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Sample records for central europe part

  1. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  2. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  3. Central Statistical Libraries in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Lisa

    The paper tries to clarify the position special governmental libraries hold in the system of libraries of today by investigating only one specific type of library mainly from a formal and historical point of view. Central statistical libraries in Europe were first regarded as administrative and archival libraries. Their early holdings of foreign…

  4. Insect succession and carrion decomposition in selected forests of Central Europe. Part 3: Succession of carrion fauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Konwerski, Szymon; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2011-04-15

    The succession of insects on pig carrion was monitored in spring, summer and autumn, in three forest types and 2 years in Western Poland (Central Europe). In most forensically useful taxa, significant differences between seasons, forests and years in time of appearance on carrion were found. The lowest values of appearance time were recorded in summer and the highest in spring. In alder forest insects appeared on carcasses significantly earlier than in pine-oak forest and hornbeam-oak forest. In summer periods of insect presence on carrion were significantly shorter than in spring and autumn. In most taxa no significant effect of forest type or year on length of the presence period was found. In all seasons assemblages of adult taxa were clearly more aggregated than assemblages of larval taxa. Sequence of insects' appearance on carcasses was very similar in different seasons, forests and years. General seasonal models of insect succession on carrion are proposed for forests of Central Europe. Data on appearance time and length of the presence period in particular seasons, forests and years are presented for forensically useful taxa. Implications for methods of PMI estimation (particularly the succession-based method) are discussed.

  5. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  6. Analysis of long-range transport of particulate matters in connection with air circulation over Central and Eastern part of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Georgescu, Florinela

    The aim of this paper is to establish a practical methodology for examining the long-range transport of particulate matters (PM), named TSP. The daily concentration values of TSP from years 2001 and 2002, for three sites, Baia Mare (RO), Vienna (AU), Aosta (IT), were analyzed. In order to connect the main air circulation types with the aerosol concentrations at the selected sites, the catalogues of Circulation and Weather type Classification (COST733) were used. Spectral analysis was made using spectrum software based on Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and multiresolution analysis (MRA) technique based on Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) with Fejer-Korovkin in 22 points wavelet filter (waveslim package). Spectral analysis shows a dominant one-year periodicity for all the time series with a variance around 22% for each time series. In addition, several winters TSP pollution episodes from each city were analyzed using a back trajectory model (HYSPLIT4), in order to compare with the resulted air circulation types. Two important concluding remarks emerge: (i) the Eastern part of Europe shows a dominant easterly air circulation and central Europe is characterized by south-west air circulations, which drive the maxima of pollutant concentrations; (ii) the choice of the domain for analysis of the circulation types is very important.

  7. Does Europe have a centre? Reflections on the history of Western and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mout, Nicolette

    2006-05-01

    Any definition of Central Europe based on geographical and/or historical facts causes difficulties. The line dividing Europe during the Cold War has a very limited use because it does not take into account Central Europe as a special part of the continent. Historians such as Geoffrey Barraclough, Hugh Seton-Watson and Oskar Halecki discussed the idea of a separate identity of Central Europe during the Cold War. Especially after the fall of the Berlin Wall, this discussion was re-opened. From a historian's point of view, the most important contributions came from Piotr Wandycz and Jeno Szucs. An imaginary centre of Europe can only be found in the continent's common history.

  8. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  9. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  10. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  11. Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Mosbrugger, Volker; Utescher, Torsten; Dilcher, David L

    2005-10-18

    Continental climate evolution of Central Europe has been reconstructed quantitatively for the last 45 million years providing inferred data on mean annual temperature and precipitation, and winter and summer temperatures. Although some regional effects occur, the European Cenozoic continental climate record correlates well with the global oxygen isotope record from marine environments. During the last 45 million years, continental cooling is especially pronounced for inferred winter temperatures but hardly observable from summer temperatures. Correspondingly, Cenozoic cooling in Central Europe is directly associated with an increase of seasonality. In contrast, inferred Cenozoic mean annual precipitation remained relatively stable, indicating the importance of latent heat transport throughout the Cenozoic. Moreover, our data support the concept that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, although linked to climate changes, were not the major driving force of Cenozoic cooling.

  12. Why (not) go east? Comparison of findings from FDA Investigational New Drug study site inspections performed in Central and Eastern Europe with results from the USA, Western Europe, and other parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Caldron, Paul H; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Kropf, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, investigational sites in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have been increasingly utilized by pharmaceutical companies because of their high productivity in terms of patient enrolment into clinical trials. Based on the FDA's publicly accessible Clinical Investigator Inspection List, we present an analysis of findings and outcome classifications from FDA inspections during Investigational New Drug (IND) studies and compare the results for the CEE region to those from Western European countries and the USA. Data from all 5531 FDA clinical trials inspections that occurred between 1994 (when the FDA first performed inspections in CEE) and the end of 2010 were entered into the database for comparative analysis. Of these, 4865 routine data audit (DA) inspections were analyzed: 401 from clinical trials performed in Western Europe, 230 in CEE, 3858 in the USA, and 376 in other countries. The average number of deficiencies per inspection ranged between 0.99 for CEE and 1.97 in Western Europe. No deficiencies were noted during 16.6%, 39.0%, and 21.5% of the inspections in Western Europe, CEE and USA, respectively. The percentages of inspections after which no follow-up action was indicated were 36.9% for Western Europe, 55.7% for CEE, and 44.3% for US sites. CEE was also the region with the lowest percentage of inspections that required official or voluntary action. On the basis of FDA inspection data, the high productivity of CEE sites appears to be accompanied by regulatory compliance as well as by data quality standards that are not inferior to those in Western regions.

  13. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by nematodes (roundworms).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    The third part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" deals with the medically relevant nematodes (roundworms) and nematode-caused diseases occurring in Central Europe. The paper comprises data on the biology of the parasites and their ways of transmission, describes the symptomatology of the diseases, summarizes the possibilities of diagnosis and refers to the prophylactic means.

  14. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  15. Management of ischemic stroke in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Budincevic, Hrvoje; Tiu, Cristina; Bereczki, Daniel; Kõrv, Janika; Tsiskaridze, Alexander; Niederkorn, Kurt; Czlonkowska, Anna; Demarin, Vida

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability in Europe. Central and Eastern European countries have the highest incidence and mortality rates through Europe. The improvements in stroke prevention and treatment in Central and Eastern European countries did not completely reach the quality parameters present in Western European countries. We present features of current management of stroke in Central and Eastern European countries.

  16. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  17. Aerosol and cloud relations and weekly cycles over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, K.; Georgoulias, A.; Alexandri, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the aerosol and cloud relationships and weekly cycle patterns over Central Europe are examined using level-2 aerosol data from the TERRA MODIS satellite instrument to compile a decadal (2000-2010) 0.1 x 0.1 degree resolution gridded dataset as well as and total cloud cover (TCC) TERRA MODIS data and coarser resolution ISCCP TCC data. Aerosols and TCC were found to be positively correlated for all seasons, the slope of the correlation being slightly higher for low AOD values. A co-examination of AOD, TCC and NCAR/NCEP sea level pressure shows that the positive AOD-TCC correlation holds separately in all pressure bins, thus indicating that the correlation is not a synoptic artefact. A study of the weekly cycle of AOD shows that the main part of the positive (i.e. with midweek peak) weekly cycle plume extends over the central part of Central Europe, with the weekly cycle index (WCI) levels gradually decreasing until the weekly cycle becomes negative (i.e. with weekend peak) when moving away. No clear connection between the WCI patterns and topography was found while there is an apparent correlation between positive weekly cycles in summer and population density. A clear Monday minimum appears over regions with high positive WCI. Monday shifts to Tuesday when moving to the East, indicating aerosol transport from the dominating westerly wind flow. The WCI values and the average percent departures (APDs) for the day of weekly maximum and minimum were examined for 22 selected stations from previous ground-based weekly cycle studies. The weekly cycle is positive and statistically significant for only a few stations situated in France, Germany, Czech Republic and Belgium. A comparison with 1 x 1 degree level-3 MODIS TERRA data shows that in most cases level-3 data can give an indication of the local aerosol weekly cycle strength and phase. The satellite derived day of the weekly maximum and minimum is, generally, in line with results from ground-based studies

  18. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberle, E.

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  19. Silurian to Early Carboniferous plate tectonic model of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golonka, Jan; Barmuta, Jan; Barmuta, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The presented plate tectonic model focuses on Silurian to Early Carboniferous evolution of Central Europe with special attention given to the Sudetes region (north and north-east part of the Bohemian Massif). During our studies, we tested alternative models focused on the position of the Armorican terranes, known as the Armorican Terrane Assembly (ATA) (e.g.: Matte, 2001) and tried to refine the existing reconstructions, which describe Armorica as an individual continent during the Late Silurian and Devonian (e.g. Lewandowski, 2003, Winchester, 2002). Our plate tectonic model depict that these small blocks were scattered along the northern margin of Gondwana, where they formed the "Armorican Spour" as suggested by Kroner and Romer (2013). The seaways were present between blocks. Because of the north dipping subduction zone along the southern margin of the Laurussia continent the back-arc basin and island arc were formed. The narrowing of the Rheic ocean led to the complicated collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. Three main stages of this event can be distinguished: (1) collision of the Armorican Spour with the Laurussian island arc, (2) back-arc basin closure, (3) final Gondwana and Laurussian collision. Those stages correlate well with Variscan Subduction Zone System proposed by Kroner and Romer (2013). Interactive modeling performed in GPlates, shows that the presented model is valid from kinematic and geometrical point of view. Kroner U., Romer R., L., 2013, Two plates - many subduction zones: the Variscan orogeny reconsidered. Gondwana Research, 24: 298-329. Lewandowski M., 2003, Assembly of Pangea: Combined paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic approach, Advances in Geophysics, 46: 199-236 Matte P., 2001, The Variscan collage and orogeny (480 290 Ma) and the tectonic definition of the Armorica microplate: a review. Terra Nova, 13: 122¨C128. Winchester J., A., The Pace TMR Network Team, 2002, Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe: new results from recent

  20. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    hippocastanum are well represented in the PEP725 database. Flowering of lilac Syringa vulgaris is also used in the US as spring indicator . The flowering and/or leaf unfolding dates of lilac, horse chestnut show a clear advance to an earlier entrance in the last two decades 1991 to 2000 and 2001 to 2010 compared with the reference period 1961 to 1990, being more pronounced in northwestern regions of Central Europe. The growing season defined here as time span between leaf unfolding and leaf coloration of birch and beech has been lengthening up to two weeks in 2001 to 2010 compared to 1961 to 1990 in northeastern parts of Central Europe.

  1. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by cestodes (tapeworms).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    The second part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is dedicated to the cestodes (tapeworms) and the diseases caused by cestodes. The overview comprises the spectrum of the most relevant species, describes their incidence, geographic distribution and the most important clinical symptoms and highlights the possibilities of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of cestode-caused diseases.

  2. Key Indicators on Vocational Education and Training. Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badescu, Mircea; Kennedy, Alison

    The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone substantial changes due, in part, to vocational education and training (VET). One of the most important objectives of the European Union (EU) enlargement process is to monitor key indicators of the educational systems and labor markets so that the different skills in demand and…

  3. [Protozoa and protozoan infections of humans in Central Europe].

    PubMed

    Walochnik, Julia; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    This article is a condensed review of the medically relevant protozoa in Central Europe and the infections and diseases caused by them. Information is given on modes and sources of infection, organs involved in the disease, prevalence, diagnostics, therapy, and prophylaxis. Moreover, travel-associated infections with protozoa are briefly outlined.

  4. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  5. Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety Nets and Social Policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, Ed.; Sipos, Sandor, Ed.

    Organized in two parts, this book explores methods for incorporating concern for human needs into economic policies in eastern and central European countries that are making the transition to a market economy. Part I of the book considers economic reform, social policy, and child welfare in central and eastern Europe as a whole. Topics include:…

  6. Antibiotic policies in Central Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Cizman, Milan; Beovic, Bojana; Krcmery, Vladimir; Barsic, Bruno; Tamm, Eda; Ludwig, Endre; Pelemis, Mojimir; Karovski, Kliment; Grzesiowski, Pavel; Gardovska, Dace; Volokha, Alla; Keuleyan, Emma; Stratchounski, Leonid; Dumitru, Carstina; Titov, Leonid P; Usonis, Vytantas; Dvorák, Peter

    2004-09-01

    To assess the antibiotic policies in Central Eastern European (CEE) countries, a questionnaire on the prevalence of resistance, antibiotic consumption data for ambulatory and hospital care and antibiotic policies, was mailed to national representatives. Data on antibiotic resistance and consumption of antibiotics at national levels are limited and vary considerably among countries. The importance of surveillance data in altering perceptions of the prevalence of resistance is shown by the comparison of surveillance data and interview data. Interview data without surveillance data produced the widest range of estimates of the prevalence of resistance in streptococcus pneumonia -5% in Lithuania and 82% in Belarus. The average consumption of antibiotics in ambulatory care in eight CEE countries in 2001 was 19.35 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants per day, (range 13.1 - 24.8 DDD) and in hospitals in six CEE countries was 2.2 DDD/1000 inhabitants per day (range 1.3-4.5). Over the counter sales of antibiotics are available in some countries. Antibiotic policy interventions do not exist or only apply to specific problems or interventions. Better implementation of antibiotic interventions and education on antibiotic use should be a high priority in this region. An effective strategy requires close co-operation, consultations and partnership at national and international level in particular, via existing international organisations.

  7. Neotectonics of northern Central Europe: the legacy of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Steffen, H.; Wu, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Central Europe is regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1000 years. This historic seismicity is clearly concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic inversion phase in the Late Cretaceous. Here we show with numerical simulations that large parts of the observed seismicity in northern Central Europe is most likely an effect of stress changes induced by the decay of the Scandinavian ice sheet after the Weichselian glaciation and the interference with the background stress field related to the ongoing convergence of Africa and Europe. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrate for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust or at least along closely spaced faults like in the Gardelegen area. Such a distribution fits the characteristics of other intraplate seismic zones like the eastern United States and requires a re-evaluation of the seismic hazard potential of northern Central Europe, especially in view of the revived search for nuclear waste repositories and ongoing discussions about CO2 sequestration projects in the area.

  8. FORECE: A forest succession model for southern Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kienast, F.

    1987-10-01

    A general forest succession model that simulates forest stand development for the most common site conditions in the southern part of Central Europe (with emphasis on Switzerland) is described. The model provides a useful tool for testing hypotheses about forest succession and enables the user to evaluate the impacts of natural and human disturbances on forest communities. Written in FORTRAN, it is a JABOWA-type simulator (Botkin et al., 1972) and is based on existing succession models for forests in eastern and western North America. Birth, growth, and death of 31 species of individual trees are simulated on a multitude of 1/12-ha plots. The successional characteristics of each replicate are subsequently averaged to obtain the forest development on a landscape level. Existing light in the forest stand, climatic conditions, soil properties, and other environmental factors control the growth of each individual tree. Species-specific input data such as light requirements and drought resistance were obtained from silvics information and phytosociological descriptions. Compared with previous simulators, some major modifications were made, including the incorporation of the indicator value concept of Ellenberg (1978). This approach is partially optional and is used to describe the ecophysiological behavior of the 31 different tree species incorporated in the model.

  9. Compound summer temperature and precipitation extremes over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, H.; Schädler, G.

    2017-02-01

    Reliable knowledge of the near-future climate change signal of extremes is important for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Especially compound extremes, like heat and drought occurring simultaneously, may have a greater impact on society than their univariate counterparts and have recently become an active field of study. In this paper, we use a 12-member ensemble of high-resolution (7 km) regional climate simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM over central Europe to analyze the climate change signal and its uncertainty for compound heat and drought extremes in summer by two different measures: one describing absolute (i.e., number of exceedances of absolute thresholds like hot days), the other relative (i.e., number of exceedances of time series intrinsic thresholds) compound extreme events. Changes are assessed between a reference period (1971-2000) and a projection period (2021-2050). Our findings show an increase in the number of absolute compound events for the whole investigation area. The change signal of relative extremes is more region-dependent, but there is a strong signal change in the southern and eastern parts of Germany and the neighboring countries. Especially the Czech Republic shows strong change in absolute and relative extreme events.

  10. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  11. EPA's Role with the Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe provides assistance in solving environmental problems in Central and Eastern Europe by promoting cooperation among governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and others.

  12. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: general overview and diseases caused by trematodes (flukes).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    Parasitic helminths and helminthoses do not only occur in the tropics and subtropics but are also prevalent in Austria and other Central European countries. Their prevalence is, however, more or less rather low. In total, we know more than 20 helminth species, which are diagnosed regularly in Austria; some of them occur in Austria autochthonously, some others are acquired abroad and are transferred as souvenirs to Central Europe. The spectrum of helminths described in this overview comprises species of the trematodes (flukes), cestodes (tapeworms), and nematodes (roundworms).The topic "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is divided into three parts: The first part comprises a short introduction into the field of medical helminthology and is primarily dedicated to the description of trematodes and trematode-caused diseases.

  13. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced,…

  14. Extreme Winter/Early-Spring Temperature Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Ardizzone, Joseph; Brakke, Thomas; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Jusem, Juan Carlos; Glantz, Michael; Rogers, Jeff; Sud, Yogesh; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Extreme seasonal fluctuations of the surface-air temperature characterize the climate of central Europe, 45-60 deg North Temperature difference between warm 1990 and cold 1996 in the January-March period, persisting for more than two weeks at a time, amounted to 18 C for extensive areas. These anomalies in the surface-air temperature stem in the first place from differences in the low level flow from the eastern North-Atlantic: the value of the Index 1na of southwesterlies over the eastern North-Atlantic was 8.0 m/s in February 1990, but only 2.6 m/ s in February 1996. The primary forcing by warm advection to positive anomalies in monthly mean surface temperature produced strong synoptic-scale uplift at the 700 mb level over some regions in Europe. The strong uplift contributed in 1990 to a much larger cloud-cover over central Europe, which reduced heat-loss to space (greenhouse effect). Thus, spring arrived earlier than usual in 1990, but later than usual in 1996.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    -resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  16. Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Neolithic Circular Ditch Systems ("Rondels") in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília; Barna, Judit P.; Zotti, Georg

    The most discussed structures of the Middle and Late Neolithic period in Central Europe are the rondels or Kreisgrabenanlagen (in German). In the Lengyel culture of the Carpathian Basin, these earthworks seem to follow a common set of architectural rules. The often empty space inside the enclosures is generally surrounded by one or more circular ditches, which are interrupted by two, three, or most often four causeways. The near symmetrically arranged causeways more or less face the main cardinal points. Through the investigation of more than 50 rondels belonging to the Central European Late Neolithic Lengyel culture, it is argued that the sun could be a good candidate to interpret the layout of most structures.

  18. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  19. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  20. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data.

  1. Values and sexual behaviour in central and eastern europe.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Realo, Anu; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Kozlova, Alexandra; Luu, Lan Anh Nguyen; Nizharadze, George

    2002-01-01

    Despite the profusion of social cognitive models for the prediction of sexual behaviour, we have only limited knowledge as to the role of individual values in predicting risky sexual activity. This study assessed the relationship between a recently developed value structure and sexual behaviour in the context of rising HIV infection in central and eastern Europe. Five hundred and three respondents (business people, doctors and nurses) from Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Poland and Russia completed Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire and reported their condom use, partnership history and record of sexual disease. Results indicated that values had a moderate but consistent relationship with sexual behaviour, with riskier sexual activity reported by those high on Openness to Change, Hedonism and Self-Enhancement. These findings are discussed in the context of the need for culturally sensitive interventions in order to tackle the growing HIV epidemic in this region.

  2. 2000 years of parallel societies in Stone Age Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bollongino, Ruth; Nehlich, Olaf; Richards, Michael P; Orschiedt, Jörg; Thomas, Mark G; Sell, Christian; Fajkosová, Zuzana; Powell, Adam; Burger, Joachim

    2013-10-25

    Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blätterhöhle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies.

  3. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  4. Sandflies and sandfly-borne infections of humans in Central Europe in the light of climate change.

    PubMed

    Aspöck, Horst; Gerersdorfer, Thomas; Formayer, Herbert; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    In Europe, sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are typical Mediterranean faunal elements of low expansivity, which are widely distributed in more than 20 species in many parts of Southern Europe. A few species have extended their distribution to the northwest invading extramediterranean regions (Western, Eastern Europe); any occurrence in Central Europe north of the Alps was excluded until recently. Since 1999 sandflies have been found in several parts in Germany and in Belgium; originally these records were ascribed to climate change and global warming. Meanwhile, the more likely assumption is that sandflies have always, probably since the Holocene climate optima (ca. 4500 and 2500 B.C.), been in Central Europe sporadically to where they have come as immigrants (or re-immigrants) from Mediterranean refugial areas. It is, however, without question that global warming will lead to an extension of the distributional areas of sandflies. A climatological analysis of the localities where sandflies have been found in Central Europe has revealed that temperature is the key factor. A comparison of climatological parameters in sandfly-localities with the climatic conditions in Austria (where sandflies have not yet been found) has shown that an increase of temperature by 1 degrees C in January (Ph. mascittii) or 1 degrees C in July (Ph. neglectus), respectively, would lead to suitable conditions for the occurrence of sandflies in certain parts of Austria. (The scenarios for an increase of temperature until the end of the century vary between 1.5 degrees C to 4.5 degrees C; 3 degrees C seem to be realistic also for critical climatologists.) Leishmaniae certainly do not occur in Central Europe primarily, but an increasing number of infections in humans, as well as in animals, acquired in Central Europe has been registered. It is highly likely that these infections are due to sandflies which have been infected by sucking blood on infected dogs. Dogs infected with

  5. Associations between mortality and air pollution in central Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A; Skorkovsky, J; Kotesovec, F; Brynda, J; Spix, C; Wichmann, H E; Heinrich, J

    2000-01-01

    Increased mortality has been observed in association with elevated concentrations of air pollutants in European cities and in the United States. We reassessed the effects of particulate matter in Central Europe. Mortality and air pollution data were obtained for a highly polluted region of the Czech Republic and a rural region in Germany. Poisson regression analyses were conducted considering trend, season, meteorology, and influenza epidemics as confounders in both a parametric and a nonparametric approach. The Czech Republic had a 3.8% increase in mortality [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-6.9%] in association with 100 microg/m(3) total suspended particles (TSP) (lagged 2 days) for the time period 1982-1994. During the last 2 years of study, 68% of the TSP consisted of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)). An increase of 100 microg/m(3) TSP (lagged 1 day) was associated with a 9.5% increase in mortality (CI, 1.2-18.5%) and 100 microg/m(3) PM(10 )(lagged 1 day) showed a 9.8% increase in mortality (CI, 0.7-19.7%). We found no evidence for an association between mortality and particulate matter in the rural area in Germany at the Czech border. Data from the coal basin in the Czech Republic suggested an increase in mortality associated with the concentration of particulate matter in a highly polluted setting in Central Europe that is consistent with the associations observed in other western European cities and in the United States. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753084

  6. An analysis of blogs from medical students on "English Parallel" courses in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, John F

    2013-12-01

    During the last 20 years, there has been a significant growth in the training of overseas students especially within the European Union. Informal discussions with past and present students revealed a marked reluctance to take part in interviews about the nature of "English Parallel" courses. Alternative sources of information include blogs and commentaries written on the internet by present and former students at these schools. Such blogs are relatively limited in number and of variable length. They have been written for a variety of reasons and range in content from commentaries on training to wider discussion of life in Central and Eastern Europe. Six blogs were identified from an internet search, and a qualitative approach was adopted for the analysis of text content. Their experience is assessed, and potential approaches to greater integration of training across Europe are considered.

  7. A dynamical basis for crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1983-01-01

    The stress field in the earth's crust as inferred from satellite gravity data causes crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe. The satellite-determined stresses in the crust of central Europe are consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms, joint-orientation and in situ stress measurements.

  8. Combined Control of Special Operations Forces in the Central Region of Allied Command Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Armed Services Committee, 25 Mal-ch 1987, p. 11. 50 2. Chalupa , Gen. Leopold, Commander Allied Forces Central Europe, "the Defence of Central Europe...34Fury form the Sea: Marines in Grenada," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, ML, 1984. Chalupa , Gen. Leopold

  9. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  10. Structure of the Lithosphere in Central Europe: Integrated Density Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielik, M.; Grinč, M.; Zeyen, H. J.; Plašienka, D.; Pasteka, R.; Krajňák, M.; Bošanský, M.; Mikuška, J.

    2014-12-01

    Firstly, we present new results related to the lithospheric structure and tectonics of the Central Europe and the Western Carpathians. For geophysical study of the lithosphere in Central Europe we calculated four original 2D lithosphere-scales transects crossing this area from the West European Platform in the North to the Aegean Sea in the South and from the Adriatic Sea in the West to the East European Platform in the East. Modelling is based on the joint interpretation of gravity, geoid, topography and surface heat flow data with temperature-dependent density. Wherever possible, crustal structure is constrained by seismic data. The thickness of the lithosphere decreases from the older and colder platforms to the younger and hotter Pannonian Basin with a maximum thickness under the Eastern and Southern Carpathians. The thickness of the Carpathian arc lithosphere varies between 150 km in the North (the Western Carpathians) and about 300 km in the Vrancea zone (the Eastern and Southern Carpathian junction). In the Platform areas it is between 120 and 150 km and in the Pannonian Basin it is about 70 km. The models show that the Moesian Platform is overthrust from the North by the Southern Carpathians and from the South by the Balkanides and characterized by bending of this platform. In all transects, the thickest crust is found underneath the Carpathian Mountains or, as in the case of the Vrancea area, under their immediate foreland. The thickest crust outside the orogens is modelled for the Moesian Platform with Moho depths of up to 45 km. The thinnest crust is located under the Pannonian Basin with about 26-27 km. Secondly, our presentation deals with construction of the stripped gravity map in the Turiec Basin, which represents typical intramontane Neogene depression of the Western Carpathians. Based on this new and original gravity map corrected by regional gravity effect we were able to interpret the geological structure and tectonics of this sedimentary basin

  11. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J.; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Wójcik, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential ‘northern glacial refugium’, i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe. PMID:27992546

  12. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D; Herman, Jeremy S; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A; Searle, Jeremy B; Wójcik, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential 'northern glacial refugium', i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe.

  13. Comparison of local magnitude scales in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Cipciar, Andrej; Csicsay, Kristian; Srbecky, Miroslav; Kristekova, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Efficient monitoring of earthquakes and determination of their magnitudes are necessary for developing earthquake catalogues at a regional and national levels. Unification and homogenization of the catalogues in terms of magnitudes has great importance for seismic hazard assessment. Calibrated local earthquake magnitude scales are commonly used for determining magnitudes of regional earthquakes by all national seismological services in the Central Europe. However, at the local scale, each seismological service uses its own magnitude determination procedure. There is no systematic comparison of the approaches and there is no unified procedure. We present a comparison of the local magnitude scales used by the national seismological services of Slovakia (Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Austria (ZAMG), Hungary (Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and Poland (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences), and by the local network of seismic stations located around the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. The comparison is based on the national earthquake catalogues and annually published earthquake bulletins for the period from 1985 to 2011. A data set of earthquakes has been compiled based on identification of common events in the national earthquake catalogues and bulletins. For each pair of seismic networks, magnitude differences have been determined and investigated as a function of time. The mean and standard deviations of the magnitude differences as well as regression coefficients between local magnitudes from the national seismological networks have been computed. Results show relatively big scatter between different national local magnitudes and its considerable time variation. A conversion between different national local magnitudes in a scale 1:1 seems inappropriate, especially for the compilation of the

  14. The Genetic Legacy of Multiple Beaver Reintroductions in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Christiane; Kraus, Robert H. S.; Angst, Christof; Allgöwer, Rainer; Michaux, Johan; Teubner, Jana; Nowak, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The comeback of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) throughout western and central Europe is considered a major conservation success. Traditionally, several subspecies are recognised by morphology and mitochondrial haplotype, each linked to a relict population. During various reintroduction programs in the 20th century, beavers from multiple source localities were released and now form viable populations. These programs differed in their reintroduction strategies, i.e., using pure subspecies vs. mixed source populations. This inhomogeneity in management actions generated ongoing debates regarding the origin of present beaver populations and appropriate management plans for the future. By sequencing of the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite genotyping of 235 beaver individuals from five selected regions in Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium we show that beavers from at least four source origins currently form admixed, genetically diverse populations that spread across the study region. While regional occurrences of invasive North American beavers (n = 20) were found, all but one C. fiber bore the mitochondrial haplotype of the autochthonous western Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU). Considering this, as well as the viability of admixed populations and the fact that the fusion of different lineages is already progressing in all studied regions, we argue that admixture between different beaver source populations should be generally accepted. PMID:24827835

  15. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, F M; Vrana, K; Zhovinsky, E; Povoroznuk, V; Toth, G; Hope, B C; Iljinsky, U; Baker, J

    2007-04-01

    Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts, but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentrations causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently sets water quality guidelines for the element. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg l-1 are widespread and effects on health of high fluoride in water have been reported. The aim of the current project was to develop a geographic information system (GIS) to aid the identification of areas where high-fluoride waters and fluorosis may be a problem; hence, where water treatment technologies should be targeted. The development of the GIS was based upon the collation and digitisation of existing information relevant to fluoride risk in Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Slovakia assembled for the first time in a readily accessible form. In addition, geochemistry and health studies to examine in more detail the relationships between high-fluoride drinking waters and health effects in the population were carried out in Moldova and Ukraine demonstrating dental fluorosis prevalence rates of 60-90% in adolescents consuming water containing 2-7 mg l-1 fluoride.

  16. Mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wapler, Kathrin; Hengstebeck, Thomas; Groenemeijer, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence and characteristics of mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar are analysed. A three year analysis shows an annual and diurnal cycle with a wider maximum in the late afternoon/evening compared to the diurnal cycle of general thunderstorms. Analysis of F2 tornado events and over a hundred hail storms show the characteristics of the corresponding mesocyclones as seen by radar. For all of the six F2 tornadoes in the three-year period in Germany a corresponding mesocyclone could be detected in radar data. Furthermore the analysis reveals that about half of all hail storms in Germany are associated with a mesocyclone detected in radar data within 10 km and 10 min. Some mesocyclone attributes, e.g. depth and maximum shear, and of the associated convective cell, e.g. reflectivity related parameters VIL, VILD and echotop, have predictive skill for indicating the occurrence of hail. The mesocyclone detection algorithm may support the analysis and nowcasting of severe weather events and thus support the warning process.

  17. Treatment cost of narcolepsy with cataplexy in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Maresova, Petra; Novotny, Michal; Klímová, Blanka; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Background Narcolepsy is a lifelong, rare neurological sleep disorder characterized by chronic, excessive attacks of daytime sleepiness. This disease is often extremely incapacitating, interfering with every aspect of life, in work and social settings. Objective The purpose of this study is to specify the treatment costs of patients in Central Europe (Czech Republic), while the attention is mainly paid to the drugs that were fully or partially covered by public health insurance. Furthermore, concomitant therapy is also evaluated, since it incurs a certain financial burden for patients and their family members. On the basis of the calculated costs, impact on the public budget is evaluated. Patients and methods This study monitors the direct costs of the drugs for 13 patients, who represent ~1.3% of the total number of diagnosed patients in the Czech Republic, and evaluates the costs associated with their treatment during the period from January 9, 2011 to April 23, 2013. Results Most of the treatment costs (~80%) were covered by publicly available sources. This finding is also true for the concomitant therapy of comorbidities. Additional payments for the drugs constitute about 20% of the total costs. PMID:27920540

  18. Is the Central Europe more inclinable to wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Virag, M.; Bares, D.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Hlavinka, P.

    2009-09-01

    Many studies indicate a gradual increase in danger of wildfire in Central Europe. The risk of wildfire differs greatly among individual areas (whether regions or districts), and this difference remains, irrespective of the methods used to describe the danger of wildfires. For this study was used the calculation of the FDI (Fire Danger Index) for 200 stations on the territory of Czech Republic in the period 1961-2008. The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. During processing the model compute upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the speed of spread of wildfire. Between years 1991-2008 there was an increase in the average monthly FDI indices in comparison to the period 1961-1990. During this period, a statistically significant trend toward higher indices was found (0.02 FDI index/year). The trend of danger of wildfires growth was evident in all months.

  19. The situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), i.e. a group of 15 countries lying east of the Oder river-Trieste line and west of the present/planned EU eastern border. Together these countries have 106.6 million inhabitants, i.e. about a quarter of the population of the "European economic space". Its nuclear medicine, however, represents less than 10% of European nuclear medicine manpower and equipment. In these countries there are at least 245 nuclear medicine departments with 661 nuclear medicine specialists and at least 376 gamma cameras. There are six dedicated PET units and three PET/SPECT centres, as well as one manufacturer of gamma cameras, six radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and two nuclear medicine scientific journals. The biggest nuclear medicine communities are in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The scientific input of the CEE countries to European science is moderate-about 10% when measured by EANM congress abstracts, and 5% when measured by the number of papers in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Mean European bibliometric parameters are approached only by Hungary and-to some extent-the Czech Republic. This survey indicates the need for international cooperation to improve the level of nuclear medicine in the CEE countries so that it reaches European standards. The potential of these countries could also be better used to the benefit of European nuclear medicine.

  20. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  1. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    cervical cancer in the countries within the two regions. It is hoped that the expanded second edition of the European Guidelines will finally kick-start effective interventions in many of these countries that still lack organised programmes. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  2. Towards a Dense Velocity Field for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Twelve measurement campaigns between 1994 and 2011 with epoch and permanent GNSS stations make the CEGRN network one of the most regularly and accurately surveyed networks for scientific applications. Recently, the CEGRN GNSS data have been reprocessed with consistent orbits and IGS05 antenna models. On the other hand, the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) represents the backbone geodetic infrastructure for Europe and realizes the ETRS89 system prescriptions with the ETRF2000 reference frame. Recently EUREF prepared its densification of the ITRF2008 and the IGS08 reference frames and resulting in cumulative SINEX files: by stacking reprocessed weekly normal equation files from 1996 to present, high accuracy positions and velocities of IGS and EPN stations in Europe could be obtained in a consistent reference frame throughout the temporal range. It is finally worth noting that both the IAG Working Group on "Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF" and the EUREF Working Group on Deformation Models encourage initiatives aiming at estimating velocities of GNSS sites in a rigorous manner, both for reference frame applications and 3D tectonic deformation problems. Within this framework it is then natural to attempt a combination of the EPN and CEGRN networks with the intent to bring down to regional, i.e. Central European, scale the same standard of accuracy of the EPN long-term solution, without reprocessing the entire set of raw GNSS data. This paper presents the first results of the EPN+CEGRN combination: we review the common properties of the input SINEX files, the processing software Bernese 5.0 and CATREF, the adopted processing strategies and the results, in terms of positions, velocities and Helmert parameters. We discuss the pros and cons of three possible processing strategies: one consists in stacking the individual, weekly CEGRN campaign solutions with the cumulative EPN solution; the second consists in stacking the two cumulative solutions, CEGRN and

  3. Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    AD-A214 057 Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region Paul K. Davis DTIG ELECTEfl NOVO TIM D A Report...USDP toCVED Toward A Conceptual Framework for Operational interim IIAArms Control in Europe’s Central Region PE. 0IORMING OJIG RIE UMUER 111"hI 7...CLAgOIIFCA11N OPP TWOS PA441WhOM 0... 4CR.,.aI 177 R-3704-USDP Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region Paul

  4. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  5. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  6. Directly observable optical properties of sprites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-04-01

    Luminous optical emissions accompanying streamer-based natural electric breakdown processes initiating in the mesosphere are called sprites. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68N, 16.58E, 230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. On the basis of these observations, characteristic morphological properties of sprites, i.e. basic forms (e.g. column, carrot, angel, etc.) as well as common morphological features (e.g. tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, etc.), have been identified. Probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with each of the basic sprite forms. It is speculated that different sequences of streamer propagation directions can result in very similar final sprite shapes. The number and type variety of sprite elements appearing in an event as well as the total optical duration of an event was analyzed statistically. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events were considered as special subsets of sprite clusters. It was found that more than 90% of the recorded sprite elements appeared in clusters rather than alone and more than half of the clusters contained more than one basic sprite forms. The analysis showed that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites featuring glows and tendrils do not tend to have optical lifetimes longer than 80 ms. Such very long optical lifetimes have not been observed in sprite clusters containing more than 25 elements of any type, either. In contrast to clusters containing sprite entities of only one form, sprite events showing more sprite forms seem to have extended optical durations more likely. The need for further investigation and for finding theoretical concepts to link these observations to electric conditions ambient for sprite formation is emphasized.

  7. A Treasure Chest of Nanogranites: the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, S.; O'Brien, P. J.; Walczak, K.; Wunder, B.; Ziemann, M. A.; Hecht, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite 150 years of investigation of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe), it is only recently that the investigation of old and new samples displayed the occurrence of tiny portions of crystallized anatectic melt in regional migmatites. These vestiges of magma, called "nanogranites", are natural probes of the partial melting processes in the crust. Original melt composition and water content can be directly analyzed after piston cylinder re-homogenization. When compared to classic re-melting experiments, nanogranites are ideal "natural" experimental charges of anatectic melt. They are encapsulated in peritectic garnet immediately after production - both phases are products of the same partial melting reaction. Sheltered inside garnet, they remain unaffected by the physico-chemical changes which affected the host migmatites during their slow cooling, unlike leucosomes and anatexis-related plutons. Five different case studies of nanogranite-bearing high-grade rocks have been identified so far: three in metapelites from the Moldanubian Zone, and two in metagranitoids from the Granulitgebirge and Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Their characterization provides insights into how the continental crust melts at different depths, from shallow levels to mantle depths, during different moments of its metamorphic history (prograde vs. decompressional melting). For example, the investigation and experimental re-melting of nanogranites from Grt+Ky leucogranulites (Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome) recently provided evidence of prograde melting of metagranitoids under eclogite-facies conditions (T≥875°C and P~2.7 GPa), close to the stability field of coesite. The melt generated is granitic, hydrous (6 wt% H2O) and metaluminous (ASI=1.03), and is at the moment the "deepest" glass obtained through re-homogenization of primary polycrystalline inclusions in natural rocks. This work confirms that nanogranites in migmatites 1) are a powerful tool to constrain anatexis in natural rocks, and 2) can

  8. Modelling of stable water isotopes in Central Europe with COSMOiso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Emanuel; Pfahl, Stephan; Schädler, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric water in form of vapor or clouds is responsible for ˜75 % of the natural greenhouse effect and carries huge amounts of latent heat. For this reason, a best possible description of the hydrological cycle is a prerequisite for reliable climate modelling. As the stable isotopes H216O, H218O and HDO differ in vapor pressure, they are fractionated during phase changes and contain information about the formation of precipitation, evaporation from the ground, etc. Therefore, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water is an useful tracer to test and improve our understanding of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere. Within the project PalMod the isotope-enabled limited-area model COSMOiso will be used for high-resolution isotope simulations of paleo-climates. For validation with modern observations we compare 12 years of modelled isotope ratios from Central Europe to observations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and to observations of isotope ratios of water vapor at different locations in Germany. We find a good agreement of modelled and observed isotope ratios in summer. In winter, we observe a systematic overestimation of modelled isotope ratios in precipitation and low-level water vapor. We relate those differences to specific circulation regimes with predominantly easterly moisture transport and the corresponding strong dependence of modelled isotope ratios on lateral boundary data. Furthermore, we investigate the dependence of modelled isotope ratios in winter on the type of isotope fractionation during surface evaporation at skin temperatures close to the freezing point.

  9. The magnetic low of central Europe: analysis and interpretation by a multi scale approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Maurizio; Fedi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    -SE direction. So, a simple contact model was performed in order to demonstrate that the main source that generates the EML is the complex fault system of the TESZ. However, the |T| maxima are positioned not only along the suture zone, but also in Central Europe, showing that the contributions to the EML derive also from sources placed in the Paleozoic platform with a reverse dipolar aspect. From these results it appears that the contributions responsible for the nature of this anomaly are to be reconnected first to the presence of the TESZ, which puts in contact two different platforms with different thicknesses, and also to the presence of bodies with a strong remanent component, which characterize part of the Central European crust.

