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Sample records for central hidroelectrica ingeniero

  1. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature.

  2. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  3. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  4. Centralize Printing, and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

  5. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... Catheters are used when you need medical treatment over a long period of time. For example, you ...

  6. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  7. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing—along with the removal of the NAC—is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  8. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Vittorio; D'Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; De Luca, Alessandro; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing-along with the removal of the NAC-is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  9. Organizational centralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have a radiology department, where images are taken and interpretation occurs. Teleradiology makes it possible to capture images in one location and transmit them elsewhere for interpretation. Organizational centralization of radiology interpretations is therefore of interest. Empirical data have been collected in qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons with substantial experience with picture archiving and communication systems and teleradiology, from 12 departments of radiology in Norway. The response rate was 90%. A total of 21 theoretically possible types of centralization of image interpretation were identified, representing combinations of three categories of geographical centralization, and seven categories of centralization according to function. Various advantages and disadvantages of centralization were identified. Organizational changes may be decisive for the future of teleradiology, but it may be wise to plan for change in small steps, since we know little about how broad future organizational changes based on teleradiology will be, or what will decide how far particular organizations will go. PMID:16438776

  10. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  11. ASNT central certification program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Robert W.; Snell, John R., Jr.

    1997-04-01

    The American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recently established a new central certification program. This program will allow individuals who meet the requirements to receive a 'portable' certificate. Augmenting the existing employer-based certification, this program will have significant impact on industries that may ultimately require nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel to have central certification. This paper explains show ASNT has structured central certification and when and how it will effect thermal/infrared thermography (T/IRT) personnel. The paper also discusses the industry specific certification process.

  12. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  13. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  14. [Central autonomic failures].

    PubMed

    Senard, Jean-Michel; Despas, Fabien; Pathak, Atul

    2012-11-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates the function of all body organs through both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers. Orthostatic hypotension is frequently observed in the course of central nervous system diseases including cortical (stroke, epilepsy, dementias), neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophies) and spinal cord diseases. In some cases, the mechanism of orthostatic hypotension associated with central nervous system diseases involves a dysfunction of peripheral ANS fibers.

  15. Balanced Centrality of Networks.

    PubMed

    Debono, Mark; Lauri, Josef; Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings. PMID:27437494

  16. Balanced Centrality of Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings. PMID:27437494

  17. Context: a central concept.

    PubMed

    Fantino, E

    2001-05-01

    Seminal research in several areas has underscored the central role played by context in the control of behavior. Landmark studies in classical conditioning (with both conditioned suppression and autoshaping procedures) and in conditioned reinforcement (using the observing paradigm) are reviewed. The role of context also proved central in the study of choice (including the matching law and delay-reduction theory). This latter work contributed to the development of experimental analogs to foraging behavior. Research on foraging has also highlighted the importance of context and has led to some counterintuitive predictions that are mediated by context.

  18. ORIC central region calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. Retiring the central executive.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  20. Retiring the central executive.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  1. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  2. Postexercise Hypotension: Central Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Yin; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    A single bout of exercise can lead to a postexercise decrease in blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, called postexercise hypotension. Compelling evidence suggests that the central baroreflex pathway plays a crucial role in the development of postexercise hypotension. This review focuses on the exercise-induced changes in brainstem nuclei involved in blood pressure regulation. PMID:20577060

  3. [CENTRAL ANTICHOLINERGIC... SYNDROME?].

    PubMed

    Danilov, M S; Lebedinskii, K M

    2015-01-01

    While reading special literature in diferent languages the authors noted surprising fact: the term and concept of "central anticholinergic syndrome" is well-known as common anaesthesia complication in German (abbr: ZAS) and partially Spanish sources, but in Russian, English or French literature is used only in toxicological context. Describing etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the complication manifesting with comatose, agitated or shivering forms, the authors analyzing the reasons for such a noticeably diferent approaches to the situation reaching 10% of all the general anaesthesia cases. Probably, ZAS isn't nosologically clearly defined syndrome, but just adverse appearance of one of the fundamental general anaesthesia mechanisms? Anyway, the problem of central cholinergic activity suppression, excessive by its amplitude and/or duration, exists all over the world. German concept of ZAS allows the anaesthesiologist to resolve it on pathogenically generalized basis, while in other professional communities various symptomatic approaches seem to be more common. PMID:27025142

  4. [Central apnea in newborns].

