninger, Markus; Weigand, Alexander; Bálint, Miklós; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The Lusitanian slug, presumed to be native to south-west Europe, was ranked among the 100 worst invading species in Central Europe. However, from the very beginning of its recognition in the presumed invasion area, there was little evidence that the species was actually anthropogenically introduced. We investigated the invasive status of the species by comparing specific predictions on the population genetic structure in the invasion area with the pattern actually found. In a DNA-taxonomy approach, the species could not be found in its presumed native range. Using statistical phylogeographic techniques on a mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ZF) marker and species distribution modelling, we could show that the species is with very high probability not an invasor, but native to Central Europe. The study underlines the value of statistical phylogeography in rigorously testing hypotheses on the dynamics of biological invasions. PMID:25067951

  11. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2008-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.

  12. A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

    2013-04-01

    • Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change

  13. The extreme drought episode of August 2011-May 2012: A scenario for future droughts in Central Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradníček, P.; Trnka, M.; Brázdil, R.; Mozny, M.; Stepanek, P.; Hlavinka, P.; Malý, A.; Dubrovsky, M.

    2014-12-01

    The weather conditions from August 2011 to May 2012 produced an extreme drought in the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia), whereas the patterns were nearly normal in its western region (Bohemia). The Southern and Central Moravia regions, which represent the most important agricultural areas, were most affected by the drought. The precipitation totals for the studied period were 50% to 70% of the long-term mean, which was calculated for 1961-2000. In autumn 2011, the total precipitation accounted for 10% to 30% of the long-term mean for most of Moravia, increasing to 30% to 50% in spring 2012. Moreover, 7.5% of the Czech Republic experienced a 100-year drought; 20% of the country experienced a 20-year drought. According to the Palmer Drought Severity Index, the 2012 drought was classified as the worst in the past 130 years. The drought patterns were related to the prevailing high-pressure systems over Central Europe and the occurrence of weather types with different precipitation amounts in Bohemia and Moravia. The most substantial drought effects occurred in the agricultural sector. A decrease in cereal yields was observed in the analyzed production areas in Moravia, which was unprecedented in the past 52 years. Moreover, winter crops were affected more than spring crops. An increased risk of fire occurred due to the drought conditions; the largest forest fire in the past 15 years was recorded during this period. Furthermore, signs of hydrological drought were also reported in rivers. The 2011-2012 drought was compared with the significant droughts in 2000, 2003 and 2007. Austria and Slovakia, which neighbor the Czech Republic, experienced a similar drought. This drought analysis can be used as a scenario for future droughts and their impacts in Central Europe due to the global warming projected by GCMs.Acknowledgements:This study was made possible by the generous support of the "Establishment of International Scientific Team Focused on Drought Research" project (no

  14. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers’ roles in the process. Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional “yes,” “no,” or “yes with restrictions” options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited

  15. RCM ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulations of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 climate over the Central Europe region with emphasis on analysis of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the frame of the EC FP6 project CECILIA, two simulations of the future climate conditions in the Central Europe were performed by the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ under high resolution of 10 km. The simulations according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario cover 30-years time intervals in the middle (2021-2050) and end of the 21st century (2071-2100). The regional model was driven by the general circulation model ARPEGE-Climate over the Central Europe integration domain covering 74 × 148 points (lat. × lon.). The presented analysis of the expected change in extreme events is focused only on the Czech Republic that represents a central part of the domain with 789 model's grid points. Before the analysis of the future climate, the model data were corrected according to validation results carried out for the period 1961-1990. For this task a new gridded dataset of station observation was created from all available data records stored in the climatological database of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). All input station observations were quality controlled and homogenized in daily scale and then recalculated to the ALADIN-Climate/CZ's grid of 10 km horizontal resolution while taking into account the model's elevation and distance from an individual grid point. Gridded dataset of station observations was then compared with the past climate (1961-1990) GCM driven ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulation in each grid point. According to relationship between these two datasets, outputs of A1B scenario integrations of the future climate were corrected applying an approach of Déqué (2007) that is based on a variable correction using individual percentiles. After the correction, the model outputs are fully compatible with the station (measured) data. Corrected model outputs are analyzed with regard to extreme events of air temperature and precipitation by applying 131 indices defined within the WP4 of the CECILIA project. The obtained results are compared

  16. Local Governance in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Central and Eastern Europe: A Skills Exchange Workshop (Romania, April 4-7, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This report describes a skills exchange workshop, co-organized by Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and the Liga Pro Europa, on local governance in multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Civil servants, members of minority communities, non-governmental organization (NGO) activists, and public officials from Bulgaria,…

  17. Development of microsatellites from Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) and characterization of genetic diversity of cornelian cherries from China, central Europe, and the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is indigenous to central and southeastern Europe and is an ecologically and economically important shrub or small tree. The aim of this study was to develop molecular tools for assessing genetic diversity and provide unique molecular identification of C. mas cultivar...

  18. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  19. The Role of Technical Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries. The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States. Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    In comparison with the context in which reforms usually occur, the current vocational education and training (VET) reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and New Independent States (NIS) have these two unusual aspects: breadth, range, and depth of VET reforms are extremely large; and the reform process is exceptionally rapid. The European…

  20. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  1. Local Governance in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Central and Eastern Europe: A Skills Exchange Workshop (Romania, April 4-7, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This report describes a skills exchange workshop, co-organized by Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and the Liga Pro Europa, on local governance in multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Civil servants, members of minority communities, non-governmental organization (NGO) activists, and public officials from Bulgaria,…

  2. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of…

  3. From the Party/State to Multi-Ethnic Democracy: Education and Its Influence on Social Cohesion in the Europe and Central Asia Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    In the last 6 years, 27 countries have emerged anew in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Many countries have moved away from having a single political party manage the state and its economic apparatus. This paper aims to answer whether educational mechanisms can lower social tension and help achieve social cohesion in these countries, and how these…

  4. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of…

  5. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The vocational education and training (VET) reforms currently under way in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States are distinguished by the breadth, range, depth, and speed of the reforms proposed or already initiated. The European Union has assisted the reform process through its Phare and Tacis programs. The following have been…

  6. Awaiting an Enemy: The Operational Significance of Politically Induced Force Reductions to Parity in Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-10

    ionufLimited PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME...Central Eujope (U) 2. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) LTC James L. Moody 3a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 115. PAGE...social conditions between civilized nations to be a pre-war phenomenon that was not a factor in the waging war. 20 Unlike Sun Tzu who thought that

  7. E-Learning in Higher Education: Focus Groups and Survey among Students in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuševljak, Marko; Majcen, Lucija; Mervar, Lara; Stepankina, Taisiya; Cater, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Despite a great deal of time and energy went into digitalisation of the world around us, education has been lagging behind. A question therefore arises to what extent higher education institutions should introduce e-learning as part of their programmes. The purpose of this study is to add to the body of knowledge on e-learning by examining…

  8. The Courtship and Consequences of Liberalization: A Snapshot of Educational Restructuring in Central East Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    Trends of educational change in (formerly) East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria are examined as restructuring takes place during the establishment of democratic political processes. These trends are culled from over 50 onsite semistructured interviews in August 1990, as part of a longitudinal study to document educational…

  9. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-12-15

    Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non-communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe.

  10. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (Gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non–communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Conclusions: Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe. PMID:23390466