  10. The Impact of Urban Emissions on Chemistry and Climate over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of city emissions of short lived gases and aerosols on the tropospheric chemistry and climate is examined over Central Europe. A coupled modelling system consisting of the regional climate model RegCM4 and the chemistry transport model CAMx is implemented over a 10 km x 10 km resolution domain. For each period of 2001-2010, 2026-2035 and 2046-2055 a pair of experiments is performed: one with urban emissions removed and one with urban emissions scaled by the factor. The chemistry-climate impact is evaluated as the difference between the corresponding experiments divided by this factor. This choice was important to obtain statistically significant results. The linearity is examined to justify this approach. The radiative feedbacks of tropospheric ozone, primary (black and organic carbon) and secondary inorganic aerosols (sulfates and nitrates) are taken into account including the 1st and 2nd indirect aerosol effect. Due to city emissions, we found significant ozone titration especially over the western and northern part of the domain. City emissions contribute to ozone production over southern Europe. An increase of sulfate, nitrate aerosols and black/organic is significant as well and is modelled not only over urbanized areas but all over the computational domain. Evaluating the radiative impacts, we found that the total urban impact on 2 m temperature over central Europe is characterized by cooling up to -0.015 K as a 2001-2010 average. The radiative impact of the individual constituents (ozone, sulfate-, nitrate aerosols etc.) is examined as well.

  11. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  12. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleobiogeography of the genus Apodemus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Knitlová, Markéta; Horáček, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are an essential component of small mammal communities throughout Europe. Molecular data suggest the postglacial colonization of current ranges from south European glacial refugia, different in particular species. Yet, details on the course of colonization and Holocene history of particular species are not available, partly because of a lack of reliable criteria for species identification in the fossil record. Using a sample of extant species, we analyzed variation patterns and between-species overlaps for a large set of metric and non-metric dental variables and established the criteria enabling the reliable species identification of fragmentary fossil material. The corresponding biometrical analyses were undertaken with fossil material of the genus (2528 items, 747 MNI) from 22 continuous sedimentary series in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, from LGM to Recent. In Central Europe, the genus is invariantly absent in LGM assemblages but regularly appears during the Late Vistulian. All the earliest records belong to A. flavicollis, the species clearly predominating in the fossil record until the Late Holocene. A. uralensis accompanied it in all regions until the late Boreal when disappeared from the fossil record (except for Pannonia). A few items identified as A. sylvaticus had already appeared in the early Holocene assemblages, first in the western part of the region, yet the regular appearance of the species is mostly in the post-Neolithic age. A. agrarius appeared sparsely from the Boreal with a maximum frequency during the post-Neolithic period. The results conform well to the picture suggested by molecular phylogeography but demonstrate considerable differences among particular species in dynamic of the range colonization. Further details concerning Holocene paleobiogeography of individual species in the medium latitude Europe are discussed.

  13. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleobiogeography of the genus Apodemus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Knitlová, Markéta; Horáček, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are an essential component of small mammal communities throughout Europe. Molecular data suggest the postglacial colonization of current ranges from south European glacial refugia, different in particular species. Yet, details on the course of colonization and Holocene history of particular species are not available, partly because of a lack of reliable criteria for species identification in the fossil record. Using a sample of extant species, we analyzed variation patterns and between-species overlaps for a large set of metric and non-metric dental variables and established the criteria enabling the reliable species identification of fragmentary fossil material. The corresponding biometrical analyses were undertaken with fossil material of the genus (2528 items, 747 MNI) from 22 continuous sedimentary series in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, from LGM to Recent. In Central Europe, the genus is invariantly absent in LGM assemblages but regularly appears during the Late Vistulian. All the earliest records belong to A. flavicollis, the species clearly predominating in the fossil record until the Late Holocene. A. uralensis accompanied it in all regions until the late Boreal when disappeared from the fossil record (except for Pannonia). A few items identified as A. sylvaticus had already appeared in the early Holocene assemblages, first in the western part of the region, yet the regular appearance of the species is mostly in the post-Neolithic age. A. agrarius appeared sparsely from the Boreal with a maximum frequency during the post-Neolithic period. The results conform well to the picture suggested by molecular phylogeography but demonstrate considerable differences among particular species in dynamic of the range colonization. Further details concerning Holocene paleobiogeography of individual species in the medium latitude Europe are discussed. PMID:28282422

  14. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  15. Direct terrestrial–marine correlation demonstrates surprisingly late onset of the last interglacial in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sier, Mark J.; Roebroeks, Wil; Bakels, Corrie C.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Brühl, Enrico; De Loecker, Dimitri; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine; Hesse, Norbert; Jagich, Adam; Kindler, Lutz; Kuijper, Wim J.; Laurat, Thomas; Mücher, Herman J.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Richter, Daniel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically important event at 3400 ± 350 yr. More importantly, the Neumark Nord 2 data enables precise terrestrial–marine correlation for the Eemian stage in central Europe. This shows a remarkably large time lag of ca. 5000 yr between the MIS 5e ‘peak’ in the marine record and the start of the last interglacial in this region. PMID:26523075

  16. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  17. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  18. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-30

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  19. Entrepreneurial and Vocational Education and Training: Lessons from Eastern and Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    The social, economic and political systems of former communist countries have faced considerable changes since the late 1980s. Most countries in Eastern and Central Europe have undergone their own individual brand of transition from a centrally planned, command system to a more or less liberalized, Western-style market economy. Many observers…

  20. Employment of Tacair in Central Europe: Problems and Possible Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Europe in the initial phase of an armed conflict as well as in support of the FOFA concept. In the foreseeable future, no effective alternatives to...still offer a large potential for improvements, which could in turn increase the combat effectiveness of NATO air forces. 8 The foregoing threat analysis ...Pact is considered to be of decisive importance for the European theater of war (follow-on-forces attack/ FOFA ). 23 It has to be stated that suppression

  1. Lessons from Central and Southeast Europe for the Expanding Alliances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    movements throughout Germany, and Eastern Europe. The growth of Austria’s merchant class meant that the emperor had to tolerate a significant level of...The Fall of Yugoslavia : The Third Balkan War, 3rd rev. ed. (New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Penguin Books, 1996), 257. 51 3. Yugoslav Wars of Dissolution...D. Tanturovski and others, "Differences and Similarities in Reproduction and its Control Determined by Religious Orientation," European Journal of

  2. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  3. Geomorphological and sedimentary evidence of probable glaciation in the Jizerské hory Mountains, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Křížek, Marek; Kasprzak, Marek; Traczyk, Andrzej; Hložek, Martin; Krbcová, Klára

    2017-03-01

    The Jizerské hory Mountains in the Czech Republic have traditionally been considered to be a highland that lay beyond the limits of Quaternary glaciations. Recent work on cirque-like valley heads in the central part of the range has shown that niche glaciers could form during the Quaternary. Here we report geomorphological and sedimentary evidence for a small glacier in the Pytlácká jáma Hollow that represents one of the most-enclosed valley heads within the range. Shape and size characteristics of this landform indicate that the hollow is a glacial cirque at a degraded stage of development. Boulder accumulations at the downslope side of the hollow probably represent a relic of terminal moraines, and the grain size distribution of clasts together with micromorphology of quartz grains from the hollow indicate the glacial environment of a small glacier. This glacier represents the lowermost located such system in central Europe and provides evidence for the presence of niche or small cirque glaciers probably during pre-Weichselian glacial periods. The glaciation limit (1000 m asl) and paleo-ELA (900 m asl) proposed for the Jizerské hory Mountains implies that central European ranges lower than 1100 m asl were probably glaciated during the Quaternary.

  4. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  5. "out of The Cold": On Late Neanderthal Population Dynamics In Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöris, O.

    During the last several years, analyses of fossil Neanderthal DNA have shown not only the degree to which the genetic fingerprints of Neanderthals differ from those of anatomically modern humans, but have also lent credibility to the hotly debated "Out- of-Africa" hypothesis. Perhaps more important than the observed genetic differences is the fact that Neanderthals - according to their reconstructed DNA sequences - were genetically highly homogeneous, indicating rapid population growth that may have followed a demographic 'bottleneck' during the first cold maximum (CM-1 = second part of OIS 4) of the last glacial, some 60 to 70 ka ago. Central European Middle Palaeolithic sites characterised by broad spectra of bifacially-worked tools, namely different forms of backed knives ("Keilmesser") com- monly attributed to Neanderthals, fall within the age-range 85 and 45 ka calBP and thus both pre- and post-date the proposed 'bottleneck' that occurred during CM-1. Di- rectly comparable sites dating within this critical period are lacking. Based on strati- graphic, palaeoenvironmental, and radiometric evidence, a series of sites can tenta- tively be age-calibrated with the high-resolution GISP2 Greenland ice core record of last glacial climate change. With the aid of improved chronological frameworks and additional palaeoenvironmen- tal information (e.g. glacier mass balance models), we have developed a three-step model with which to investigate this period. We begin with (1) pre-CM-1 populations in Central and northern Central Europe which (2) were forced into southern Euro- pean refugia (i.e. SW France and the Pannonian Basins) by the rapid expansion of the northern hemispheric ice-cover at the beginning of CM-1 (a process that could be named 'preglacial dislocation'). Finally, some 10 ka later, their descendants may have re-occupied the southern part of Central Europe during the climatic amelioration (OIS 3) following CM-1. Changes in lithic technology, as expressed in

  6. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services.

  7. Diet and Mobility in the Corded Ware of Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Price, T. Douglas; Kristiansen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic investigations of two cemetery populations from the Corded Ware Culture in southern Germany reveal new information on the dating of these graves, human diet during this period, and individual mobility. Corded Ware Culture was present across much of temperate Europe ca. 2800–2200 cal. BC and is represented by distinctive artifacts and burial practices. Corded Ware was strongly influenced by the Yamnaya Culture that arose in the steppes of eastern Europe and western Eurasia after 3000 BC, as indicated by recent aDNA research. However, the development of CW on different chronological and spatial scales has to be evaluated. Examination of the CW burials from southern Germany supports an argument for substantial human mobility in this period. Several burials from gravefields and larger samples from two large cemeteries at Lauda-Königshofen "Wöllerspfad" and at Bergheinfeld “Hühnerberg” contributed the human remains for our study of bone and tooth enamel from the Corded Ware Culture. Our results suggest that Corded Ware groups in this region at least were subsisting on a mix of plant and animal foods and were highly mobile, especially the women. We interpret this as indicating a pattern of female exogamy, involving different groups with differing economic strategies. PMID:27223117

  8. The broad spectrum of hantaviruses and their hosts in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Klempa, B; Radosa, L; Kruger, D H

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are considered to be emerging viruses due to their increasing significance as human pathogens and their cyclic reappearance during outbreaks. Central Europe is an important endemic region for hantavirus infections. Reflecting the presence of all relevant small mammals serving as reservoir hosts, close to all recognized European hantaviruses occur also in Central Europe. Important human pathogens, Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade viruses, are present and cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome of various severities. Moreover, several of the newly recognized shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses are present. In this review, we summarize current data on molecular detection of hantaviruses in reservoir hosts as well as on molecular epidemiology of human hantavirus infections in Central Europe.

  9. Hungarian travertine: a historic and current stone resource of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    Travertine is a widespread dimension stone that was used worldwide in monuments. The best known examples are known from the Roman Empire from Italy, where this porous stone belonged to one of the favourite stone types. Ancient quarries of Tivoli provided material to major construction works to Rome. Other occurrences belonging to the Roman Empire outside of Rome were also used by the Romans. Some of the most important European deposits are known from Hungary. Exploitable travertine layers are found at many places in Hungary but at least two major areas were actively quarried by the Romans. One major deposit was not far away from the provincial capital of Roman Pannonia - called Aquincum, which currently forms a part of Budapest, while the other even larger occurrence is at Süttő, at the riverside of Danube some 50 km NE from the past capital. River Danube provided an excellent pathway of transport ting stone to the capital. Evidences indicate that quarrying activity in Süttő area has already begun during the 1st century BC and the travertine has been exploited with some interruptions since then. The present day quarries form the parts of the largest active dimension quarry system of Hungary. The exposed very thick banks (3 to 4m) of travertine were deposited from lukewarm springs during the Pleistocene period. Various types of travertine were used for constructing Roman aqueducts, fortresses, amphitheatre until the 4th century AD and were also transported to other parts of that Roman Province which extended to the present territory of Hungary, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. Although the use of travertine has significantly decreased after the fall of Roman Empire in Central Europe and in Hungary, the presence of this stone was also documented from numerous Gothic and Baroque buildings from the area. The use of this stone became more popular again in the Carpathian Basin, when major constructions of larger cities such as Bratislava, Vienna or Budapest accelerated

  10. Climate change impacts on hydrological extremes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An increase of hydro-climatic extremes can be observed worldwide and is challenging national and regional risk management and adaptation plans. Our study presents and discusses possible trends in climate drivers and hydro-climatic extremes in Europe observed and under future climate conditions. In a case study for Germany, impacts of different regional climate scenario ensembles are compared. To this end, a hydrological model was applied to transform the scenarios data into river runoff for more than 5000 river reaches in Germany. Extreme Value Distributions have been fitted to the hydrographs of the river reaches to derive the basic flood statistics. The results for each river reach have been linked to related damage functions as provided by the German Insurance Association considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The robust result is that under scenario conditions a significant increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany, while also the number of low flow events may rise.

  11. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Lebedev, S.; Cristiano, L.; Meier, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid growth in the no. of seismic stations globally, manual data processing for routine analysis as well as determination of seismic observables becomes more and more impractical. Therefore, automated schemes are inevitable to handle these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We measure inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical component (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. We have developed a scheme to automate this well established inter-station method, which automatically selects the smooth parts of observed phase velocity dispersion curves, and thus obtain path average phase velocity dispersion curve of each inter-station path. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we finally confined the method to three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the parameters and obtained optimal values of these three parameters. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe which involved more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of the data of the permanent networks. The method was also tested on temporary deployments e.g. TOR, PASSEQ, SVEKALPKO etc, across Europe. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 100 kilometers. Well known features of upper mantle structure in central Europe are well resolved in our phase velocity maps. Distinct differences

  12. Emergence of Blastoschizomyces capitatus Yeast Infections, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bertschy, Sonja; Aebersold, Franziska; Mueller, Nicolas J.; Achermann, Yvonne; Muehlethaler, Konrad; Zimmerli, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We report 5 cases of disseminated infection caused by Blastoschizomyces capitatus yeast in central Switzerland. The emergence of this yeast in an area in which it is not known to be endemic should alert clinicians caring for immunocompromised patients outside the Mediterranean region to consider infections caused by unfamiliar fungal pathogens. PMID:22261201

  13. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  14. Universities, the Information Technology Challenge, and Open and Distance Learning in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajos, Tamas; Szucs, Andras

    1998-01-01

    The educational needs of Eastern and Central Europe can be met by distance education. Since the 1990 founding of the European Distance Education Network, proponents of open and distance education have expanded the scope of their activities. Governments and institutions must find the best ways to use technology to integrate traditional and distance…

  15. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  16. Educational Reform and Educational Research in Central-Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report describes difficulties in educational reform faced by countries in transition, those post-communist countries from Eastern and Central Europe that have been changing their social, economic, and political systems since 1989. Romania is the case study used for this example and is viewed in terms of four stages: (1) deconstruction, an…

  17. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  18. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  19. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  20. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  1. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  2. Writing in Central and Eastern Europe: Stakeholders and Directions in Initiating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbord, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of writing initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, an area where prior to 1989, writing in universities played a very minor role. Using data gathered from eight institutions that currently have writing programs of some sort, I identify three typical paths writing initiatives…

  3. The Legal Status of Home Education in Post-Communist Countries of Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelecka, Yvona

    2012-01-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia,…

  4. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  5. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Carmina; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

  6. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  7. Core Ideas of Democratic Civic Education and the Great Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the importance of civic education in the transformation from totalitarian communism to constitutional democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The primary question of civic education for this great transformation is: What are the few core ideas of democratic civic education that learners must know and support to prepare them…

  8. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on.

  9. The Development of Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe in the Aftermath of Recent Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadlak, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact of Marxism-Leninism on higher education in central and eastern Europe after World War II. Contends that the dramatic political changes in recent years call for a profound transformation in higher education. Asserts that, despite numerous difficulties, higher education in these nations has embarked on dramatic improvements.…

  10. Laboratories of Reform? The Europeanization and Internationalization of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowska, Dorota; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article deals with higher education (HE) transformations in Central and Eastern Europe in the context of democratization and globalization. The authors first briefly survey the wider canvas of reform since 1989, particularly probing the extent to which the countries of the region may be treated as a distinctive or a cohesive…

  11. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP

  12. The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Stefen, C.; Mors, T.

    2008-09-15

    New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

  13. Estimation of the SO2 source term for the Holuhraun event and its influence on central Europe air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Delia; Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; Maurer, Christian; Wotawa, Gerhard; Stebel, Kerstin; Holla, Robert; Gilge, Stefan; Flemming, Johannes; Stohl, Andreas; Hirtl, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    On 29 August 2014 a fissure eruption began in Holuhraun, Northeastern Iceland, associated with increased volcanic activity in the Bárdarbunga system. For more than 150 days, the eruption released large quantities of SO2 into the atmosphere affecting not only the local Icelandic air quality, but also leading to periods of increased ambient SO2 concentrations in parts of mainland Europe. During the second half of September, significant amounts of SO2 were rapidly transported southward by favourable meteorological conditions and several countries in Central Europe experienced high ground-level SO2 concentrations. The measured concentrations reached and even exceeded the EC directive health thresholds. In this work, we evaluate the air quality effects in Europe during this targeted period using both ground-based and satellite observations (GOME2B and OMI) as well as dispersion modelling with the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. We estimate the volcanic SO2 source emissions by comparing the satellite observations with atmospheric transport model simulations in an inverse modelling approach. The estimated source term is evaluated against independent ground-based observational data (e.g. MAX-DOAS, Brewer) and used as emission term in dispersion model forecasts for evaluating the air quality effects in Europe. In addition, the potential use of air quality data to perform the source term estimation by inversion with ground-based data will also be investigated.

  14. Blackbirds and song thrushes constitute a key reservoir of Borrelia garinii, the causative agent of borreliosis in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Taragel'ová, Veronika; Koci, Juraj; Hanincová, Klára; Kurtenbach, Klaus; Derdáková, Markéta; Ogden, Nick H; Literák, Ivan; Kocianová, Elena; Labuda, Milan

    2008-02-01

    Blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were found to carry 95% of all spirochete-infected tick larvae among 40 bird species captured in Central Europe. More than 90% of the infections were typed as Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana. We conclude that thrushes are key players in the maintenance of these spirochete species in this region of Central Europe.

  15. Qualitative Description of Obscuration Factors in Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    obscuration is produced by smoke munitions or equipment. Screening smokes produced with inventory munitions are emphasized. he environmental factors which...is the coldest part of the atmosphere, about -901C. Ionization and molecular dissociation processes and various chemical reactions caused by the sun’s...interrupted only by frequent early morning fog. The main pressure centers gradually intensify, and by mid -November the four main pressure fields of

  16. Patterns and drivers of Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming of the Holocene induced the rearrangement of vegetation across Europe, including the widely synchronous and rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana) at around 10.6 ka BP (Giesecke et al., 2011). The simultaneity of the hazel expansion across large parts of Europe suggests that a climate shift has triggered that expansion. However, it remains poorly understood, which climate parameter has been effective (Huntley, 1993) because hazel expanded simultaneously in areas that today clearly differ in climate. To better understand the causes we studied Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in NE Germany in high temporal and spatial resolution. Analysis combines pollen data from 60 sites, including high resolution data sets, with present-day site patterns of soil and relief using the extended downscaling approach. Using forward modeling of pollen deposition in each sample site the method seeks that vegetation composition on each site type that produces modeled pollen deposition most similar to empiric pollen deposition. The results (Theuerkauf et al., 2014) indicate that first populations of hazel established soon after the Holocene warming at 11.2 ka. These populations were still small and possibly restricted to warm loving slopes, indicating that low summer warmth was the limiting factor. The widespread expansion of hazel started only after 10.8 ka, possibly following a shift to greater summer warmth. Hazel primarily expanded on sites that are today covered by gleyic soils, from which it largely expelled tree birch. Hazel thus obviously could only expand on sites that received additional wetness from ground- and stagnant water. Giesecke T., Bennett K.D., Birks H.J.B., Bjune A.E., Bozilova E., Feurdean A., Finsinger W., Froyd C., Pokorný P., Rösch M., Seppä H., Tonkov S., Valsecchi V., & Wolters S. (2011) The pace of Holocene vegetation change - testing for synchronous developments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2805-2814. Huntley B. (1993) Rapid

  17. Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers.

    PubMed

    Bramanti, B; Thomas, M G; Haak, W; Unterlaender, M; Jores, P; Tambets, K; Antanaitis-Jacobs, I; Haidle, M N; Jankauskas, R; Kind, C-J; Lueth, F; Terberger, T; Hiller, J; Matsumura, S; Forster, P; Burger, J

    2009-10-02

    After the domestication of animals and crops in the Near East some 11,000 years ago, farming had reached much of central Europe by 7500 years before the present. The extent to which these early European farmers were immigrants or descendants of resident hunter-gatherers who had adopted farming has been widely debated. We compared new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from late European hunter-gatherer skeletons with those from early farmers and from modern Europeans. We find large genetic differences between all three groups that cannot be explained by population continuity alone. Most (82%) of the ancient hunter-gatherers share mtDNA types that are relatively rare in central Europeans today. Together, these analyses provide persuasive evidence that the first farmers were not the descendants of local hunter-gatherers but immigrated into central Europe at the onset of the Neolithic.

  18. Potential bioindicator plant species for ambient ozone in forested mountain areas of central Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B; Musselman, R

    2002-01-01

    From 1993 to 2000, trees, shrubs, forbs and vines were evaluated for symptoms of probable ozone injury in the vicinity of passive ozone samplers or active ozone monitors in forest condition assessment networks in mostly mountainous regions, principally the Carpathian Mountain Range, in the central European countries Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine. Each country was visited at least twice during the time period. Over the course of eight seasons, 29 species of native plants were identified as potential bioindicators of ozone. This is the first report of probable ozone injury on native plants in central Europe. Forbs and shrubs made up the bulk of the species (21 of 29). Potential bioindicators that are widely distributed include the forbs Centaurea nigra. and Impatiens parviflora and the shrubs Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Sambucus racemosa. Ozone concentrations in forcsted areas of central Europe appear to be high enough and of sufficient duration to cause foliar injury on a wide variety of native plants.

  19. Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address

  20. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Mądra, Anna; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2015-06-01

    Sarcophagidae are an important element of carrion insect community. Unfortunately, results on larval and adult Sarcophagidae from forensic carrion studies are virtually absent mostly due to the taxonomic problems with species identification of females and larvae. The impact of this taxon on decomposition of large carrion has not been reliably evaluated. During several pig carcass studies in Poland, large body of data on adult and larval Sarcophagidae was collected. We determined (1) assemblages of adult flesh flies visiting pig carrion in various habitats, (2) species of flesh flies which breed in pig carcasses, and (3) temporal distribution of flesh fly larvae during decomposition. Due to species identification of complete material, including larvae, females, and males, it was possible for the first time to reliably answer several questions related to the role of Sarcophagidae in decomposition of large carrion and hence define their forensic importance. Fifteen species of flesh flies were found to visit pig carcasses, with higher diversity and abundance in grasslands as compared to forests. Sex ratio biased towards females was observed only for Sarcophaga argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. similis and S. carnaria species group. Gravid females and larvae were collected only in the case of S. argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. melanura and S. similis. Sarcophaga caerulescens and S. similis bred regularly in carcasses, while S. argyrostoma was recorded only occasionally. First instar larvae of flesh flies were recorded on carrion earlier or concurrently with first instar larvae of blowflies. Third instar larvae of S. caerulescens were usually observed before the appearance of the third instar blowfly larvae. These results contest the view that flesh flies colonise carcasses later than blowflies. Sarcophaga caerulescens is designated as a good candidate for a broad forensic use in Central European cases.

  1. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment as a key to understand the neotectonics of northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Northern Central Europe is generally regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1200 years (Leydecker, 2009). In a pilot study we analysed the Osning Thrust, which is a one of the major Mesozoic fault zones in northern Central Europe. Several soft-sediment deformation structures like fault-arrays and a sand volcano developed in aeolian sediments, were caused by earthquakes along the Osning Thrust. The growth-strata of faults was dated with the OSL method and showed that the deformation took place between 15.9 ± 1.6 to 13.1 ± 1.5 ka (Brandes et al., 2012, Brandes & Winsemann, 2013). Numerical simulations support the results regarding the timing of the the seismicity and imply that the Late Pleistocene activity of the Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment (Brandes et al., 2012). In a second step we analysed more faults in northern Central Europe. It is evident that the historic seismicity was concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic contraction phase that effected Central Europe in the Late Cretaceous. Between these faults, the seismic activity was almost absent. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrated for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust, the Aller Valley Fault and the Tornquist Zone. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (clusters that shift from time to time) implies that northern Central Europe behaves like a typical intraplate tectonic region. To analyse, if the faults that show pronounced historic seismicity are postglacial faults, we used the Fault Stability Margin (FSM), which is described in more detail in Wu & Hasegawa (1996). The Fault Stability Margins for the major reverse faults that showed historic seismicity in northern Central Europe reach the δFSM=0

  2. Hail hazard derived from historic hail footprints; a probabilistic hail storm catalogue for central Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Maximilian; Bonassi, Alessandro; Oramas-Dorta, Delioma; De Aguinaga, Jose; Cheetham, Rebecca; Moehrlein, Matthias; Riso, Silvia; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe models are widely used in reinsurance risk assessment from natural perils. In this context Guy Carpenter, a reinsurance intermediary, has developed a probabilistic hail model for Central Europe. As part of the hazard development, Guy Carpenter has tasked meteorologists at nowcast GmbH to identify historic hail patterns and individual hail storm tracks over an 8-year period from a continuous lightning dataset, issuing from their lightning detection system, "LINET". Based on historic hail footprints provided by nowcast GmbH, Guy Carpenter has developed a stochastic event generator in order to compute a catalogue consisting of synthetic, but meteorologically reasonable events, representing an 800-year history. The goal of stochastic event generation is to extend the observed hail history to extreme hail scenarios that could cause catastrophic losses to insurance portfolios and to quantify corresponding storm probabilities. Reflecting geographical dependencies, the method uses key attributes of the historic hail tracks and footprints, such as the storm track, length and bearing direction, footprint centre point and storm genesis date. A bootstrapping technique was used to associate simulated hail footprints with a likely storm track, based on historic distributions. The poster shows work in progress on the event set generation results, the computed geographic hazard maps and validation of the frequency and intensity assumptions, using data from nowcast GmbH, the European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) and spatial statistics on insurance claims information.

  3. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    PubMed

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air.

  4. Molecular and morphological circumscription of Mesocestoides tapeworms from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hrčkova, Gabriela; Miterpáková, Martina; O'Connor, Anne; Šnábel, Viliam; Olson, Peter D

    2011-04-01

    Here we examine 3157 foxes from 6 districts of the Slovak Republic in order to determine for the first time the distribution, prevalence and identity of Mesocestodes spp. endemic to this part of central Europe. During the period 2001-2006, an average of 41.9% of foxes were found to harbour Mesocestoides infections. Among the samples we confirmed the widespread and common occurrence of M. litteratus (Batsch, 1786), and report the presence, for the first time, of M. lineatus (Goeze, 1782) in the Slovak Republic, where it has a more restricted geographical range and low prevalence (7%). Using a combination of 12S rDNA, CO1 and ND1 mitochondrial gene sequences together with analysis of 13 morphometric characters, we show that the two species are genetically distinct and can be differentiated by discrete breaks in the ranges of the male and female reproductive characters, but not by the more commonly examined characters of the scolex and strobila. Estimates of interspecific divergence within Mesocestoides ranged from 9 to 18%, whereas intraspecific variation was less than 2%, and phylogenetic analyses of the data showed that despite overlapping geographical ranges, the two commonly reported European species are not closely related, with M. litteratus more closely allied to North American isolates of Mesocestoides than to M. lineatus. We confirm that morphological analysis of reproductive organs can be used to reliably discriminate between these often sympatric species obtained from red foxes.

  5. A Signal of Ice Loading in Late Pleistocene Activity of the Sudetic Marginal Fault (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartvich, F.; Stepancikova, P.; Rockwell, T. K.; Nývlt, D.; Stemberk, J.; Rood, D. H.; Hók, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Myers, M.; Luttrell, K. M.; Wechsler, N.

    2014-12-01

    We combine paleoseismic trench and cosmogenic dating results to study the late Pleistocene-Holocene history of morphologically pronounced NW-SE trending Sudetic Marginal Fault (SMF) situated at the northeastern limit of the Bohemian Massif in central Europe. Eighteen trenches were excavated at the Bila Voda site to study 3D distribution of a beheaded alluvial fan on the NE block of the fault and to find the offset "feeder channel" that sourced the deposits. We interpret a small drainage of about 40-60 m to the SE of the fan apex as the feeder channel. A 2.5 m depth profile was collected for cosmogenic exposure dating from a well-preserved part of the fan. Using a simple model that accounts for pre-depositional exposure (inheritance) and assuming no surface erosion, 10Be concentrations are well-fit with an apparent exposure age of ~12 ka. However, this is a minimum limiting age if the surface was eroded by gelifluction in the late Pleistocene. Assuming a ~25 ka OSL age for the base of the fan apex it gives a left-lateral slip rate of ~2 mm/yr. As the Holocene deposits do not show significant displacement, most of the recorded slip took place during Late Pleistocene with corresponding slip rate of 2.8 to 3.5 mm/yr. Bila Voda site lies ~150 km south from the Late Pleistocene Weichselian maximum (~20 ka) ice-sheet front. Thus, we hypothesize that the slip rate acceleration was due to ice-loading and subsequent unloading during deglaciation. To test this, we calculated the stress induced in the lithosphere from ablation of the Weichselian ice sheet modeled as a flexing elastic plate. Preliminary modeling results indicate that complete deglaciation alters the stress field such that it would inhibit left lateral failure on the SMF, consistent with observations suggesting no slip occurred during the Holocene. Although the SMF is ~150 km from the Weichselian ice sheet front, it is well within the flexural rebound area of the ice sheet, causing normal stress on the SMF to

  6. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH < 1.5x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 are found for p,p'-DDT, kOH < 0.75x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDE and kOH < 1.0x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDD. The kOH values for DDE and DDD are significantly lower than estimated (QSAR). References

  7. Pyogenic liver abscess: differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-05-28

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients.

  8. A case of Distributed Continental Collision: Late Cretaceous Intraplate Shortening from Central Europe to North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Jaehne, F.

    2008-12-01

    Intraplate thrusting and basin inversion affected west-central Europe in Late Cretaceous time. The timing of this event is fairly well constrained between c. 90 and 65 Ma. The dominantly NW-trending European intraplate structures were often interpreted to have been dextrally transpressive, reflecting a northward push induced by the early collision of the Adria microplate with Europe's southern margin. However, many fault kinematic and other structural data from central Europe indicate dip-slip contraction essentially perpendicular to the main faults, suggesting a push from the southwest. In addition, recent plate reconstructions of the Mediterranean around 85 Ma place Adria far to the southeast and roughly along strike of the central European intraplate structures. The early Alpine nappe stack on Adria's leading edge was still separated from Europe by subducting oceanic lithosphere and had entered a phase of extension after the first orogenic event. All this makes Alpine collision an unlikely cause for intraplate thrusting in Europe. Rather, the timing, kinematics and location of structures suggest that intraplate shortening in Europe was a direct effect of convergence with the Iberian and African plates, with stresses transmitted across the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone. This hypothesis is supported by structures of Late Cretaceous age indicating SW-NE to S-N shortening in France, Spain (particularly the onset of convergence in the Pyrenees) and northwestern Africa. In contrast to other examples such as the Laramides, intraplate thrusting in this case was not a foreland phenomenon related to a coeval orogen. It does not reflect a transition from subduction to continental collision, but the beginning of convergence across two former transform boundaries. This system which included no strongly thickened and weakened crust was mostly governed by far-field stresses and therefore responded rapidly to plate reorganizations. Specifically, the onset of thrusting

  9. Lightning, overshooting top and hail characteristics for strong convective storms in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurković, Petra Mikuš; Mahović, Nataša Strelec; Počakal, Damir

    2015-07-01

    Lightning activity in storms with overshooting tops and hail-producing storms over Central Europe is studied, in order to find typical lightning characteristics that can be useful in nowcasting of the severity of the storm and its ability to produce hail. The first part of the study gives the analysis of lightning activity in thunderstorms with overshooting tops (OT) for the warm part of the year (May-September) from 2009 to 2010 over central and southeastern Europe. Deep convective clouds with OT were detected in Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, using methods based on the infrared window (IRW, 10.8 μm) channel and absorption channels of water vapor (WV, 6.2 μm) and ozone (O3, 9.7 μm) in the form of brightness temperature differences. The locations and times of the detected OT were compared to the distribution and types of lightning strokes, which were provided by the LINET Lightning Location System. The results show that the spatial distribution of lightning generally coincides with the spatial distribution of the detected OT. The largest numbers of lightning strokes and OT were found in western Hungary, southeastern Austria, northeastern Slovenia and the northern Adriatic. The largest number of OT occurred between 1600 and 1800 UTC, whereas from 0600 to 1000 UTC OT detections were rather rare. Lightning activity showed a similar temporal distribution, with an increase in lightning activity evident at or close to the time of the OT detections. At the time of and close to the location of the OT, the lightning was found to occur well above the tropopause and was clearly related to the OT of cumulonimbus clouds. In the second part of the study, lightning characteristics are studied for 35 events of hail-producing thunderstorms over Croatia in the summer months (May to September), from 2008 to 2012. The lightning distribution, also registered by LINET, was compared to hail parameters based on measurements

  10. Logistics: The Soviets’ Nemesis to Conventional War in Central Europe?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    OTIC FILE COPY" AIR WAR COLLEGE InN4 RESEARCH REPORT LOGISTICS: THE SOVIETS’ NEMESIS TO ICONVENTIONAL WAR IN CENTRAL EUROPE? LT COL GILBERT H...explosive, conventional weapons. (8:74) Publications addressing a conventional war in a European scenario have also increased notably. Research ...weaknesses of Soviet logistical capabilities to sustain maneuver war- fare. Accepting the fact that time is a restricting fac- tor to the research

  11. Changes in the Ozone Content over Central Europe During Reversals of Stratospheric Circulation in Late Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entzian, G.; Grasnick, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A superposed epoch analysis during late winter zonal wind reversals was carried out from 18 year observation series (1963 to 1980) of the meridional geopotential height gradient in the 30 mb level (latitude mean) and of the ozone content over central Europe. Experimental data suggest that if planetary waves are responsible for the additional meridional ozone transport during stratospheric warmings, this transport has to take place at heights other than those up to the ozone maximum in the middle latitudes.

  12. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  13. Modelling and Observation of Mineral Dust Optical Properties over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilinski, Michał T.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Zawadzka, Olga; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Kumala, Wojciech; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemysław; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zagajewski, Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    This paper is focused on Saharan dust transport to Central Europe/Poland; we compare properties of atmospheric Saharan dust using data from NAAPS, MACC, AERONET as well as observations obtained during HyMountEcos campaign in June 2012. Ten years of dust climatology shows that long-range transport of Saharan dust to Central Europe is mostly during spring and summer. HYSPLIT back-trajectories indicate airmass transport mainly in November, but it does not agree with modeled maxima of dust optical depth. NAAPS model shows maximum of dust optical depth ( 0.04-0.05, 550 nm) in April-May, but the MACC modeled peak is broader ( 0.04). During occurrence of mineral dust over Central-Europe for 14% (NAAPS) / 12% (MACC) of days dust optical depths are above 0.05 and during 4% (NAAPS) / 2.5% (MACC) of days dust optical depths exceed 0.1. The HyMountEcos campaign took place in June-July 2012 in the mountainous region of Karkonosze. The analysis includes remote sensing data from lidars, sun-photometers, and numerical simulations from NAAPS, MACC, DREAM8b models. Comparison of simulations with observations demonstrates the ability of models to reasonably reproduce aerosol vertical distributions and their temporal variability. However, significant differences between simulated and measured AODs were found. The best agreement was achieved for MACC model.

  14. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently

  15. Soil Climate over US High Plains and Central Europe During 21st Century - Trends and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalud, Z.; Trnka, M.; Hlavinka, P.; Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Semeradova, D.; Hunt, E.; Eitzinger, J.

    2009-12-01

    Soils are an important control on water fluxes in the landscape and, in many parts of the world, act as the most important water reservoir mitigating the effects of rainfall variability. Soil moisture and temperature parameters, as well as hydric and thermic soil regimes, are inherently more stable and quantifiable than their atmospheric counterparts and are essential in determining the environmental conditions of any region. To investigate the impacts of climate change in the selected regions, the SoilClim model was utilized. SoilClim is based on an enhanced daily water balance model that incorporates interactions between the soil and atmosphere through a dynamic module of vegetation cover. In addition, effects of snow cover on the water balance (through freezing and thawing) and CO2 concentration on the evapotranspiration, are taken into account. The model was extensively tested over the area of Central Europe and the U.S. High Plains region in terms of its ability to reproduce observed soil moisture and temperature as well as values of reference and actual evapotranspiration estimated by other methods (e.g. Bowen ratio, eddy covariance and ETgage) over a number of different canopies. The present contribution summarizes the most recent experiments that were carried out in the U.S. High Plains region and in Central Europe (Czech Republic and Austria), focusing on the impact of expected climate change. The issues that will be discussed include: 1) an assessment of the expected change of key soil climate parameters (e.g. overall soil water balance, soil temperature at 50 cm, soil water content or frequency of dry days) during the 21st century; 2) a comparison of the present soil hydric and thermic regimes with those expected under the climate change and the possible consequences (e.g. shifts of Pedalfer and Pedocal boundary); 3) a comparison of SoilClim outputs based on a set of downscaled GCMs (IPCC-AR4 dataset) under various emission scenarios and time horizons

  16. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  17. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. Methodology/Principal Findings Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles) in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895–1899 and 1935–1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos) partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. Conclusions/Significance Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long-term maintenance of oak

  18. Cancer mortality in central-eastern Europe: facts behind the figures.

    PubMed

    Döbrossy, Lajos

    2002-06-01

    An epidemiological assessment of the status and trends of cancer mortality shows that Europe is still divided by the rate of cancer death. Overall, cancer mortality in Europe has been steadily decreasing since the early 1990s. However, when the data are broken down, the burden of cancer in the central-eastern European countries is substantial, and mortality has actually continued to increase. Differences in lifestyle and environmental exposure are the most likely causes, and these are inevitably linked to political, social, and economic inequalities. For the time being, improvements in the health of the population are not a high priority for the new democratic governments. Even if attempts at cancer prevention are eventually realised, a major cancer burden will persist for many decades to come.

  19. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuletić, Dijana; Potočić, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletković, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Galić, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijašič, Dragan; Zupanič, Matjaž; Simončič, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public

  20. Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  2. Using historical ecology to reassess the conservation status of coniferous forests in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Švarcová, Markéta Gabriela; Křížová, Lucie; Suchánková, Silvie; Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim

    2017-02-01

    Forests cover approximately one-third of Central Europe. Oak (Quercus) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are considered the natural dominants at low and middle elevations, respectively. Many coniferous forests (especially of Picea abies) occur primarily at midelevations, but these are thought to have resulted from forestry plantations planted over the past 200 years. Nature conservation and forestry policy seek to promote broadleaved trees over conifers. However, there are discrepancies between conservation guidelines (included in Natura 2000) and historical and palaeoecological data with regard to the distribution of conifers. Our aim was to bring new evidence to the debate on the conservation of conifers versus broadleaved trees at midelevations in Central Europe. We created a vegetation and land-cover model based on pollen data for a highland area of 11,300 km(2) in the Czech Republic and assessed tree species composition in the forests before the onset of modern forestry based on 18th-century archival sources. Conifers dominated the study region throughout the entire Holocene (approximately 40-60% of the area). Broadleaved trees were present in a much smaller area than envisaged by current ideas of natural vegetation. Rather than casting doubt on the principles of Central European nature conservation in general, our results highlight the necessity of detailed regional investigations and the importance of historical data in challenging established notions on the natural distribution of tree species.