    PubMed

    van Putten, M J; Bosman-Vermeeren, J M; Brouwer, O F

    1999-02-27

    Three neonates had diverse kinds of central apnoea. The first child, a girl aged 3 weeks, had an upper respiratory tract infection caused by the respiratory syncytial virus; she was intubated and needed ventilatory support for three days. The second patient, a boy of 17 days, had an Arnold-Chiari-malformation with apnoeas treated with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide). The third patient, a boy of 5 days, had central apnoeas of epileptic origin and was treated with phenobarbital. All three recovered well. If in an infant with apnoeas no paediatric explanation is found, and the child is neurologically at risk, it is advisable to make an EEG to determine if an epileptic substrate is present, even in the absence of motor phenomena. PMID:10221119

  5. Central Mechanisms of Itch.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Earl; Akiyama, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent findings regarding the central transmission of acute and chronic itch. Itch is transduced by cutaneous pruriceptors that transmit signals to neurons in the superficial spinal cord. Spinal itch-signaling circuits utilize several neuropeptides whose receptors represent novel targets to block itch transmission. Itch is relieved by scratching, which activates spinal interneurons to inhibit itch-transmitting neurons. Spinal itch transmission is also thought to be modulated by descending pathways. Itch is transmitted rostrally via ascending pathways to activate a variety of brain regions involved in sensory discrimination of affective and motor responses to itch. The pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic itch are poorly understood but likely involve sensitization of itch-signaling pathways and/or dysfunction of itch-inhibitory circuits. Improved understanding of central itch mechanisms has identified a number of novel targets for the development of antipruritic treatment strategies. PMID:27578065

  6. Central Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of central Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) shows both coasts of the Florida peninsula with Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center readily visible in the center on the Atlantic coast. Other features on the Earth which are visible through the clouds include Tampa Bay, several lakes and the Gulf of Mexico on Florida's east coast. The space shuttle's tail fin and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are seen in the foreground.

  7. FNAL central email systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  8. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  9. Central respiratory chemoreception.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    By definition central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) are cells that are sensitive to changes in brain PCO(2) or pH and contribute to the stimulation of breathing elicited by hypercapnia or metabolic acidosis. CO(2) most likely works by lowering pH. The pertinent proton receptors have not been identified and may be ion channels. CRCs are probably neurons but may also include acid-sensitive glia and vascular cells that communicate with neurons via paracrine mechanisms. Retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) neurons are the most completely characterized CRCs. Their high sensitivity to CO(2) in vivo presumably relies on their intrinsic acid sensitivity, excitatory inputs from the carotid bodies and brain regions such as raphe and hypothalamus, and facilitating influences from neighboring astrocytes. RTN neurons are necessary for the respiratory network to respond to CO(2) during the perinatal period and under anesthesia. In conscious adults, RTN neurons contribute to an unknown degree to the pH-dependent regulation of breathing rate, inspiratory, and expiratory activity. The abnormal prenatal development of RTN neurons probably contributes to the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Other CRCs presumably exist, but the supportive evidence is less complete. The proposed locations of these CRCs are the medullary raphe, the nucleus tractus solitarius, the ventrolateral medulla, the fastigial nucleus, and the hypothalamus. Several wake-promoting systems (serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurons, orexinergic neurons) are also putative CRCs. Their contribution to central respiratory chemoreception may be behavior dependent or vary according to the state of vigilance. PMID:20737591

  10. Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair and "Puller Hall" sign - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Central effects of fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  12. Central hypothyroidism in children.

    PubMed

    García, Marta; Fernández, Ana; Moreno, José C

    2014-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is an underdiagnosed disorder poorly described in childhood and adolescence. Congenital defects in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis, secretion or bioactivity may lead to a state of 'regulatory' hypothyroidism expressed through aberrantly low or normal TSH levels and low thyroxine (T4), a hormonal pattern undetectable by TSH-based neonatal screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) implemented in most countries worldwide. CCH is more prevalent than previously thought, reaching 1 in 16,000 neonates in countries consistently identifying CCH through T4-based CH screening strategies. Neonatal detection and early treatment of CCH would prevent the risk of developing mental retardation secondary to late diagnosis of infantile hypothyroidism. CCH is frequently associated with other pituitary defects causing life-threatening situations (like e.g. adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency) which could benefit from the early detection of CCH, avoiding considerable morbidity and mortality. CCH is not easy to identify clinically, and therefore few children are investigated for the disorder. The current knowledge on the genetic bases of CCH is also scarce. At the hypothalamic level no gene defects causing CCH have yet been identified in humans, but pituitary (thyrotrope)-selective genes encoding the TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRHR), the TSH β-subunit (TSHB) and, recently, the immunoglobulin superfamily factor 1 (IGSF1) are genes involved in isolated central hypothyroidism. Moreover, central hypothyroidism is a complex condition where many regulatory signals are implicated and converge to finely modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This review focuses on novel pathogenic mechanisms and their implications to understand human CCH and improve the identification and the therapeutic handling of this elusive disease in the pediatric age. PMID:25231446

  13. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Central receiver technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, R.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The research and development described in this document was conducted within the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The goal of this program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options for introduction into the competitive energy market. This report describes central receiver technology: its accomplishments to date, its current technology status, and the efforts still necessary to fully exploit it.

  17. [Central anticholinergic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fernández Urretavizcaya, P; Cenoz Osinaga, J C; Jáuregui Garía, M L; Gállego Culleré, J

    1991-10-01

    Two new cases of anticolinergic central syndrome are described. The first case, a 8 year old girl, suffered a severe encefalopathy after topical application of mydriatic cholirio as an aid in a rutine study of ocular refraction. The second case, 67 year old man presented a severe neurological picture after accidental intake of a silvester plantground (Atropa belladonna). His neurological condition returned quickly to normal whith administration of physostigmine. Differents aspects of the etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis are discussed with special emphasis in patients with delirium or acute confusional states. Finally, attention is drawn in the necessity of a properly use of anticholinergic drugs overcoat in aged or children.

  18. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Physiology of central pathways.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K E

    2016-01-01

    The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement. Similarly, relatively direct pathways between the labyrinth and spinal cord control vestibulospinal reflexes. A second distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that the first stage of central processing is strongly multimodal. This is because the vestibular nuclei receive inputs from a wide range of cortical, cerebellar, and other brainstem structures in addition to direct inputs from the vestibular nerve. Recent studies in alert animals have established how extravestibular signals shape these "simple" reflexes to meet the needs of current behavioral goal. Moreover, multimodal interactions at higher levels, such as the vestibular cerebellum, thalamus, and cortex, play a vital role in ensuring accurate self-motion and spatial orientation perception. PMID:27638060

  1. Sucker rod centralizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  2. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  3. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  4. Central vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Marianne

    2007-05-01

    Dizziness or vertigo is an erroneous perception of selfmotion or object-motion as well as an unpleasant distortion of static gravitational orientation. It is caused by a mismatch between the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems. Thanks to their functional overlap, the three systems are able to compensate, in part, for each other's deficiencies. Thus, vertigo is not a well-defined disease entity, but rather a multisensory syndrome that results when there is a pathological dysfunction of any of the stabilizing sensory systems (e.g., central vestibular disorders, peripheral vestibular diseases with asymmetric input into the vestibular nuclei). This article provides an overview of the most important and frequent forms of central vestibular vertigo syndromes, including basilar/vestibular migraine, which are characterized by ocular motor, postural, and perceptual signs. In a simple clinical classification they can be separated according to the three major planes of action of the vestibulo-ocular reflex: yaw, roll, and pitch. A tonic imbalance in yaw is characterized by horizontal nystagmus, lateropulsion of the eyes, past-pointing, rotational and lateral body falls, and lateral deviation of the perceived straight-ahead. A tonic imbalance in roll is defined by torsional nystagmus, skew deviation, ocular torsion, tilts of head, body, and the perceived vertical. Finally, a tonic imbalance in pitch can be characterized by some forms of upbeat or downbeat nystagmus, fore-aft tilts and falls, and vertical deviation of the perceived straight ahead. The thus defined syndromes allow for a precise topographic diagnosis as regards their level and side.

  5. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  6. [MANAGEMENT OF CENTRAL HYPERSOMNIAS].

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Lopez, Régis

    2016-06-01

    Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom. The treatment of daytime sleepiness is based on modafinil in first intention. Other psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and exceptionally dextro-amfetamine may be considered. In narcolepsy type 1, antidepressants such as inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline will be considered to improve cataplexy. Sodium oxybate is an effective treatment on sleepiness, cataplexy and bad night sleep in narcolepsy. The management for other symptoms or comorbidities should be considered it necessary such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, the disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Important therapeutic perspectives are to be expected concerning new psychostimulant and anticataplectiques, but mainly on immune-based therapies administered as early as possible after disease onset and on hypocretin replacement therapy for patients with severe symptoms. PMID:27538329

  7. Central Nervous System Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Mahley, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is primarily responsible for lipid transport and cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Normally produced mostly by astrocytes, apoE is also produced under neuropathologic conditions by neurons. ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is critical in redistributing cholesterol and phospholipids for membrane repair and remodeling. The 3 main structural isoforms differ in their effectiveness. Unlike apoE2 and apoE3, apoE4 has markedly altered CNS metabolism, is associated with Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, and is expressed at lower levels in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. ApoE4-expressing cultured astrocytes and neurons have reduced cholesterol and phospholipid secretion, decreased lipid-binding capacity, and increased intracellular degradation. Two structural features are responsible for apoE4 dysfunction: domain interaction, in which arginine-61 interacts ionically with glutamic acid-255, and a less stable conformation than apoE3 and apoE2. Blocking domain interaction by gene targeting (replacing arginine-61 with threonine) or by small-molecule structure correctors increases CNS apoE4 levels and lipid-binding capacity and decreases intracellular degradation. Small molecules (drugs) that disrupt domain interaction, so-called structure correctors, could prevent the apoE4-associated neuropathology by blocking the formation of neurotoxic fragments. Understanding how to modulate CNS cholesterol transport and metabolism is providing important insights into CNS health and disease. PMID:27174096

  8. Central nervous system stimulants.

    PubMed

    George, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes marked behavioural change and sometimes psychosis. Major sports abusing amphetamine are cycling, American football, ice-hockey and baseball. Cocaine increases tolerance to intense exercise, yet most of its chronic effects on energy metabolism are negative. Its greatest effects seem to be as a central stimulant and the enhancement of short-term anaerobic exercise. It is highly addictive and can cause cerebral and cardiovascular fatalities. Caffeine enhances fatty acid metabolism leading to glucose conservation, which appears to benefit long-distance endurance events such as skiing. Caffeine is also addictive, and chronic abuse can lead to cardiac damage. Social abuse of each of the three drugs is often difficult to distinguish from their abuse in sport.