  3. The Structure of the Mantle Lithosphere in Central Europe from S-Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Data from about 650 permanent and temporary seismic broadband stations accessed from the open EIDA Archive yielded about 49.000 S-receiver functions. Selection criteria were a signal-to-noise ratio of at least two of the S signal on the SV component, low noise on the P component before the S arrival time and a relatively good approximation of the delta im- pulse on the SV component after deconvolution. All traces were checked visually. The time domain traces were migrated to depth domain by back projection along the ray path. Smooth images of major discontinuities in the upper mantle were obtained by applying an eight-seconds low-pass filter. Observations of the Moho and the discontinuity at 410 km depth serve as a check of the quality of the analysis. We observe two widespread negative (i.e., downward reduction in velocity) discontinuities. The shallower one in about the 50 km to 150 km depth interval occurs everywhere in the study area and is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in Phanerozoic Europe. According to similar observations in the north American craton, it is interpreted as mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) in the east European craton (EEC). The second negative discontinuity seen beneath the EEC, the Trans-European Suture Zone, the Bohemian Massive, and parts of the Pannonian Basin lies at a depth interval of about 150 km to 300 km. It is interpreted as cratonic LAB reaching well the S and E of the Torn- quist-Teisseyre Zone, which is considered the boundary of the EEC at the shallower levels. The deeper cratonic LAB has anomalous topography: Below the Pannonian Basin it shal- lows to c. 150 km but deepens to c. 300 km below the Bohemian Massif. There is a jump in the cratonic LAB along the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif, where the LAB sud- denly changes depth from 200 km in the north to 300 km in the south. We tentatively inter- pret these observations as a result of overthrusting the EEC mantle lithosphere during the

  4. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  5. Nine Days to Oder: An Alternate NATO Strategy for Central Region, Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    e meat agncy.r; My JUNE 1980 0 C:11 NINE DAYS TO ODER ". AN ALTERNATE NATO STRATEGY FOR Ark CENTRAL REGION, EUROPE - by Colonel Philip W. Handley...0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#.) COL Philip W. Handley, LTC Aadu Karemaa 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS tC. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT...government agen ..... | A C, " /VL/1’ K; ABSTRACT AUTHOR(S): Philip W. Handley, COL, USAF Ronald A. Roberge, COL, CE Aadu Karemaa, LTC, AR Study Adviser

  6. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  7. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing drug injection, economic decline and failing health and healthcare systems. There is a need to address the professional and ideological opposition - even in countries considered to be fully functioning democracies - to evidence-based public health interventions like harm reduction, coupled with treating HIV/AIDS for all those in need, if countries are to provide a more effective response.

  8. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 -a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting.

  9. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 –a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting. PMID:27846288

  10. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism.

    PubMed

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-11-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.

  11. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fér, Tomáš; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. Methods DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. Key Results The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Conclusions The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the

  12. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described.

  13. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  14. Morbus Behçet – a rare disease in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Jurowski, Piotr; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Kot, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. The entity is endemic in countries of Eastern and Central Asia, especially Turkey and Iran, but rarely seen in Central Europe. As there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should be based on clinical criteria. Frequently a definitive diagnosis is established within several years or months after the first manifestations appear. The increased number of cases, recently described worldwide also in the Polish population, indicates that the disease could spread out of endemic areas. The aim of this manuscript is to present the clinical picture, diagnosis criteria and therapeutic approaches of this “international disease” which currently is observed not only in emigrants from Asia but also in native Polish citizens. PMID:26788079

  15. Chemical characteristics (REE, etc.) of Paleozoic and Mesozoic graywackes and sandstones from Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedepohl, Karl Hans; Simon, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    During the Variscan orogeny in Central Europe, partial melting in the lower continental crust formed granitic magmas, which intruded into the upper crust and left compounds of Ca (plus Eu2+), Mg, etc. in the lower crust. From the late Paleozoic decomposition of the tonalitic upper crust, sedimentary graywackes were produced reflecting the composition of this crust. The repeated reworking of the sedimentary cover caused the formation of sands. Sandstones as their products of consolidation contain increasing fractions of quartz and decreasing feldspar from Carboniferous and Triassic to Cretaceous age. A distinct negative Eu anomaly characterizes the majority of these rocks. The latter is imprinted by the Variscan magmatism. Quartz as used for numerous Medieval wood ash glasses is marked for its Central European origin by a distinct negative Eu anomaly in contrast to many soda glasses produced outside Germany mostly with a small or none Eu anomaly.

  16. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, D.S.; Oleksyn, J.

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  17. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  18. From the Party/State to Multiethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in Europe and Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews anecdotal and field experience in Europe and Central Asia in meeting the challenges of social cohesion and draws some comparisons between the social cohesion of education systems in the European and Central Asian regions and that of the United States. Outlines ways in which public education has contributed to social cohesion in the West.…

  19. The identity and genetic characterization of Simulium reptans (Diptera: Simuliidae) from central and northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kúdela, Matúš; Brúderová, Tatiana; Jedlička, Ladislav; Bernotienė, Rasa; Celec, Peter; Szemes, Tomáš

    2014-05-27

    Although Simulium reptans Linnaeus is one of the first two blackfly species ever described its identity and taxonomy are still not precisely defined. S. reptans and closely related species from central and northern Europe were characterized based on genetic variability, haplotype number and haplotype distribution. S. galeratum can be considered a synonym of S. reptans, but despite this, two distinct species are present in Great Britain and central Europe. The available name S. reptantoides Carlsson can be used for the second species; earlier reported as S. reptans from Great Britain and central Europe. A total of 80 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences were analyzed: 44 S. reptans, 36 S. reptantoides; 38 from Great Britain, 19 from Slovakia, 8 from Lithuania, 3 from Latvia and 12 from Sweden. In 73 individuals a 606 bp section (long sequences), and in all 80 individuals a fully overlapping 453 bp section (short sequences) were analyzed. Results confirmed that S. reptans and S. reptantoides are two genetically isolated species. The variation between these species is 80.01% of total variation; approximately six times higher than the variation among the populations within species. The genetic divergence between species is 7.02% in long sequences and 7.46% in short ones. The genetic divergence within species is 1.18% in S. reptans and 0.83% in S. reptantoides in long sequences, and 1.38% and 1.05% in short sequences. Maximum likelihood trees, maximum parsimony trees and the haplotype network constructed using TCS showed that each species consists of two units, labelled as A and B forms. The distribution of the S. reptans forms is not identical-in Slovakia and the Baltic area only S. reptans B was found, meanwhile both A and B forms were present in Great Britain and Sweden; with the A form clearly dominant. In contrast, both forms of S. reptantoides were present in Great Britain and Slovakia, and absent in Scandinavia and the Baltic area. Additional

  20. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  1. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  2. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  3. Responses of large volcanic eruptions in the instrumental and documentary climatic data over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Písek, Jan; Brázdil, Rudolf

    2006-03-01

    Responses of large volcanic eruptions in selected long temperature series from Austria, the Czech Republic and Germany as well as in three global radiation series in Central Europe are studied. In the example of seven large tropical eruptions (Krakatau 1883; Pelée, Soufriére and Santa María 1902; Agung, 1963; El Chichón, 1982; Mt Pinatubo, 1991) it has been demonstrated that volcanic signal in regional series is not so strongly expressed as in the hemispheric scale owing to different local effects and circulation patterns. This is also valid in the case of two further discussed eruptions of Tambora (1815) and Katmai (1912). The responses of eruptions in areas closer to Central Europe such as Iceland or Italy are more important. In nine analysed cases with VEI = 4-5 with a single exception of the Hekla eruption (1917), cold seasons were observed to follow the eruption. Responses to the Lakagígar eruption (1783) of Iceland with important impacts are also discussed in detail. Moreover, correlation between temperatures (annual and winter half-year series) and NAOI is prevailingly smaller for the period following eruptions than in the period preceding eruptions. The importance of documentary evidence as a valuable source of the information about the impacts of volcanic eruptions is demonstrated.

  4. On the assessment of urban land-surface impacts on climate in regional climate model simulations over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    When aiming higher resolution in dynamical downscaling, which is common trend in CORDEX activities, the effects of land use and land use changes are playing increasing role. This is especially true for the urban areas, which in high resolution can occupy significant part of a single gridbox, if not being even bigger in case of big cities or megacities. Moreover, the role of cities will increase in future, as the population within the urban areas is growing faster, with the estimate for Europe of about 84% living in cities. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been coupled with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM), which can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Additionally, the version of land-surface scheme using CLM is tested and effect of the urban environment, which is included in the CLM scheme, will be assessed. Both versions will be compared and validated using EOBS data.

  5. Bridging global and microregional scales: ploidy distribution in Pilosella echioides (Asteraceae) in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Kubátová, Barbora; Szeląg, Zbigniew; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A detailed knowledge of cytotype distribution can provide important insights into the evolutionary history of polyploid systems. This study aims to explore the spatial distribution of different cytotypes in Pilosella echioides at various spatial scales (from the whole distributional range to the population level) and to outline possible evolutionary scenarios for the observed geographic pattern. Methods DNA-ploidy levels were estimated using DAPI flow cytometry in 4410 individuals of P. echioides from 46 populations spread over the entire distribution range in central Europe. Special attention was paid to the cytotype structure in the most ploidy-diverse population in south-west Moravia. Key Results Five different cytotypes (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x and 6x) were found, the last being recorded for the first time. Although ploidy-uniform (di- or tetraploid) sites clearly prevailed, nearly one-quarter of the populations investigated harboured more (up to all five) cytotypes. Whereas penta- and hexaploids constituted only a minority of the samples, a striking predominance of the triploid cytotype was observed in several populations. Conclusions The representative sampling confirmed previous data on cytotype distribution, i.e. the spatial aggregation of mixed-ploidy populations in south-west Moravia and Lower Austria and the predominance of ploidy-uniform populations in other parts of the area investigated. Recurrent origin of polyploids from diploid progenitors via unreduced gametes and their successful establishment are considered the key factors promoting intrapopulational ploidy mixture (‘primary hybrid zones’). As an alternative to the generally accepted theory of cytotype co-existence based on the development of different means of inter-ploidy reproductive isolation, it is suggested that a long-term ploidy mixture can also be maintained in free-mating populations provided that the polyploids originate with a sufficient frequency. In addition, the

  6. Strain Distribution in Central Europe: FEM Modeling and Comparison with GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araszkiewicz, A.; Bogusz, J.; Jarosinski, M.; Lenik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of this research is to demonstrate how the results of permanent GPS measurements can be understand in terms of recent geodynamics by applying numerical modeling method. On the other hand, the results of modeling are testing the consistency of the GPS measurements. The method of finite element analysis was applied to develop two-dimensional model of strain and stress field in Central Europe. The FEM model was prepared in the ABAQUS software, consisting of graphic modules and ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS Standard modules for solving the static task. The structure of the model was created in the plane Cartesian coordinate system, assuming that for this size of model the earth curvature will not affect the stress and strain direction significantly. Simplified elastic model with frictional contact elements was used for defining mechanical properties of the model. The model consists of 48 parts representing major tectonic units/blocks characterized by different material properties. The stiffness of tectonic blocks expressed by Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was determined based on the lithospheric thickness, surface heat flow and simplified lithological column of the lithosphere. For dislocations, different values of friction coefficient was tested in course of the trial-and-error modeling than the best fitted options were finally adopted in the model. The dynamic (force and pressure) boundary conditions were applied to the elastic model based on the recent tectonic stress directions from the World Stress Map Database. To allow fast changes of the loads the model boundary were designed normal to tectonic stresses. After each computing round the simulated stress and strain were compared with that measured, paying special attention to the GPS measurements from Poland and the adjacent areas. We have used coordinates and velocities from EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densified by Polish national Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) ASG-EUPOS. They were obtained

  7. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M.; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A.; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest. PMID:26835186

  8. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  9. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor.

  10. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine

  11. The New Faces of Europe. Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," offers some basic data on the contemporary human geography of the European continent, with a focus on central and eastern Europe. The document first describes civic issues in the teaching of geography and cartography of the new Europe. The basic…

  12. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals.

  13. Using BeiDou system for precise positioning in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniak, Dawid; Cellmer, Slawomir; Nowel, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    In 2012 the Chinese navigation satellite system called BeiDou System (BDS) has reached the regional operational capabilities over the area of East Asia. Currently the BDS system consists of 5 medium orbit satellites MEO, 6 geosynchronous satellites IGSO and 5 geostationary satellites GEO and provides regional coverage by its navigation signals. Also in Europe BDS satellites can be used to determine position. In 2015 the third phase of BSD system development has started, aimed at providing global coverage and compatibility with other GNSS systems. As a result, BDS will broadcast signals at the same frequency as GPS L1 and L5 and Galileo E1, E5a and E5b. In the presented research we carried out relative positioning using the MAFA method. This was the first time when this method was applied to process BDS signals. The results show that it is possible to obtain precise position in central Europe using BDS signals only. However, with its current constellation, this is not possible 24/7, but in periodic time windows.

  14. Seismo-acoustic signals of the 2013 Russian meteor recorded across Central and Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The meteor over Russia entering the Earth's atmosphere on 15 February 2013 around 03:20UT near the city of Chelyabinsk was the largest since the 1908 Tunguska fireball. As such the shock waves generated by this event were observed at infrasonic stations globally, in particular the network of some 45 of the planned 60 infrasound systems of the International Monitoring System (IMS) being deployed for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Furthermore the shock waves coupling into the ground near the source location were observed as Rayleigh waves at seismic stations to distances of more than 4000 km. Beyond the acoustic observations that were made at infrasound sensors we report here on additional observations of the acoustic waves which have coupled into the Earth at the receiver. The corresponding observations were made in Central Europe, in particular at the Gräfenberg broad-band array, as well as in Northern Europe (NORSAR in Scandinavia and on Spitsbergen), where also broad-band seismic array stations are located. That indeed the acoustic arrival from the bolide was recorded can be confirmed by frequency-wavenumber analyses giving compatible velocities and back-azimuths for the ground-truth source location over Russia. Theses observations are compatible with IMS station observations and also with shock wave arrivals on seismic stations on the Eurasian platform.

  15. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  16. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3− increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  17. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3(-) increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank.

  18. Links between central Greenland stable isotopes, blocking and extreme climate variability over Europe at decadal to multidecadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Werner, M.; Ionita, M.

    2016-10-01

    The link between central Greenland stable oxygen isotopes, atmospheric blocking frequency and cold temperature extremes at decadal to multidecadal time scales is investigated using observed and proxy data as well as model experiments. A composite analysis reveals that positive stable isotope anomalies in central Greenland are associated with enhanced blocking activity in the Atlantic European region. Several indices of blocking activity in the Atlantic European region are higher correlated with central Greenland stable isotope time series than with the North Atlantic Oscillation indices both in observations and model simulation. Furthermore, the blocking frequency anomaly pattern associated with central Greenland stable isotope variability is similar to the blocking anomaly pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. A composite analysis reveals that stable isotope variations in central Greenland are related to a large-scale pattern in the frequency of extreme low temperature events with significant positive anomalies over Europe and a southwest to northeast dipolar pattern over Asia. During observational period central Greenland isotope records, blocking and extreme temperature indices over Europe show enhanced variability 10-30 and 50-70 years. Similar quasi-periodicities dominate the spectrum of central Greenland isotope variability during the last millennium. We argue that long-term variations of climate extreme indices over Europe and Asia, as derived from observational data, can be put into a long-term perspective using central Greenland stable isotope ice core records.

  19. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  20. North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at left and plant switch house at right (series 1 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  2. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Central and Northern Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species) and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates. PMID:21738431

  3. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  4. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  5. Types of geographical distribution of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in Central Europe *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107

  6. A Decade of Transformation: Educational Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    The changes in Central and Eastern Europe caused by upheavals at the beginning of the 1990s had great impact on the formation and implementation of educational policies. A comparison of patterns in Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic shows common features which were rooted in the collapse of the communist system. At the same time these transformation processes were marked by considerable diversity. To elucidate these commonalities and differences, the following problem areas are examined: (a) decentralisation of responsibilities; (b) financing and privatisation; (c) structural reforms; (d) curricular reforms; and (e) evaluation, assessment and examinations. These developments are considered in the light of various theories about how periods of social transformation unfold. The article helps to throw light on the differences between the countries of the region in terms of how the educational changes were perceived and carried out.

  7. Multi-agent simulations of the electricity market in central Europe.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Koritarov, V.; Thimmapuram, P. R.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-01-01

    Researchers use agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) and applications in electricity markets in Central Europe. They look at production cost, impact of CO{sub 2} emission allowances, strategic bidding in Germany and demand response. Advantages of using ABMS for market power analysis are more realistic market behavior than equilibrium models and detailed representation of physical system and market rules. Some challenges with ABMS are complex process to analyze results which makes it often necessary to run a high number of simulations and it is difficult to draw general conclusions. The case study looked at CO{sub 2} scheme that increases price and GenCo profits and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. Price responsive demand an important countermeasure to market power.

  8. The "Geomorphologic Diagonal" of Central Europe - towards a new morphotectonic interpretation of macroforms in average mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    Modern methods of low temperature thermochronology are able to throw light on the geomorphological development of macrorelief landforms. A rarely investigated problem concerns the orientation and morphotectonic evolution of Central European uplands (low to mid-elevation mountain ranges). A conspicuous NW-SE striking boundary takes course through Germany from the Osning and Teutoburg Forest in the NW to the Bavarian Forest in the SE. I call this line the "geomorphological diagonal". East of this line, more or less NW-SE striking morphotectonic features (e.g., Harz Mountains, Sudety) dominate the macrorelief up to the eastern border of Central Europe (Thornquist-Teysseire Lineament), with the exception of the Ohre Rift and Central Bohemia. West of this line, the macrorelief is either characterized by NNE-SSW to N-S oriented structures (e.g., Upper Rhine Rift) and, to a lesser extent, by (S)SW-(E)NE mountain ranges (southern Rhenish Slate Mountains and Ore Mountains) or by no predominance at all. In the Lower Rhine Embayment and along the Middle Rhine River, (N)NW-(S)SE directed morphotectonic features influence the low mountain ranges. In several cases geologists have proven that NW-SE morphotectonic structures are related to the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian to Campanian) "basin inversion" (e.g., von Eynatten et al. 2008). A compilation of low temperature thermochronological data (AFT, [U-Th]/He) from Central Europe clearly supports strong crustal cooling during the Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary in morphotectonically protruded crustal blocks east of the geomorphological diagonal, whereas west of it the age data available so far exhibit a much larger scatter from Upper Paleozoic to Tertiary without clear evidence of an outstanding Upper Cretaceous crustal cooling event. Based on this data I hypothesize that east of the diagonal macroforms of uplifted denudation surfaces ("peneplains" or "etchplains") may be inherited from the Cretaceous whereas west of it

  9. A tectonic model for the spatial occurrence of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits - applications to Central Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A structural-tectonic model, which was developed to assess the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits and associated polymetallic vein systems for the Matra Mountains, Hungary, has been expanded here and applied to other parts of central Europe. The model explains how granitoid stocks are emplaced and hydrothermal fluids flow within local strain features (duplexes) within strike-slip fault systems that develop in continental crust above subducting plates. Areas of extension that lack shear at the corners and along the edges of the fault duplexes are structural traps for the granitoid stocks associated with porphyry copper deposits. By contrast, polymetallic vein deposits are emplaced where shear and extension are prevalent in the interior of the duplexes. This model was applied to the Late Cretaceous-age porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Banat-Timok-Srednogorie region of Romania-Serbia-Bulgaria and the middle Miocene-age deposits in Romania and Slovakia. In the first area, porphyry copper deposits are most commonly located at the corners, and occasionally along the edges, of strike-slip fault duplexes, and the few polymetallic vein deposits identified are located at interior sites of the duplexes. In the second area, the model accounts for the preferred sites of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) and central Slovakian volcanic field (Slovakia).

  10. Human impact and colluvial sediment storages in Central Europe since the Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlummer, Manuela; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The adoption of agricultural techniques during the early Neolithic persistently affected sediment fluxes in geomorphic hillslope and adjacent river systems. Since then soil erosion and colluviation has become important geomorphic processes in hillslope-channel-systems. Soil erosion in turn affected human societies by soil degradation causing dramatic shifts of settlement centres. Erosion induced soil degradation initiated by land use activities is considered as a major link between the interaction of humans and their environment. To test this hypothesis a large-scale synoptic analysis of local case studies is currently under progress within the Collaborative Research Centre "Our Way to Europe", which deals with human environmental interaction and human mobility in the late Quaternary. In this study it is intended to achieve the following four aims: i) a reconstruction of the spatial trajectory of the beginning colluvial process, ii) the identification of crucial controlling factors of colluviation, iii) the quantification of colluvial sediment storage in Central Europe, iv) a spatio-temporal analysis of the colluviation process. The methodological approach includes the compilation of a colluvial database for Central Europe containing information on sediment depth, volumes, sedimentation rates and sediment ages. The database will be completed by own data collections in a small catchment and by calculating a sediment budget for the Pleisbach catchment (Pleiser Hügelland, near Bonn, Germany). Based on this colluvial data an isoline map of the spatial variable starting times of colluviation is generated. The isolines will be compared to archaeological maps of European neolithisation in order to identify stagnancies in expansion of Neolithic techniques in colluvial sediment archives. Furthermore a semi-quantitative erosion index will be developed that integrates qualitative information on controlling factors of colluviation, i. e. vegetation, land use, settlement

  11. Remote Sensing and Remote Control Activities in Europe and America: Part 2--Remote Sensing Ground Stations in Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.

  12. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  13. Distribution of invasive Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in the East-Central Europe is driven by climatic and local environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Gagala, Ilona; Jasser, Iwona; Karosiene, Jurate; Kasperoviciene, Jurate; Kobos, Justyna; Koreiviene, Judita; Soininen, Janne; Szczurowska, Agnieszka; Woszczyk, Michal; Mankiewicz-Boczek, Joanna

    2017-03-09

    Mechanisms behind expansion of an invasive cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii have not been fully resolved and different hypotheses, such as global warming, are suggested. In the East-Central Europe, it is widely occurring in western part of Poland but only in single locations in the East due to some limiting factors. Therefore, broad scale phytoplankton survey including 117 randomly selected lakes in Poland and Lithuania was conducted. The results showed that C. raciborskii occurred widely in western part of Poland but was absent from other regions and Lithuania except one lake. The regions in which C. raciborskii was present had higher annual mean air temperature, higher maximum air temperature of the warmest month and higher minimum temperature of the coldest month demonstrating that average air temperature, and indirectly, the duration of growing season might be more important factor driving C. raciborskii distribution than measured in situ water temperature. In turn, the presence of C. raciborskii in single localities may be more related to physiological adaptations of separated ecotype. Collectively, these results provide novel evidence on the influence of temperature on C. raciborskii distribution in East-European regions but also indicate high ecological plasticity of this species.

  14. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training…

  15. Poverty and Ethnicity: A Cross-Country Study of Roma Poverty in Central Europe. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenga, Ana; Ringold, Dena; Tracy, William Martin

    Roma, or "gypsies," are the main poverty risk group in many countries of central and eastern Europe. Living standards for the Roma have deteriorated more severely during the region's transition to a market economy than they have for other population groups, and Roma have been poorly positioned to take advantage of emerging economic and…

  16. Finding the Answers: A Look at Central and Eastern Europe. [and] Setting Up Special Services: The Trade Union Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poloni, Cesare; Flechsenhar, Ullrich H.

    1990-01-01

    Poloni reviews implications for unions of recent economic, social, technological, and political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Flechsenhar states that unions play a role in the development and restructuring of developing countries by providing special services to meet the economic and social needs of their members. (SK)

  17. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  18. Evaluation of Enviro-HIRLAM model and aerosols effect during wildfires episodes in Europe and Central Russia in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuterman, Roman; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Baklanov, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil

    2014-05-01

    The summer of 2010 was characterized by severe weather events such as floods, heat waves and droughts across Middle East, most of Europe and European Russia. Among them the wildfires in Portugal and European Russia were some of the most prominent and led to substantial increase of atmospheric aerosols concentration. For instance, pollution from Russian wildfires, which were the most noticeable, spread around the entire central part of the country and also dispersed towards the Northern Europe. This study is devoted to Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model evaluation and analysis of radiation balance change due to increased aerosol burden caused by wildfires in Russia. For this purpose the model was forced by boundary and initial conditions produced by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) IFS and MOZART models for meteorology and atmospheric composition, respectively. The model setup included aerosol microphysics module M7 with simple tropospheric sulfur chemistry, anthropogenic emissions by TNO, wildfires emissions by FMI and interactive sea-salt and dust emissions. During the model run surface data assimilation of meteorological parameters was applied. The HIRLAM Savijarvi radiation scheme has been improved to account explicitly for aerosol radiation interactions. So that the short-wave radiative transfer calculations are performed as standard 2-stream calculations for averages of aerosol optical properties weighted over the entire spectrum. The model shows good correlation of particulate matter (PM) concentrations on diurnal cycle as well as day-to-day variability, but one always has negative bias of PM. The Enviro-HIRLAM is able to capture concentration peaks both from short-term and long-term trans boundary transport of PM and predicted the Aerosol Optical Thickness (at 550 nm) up to 2 over wildfire-polluted regions. And the direct radiative forcing is less than -100 W/m2.

  19. A New Generation of Large Seismic Refraction Experiments in Central Europe (1997-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Grad, M.; Spicak, A.; Brueckl, E.; Hegedus, E.; Keller, G. R.; Thybo, H.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1997, Central Europe has been covered by an unprecedented network of seismic refraction experiments. These experiments (POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, SUDETES 2003) have only been possible due a massive international cooperative effort. The total length of all profiles is about 19,000 km, and over 300 explosive sources were employed. The result is a network of seismic refraction profiles that extends along the Trans-European Suture Zone region of Poland and the Bohemian massif, Pannonian basin, trough the Carpathians and Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the Dinarides. As reflected in structures within these areas, Central Europe has experienced a complex tectonic history that includes the Caledonian, Variscan, and Alpine orogenies. The related TESZ region is a broad zone of deformation that extends across Europe from British Isles to the Black Sea region that formed as Europe was assembled from a complex collage of terranes during the late Palaeozoic. For example, the Bohemian massif is mostly located in the Czech Republic and is a large, complex terrane whose origin can be traced to northern Gondwana (Africa). These terranes were accreted along the margin of Baltica that was formed during the break-up of Rodinia. The tectonic evolution of this region shares many attributes with the Appalachian/Ouachita origin and is certainly of global important to studies in terrane tectonics and continental evolution. In southern Poland, several structural blocks are located adjacent to Baltica and were probably transported laterally along it similar to the Cenozoic movement of terranes along the western margin of North America. The younger Carpathian arc and Pannonian back-arc basin were also targeted by these experiments. Thickness of the crust in the area of investigations changes from 22-25 km in the Pannonian basin to about 55 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland. Together, these experiments are providing an unprecedented 3-D image of the

  20. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  1. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  2. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results

    PubMed Central

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pająk, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods and results The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7–6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6–10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. Conclusion The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations. PMID:23786858

  3. Detection of a new sub-lithospheric discontinuity in Central Europe with S-receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark R.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas; Kämpf, Horst; Soomro, Riaz

    2017-03-01

    We used S-receiver functions (i.e. S-to-P converted signals) to study seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle between the Moho and the 410 km discontinuity beneath central Europe. This was done by using c. 49,000 S-receiver functions from c. 700 permanent and temporary broadband stations made available by the open EIDA Archives. Below Phanerozoic Europe we observed expected discontinuities like the Moho, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), the Lehmann discontinuity and the 410 km discontinuity with an additional overlying low velocity zone. Below the East European Craton (EEC), we observed the Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD) at c. 100 km depth as well as the controversial cratonic LAB at c. 200 km depth. At the boundary of the EEC but still below the Phanerozoic surface, we observed downward velocity reductions below the LAB in the following regions: the North German-Polish Plain at about 200 km depth; the Bohemian Massive, north-west dipping from 200 to 300 km depth; the Pannonian Basin, north-east dipping from 150 to 200 km depth underneath the western Carpathians and the EEC. We named this newly observed structure Sub-Lithospheric Discontinuity (SLD). At the northern edge of the Bohemian Massive, we see a sharp vertical step of about 100 km between the SLD below the Bohemian Massive and the North German-Polish Plain. This step follows the surface trace of the Rheic Suture between the continental Saxo-Thuringian and Rheno-Herzynian zones of the Variscan orogen. A preliminary interpretation of these features is that a prong of the cratonic mantle lithosphere penetrated the Phanerozoic asthenosphere during the continental collision at the western and south-western edges of the EEC.

  4. Field evaluation of four widely used mosquito traps in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    regard to trapping efficacy for most common mosquito species in Germany, including diversity of mosquito species and number of mosquitoes per trapping period. Thus, the BG trap is probably the best solution for general monitoring or surveillance programs of adult mosquitoes in Central Europe. PMID:24924481

  5. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  6. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  7. Optically perceptible characteristics of sprites observed in Central Europe in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-01-01

    Sprites are luminous optical emissions accompanying electric discharges in the mesosphere. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68°N, 16.58°E, ˜230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. Characteristic sprite forms, i.e., column, wishbone, tree, angel, and carrot have been identified in the set of records. Characteristic morphological properties corresponding to each type are given; earlier definitions and observations as well as the related theoretical considerations are reviewed. Based on the knowledge and experience from high-speed imaging in sprite observations, probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with the characteristic sprite types. It is suggested that different streamer propagation sequences corresponding to different dynamic processes may result in similar sprite forms. Several occasionally detectable sprite features are noted and described: tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, and spots. Spots are distinguished from the similar beads by their characteristic brightness, size, and location relative to the bright body of the sprite. The events observed in Central Europe have been classified by the number of individual sprites and by the variety of types appearing in them. More than 90% of the recorded sprites were found to occur in clusters rather than alone, and more than half of the sprite clusters contained more than one sprite types. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events are described as being special subsets of sprite clusters. Statistical analysis of the occurrences of morphological types, various sprite features, and event durations indicated that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites with glows and tendrils do not tend to have long optical lifetimes. Sprite events with more morphological types, on the other hand, more likely have extended durations. The maximum of the encountered event duration was lower for events with many sprite

  8. On the Risk of Mediterranean and Sub-tropical Climate Expansion into Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farda, Ales; Štěpánek, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Szabó-Takács, Beata

    2015-04-01

    Many contemporary studies of climate change focused on or including Central Europe suggest significant changes of future climate characteristics. The scope of this transformation includes increased mean annual temperature, increased frequency and intensity of heat waves and droughts and changes in spatiotemporal precipitation characteristic including the tendency to occurrence of dangerous torrential rains. This makes from the region one of the particularly vulnerable area increasing the necessity of providing reliable, precise and comprehensible information both to the decision makers and general public. In our study we decided to examine climate change signal using the Köppen-Geiger climate classification on corrected output of high resolution simulations performed with the RCMs ALADIN-Climate/CZ and RegCM, nested in GCM ARPÉGE 5.0 lateral boundary conditions and ECHAM4 respectively. Both experiments were forced by IPCC SRES A1B scenario. Climate classifications like that of Köppen-Geiger are useful in wider range of ecological disciplines including forestry and agriculture as they correlate with their bio-ecologically oriented classification systems. In order to address regional and local character of climate change signal we decided to study simulations performed in 10km resolution, which is capable to capture even relatively fine scale geomorphological details. To retain as much fine scale signal as possible, model output was corrected using measured data from the dense observation networks operated by the national meteorological services of Austria (north to the Alps), Czech Republic and Slovakia. Thus, we are able to detect changes in climate characteristics affecting small scale geomorphological features like individual Alps and Carpathian mountain ranges, individual mountain systems of Bohemian massif, rift and river valleys, which are usually poorly represented in more coarse resolution. Our findings among other suggest the risk of large scale

  9. Phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in central and northern Europe from automated, broad-band, interstation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They

  10. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy.

  11. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05–74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57–9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  12. Chondritic Xenon in the Earth's mantle: new constrains on a mantle plume below central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Bernard, Peter; Furi, Evelin; Marty, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    data support the notion that the fraction of plutonium-derived Xe in plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) is higher than in the MORB source reservoir. Hence, the MORB - type reservoirs appear to be well distinguished and more degassed than the plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) supporting the heterogeneity of Earth's mantle. Finally this study highlights that xenon isotopes in the Eifel gas have preserved a chemical signature that is characteristic of other mantle plume sources. This is very intriguing because the presence of a mantle plume in this sector of Central Europe was already inferred from geophysical and geochemical studies(Buikin et al., 2005; Goes et al., 1999). Notably, tomographic images show a low-velocity structure down to 2000 km depth, representing deep mantle upwelling under central Europe, that may feed smaller upper-mantle plumes (Eifel volcanic district-Germany). References Buikin A., Trieloff M., HoppJ., Althaus T., Korochantseva E., Schwarz W.H. &Altherr R., (2005), Noble gas isotopessuggestdeepmantleplume source of late Cenozoicmaficalkalinevolcanism in Europe, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 230, 143-162. Goes S., Spakman W. &BijwaardH., (1999), A lowermantle source for centraleuropeanvolcanism, Science, 286, 1928-1931.G. Holland, M. Cassidy, C.J. Ballentine, Meteorite Kr in the Earth's mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere, Science, 326, 1522-1525, (2009). Marty, B. Neon and xenon isotopes in MORB: implications for the Earth-atmosphere evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 94, 45-56 (1989). Mukhopadhyay S., Early differentiation and volatile accretion recorded in deep-mantle neon and xenon
, Nature, 486, 101-106, (2013).

  13. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  14. Pushing the limits - two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology.

    PubMed

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Two new species, Pteromalusbriani sp. n. and Pteromalusjanstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalusbriani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessaatalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglaisurticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalusjanstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world.

  15. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam

    2014-02-01

    A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. Exposure ages and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An exposure age of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.

  16. Psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikhart, Hynek; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Topor, Roman; Sebakova, Helena; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Psychosocial factors at work have been found to predict a range of health outcomes but their effect on mental health outcomes has not been extensively studied. This paper explores the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The data come from a cross-sectional study of working men (n = 645) and women (n = 523) aged 45-64 years, randomly selected from population registers in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and Karvina-Havirov (Czech Republic). The questionnaire included questions on the effort and reward at work, job control, the full CES-D scale of depression, and a range of other characteristics. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between depression score and work characteristics: the logarithm of the effort-reward ratio, and continuous job control score. The means of the depression score were 10.5 for men and 14.2 for women. After controlling for age, sex and country, effort-reward ratio (logarithmically transformed) was strongly related to depression score; a 1 SD increase in the log transformed effort-reward ratio was associated with an increase in the depression of 2.0 points (95% CI 1.5; 2.4), and further adjustment did not materially change the effect. Job control was inversely associated with depression score in Poland and the Czech Republic (not in Russia) but the association was largely eliminated by controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. This study suggests that the effort-reward imbalance at work is related to prevalence of depression in these central and eastern European populations.

  17. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  18. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-06

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states.

  19. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of Lochkovian to Eifelian limestones from the Devonian of central and southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buggisch, Werner; Mann, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Lower to Middle Devonian carbonates of the Prague Syncline, the Carnic Alps, the Montagne Noire, and the Cantabrian Mountains were investigated for δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg. These values were measured on bulk rocks, selected components and cements. Many carbonates exhibit primary marine values, but some are altered by diagenesis. A δ13C curve can be presented for the latest Pridolian to Emsian time interval. Several sharp or broad positive excursions are obvious in the woschmidti-postwoschmidti, sulcatus, kitabicus, Late serotinus, and kockelianus conodont zones. The excursion at the Silurian Devonian boundary is known worldwide and therefore considered global in nature. Some of the others are described for the first time from central and southern Europe, and their global nature has to be verified by further investigations in other regions. Most excursions relate to and/or started during major regressions whereas sea-level highstands correspond to minimal δ13C values. Similar relationships between sea-level changes and δ13C have been observed from other early Palaeozoic intervals. The transgressive Choteč (?) and Kačák events are marked by positive isotope excursions, this type of combination is usually observed in late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic black shale events.

  20. Detection of Dry Intrusion on Water Vapor Images Over Central Europe - June 2010 TO September 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, J.; Dejmal, K.; Hudec, F.; Kolar, P.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of evaluation of the intensity of cyclogenesis which could be connected with the weather having a significant impact on Earth's surface is quite useful. If, as one of the basic assumptions, the existence of connection between dry intrusions, dry bands, tropopause height and warm dark areas distribution on water vapor images (WV images) is considered, it is possible to set up a method of detecting dry intrusions on searching and tracking areas with higher brightness temperature compared with the surrounding environment. This paper covers the period between June 2010 and September 2011 over Central Europe. The ISIS method (Instrument de Suivi dans I'Imagerie satellitaire), originally developed for detection of cold cloud tops, was used as an initial ideological point. Subsequently, this method was modified by Michel and Bouttier for usage on WV images. Some of the applied criteria and parameters were chosen with reference to the results published by Michel and Bouttier as well as by Novotny. The procedure can be divided into two steps: detection of warm areas and their tracking. Cases of detection of areas not evidently connected with dry intrusions can be solved by filtering off based on the connection between detected warm areas to the cyclonic side of jet streams and significant lowering of the tropopause.

  1. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats.

  2. The creation and progress of the J Project in Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Maródi, László

    2011-11-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have now become recognized as a worldwide health problem. Rapid development of immunological and genetic technologies has led to the discovery of more than 200 PIDs and more than 150 disease-related genes. Progress in the field is expected to take a new turn after the introduction of new-generation sequencing technologies that will enable searches for currently unknown PID-related genes. By contrast, even with progress in molecular genetics, many patients remain ill and die early because of the lack of diagnostic or treatment facilities, or both. Thus, the gap between the knowledge accumulated and the appropriate management of patients with PIDs in everyday clinical practice has widened, necessitating PID awareness, particularly in countries with poor socioeconomic conditions. The J Project, established as a physician education and research collaboration program in Eastern and Central Europe, demonstrates how professional responsibility and long-term joint efforts can make a beneficial difference for patients with inborn errors of immunity.

  3. Microevolution of sympatry: landscape genetics of hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bolfíková, B; Hulva, P

    2012-03-01

    We used the mitochondrial control region and nuclear microsatellites to assess the distribution patterns, population structure, demography and landscape genetics for the hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and Erinaceus roumanicus in a transect of the mid-European zone of sympatry. E. roumanicus was less frequent and restricted to regions with lower altitudes. Demographic analyses suggested recent population growth in this species. A comparison of patterns in the spatial variability of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA indicated less sex-biased dispersal and higher levels of gene flow in E. roumanicus. No evidence of recent hybridisation or introgression was detected. We interpreted these results by comparing with phylogeographic and palaeontological studies as well as with the occurrence of hybridisation in the Russian contact zone. We propose that Central Europe was colonised by E. roumanicus by the beginning of the Neolithic period and that there was a subsequent reinforcement stage as well as the formation of a zone of sympatry after the complete reproductive isolation of both species.

  4. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  5. Cergop-2, A Multipurpose and Interdisciplinary Sensor Array For Environmental Research In Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesec, P.

    The project CERGOP-2 (second phase of the Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project)was initiated 1998, as a successor of CERGOP 1993/1998. During the follow- ing 3 years a new concept was worked out which finally was submitted for EU-support under the Sub-Programme Environment and Sustainable Development (5. FP) Octo- ber 2001. In the meanwhile the proposal received a "go" which implies a ranking in the final set of proposals forseen for eventual financial support. 14 contractors out of 13 countries contributed to the formulation of the proposal, the planned actions comprize the consolidation of the GPS-network,which covers about 15 % of the European territory, the final aim being the establishment of a velocity field which allows for the derivation of strain-fields and the monitoring of energy transfer for geodynamic studies and hazard mitigation. This paper will give an overview of the required actions and the expected results, paying special attention to near real-time information and regional geodynamic inves- tigations of seismic active regions.

  6. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  7. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-05-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  8. Microevolution of sympatry: landscape genetics of hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bolfíková, B; Hulva, P

    2012-01-01

    We used the mitochondrial control region and nuclear microsatellites to assess the distribution patterns, population structure, demography and landscape genetics for the hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and Erinaceus roumanicus in a transect of the mid-European zone of sympatry. E. roumanicus was less frequent and restricted to regions with lower altitudes. Demographic analyses suggested recent population growth in this species. A comparison of patterns in the spatial variability of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA indicated less sex-biased dispersal and higher levels of gene flow in E. roumanicus. No evidence of recent hybridisation or introgression was detected. We interpreted these results by comparing with phylogeographic and palaeontological studies as well as with the occurrence of hybridisation in the Russian contact zone. We propose that Central Europe was colonised by E. roumanicus by the beginning of the Neolithic period and that there was a subsequent reinforcement stage as well as the formation of a zone of sympatry after the complete reproductive isolation of both species. PMID:21863052

  9. Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes - the 2013 smoke season over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Flentje, H.; Ries, L.