  9. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  11. Central American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence and profile of Central American grandparents raising grandchildren in the United States of America. Using nationally representative data from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, Central American grandparent caregivers are compared with their noncare-giving peers. Results indicate that nationally an estimated…

  12. Central control of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  13. Central control of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  14. Central control of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  15. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by

  16. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  17. Central chemoreceptors: locations and functions.

    PubMed

    Nattie, Eugene; Li, Aihua

    2012-01-01

    Central chemoreception traditionally refers to a change in ventilation attributable to changes in CO2/H(+) detected within the brain. Interest in central chemoreception has grown substantially since the previous Handbook of Physiology published in 1986. Initially, central chemoreception was localized to areas on the ventral medullary surface, a hypothesis complemented by the recent identification of neurons with specific phenotypes near one of these areas as putative chemoreceptor cells. However, there is substantial evidence that many sites participate in central chemoreception some located at a distance from the ventral medulla. Functionally, central chemoreception, via the sensing of brain interstitial fluid H(+), serves to detect and integrate information on (i) alveolar ventilation (arterial PCO2), (ii) brain blood flow and metabolism, and (iii) acid-base balance, and, in response, can affect breathing, airway resistance, blood pressure (sympathetic tone), and arousal. In addition, central chemoreception provides a tonic "drive" (source of excitation) at the normal, baseline PCO2 level that maintains a degree of functional connectivity among brainstem respiratory neurons necessary to produce eupneic breathing. Central chemoreception responds to small variations in PCO2 to regulate normal gas exchange and to large changes in PCO2 to minimize acid-base changes. Central chemoreceptor sites vary in function with sex and with development. From an evolutionary perspective, central chemoreception grew out of the demands posed by air versus water breathing, homeothermy, sleep, optimization of the work of breathing with the "ideal" arterial PCO2, and the maintenance of the appropriate pH at 37°C for optimal protein structure and function.

  18. Central Chemoreceptors: Locations and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nattie, Eugene; Li, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Central chemoreception traditionally refers to a change in ventilation attributable to changes in CO2/H+ detected within the brain. Interest in central chemoreception has grown substantially since the previous Handbook of Physiology published in 1986. Initially, central chemoreception was localized to areas on the ventral medullary surface, a hypothesis complemented by the recent identification of neurons with specific phenotypes near one of these areas as putative chemoreceptor cells. However, there is substantial evidence that many sites participate in central chemoreception some located at a distance from the ventral medulla. Functionally, central chemoreception, via the sensing of brain interstitial fluid H+, serves to detect and integrate information on 1) alveolar ventilation (arterial PCO2), 2) brain blood flow and metabolism and 3) acid-base balance, and, in response, can affect breathing, airway resistance, blood pressure (sympathetic tone) and arousal. In addition, central chemoreception provides a tonic ‘drive’ (source of excitation) at the normal, baseline PCO2 level that maintains a degree of functional connectivity among brainstem respiratory neurons necessary to produce eupneic breathing. Central chemoreception responds to small variations in PCO2 to regulate normal gas exchange and to large changes in PCO2 to minimize acid-base changes. Central chemoreceptor sites vary in function with sex and with development. From an evolutionary perspective, central chemoreception grew out of the demands posed by air vs. water breathing, homeothermy, sleep, optimization of the work of breathing with the ‘ideal’ arterial PCO2, and the maintenance of the appropriate pH at 37°C for optimal protein structure and function. PMID:23728974

  19. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  20. IUE observations of central stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    IUE satellite data on sixty galactic planetary nebulae (PN) and three PNs in the Magellanic clouds are examined to establish a mass distribution among the central star types. An evolutionary lineage was determined for the observed central stars, based on UV magnitudes, demonstrating that central stars in optically thin nebulae have a narrow distribution around 0.58 solar mass, whereas stars in optically thick nebulae exhibited the highest masses of the sample, implying that highest mass stars in PN are the most difficult to detect. No definitive correlation was found between the mass of an object and its spectral type.

  1. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  2. Cytoclasmosis in central lymph production.

    PubMed

    Shields, J W

    1979-06-01

    Electron microscopic observations and ancillary data are reviewed to show that lymphatic organs produce quantities of central lymph by releasing cytoplasm-depleted cells into colloidal hydrosols produced by cell fragmentation (cytoclasmosis).

  3. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  4. Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

  5. Central cementifying fibroma of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Mosavat, Farzaneh; Jalalian, Faranak; Rashidipoor, Roghayeh

    2013-01-01

    Central cementifying fibroma is a bony tumor, which is believed to be derived from the cells of the periodontal ligament. Central cemento-ossifying fibroma behaves like, a benign bone neoplasm. This bone tumor consists of highly cellular, fibrous tissue that contains varying amounts of calcified tissue resembling bone, cementum, or both. Central cemento-ossifying fibromas of the mandible are common; however, they are rare in the maxilla region. This tumor is most frequent between 35 and 40 years of ages. In this report we have described a 37-year-old male with cemento-ossifying fibroma of the maxilla region with the mass that had been appeared 2-3 months prior to his first referral. Radiologic imaging such as intra-oral, panoramic, and Cone Beam CT had been performed. Histological analysis was done and finally diagnosis of central cementifying fibroma was made. The postoperative follow up at 12 months revealed no recurrence. PMID:23878576

  6. Central-Office Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  8. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  9. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  10. Georgiaites: Tektites in Central Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about the origin, the features, and the availability of tektites which are odd and very rare types of transparent glass theorized to be from a common, yet unknown, origin. The basis for this article is the Howard collection of tektites found in a small region of central Georgia. (seven references) (JJK)

  11. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the PICC through the needle into a larger (central) vein, putting its tip near (but not in) the heart. Take an x-ray to place the needle. Remove the needle after the catheter is placed. WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF HAVING ...

  12. Central Auditory Function in Stutterers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James W.; Jerger, James

    1978-01-01

    Central auditory function was assessed in 10 stutterers and 10 nonstutterers between the ages of 10 and 35 years, and the performance of the two groups compared for seven audiometric procedures, including acoustic reflex threshold and acoustic reflex amplitude function. (Author)

  13. ACT: Acting Out Central Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Joan Duff

    1982-01-01

    The author describes ACT (Acting Out Central Theme), a method for dealing with psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains in slow readers. The ACT approach involves three sessions which focus on discussion of a theme such as friendship, presentaton of the theme as a skit, and assignment of topics to individual students. (SW)

  14. Investing in the Central Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Regis Anne

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking against similar districts, ideally higher-performing ones, can be a valuable tool for determining the appropriate level of central-office investment. Unfortunately, reliable benchmarks on district spending in teaching and learning support are not readily available. This should not preclude districts from using this valuable method to…

  15. Readability of Central Florida Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Phyllis M.

    A study analyzed the readability of seven central Florida newspapers (one of which is a college newspaper) and "USA Today.""Rightwriter," a grammar checker and readability computer program, was used to evaluate front page articles for each of the eight newspapers. The readability formulas invoked in the readability program included the…

  16. Central New York's New Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  17. Central Libraries in Uncertain Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses security and safety issues for public libraries, especially high-profile central facilities, in light of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Highlights include inspecting bags as patrons enter as well as exit; the need for security guidelines for any type of disaster or emergency; building design; and the importance of communication.…

  18. Central California Action Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortor, Maia, Comp.

    The overall goal of the Central California Action Associates Inc. (CCAA) program is to provide basic education and pre-vocational training so that migrant and seasonal adult farm workers will be able to upgrade their economic and social lives. Without increased educational attainment, the San Joaquin Valley farm workers face a grim future because…

  19. Despair at the Central Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewel, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    The psychological fallout of school restructuring can paralyze central office staff. Superintendents need effective incentives to keep people engaged in organization-building. They must create a trusting, risk-taking environment, develop a shared mission, empower staff to make decisions, provide learning opportunities, afford professional…

  20. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  1. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

  2. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  3. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    PubMed Central

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  4. Public water supplies in central and north-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Broadhurst, W.L.; Dwyer, B.C.

    1949-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 35 counties of central and north-central Texas, extending from the southern boundaries of Travis, Blanco, Gillespie, and Kerr Counties northward to the TexasOklahoma State line. It gives the available data as follows for each of the 145 communities: Population of the community; name of the official from whom the information was obtained; ownership of water works, whether private or municipal source of supply, whether ground water or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment, if any; and chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used, the following is also given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yields of the wells, and records of water levels, if available.

  5. A centralized audio presentation manager

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  6. Bedrock topography of central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) generally is ovelain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, comprised of glacial till and glacial outwash, varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet; the alluvium in central Iowa varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet. The configuration of the bedrock suface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 10 county area in central Iowa, is the seventh of a series of 9 reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock surface of Iowa. 

  7. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment's Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at √ {s} = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two-pion mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudorapidity |η| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy √ {s} = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging system are presented. Also a possible addition of the RPs to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  8. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity | | < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  9. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  10. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  11. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.H.; Neubauer, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Weems, L.; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  12. Tectonics of the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Fielding, Eric J.; Fox, Andrew N.; Gubbels, Timothy L.

    1989-01-01

    Acquisition of nearly complete coverage of Thematic Mapper data for the central Andes between about 15 to 34 degrees S has stimulated a comprehensive and unprecedented study of the interaction of tectonics and climate in a young and actively developing major continental mountain belt. The current state of the synoptic mapping of key physiographic, tectonic, and climatic indicators of the dynamics of the mountain/climate system are briefly reviewed.

  13. Geochronology Database for Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Evans, K.V.; deWitt, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and some unpublished isotopic and fission track age determinations in central Colorado. The compiled area extends from the southern Wyoming border to the northern New Mexico border and from approximately the longitude of Denver on the east to Gunnison on the west. Data for the tephrochronology of Pleistocene volcanic ash, carbon-14, Pb-alpha, common-lead, and U-Pb determinations on uranium ore minerals have been excluded.