    2015-08-01

    In July 2013 very strong boreal fire plumes were observed at the northern rim of the Alps by lidar and ceilometer measurements of aerosol, ozone and water vapour for about 3 weeks. In addition, some of the lower-tropospheric components of these layers were analysed at the Global Atmosphere Watch laboratory at the Schneefernerhaus high-altitude research station (2650 m a.s.l., located a few hundred metres south-west of the Zugspitze summit). The high amount of particles confirms our hypothesis that fires in the Arctic regions of North America lead to much stronger signatures in the central European atmosphere than the multitude of fires in the USA. This has been ascribed to the prevailing anticyclonic advection pattern during favourable periods and subsidence, in contrast to warm-conveyor-belt export, rainout and dilution frequently found for lower latitudes. A high number of the pronounced aerosol structures were positively correlated with elevated ozone. Chemical ozone formation in boreal fire plumes is known to be rather limited. Indeed, these air masses could be attributed to stratospheric air intrusions descending from remote high-latitude regions, obviously picking up the aerosol on their way across Canada. In one case, subsidence from the stratosphere over Siberia over as many as 15-20 days without increase in humidity was observed although a significant amount of Canadian smoke was trapped. These coherent air streams lead to rather straight and rapid transport of the particles to Europe.

  10. The legal status of home education in post-communist countries of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2012-08-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland and Hungary. This analysis of the legal environment for home education confirms on the one hand that these countries' approach is similar in many aspects. Generally, laws tend to regulate home education rather strictly, all home-educated children must be enrolled at some school, and these schools are mandated by the state to serve as supervisory bodies for home-educated children. This legal arrangement puts the parents of home-schooled children in a very subordinate position in relation to the school. Despite these restrictions, however, the states have gradually opened up the option for home education to quite a broad pool of potentially interested people. On the other hand, the findings show that there are also significant differences between individual countries. These differences provide a good illustration of the fact that, despite historical, economic and cultural similarities, political institutions and state bureaucracies in individual states act autonomously, which leads to different policy outcomes.

  11. Tsunamis in the central part of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, E. A.; Kuzin, I. P.; Yakovenko, O. I.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the geotectonics of the Caspian Sea basin and the seismicity of its central part. The seismicity analysis enables us to identify the most probable zones of tsunami generation. We also present a brief review of the historical records of tsunamis in the Caspian Sea. In order to estimate the tsunami risk, we used the method of numerical hydrodynamic simulation while taking into account the real topography of the Caspian Sea. The computation of the wave field for the possible tsunamis occurring in the central part of the Caspian Sea allowed us to estimate the maximum expected heights of the waves along the coast of the CIS countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan). On the basis of the earthquake statistics in the region and the results of numerical experiments, we show that the extreme wave heights can reach 10 m at certain parts of the coast. Such extreme events correspond to extended (up to 200 km) seismic sources with M S ˜ 8 and a recurrence period of T ≈ 1600 years. The tsunami wave heights are expected to be as high as 3 m for sources of lesser extent (<50 km) with earthquake magnitudes of M S ˜ 7 and a recurrence period of 200 years.

  12. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  13. Large Scale Cooling in Tertiary Central Europe as inferred by the MBT/CBT Paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S.; Schwark, L.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's climate experienced dramatic changes throughout the last 65 Ma. Starting at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum, the global climate underwent a gradual cooling that eventually resulted in the glaciations in the Neogene. Most reconstructions of climate variability are derived from the marine realm using global deep sea oxygen isotope curves or molecular paleotemperature proxies. In contrast, only little information on the changes of the continental climate is available, which is mainly due to a lack of continuous high resolution records and suitable quantitative temperature proxies. The MBT/CBT paleothermometer is a novel temperature proxy based on temperature-driven changes in the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) content of soil-living bacteria. These changes have been demonstrated to correlate well with ambient air temperature and the MBT/CBT proxy has thus been used to reconstruct paleotemperature records of terrestrial as well as coastal marine sediments (1). In this study, we employed the MBT/CBT paleothermometer on a number of maar lake deposits that - due to their exceptional well preserved organic matter content and finely-laminated sediments - comprise excellent archives of a continental climate. The analysed lacustrine deposits were all situated in the middle European Tertiary volcanic belt and ranged in age from the Early Eocene to the Late Oligocene, allowing for the detailed reconstruction of climate evolution of the Central European continent. Calculated mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of the Messel oil shale, deposited during the Eocene climate optimum, averaged at 25 °C. This agrees well with previous temperature estimates based on paleontological observations, suggesting a paratropical climate in Eocene Central Europe with an average air temperature of ca. 25-30 °C (2). In contrast, to the green house period of the Early Eocene, the climate of the Oligocene was significantly cooler reflected by low MAAT of 8-15

  14. Meso-Cenozoic intraplate contraction in Central and Western Europe: a unique tectonic event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, Jonas; Jähne, Fabian; Malz, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    From the British Isles to Poland, Europe experienced contractional deformation in Late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. The closest contemporaneous plate margins were the incipient Mid-Atlantic rift in the west and northwest, and the Mediterranean system of subduction zones in the south. Each of these plate margins was located more than 1000 km away from the site of deformation. This tectonic event thus represents an outstanding example of large-scale intraplate shortening and may serve as a template for comparison with modern examples. Its effects are seen in a ca. 500 km wide strip that stretches in NW-SE-direction along the Tornquist Line, a regional fault zone separating thick lithosphere of the Baltic Shield from much thinner lithosphere to the southwest. Most faults and folds also trend NW-SE, but some are linked by large N-S-striking transfer zones. In the southeast, the shortening structures are truncated by the Neogene Carpathian thrust front; their original extent is unknown. In the west, the fault zones fan out into more northerly trends in the Central North Sea and more easterly trends in the Channel area before dying out on the shelf. Late Cretaceous (ca. 90-70 Ma) shortening dominates from Poland to the North Sea, while the main shortening event in Southern Britain is of Paleogene age. Many Late Cretaceous to Paleogene structures have been conditioned by Permian or Triassic through Early Cretaceous extensional faulting, whereas some large basement uplifts and reverse faults have no demonstrable inheritance from earlier extension. The thick, mobile Zechstein salt has modified extensional and contractional structures, but both extend beyond its depositional borders. Even where thick evaporates underlie the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, the basement is typically involved in the deformation, except for localized thin-skinned imbricate thrusting and salt-cored anticlines. Different structural styles do not appear to correlate with the magnitude of shortening

  15. Dust transport and palaeoclimate during the Oldest Dryas in Central Europe - implications from varves (Lake Constance)

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, F.; Lister, G.; Giovanoli, F.

    1992-10-01

    This paper evaluates evidence for seasonal loess deposits in peri-Alpine Lake Constance at the end of the last Glacial (Oldest Dryas chronozone). The sedimentology of laminated couplets comprising yellow and grey silts evaluates the couplets as varves comprising alternations of loess and glacial silt and clay. The laminae, less than 1 mm thick, include from bottom to top: (1) a matrix of well-sorted, non-graded fine yellow silt with sand-size intraclasts, (2) coarsening-upward grey silt with a cap of fining-upward silt to clay. This is typical and reflects summer and winter deposits (silt and clay, respectively). The authors propose that the lack of grading and the matrix supported fabric is indicative of aeolian transport and interpret the yellow laminae as loess deposits. Volcanic glass intraclasts in the loess layers are probably derived from volcanic terrain to the west of the lake, indicating an easterly palaeowind direction. Deposition of loess in the lake occurred regularly at the beginning of each annual cycle, suggesting the palaeowinds were associated with winter and/or spring conditions. Two transport scenarios are suggested to explain the sand grains scattered in this deep-water lacustrine record. 1. The grains may have been transported as bedload over the annual winter ice-cover of the lake under moderate wind strengths, frozen into the ice, and released for deposition during spring melt. 2. The sand grains were blown directly out onto the lake water by very strong winds during spring. The first scenario is contrary to the general view that loess was transported during summer, and that loess deposits thus reflect summer conditions only. Loess input to the lake shows a transitional decrease after ca. 14.3 kyr BP and cessation at ca. 14 kyr BP, probably as a result of a change of wind behaviour, increased humidity and/or vegetational changes during the Oldest Dryas in central Europe. 62 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The earthworm activity is generally recognized as an important factor changing the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil environment including the microbial constituents. In central Europe, about 40% of earthworm species are endemic to this region, some of them dominating forest and grassland ecosystems and playing a keystone role in the soil food-web. However, current knowledge about the effects of earthworms on soil microorganisms derives from studies on a few peregrine species only. Our study brought a view on the microbial component of the steppe soil affected by the activity of Allolobophora hrabei, an endemic earthworm fragmentary distributed in the border regions of the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The study was carried out in three steppe fragments, where A. hrabei represented a key earthworm species. Comprehensive approach based on bio-indicating quantitative and qualitative options of extended phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) of bulk soil, drilosphere sensu lato and casts was used on data from two-years monitoring. In situ observation was completed by detailed observation of the casts-microbiota succession under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results showed that A. hrabei significantly affected soil microorganisms mainly via its extremely high casting activity. The doubled biomass, new qualitative composition, better growth and nutritional status of microbial community together with significantly higher availability of phosphorus and organic carbon in casts in contrast to bulk soil confirmed beneficial impact of A. hrabei on the soil environment. A. hrabei has burrowed up to more than one metre depths and produced more than 3 kg . m-2 of casts per year.

  17. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  18. Central Europe Flood June 2013 - Rapid estimation of extent and depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millinship, Ian; Busby, Kathryn; Schröter, Kai

    2014-05-01

    Following flooding in central Europe in June 2013, we have produced a flood footprint describing the maximum extent and depth of flooding. Rapid damage estimation for a flood event such as this is useful for the re/insurance industry, in which companies need to estimate the impact of flooding on their business. An early understanding of the geographical scope and severity of an event allows claims adjusters to be deployed effectively and an estimation of the potential loss ensures adequate release of funds to pay for claims. Following reports of heavy rainfall in the headwaters of the Isar, Saale, Inn, and Elbe during the first week of June 2013, we began monitoring the http://www.hochwasserzentralen.de/ website and extracted peak flow for the affected gauges. Using extreme value statistical analysis of the historic flow records, we assessed the return period of the flow generated by the 2013 event for each gauged location. This return period was then interpolated along each river reach taking into consideration catchment characteristics. Then, using previously developed Germany design hazard maps containing information on the extent and depth of flooding associated with a range of return periods at 10m resolution, we pieced together a flood footprint along the course of the affected rivers and tributaries. With much of the Elbe/Danube heavily defended and regulated, we then undertook a detailed manual exercise to account for defences and any breach locations. Here georeferenced ground / aerial photographs and satellite footprint maps produced by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and available through the media were used to establish the integrity of defences and to validate our flood footprint. The resulting footprint was licensed by a number of companies within the re/insurance sector and is being used by academic partners for further research into damage assessment.

  19. Low Usutu virus seroprevalence in four zoological gardens in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused bird die-offs in Austria, Hungary and Switzerland between 2001 and 2009. While the zoological gardens of Vienna and Zurich recorded USUV-associated mortality in different species of birds during this period, incidences in Budapest were limited to areas outside the zoo, and in the greater Basel area avian mortality due to USUV infection was not observed at all. The objectives of this investigation were to gain insight into USUV infection dynamics in captive birds in zoos with varying degrees of virus exposure and to study differences in susceptibility to USUV of different species of birds. Results 372 bird sera were collected between October 2006 and August 2007. The samples were tested in parallel by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and 90% plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT-90). 8.75%, 5.3% and 6.59% of birds in the zoos of Vienna, Zurich and Basel, respectively, showed USUV-specific antibodies by PRNT-90. No antibodies to USUV were detected in birds of the Budapest zoo. The order Strigiformes (owls) exhibited the highest USUV-seroprevalence, compared to other orders of birds. Conclusions USUV seems not to pose an imminent threat to zoo bird populations in central Europe at the moment. Depending on a variety of especially environmental factors, however, this may change at any time in the (near) future, as experienced with West Nile virus (WNV). It is therefore strongly suggested to continue with combined WNV and USUV surveillance activities in affected areas. PMID:23919825

  20. Parasitism, life history traits and immune defence in cyprinid fish from Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between

  1. Ozone pollution during heat wave periods over last 15 years in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2012-04-01

    Periods characterized with the high ozone concentrations are usually associated with very high air temperature and antycyclonic conditions or meridional circulation. A 15-year (1997 - 2011) maximum daily temperature records from GSOD NOAA archive was analyzed for 20 stations in Central Europe. For each year the number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and 30oC was calculated. For years with a positive anomaly of the number of the hot days the data were analyzed to identify exact dates and the duration of such events. This allows classification of the high temperature period as "heat waves" (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 30oC lasting at least 3 consecutive days) and hot weather periods (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and high daily average temperature). These two types of high temperature are usually associated with different air masses inflow - subtropical from the south or transformed polar from westerly directions. This indicates also the differences in contribution of transboundary transport of ozone and its precursors. For selected high temperature episodes the ozone pollution was assessed based on AirBase (1997-2009) and national database (2010-2011). The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum concentration of ozone near the surface. Also, the contribution to the SOMO35 index during selected episodes will be calculated as a diagnostic for adverse health effects. Since the two analyzed types of hot weather periods have different origin in terms of synoptic scale situation, an attempt will be made to answer whether there are differences in the intensity of ozone episodes during selected hot weather periods. The outcome from the study will be useful for the interpretation of modelling results for air quality in future climate.

  2. Direct evidence for the existence of dairying farms in prehistoric Central Europe (4th millennium BC).

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Matuschik, Irenaus; Jacomet, Stephanie; Schibler, Joerg

    2008-06-01

    The molecular and isotopic chemistry of organic residues from archaeological potsherds was used to obtain further insight into the dietary trends and economies at the Constance lake-shore Neolithic settlements. The archaeological organic residues from the Early Late Neolithic (3922-3902 BC) site Hornstaad-Hornle IA/Germany are, at present, the oldest archaeological samples analysed at the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Lausanne. The approach includes 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of the bulk organic residues, fatty acids distribution and 13C/12C ratios of individual fatty acids. The results are compared with those obtained from the over 500 years younger Neolithic (3384-3370 BC) settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3/Switzerland and with samples of modern vegetable oils and fat of animals that have been fed exclusively on C3 forage grasses. The overall fatty acid composition (C9 to C24 range, maximizing at C14 and C16), the bulk 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios (delta13C, delta15N) and the 13C/12C ratios of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic acids (C18:1) of the organic residues indicate that most of the studied samples (25 from 47 samples and 5 from 41 in the delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C16:0 and delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C18:1 diagrams, respectively) from Hornstaad-Hornle IA and Arbon Bleiche 3 sherds contain fat residues of pre-industrial ruminant milk, and young suckling calf/lamb adipose. These data provide direct proof of milk and meat (mainly from young suckling calves) consumption and farming practices for a sustainable dairying in Neolithic villages in central Europe around 4000 BC.dagger.

  3. Too early and too northerly: evidence of temperate trees in northern Central Europe during the Younger Dryas.

    PubMed

    Robin, Vincent; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Grootes, Pieter M; Bork, Hans-Rudolf; Nelle, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents highly unexpected paleobotanical data. Eight (14) C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates of soil macrocharcoal pieces, identified taxonomically, indicate the presence of oak and beech in the Younger Dryas, and pine in the Allerød, in the northernmost low mountain range of Central Europe, the Harz Mountains, in Germany. If the presence of pine at such latitude and periods is not surprising, the presence of temperate-adapted trees is highly improbable, because they are assumed to have reached the area from a southern location several thousand years later. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain this record. Both are related to the warm periods of the Bølling and Allerød: the classically 'short' duration of this warm period makes the migration of the temperate trees from the identified refuge areas in the southern location implausible, and so the presence of intermediary microrefugia at a medium latitude in Central Europe is postulated; recent data reveal that the warm period of the Late Glacial phase was much longer than considered in the classical view and, thus, would be long enough for a northward migration of temperate-adapted trees. Although our dataset does not permit disentanglement of these hypotheses, it provides significant innovative insights for the biogeography of Central Europe.

  4. Record-breaking 2015 heat waves in Central Europe: how to view them in the climate change context?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ondrej; Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The 2015 summer was the warmest summer ever observed in Central Europe according to many characteristics, including the overall severity of heat waves. We assess how unusual this summer was by i) comparing the seasonal temperature anomalies and severity of heat waves against long-term temperature records at Central European stations, ii) evaluating its temperature characteristics at the continental scale against hot summers and major heat waves affecting Europe recently (including the 2003 western-European heat waves and the 2010 Russian heat waves), and iii) identifying time slices in climate change scenarios for the 21st century in which similar events are projected to occur over Central Europe at least once per decade. In the last point, we make use of a large ensemble of RCM simulations from CORDEX and ENSEMBLES projects and critically evaluate their ability to simulate events such as the 2015 summer (in terms of both seasonal temperature anomalies and heat waves, including their spatial extent). We examine also how results for the climate change scenarios depend on radiative forcing and driving global models.

  5. Winter thunderstorms in central Europe in the past and the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzar, Jan; Franc, Marek

    Thunderstorms in the territories of the Czech Republic and neighbouring countries are almost exclusively the only phenomena occurring in the warm season. In the cold half of the year, from October to March, an average incidence of thunderstorms is only 2%, with the least occurrence being recorded in January. Yet, winter thunderstorms are dangerous particularly for air traffic because during them, the cloud base is rapidly falling down and visibility is suddenly worsening due to heavy snowfall. Notwithstanding these facts, the issue of their occurrence in the central European space has been paid little attention so far. Long years of study into historical weather extremes in the territory of the Czech Republic revealed over 10 chronicle entries on the occurrence of winter thunderstorms in the period between November and February from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. The irregular phenomenon was even devoted three occasional prints in central Europe in the second half of the 16th century, two of which were issued in Germany. Fires caused by winter thunderstorms were no sporadic cases. The occurrence of thunderstorms in winter was apparently associated with the passage of pronounced cold fronts. This can be documented on cases from the end of December 1555 when heavy thunderstorms and consequent fires were recorded within a short period of time in Holland, Germany and in Czech lands. It is assumed that the situation in 1627 was similar when a winter thunderstorm was recorded in Prague and in Holešov, southeastern Moravia on 28 December. In February 1581, a thunderstorm in Prague became one of three unusual events publicized by the local occasional newspaper. The beginning of modern studies into winter thunderstorms dates back to the 1960s with the use of lightning flash counters and later also with the use of systems for large-scale lightning flash detection and localization. However, more comprehensive meteorological and climatological assessments of

  6. The regional impact of urban emissions on climate over central Europe: present and future emission perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszár, Peter; Belda, Michal; Karlický, Jan; Pišoft, Petr; Halenka, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    with the temperature decrease. The impact on the boundary layer height is small but statistically significant and decreases by 1 and 6 m in DJF and JJA respectively. We did not find any statistically significant impact on precipitation and wind speed. Regarding future emissions, the impacts are, in general, smaller as a consequence of smaller emissions, resulting in smaller urban-induced chemical perturbations.In overall, the study suggest that the non-CO2 emissions play rather a minor role in modulating regional climate over central Europe. Much more important is the direct climate impact of urban surfaces via the urban canopy meteorological effects as we showed earlier.

  7. Coeval dust accumulation minima in Greenland and East Central Europe over 31-23 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Varga, György; Kovács, János; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    As reflected in δ18O values in ice cores, the North Atlantic area experienced a series of abrupt, dramatic climatic fluctuations over the last glacial during which oceanic and atmospheric conditions alternated between full glacial (stadial) and relatively mild (interstadial) conditions [1,2]. Beyond the δ18O profiles, calcium ion concentration data (hereafter [Ca2+]) also exhibit particularly clear stadial/interstadial contrasts [3]. The Ca2+/dust concentration records are considered as a proxy for the amount of terrestrial dust reaching the ice sheet [4] and/or changing dust storm activity in the source areas around the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in East Asia [5,6]. The mode of the dust size distributions is thought to reflect transit times during transport, with larger modes indicating shorter transit times and transport routes, i.e. changed atmospheric circulation patterns [5]. However, based on clay mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of loess sediments Újvári, et al. [7] suggested that Central European dust cannot be excluded as a potential source of Greenland dust. As such, it is vital to analyze dust deposition in the key dust depocentres of Eastern Europe. As a record of Carpathian Basin dust source activity, we therefore studied loess sedimentation and grain size changes in the Dunaszekcsö loess sequence in Southern Hungary. For this record, we developed the highest resolution geochronological dataset for European loess based on 61 AMS 14C dates from molluscs and charcoal fragments. This allowed us to establish a uniquely high precision Bayesian age-depth model, with the mean 95% confidence ranges that vary between 119 and 798 yr. Sedimentation rates (SR) calculated from the age-depth model vary between 0.36-1.7 mm yr-1 and the estimated bulk dust mass accumulation rates (MAR) range from 551 to 2525 g m-2 yr-1. Both the SR and MAR display millennial/sub-millennial scale variations, visible uniquely due to the high precision dating, together

  8. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  9. The 1996-2002 Plunge in the North-Atlantic Oscillation Index Produces Cold Spring Temperatures in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, Dennis; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Koslowsky, Dirk; Rogers, Jeffrey; Wos, Alojzy

    2002-01-01

    Surface-air temperatures in winter and spring in central Europe rose over the second half of the 20th century, reported for different data-spans, and by different approaches (Ross et al., 1996; Angell, 1999; Hansen et al., 1999; Demaree et al., 2002). Analysis with a finer temporal resolution shows that late-winter and early-spring (February and March) trends are much stronger than the 3-month season averages (Otterman et al., 2002a). Responding to this need for finer than 3- month resolution, observations at meteorological stations in central Europe are analyzed here for the years 1951-2002, computing six-pentad (5-day period) averages (effectively monthly averages for January, February, and March). The daily minimum surface-air temperature, T(sub min), and the daily maximum temperature, T(sub max), rose steeply in Berlin and Poznan' in the years 1951-1995. Based on sensitivity studies, the bulk of this sharp warming is due to stronger southwesterlies over the North Atlantic, with which the temperatures in Europe are strongly correlated (Otterman et al., 1999; 2002a). However, for the most recent seven years, a pronounced downturn of the warming is observed, which we attribute to the concurrent, 1996-2002, sharp downturn of the ocean-surface southwesterlies over the North Atlantic (Otterman et al., 2002b). Such changes in the ocean winds and variations in the storm tracks are associated with changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO (Rogers, 1997). The NAO index, the difference in the surface pressure between Iceland and Azores, constitutes a measure of the zonal winds over the eastern North Atlantic, and thus is a critically important factor influencing the flow of maritime air into Europe (but the temperature of the advected airmasses depends on the meridional component, as we discuss). The recent (1996-2002) downturn in this index resulted in much colder spring temperatures in Europe, with adverse significance for the growing season.

  10. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    for this part of Europe and below the expected levels of phytotoxicity.

  11. Late cenozoic history of the genus Micromys (mammalia, rodentia) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Horáček, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4-4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6-0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European-C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus.

  12. Comparison of regional and local horizontal strain field on the area of Central Europe determined from GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, B.

    2012-04-01

    Permanent GPS observations on EPN stations are being continued already about 15 years and so velocities of horizontal and vertical movements of the sites are determined with the great credibility. However density of the EPN sites on the area of Central Europe allow to determine only a very general model of deformation field. For determining the local strain field epoch-making GPS observations in local research networks can be used. As en example the GEOSUD GPS Network located in the area of the Sudeten mountains in South-West Poland were used. Velocities of GPS points were estimated from observations of annually repeated two-day measuring campaigns, connected to the EPN stations. On the basis of these velocities local velocity field and local strain field were estimated. The toolbox grid_strain (Teza, Pesci and Galgaro, 2008) was used. Areas of the maximum compressions and extensions were outlined as well as they were confronted with the tectonic structure of area. In the picture of the deformation field clearly four principal zones of deformations are standing out. The presence of the Sudetic Marginal Fault is becoming scratched slightly in south-eastern his parts. Values of deformations in the vicinity of fault zone are generally smaller than in more distant area. It is proving the hypothesis on interseismic character of changes and the weak tectonic activity of the fault. Such an image of horizontal deformations in which extensions are perpendicular to main direction of the fault line, is matching with the hypothesis on normal character of the SMF. On the entire research area however compression deformations are dominating.

  13. Divergence in male and female manipulative behaviors with the intensification of metallurgy in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    Humeral morphology has been shown to reflect, in part, habitual manipulative behaviors in humans. Among Central European agricultural populations, long-term social change, increasing task specialization, and technological innovation all had the potential to impact patterns of habitual activity and upper limb asymmetry. However, systematic temporal change in the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region has not been well-characterized. This study investigates diachronic patterns in humeral biomechanical properties and lengths among 174 adult Central European agriculturalists through the first ∼ 5400 years of farming in the region. Greater asymmetry in biomechanical properties was expected to accompany the introduction of metallurgy, particularly in males, while upper limb loading patterns were expected to be more similar between the Bronze and Iron Ages. Results revealed a divergence in the lateralization of upper limb biomechanical properties by sex between the Early/Middle Neolithic and Early/Middle Bronze Age. Neolithic females had significantly more variable properties than males in both humeri, while Bronze Age female properties became homogeneous and very symmetrical relative to the right-biased lateralization of contemporaneous males. The Bronze Age to Iron Age transition was associated with morphological change among females, with a significant increase in right-biased asymmetry and a concomitant reduction in sexual dimorphism. Relative to biomechanical properties, humeral length variation and asymmetry were low though some significant sexual dimorphism and temporal change was found. It was among females that the lateralization of humeral biomechanical properties, and variation within them, changed most profoundly through time. This suggests that the introduction of the ard and plow, metallurgical innovation, task specialization, and socioeconomic change through ∼ 5400 years of agriculture impacted upper limb loading in Central

  14. Divergence in Male and Female Manipulative Behaviors with the Intensification of Metallurgy in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Humeral morphology has been shown to reflect, in part, habitual manipulative behaviors in humans. Among Central European agricultural populations, long-term social change, increasing task specialization, and technological innovation all had the potential to impact patterns of habitual activity and upper limb asymmetry. However, systematic temporal change in the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region has not been well-characterized. This study investigates diachronic patterns in humeral biomechanical properties and lengths among 174 adult Central European agriculturalists through the first ∼5400 years of farming in the region. Greater asymmetry in biomechanical properties was expected to accompany the introduction of metallurgy, particularly in males, while upper limb loading patterns were expected to be more similar between the Bronze and Iron Ages. Results revealed a divergence in the lateralization of upper limb biomechanical properties by sex between the Early/Middle Neolithic and Early/Middle Bronze Age. Neolithic females had significantly more variable properties than males in both humeri, while Bronze Age female properties became homogeneous and very symmetrical relative to the right-biased lateralization of contemporaneous males. The Bronze Age to Iron Age transition was associated with morphological change among females, with a significant increase in right-biased asymmetry and a concomitant reduction in sexual dimorphism. Relative to biomechanical properties, humeral length variation and asymmetry were low though some significant sexual dimorphism and temporal change was found. It was among females that the lateralization of humeral biomechanical properties, and variation within them, changed most profoundly through time. This suggests that the introduction of the ard and plow, metallurgical innovation, task specialization, and socioeconomic change through ∼5400 years of agriculture impacted upper limb loading in Central

  15. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe.

  16. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th–12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  17. How cold was it for Neanderthals moving to Central Europe during warm phases of the last glaciation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2011-03-01

    Precise estimates of mean annual temperature (MAT) for when Neanderthals occupied Central Europe are critical for understanding the role that climatic and associated environmental factors played in Neanderthal migrations and in their ultimate extinction. Neanderthals were continuously present in the relatively warm regions of southern and Western Europe in the Pleistocene but only temporarily settled Central Europe (CE), presumably because of its colder and less hospitable climate. Here, we present a new approach for more spatially and temporally accurate estimation of palaeotemperatures based on the stable oxygen isotope composition of phosphates extracted from animal teeth found at sites linked directly to concurrent Neanderthal occupation. We provide evidence that Neanderthals migrated along the Odra Valley of CE during warmer periods throughout the Upper Pleistocene. The MATs during these migrations were about 6.8 °C for the warm phase of Oxygen Isotope Stage OIS 5a-d (prior to the OIS4 cold event) at ˜115-74,000 yr BP and about 6.3 °C during the early OIS 3 warm phase ˜59-41,000 yr BP. Our results show that temperatures during these phases peaked 2-4 °C above longer term estimates from ice cores and pollen records. We argue that our approach can provide valuable insights into evaluating the role of climate in human migration patterns in the Pleistocene.

  18. Folate metabolism genes, vegetable intake and renal cancer risk in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee E; Hung, Rayjean; Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Berndt, Sonya; Hsu, Charles C; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helen; Bencko, Vladmir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, Dana; Mukeria, Anush; Holcatova, Ivana; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Rothman, Nat; Chow, Wong-Ho; Brennan, Paul

    2008-04-15

    In a multicenter case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) conducted in central and eastern Europe, we reported a strong inverse association with high vegetable intake and RCC risk. The odds ratio (OR) for high compared to the lowest tertile of vegetable intake was OR = 0.67; (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.83; p-trend < 0.001). We hypothesized that variation in key folate metabolism genes may modify this association. Common variation in 5 folate metabolism genes (CBS: Ex9+33C > T (rs234706), Ex13 +41C > T (rs1801181), Ex18 -391 G > A (rs12613); MTHFR: A222V Ex5+79C > T (rs1801133), Ex8-62A > C (rs1801131); MTR: Ex26 20A > G (rs1805087), MTRR: Ex5+136 T > C (rs161870), and TYMS:IVS2-405 C > T (rs502396), Ex8+157 C > T (rs699517), Ex8+227 A > G (rs2790)) were analyzed among 1,097 RCC cases and 1,555 controls genotyped in this study. Having at least 1 variant T allele of MTHFR A222V was associated with higher RCC risk compared to those with 2 common (CC) alleles (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17-1.77; p = 0.001). After stratification by tertile of vegetable intake, the higher risk associated with the variant genotype was only observed in the low and medium tertiles (p-trend = 0.001), but not among those in the highest tertile (p-interaction = 0.22). The association remained robust after calculation of the false discovery rate (FDR = 0.05). Of the 3 TYMS SNPs examined, only the TYMS IVS2 -405 C (rs502396) variant was associated with a significantly lower risk compared to the common genotype (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.93). Vegetable intake modified the association between all 3 TYMS SNPs and RCC risk (p-interaction < 0.04 for all). In summary, these findings suggest that common variation in MTHFR and TYMS genes may be associated with RCC risk, particularly when vegetable intake is low.

  19. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  20. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  1. Validation of Ionosonde Electron Density Reconstruction Algorithms with IONOLAB-RAY in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, Gokhan; Mosna, Zbysek; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Erdem, Esra

    2016-07-01

    for various purposes including calculation of actual height and generation of ionograms. In this study, the performance of electron density reconstruction algorithm of IONOLAB group and standard electron density profile algorithms of ionosondes are compared with IONOLAB-RAY wave propagation simulation in near vertical incidence. The electron density reconstruction and parameter extraction algorithms of ionosondes are validated with the IONOLAB-RAY results both for quiet anddisturbed ionospheric states in Central Europe using ionosonde stations such as Pruhonice and Juliusruh . It is observed that IONOLAB ionosonde parameter extraction and electron density reconstruction algorithm performs significantly better compared to standard algorithms especially for disturbed ionospheric conditions. IONOLAB-RAY provides an efficient and reliable tool to investigate and validate ionosonde electron density reconstruction algorithms, especially in determination of reflection height (true height) of signals and critical parameters of ionosphere. This study is supported by TUBITAK 114E541, 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  2. High-resolution climate simulations for Central Europe: An assessment of dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Huth, R.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.; Stepanek, P.

    2009-12-01

    To bridge the resolution gap between the outputs of global climate models (GCMs) and finer-scale data needed for studies of the climate change impacts, two approaches are widely used: dynamical downscaling, based on application of regional climate models (RCMs) embedded into the domain of the GCM simulation, and statistical downscaling (SDS), using empirical transfer functions between the large-scale data generated by the GCM and local measurements. In our contribution, we compare the performance of different variants of both techniques for the region of Central Europe. The dynamical downscaling is represented by the outputs of two regional models run in the 10 km horizontal grid, ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (co-developed by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Meteo-France) and RegCM3 (developed by the Abdus Salam Centre for Theoretical Physics). The applied statistical methods were based on multiple linear regression, as well as on several of its nonlinear alternatives, including techniques employing artificial neural networks. Validation of the downscaling outputs was carried out using measured data, gathered from weather stations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Hungary for the end of the 20th century; series of daily values of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity were analyzed. None of the regional models or statistical downscaling techniques could be identified as the universally best one. For instance, while most statistical methods misrepresented the shape of the statistical distribution of the target variables (especially in the more challenging cases such as estimation of daily precipitation), RCM-generated data often suffered from severe biases. It is also shown that further enhancement of the simulated fields of climate variables can be achieved through a combination of dynamical downscaling and statistical postprocessing. This can not only be used to reduce biases and other systematic flaws in the generated time

  3. Tropospheric mercury vertical profiles between 500 and 10 000 m in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Pirrone, Nicola; Bieser, Johannes; Bödewadt, Jan; Esposito, Giulio; Slemr, Franz; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg) plays an important role in determining the transport and cycling of mercury. However, measurements of the vertical distribution are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212) in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and total gaseous mercury (TGM) were measured with Tekran 2537X and Tekran 2537B analysers. In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, and NO2, basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity) have been measured. Additional ground-based mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof, Germany and measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft were used to extend the profile to the ground and upper troposphere respectively. No vertical gradient was found inside the well-mixed boundary layer (variation of less than 0.1 ng m-3) at different sites, with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m-3 (standard temperature and pressure, STP: T = 273.15 K, p = 1013.25 hPa). At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m-3 (STP) when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013 over Leipzig, Germany, with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to Frankfurt Airport, Germany, taken at

  4. Tropospheric mercury vertical profiles between 500 and 10 000 m in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Pirrone, N.; Bieser, J.; Bödewadt, J.; Esposito, G.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the CARIBIC passenger aircraft observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212) in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured with a Tekran 2537X analyser and a Lumex RA-915-AM. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured using a Tekran 2537B analyser and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) was sampled onto 8 denuders for post flight analysis (one for each profile, three during the transfer flights, and two blanks). In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, NO2, as well as basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity) have been measured. Additional ground based speciated mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof (Germany) were used to extend the profile to the ground. No vertical gradient was found inside the well mixed boundary layer (variation by less than 0.1 ng m-3) at different sites with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m-3 (STP; standard conditions: p = 1013.25 hPa, T = 273.15 K). At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m-3 (STP) when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013, over Leipzig (Germany) with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to Frankfurt airport (Germany) at approximately the same time provide a unique central European vertical profile from inside the

  5. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  6. An imported case of echinococcosis of the liver in a Korean who traveled to western and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sun-Ju; Moon, Kyung Chul; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2010-06-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, an intestinal tapeworm of dogs and other canids, infects humans in its larval stage and causes human echinococcosis or hydatid disease. In the Republic of Korea, 31 parasite-proven human echinococcosis cases have been reported, most of which were imported from the Middle East. We recently examined a 61-year-old Korean man who had a large cystic mass in his liver. ELISA was negative for tissue parasitic infections, including echinococcosis, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, and sparganosis. The patient underwent surgery to remove the cyst, and the resected cyst was processed histopathologically for microscopic examinations. In sectioned cyst tissue, necrotizing protoscolices with disintegrated hooklets of E. granulosus were found. In some areas, only freed, fragmented hooklets were detected. The patient had traveled to western and central Europe in 1996, and had no other history of overseas travel. We report our patient as a hepatic echinococcosis case which was probably imported from Europe.

  7. Sources and pathways of polycyclic aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons in the Arkona Basin (Southern Baltic Sea, Central Europe)

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltic Sea (Central Europe) is surrounded by coastal regions with long histories of industrialization. The heavy metal profiles in the sediments in the center of the Arkona Basin, one of the depressions of the southern Baltic Sea area, clearly reflect the historical anthropogenic influence. The Arkona Basin-is the final sink for materials derived from the Oder river which drains a highly polluted industrial area of Eastern Europe. Surficial muddy sediments from a close-meshed field of sampling-points were analyzed for distribution patterns of aliphatics and quantities and ratios of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These compounds are thought to reflect anthropogenic pollution related to emissions from traffic, heating, etc. We use these marker substances to test if the basin sediments reflect riverine input, and if additional sources can be identified.

  8. Paleoseismic evidence for dynamic surface rupturing in an intraplate setting (Lower Rhine Embayment, central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, S.; Friedrich, A. M.; Strecker, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most enigmatic problems in intraplate earthquake geology is the spatio-temporal recurrence pattern of large earthquakes. Intraplate regions such as the New Madrid seismic zone or the central European rift system are subject to considerable seismic hazards, because fault activity is highly disparate in space and time and our knowledge about the recurrence of large earthquakes is still rudimentary. The current debate in central Europe ranges from slip dominated by repeated large coseismic events to slip dominated by aseismic creep. Here, field evidence in support of the former is sparse, and hence, some authors concluded that many faults move by slow aseismic creep rather than by ground rupturing earthquakes. We report new results from a paleoseismic study carried out in the Lower Rhine Embayment across a subsidiary normal fault in the area of Germany's largest historical earthquake (1756 AD, ML 6.2±0.2) that clearly revealed field evidence of dynamic surface faulting. At the trench site, the fault is covered by <5 m-thick Holocene fluvial gravel and flood deposits overlaying Devonian shale. We mapped a surface offset of ~1 m and a ~10 m wide zone of localized deformation expressed by abundant fractures with aligned and broken clasts extending vertically throughout the entire gravel. Mapping of 237 fractured clasts and the long-axis orientation of ~10.000 clasts defines a deformation zone coinciding with the surface offset and two offset markers within the gravel layers. We interpret these features as the result of coseismic deformation at the near-surface end of the rupture. We rule out alternative processes which may lead to fracturing of pebbles such as freeze-thaw weathering or sediment loading effects, since both the gravel fabric and fracture planes coincide well with the fault orientation. We preclude slow deformation due to aseismic creep as governing process to cause rupturing of pebbles this close to the surface, as this would require an

  9. Full stellar kinematical profiles of central parts of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vudragović, A.; Samurović, S.; Jovanović, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. We present the largest catalog of detailed stellar kinematics of the central parts of nearby galaxies, which includes higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) function represented by the Gauss-Hermite series. The kinematics is measured on a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (Alfalfa) survey using spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Aims: The SDSS DR7 offers measurements of the LOSVD based on the assumption of a pure Gaussian shape of the broadening function caused by the combination of rotational and random motion of the stars in galaxies. We discuss the consequences of this oversimplification since the velocity dispersion, one of the measured quantities, often serves as the proxy to important modeling parameters such as the black-hole mass and the virial mass of galaxies. Methods: The publicly available pPXF code is used to calculate the full kinematical profile for the sample galaxies including higher moments of their LOSVD. Both observed and synthetic stellar libraries were used and the related template mismatch problem is discussed. Results: For the whole sample of 2180 nearby galaxies reflecting morphological distribution characteristic for the local Universe, we successfully recovered stellar kinematics of their central parts, including higher order moments of the LOSVD function, for signal-to-noise above 50. Conclusions: We show the consequences of the oversimplification of the LOSVD function with Gaussian function on the velocity dispersion for the empirical and the synthetic stellar library. For the empirical stellar library, this approximation leads to an increase in the virial mass of 13% on average, while for the synthetic library the effect is weaker, with an increase of 9% on average. Systematic erroneous estimates of the velocity dispersion comes from the use of the synthetic stellar library instead of the empirical one and is much larger than the value imposed by

  10. International migration in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the outlook for East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Drbohlav, D

    1994-01-01

    This article "is devoted to the international migration issue in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Czechoslovakia). Besides the contemporary trends, the international migration situation is briefly traced back to the communist era. The probable future scenario of international migration development--based especially on migration patterns that Western Europe has experienced--is also sketched, whilst mainly economic, social, political, demographic, psychological and geographical aspects are mentioned." Some consideration is also given to other countries in Eastern Europe. The different types of migration are analyzed, including illegal migration, labor migration, and refugees and asylum seekers.