  14. Celtic Sites of Central Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Manuel

    This chapter concerns the astronomy practiced by Celtic peoples in some parts of central Iberia, specifically the Vetton and Celtiberian peoples, inhabitants of the so-called Late Iron Age. The construction of some elements of religion or worship was perfectly determined by geometry, topography, and especially astronomy, because their spatial orientation occurs in locations of great interest for maintaining the local calendar. The maintenance of this calendar was probably the primary objective of some of the elements studied.

  15. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  16. Central vascular catheter infections in a Hospital of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Silvia; Scutell, Massimiliano; Felice, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Giulio, Mara; Cellini, Luigina

    2014-01-01

    The insertion and the permanence of central venous catheters (CVC) represent potential sources of infection contracted in hospital. The evaluation of the risk of CVC-associated infections was evaluated in a retrospective study during the period 2007-2010 in a Hospital of Central Italy. A total of 514 CVC were collected and examined by microbiological techniques and, among the examined patients, 450 CVC blood cultures were collected. Cultures were performed collecting a portion of 5-6 cm of intravenous catheters in liquid medium and spread on selective media for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts; blood specimens were obtained through peripheral venous punctures and analyzed by a commercial automated system. 308/514 (59.90%) samples were positive to the microbiological culture. Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the prevalent Gram-positive bacteria. Among Gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae were the main bacteria isolated. A higher prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria was observed in Neonatal Pathology (90.90%). The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) showed 73.10% of positive cultures with 54.12% of Gram-positive isolates. Among positive blood cultures (38%), Gram-positive bacteria were the main bacteria isolated. The high prevalence of catheter-related infections requires accurate surveillance and the assumption of preventive measures in particular during catheter insertion. PMID:24531170

  17. Genetics Home Reference: congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... central hypoventilation syndrome: PHOX2B genotype determines risk for sudden death. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008 Jan;43(1):77-86. ... Rand CM. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): kindred disorders of autonomic regulation. Respir ...

  18. Central Nervous System Device Infections.

    PubMed

    Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-11-01

    Nosocomial meningitis can occur in association with central nervous system (CNS) devices such as cerebrospinal shunts or drains, intrathecal pumps, and deep brain stimulators and carry substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosing and treating these infections may be challenging to physicians as cerebrospinal fluid cultures may be negative due to previous antibiotic therapy and cerebrospinal abnormalities may be secondary to the primary neurosurgical issue that prompted the placement of the CNS device (e.g., "chemical meningitis" due to intracranial hemorrhage). Besides antibiotic therapy given intravenously and sometimes intrathecally, removal of the device with repeat cultures prior to re-implantation is key in achieving successful outcomes. PMID:27686676

  19. Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A final progress report is presented on the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS). The primary purpose of the CSIS is to demonstrate and evaluate real time interactive computerized data collection, interpretation and display techniques as applied to severe weather forecasting. CSIS objectives pertaining to improved severe storm forecasting and warning systems are outlined. The positive impact that CSIS has had on the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is discussed. The benefits of interactive processing systems on the forecasting ability of the NSSFC are described.

  20. Central Nebraska river basins Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, Thomas L.; Ellis, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Nebraska Basins (NAWQA) study unit includes the Platte River and two major tributaries, the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers. Platte River flows are variable of diversions, but the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers originate in an area of dune sand covered by grassland that generates consistent base flows. Ground water has no regional confining units and the system is a water table aquifer throughout. Macroinvertebrate and fish taxa were related to stream flow. One of the four wetland complexes includes habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. A water quality assessments will be based on the differences in environmental setting in each of four subunits within the study unit.

  1. (Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CRDO))

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J

    1987-04-21

    One of the primary goals of the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is to be an international focal point for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) data. During FY-1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Specific Memorandum of Agreement (SMA) with Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) regarding cooperative data exchange efforts. This agreement was CREDO's first step toward internationalization and represented an initial realization of the previously mentioned goal. DOE's interest in further internationalization of the CREDO system was the primary motivation for the traveler's attendance at the Reliability '87 conference.

  2. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  3. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOEpatents

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  4. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    SciTech Connect

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  5. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  6. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  7. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  8. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  9. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  10. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-09-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  11. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity | |more » < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.« less

  12. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  13. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  14. Geothermal initiatives in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Hanold, R.J.; Loose, V.W.; Laughlin, A.W.; Wade, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development is supporting a new project in energy and resources exploitation for Central America. One of the largest components of the project involves exploration and reservoir development investigations directed at enhancing the production of electricity from the region's geothermal resources. An assessment of the geothermal resources of Honduras is in progress, and interesting geothermal regions in the Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica are being explored. Well-logging activities are in progress in the production wells at the Miravalles geothermal field in Costa Rica, and preparations are being made for logging critical wells at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. A self-contained logging truck, complete with high-temperature logging cable and logging tools designed for geothermal service, is being fabricated and will be made available for dedicated use throughout Central America. Geochemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected in Panama are being evaluated to select a high-priority geothermal site in that country. Application of low- and medium-enthalpy geothermal fluids for industrial and agricultural processes is being investigated in Guatemala.