  11. Vegetation and climate in the Early- and Pleni-Weichselian in northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Gerfried; Freund, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of numerous pollen diagrams from north and central Germany and from the adjacent lowlands of The Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Belarus have facilitated a regional comparison of the vegetation and climatic evolution from the beginning of the Early Weichselian glaciation to the Weichselian pleniglacial. Data from geological studies and analysis of fossil beetles and plant macroremains have been used to supplement the palaeoclimatic reconstruction.Up to the end of the Oerel Interstadial the palaeoclimate was characterised by increasing continentality. The winter temperatures in particular tended to fall continuously during the stadials and the interstadials of the Early Weichselian and early Pleniglacial. In the Brörup and Odderade Interstadials summer temperatures where sufficiently high to enable boreal forests to grow, whereas in the Oerel Interstadial summer temperatures were such that tree growth was inhibited. It is probable that falling sea-level and the consequent extension northwards of the North Sea coast were the main causes of increasing continentality.In the latter part of the Pleniglacial, peat accumulation frequently took place and humic silts were deposited under lacustrine conditions. Correlation between various sites is extraordinarily difficult. Pollen diagrams from the so-called interstadials of the Glinde, Moershoofd Complex, Hengelo and Denekamp are similar to those of the known Early Weichselian stadials. It is proposed therefore that these interstadials should be called intervals, and that the term interstadial be reserved for climatic variations that result in distinctive pollen assemblages and which, in turn, reflect distinctive vegetation dynamics. Interstadials should be capable of being characterised on a biostratigraphical basis and it should be possible to establish correlations over considerable distances. According to this definition, the first three warm oscillations of the Weichselian glaciation in the central European

  12. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part A, Prehistoric earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax, the maximum earthquake magnitude thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. This report is Part A of an Open-File Report that describes the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes, from which one can estimate Mmax for most of the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it were used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. This Part A discusses prehistoric earthquakes that occurred in eastern North America, northwestern Europe, and Australia, whereas a separate Part B deals with historical events.

  13. The "Heart" of the European "Body Politic". British and German Perspectives on Europe's Central "Organ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolff, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a corpus of British and German press coverage of European Union (EU) politics over the 1990s, the paper analyses uses of the geopolitical HEART metaphor. Over the course of the 1990s, successive British governments promised to work "at" the "heart of Europe". However, no one ever claimed that Britain was…

  14. Assessing the completeness of historical earthquake records in Austria and surrounding Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Asma; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    formula for each country. In order to get the completeness periods for various magnitude ranges, the combined catalogue as well as each subcatalogue have been analyzed following the method of Stepp (1972). We can show that the new composite catalogue fulfills the critical minimum observation period for all intensity classes except IX and higher. A stable estimate of mean recurrence period of intensity IV is 80 years of homogeneous observations from 1900 to 1980 and for intensity V, the observation period is 120 years. A stable estimate of mean recurrence period for intensity VI is about 115 years and for intensity vii is 30 years. The homogeneous interval for maximum intensity VIII is 200 years. Maximum intensity IX earthquakes are not completely definitive for whole 962 years period. In addition, the analysis of each subcatalogue leads to similar results, except the ACORN catalogue. Therefore, the newly complied catalogue for Austria and surrounding areas is a suitable data base for seismic hazard assessment in Austria. References: ACORN, 2004, Catalogue of Earthquakes in the Region of the Alps - Western Carpathians - Bohemian Massif for the period from 1267 to 2004, Computer File, Vienna (Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Department of Geophysics) - Brno (Institute of Physics of the Earth, University Brno). Van Gils, J.M. and G. Leydecker (1991): Catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4. -- Commission of the European Communities - nuclear science and technology. 353 pp., 14 fig., 1 tab.- ISBN 92-826-2506-0, Catalogue number: CD-NA-13406-EN-C. Brussels - Luxembourg 1991. Shebalin, N. V., Leydecker, G., et al. (1998): Earthquake Catalogue for Central and Southeastern Europe 342 BC - 1990 AD. -- European Commission, Report No. ETNU CT 93 - 0087, Brussels. Stepp, J.C., 1972. Analysis of completeness of the earthquake sample in the Puget Sound area and its effect on statistical estimates of earthquake hazard. Proc. of the 1st Int

  15. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values <1 per mil. At the remaining two sites (Letnany and Velesin), the Cr isotope signature of the source of contamination was not known. At all four sites, most del53/52Cr values were positive, with means higer than 1 per mil: At Zlate Hory, del53/52Cr ranged between -2.2 and +3.0 per mil (mean of +1.5 per mil); at Loucna, del53/52Cr ranged between 0 and +4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of

  16. Morphology of preimaginal stages and taxonomical relationship of Synanthedon spuleri (Fuchs, 1908) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) with closely related species in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bąkowski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The egg, last larval instar, and pupa of Synanthedon spuleri Fuchs are described and illustrated. In Central Europe there is a group of four closely related species including S. spuleri, S. tipuliformis Clerck, S. loranthi Králíček, and S. cephiformis Ochsenheimer. Thus far S. spuleri has been classified as closely related to S. tipuliformis. However, the results of molecular analyses and partly studies of the morphology of the preimaginal stages indicate that S. spuleri is more closely related to S. cephiformis than to S. tipuliformis. In terms of the response of males to similar attractants it appears that S. spuleri is more closely related to S. tipuliformnis; however, further research needs to be conducted in this respect.

  17. Insects colonising carcasses in open and forest habitats of Central Europe: search for indicators of corpse relocation.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Szafałowicz, Michał; Jarmusz, Mateusz

    2013-09-10

    Several traces may reveal the post-mortem relocation of a corpse. Insects are particularly useful for that purpose. The use of insects for inferring the transfer of a corpse rests on a premise that particular species colonise corpses in different habitats. However, only some insects reveal a strong preference for a given type of habitat. In order to find those insects which colonise corpses exclusively in open habitats, as opposed to forest habitats, a pig carrion study was made in rural open and rural forest habitats of Central Europe. Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Dermestes frischi, Dermestes laniarius (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), Omosita colon, some species of Nitidula (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Necrobia rufipes (Coleoptera: Cleridae) were found to breed exclusively in open habitats. Only Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Coleoptera: Silphidae) avoided definitely breeding in open habitats. Sarcophaga caerulescens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) regularly bred in open habitats but rarely bred in forests. Accordingly, L. sericata, D. frischi, O. colon, species of Nitidula and supposedly N. rufipes may be classified as indicators of corpse relocation from rural open to rural forest habitats of Central Europe. Only O. thoracicum may be classified as an indicator of the relocation in an opposite direction.

  18. Infertility in Poland--present status, reasons and prognosis as a reflection of Central and Eastern Europe problems with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2003-03-01

    Poland has been considered a representative country for the population of Central and Eastern Europe as it has genetically homogenous population and reveals profound similarities in economical and historical processes common for all countries of the region. According to our observations there is approximately 20% of infertile couples in Poland (lack of concentration after at least 12 month of unprotected intercourse) and 40-60% of them are infertile because of the male factor. However, studies of infertility in Poland that have been conducted so far need to be verified. The changes connected with the style of life and new tendencies observed during the tedious political changes had considerable influence on childbearing rate in Poland. Additional factors diminishing the fertility rate are: the change of the status of women in a society, raising amount of everyday stress, the high rate (17%) of unemployment and the low average income. Furthermore, in Poland, the diagnostics and treatment (assisted reproductive technology) are entirely financed from the private funds of a patient. Summing up, the problem of childlessness in Central and Eastern Europe is a complex one and very alarming therefore it is necessary to work out and to implement research, preventative and therapeutic programmes strengthened through the international cooperation of specialized centers of excellence.

  19. Are the Pyrenees a barrier for the transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Central Europe to the Iberian Peninsula?

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; De Linares, Concepción; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Belmonte, Jordina

    2017-01-01

    This work provides a first assessment of the possible barrier effect of the Pyrenees on the atmospheric transport of airborne pollen from Europe to the North of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerobiological data recorded in three Spanish stations located at the eastern, central and western base of the Pyrenees in the period 2004-2014 have been used to identify the possible long range transport episodes of Betula pollen. The atmospheric transport routes and the origin regions have been established by means of trajectory analysis and a source receptor model. Betula pollen outbreaks were associated with the meteorological scenario characterized by the presence of a high-pressure system overm over Morocco and Southern Iberian Peninsula. France and Central Europe have been identified as the probable source areas of Betula pollen that arrives to Northern Spain. However, the specific source areas are mainly determined by the particular prevailing atmospheric circulation of each location. Finally, the Weather Research and Forecasting model highlighted the effect of the orography on the atmospheric transport patterns, showing paths through the western and easternmost lowlands for Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bellaterra respectively, and the direct impact of air flows over Vielha through the Garona valley.

  20. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  1. Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe and the Balkans: A Framework and U.S. Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    760,000 7,000,000 Ukrainians 60,000 350,000 600,000 Bulgarians 12,000 30,000 130,000 Upovans 12,000 100,000 SOURCE: Andre Uebich, "Minorities in Eastern...the obstacles to an accurate count, see Andre Liebich, "Minorities in Eastern Europe: Obstacles to a Reliable Count," RFEIRL Research Report Vol. 1, No...13For one example of the change in the type of nationalism, see Raymond Breton , "From Ethnic to Civic NaionalIsm: English Canada and Quebec,- Ethnic

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis Reveals High Frequency of European Lactase Persistence Allele (T-13910) in Medieval Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71–80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  3. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    PubMed

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  4. Plastic Surgery Training Worldwide: Part 1. The United States and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Parisa; van Paridon, Maaike W.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Paul, Marek A.; Winters, Henri A.; Martinot-Duquennoy, Veronique; Noah, Ernst Magnus; Pallua, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major differences exist in residency training, and the structure and quality of residency programs differ between different countries and teaching centers. It is of vital importance that a better understanding of the similarities and differences in plastic surgery training be ascertained as a means of initiating constructive discussion and commentary among training programs worldwide. In this study, the authors provide an overview of plastic surgery training in the United States and Europe. Methods: A survey was sent to select surgeons in 10 European countries that were deemed to be regular contributors to the plastic surgery literature. The questions focused on pathway to plastic surgery residency, length of training, required pretraining experience, training scheme, research opportunities, and examinations during and after plastic surgery residency. Results: Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States differ from the various (selected) countries in Europe and are described in detail. Conclusions: Plastic surgery education is vastly different between the United States and Europe, and even within Europe, training programs remain heterogeneous. Standardization of curricula across the different countries would improve the interaction of different centers and facilitate the exchange of vital information for quality control and future improvements. The unique characteristics of the various training programs potentially provide a basis from which to learn and to gain from one another. PMID:27257571

  5. Audio Visual Aids. Part 4 (i); Regional Geography: 1, General and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundation for Visual Aids, London (England).

    Audiovisual aids for teaching about the geography of Europe, that may be bought or rented from suppliers in Britain, are listed in this 120-page catalog. Audiovisual materials available include films, filmstrips, slides, overhead projector transparencies, wallsheets, prints, records, tapes, and teaching kits. Each catalog entry describes the…

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  8. Noise induced hearing loss: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zaborowski, Kamil; Zamojska, Malgorzata; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the studies on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) which were carried out in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and former Soviet Union countries or Newly Independent States in the period from 1970 to 2012. The papers were identified by literature search of all accessible medical and other databases (Scopus, PubMed, Medline, etc.) using the terms "noise; hearing loss, NIHL" as key words and country denomination (in alphabetical order: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, former Yugoslavia, Ukraine). This review comprises both papers published in peer-reviewed international journals and articles from local sources. The main papers' topics included the assessment of the noise hazards in occupational, and very seldom in communal environment, and the prevalence of hearing impairment in employees. Simultaneously, attempts were undertaken to establish the relationship between the degree of hearing impairment and noise exposure. The effect of combined exposures to noise and vibration and/or otoxic chemicals was assessed as well. The influence of environmental, individual, and genetic risk factors on NIHL development was intensively examined. In addition, studies concerning the role of otoacoustic emissions for NIHL monitoring and clinical examinations were conducted. Some animal researches, including molecular genetics, had been also performed. The majority of papers concerned occupational exposures, whereas only a few were dedicated to community noise.

  9. Noise and children's health: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children's health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children's health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children's health in relation to noise exposure.

  10. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  11. Task force for the urgent response to the epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases in eastern Europe and central Asia.

    PubMed

    Waugh, M A

    1999-01-01

    In summary, members of the TF/STD: share the common goal of reducing the STD burden and slowing the spread of HIV in the most affected and vulnerable countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Contribute financially, technically or in-kind to the implementation of a joint strategy which aims: -- to create an enabling environment for STD prevention and control, and -- to strengthen the local capacity for STD prevention and care; engage in a continuous exchange of information, collaborative partnerships and coordination of activities at regional as well as country level through the TF/STD and in-country interagency working groups, respectively; concur with the priority areas for international support consisting of advocacy and policy, STD drugs, condoms, educational materials, training, applied research and surveillance; meet twice a year to review implementation progress and the need for additional assistance; as advocates of TF/STD, call on partners and other organizations to join in this important new initiative.

  12. Vector affinity and diversity of Geosmithia fungi living on subcortical insects inhabiting Pinaceae species in central and northeastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Jankowiak, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Fungi from the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), though little is known about ecology, diversity, and distribution of these fungi across beetle and its host tree species. This study surveyed the diversity, distribution and vector affinity of Geosmithia isolated from subcortical insects that colonized trees from the family Pinaceae in Central and Northeastern Europe. Twelve Geosmithia species were isolated from 85 plant samples associated with 23 subcortical insect species (including 14 bark beetle species). Geosmithia community composition was similar across different localities and vector species; although the fungal communities associated with insects that colonized Pinus differed from that colonizing other tree species (Abies, Larix, and Picea). Ten Geosmithia species from four independent phylogenetic lineages were not reported previously from vectors feeding on other plant families and seem to be restricted to the vectors from Pinaceae only. We conclude that presence of such substrate specificity suggests a long and stable association between Geosmithia and bark beetles.

  13. Uncoupling of microbial community structure and function in decomposing litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Purahong, Witoon; Schloter, Michael; Pecyna, Marek J; Kapturska, Danuta; Däumlich, Veronika; Mital, Sanchit; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Gutknecht, Jessica L M; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-11-12

    The widespread paradigm in ecology that community structure determines function has recently been challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we investigate the patterns of and connections between microbial community structure and microbially-mediated ecological function across different forest management practices and temporal changes in leaf litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe. Our results clearly indicate distinct pattern of microbial community structure in response to forest management and time. However, those patterns were not reflected when potential enzymatic activities of microbes were measured. We postulate that in our forest ecosystems, a disconnect between microbial community structure and function may be present due to differences between the drivers of microbial growth and those of microbial function.

  14. Association of insulin receptor genetic variants with polycystic ovary syndrome in a population of women from Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hanzu, Felicia A; Radian, Serban; Attaoua, Redha; Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Fica, Simona; Gheorghiu, Monica; Coculescu, Mihai; Grigorescu, Florin

    2010-11-01

    To assess the role of the insulin receptor gene in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) we performed a case-control study in a female population (n=226) from Central Europe by examining the genetic associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs8107575, rs2245648, rs2245649, rs2963, rs2245655, and rs2962) and inferred haplotypes around exon 9 of this gene. The ancestral T allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs2963 or the corresponding haplotype (GGTC-C) showed association with PCOS with odds ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval 1.4-6.3, independent of obesity but related to the presence of Acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, or hyperandrogeny, thus providing a frame for future fine mapping of the susceptibility loci in PCOS.

  15. Emergence of Usutu virus, an African mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Weissenböck, Herbert; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Url, Angelika; Lussy, Helga; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Nowotny, Norbert

    2002-07-01

    During late summer 2001 in Austria, a series of deaths in several species of birds occurred, similar to the beginning of the West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in the United States. We necropsied the dead birds and examined them by various methods; pathologic and immunohistologic investigations suggested a WNV infection. Subsequently, the virus was isolated, identified, partially sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The isolates exhibited 97% identity to Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne Flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group; USUV has never previously been observed outside Africa nor associated with fatal disease in animals or humans. If established in central Europe, this virus may have considerable effects on avian populations; whether USUV has the potential to cause severe human disease is unknown.

  16. Extreme floods in central Europe over the past 500 years: Role of cyclone pathway ``Zugstrasse Vb''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, M.; BöRngen, M.; Tetzlaff, G.; Grünewald, U.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropogenically induced climate change has been hypothesized to add to the risk of extreme river floods because a warmer atmosphere can carry more water. In the case of the central European rivers Elbe and Oder, another possibility that has been considered is a more frequent occurrence of a weather situation of the type "Zugstrasse Vb," where a low-pressure system travels from the Adriatic region northeastward, carrying moist air and bringing orographic rainfall in the mountainous catchment areas (Erzgebirge, Sudeten, and Beskids). Analysis of long, homogeneous records of past floods allows us to test such ideas. M. Mudelsee and co-workers recently presented flood records for the middle parts of the Elbe and Oder, which go continuously back to A.D. 1021 and A.D. 1269, respectively. Here we review the reconstruction and assess the data quality of the records, which are based on combining documentary data from the interval up to 1850 and measurements thereafter, finding both the Elbe and Oder records to provide reliable information on heavy floods at least since A.D. 1500. We explain that the statistical method of kernel occurrence rate estimation can overcome deficiencies of techniques previously used to investigate trends in the occurrence of climatic extremes, because it (1) allows nonmonotonic trends, (2) imposes no parametric restrictions, and (3) provides confidence bands, which are essential for evaluating whether observed trends are real or came by chance into the data. We further give a hypothesis test that can be used to evaluate monotonic trends. On the basis of these data and methods, we find for both the Elbe and Oder rivers (1) significant downward trends in winter flood risk during the twentieth century, (2) no significant trends in summer flood risk in the twentieth century, and (3) significant variations in flood risk during past centuries, with notable differences between the Elbe and Oder. The observed trends are shown to be both robust against

  17. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  18. Agricultural Adjustment and the Diversification of Farm Households and Corporate Farms in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Hannah; Davidova, Sophia; Gorton, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual and corporate farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation and household incomes is investigated. The results…

  19. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  20. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL).

  1. Simulation of air quality over Central-Eastern Europe - Performance evaluation of WRF-CAMx modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Katarzyna; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Reizer, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of presented work is to evaluate the accuracy of modelling the atmospheric transport and transformation on regional scale, performed with 25 km grid spacing. The coupled Mesoscale Weather Model - Chemical Transport Model (CTM) has been applied for Europe under European-American AQMEII project (Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative - http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The modelling domain was centered over Denmark (57.00°N, 10.00°E) with 172 x 172 grid points in x and y direction. The map projection choice was Lambert conformal. In the applied modelling system the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) from ENVIRON International Corporation (Novato, California) was coupled off-line to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). WRF-CAMx simulations have been carried out for 2006. The anthropogenic emisions database has been provided by TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) under AQMEII initiative. Area and line emissions were proceeded by emission model EMIL (Juda-Rezler et al., 2012) [1], while for the point sources the EPS3 model (Emission Processor v.3 from ENVIRON) was implemented in order to obtain vertical distribution of emission. Boundary conditions were acquired from coupling the GEMS (Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data) modelling system results with satellite observations. The modelling system has been evaluated for the area of Central-Eastern Europe, regarding ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. For each pollutant measured data from rural background AirBase and EMEP stations, with more than 75% of daily data, has been used. Original 'operational' evaluation methodology, proposed by Juda-Rezler et al. (2012) was applied. Selected set of metrics consists of 5 groups: bias measures, error measures, correlation measures, measures of model variance and spread, which

  2. Obstacles in provision of anti-retroviral treatment to drug users in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a regional overview.

    PubMed

    Bobrova, Natalia; Sarang, Anya; Stuikyte, Raminta; Lezhentsev, Konstantin

    2007-08-01

    Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is currently the region with the fastest growing HIV epidemic, mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs). This study explored access to anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment among IDUs and evaluated obstacles to gaining access to treatment. Semi-structured questionnaires were collected from 21 countries from agencies which deliver services to IDUs (N=55), including AIDS centres, drug treatment institutions and Non-governmental Organisations. Results showed that there was poor access to ARV treatment for IDUs. The major obstacles reported were: limited range of institutions for the provision of ARVs, lack of treatment due to high cost of ARVs, lack of clear policies and regulations in providing treatment for IDUs, lack of infrastructure and trained staff to provide treatment, and in some countries, absence of mechanisms such as methadone substitution programmes to support IDUs receiving ARV. There is a need for human and capital resources to bring ARV treatment to IDU populations in the region. Regulations and treatment protocols need to be developed to address this particular group of HIV positive clients to insure better adherence and monitoring of clients with HCV co-infection. Integration of provision of ARV treatment with drug treatment and low-threshold services is advised. Substitution therapy should be advocated for in countries where it is not available or where access is limited. Finally, more research needs to be conducted to understand what will work best in each country, region or setting.

  3. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, J. A.; SOMLAI, A. M.; BENOTSCH, E. G.; AMIRKHANIAN, Y. A.; FERNANDEZ, M. I.; STEVENSON, L. Y.; SITZLER, C. A.; MCAULIFFE, T. L.; BROWN, K. D.; OPGENORTH, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention. PMID:16282071

  4. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in household dust in Central Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Karásková, Pavlína; Venier, Marta; Melymuk, Lisa; Bečanová, Jitka; Vojta, Šimon; Prokeš, Roman; Diamond, Miriam L; Klánová, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of 20 perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in dust samples from 41 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic, and United States in the spring-summer of 2013. The most frequently detected compounds were perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had the highest concentrations of PFASs in all countries. PFOS median concentrations for the three countries were between 9.1 and 14.1ng/g, and PFOA medians ranged between 8.2 and 9.3ng/g. In general, concentrations in North America were higher than in the Czech Republic, which is consistent with usage patterns. No differences were found for perfluorooctane sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols (FOSA/Es) levels due to the low number of detections. Homologue profiles suggest that the shift from longer to shorter chain PFASs is more advanced in North America than in Europe. Significant relationships were found among individual homologues and between PFAS concentrations in dust and type of floor, number of people living in the house, and building age.

  5. [Contact allergy to Anacardiaceae. A review and case reports of poison ivy allergy in central Europe].

    PubMed

    Ippen, H

    1983-01-01

    In Europe, as opposed to North America, poison-ivy rash is hardly known. For this reason a detailed review of the allergenic members of the Anacardiaceae family is given, and the misleading nomenclature of "poison ivy", "poison oak", and some other species of this family are discussed. An up-to-date representation of the chemical structure of the allergenic substance group (denoted as "Urushiol") from this family is provided as well as botanical information regarding the plants themselves. Prevention of this dangerous sensitization and the therapy of this allergic reaction are discussed. The four cases presented are as follows: a young German woman who became sensitized to poison ivy or poison oak while in the USA and showed a cross reaction to other Rhus species (R. copallina, R. javanica (semialata), R. trichocarpa) as well as to Choerospondias axillaris var. japonica and to mangoes; a landscape gardener with an occupationally acquired allergy to Anacardium occidentale; and two control persons giving positive results to skin tests with Urushiol and Rhus trichocarpa respectively, to which the source of sensitization could not be clarified. Tests with three kinds of pistachio and two native-European Anacardiaceae (Rhus typhina and Cotinus coggygria) yielded negative results in each case. Prophylaxis to sensitization requires familiarity with the numerous Anacardiaceae and derivative products to which one could come in contact. These substances, summarized in a table, include mango, cashew and "sweet pepper".

  6. Stalagmite geochemistry and the timing of the last interglacial-glacial transition in Central Europe (NE Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siklosy, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems can provide accurate chronologies for reconstructions of climate change by combination of U/Th dating and climate-related geochemical compositions. Geochemical studies of speleothems from Central Europe are mostly based on stable C and O isotope analyses, thus, complex geochemical studies combining isotope and trace element measurements are needed for more reliable climate models for this transitional area between oceanic and continental regions. We present stable H-C-O isotope and trace element records obtained on speleothems covering the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) and the transition to MIS 5d. A stalagmite from Baradla Cave grew from 127.5 to 110 ka. Accelerated growth rates have been detected by U/Th age data in the 127 to 126 ka and 119 to 117 ka parts. Trace element compositions and 230Th/232Th ratios suggest changes in the hydrological regime, whereby early calcite precipitates formed in fissures during the dry and cold glacial period were dissolved by the starting flux of infiltrating meteoric water (producing elevated dissolved ion concentration but low detrital Th component), then the increasing amount of dripwater during the interglacial period resulted in trace element dilution. Temperature and precipitation amount variations are also reflected by the stable isotope compositions. Oxygen isotope composition shows a continuous increase from 127.5 ka until about 118 ka most probably related to temperature rise, whereas C isotope values are shifted in negative direction suggesting increasing humidity in accordance with trace element contents. The presumably warmest period at ca. 118 ka is associated with rather arid climate as indicated by peak d18O values coinciding with the highest dD values of fluid inclusion water. This is followed by a pronounced negative shift in both O and H isotope values, similarly to recent Alpine studies (Meyer et al., 2008), most probably related to cooling. Hydrogen isotope compositions of fluid inclusion water

  7. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  8. Misperceived invasion: the Lusitanian slug (Arion lusitanicus auct. non-Mabille or Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon 1855) is native to Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pfenninger, Markus; Weigand, Alexander; Bálint, Miklós; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The Lusitanian slug, presumed to be native to south-west Europe, was ranked among the 100 worst invading species in Central Europe. However, from the very beginning of its recognition in the presumed invasion area, there was little evidence that the species was actually anthropogenically introduced. We investigated the invasive status of the species by comparing specific predictions on the population genetic structure in the invasion area with the pattern actually found. In a DNA-taxonomy approach, the species could not be found in its presumed native range. Using statistical phylogeographic techniques on a mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ZF) marker and species distribution modelling, we could show that the species is with very high probability not an invasor, but native to Central Europe. The study underlines the value of statistical phylogeography in rigorously testing hypotheses on the dynamics of biological invasions. PMID:25067951

  9. The extreme drought episode of August 2011-May 2012: A scenario for future droughts in Central Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradníček, P.; Trnka, M.; Brázdil, R.; Mozny, M.; Stepanek, P.; Hlavinka, P.; Malý, A.; Dubrovsky, M.

    2014-12-01

    The weather conditions from August 2011 to May 2012 produced an extreme drought in the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia), whereas the patterns were nearly normal in its western region (Bohemia). The Southern and Central Moravia regions, which represent the most important agricultural areas, were most affected by the drought. The precipitation totals for the studied period were 50% to 70% of the long-term mean, which was calculated for 1961-2000. In autumn 2011, the total precipitation accounted for 10% to 30% of the long-term mean for most of Moravia, increasing to 30% to 50% in spring 2012. Moreover, 7.5% of the Czech Republic experienced a 100-year drought; 20% of the country experienced a 20-year drought. According to the Palmer Drought Severity Index, the 2012 drought was classified as the worst in the past 130 years. The drought patterns were related to the prevailing high-pressure systems over Central Europe and the occurrence of weather types with different precipitation amounts in Bohemia and Moravia. The most substantial drought effects occurred in the agricultural sector. A decrease in cereal yields was observed in the analyzed production areas in Moravia, which was unprecedented in the past 52 years. Moreover, winter crops were affected more than spring crops. An increased risk of fire occurred due to the drought conditions; the largest forest fire in the past 15 years was recorded during this period. Furthermore, signs of hydrological drought were also reported in rivers. The 2011-2012 drought was compared with the significant droughts in 2000, 2003 and 2007. Austria and Slovakia, which neighbor the Czech Republic, experienced a similar drought. This drought analysis can be used as a scenario for future droughts and their impacts in Central Europe due to the global warming projected by GCMs.Acknowledgements:This study was made possible by the generous support of the "Establishment of International Scientific Team Focused on Drought Research" project (no

  10. A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

    2013-04-01

    • Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change

  11. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  12. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of…

  13. Development of microsatellites from Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) and characterization of genetic diversity of cornelian cherries from China, central Europe, and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is indigenous to central and southeastern Europe and is an ecologically and economically important shrub or small tree. The aim of this study was to develop molecular tools for assessing genetic diversity and provide unique molecular identification of C. mas cultivar...

  14. Local Governance in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Central and Eastern Europe: A Skills Exchange Workshop (Romania, April 4-7, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This report describes a skills exchange workshop, co-organized by Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and the Liga Pro Europa, on local governance in multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Civil servants, members of minority communities, non-governmental organization (NGO) activists, and public officials from Bulgaria,…

  15. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The vocational education and training (VET) reforms currently under way in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States are distinguished by the breadth, range, depth, and speed of the reforms proposed or already initiated. The European Union has assisted the reform process through its Phare and Tacis programs. The following have been…

  16. RCM ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulations of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 climate over the Central Europe region with emphasis on analysis of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the frame of the EC FP6 project CECILIA, two simulations of the future climate conditions in the Central Europe were performed by the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ under high resolution of 10 km. The simulations according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario cover 30-years time intervals in the middle (2021-2050) and end of the 21st century (2071-2100). The regional model was driven by the general circulation model ARPEGE-Climate over the Central Europe integration domain covering 74 × 148 points (lat. × lon.). The presented analysis of the expected change in extreme events is focused only on the Czech Republic that represents a central part of the domain with 789 model's grid points. Before the analysis of the future climate, the model data were corrected according to validation results carried out for the period 1961-1990. For this task a new gridded dataset of station observation was created from all available data records stored in the climatological database of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). All input station observations were quality controlled and homogenized in daily scale and then recalculated to the ALADIN-Climate/CZ's grid of 10 km horizontal resolution while taking into account the model's elevation and distance from an individual grid point. Gridded dataset of station observations was then compared with the past climate (1961-1990) GCM driven ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulation in each grid point. According to relationship between these two datasets, outputs of A1B scenario integrations of the future climate were corrected applying an approach of Déqué (2007) that is based on a variable correction using individual percentiles. After the correction, the model outputs are fully compatible with the station (measured) data. Corrected model outputs are analyzed with regard to extreme events of air temperature and precipitation by applying 131 indices defined within the WP4 of the CECILIA project. The obtained results are compared

  17. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers’ roles in the process. Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional “yes,” “no,” or “yes with restrictions” options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited

  18. Awaiting an Enemy: The Operational Significance of Politically Induced Force Reductions to Parity in Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-10

    ionufLimited PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME...Central Eujope (U) 2. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) LTC James L. Moody 3a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 115. PAGE...social conditions between civilized nations to be a pre-war phenomenon that was not a factor in the waging war. 20 Unlike Sun Tzu who thought that

  19. Bare ground as a crucial habitat feature for a rare terrestrially foraging farmland bird of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagmann-Ioset, Aline; Schaub, Michael; Reichlin, Thomas S.; Weisshaupt, Nadja; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-02-01

    Most farmland birds have declined significantly throughout the world due to agricultural intensification. Agri-environmental policies could not halt the decline of ground-foraging insectivorous farmland birds in Europe, indicating a gap in knowledge of species' ecological requirements. This represents a major impediment to the development of efficient, evidence-based agri-environmental measures. Using radio-tracking we studied habitat selection by farmland Hoopoes, a rare terrestrially foraging bird in Central Europe, and assessed habitat preferences of their main prey (Molecrickets), with the aim to identify optimal foraging habitat profiles in order to guide farmland management. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling of habitat descriptors at actual foraging locations vs. random locations within the home ranges of 13 males showed that the availability of bare ground was the principal determinant of foraging activity, with an optimum of 60-70% bare ground at patch scale. This ideal habitat configuration, which facilitates birds' terrestrial hunting, was found primarily in intensively farmed fruit tree plantations which dominated the landscape matrix: this habitat offers extensive strips of bare ground due to systematic removal of ground vegetation along tree rows. In contrast, dense grassland and cropland were avoided. Another important habitat feature was the availability of nongravelly soil, which enabled Hoopoes to probe the earth with their long, curved bill in search of underground invertebrates. The role of Molecrickets, however, appeared secondary to foraging patch selection, suggesting that prey accessibility was per se more important than prey abundance. Creating patches of bare ground within modern farmland where sufficient supplies of suitable invertebrate prey exist will support Hoopoe populations.

  20. Nitrogen and metals in two regions in Central Europe: significant differences in accumulation in mosses due to land use?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Hornsmann, Inga; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther; Markert, Bernd; Fränzle, Stefan; Wünschmann, Simone; Heidenreich, Heike

    2007-10-01

    The study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the regional variability of nitrogen (N) and metal accumulations in terrestrial ecosystems are due to historical and recent ways of landuse. To this end, two regions of Central Europe were selected for investigation: the Weser-Ems Region (WER) and the Euro Region Nissa (ERN). They were assumed to have land use-specific accumulation profiles. Thus, the metal and N accumulations in both regions were examined by means of geostatistically based comparative moss analysis. The sampling and chemical analysis of mosses were conducted in accordance with the convenient guidelines and methods, respectively. The spatial representativity of the sampling sites was computed by means of a land classification which was calculated for Europe by means of classification trees and GIS-techniques. The differences of deposition loads were tested for statistical significance with regard to time and space. The measurement values corroborated the decline of metal accumulation observed since the beginning of the European Metals in Mosses Surveys in 1990. The metal loads of the mosses in the ERN exceeded those in the WER significantly. The opposite holds true for the N concentrations: those in the WER were significantly higher than those in the ERN. The reduction of emissions from power plants, factories and houses was strongly correlated with the decline of deposition and bioaccumulation of metals. As proved by the European Metals in Mosses Surveys, this tendency is due to successful environmental policies. But no such success could be verified by monitoring the accumulation of N in mosses.

  1. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (Gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non–communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Conclusions: Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe. PMID:23390466

  2. Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Central and Eastern Europe: Self-Reported Practice of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    PALKA, Małgorzata; KRZTOŃ-KRÓLEWIECKA, Anna; TOMASIK, Tomasz; SEIFERT, Bohumil; WÓJTOWICZ, Ewa; WINDAK, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal disorders account for 7–10% of all consultations in primary care. General practitioners’ management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern European countries is largely unknown. Aims To identify and compare variations in the self-perceived responsibilities of general practitioners in the management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of primary care physicians from 9 countries was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire was sent via post to primary care doctors. Results We received 867 responses; the response rate was 28.9%. Over 70% of respondents reported familiarity with available guidelines for gastrointestinal diseases. For uninvestigated dyspepsia in patients under 45 years, the “test and treat” strategy was twice as popular as “test and scope”. The majority (59.8%) of family physicians would refer patients with rectal bleeding without alarm symptoms to a specialist (from 7.6% of doctors in Slovenia to 85.1% of doctors in Bulgaria; p<0.001). 93.4% of respondents declared their involvement in colorectal cancer screening. In the majority of countries, responding doctors most often reported that they order fecal occult blood tests. The exceptions were Estonia and Hungary, where the majority of family physicians referred patients to a specialist (p<0.001). Conclusions Physicians from Central and Eastern European countries understood the need for the use of guidelines for the care of patients with gastrointestinal problems, but there is broad variation between countries in their management. Numerous efforts should be undertaken to establish and implement international standards for digestive disorders’ management in general practice. PMID:27669515

  3. HIV in Europe.

    PubMed

    Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection.

  4. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2008-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.

  5. Spatial variations of earthquake occurrence and coseismic deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Wenzel, F.

    2015-05-01

    Seismic activity in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is an aspect in the public, political, and industrial decision making process. The spatial analysis of magnitude-frequency distributions provides valuable information about local seismicity patterns and regional seismic hazard assessment and can be used also as a proxy for coseismic deformation to explore the seismo-tectonic setting of the URG. We combine five instrumental and one historic earthquake bulletins to obtain for the first time a consistent database for events with local magnitudes ML ≥ 2.0 in the whole URG and use it for the determination of magnitude frequencies. The data processing results in a dataset with 274 Poisson distributed instrumentally recorded earthquakes within the URG between 01/1971 and 02/2012 and 34 historic events since the year 1250. Our analysis reveals significant b-value variations along the URG that allow us to differentiate four distinct sections (I-IV) with significant differences in earthquake magnitude distributions: I: Basel region in the Swiss-France-German border region (b = 0.83), II: region between Mulhouse and Freiburg in the southern URG (b = 1.42), III: central URG (b = 0.93), and IV: northern URG (b = 1.06). High b-values and thus a relatively low amount of high magnitude events in the Freiburg section are possibly a consequence of strongly segmented, small-scale structures that are not able to accumulate high stresses. We use the obtained magnitude-frequency distributions and representative source mechanisms for each section to determine coseismic displacement rates. A maximum horizontal displacement rate of 41 μm/a around Basel is found whereas only 8 μm/a are derived for the central and northern URG. A comparison with geodetic and geological constraints implies that the coseismic displacement rates cover less than 10% of the overall displacement rates, suggesting a high amount of aseismic deformation in the URG.

  6. Bi-National Corps of Nato’s Main Defense Forces in Central Europe: Creating Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-04

    possitively influence the media , and to become, through training, an effective part of the coalition army. Cordingley states about the American...limitations of national forces in combined operations, commanders visits and effective communication are essential for leader- ship to be effective . Our...corps is essential for effective C2. A last concern is the effectiveness of communication systems. All agree, that corps and division need effective

  7. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechid, D.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.

    2010-09-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within the BMBF funded research priority "KLIMZUG - Managing Climate Change in the Regions of the Future", innovative strategies for adaptation to climate change are developed. The funding activity particularly stresses the regional aspect since the global problem climate change must be tackled by measures at regional and local level. The focus of the joint project "KLIMZUG-NORD - Strategic Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region" is to establish an interdisciplinary network between the research, administrative and economic sectors in this region. The regional climate change information is provided by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology as input for climate change impact assessments. The cross-sectional task "climate change" is to prepare consistent regional climate data and to advise on its reasonable use. The project benefits from the results of the ENSEMBLES EU project, in which an extensive set of regional climate change simulations at 50 km horizontal resolution were performed for 1950 to 2100. For impact studies, higher horizontal resolutions are required. With the regional climate model REMO, three global climate change scenarios from ECHAM5-MPIOM were downscaled to 50 km with three ensemble members each. In a second step, some members were further downscaled to 10 km for central Europe. For the global and regional simulations, the trends were analysed and indicate a strong internal climate variability, which further increases the range of climate change simulation results. This all recommends the application of 1

  8. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe part I: eugenics, human experimentation, and mass murder.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2011-09-01

    The Nazi regime in Germany from 1933 to 1945 waged a veritable war throughout Europe to eliminate neurologic disease from the gene pool. Fueled by eugenic policies on racial hygiene, the Nazis first undertook a sterilization campaign against "mental defectives," which included neurologic patients with epilepsy and other disorders, as well as psychiatric patients. From 1939-41 the Nazis instead resorted to "euthanasia" of many of the same patients. Some neuroscientists were collaborators in this program, using patients for research, or using extracted brains following their murder. Other reviews have focused on Hallervorden, Spatz, Schaltenbrand, Scherer, and Gross, but in this review the focus is on neuroscientists not well described in the neurology literature, including Scholz, Ostertag, Schneider, Nachtsheim, and von Weizsäcker. Only by understanding the actions of neuroscientists during this dark period can we learn from the slippery slope down which they traveled, and prevent history from repeating itself.

  9. Climate change scenarios of heat waves in Central Europe and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan; Farda, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    The study examines climate change scenarios of Central European heat waves with a focus on related uncertainties in a large ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) simulations from the EURO-CORDEX and ENSEMBLES projects. Historical runs (1970-1999) driven by global climate models (GCMs) are evaluated against the E-OBS gridded data set in the first step. Although the RCMs are found to reproduce the frequency of heat waves quite well, those RCMs with the coarser grid (25 and 50 km) considerably overestimate the frequency of severe heat waves. This deficiency is improved in higher-resolution (12.5 km) EURO-CORDEX RCMs. In the near future (2020-2049), heat waves are projected to be nearly twice as frequent in comparison to the modelled historical period, and the increase is even larger for severe heat waves. Uncertainty originates mainly from the selection of RCMs and GCMs because the increase is similar for all concentration scenarios. For the late twenty-first century (2070-2099), a substantial increase in heat wave frequencies is projected, the magnitude of which depends mainly upon concentration scenario. Three to four heat waves per summer are projected in this period (compared to less than one in the recent climate), and severe heat waves are likely to become a regular phenomenon. This increment is primarily driven by a positive shift of temperature distribution, but changes in its scale and enhanced temporal autocorrelation of temperature also contribute to the projected increase in heat wave frequencies.

  10. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-08

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars.

  11. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  15. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  16. The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps and The Akron Story Part II: Europe on $15 a Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, John D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two articles combined here describe aspects of the Akron, Ohio Public Schools' summer foreign language immersion camps for both students and teachers. The first article, "The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps" (John D. Durden and Sandra K. Strauber), outlines the structure of the camps, in which students live in simulated…

  17. [Legislation concerning reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe: new facts].

    PubMed

    Fluss, S S

    1994-05-01

    In this article, WHO reports on certain laws promulgated in different central and eastern European countries in the early 1990s. Russia has passed a law creating a Coordinating Committee on Problems of the Family, Motherhood, and Childhood. It brings together governmental agencies, public organizations, and citizens to identify ways to improve women's status and protection of maternal and child health. Russia has also adopted Legislative Orientations of the Russian Federation concerning the Sanitary Protection of Citizens. For example, this law guarantees pregnant women the right to work under conditions adapted to their physiological and sanitary state. A whole chapter is dedicated to family planning and regulation of human procreation. Only women have the right to decide whether to terminate or continue their pregnancy. A law in Kyrgyzstan states that every woman has the right to make her own decisions concerning motherhood. With their consent, women also have the right to modern contraceptive methods. Sterilization can only be done with the consent of the woman or for medical reasons. The Counsel of Ministers in the Ukraine adopted a program aiming to improve the condition of women and the family and to protect mothers and children. A Hungarian law does not consider abortion to be a family planning method or a means of fertility control. At the same time, it considers family planning to be a right and a duty of parents. It calls for considerable education on the value of health and life, the healthy life, responsibilities accompanying relations between partners, a family life compatible with human dignity, and contraceptive methods. Albania first approved family planning activities in May 1992. Romania approved technical norms relative to hormonal contraceptives and to IUDs. In January 1993, Poland passed a law restricting abortion to cases of medical indications, fetal death, a grave abnormality, and illicit acts.

  18. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Agnes; Adam, Balazs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Adany, Roza; Kosa, Karolina

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  19. Habitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes in the lowland rivers of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Jażdżewski, M; Marszał, L; Przybylski, M

    2016-02-01

    The pattern of microhabitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes was examined in two rivers of central Poland: the Pilica River (the Vistula River basin) and the Grabia River (the Odra River basin). A comparison of abiotic factors of the rivers revealed differences in water speed and principal components: PC1 (determining gradient from decreasing medium sand to the increasing share of three fractions of gravel), PC2 (a gradient from the declining share of very coarse and coarse sand fractions to the growing content of fine sand) and PC3 (correlated with an increasing proportion of silt). The sites did not differ significantly in terms of water depth. Relative abundance and frequency of ammocoete occurrence in the Grabia River were higher than in the Pilica River. Only speed, PC1 and PC2 made a significant contribution to the prediction of larval occurrence. Eudontomyzon mariae larvae preferred substrata with a reduced amount of medium sand and increased content of gravel (PC1) as well as with a lower content of coarse sand and higher proportion of fine-grained sand (PC2). The ammocoetes also preferred areas with a water speed of 0·2 m s(-1) but avoided speeds ≥ 0·6 m s(-1). The abundance of E. mariae was affected by water speed, as well as by all PCs. The mean ± s.e. optimal current speed was 0·265 ± 0·007 m s(-1), while abundance decreased with increasing amounts of gravel (PC1) and increased with increasing amounts of fine sand and silt in the bottom substratum (PC2 and PC3). Comparison of ammocoete microhabitat use in the Pilica and Grabia Rivers showed the lack of differences in distribution in the preferred values of current speed, PC1 and PC2.

  20. Morphotectonic setting of maar lakes in the Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (Central Spain, SW Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Serrano, A.; Vegas, J.; García-Cortés, A.; Galán, L.; Gallardo-Millán, J. L.; Martín-Alfageme, S.; Rubio, F. M.; Ibarra, P. I.; Granda, A.; Pérez-González, A.; García-Lobón, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (CCVF, Central Spain), the eruption of Pliocene-Pleistocene maar craters into two clearly distinct types of pre-volcanic rocks allows the observation and comparison of hard-substrate and soft-substrate maar lakes. Hard-substrate maars formed when phreatomagmatic processes affected the jointed, Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks (hard substrate), giving rise to funnel-like maar lake basins. Soft-substrate maars resulted from phreatomagmatic volcanic processes affecting poorly-consolidated Pliocene sediments, forming bowl-like maar lake basins. Pre-volcanic bedrock determined the post-eruptive lacustrine architecture in the craters and favored a higher preservation of hard-substrate maars in comparison to soft-substrate maars. This is because the hard-substrate maars, surrounded by a deep stable crater wall, are more capable of collecting sediments in their basins. These sediments could be preserved for longer than similar deposits in broad, shallow maars with a soft substrate. Ancient soft-substrate maars do not usually preserve their original morphology well and can be identified only by their lacustrine deposits. Carbonate lacustrine/palustrine deposits surrounding a bowl-like depression are the remnants of this second type of maar lake, and allow reconstruction of the original morphology of ancient soft-substrate maar craters. Geophysical (electrical tomography ground surveys) and geomorphologic-geologic mapping techniques were combined with fieldwork and facies analysis in order to locate and accurately characterize the Pliocene-Pleistocene soft-substrate maar volcanic structures of the CCVF.

  1. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  2. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries.

  3. Bismuth selenides from St. Andreasberg, Germany: an oxidised five-element style of mineralisation and its relation to post-Variscan vein-type deposits of central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Ließmann, Wilfried; Jian, Wei; Lehmann, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    Carbonate veinlets at Roter Bär, a former underground mine in the polymetallic St. Andreasberg vein district of the Harz Mountains, Germany, host selenide minerals that are characterised as Bi-Ag-bearing clausthalite (PbSe), tiemannite (HgSe), guanajuatite (Bi2Se3) and a number of selenides of Bi, Zn, Cu, Ag and Pd. An unnamed Bi-Pb-Ag selenide species with some Hg and Cu, ideally Bi4Pb3Ag2Se10, is reported here. Specular hematite is disseminated within the clausthalite, at the marginal zones of which other selenide minerals are located. The occurrence of bohdanowiczite (AgBiSe2) and umangite (Cu3Se2) constrains the formation temperature to ≤120 °C, and the selenide-hematite assemblage (plus barite in the carbonate gangue) identifies highly oxidised conditions. Selenide assemblages of Pb, Bi, Ag, with and without Co and Ni, occur in many parts of the Variscan basement of central Europe (Harz, Erzgebirge, Schwarzwald and Bohemian Massif) and represent a high-oxidation variety of five-element (Ag-As-Bi-Co-Ni) veins.

  4. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2010-11-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  5. High-resolution Rayleigh-wave velocity maps of central Europe from a dense ambient-noise data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J.; Boschi, L.; Stehly, L.; Kissling, E.; Michelini, A.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new database of surface wave group and phase-velocity dispersion curves derived from seismic ambient noise, cross-correlating continuous seismic recordings from the Swiss Network, the German Regional Seismological Network (GRSN), the Italian national broad-band network operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geosica e Vulcanologia (INGV). To increase the aperture of the station array, additional measurements from the Mediterranean Very Broad-band Seismographic Network (MedNet), the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the French, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Romanian and Greek stations obtained through Orfeus are also included. The ambient noise, we are using to assemble our database, was recorded at the above-mentioned stations between 2006 January and 2006 December. Correlating continuous signal recorded at pairs of stations, allows to extract coherent surface wave signal travelling between the two stations. Usually the ambient-noise cross-correlation technique allows to have informations at periods of 30 s or shorter. By expanding the database of noise correlations, we seek to increase the resolution of the central Europe crustal model. We invert the resulting data sets of group and phase velocities associated with 8-35 s Rayleigh waves, to determine 2-D group and phase-velocity maps of the European region. Inversions are conducted by means of a 2-D linearized tomographic inversion algorithm. The generally good agreement of our models with previous studies and good correlation of well-resolved velocity anomalies with geological features, such as sedimentary basins, crustal roots and mountain ranges, documents the effectiveness of our approach.

  6. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Jiroušek, Martin; Hájek, Michal; Bragazza, Luca

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m(-2) year(-1) in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  8. An overview of the epidemiology and epizootology of brucellosis in selected countries of Central and Southeast Europe.

    PubMed

    Taleski, V; Zerva, L; Kantardjiev, T; Cvetnic, Z; Erski-Biljic, M; Nikolovski, B; Bosnjakovski, J; Katalinic-Jankovic, V; Panteliadou, A; Stojkoski, S; Kirandziski, T

    2002-12-20

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the epidemiologic and epizootic status of brucellosis in selected countries of Central and Southeast Europe (Balkan region). Based on dimension of the disease problem, there is a need to establish collaboration in the eradication and prevention of brucellosis between all countries in the region. Although there were no readily accessible data concerning epidemiology and epizootology of brucellosis in these countries, the limited official and published data were analyzed. The incidence of brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis in sheep, goats and humans is a very significant problem in Macedonia and Greece. In Greece, cattle are also affected either by B. melitensis or B. abortus. The disease is an endemic problem in some regions of Yugoslavia and includes B. suis biovar 2 in pigs and in Croatia, B. melitensis in sheep, goats and human is found occasionally. No problem appears to exist with brucellosis in Bulgaria. Financial well-supported brucellosis control programs of the European Union that will include all countries, regardless of the magnitude of brucellosis incidence, are needed for eradication and control of brucellosis.

  9. Linking the North Atlantic to central Europe: a high-resolution Holocene tephrochronological record from northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bogaard, Christel; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution Holocene tephrochronology for northern Germany has been established based on systematic tephrostratigraphical analysis of three peat bogs. Microscopic volcanic ash layers have been traced and characterised petrographically and by the chemical composition of the glass shards. At least 37 ash horizons representing 16 different explosive volcanic eruptions have been identified and many can be correlated between the three sites, up to 100 km apart. The tephra layers can be related to Icelandic volcanic sources and some correlated to the eruptions of Askja 1875, Hekla 3, Hekla Selsund, Hekla 4 and Hekla 5, as well as to unspecified eruptions of Icelandic volcanic systems, e.g. Torfajökull. The source volcanoes for some tephra layers remain unidentified. Some tephra layers were known previously from the North Atlantic region (e.g. Sluggan, Glen Garry), others have not been recorded previously in the literature (e.g. microlite tephra). This study provides the first comprehensive Holocene tephrostratigraphical record for northern Germany, complementing the North Atlantic tephrostratigraphical dating framework, effectively extending it into central Europe. The study shows that Icelandic ash layers are even more widespread than hitherto thought.

  10. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  11. Education / training in supportive and palliative care in central and eastern Europe. Results of a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Luczak, J; Kluziak, M; Hunter, G Petrie

    2002-05-01

    During the totalitarian era terminal care was excluded from the health care system, and oncology, including education in the field, was rather neglected. The political and economic reforms that started in the 1990s in the countries of eastern and central Europe enhanced the development of palliative care and improvements in cancer treatment standards. This survey was performed to assess the current status of education and training in supportive and palliative care. A questionnaire was prepared and distributed by the authors to national leaders in palliative/supportive care. Data obtained from 16 countries indicate progress in palliative care provision and education, though it is held up by economic difficulties and by the lack of regulations in countries engaged in reforms of their health care systems. Training in supportive care is deficient; the discipline is usually perceived as the management of side-effects of anticancer treatment, so that it is not separated from clinical oncology. Access to professional literature should be improved, and the creation of national literatures should be encouraged. The role of local leaders, NGOs and professional associations must be emphasized. The main goals are: improvement of education, and better quality and availability of palliative and supportive care, not only for patients with cancer but also in other progressive life-threatening diseases.

  12. Wavelet analysis of low-frequency variability in oak tree-ring chronologies from east Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.; Kern, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the low-frequency (interannual and longer period) variability in three hydroclimatic records from east Central Europe. Two of these records consist of climate proxies derived from oak-tree rings in Bakta forest, and Balaton Highlands in Hungary, for the time interval 1783-2003. The third record consists of homogenized instrumental precipitation data from Budapest, Hungary, from 1842 to 2003. Using wavelet analysis, the three time series are analyzed and compared with one another. It is found that all three time series exhibit strong interannual variability at the 2-4 years timescales, and these variations occur intermittently throughout the length of each record. Significant variability is also observed in all the records at decadal timescales, but these variations persist for only two to three cycles. Wavelet coherence among the various time series is used to explore their time-varying correlation. The results reveal significant coherence at the 2-4 years band. At these timescales, the climatic variations are correlated to the tree-ring signal over different time intervals with changing phase. Increased (decreased) contribution of large-scale stratiform precipitation offers a potential explanation for enhanced (faded) coherence at the interannual timescale. Strong coherence was also observed occasionally at decadal timescales, however these coherences did not appear uniformly. These results reinforce the earlier assertion that neither the strength nor the rank of the similarity of the local hydroclimate signals is stable throughout the past two centuries.

  13. Has the probability of water deficit changed in Central Europe since the middle of the 20th century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, J.

    2010-09-01

    Daily precipitation totals and daily mean temperature from Central Europe, from the period 1951-2006 have been analyzed. The drought was described using de Martonne, Ped and SPI indices. Aridity index defined by de Martonne Mi (1926) is computed as: Mi= 12Ri/(Ti+10), where Ri is the monthly precipitation amount and Ti is the monthly mean air temperature. The Ped index is defined as Pi=(Ti-Tm)/σT -(Ri-Rm)/σR , where Tm and Rm are mean monthly (seasonal) temperature and precipitation, respectively, and σT and σR are standard deviations of monthly (seasonal) temperature and precipitation, respectively. According to McKee et al. (1993), the SPI is defined on each of the time scales as the difference between precipitation on the time series (Ri) and the mean value (Rm), divided by the standard deviation (σR). This definition assumes that the data fit the normal distribution, but because it is rarely true for precipitation data the data were usually transformed to standard normal distribution. Different distributions have been used to precipitation time series on monthly and seasonal scale. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. The relations between temporal series of different indices were analyzed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Also the trends were analyzed on the basis of both minimum square fit of polynomials and Mann-Kendall test. Spatial distribution of trends was analyzed.

  14. Geoid determination in Central Europe based on terrestrial data and GOCE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rülke, A.; Liebsch, G.; Schäfer, U.; Schirmer, U.; Ihde, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) in Germany is in charge of the German quasigeoid as a reference surface for the German height system. A new quasigeoid GCG2011 for Germany was developed in collaboration with the colleagues from Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Hannover university. GCG2011 is based on an extensive database of terrestrial gravity data. The case-study presented here refers to the BKG gravity solution of GCG2011. This approach is based on a point mass representation in combination with remove-compute-restore-technique for the determination of the geoid. The dense spatial resolution of terrestrial observation data allows a reliable estimation of the short wavelengths of the gravity field. However, the longer wavelengths are more insecure. Here, recent gravity field missions, such as GOCE and GRACE, can help to improve the longer wavelength part. Our approach combines the benefits of the terrestrial and GOCE satellite observations in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution. The approach is introduced in detail and the results are discussed and evaluated.

  15. Effects of air-sea coupling over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on simulated summer precipitation over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho-Hagemann, Ha Thi Minh; Gröger, Matthias; Rockel, Burkhardt; Zahn, Matthias; Geyer, Beate; Meier, H. E. Markus

    2017-03-01

    This study introduces a new approach to investigate the potential effects of air-sea coupling on simulated precipitation inland over Central Europe. We present an inter-comparison of two regional climate models (RCMs), namely, the COSMO-CLM (hereafter CCLM) and RCA4 models, which are configured for the EURO-CORDEX domain in the coupled and atmosphere-only modes. Two versions of the CCLM model, namely, 4.8 and 5.0, join the inter-comparison being almost two different models while providing pronouncedly different summer precipitation simulations because of many changes in the dynamics and physics of CCLM in version 5.0. The coupling effect on the prominent summer dry bias over Central Europe is analysed using seasonal (JJA) mean statistics for the 30-year period from 1979 to 2009, with a focus on extreme precipitation under specific weather regimes. The weather regimes are compared between the coupled and uncoupled simulations to better understand the mechanism of the coupling effects. The comparisons of the coupled systems with the atmosphere-only models show that coupling clearly reduces the dry bias over Central Europe for CCLM 4.8, which has a large dry summer bias, but not for CCLM 5.0 and RCA4, which have smaller dry biases. This result implies that if the atmosphere-only model already yields reasonable summer precipitation over Central Europe, not much room for improvement exists that can be caused by the air-sea coupling over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. However, if the atmosphere-only model shows a pronounced summer dry bias because of a lack of moisture transport from the seas into the region, the considered coupling may create an improved simulation of summer precipitation over Central Europe, such as for CCLM 4.8. For the latter, the benefit of coupling varies over the considered timescales. The precipitation simulations that are generated by the coupled system COSTRICE 4.8 and the atmosphere-only CCLM 4.8 are mostly identical for the summer mean

  16. Pb isotopes in sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe constrain the heavy metal pathways and the pollution history of the catchment, the lake and the regional atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, B.; Wessels, M.; Bollhoefer, A.; Mangini

    1999-05-01

    Pb isotope ratios and Pb concentrations of well-dated sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe have been analyzed using thermal ion mass spectrometry. Sequential extraction studies indicated isotope homogeneity of the leachable Pb components within the investigated layers. Since the middle of the 19th century a significant anthropogenic Pb component appeared in the lake sediments, and rapidly approaches concentration levels similar to that of the geogenic Pb background (20 ppm) at the beginning of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb was predominantly transferred to the lake sediments via the atmosphere. Pb sources were coal combustion, industrial ore processing and leaded gasoline. The flux of a fluvial Pb component to the lake sediments, additive to atmospheric Pb deposition, peaked in about 1960. This flux is attributed to (re)mobilization of Pb from polluted parts of the lake catchment, and indicates the change of catchment soils from a pollution sink to a heavy metal source. The strong reduction of anthropogenic Pb in the uppermost lake sediments since the 1960s has been caused by advances of environmental protection. The lake sediments record the changing fluxes and the isotope composition of the deposited aeolian Pb pollution. During the 20th century aeolian Pb fluxes to the lake sediments were in the range of 1--4 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}/a. During peak emission periods of gasoline Pb to the atmosphere (1960--1990) the aerosol Pb isotope composition was rather constant ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.12--1.13) and probably a mixture of Canadian and Australian with Russian and Central European Pb types. Aeolian Pb isotope and Pb flux trends in the lake sediments as a whole agree well with the trends found in Alpine glaciers (Doering et al., 1997a,b) and in ombrotrophic peat bogs of Switzerland (Shotyk et al., 1996). However, different industrial Pb components were deposited in the archives of aeolian pollution during the early 20th century.

  17. The 2014-2015 earthquake series in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, B.; Rümpker, G.

    2017-01-01

    Since March 2014, an unusually large amount of earthquakes occur southeast of the city of Darmstadt in the northern Upper Rhine Graben. During the period, until April 2015, we have recorded 356 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from ML = -0.6 to 4.2. We identified two source clusters separated laterally by about 5 km. The hypocentres within these clusters are aligned vertically extending over a depth range from 1 to 8 km with a lateral extent of about 1 to 2 km. Focal mechanisms show left-lateral strike-slip movements; b values are changing with time between b = 0.6 and b = 0.9. This is the first time in almost 150 years that such high earthquake rates have been observed in the region. Historical accounts dating back to the nineteenth century report of over 2000 felt earthquakes over a time span from 1869 to 1871. From these, maximum intensities of VII have been estimated. Other seismic activities in the region were reported in the 1970s. The observations of the 2014-2015 earthquake series do not completely match a typical main shock-aftershock sequence or a typical earthquake swarm. Especially the activity at the beginning of the earthquake series may be considered as a mixture of a main shock-aftershock sequence and a short-lasting swarm event. Whether or not the time gap between the current seismic activity, which actually takes place at the same locations as parts of the seismic swarm in 1869-1871, and the seismic activity in the nineteenth century or the seismic activity in the 1970s can be interpreted as a seismic cycle remains unclear.

  18. 5,000 years of water level changes infered from ostracod assemblages in a lowland lake in Romania (Central Eastern Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Hutchinson, Simon; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Feurdean, Angelica

    2014-05-01

    Oscillations of lake levels in Central Eastern Europe during the Holocene are crucial records of past regional climatic conditions reflecting the balance between evaporation and precipitation in their catchment. Lake Stiucii (38 ha, 10 m depth) is located in Transylvanian Plain (NW Romania) at 296 m asl. A recently extracted sediment core from the central part of the lake provides the first ostracod sediment record of the lake water level fluctuations in this region covering the last 5000 cal years BP. The sediment sequence yielded approximately 1600 valves of 18 freshwater and halophile ostracod species of 11 genera. The most abundant and frequent in the entire record were Heterocypris salina (Brady 1868), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird 1843) and Plesiocypridopsis newtoni (Brady & Robertson 1870) (abundance range between 16-25%). The ostracod assemblages also show a marked variability in diversity and abundance over the past 5000 years, which appear to closely follow water level oscillations. The assemblages indicate three periods of low diversity and density of ostracods primarily represented by Candonidae between (i) 3800 and 3150 cal yr BP, (ii) 2900 and 2400 cal yr BP and (iii) 1600 and 1200 cal yr BP and probably reflect a response to low lake water levels. This inference is supported by the deposition of gyttja and low Zr concentrations. The dominance of Cyclocypris ovum (Jurine, 1820) and Candoninae in a ostracod community of otherwise poor density and diversity between 2200 and 1800 cal yr BP probably reflects littoral environments in the central, deepest part of the present lake. The ostracod assemblages diversified (up to 10 species) between 1100 and 250 cal yr BP and are dominated by co-occurrences of halophile species e.g. Heterocypris salina and Plesiocypridopsis newtoni until 700 cal yr BP, suggesting increased supply of salty water into the lake by salt springs. Thereafter Limnocythere inopinata, a typical shallow water species (<10 m) is dominant

  19. Lithospheric structure beneath Central Europe from the POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, and SUDETES 2003 seismic refraction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Grad, M.; Keller, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    Beginning in 1997, Central Europe between the Baltic and Adriatic Seas, has been covered by an unprecedented network of seismic refraction experiments POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, and SUDETES 2003, have only been possible due to a massive international consortium consisted of more than 30 institutions from 16 countries in Europe and North America. The majority of recording instruments was provided by the IRIS/PASSCAL Instrument Center and the University of Texas at El Paso (USA), and several other countries also provided instrumentation. Total length of seismic profiles in all experiments is about 20,000 km. The main results of these experiments are: 1) the delineation of the deep structure of the southwestern margin of the East European Craton (southern Baltica) and its relationship to younger terranes; delineation of the major terranes and crustal blocks in the Trans European Suture Zone; determination of the structural framework of the Pannonian basin; elucidation of the deep structure and evolution of the Western Carpathian Mountains and Eastern Alps; determination of the structural relationships between the structural elements of the Bohemian massif and adjacent features; construction of 3-D models of the lithospheric structure; and evaluation and develop geodynamic models for the tectonic evolution of the region. Experiment Working Groups Members: K. Aric, M. Behm, E. Brueckl, W. Chwatal, H. Grassl, S. Hock, V. Hoeck, F. Kohlbeck, E.-M. Rumpfhuber, Ch. Schmid, R. Schmoller, C. Tomek, Ch. Ullrich, F.Weber (Austria), A.A. Belinsky (Belarus), I. Asudeh, R. Clowes, Z. Hajnal (Canada), F. Sumanova (Croatia), M. Broz , P. Hrubcova, M. Korn, O. Karousova, J. Malek, A. Spicak (Czech Republic), S.L. Jensen, P. Joergensen, H. Thybo (Denmark), K. Komminaho, U. Luosto, T. Tiira, J. Yliniemi (Finland), F. Bleibinhaus, R. Brinkmann, B. Forkmann, H. Gebrande, H. Geissler, A. Hemmann, G. Jentzsch, D. Kracke, A. Schulze, K. Schuster (Germany), T. Bodoky, T

  20. Effect of industrial dust on precipitation chemistry in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) from 1850 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Krám, Pavel; Oulehle, Filip; Posch, Maximilian

    2016-10-15

    Using statistical relationships between the composition of precipitation at eight long-term monitoring stations and emission rates of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds, as well as industrial dust in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Central Europe), we modelled historic pH and concentrations of sulphate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), base cations (BC), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) in bulk precipitation from 1850 to 2013. Our model suggests that concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), and HCO3(-) were similar (11-16 μeq l(-1)) in 1850. Cations were dominated by NH4(+) and BC (24-27 μeq l(-1)) and precipitation pH was >5.6. The carbonate buffering system was depleted around 1920 and precipitation further acidified at an exponential rate until the 1980s, when concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), NH4(+) and BC reached maxima of 126, 55, 16, 76, and 57 μeq l(-1), respectively, and pH decreased to 4.2. Dust emissions from industrial sources were an important source of BC. Without their contribution, pH would have decreased to 4.0 in the 1980s, and the carbonate buffering system would have been depleted already in the 1870s. Since the late 1980s, concentrations of strong acid anions and BC have decreased by 46-81% (i.e. more than in Europe on average) due to a 53-93% reduction in regional emissions of S and N compounds and dust from industrial and agricultural sources. The present composition of precipitation is similar to the late 19th century, except for NO3(-) concentrations, which are similar to those during 1926-1950. Precipitation pH now exceeds 5.0, the carbonate buffering system has been re-established, and HCO3(-) has again become (after almost a century) a significant component of precipitation chemistry.

  1. Disturbed enamel formation in wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) from fluoride polluted areas in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, H; Kierdorf, U; Richards, A; Sedlacek, F

    2000-05-01

    The pathological alterations of enamel structure in the teeth of wild boars from fluoride polluted areas in N-Bohemia (Czech Republic) and S-Saxony (Germany) were studied on a macroscopic and a microscopic level. Mandibular bone fluoride concentration (mg F(-)/kg, dry wt; mean +/-SD, individuals <24 months of age) in the specimens from N-Bohemia (754.3+/-149.6) and S-Saxony (490.8+/-135.1) was significantly higher than that of controls (free of dental fluorosis), originating from the western part of Germany (304.7+/-91.0). Fluoride content in bulk enamel (mg F(-)/kg, ash wt) of fluorotic permanent teeth from N-Bohemia (382.1+/-165.2) and S-Saxony (125.0+/-38.3) was likewise significantly increased over that of non-fluorotic control teeth from W-Germany (33.6+/-26.7). Macroscopically, fluorosed wild boar enamel exhibited opacity and discoloration of varying extent, accentuated perikymata as well as hypoplastic and posteruptive surface defects. Microradiographic and scanning electron microscopic analyses revealed enamel subsurface hypomineralization, accentuated Retzius lines and occurrence of broad, hypomineralized incremental bands of abnormal structure underlying hypoplastic enamel surface defects. The presence of zones of aprismatic enamel was associated with these bands. Incremental bands with altered enamel structure and enamel surface hypoplasias, both denoting a severe disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, have previously been observed in rodents following acute parenteral fluoride dosing. It is concluded that in the chronically fluoride exposed wild boars periods of especially elevated plasma fluoride levels exerted an acute toxic effect on the secretory ameloblasts. A feature not previously reported from fluorosed enamel was the occurrence of canal-like structures that originated at the broad incremental bands and extended into the external enamel. The presence of these canals presumably results from a delay in the resumption of secretory

  2. Long-term dynamics of OH * temperatures over central Europe: trends and solar correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalicinsky, Christoph; Knieling, Peter; Koppmann, Ralf; Offermann, Dirk; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Wintel, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    description an additional linear trend is no longer needed. Moreover, with the knowledge of this 25-year oscillation the linear trends derived in this and in a former study of the Wuppertal data series can be reproduced by just fitting a line to the corresponding part (time interval) of the oscillation. This actually means that, depending on the analysed time interval, completely different linear trends with respect to magnitude and sign can be observed. This fact is of essential importance for any comparison between different observations and model simulations.

  3. All part of the job? The contribution of the psychosocial and physical work environment to health inequalities in Europe and the European health divide.

    PubMed

    Toch, Marlen; Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Witvliet, Margot I; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the contribution of both psychosocial and physical risk factors to occupational inequalities in self-assessed health in Europe. Data from 27 countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey for men and women aged 16 to 60 (n = 21,803). Multilevel logistic regression analyses (random intercept) were applied, estimating odds ratios of reporting less than good health. Analyses indicate that physical working conditions account for a substantial proportion of occupational inequalities in health in both Central/Eastern and Western Europe. Physical, rather than psychosocial, working conditions seem to have the largest effect on self-assessed health in manual classes. For example, controlling for physical working conditions reduced the inequalities in the prevalence of"less than good health" between the lowest (semi- and unskilled manual workers) and highest (higher controllers) occupational groups in Europe by almost 50 percent (Odds Ratio 1.87, 95% Confidence Interval 1.62-2.16 to 1.42, 1.23-1.65). Physical working conditions contribute substantially to health inequalities across "post-industrial" Europe, with women in manual occupations being particularly vulnerable, especially those living in Central/Eastern Europe. An increased political and academic focus on physical working conditions is needed to explain and potentially reduce occupational inequalities in health.

  4. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself.

  5. Development of heavy oils and natural bitumens in the former Soviet Union and eastern and central Europe: State-of-the-art and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Mamedov, Y.G.; Bokserman, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results of field application of thermal oil recovery techniques (TEOR) in the former Soviet Union, and Eastern and Central Europe. All world known TEOR technologies have been tested and applied in different geological conditions in the FSU and many other East European countries. Energy saving TEOR technologies that improve the efficiency of heavy oil production have expanded the application of improved oil recovery techniques to a wider area and in different environments. TEOR technologies are very complicated, expensive, environmentally sensitive, risky, and usually uncertain. The return of capital invested is slow, and their application strongly depends on oil price and economic climate in each country, The main goal of the paper is to summarize the up-to-date R&D experience of both traditional and advanced TEOR in the Former Soviet Union, and Central and Eastern Europe.

  6. Black carbon variability since preindustrial times in the eastern part of Europe reconstructed from Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus, ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Saehee; Faïn, Xavier; Ginot, Patrick; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Kozachek, Anna; Laj, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Black carbon (BC), emitted by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, is the second largest man-made contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide (Bond et al., 2013). However, limited information exists on its past emissions and atmospheric variability. In this study, we present the first high-resolution record of refractory BC (rBC, including mass concentration and size) reconstructed from ice cores drilled at a high-altitude eastern European site in Mt. Elbrus (ELB), Caucasus (5115 m a.s.l.). The ELB ice core record, covering the period 1825-2013, reflects the atmospheric load of rBC particles at the ELB site transported from the European continent with a larger rBC input from sources located in the eastern part of Europe. In the first half of the 20th century, European anthropogenic emissions resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the ice core rBC mass concentrations with respect to its level in the preindustrial era (before 1850). The summer (winter) rBC mass concentrations increased 5-fold (3.3-fold) in 1960-1980, followed by a decrease until ˜ 2000. Over the last decade, the rBC signal for summertime slightly increased. We have compared the signal with the atmospheric BC load simulated using past BC emissions (ACCMIP and MACCity inventories) and taken into account the contribution of different geographical regions to rBC distribution and deposition at the ELB site. Interestingly, the observed rBC variability in the ELB ice core record since the 1960s is not in perfect agreement with the simulated atmospheric BC load. Similar features between the ice core rBC record and the best scenarios for the atmospheric BC load support anthropogenic BC increase in the 20th century being reflected in the ELB ice core record. However, the peak in BC mass concentration observed in ˜ 1970 in the ice core is estimated to occur a decade later from past inventories. BC emission inventories for the period 1960s-1970s may be underestimating European anthropogenic emissions

  7. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  8. Climate variability and associated vegetation response throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, A.; Perşoiu, A.; Tanţău, I.; Stevens, T.; Magyari, E. K.; Onac, B. P.; Marković, S.; Andrič, M.; Connor, S.; Fărcaş, S.; Gałka, M.; Gaudeny, T.; Hoek, W.; Kolaczek, P.; Kuneš, P.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marinova, E.; Michczyńska, D. J.; Perşoiu, I.; Płóciennik, M.; Słowiński, M.; Stancikaite, M.; Sumegi, P.; Svensson, A.; Tămaş, T.; Timar, A.; Tonkov, S.; Toth, M.; Veski, S.; Willis, K. J.; Zernitskaya, V.

    2014-12-01

    Records of past climate variability and associated vegetation response exist in various regions throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). To date, there has been no coherent synthesis of the existing palaeo-records. During an INTIMATE meeting (Cluj Napoca, Romania) focused on identifying CEE paleo-records, it was decided to address this gap by presenting the palaeo-community with a compilation of high-quality climatic and vegetation records for the past 60-8 ka. The compilation should also serve as a reference point for the use in the modelling community working towards the INTIMATE project goals, and in data-model inter-comparison studies. This paper is therefore a compilation of up to date, best available quantitative and semi-quantitative records of past climate and biotic response from CEE covering this period. It first presents the proxy and archive used. Speleothems and loess mainly provide the evidences available for the 60-20 ka interval, whereas pollen records provide the main source of information for the Lateglacial and Holocene. It then examines the temporal and spatial patterns of climate variability inferred from different proxies, the temporal and spatial magnitude of the vegetation responses inferred from pollen records and highlights differences and similarities between proxies and sub-regions and the possible mechanisms behind this variability. Finally, it identifies weakness in the proxies and archives and their geographical distribution. This exercise also provides an opportunity to reflect on the status of research in the area and to identify future critical areas and subjects of research.

  9. Increasing arsenic concentrations in runoff from 12 small forested catchments (Czech Republic, Central Europe): patterns and controls.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Blaha, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Krachler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The 40-year long period of heavy industrialization in Central Europe (1950-1990) was accompanied by burning of arsenic-rich lignite in thermal power plants, and accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic in forest soils. There are fears that retreating acidification may lead to arsenic mobilization into drinking water, caused by competitive ligand exchange. We present monthly arsenic concentrations in surface runoff from 12 headwater catchments in the Czech Republic for a period of 13 years (1996-2008). The studied area was characterized by a north-south gradient of decreasing pollution. Acidification, caused mainly by SOx and NOx emissions from power plants, has been retreating since 1987. Between 1996 and 2003, maximum arsenic concentrations in runoff did not change, and were < 1 ppb in the rural south and < 2 ppb in the industrial north. During the subsequent two years, 2004-2005, maximum arsenic concentrations in runoff increased, reaching 60% of the drinking water limit (10 ppb). Starting in 2006, maximum arsenic concentrations returned to lower values at most sites. We discuss three possible causes of the recent arsenic concentration maximum in runoff. We rule out retreating acidification and a pulse of high industrial emission rates as possible controls. The pH of runoff has not changed since 1996, and is still too low (<6.5) at most sites for an As-OH(-) ligand exchange to become significant. Elevated arsenic concentrations in runoff in 2004-2005 may reflect climate change through changing hydrological conditions at some, but not all sites. Dry conditions may result in elevated production of DOC and sulfur oxidation in the soil. Subsequent wet conditions may be accompanied by acidification leading to faster dissolution of arsenic-bearing sulfides, dissolution of arsenic-bearing Fe-oxyhydroxides, and elevated transport of arsenic sorbed on organic matter. Anaerobic domains exist in normally well-aerated upland soils for hours-to-days following precipitation

  10. Improving estimates of N2O emissions for western and central Europe using a Bayesian inversion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Gerbig, C.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) mixing ratio has been increasing in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution, from 270 ppb in 1750 to 320 ppb in 2007 with a steady growth rate of around 0.26% since the early 1980's. The increase in N2O is worrisome for two main reasons. First, it is a greenhouse gas; this means that its atmospheric increase translates to an enhancement in radiative forcing of 0.16 ± 0.02 Wm-2 making it currently the fourth most important long-lived greenhouse gas and is predicted to soon overtake CFC's to become the third most important. Second, it plays an important role in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Human activities are the primary cause of the atmospheric N2O increase. The largest anthropogenic source of N2O is from the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture but fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes, such as adipic and nitric acid production, are also important. We present a Bayesian inversion approach for estimating N2O fluxes over central and western Europe using high frequency in-situ concentration data from the Ochsenkopf tall tower (50 °01′N, 11 °48′, 1022 masl). For the inversion, we employ a Lagrangian-type transport model, STILT, which provides source-receptor relationships at 10 km using ECMWF meteorological data. The a priori flux estimates used were from IER, for anthropogenic, and GEIA, for natural fluxes. N2O fluxes were retrieved monthly at 2 x 2 degree spatial resolution for 2007. The retrieved N2O fluxes showed significantly more spatial heterogeneity than in the a priori field and considerable seasonal variability. The timing of peak emissions was different for different regions but in general the months with the strongest emissions were May and August. Overall, the retrieved flux (anthropogenic and natural) was lower than in the a priori field.

  11. The spectrum of aldolase B (ALDOB) mutations and the prevalence of hereditary fructose intolerance in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Santer, René; Rischewski, Johannes; von Weihe, Michaela; Niederhaus, Marko; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Baerlocher, Kurt; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Muntau, Ania; Posselt, Hans-Georg; Steinmann, Beat; Schneppenheim, Reinhard

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the molecular basis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) in 80 patients from 72 families by means of a PCR-based mutation screening strategy, consisting of heteroduplex analysis, restriction enzyme digest, DNA single strand electrophoresis, and direct sequencing. For a subset of patients mutation screening with DHPLC was established which turned out to be as fast and as sensitive as the more conventional methods. Fifteen different mutations of the aldolase B (ALDOB) gene were identified in HFI patients. As in smaller previous studies, p.A150P (65%), p.A175D (11%) and p.N335K (8%) were the most common mutated alleles, followed by c.360_363delCAAA, p.R60X, p.Y204X, and c.865delC. Eight novel mutations were identified in eight families with HFI: a small indel mutation (c.1044_1049delTTCTGGinsACACT), two small deletions (c.345_372del28; c.841_842delAC), two splice site mutations (c.113-1G>A, c.799+2T>A), one nonsense mutation (c.612T>G (p.Y204X)), and two missense mutations (c.532T>C (p.C178R), c.851T>C (p.L284P)). By mutation screening for the three most common ALDOB mutations by DHPLC in 2,000 randomly selected newborns we detected 21 heterozygotes. Based on these data and after correction for less common and private ALDOB mutations, HFI prevalence in central Europe is estimated to be 1:26,100 (95% confidence interval 1: 12,600-79,000).

  12. Future consequences and challenges for dairy cow production systems arising from climate change in Central Europe - a review.

    PubMed

    Gauly, M; Bollwein, H; Breves, G; Brügemann, K; Dänicke, S; Daş, G; Demeler, J; Hansen, H; Isselstein, J; König, S; Lohölter, M; Martinsohn, M; Meyer, U; Potthoff, M; Sanker, C; Schröder, B; Wrage, N; Meibaum, B; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Stinshoff, H; Wrenzycki, C

    2013-05-01

    It is well documented that global warming is unequivocal. Dairy production systems are considered as important sources of greenhouse gas emissions; however, little is known about the sensitivity and vulnerability of these production systems themselves to climate warming. This review brings different aspects of dairy cow production in Central Europe into focus, with a holistic approach to emphasize potential future consequences and challenges arising from climate change. With the current understanding of the effects of climate change, it is expected that yield of forage per hectare will be influenced positively, whereas quality will mainly depend on water availability and soil characteristics. Thus, the botanical composition of future grassland should include species that are able to withstand the changing conditions (e.g. lucerne and bird's foot trefoil). Changes in nutrient concentration of forage plants, elevated heat loads and altered feeding patterns of animals may influence rumen physiology. Several promising nutritional strategies are available to lower potential negative impacts of climate change on dairy cow nutrition and performance. Adjustment of feeding and drinking regimes, diet composition and additive supplementation can contribute to the maintenance of adequate dairy cow nutrition and performance. Provision of adequate shade and cooling will reduce the direct effects of heat stress. As estimated genetic parameters are promising, heat stress tolerance as a functional trait may be included into breeding programmes. Indirect effects of global warming on the health and welfare of animals seem to be more complicated and thus are less predictable. As the epidemiology of certain gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke is favourably influenced by increased temperature and humidity, relations between climate change and disease dynamics should be followed closely. Under current conditions, climate change associated economic impacts are estimated to be

  13. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  14. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenisch, Chantal; Keller, Kathrin M.; Salvisberg, Melanie; Amann, Benjamin; Bauch, Martin; Blumer, Sandro; Brázdil, Rudolf; Brönnimann, Stefan; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fleitmann, Dominik; Glaser, Rüdiger; González-Rouco, Fidel; Grosjean, Martin; Hoffmann, Richard C.; Huhtamaa, Heli; Joos, Fortunat; Kiss, Andrea; Kotyza, Oldřich; Lehner, Flavio; Luterbacher, Jürg; Maughan, Nicolas; Neukom, Raphael; Novy, Theresa; Pribyl, Kathleen; Raible, Christoph C.; Riemann, Dirk; Schuh, Maximilian; Slavin, Philip; Werner, Johannes P.; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate affected human societies throughout the last millennium. While European cold periods in the 17th and 18th century have been assessed in detail, earlier cold periods received much less attention due to sparse information available. New evidence from proxy archives, historical documentary sources and climate model simulations permit us to provide an interdisciplinary, systematic assessment of an exceptionally cold period in the 15th century. Our assessment includes the role of internal, unforced climate variability and external forcing in shaping extreme climatic conditions and the impacts on and responses of the medieval society in north-western and central Europe.Climate reconstructions from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives indicate that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century. This decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers resulting in a strong seasonal cycle in temperature. Results from comprehensive climate models indicate consistently that these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system. External forcing like volcanic eruptions tends to reduce simulated temperature seasonality and cannot explain the reconstructions. The strong seasonal cycle in temperature reduced food production and led to increasing food prices, a subsistence crisis and a famine in parts of Europe. Societies were not prepared to cope with failing markets and interrupted trade routes. In response to the crisis, authorities implemented numerous measures of supply policy and adaptation such as the installation of grain storage capacities to be prepared for future food production shortfalls.