  15. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  16. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  17. Rotavirus vaccination in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Mészner, Zsófia; Anca, Ioana; André, Francis; Chlibek, Roman; Čižman, Milan; Grzesiowski, Paweł; Mangarov, Atanas; Pokorn, Marko; Prymula, Roman; Richter, Darko; Salman, Nuran; Šimurka, Pavol; Tamm, Eda; Tešović, Goran; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Usonis, Vytautas; Zavadska, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Each year, rotavirus (RV) infection is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalisation and of nosocomially transmitted diseases in children younger than 5 years across Central European Vaccination Awareness Group (CEVAG) countries; however, inadequate surveillance systems and lack of routine RV testing still exist in most CEVAG countries, making it difficult to accurately assess the present burden of acute RV gastroenteritis in the younger population. Furthermore, routine immunisation of infants with RV vaccines has not been implemented, and no official and uniform recommendations exist in most of the countries in these territories. The present study provides CEVAG country-specific estimates of the disease burden of RV gastroenteritis among the youngest population and presents evidence-based advice on the use of RV vaccines in the region, while providing a framework for vaccination at the national level.

  18. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  19. Wooden Calendars from Central Rhodopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, V.

    2008-10-01

    Four wooden calendars from the village of Polkovnik Serafimovo, Smolyan region, in the Central Rhodopes are presented here, and three of them - for the first time. The shape and size, the kind of the signs and structure of the calendar record bear the characteristic features of the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The short notches on the edges represent the days of the year in the Julian (solar) calendar. The special signs on the sides mark the fixed festivals of the Orthodox Church calendar and are also influenced by the local tradition. The type of the signs confirms that the wooden sticks belong to the group of calendars from the Central Rhodopes. According to the beginning date of the calendar record on the sticks, two of the calendars are of the April (May) or October (November) type which corresponds to the very popular economic division of the year in the folk calendar into two periods -- warm and cold. The other two sticks, which are very similar to each other, make an exception in this respect among the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The months are divided into four groups (seasons) on each of the four edges of the stick (only one calendar from Burgas region has the same structure). The most interesting thing about the two sticks is that this is the only case among all known Bulgarian calendars that the beginning of the calendar record coincides with the beginning of the civil year on 1st January (January type) like some wooden calendars from Western Europe. Nowadays it is getting harder and harder to find wooden calendars in Bulgaria and in the neighbouring Balkan countries. The thorough knowledge about them could be helpful in various scientific fields, e.g. history of religion, ethnology, history of astronomy and mathematics, as well as semiotics.

  20. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  1. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by

  2. Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Jasmine Kaur; Chalana, Harsh

    2011-09-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus mostly presents with polydipsia and polyuria but may also present with confusion, psychosis, seizure or coma. We present a case of Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms. A 21 year old Indian male had Central Diabetes Insipidus, which was confirmed by water deprivation test. He presented to our hospital with full blown manic symptoms meeting the ICD 10 criteria. He was managed with intranasal Desmopressin, water restriction and Olanzapine. In contrary to routine psychiatric patients which may present with psychogenic polydipsia or Central Diabetes Insipidus patients presenting in delirium or psychosis, our case presents a unique example of Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms. It hints about a relationship between a common pathway for Central Diabetes Insipidus and mood disorders which needs further research. Diencephalon has already been the focus of attention for several researchers but no concrete evidence is available yet. PMID:23051126

  3. Starling curves and central venous pressure.

    PubMed

    Berlin, David A; Bakker, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies challenge the utility of central venous pressure monitoring as a surrogate for cardiac preload. Starting with Starling's original studies on the regulation of cardiac output, this review traces the history of the experiments that elucidated the role of central venous pressure in circulatory physiology. Central venous pressure is an important physiologic parameter, but it is not an independent variable that determines cardiac output. PMID:25880040

  4. Properties of the Central American cold surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.; Reding, Philip J.; Zhang, Yuxia

    1993-01-01

    The Central American cold surge (CACS) is a frontal incursion from the United States into Central America and resembles the East Asian cold surge. They occur more frequently than analyzed by NMC or by published results, based on our observations between 1979 and 1990. Climatology and structure are quantified, based on surface and upper air stations throughout Central America and satellite products from GOES visible and infrared sensors and SSM/I precipitable water and rain rate sensors.