  15. Temporal evolution of stable water isotopologues in cloud droplets in a hill cap cloud in central Europe (HCCT-2010)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiegel, J.K.; Aemisegger, F.; Scholl, M.; Wienhold, F.G.; Collett, J.L.; Lee, T.; van Pinxteren, D.; Mertes, S.; Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.; Werner, Roland A.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the first study resolving the temporal evolution of δ2H and δ18O values in cloud droplets during 13 different cloud events. The cloud events were probed on a 937 m high mountain chain in Germany in the framework of the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010) in September and October 2010. The δ values of cloud droplets ranged from −77‰ to −15‰ (δ2H) and from −12.1‰ to −3.9‰ (δ18O) over the whole campaign. The cloud water line of the measured δ values was δ2H=7.8×δ18O+13×10−3, which is of similar slope, but with higher deuterium excess than other Central European Meteoric Water Lines. Decreasing δ values in the course of the campaign agree with seasonal trends observed in rain in central Europe. The deuterium excess was higher in clouds developing after recent precipitation revealing episodes of regional moisture recycling. The variations in δ values during one cloud event could either result from changes in meteorological conditions during condensation or from variations in the δ values of the water vapor feeding the cloud. To test which of both aspects dominated during the investigated cloud events, we modeled the variation in δ values in cloud water using a closed box model. We could show that the variation in δ values of two cloud events was mainly due to changes in local temperature conditions. For the other eleven cloud events, the variation was most likely caused by changes in the isotopic composition of the advected and entrained vapor. Frontal passages during two of the latter cloud events led to the strongest temporal changes in both δ2H (≈ 6‰ per hour) and δ18O (≈ 0.6‰ per hour). Moreover, a detailed trajectory analysis for the two longest cloud events revealed that variations in the entrained vapor were most likely related to rain out or changes in relative humidity and temperature at the moisture source region or both. This study illustrates the sensitivity of stable isotope

  16. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  17. Mineral contents of the head, caudal, central fleshy part, and spinal columns of some fishes.

    PubMed

    Alaş, Ali; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Harmankaya, Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    In the experiment, mineral contents of the head, caudal, central fleshy part, and spinal columns of fishes were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The Ca content of base fleshy part ranged from 1,682 to 5,505 mg/kg. The Ca contents of central fleshy part were found between 104 and 428 mg/kg. This value was found between 5,582 and 7,368 in the spinal column parts. The K content in general ranged from 2,411 (Carassius gibellio) and 4,419 mg/kg (Scomber scombrus). The highest potassium was found on the central fleshy part and ranged between 3,214 and 4,419. The P content was found mostly on the bones and it range between 28,833 and 34,726. The least phosphor amount was found on the central fleshy part. While the Cd content ranges between 0.019 ppm and 0.104 mg/kg, Cr content changed between 1.32 and 4.20 ppm.

  18. Borderlines: Maps and the spread of the Westphalian state from Europe to Asia Part One - The European Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, S.

    2013-11-01

    For researchers and students of International Relations (IR), one date looms larger than all others: 1648. The end of the Thirty Years War, formalised by the signing of the Treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, led to a period known as the 'Peace of Westphalia'. Westphalia represented a fundamental change in the power balance of European politics: instead of the Holy Roman Empire holding supreme authority, power would now rest with states themselves, manifested in terms of sovereignty, territory and equality. One of the chief ways in which these 'Westphalian' states would cement this authority was through the use of maps. Before 1648, there was little on a European map to indicate where one country ended and another one began. But after 1648, this all changes: these new Westphalian states are represented with bright colours and clearly marked boundaries, defining borders and becoming an important part in creating the state and justifying its sovereignty. The role which maps have played in the spread of the Westphalian state is only just beginning to be researched. Yet the limited efforts to date have all focussed on Europe. This is unfortunate, as today, while Europe has, according to some observers, moved into a stage in which Westphalia is no longer a useful model with which to understand the state and the ways in which it relates to sovereignty, government, power and the individual, the old Westphalian model of the state has more recently been exported all around the world. Many have contended that while the Westphalian state is no longer relevant to Europe, it was never relevant to the rest of the world. In existing work, the researcher has mapped the spread of the Westphalian state in the twentieth century, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS; see Pickering 2012). This paper, while complementary to the earlier research, will employ a quite different methodology. Having studied hundreds of European maps provided by European libraries, it is clear that the

  19. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis. Part I: heterogeneity study of illicit drugs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, L; Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2013-09-10

    Sampling of illicit drugs for qualitative and quantitative analysis would normally be considered as routine and comparable tasks in forensic drugs laboratories and previously similar statistical sampling approaches have been applied. However, we believe that two different sampling approaches, based on two different theoretical and statistical backgrounds are more appropriate. Furthermore the application of the qualitative sampling approach can be impractical for quantitative sampling as it could generate many analytical samples from a single seizure. In some countries the purity of the illicit drug in a seizure may affect the criminal sentence and therefore, reliable results for quantitative analysis are crucial. It was decided to investigate a new approach, which although incorporating some statistics also took account of our background knowledge about the composition of the drugs we were analysing. The ultimate goal was to produce recommendations for a practical sampling plan for quantitative analysis. It was found that the two key factors which had a significant effect on obtaining a representative analytical sample from a bulk seizure were the heterogeneity of the drug powder and the particle sizes of its components. This article concentrates on drug heterogeneity. Particle size effects will be addressed in part II of this study. A sampling plan was devised for a range of drug seizure types and asked ENFSI member laboratories to use it when analysing real drug seizures to provide heterogeneity data for the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA and cannabis (herbal and resin)). It was found that for routine quantitative drugs analysis, the sampling problems caused by heterogeneity can be solved by using an incremental sampling protocol. Furthermore, the number of increments that need to be taken for a particular drug is dependent on the relative standard deviation (RSD) required by an individual laboratory and the analytical method that

  20. Admixture of Eastern and Western European Red Deer Lineages as a Result of Postglacial Recolonization of the Czech Republic (Central Europe).

    PubMed

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Koubek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers. In Central Europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of European red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. We used mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b gene) sequences and 22 microsatellite loci from 522 individuals to investigate the genetic diversity of red deer in what might be expected to be an intermediate zone. We discovered a high number of unique mtDNA haplotypes belonging to each lineage and high levels of genetic diversity (cyt b H = 0.867, D-loop H = 0.914). The same structuring of red deer populations was also revealed by microsatellite analysis, with results from both analyses thus suggesting a suture zone between the 2 lineages. Despite the fact that postglacial recolonization of Central Europe by red deer occurred more than 10000 years ago, the degree of admixture between the 2 lineages is relatively small, with only 10.8% admixed individuals detected. Direct translocations of animals by humans have slightly blurred the pattern in this region; however, this blurring was more apparent when using maternally inherited markers than nuclear markers.

  1. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  2. Periodicity analysis of δ18O in precipitation over Central Europe: Time-frequency considerations of the isotopic 'temperature' effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamalikis, V.; Argiriou, A. A.; Dotsika, E.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the periodic patterns of the isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O) for 22 stations located around Central Europe are investigated through sinusoidal models and wavelet analysis over a 23 years period (1980/01-2002/12). The seasonal distribution of δ18O follows the temporal variability of air temperature providing seasonal amplitudes ranging from 0.94‰ to 4.47‰; the monthly isotopic maximum is observed in July. The isotopic amplitude reflects the geographical dependencies of the isotopic composition of precipitation providing higher values when moving inland. In order to describe the dominant oscillation modes included in δ18O time series, the Morlet Continuous Wavelet Transform is evaluated. The main periodicity is represented at 12-months (annual periodicity) where the wavelet power is mainly concentrated. Stations (i.e. Cuxhaven, Trier, etc.) with limited seasonal isotopic effect provide sparse wavelet power areas at the annual periodicity mode explaining the fact that precipitation has a complex isotopic fingerprint that cannot be examined solely by the seasonality effect. Since temperature is the main contributor of the isotopic variability in mid-latitudes, the isotope-temperature effect is also investigated. The isotope-temperature slope ranges from 0.11‰/°C to 0.47‰/°C with steeper values observed at the southernmost stations of the study area. Bivariate wavelet analysis is applied in order to determine the correlation and the slope of the δ18O - temperature relationship over the time-frequency plane. High coherencies are detected at the annual periodicity mode. The time-frequency slope is calculated at the annual periodicity mode ranging from 0.45‰/°C to 0.83‰/°C with higher values at stations that show a more distinguishable seasonal isotopic behavior. Generally the slope fluctuates around a mean value but in certain cases (sites with low seasonal effect) abrupt slope changes are derived and the slope becomes

  3. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  4. Variability of floods, droughts and windstorms over the past 500 years in Central Europe based on documentary and instrumental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazdil, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological and meteorological extremes (HMEs) in Central Europe during the past 500 years can be reconstructed based on instrumental and documentary data. Documentary data about weather and related phenomena represent the basic source of information for historical climatology and hydrology, dealing with reconstruction of past climate and HMEs, their perception and impacts on human society. The paper presents the basic distribution of documentary data on (i) direct descriptions of HMEs and their proxies on the one hand and on (ii) individual and institutional data sources on the other. Several groups of documentary evidence such as narrative written records (annals, chronicles, memoirs), visual daily weather records, official and personal correspondence, special prints, financial and economic records (with particular attention to taxation data), newspapers, pictorial documentation, chronograms, epigraphic data, early instrumental observations, early scientific papers and communications are demonstrated with respect to extraction of information about HMEs, which concerns usually of their occurrence, severity, seasonality, meteorological causes, perception and human impacts. The paper further presents the analysis of 500-year variability of floods, droughts and windstorms on the base of series, created by combination of documentary and instrumental data. Results, advantages and drawbacks of such approach are documented on the examples from the Czech Lands. The analysis of floods concentrates on the River Vltava (Prague) and the River Elbe (Děčín) which show the highest frequency of floods occurring in the 19th century (mainly of winter synoptic type) and in the second half of the 16th century (summer synoptic type). Reported are also the most disastrous floods (August 1501, March and August 1598, February 1655, June 1675, February 1784, March 1845, February 1862, September 1890, August 2002) and the European context of floods in the severe winter 1783/84. Drought

  5. Benchmark campaign and case study episode in central Europe for development and assessment of advanced GNSS tropospheric models and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douša, Jan; Dick, Galina; Kačmařík, Michal; Brožková, Radmila; Zus, Florian; Brenot, Hugues; Stoycheva, Anastasia; Möller, Gregor; Kaplon, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Initial objectives and design of the Benchmark campaign organized within the European COST Action ES1206 (2013-2017) are described in the paper. This campaign has aimed to support the development and validation of advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tropospheric products, in particular high-resolution and ultra-fast zenith total delays (ZTDs) and tropospheric gradients derived from a dense permanent network. A complex data set was collected for the 8-week period when several extreme heavy precipitation episodes occurred in central Europe which caused severe river floods in this area. An initial processing of data sets from GNSS products and numerical weather models (NWMs) provided independently estimated reference parameters - zenith tropospheric delays and tropospheric horizontal gradients. Their provision gave an overview about the product similarities and complementarities, and thus a potential for improvements of a synergy in their optimal exploitations in future. Reference GNSS and NWM results were intercompared and visually analysed using animated maps. ZTDs from two reference GNSS solutions compared to global ERA-Interim reanalysis resulted in accuracy at the 10 mm level in terms of the root mean square (rms) with a negligible overall bias, comparisons to Global Forecast System (GFS) forecasts showed accuracy at the 12 mm level with the overall bias of -5 mm and, finally, comparisons to mesoscale ALADIN-CZ forecast resulted in accuracy at the 8 mm level with a negligible total bias. The comparison of horizontal tropospheric gradients from GNSS and NWM data demonstrated a very good agreement among independent solutions with negligible biases and an accuracy of about 0.5 mm. Visual comparisons of maps of zenith wet delays and tropospheric horizontal gradients showed very promising results for future exploitations of advanced GNSS tropospheric products in meteorological applications, such as severe weather event monitoring and weather nowcasting

  6. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2009-11-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from cyclic perfluorocarbon tracer experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study dispersion over a large vertical gradient. These gradients are then compared with classical Gaussian profiles of the relevant stability classes over a range of distances as well as interpretation of data with reference to both anemometry and LIDAR measurements made. Data are then compared with an operational model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign looking at dosage compared with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analysis illustrates the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  7. National and ethnographic groups in Central Asia as reflected in ethnic statistics (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Vinnikov, Y R

    1980-01-01

    This is the second part of an article in which the author examines trends in population growth and development among the national and ethnographic groups of the republics of Central Asia. The historical process of ethnic group consolidation is studied, with a focus on the roles of bilingualism, cross-national marriage, and socioeconomic development in inter-ethnic integration

  8. Ozone, Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides time series at four Alpine GAW mountain stations in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-08-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of Ozone (O3) and its precursor gases Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites. This was observed independent of wind sector and for most seasons, with a tendency to higher positive trends in winter and lower and partly negative trends in summer. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the highest rate of O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti

  9. Ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides time series at four alpine GAW mountain stations in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.; Steinbacher, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of ozone (O3) and its precursor gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period, 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites independent of wind sector. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the strongest O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest or even decline in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti-correlation with NO2 was found due to reduced O3 values on working days. Trends are discussed with respect to anthropogenic impacts and vertical

  10. Benthic ostracode δ13C as sensor for early Holocene establishment of modern circulation patterns in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalb, Antje; Dean, Walter; Güde, Hans; Hanisch, Sabine; Sobek, Sebastian; Wessels, Martin

    2013-04-01

    -water-interface, 13C-depleted carbon is added to pore water DIC that is then available for incorporation into ostracode shells. This mechanism suggests that about 9 cal ka the oxygen supply to the bottom waters, especially in summer, decreased. This stimulated methanogenesis close to the sediment-water-interface, and provided δ13C-depleted carbon to benthic dwellers. Independent evidence for methanogenesis is provided by the increase in concentration of tetrahymanol after about 9 cal ka coincident with the decrease in δ13C of L. mirabilis. We suggest that about 9 cal ka the northward retreat of the Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheets, and consequently the polar front, left the alpine region affected by a more oceanic climate, characterized by warmer winters as they occur today especially during the positive North Atlantic Oscillation Index phase. More frequently incomplete mixing of the water column may have shifted the decay of organic matter faster to anaerobic conditions in surficial sediments especially during summer. By about 7 cal ka the North Atlantic region had probably warmed sufficiently to increase precipitation in Central Europe and consequently detrital-clastic runoff to Lake Constance.

  11. Role of updrafts in aerosol-cloud interactions: lidar observations of layered warm clouds over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; Ansmann, A.; Bühl, J.; Wandinger, U.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty nine cases of layered liquid-water cloud systems were observed with dual-field-of-view (dual-FOV) Raman lidar over the polluted central European site of Leipzig, Germany, between September 2010 and September 2012. For the first time, a detailed lidar-based study of aerosol-cloud-dynamics relationship was conducted. A collocated Doppler lidar provided information on vertical velocity and thus on updraft and downdraft occurrence. The novel dual-FOV lidar permits the retrieval of the particle extinction coefficient (used as aerosol proxy just below cloud base) and cloud properties such as droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration in the lower part of optically thin cloud layers. Here, we present the key results of our statistical analysis of the 2010-2012 observations. Besides a clear aerosol effect on cloud droplet number concentration in the lower part of the convectively weak cloud layers during updraft periods, meteorological effects (turbulent mixing, entrainment of dry air) were found to diminish the observable aerosol effect higher up in the clouds. The corresponding aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) parameter based on changes in cloud droplet number concentration with aerosol loading was found to be close to 0.8 at 30-70 m above cloud base during updraft periods which points to values around 1 at cloud base (0-30 m above cloud base). Our findings are extensively compared with literature values and agree well with airborne observations. As a conclusion, ACI studies over continental sites should include vertical wind observations to avoid a~bias (too low values) in the obtained ACI results.

  12. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.

  13. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  14. Assessment of the Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water Resources in the Central Part of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Shahryari, Ali; Hajiannejad, Mehdi; Saffari, Hossein; Kachuei, Zahra Moosavian; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this article was to assess the physicochemical quality of water resources in Isfahan province, located in the central part of Iran, from June to November 2012. Comparison of the results with the acceptable limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water showed that nitrate, chloride, iron, and fluoride concentrations exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 12.3%, 9.2%, 6.8%, and 1.5% of samples, respectively. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity values also exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 9.2% and 3.1% of samples, respectively. In general, the quality of drinking water resources in the central part of Iran at present is mostly acceptable and satisfactory. It may be deteriorated in the future, however, because water quantity and quality in arid and semiarid areas are highly variable over time. Therefore, continued monitoring of the water resources quality is extremely important to environmental safety.

  15. Structural geology of western part of Lemhi Range, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysdal, Russell G.

    2002-01-01

    The Poison Creek Anticline is a major fold that occupies a large part of the western part of the Lemhi Range. The fold is now broken by normal faults, but removal of displacement on the normal faults permitted reconstruction of the anticline. The fold formed during late Mesozoic compressional deformation in the hinterland of the Cordilleran thrust belt. It is in the hanging wall of the Poison Creek thrust fault, a major fault in east-central Idaho, that displaced Proterozoic strata over lower Paleozoic rocks.

  16. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Grindelia robusta from Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Giamperi, Laura; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2007-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Grindelia robusta aerial parts from central Italy was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and 45 components were identified. Borneol (15.2%), alpha pinene (10.3%), trans-pinocarveol (7.0%), bornyl acetate (4.5%), limonene (4.3%) were the main components. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using the DPPH and 5-lipoxygenase tests.

  17. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  18. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe.

    PubMed

    de Weger, Letty A; Pashley, Catherine H; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-12-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  19. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-12-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  20. Species diversity of Plagiorchis Lühe, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) in lymnaeid snails from freshwater ecosystems in central Europe revealed by molecules and morphology.

    PubMed

    Zikmundová, Jana; Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-05-01

    Larval stages of Plagiorchis spp. are both ubiquitous and ecologically important parasites in snail populations of freshwater ecosystems in Europe. However, difficulties in distinguishing the morphologically similar cercariae used for species identification, may lead to underestimation of species diversity. In this study, 38 isolates of Plagiorchis spp. infecting two lymnaeid snails, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) and Radix auricularia (L.), in five central European freshwater ecosystems were subjected to morphological and molecular assessment. Five morphologically homogeneous and genetically distinct lineages of Plagiorchis spp. were identified via matching molecular data for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene with detailed morphological and morphometric data of the cercariae. Comparative sequence analysis using partial 28S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences revealed that three distinct cox1 lineages are conspecific with Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802), P. maculosus (Rudolphi, 1802) and P. koreanus Ogata, 1938, respectively, whereas the lineage identified based on cercarial morphology as P. neomidis Brendow, 1970 plus a single isolate that could not be assigned to a described species, did not match any of the available sequences for Plagiorchis spp. A key to the cercariae of Plagiorchis spp. parasitising lymnaeid populations in central Europe is provided to facilitate identification.

  1. Constrains on the Latest Volcanic Eruptions in Eastern-Central Europe: Zircon Geochronology and Magma Residence Time at the Ciomadul Volcano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harangi, S.; Lukács, R.; Dunkl, I.; Molnár, K.; Schmitt, A. K.; Kiss, B.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of volcanic hazard is often difficult, particularly at those areas, where no volcanic events have been documented in the historical time or even longer. Here, we present new geochronological data to demonstrate that relatively young volcanism occurred in eastern-central Europe, at the Ciomadul volcano (southeast Carpathians, Romania) and there is a potential for future rejuvenation. The eruption ages of the Ciomadul are constrained by (U-Th)/He zircon dating corrected for U-series disequilibrium and this suggests that the volcanic activity occurred from 150 ka to 32 ka. Following a lava dome building stage, a more explosive eruption phase took place at 50-32 ka. Subplinian to plinian eruptions produced volcanic ash clouds that blanketed extended areas. The U-Th and U-Pb age spectra of the zircons from the 50-32 ka volcanic rocks ranges over 300 ka and is thus indicative of a long-lasting intrusive body beneath the volcano. Interior-rim age difference within individual zircons is as much as 340-88 ka. Thus, a subterraneous magma system was already under construction ca. 150-200 ka before the onset of volcanic eruptions. The peak zircon crystallization age falls between 220-100 ka, and there are only sparse age data <100 ka indicating that conditions became unfavourable for zircon crystallization, possibly due to sluggish precipitation at low temperatures or complete solidification within some parts of the magma system. Nevertheless, rim-analysis (outer 4 μm) of the youngest, 32 ka zircons shows that crystallization occurred also at 60-80 ka, but this still precedes the eruption age by about 30-40 ka. All samples contain zircons with widely differing ages which cover the entire 300 ka period of magma evolution at Ciomadul. These data reflect that a melt-bearing crystal mush body could have continuously existed beneath the volcano. Intermittent injections of hotter magma into the cold crystal mush could help to maintain the magma system over 100's ka

  2. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  3. Bear Market Coercion: Russian Use of Energy as a Coercive Tool in Central Asia and Eastern Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    abroad.89F1 Central Asia Central Asia, extending from the Caspian Sea to China, and from the southern border of Russia to the Indian Ocean, is a region...in the Caspian Sea ), transported and refined.112F24 Kazakhstan has the 11th largest proven reserves of oil in the world, the largest oil discovery...Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, does not have direct access to the Caspian Sea ; unlike all the other republics, it does not have access to a major

  4. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns - Part 1: Observed variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Messager, C.; Filippi, D.; Pastel, M.; Nedelec, P.; Ramonet, M.; Paris, J. D.; Ciais, P.

    2011-06-01

    Atmospheric airborne measurements of CO2 are very well suited for estimating the time-varying distribution of carbon sources and sinks at the regional scale due to the large geographical area covered over a short time. We present here an analysis of two cross-European airborne campaigns carried out on 23-26 May 2001 (CAATER-1) and 2-3 October 2002 (CAATER-2) over Western Europe. The area covered during CAATER-1 and CAATER-2 was 4° W to 14° E long; 44° N to 52° N lat and 1° E to 17° E long; 46° N to 52° N lat respectively. High precision in situ CO2, CO and Radon 222 measurements were recorded. Flask samples were collected during both campaigns to cross-validate the in situ data. During CAATER-1 and CAATER-2, the mean CO2 concentration was 370.1 ± 4.0 (1-σ standard deviation) ppm and 371.7 ± 5.0 (1-σ) ppm respectively. A HYSPLIT back-trajectories analysis shows that during CAATER 1, northwesterly winds prevailed. In the planetary boundary layer (PBL) air masses became contaminated over Benelux and Western Germany by emissions from these highly urbanized areas, reaching about 380 ppm. Air masses passing over rural areas were depleted in CO2 because of the photosynthesis activity of the vegetation, with observations as low as 355 ppm. During CAATER-2, the back-trajectory analysis showed that air masses were distributed among the 4 sectors. Air masses were enriched in CO2 and CO over anthropogenic emission spots in Germany but also in Poland, as these countries have part of the most CO2-emitting coal-based plants in Europe. Simultaneous measurements of in situ CO2 and CO combined with back-trajectories helped us to distinguish between fossil fuel emissions and other CO2 sources. The ΔCO/ΔCO2 ratios (R2 = 0.33 to 0.88, slopes = 2.42 to 10.37), calculated for anthropogenic-influenced air masses over different countries/regions matched national inventories quite well, showing that airborne measurements can help to identify the origin of fossil fuel emissions

  5. Using Laboratory Information Management Systems as central part of a proteomics data workflow.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Christian; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Podwojski, Katharina; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin

    2010-03-01

    The organization and storage of proteomics data are challenging issues today and even more for the rising amount of information in the future. This review article describes the advantages of using Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) in proteomics laboratories. Seven typical LIMS are explored in detail to describe their role in an even bigger interrelation. They are a central part of the proteomics data workflow, starting with data generation and ending with the publication in journals and repositories. Therefore, they enable community-wide data utilization and further Systems Biology discoveries.

  6. High resolution operational air quality forecast for Poland and Central Europe with the GEM-AQ model - EcoForecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The air quality forecast is an important component of the environmental assessment system. The "Clean Air for Europe" (CAFE) Directive 2008/50/EC stipulates a need for numerical modelling in order to support public information services to interpret measurements of pollutants concentrations and to prepare and evaluate air quality plans. Most European countries have developed model-based air quality modelling and information services. We will present the design strategy, development and implementation of a regional high resolution forecasting system that was implemented in Poland. The new national high resolution air quality forecasting system has evolved from a semi-operational chemical weather system EcoForecast.EU which is based on the GEM-AQ model (Kaminski et al., 2008). GEM-AQ is a comprehensive chemical weather model where air quality processes (chemistry and aerosols), troposphere and stratospheric chemistry are implemented on-line in the operational weather prediction model, the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model (Cote et al, 1998), developed at Environment Canada. For these applications, the model is run on a global variable resolution grid with horizontal spacing of 15 km over Europe. In the vertical there are 28 hybrid levels, with the top at 10 hPa. A high resolution nested forecast at 5 km resolution over Poland (and surrounding countries) was implemented in December 2012. The forecast is published once a day at www.EcoForecast.EU. The air quality forecast is presented for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, PM10 and PM2.5 as maps of daily maxima and daily averages. We will present results from the on-going model evaluation study over Central Europe (2010-2012). Modelling results were evaluated and compared with available observation of ozone and primary pollutants from air quality monitoring stations and from meteorological synoptic stations. Ozone exposure indices, as defined in the CAFE Directive, will be shown for the

  7. The Association Between HIV Disclosure Status and Perceived Barriers to Care Faced by Women Living with HIV in Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Johnson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Samarina, Anna; Vasquez, Patricia; Hao-Lan, He; Madihlaba, Tshepiso; Martinez-Tristani, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment. BACS and QoL were stratified by dichotomized HIV disclosure status (to anyone outside the healthcare system). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with disclosure. Of 1945 patients enrolled from Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada between July 2012 and September 2013, 1929 were included in the analysis (disclosed, n = 1724; nondisclosed, n = 205). Overall, 55% of patients lived with a husband/partner, 53% were employed, and 88% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Patients who were with a serodiscordant partner were more likely to disclose (p = 0.0003). China had a disproportionately higher percentage of participants who did not disclose at all (nearly 30% vs. <15% for other regions). Mean BACS severity scores for medical/psychological service barriers and most personal resource barriers were significantly lower for the disclosed group compared with the nondisclosed group (p ≤ 0.02 for all). Compared with the disclosed group, the nondisclosed group reported statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.03) BACS item severity scores for 8 of the 12 potential barriers to care. The disclosed group reported better QoL. Overall, HIV nondisclosure was associated with more severe barriers to accessing healthcare by women with HIV. PMID:27551959

  8. The Association Between HIV Disclosure Status and Perceived Barriers to Care Faced by Women Living with HIV in Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada.

    PubMed

    Loutfy, Mona; Johnson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Samarina, Anna; Vasquez, Patricia; Hao-Lan, He; Madihlaba, Tshepiso; Martinez-Tristani, Marisol; van Wyk, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment. BACS and QoL were stratified by dichotomized HIV disclosure status (to anyone outside the healthcare system). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with disclosure. Of 1945 patients enrolled from Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada between July 2012 and September 2013, 1929 were included in the analysis (disclosed, n = 1724; nondisclosed, n = 205). Overall, 55% of patients lived with a husband/partner, 53% were employed, and 88% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Patients who were with a serodiscordant partner were more likely to disclose (p = 0.0003). China had a disproportionately higher percentage of participants who did not disclose at all (nearly 30% vs. <15% for other regions). Mean BACS severity scores for medical/psychological service barriers and most personal resource barriers were significantly lower for the disclosed group compared with the nondisclosed group (p ≤ 0.02 for all). Compared with the disclosed group, the nondisclosed group reported statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.03) BACS item severity scores for 8 of the 12 potential barriers to care. The disclosed group reported better QoL. Overall, HIV nondisclosure was associated with more severe barriers to accessing healthcare by women with HIV.

  9. Micro-seismic Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2005-05-01

    Having experience with monitoring Earthquakes plus the fact that Riyadh is yconstantly subjected to Micro-earthquakes through out the year. Riyadh city and ycentral part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a yrelativity stable platform. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at yKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed 9 earthquake portable ystations in central part of Saudi Arabia to record micro-seismicty that caused by local yfaults and natural artificial. We recorded many events in study area mostly theses yevents were not felt. We used digital digitizer recorders ( RefTek 72A) in collecting ythe data and SAISAN software for analyses. The main objective of this study is to ydefine the active faults in Riyadh city and surrounded area that can affect the city. y

  10. Evidence of late Gelasian dispersal of African fauna at Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy): Early Pleistocene environments and the background of early human occupation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, L.; Bona, F.; Corrado, P.; Magri, D.; Mazzini, I.; Parenti, F.; Scardia, G.; Sardella, R.

    2014-07-01

    Since the late 70s, the Early Pleistocene (Gelasian) site of Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy) has been known amongst palaeontologists for its diverse vertebrate fauna. During the last 5 years, new excavations and the drilling of a 46-m-deep core have provided novel pieces of information. Palaeomagnetic data, pollen and small vertebrates analyses are presented here for the first time and combined with the updated list of the large vertebrates and ostracod analysis in a multidisciplinary perspective. Large and small mammals, pollen and ostracod analyses have allowed an integrated palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the sedimentary sequence, depicting the evolution of the alluvial plain in the surrounding landscape. Moreover, magnetostratigraphy, pollen and small mammal biochronological data have confirmed the position of the Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit, focusing the possible age of the mammal assemblage around 2.1 Ma, in a reversed phase before the base of the Olduvai chron. In particular, the occurrence of the large vole Mimomys pliocaenicus has important biochronological significance. The Coste San Giacomo site offers a unique opportunity to investigate the faunal and environmental changes that occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene, coinciding with major climatic changes at a global scale. The occurrence of taxa such as Hippopotamus sp. in the assemblage provides evidence of early dispersal events of African taxa prior to the early Homo diffusion into Europe.

  11. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK. PMID:26283359

  12. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W

    2015-09-08

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK.

  13. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

    We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

  14. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.

  15. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR.

  16. A new species of Docosia Winnertz from Central Europe, with DNA barcoding based on four gene markers (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ševčík, Jan; Kaspřák, David; Rulik, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Docosia Winnertz, Docosia dentata sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on a single male specimen collected in Muránska planina National Park in Central Slovakia. DNA sequences (COI, COII, CytB, and ITS2) are included and compared for 13 species of Docosia. There was found only little congruence between the molecular results and previous scarce data about interspecific relationships based on morphology. The COI and CytB gene markers showed the highest interspecific gene distances while ITS2 showed the lowest ones. An updated key to the 23 Central European species of Docosia is also presented. PMID:26843833

  17. Chemical analysis of essential oils from different parts of Ferula communis L. growing in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Ferula communis is a showy herbaceous plant typical of the Mediterranean area where it is used as a traditional medicine. The plant is a source of bioactive compounds such as daucane sesquiterpenes and prenylated coumarins. In Italy, most of phytochemical studies focused on Sardinian populations where poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes were found, while investigations on peninsular populations are scarce. In this work, we report the chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from different parts of F. communis growing in central Italy. The chemical profiles of the plant parts, as detected by GC-FID and GC-MS, were different from each other and from those reported in insular populations. Notably, α-pinene (10.5%), γ-terpinene (7.6%) and hedycariol (8.4%) were the major volatile constituents in flowers; α-pinene (55.9%), β-pinene (16.8%) and myrcene (5.9%) in fruits; β-eudesmol (12.1%), α-eudesmol (12.1%) and hedycariol (10.3%) in leaves; (E)-β-farnesene (9.5%), β-cubebene (8.2%) and (E)-caryophyllene (7.2%) in roots. The volatile profiles detected did not allow to classify the investigated central Italy population into the poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes previously described in Sardinia.

  18. Quality control of CarboEurope flux data - Part I: Footprint analyses to evaluate sites in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göckede, M.; Foken, T.; Aubinet, M.; Aurela, M.; Banza, J.; Bernhofer, C.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Brunet, Y.; Carrara, A.; Clement, R.; Dellwik, E.; Elbers, J.; Eugster, W.; Fuhrer, J.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Heinesch, B.; Janssens, I. A.; Knohl, A.; Koeble, R.; Laurila, T.; Longdoz, B.; Manca, G.; Marek, M.; Markkanen, T.; Mateus, J.; Matteucci, G.; Mauder, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Minerbi, S.; Moncrieff, J.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Ourcival, J.-M.; Papale, D.; Pereira, J.; Pilegaard, K.; Pita, G.; Rambal, S.; Rebmann, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Sedlak, P.; Seufert, G.; Siebicke, L.; Soussana, J. F.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Verbeeck, H.; Yakir, D.

    2007-11-01

    We applied a site evaluation approach combining Lagrangian Stochastic footprint modelling with a quality assessment approach for eddy-covariance data to 25 forested sites of the CarboEurope-IP network. The analysis addresses the spatial representativeness of the flux measurements, instrumental effects on data quality, spatial patterns in the data quality, and the performance of the coordinate rotation method. Our findings demonstrate that application of a footprint filter could strengthen the CarboEurope-IP flux database, since only one third of the sites is situated in truly homogeneous terrain. Almost half of the sites experience a significant reduction in eddy-covariance data quality under certain conditions, though these effects are mostly constricted to a small portion of the dataset. Reductions in data quality of the sensible heat flux are mostly induced by characteristics of the surrounding terrain, while the latent heat flux is subject to instrumentation-related problems. The Planar-Fit coordinate rotation proved to be a reliable tool for the majority of the sites using only a single set of rotation angles. Overall, we found a high average data quality for the CarboEurope-IP network, with good representativeness of the measurement data for the specified target land cover types.

  19. Trends in Education Access and Financing during the Transition in Central And Eastern Europe. Social Challenges of Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Bruno; Ringold, Dena

    This paper is one in a series of reports based upon data from the "Social Challenges of Transition (SCT)" database. This cross-country study examines empirical trends in access to and financing of education in nine Central and East European countries. The study substantially improves the understanding of the impact of transition on…

  20. 50 CFR Table 28 to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates in the Central GOA Primary Rockfish Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates in the Central GOA Primary Rockfish Species 28 Table 28 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... in the Central GOA Primary Rockfish Species A Legal Rockfish Landing includes Year 1996 1997...

  1. The Late Pleistocene-Holocene community development in Central and SE-Europe in direct fossil record: scope of the approach, common patterns and inter-regional differences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, Ivan; Lozek, Vojen

    2010-05-01

    continuous sedimentary sequences from different regions of Czech Republic and Slovakia (850 community samples, 29,800 MNI) and neighbouring countries of Central Europe. Despite common general trends we demonstrated stricking local and regional specificities. Among other they include (a) continuous survival of several woodland elements (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Micotus subterraneus, Microtus agrestis) throughout Weichselian (including LGM) in the Carpathians, (b) prolonged survival of the glacial elements Ochotona pusilla and Microtus gregalis in Pannonian basin and (c) Dicrostonyx gulielmi in the Carpathian foredeep, contrasting to (d) the early disappearance of them in S-Germany and Bohemia, and (e) similar difference were found also in other cenologic traits. While the glacial communities were nearly homogenous in their structure throughout whole the region, the Holocene development produced a considerable faunal provincialism, which was the most pronounced during Boreal. In contrast to central Europe, the available sequences from the SE-Europe and Asia Minor show only minute faunal changes during the Vistulian and Holocene, no essential rearrangements in community structure were observed (at least as the core species are concerned) and except for Lagurus no glacial immigrant did invade the region. At the same time a degree of local provincialism was continuously high and, in a regional scale, it continuously exceeded that of the Boreal central Europe.

  2. Structural and stratigraphic analysis of the Dinaride thrust belt; A frontier exploration province in central-Southern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, D.R.; Weir, G.M.; Dale, R.C. )

    1993-09-01

    The Dinarides are a 200-300-km-wide southwest vergent fold and thrust belt extending along the eastern margin of the Adriatic Sea. The complex and varied structural and stratigraphic relationships can be used to define three major tectonic units: the internal, central, and external Dinarides. In the Internal Dinarides, platform sequences deposited in the Early and Middle Triassic underwent rapid subsidence and drowning in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic along with rifting and subsequent formation of oceanic crust. Melange and flysch were deposited during the late Jurassic through Cretaceous as the developing thrust belt encroached upon the northeastern margin of the Dinaride carbonate platform. The Dinaride carbonate platform forms the cores of the central and external Dinarides and is composed primarily of Permian-Triassic clastics and evaporites overlain by Middle Triassic through early Eocene platform carbonates. The entire sequence is overlain by late Eocene and early Oligocene synorogenic flysch. In the central Dinarides, late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous unconformities suggest structural uplift prior to the onset of thrusting. Deformation involves Paleozoic basement and includes a major decollement in the Permian Triassic clastic and evaporite unit. Thrusting in the external Dinarides occurred in the late Eocene-early Oligocene and is restricted to Middle Triassic and younger units with major detachments forming near the base of the Ladinian and within a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous evaporite. Important oil source and seal lithofacies occur within intraplatform basins and lagoons in the Mesozoic sequences of the central and external Dinarides. Widespread dolomitized units within the Mesozoic carbonate sequence are potential reservoir zones. The presence of surface hydrocarbon seeps and of existing production on trend to the Dinarides in the thrust belt of Italy and Albania suggest the potential for hydrocarbon discoveries in this underexplored area.

  3. Is the Central America forearc sliver part of the North America plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Central America Forearc sliver is located between the Central America volcanic arc and the Middle America trench. Several authors have suggested that the forearc is being displaced to the northwest with respect to the Caribbean plate; they point to right-lateral, normal-faulting earthquakes along the Central America volcanic arc as prime evidence of this displacement. Apparently, the forearc continues to the northwest into southeastern Mexico, although this portion of the forearc is not being displaced. I present evidence that suggests that the forearc indeed continues into southeastern Mexico and that it belongs to the North America plate. Physiographically, there is a continuity of the forearc into the Coastal plains of southeastern (Chiapas) Mexico, across the Motagua and Polochic faults. Offshore, cross-sections of the Middle America trench are similar along the mexican (Chiapas) segment, and the Central American segment. Furthermore, at the northwestern end of the coastal plain there are no compressive structures, which suggests that the coastal plain is not being displaced to the northwest. As a matter of fact, fault-plane solutions for shallow earthquakes show extension rather than compression. Shallow, interplate earthquakes along the trench show similar parameters along both segments. P-axes and earthquake slip vectors have consistent azimuths, which relate better with Cocos-North America convergence than with Cocos-Caribbean. Azimuth of T-axes for normal-faulting earthquakes also agree well with Cocos-North America convergence. Similarity in several parameters is thus found across both segments, the Chiapas coastal plain and the Central America forearc sliver proper. This suggests that both segments are continuous and probably one and the same, and belonging to the North America plate. Perhaps more properly, the forearc sliver extends into southeastern Mexico and is part of the zone of deformation associated to the Cocos-North America-Caribbean plates

  4. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  5. Genetic structure of coastal and inland populations of the annual halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. in Central Europe, inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Prinz, K; Weising, K; Hensen, I

    2009-11-01

    Naturally occurring inland salt habitats are highly threatened due to increasing fragmentation and area reduction, while the surroundings of former potash mining dumps have experienced a massive invasion by halophytes over the last 20 years. We reconstructed colonisation patterns of these purely anthropogenic inland salt sites using molecular markers in the obligate halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. (Chenopodiaceae), a typical plant in such areas. In the present study, 120 individual plants from 40 coastal and inland populations in Central Europe were subjected to AFLP analysis with nine primer combinations. A total of 243 AFLP band positions were scored as presence/absence characters. Genetic diversity values were not significantly different in populations from natural and anthropogenic inland salt sites as compared to coastal habitats. Results from principal coordinate analysis, neighbour-joining analysis and analysis of molecular variance (amova) all indicated that most of the genetic variation is preserved within populations, while genetic differentiation among populations is comparatively low. We conclude that S. maritima has repeatedly and independently colonised the surroundings of former potash mining dumps in Central Germany. However, the absence of founder effects and the lack of phylogeographic structure prevented us from identifying putative donor populations.

  6. A geologic history of the north-central Appalachians, part 3. The Alleghany orogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faill, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The north-central Appalachians occupy a critical position within the 3000+ km-long Appalachian orogen, lying southwest of the boundary between the central and northern Appalachians (CNAB). The one-billion-year-long history of tectonic activity in eastern Laurentia includes the creation and evolution of the Appalachian orogen during the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic transformation of the orogen into a passive margin during Pangea's disassembly. A most important ingredient in the evolution of the orogen was the Alleghany orogeny, which was driven by the convergence and collision between Laurentia (Laurussia) and West Gondwana (Africa). The Alleghany orogeny in the central and southern Appalachians was a de??collement tectonism that involved a larger part of eastern Laurentia than had the previous three orogenies. The fundamental element was a very low-angle thrust (de??collement) that originated in mid-crustal levels east of the presently-exposed Appalachians and rose westwardly to progressively higher levels in the upper crust and the supra-crustal Paleozoic section. Alleghany deformation was widely developed in the hanging-wall block (allochthon), primarily in the form of thrust faults and fold-and-thrust structures, both of which splayed upward from the basal de??collement. The youngest manifestations of the Alleghany orogeny were northeast-trending strike-slip faults and dextral shear zones in the Piedmont. In the north-central Appalachians, the exposed allochthon consists of two parts: the sedimentary externides (Appalachian Plateau and Valley and Ridge provinces) and the crystalline externides (Reading Prong, Blue Ridge belt, and Piedmont province). Long, thrust-cored anticlines predominate in the sedimentary externides. A widespread layer-parallel shortening preceded the folding; it is largely coaxial with the folding but extends considerably farther to the northwest toward the craton. It is hypothesized that the folding developed in reverse order, sequentially

  7. Geology and Geochronology of the Central Part of Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layer, P. W.

    2006-12-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA) is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in a northwest direction, including El Chichón volcano located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico. It lies between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Arc to the northwest, and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast, in a complex zone of the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos Plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 12 volcanic structures located 80 km to the southeast of El Chichón (the only currently active volcano in the CVA). These structures include one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), one dome complex (Tzontehuitz) and nine volcanic domes (Navenchauc, Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza, Miguel Hidalgo and Santotón) with associated pyroclastic flow deposits. The juvenile lithics from these deposits have a porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (±), amphibole (±), clinopyroxene (±), orthopyroxene (±) and Fe-Ti oxides surrounded by a matrix composed by microlites of plagioclase and glass. The chemical results obtained from representative samples from the deposits and structures indicate that these belong to the series of subalkaline rocks, and fall into the calcalkaline field with medium to high contents of potassium. They vary in their composition from andesite to dacite with an interval of silica between a 56 to a 66% (wt.). The ages reported in the literature and obtained in this study by means of the K-Ar and the 40Ar/39Ar methods, respectively, indicated that volcanism was episodic and spanned a time from 2100 ky ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ky ago (Venustiano Carranza).

  8. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  9. The Impact of Changes in the TOEFL® Examination on Teaching and Learning in Central and Eastern Europe: Phase 2, Coping with Change. TOEFL iBT Research Report. TOEFL iBT-05. ETS RR-08-37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dianne; Horák, Tania

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the findings of the second phase in a longitudinal study of the impact of changes in the TOEFL® test on teaching and learning in test preparation classrooms. The focus of this phase was to monitor six teachers from five countries in Central and Eastern Europe as they received news about changes in the TOEFL and…

  10. 2-D magnetotelluric inversion of the central part of Paraná Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, E. B.; Santos, H. B.; Vitorello, I.; Pádua, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Paraná Basin is a large sedimentary basin in central-eastern South America that extends through Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Evolved completely over the South American continental crust, this Paleozoic basin is filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks deposited from the Silurian to the Cretaceous, when a significant basaltic effusion covered almost the entire area of the basin. A series of superposed sedimentary and volcanic rock layers were laid down under the influence of different tectonic settings, probably originated from distant collisional dynamics of continental boards that led to the amalgamation of Gondwanaland. The current boundaries of the basin can be the result of issuing erosional or of tectonic origin, such as the building up of large arches and faults. To evaluate the deep structural architecture of the lithosphere under a sedimentary basin is a great challenge, requiring the integration of different geophysical and geological studies. In this paper, we present the resulting Paraná Basin lithospheric model, obtained from processing and inversion of broadband and long-period magnetotelluric soundings along an E-W profile across the central part of the basin, complemented by a qualitative joint interpretation of gravimetric data, in order to obtain a more precise geoelectric model of the deep structure of the region.

  11. Historical Public Health in Central Europe With Special Reference to Hungary. Long-Term Environmental Effects of a Historical Cataclysm

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Csaba; Ember, István; Murányi, Edit; Kiss, István

    2012-01-01

    Hungary, in the centre of Carpathian basin grapples with numerous challenges in order to improve catastrophic indices of environmental conditions of the country, as well as the state of health of the population. Some of these problems are subjects of financial and health policy, and can be solved internally. The remaining environmental problems can only be remedied by cooperation with neighbouring younger countries. This vitally important cooperation is hampered by severe historical conflicts burdening even the present political affiliations. The authors give a short introduction and explanation of the recent sensitive situation in this central European region, as a late consequence of an historical cataclysm happened more than nine decades ago. PMID:25170445

  12. The Climate and Landscape of the Middle Part of the Weichselian Glaciation in Europe: The Stage 3 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen isotope stage 3 (OIS 3) was a mild interval between the two cold maxima of the last (Weichselian) glaciation marked by climate changes oscillating on a 100-1000 yr time scale between near-interglacial and peak-glacial conditions. During OIS 3, modern humans entered Europe, and somewhat later their Neanderthal predecessors became extinct. Our understanding of this momentous event depends on an answer to the question, Did the unstable environmental conditions of the time play a significant role in early human history? The Stage 3 Project is an interdisciplinary study with two main goals: (1) to describe with existing data and to simulate the climates and landscapes of typical warm and cold phases between 45,000 and 30,000 yr ago and (2) to compare the results with the spatial and temporal distribution of human beings in this context. This paper introduces the Stage 3 Project and provides background to a set of papers on the climate and landscape aspects of the Project that will appear in Quaternary Research and to studies of their relevance to the Early Upper Paleolithic of Europe to appear in journals yet to be determined.

  13. Prevalence and diversity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Kotková, Michaela; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2014-02-01

    From 2011 to 2012, the occurrence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. was surveyed at 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across four Central European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic. Isolates were genotyped by PCR amplification and characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using Enterocytozoon and Encephalitozoon-specific protocols. PCR revealed 16 mono-infections of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 33 mono-infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and 5 concurrent infections of both Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Enterocytozoon bieneusi out of 460 faecal samples. Two genotypes (I and II) were revealed by sequence analysis of the ITS region of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Eleven genotypes, five previously found in other hosts including domestic pigs (D, EbpA, EbpC, G and Henan-I) and six novel (WildBoar1-6), were identified in Enterocytozoon bieneusi. No other microsporidia infection was found in the examined faecal samples. Prevalence of microsporidia at the locality level ranged from 0 to 58.8 %; the prevalence was less than 25 % at more than 86 % of localities. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected as a predominant species infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). The present report is the most comprehensive survey of microsporidia infections in wild boars within the Czech Republic and selected Central European countries.

  14. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns - Part 1: Observed variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Messager, C.; Filippi, D.; Nedelec, P.; Ramonet, M.; Paris, J. D.; Ciais, P.

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric airborne measurements of CO2 are very well-suited to estimate the time varying distribution of carbon sources and sinks at the regional scale. We present here an analysis of two cross-European airborne campaigns that have been carried out on 23-26 May 2001 (CAATER 1) and 2-3 October 2002 (CAATER 2) over Western Europe. The area covered during CAATER 1 (respectively CAATER 2) was comprised between longitude 4° W to 14° E and latitude 44° N to 52° N (respectively longitude 1° E to 17° E and latitude 46° N to 52° N). High precision in-situ CO2, CO and Radon 222 measurements have been recorded. Flasks samples have been collected during both campaigns to cross-validate the in-situ data. During CAATER 1 (respectively CAATER 2), the mean CO2 concentration was 370.1±4 ppm (respectively 371.7±5 ppm). A HYSPLIT backtrajectories analysis shows that during CAATER 1, dominant winds were blowing from the north-west. In the planetary boundary layer (PBL) airmasses got contaminated over Benelux and Western Germany by pollution from these high urbanized areas, reaching about 380 ppm. Air masses passing over rural areas are depleted in CO2 because of the photosynthesis activity of the land cover vegetation, as low as 355 ppm. During CAATER 2, the backtrajectory analysis shows that airmasses were distributed among the 4 sectors. Airmasses got enriched in CO2 and CO when passing above polluted spots in Germany but also in Poland, as these countries are known to hold part of the most polluting plants based on coal consumption, the so-called "dirty thirty" from WWF. Simultaneous measurements of in-situ CO2 and CO combined to backtrajectories helped us to discriminate the role of fossil fuel emissions from over CO2 sources. The ΔCO/ΔCO2 ratios (R2=0.33 to 0.88, slopes=2.42 to 10.37), calculated for polluted airmasses originating from different countries/regions, matched quite well national inventories, showing that the airborne measurements can help to identify

  15. Urological procedures in Central Europe and the current reality based on the national registries of Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland (2012 status)

    PubMed Central

    Juszczak, Kajetan; Drewa, Tomasz; Hora, Milan; Nyirády, Peter; Sosnowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the laparoscopic approach in oncologic urology seems more attractable to the surgeons. It is considered to have the same oncologic quality as open surgery, but is less invasive in patients. It is used widely in all of Europe, but with various frequency. The aim of the study was to present a various amount of oncourological procedures from three neighbouring countries – Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary. Prostatectomy, cystectomy, nephrectomy and tumorectomy (Nephron Sparing Procedures – NSS) were presented as a list of procedures prepared from the national registry. Material and methods The total amount of procedures was presented, as well as the LO (Lap to Open procedures) index, P/P (procedures/population) index, ratio of cystectomy/population, and cystectomy/TURBT. Results In the Czech Republic, the most complex procedures are performed (laparoscopic/robotic prostatectomy, NSS LAP, LAP nephrectomy) in the majority when analysing the country's population. In Hungary and Czech Republic, there are more laparoscopic/robotic radical prostatectomies performed, than open ones. In Poland the largest number of cystectomies is performed when analysing the country's population, but it is difficult to explain the much higher ratio of 6.57 TUR/one cystectomy. In the Czech Republic this procedure is performed in almost one quarter of the patients (23.36%). Interestingly, in Hungary the cystectomy with pouch creation is performed in about 67.65% cases. The highest reimbursement for surgical procedure is present in the Czech Republic with approximately 20–40% more than when compared to Poland or Hungary. Conclusions The definitive leader in Central Europe (based on the national registry) is the Czech Republic, where the most complex procedures are performed (laparoscopic/robotic prostatectomy, NSS LAP, LAP nephrectomy) in biggest amounts when analysing the country's population. Explanation of such circumstances, can be the higher

  16. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  17. 50 CFR Table 28a to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species 28a Table 28a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28a Table 28a to Part 679—Qualifying...

  18. 50 CFR Table 28a to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species 28a Table 28a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28a Table 28a to Part 679—Qualifying...

  19. 50 CFR Table 28a to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species 28a Table 28a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28a Table 28a to Part 679—Qualifying...

  20. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  1. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  2. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  3. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  4. Status of decentralised wastewater treatment systems and barriers for implementation of nature-based systems in central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Istenic, Darja; Bodík, Igor; Bulc, Tjaša

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a survey on the current status of wastewater treatment systems in 11 central and eastern European (CEE) countries, with a focus on rural areas and on small treatment wetlands for settlements of below 2,000 people. The results indicate that CEE countries have insufficient sanitation systems with different performance efficiencies. These differences stem from the different historical, political and economic developments as well as legislation in the previous five to six decades. CEE settlements with less than 2,000 inhabitants represent almost 30.0 % of the overall number of persons living in CEE countries. These data show that CEE countries have a mainly rural character, but this is slowly decreasing. Over 42 million inhabitants are waiting for proper sanitation systems. This requirement will be ever-growing in the next future, and it is important to know and to prepare appropriate steps for progressive realisation.

  5. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by Guenther et al. (1995) and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1x1km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered.

  6. Options for Braille Centralization. Study I--Implementation Study of Centralized Braille Book Storage and Distribution System. Part 1--Options for Braille Centralization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ManTech Technical Services Corp., Fairfax, VA.

    This final report presents results of the first phase of an effort to develop in detail the resource requirements, operating procedures, and estimated costs for several centralized braille service options at the Library of Congress. Existing procedures and services were analyzed, and three models for centralized braille services were formulated.…

  7. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems.

  8. The unconventional hydrocarbon potential in the central part of the Baltic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic Phanerozoic sedimentary basin, situated on the Western margin of the East European Craton. The unconventional hydrocarbon potential is mostly related to the several organic-rich source rock complexes within the Early Palaeozoic section. In the south-eastern part of the Baltic Basin the Cambrian shales (Alum shales and Middle Cambrian), Ordovician black shales of the Caradocian age and Silurian Llandovery shales are considered as the major potential shale oil/gas playes. The depth of the the base of the Silurian shales varies from 2120 to 1125 m in the Lithuanian part of the basin. The thickness of the Lower Silurian shales in - varies from 110m to160 m. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition - predominantly "oil-producing" sapropel (type II) and mixed "oil-gas liquids producing" type II-III. Pyrolisis yields (32 - 76(~100) kg HC/ton rock) suggests a good hydroacarbon generation potential. Total organic carbon content varies from 0.2-3 to 8-11%. Maximal values of the total organic carbon (up to 17%) have been recorded near the base of the Silurian (2-11 m Middle Llandovery interval) and its content generally decreases upwards the section. The Rock-Eval screening pyrolysis, biomarker data, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerals and conodont colour alteration index show considerable variations of the source rocks maturity through the basin. Maturity of the organic matter increases southwestwards from 0.6 up to 1.94% (Ro). Thermal maturity in this area ranges from immature in the Eastern part of Lithuania and to "oil window" in the Western Lithuania. In some places in central part of the basin (wells Ramučiai-1, Pajūris-1 and others) the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Llandovery shales are clay-rich, an average values range from 28-59vol

  9. Replacement names and nomenclatural comments for problematic species-group names in Europe's Neogene freshwater Gastropoda. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Elisavet, Georgopoulou; Mandic, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the course of a new database project on Miocene to Recent freshwater gastropods of Europe, a great many of primary and secondary homonyms were revealed. Such nomenclatural issues need clarification in order to avoid misunderstandings and wrong statements about geographical distributions and temporal ranges. The following 16 new names are introduced to replace existing homonyms: Theodoxus militaris jurisicpolsakae nom. n., Viviparus stevanovici nom. n., Melanopsis haueri ripanjensis nom. n., Melanopsis wolfgangfischeri nom. n., Micromelania ramacanensis nom. n., Pseudamnicola welterschultesi nom. n., Muellerpalia haszprunari nom. n., Muellerpalia pseudovalvatoides nom. n., Lithoglyphus gozhiki nom. n., Valvata heidemariae willmanni nom. n., Radix macaleti nom. n., Gyraulus okrugljakensis nom. n., Gyraulus rasseri nom. n., Gyraulus vrapceanus nom. n., Planorbarius halavatsi nom. n., and Segmentina mosbachensis nom. n. Additionally, six cases of homonyms are discussed that are not replaced by new names, because they are considered junior synonyms. PMID:25147468

  10. Replacement names and nomenclatural comments for problematic species-group names in Europe's Neogene freshwater Gastropoda. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Thomas A; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Elisavet, Georgopoulou; Mandic, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    In the course of a new database project on Miocene to Recent freshwater gastropods of Europe, a great many of primary and secondary homonyms were revealed. Such nomenclatural issues need clarification in order to avoid misunderstandings and wrong statements about geographical distributions and temporal ranges. The following 16 new names are introduced to replace existing homonyms: Theodoxus militaris jurisicpolsakae nom. n., Viviparus stevanovici nom. n., Melanopsis haueri ripanjensis nom. n., Melanopsis wolfgangfischeri nom. n., Micromelania ramacanensis nom. n., Pseudamnicola welterschultesi nom. n., Muellerpalia haszprunari nom. n., Muellerpalia pseudovalvatoides nom. n., Lithoglyphus gozhiki nom. n., Valvata heidemariae willmanni nom. n., Radix macaleti nom. n., Gyraulus okrugljakensis nom. n., Gyraulus rasseri nom. n., Gyraulus vrapceanus nom. n., Planorbarius halavatsi nom. n., and Segmentina mosbachensis nom. n. Additionally, six cases of homonyms are discussed that are not replaced by new names, because they are considered junior synonyms.

  11. Part versus whole: a randomized trial of central venous catheterization education.

    PubMed

    Chan, Angela; Singh, Sunita; Dubrowski, Adam; Pratt, Daniel D; Zalunardo, Nadia; Nair, Parvarthy; McLaughlin, Kevin; Ma, Irene W Y

    2015-10-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a complex but commonly performed procedure. How best to teach this complex skill has not been clearly delineated. We conducted a randomized trial of the effects of two types of teaching of CVC on skill acquisition and retention. We randomly assigned novice internal medicine residents to learning CVC in-part or in-whole. The part-group was taught the first part of the procedure, followed by practice, followed by being taught the second and final portion of the procedure, and followed by practice. The whole-group was taught the procedure in its entirety, followed by practice. Teaching and practice time for both groups was otherwise held constant. Performances were assessed at baseline, post-training, and at 1 month. The primary outcome was skill retention at 1-month, rated by using a global rating scale and a 22-item checklist, and defined as the score increase between 1-month and baseline. Skill acquisition is defined as the score increase post-training and baseline. Raters were blinded to the participants' identity, group assignment, and time point. Participants in the part-task group outperformed the whole-task group in skill acquisition (2.2 ± 0.8 vs 1.3 ± 1.0; g = 1.01; p = 0.04) and in skill retention (1.5 ± 0.7 vs 0.5 ± 0.8; g = 1.39; p = 0.006) using the global rating scale. Scores rated by the checklist were not significantly different (52.0 ± 25.3 vs 43.5 ± 23.4; g = 0.33; p = 0.47 for skill acquisition; and 48.5 ± 34.9 vs 41.1 ± 20.4; g = 0.35; p = 0.44 for skill retention). For teaching ultrasound-guided CVC to novice learners, teaching in part is preferable than teaching in whole.

  12. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-19

    the employees of the Central Elections Office, and [made by senators]. It requires that [the time for or delegates from foreign representations...several other papers, such as the center for Central and East Europe. Moreover we are 23 March issue of HAROMSZEK, published in Sep- granting one-half...million to a joint venture on a modern siszentgyorgy [Sfintu Gheorghe]. system of payment. The Hungarian central bank has This is not the wish of a man

  13. Mapping the extent of abandoned farmland in Central and Eastern Europe using MODIS time series satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Baumann, Matthias; Bragina, Eugenia V.; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Müller, Daniel; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Sieber, Anika; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2013-09-01

    The demand for agricultural products continues to grow rapidly, but further agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental costs, making recultivating currently unused farmland an interesting alternative. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to widespread abandonment of agricultural lands, but the extent and spatial patterns of abandonment are unclear. We quantified the extent of abandoned farmland, both croplands and pastures, across the region using MODIS NDVI satellite image time series from 2004 to 2006 and support vector machine classifications. Abandoned farmland was widespread, totaling 52.5 Mha, particularly in temperate European Russia (32 Mha), northern and western Ukraine, and Belarus. Differences in abandonment rates among countries were striking, suggesting that institutional and socio-economic factors were more important in determining the amount of abandonment than biophysical conditions. Indeed, much abandoned farmland occurred in areas without major constraints for agriculture. Our map provides a basis for assessing the potential of Central and Eastern Europe’s abandoned agricultural lands to contribute to food or bioenergy production, or carbon storage, as well as the environmental trade-offs and social constraints of recultivation.

  14. Classification of Aerosol over Central Europe by Cluster Analysis of Aerosol Columnar Optical Properties and Backward Trajectory Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkop, Artur; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Posyniak, Michał

    2016-12-01

    A cluster analysis is applied to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data obtained at Belsk, Poland, as well as three nearby Central European stations (Leipzig, Minsk and Moldova) for estimation of atmospheric aerosol types. Absorption Ångstrom exponent (AAE), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and extinction Ångstrom exponent (EAE) parameters are used. Clustering in both 2D (AOT, EAE) and 3D (AOT, EAE, AAE) is investigated. A method of air mass backward trajectory analysis is then proposed, with the receptor site at Belsk, to determine possible source regions for each cluster. Four dominant aerosol source regions are identified. The biomass burning aerosol source is localized in the vicinity of Belarusian-Ukrainian border. Slovakia and northern Hungary are found to be the source of urban/industrial pollutants. Western Poland and eastern Germany are the main sources of polluted continental aerosols. The most differentiated source region of Scandinavia, Baltic Sea and Northern Atlantic, associated with lowest values of AOT, corresponds to clean continental and possibly maritime type aerosols.

  15. POPE study: rationale and methodology of a study to phenotype patients with COPD in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zbozinkova, Zuzana; Barczyk, Adam; Tkacova, Ruzena; Valipour, Arschang; Tudoric, Neven; Zykov, Kirill; Somfay, Attila; Miravitlles, Marc; Koblizek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major health challenge in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. However, clinical phenotypes, symptom load, and treatment habits of patients with COPD in CEE countries remain largely unknown. This paper provides a rationale for phenotyping COPD and describes the methodology of a large study in CEE. Methods/design The POPE study is an international, multicenter, observational cross-sectional survey of patients with COPD in CEE. Participation in the study is offered to all consecutive outpatients with stable COPD in 84 centers across the CEE region if they fulfill the following criteria: age >40 years, smoking history ≥10 pack-years, a confirmed diagnosis of COPD with postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7, and absence of COPD exacerbation ≥4 weeks. Medical history, risk factors for COPD, comorbidities, lung function parameters, symptoms, and pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical treatment are recorded. The POPE project is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT02119494. Outcomes The primary aim of the POPE study was to phenotype patients with COPD in a real-life setting within CEE countries using predefined classifications. Secondary aims of the study included analysis of differences in symptoms, and diagnostic and therapeutic behavior in participating CEE countries. Conclusion There is increasing acceptance toward a phenotype-driven therapeutic approach in COPD. The POPE study may contribute to reveal important information regarding phenotypes and therapy in real-life CEE. PMID:27042048

  16. Seismicity and geodynamics in the central part of the Vanuatu Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillard, C.; Crawford, W. C.; Ballu, V.; Regnier, M. M.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Vanuatu Arc (VA) in the southwest Pacific ocean (167°E, 13-20°S), is highly seismically active, with more than 35 events of magnitude Mw ≥ 7 since 1973 (USGS catalog). The geodynamics are dominated by the east-dipping subduction of the Australian Plate under the North Fiji Basin microplate. Convergence rates are estimated to be between 130 and 170 mm/yr, except in the central part of the VA where convergence slows to 30-40 mm/yr. This slowing appears to be the result of blockage by the subducting d'Entrecastaux ridge. To quantify the tectonics of this blocked section, we deployed 30 seismometers in 2008-2009 and 8 GPS stations since 2008, in the forearc region of the central VA. The seismometers recorded more than 100 events/day. Detailed analysis of the earthquake catalog reveals: 1) a seismic gap between 40 and 60 km deep under the two largest islands of the VA (Santo and Malekula); 2) subduction plane and intraplate faulting within the down-going plate; and 3) reduced activity beneath Malekula island , perhaps indicating a locked patch on the subduction plane. We infer the geometry of the subduction interface by combining our catalog with unpublished data from the 2000 Santo Mw 6.9 earthquake and aftershocks and the USGS and Global CMT catalogs. The subduction interface appears to be composed of two different panels: a shallow one with a small dip angle and a deeper one with higher dip starting at a depth of ~50 km. We compare finite-element modeling of these panels to the geodetic data to test the connectedness of the two panels and their degree of locking.

  17. Mechanisms Contributing to Suppressed Precipitation in Mt. Hua of Central China. Part I: Mountain Valley Circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yan; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Zhao, Chun; Li, Zhanqing; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Significant reduction in precipitation in the past decades has been documented over many mountain ranges such as those in central and eastern China. Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. Rigorous quantitative investigations on the reasons responsible for the precipitation reduction are lacking. Here in this study, we employed an improved Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with online coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) and conducted simulations at the convection-permitting scale to explore the major mechanisms governing changes in precipitation from orographic clouds in the Mountain (Mt.) Hua area in Central China. We find that anthropogenic pollution contributes to a ~ 40% reduction of precipitation over Mt. Hua during the one-month summer time period. The reduction is mainly associated with precipitation events associated with valleymountain circulation and a mesoscale cold front event. In this Part I paper, we scrutinize the mechanism leading to significant reduction for the cases associated with valley-mountain circulation. We find that the valley breeze is weakened by aerosols due to absorbing aerosol induced warming aloft and cooling near the surface as a result of aerosol-radiation interaction (ARI). The weakened valley breeze along with reduced water vapor in the valley due to reduced evapotranspiration as a result of surface cooling significantly reduce the transport of water vapor from the valley to mountain and the relative humidity over the mountain, thus suppressing convection and precipitation in the mountain.

  18. Preliminary Results of Occurrence and Mineralogical Properties of Opals from Northwest part of Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    The study area, is located in northwest part of central Anatolian, consists of Eskişehir and Kütahya region where are important for finding occurrence of opaline silica mineralization as well as chalcedonic silica mineralization. In this study preliminary results of mineralogical properties of opals from four different area (Sabuncupınar, Belkavak, Gokçekısık and Derekoy), located between Eskisehir and Kutahya region, have been given. In the Kütahya region, dendritic opal nodules present in Pliocene pyroclastic rocks - Kanoturaǧı hill and white opals outcrop in stockwork veins with serpentinites in Küçükali hill around Sabuncupınar village. The mainly whitish - blue and gray opal nodules range from millimetres in diameter to about five and ten centimetres in Kanoturagı hill. White opals, called milky opal, are white color and present in veins within serpentinites. The Kanoturagı opal is made up of tiny spheres, the milky opal is made up tiny sphere with fibrous texture based on the SEM. Green opals present in Miocene pyroclastic rocks in Belkavak village. The Belkavak opals are greenish color and having a brecciated appearance. Opals outcrops around Sabuncu pınar and Belkavak villages consist of opal - CT, alpha quartz and, moganite, and a lesser amount of opal - C based on the results of XRD analysis. In the Eskişehir region, the dendritic opals occur as nodules in volcanogenetic conglomerates of Pliocene age in the Dereyalak area. The Dereyalak opals vary in size from millimetres in diameter to about ten centimetres. Their color are mainly white, beige, greenish, yellowish orange and black. On the other hand, Pliocene pyroclastic rocks are the host rock of opals in Gökçekısık village - Eskişehir. Gökçekısık Opals are mainly colorless, pale shades of yellow, whitish blue and gray colors and display a reinous to sub vitreous luster. Dereyalak dendiritic opals consist of opal - CT, opal - C and a lesser amount of alpha quartz and, moganite

  19. Multi-disciplinary search for seismogenic areas at the central part of Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, J. M.; Leon-Loya, R. A.; López-Valdivia, E. N.; Yutsis, V. V.; López-Loera, H.; Nieto-Samaniego, F.

    2013-05-01

    geomorphological features. Based on Bouguer anomaly maps we identified a couple of major trends, one to the northeast of the study area, with a high gravimetric between -90 and -106 mgals, and the other is located southwest of the area, with values of -97 and -113 mgals, these trends are also observed as magnetic domains in aeromagnetic maps. The integration of geophysical and geological models helps to delineate the interface between rocks and underlying sedimentary basement, provide an estimate of their depth, and better define the structural lineament. The recorded activity may be an indicator of regional reactivation. In addition, the central part of the SMOr could be one of the most active intraplate areas in Mexico.

  20. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps). Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more widespread in the past, leading

  1. Rainfall extremes in some selected parts of Central and South America: ENSO and other relationships reexamined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    1999-03-01

    El Niños and anti-El Niños (La Niñas) are known to be associated with rainfall extremes in several parts of the globe. However, not all El Niños show good associations. Recently, a finer classification of El Niño events was attempted. It was noticed that Unambiguous ENSOW (El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Warm) events (years when El Niño existed, and the Tahiti minus Darwin pressure difference (T-D) minima and equatorial eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) maxima occurred in the middle of the calendar year) were very well associated with droughts in India and southeast Australia (Tasmania). In addition, C (cold SST, La Niña) events showed reverse effects (excess rains) in these regions. In the present paper, rainfall in selected regions in Central and South America are examined. For the Southern Oscillation Core Region (low latitudes, 155°W-167°E) and for the Gulf-Mexico region, no finer classification was necessary. All El Niños were associated with excess rains and all La Niñas with droughts. As in India and Tasmania, Unambiguous ENSOW years were associated with droughts in some parts of northeast Brazil (Ceara, Rio grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco) and excess rains in Chile and Peru. C events did not have good associations except in Chile and Peru, where droughts occurred. The effect of El Niños showed some dependence on the month of commencement. In years when El Niños showed no effect, considerable influence of other factors (e.g. Atlantic SST on northeast Brazil rainfall) was noticed. Thus, predictions based on El Niño alone are likely to be erroneous, a fact which should be noted by the mass media. Effects of the recent El Niño of 1997-1998 are discussed.

  2. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A; Deal, Robert L; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions--Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. ∑ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below limit of quantification (< LOQ) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < LOQ. ∑ PCB and ∑ CP concentrations in air ranged from < LOQ to 44.6 and < LOQ to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The particulate matter removal by rain, and consequently PAH wet scavenging, was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2014-10-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. Σ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below analytical method detection limit (< MDL) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < MDL. Σ PCB and Σ CP concentrations in air ranged from < MDL to 44.6 and < MDL to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The PAH wet scavenging was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  5. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz

    2016-08-01

    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  6. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being – A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19–72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father–child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes. PMID:27679796

  7. A prospective observational study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central and Eastern Europe and Turkey: Symptom severity and treatment options in a paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Ondrejka, Igor; Abali, Osman; Paclt, Ivo; Gácser, Magdolna; Iftene, Felicia; Walton, Richard; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamá; Martényi, Ferenc

    2010-06-01

    Abstract Objective. This study investigates the relationship between treatment regimen, symptom severity, comorbidities and health outcomes of paediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Methods. Males and females aged 6-17 years with ADHD symptoms participated in this 12-month, prospective, observational, non-randomised study. Symptoms and comorbidities were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4 Parent Checklists (CSI-4; ASI-4, categories L/O), and the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity scale (CGI-ADHD-S). Baseline data are presented. Results. The study included 566 patients from Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Turkey. Psychiatrists made all diagnoses using The American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV), World Health Organization International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10), and "other" criteria (73, 27 and 0.4%, respectively). Patients were grouped into two cohorts based on whether they were prescribed psycho- and/or pharmacotherapy (n=443) or not (n=123). Patients receiving prescribed treatment were older and demonstrated higher symptom severity scores than those receiving no or "other" treatment. Most patients were prescribed conventional treatment for ADHD at baseline. Conclusions. Continued assessment of this population may aid the treatment and outcomes of ADHD in CEE.

  8. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia.

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Characterizing Forest Areas with High Societal Values: Experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A.; Deal, Robert L.; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions—Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  10. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being - A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19-72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father-child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes.

  11. Management of osteoporosis in central and eastern Europe (CEE): conclusions of the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE", 21-22 November 2008, Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Roman S; Resch, Heinrich

    2009-12-01

    In November 2008, the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)" was held in Warsaw, Poland. Discussions at this meeting focused on the identification and discussion of diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic measures used in CEE. Evaluated information was used to identify issues regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis in these countries to facilitate the subsequent setup of appropriate support and development strategies. The main debate was structured according to the following five subjects: (1) present status and future perspectives for implementation of FRAX(R) into local (CEE) diagnostic algorithms, (2) principles of drug selection in osteoporosis treatment in CEE countries, (3) nonpharmacological interventions in osteoporosis treatment and prophylaxis in CEE countries, (4) treatment benefit evaluation, and (5) cost-effectiveness and evaluation of reimbursement policies in CEE countries. The most important and substantial comments of the delegates are summarized in the present article. The multinational panel of experts with representatives from many CEE countries as well as Austria and Switzerland made the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" a perfect platform to identify issues and needs regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis as well as the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis management in CEE countries. The information gained will serve as a basis for the development of strategies to resolve the identified issues at the "3rd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" in November 2009.

  12. Two vicariant Semispathidium species from tropical Africa and central Europe: S. fraterculum nov. spec. and S. pulchrum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Haptorida).

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Hess, Sebastian; Al-Rasheid, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Using standard methods, we describe two new Semispathidium species from semiterrestrial habitats of tropical Africa and central Europe. Semispathidium fraterculum nov. spec. and S. pulchrum nov. spec. differ from each other and from two Namibian (Southwest African) congeners by body size, the shape and location of the extrusomes; the shape of the macronucleus, the number of ciliary rows, the number of cilia within the rows, and the number of dikinetids comprising the dorsal brush rows. The globular resting cyst of S. fraterculum is unique in having countless granules on the inside of the external layer, forming sharp-angled rows. The distribution of these and two further, not yet described south African species indicates that the genus Semispathidium evolved in subtropical Africa. Semispathidium fraterculum and S. pulchrum are highly similar, both morphologically and ecologically, differing in mainly one important feature: the shape and location of the extrusomes used for prey capture. This suggests that they evolved from a common ancestor whose areal was divided by a vicariant event, causing an independent evolution of the split populations. We argue that this and other species pairs indicate that the vicariance speciation model is applicable to protists.

  13. The impact of habitat fragmentation and social structure on the population genetics of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Schreiber, A

    2001-06-01

    Nine out of 57 bovine and caprine microsatellites investigated have proved polymorphic in roe deer populations from Central Europe. The polymorphism of four to nine microsatellites (with two to 16 alleles each) has been screened in 492 roe deer from 27 sample locations in Germany, the Netherlands and France, and 10 allozyme loci have been investigated in 118 roe deer from Germany. These studies have revealed a genetically homogeneous population, but with a local scatter of allele frequencies. The mean genetic distance among sample pairs, and the overall fixation index for the 27 population samples were D=0.1638 and GST=0.0972 for four microsatellite loci, and D=0.0598 and GST=0.1459 for 10 allozyme loci. No isolation-by-distance was observed. Roe deer from isolated habitats could be distinguished by various measures of genetic variability. The expected heterozygosity and the allelic diversity were higher in male than in female roe deer, but mean genetic distances and fixation indices were higher in females. The fixation indices of pairs of adjacent samples, and the genetic distance among these samples correlated highly significantly with the density of human settlement, measured by the percentage of land surface covered by roads and villages. The utility of allozymes and microsatellites for population genetic studies in cervids are compared.

  14. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central...

  15. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part B, historical earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax: the moment magnitude of the largest earthquake that is thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. The region specified in this report is the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. Parts A and B of this report describe the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes that occurred worldwide in tectonic analogs of the Central and Eastern United States. Examination of histograms of the magnitudes of these earthquakes allows estimation of Central and Eastern United States Mmax. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it are used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. Part A deals with prehistoric earthquakes, and this part deals with historical events.

  16. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  17. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    -Italy). Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 41 (1), 37-40. Bachmann, G.H. and Aref, M.A.M., 2005. A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), Southwest Germany. Sedimentary Geology 180, 75-89. De Zanche, V. and Farabegoli, E. 1988. Anisian paleogeographic evolution in the Central-Western Southern Alps. Memoirs Scientifique Geologique 40, 399-411. Demathieu, G.R. 1985. Trace fossil assemblages in Middle Triassic marginal marine deposits, eastern border of the Massif Central, France. Societe Economie Paléontologie et Mineralogie, Special Publications, 35, 53-66. Diedrich, C. 2005. Actuopalaeontological trackway experiments with Iguana on intertidal flat carbonates of the Arabian Gulf - a comparison to fossil Rhynchosauroides tracks of Triassic carbonate tidal flat megatracksites in the European Germanic Basin. Senckenbergiana maritime, 35 (2), 203-220. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Millions of reptile tracks - Early to Middle Triassic carbonate tidal flat migration bridges of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 259, 410-423. Diedrich, C. 2008b. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - with emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea. Global and Planetary Change, 65 (2009), 27-55. Diedrich, C. 2009a. The vertebrates of the Anisian/Ladinian boundary (Middle Triassic) from Bissendorf (NW Germany) and their contribution to the anatomy, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 273 (2009), 1-16. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Die Saurierspuren-Grabung im basalen Mittleren Muschelkalk (Anis, Mitteltrias) von Bernburg (Sachsen-Anhalt). Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband 2009, 1-62. Diedrich, 2010a. Palaeoecology of Placodus gigas (Reptilia) and other placodontids - macroalgae feeder of the Middle Triassic in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe and

  18. Field and petrochemical studies of pegmatites in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omada, J. I.; Kolawole, M. S.; Odoma, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Field, petrological and geochemical studies of pegmatite bodies in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria, have been undertaken with a view to characterizing them and determining the rare earth mineralization potentials. Pegmatite bodies which are zoned or poorly zoned occur as dykes trending N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE consisting dominantly of feldspar-quartz, feldspar-quartz-mica, and feldspar-mica-quartz, respectively. Trace elements concentration in the Na-rich and K-rich feldspars is such that Rb > Ba > Sr > Pb > Ga and the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high contents of Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs. The muscovite samples have enrichment pattern of Rb > Nb > Sn > Gn > Ta > Cs: each of the elements has concentration values that are higher than those in either the K-rich or Na-rich feldspars suggesting that muscovite and to a lesser extent feldspars, are the possible carriers of Ta, Sn and REE that are associated with the pegmatite bodies in the Lokoja area. The mineralogy and composition of the pegmatite bodies are indicative of post tectonic anorogenic acidic igneous protolith which underwent alkali metasomatism involving selective enrichment of trace elements and REE, fractionation and rock-fluid interactions.

  19. Seismic imaging of arc magma and fluids under the central part of northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Akira; Zhao, Dapeng

    2001-11-01

    A dense seismic network was temporarily deployed during 1997-1999 in the central part of northeastern Japan by Japanese university research groups. Using the local earthquake arrival time data recorded by the network, we have determined high-resolution three-dimensional images of P-wave velocity ( Vp), S-wave velocity ( Vs) and Vp/ Vs ratio in this area. Our results show that low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are extensively distributed in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front. In the lower crust, low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are visible but they are confined to the individual volcanic areas. In contrast, the upper crust of volcanic areas shows low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs rather than high Vp/ Vs. These observations suggest that partial melting materials exist in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front and they spread up to the midcrust of the volcanic areas. Low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs in the upper crust of the volcanic areas suggest the presence of H 2O (rather than melt) there. Deep low-frequency microearthquakes, perhaps caused by the rapid movement of fluids, are located mostly at the edge of partial melting zones, particularly at their upper surface. Distinct S-wave reflectors (bright spots) with large reflection coefficients are distributed in the midcrust with slightly low Vp/ Vs, suggesting that most of them are filled with H 2O.

  20. Stabilizing the Central Part of Tropomyosin Increases the Bending Stiffness of the Thin Filament

    PubMed Central

    Nabiev, Salavat R.; Ovsyannikov, Denis A.; Kopylova, Galina V.; Shchepkin, Daniil V.; Matyushenko, Alexander M.; Koubassova, Natalia A.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.; Tsaturyan, Andrey K.; Bershitsky, Sergey Y.

    2015-01-01

    A two-beam optical trap was used to measure the bending stiffness of F-actin and reconstructed thin filaments. A dumbbell was formed by a filament segment attached to two beads that were held in the two optical traps. One trap was static and held a bead used as a force transducer, whereas an acoustooptical deflector moved the beam holding the second bead, causing stretch of the dumbbell. The distance between the beads was measured using image analysis of micrographs. An exact solution to the problem of bending of an elastic filament attached to two beads and subjected to a stretch was used for data analysis. Substitution of noncanonical residues in the central part of tropomyosin with canonical ones, G126R and D137L, and especially their combination, caused an increase in the bending stiffness of the thin filaments. The data confirm that the ef