  5. Geology of central Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Wold, R.J.; Paull, R.A.; Wolosin, C.A.; Friedel, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    The geology beneath Lake Michigan between 43/sup 0/00' and 44/sup 0/00'N and between 86/sup 0/30' and 87/sup 0/40' W is interpreted from a synthesis of 1,700 km of continuous seismic reflection profile data, bathymetry, grab samples, and onshore surface and subsurface information. The continuous seismic reflection profiles and bathymetry provided information for maps of unconsolidated sediment thickness and Paleozoic bedrock topography. Two structural-stratigraphic cross sections of the study area were constructed by utilizing a composite subsurface-surface section for eastern Wisconsin and two control wells in western Michigan. The cross sections, grab samples previously described in the literature, the bedrock topographic map, and published maps were used to construct a Paleozoic geologic map for central Lake Michigan. Rocks from Middle Silurian through Early Mississippian age form subcrops beneath the study area, whereas rocks of Early Silurian, Ordovician, and Late Cambrian age are present at greater depth. The Upper Cambrian rocks unconformably overlie Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks. The structural-stratigraphic cross sections also allow speculation about the petroleum potential beneath Lake Michigan. The possibility of oil occurrences within the Silurian is enhanced by major east-west facies changes, and other horizons with promise are present in Devonian and Ordovician rocks. Although Michigan and Wisconsin laws currently prohibit petroleum exploration in Lake Michigan, it is an area with future potential.

  6. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  7. A Central Theory of Biology

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The history of physiologic cellular–molecular interrelationships can be traced all the way back to the unicellular state by following the pathway formed by lipids ubiquitously accommodating calcium homeostasis, and its consequent adaptive effects on oxygen uptake by cells, tissues and organs. As a result, a cohesive, mechanistically integrated view of physiology can be formulated by recognizing the continuum comprising conception, development, physiologic homeostasis and death mediated by soluble growth factor signaling. Seeing such seemingly disparate processes as embryogenesis, chronic disease and dying as the gain and subsequent loss of cell–cell signaling provides a novel perspective for physiology and medicine. It is emblematic of the self-organizing, self-referential nature of life, starting from its origins. Such organizing principles obviate the pitfalls of teleologic evolution, conversely providing a way of resolving such seeming dichotomies as holism and reductionism, genotype and phenotype, emergence and contingence, proximate and ultimate causation in evolution, cells and organisms. The proposed approach is scale-free and predictive, offering a Central Theory of Biology. PMID:25911556

  8. Maximal switchability of centralized networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2016-08-01

    We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.

  9. Plague in Central Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. E.; Hudson, B. W.; Turner, R. W.; Saroso, J. Sulianti; Cavanaugh, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Plague in man occurred from 1968 to 1970 in mountain villages of the Boyolali Regency in Central Java. Infected fleas, infected rats, and seropositive rats were collected in villages with human plague cases. Subsequent isolations of Yersinia pestis and seropositive rodents, detected during investigations of rodent plague undertaken by the Government of Indonesia and the WHO, attested to the persistence of plague in the region from 1972 to 1974. Since 1968, the incidence of both rodent and human plague has been greatest from December to May at elevations over 1000 m. Isolations of Y. pestis were obtained from the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis and Stivalius cognatus and the rats Rattus rattus diardii and R. exulans ephippium. The major risk to man has been fleas infected with Y. pestis of unique electrophoretic phenotype. Infected fleas were collected most often in houses. Introduced in 1920, rodent plague had persisted in the Boyolali Regency for at least 54 years. The recent data support specific requirements for continued plague surveillance. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:6968252

  10. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhunov, I.; Andreeva, J.; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P.

    2014-06-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required; They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  11. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunov, I.; Andreeva, J.; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P.

    2014-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required, They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  12. [Thromboembolic prophylaxis and central blocks].

    PubMed

    Vincenti, E

    2001-09-01

    Epidural and spinal blocks are widely used in several surgical settings in order to obtain analgesic advantages and reduce blood loss and thromboembolic complications. However, many high risk patients receive perioperatively some anti-coagulant treatments for preventing venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Although a number of large observations has demonstrated a very low rate of major neurological impairment due to spinal haematomas, in the last years an increasing number of case reports seems to cause an excessive anxiety to the anaesthesiologists. On the other hand, spinal haematomas occurred in same cases without anti-coagulant therapy. An other question concerns the onset time from an epidural/spinal puncture and the development of neurological symptoms of spinal compression, which may appear even after days or weeks. Female gender, aged patients, vascular surgery, uncontrolled positions on the table, number of spinal punctures, large gauge of needle and low degree of skill are the main factors involving in the haemorrhagic phenomena around spinal cord. Accurate anamnesis, no anti-coagulant medication before surgery, and a perfect technique of managing spinal/epidural block are essential elements for reducing probability of severe bleeding and consequent expansive haematomas. Also, informed consent of patients and careful judgement of advantages vs risks of a central block for every high risk case determine the final decision about the regional anaesthesia: to do or not to do.

  13. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced.

  14. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  15. Children in Central America: Victims of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstrom, Anitha

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the armed conflicts in Central America and their influence on civilian populations. Discusses the psychosocial consequences and therapeutic considerations of warfare, displacement and refuge for children. (RJC)

  16. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced. PMID:24089967

  17. The deglaciation of Central Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    'Central Scandinavia' extends from the Norwegian coast across the Helgeland Nappe Complex to the Caledonide thrust front in Sweden (Faulkner, 2005, who studied the effects of Weichselian deglaciation on the speleogenesis of ~1000 local Caledonide marble caves). Deglaciation was driven by two summer heat fluxes: warming by the sea as it encroached up fjords and caused the icesheet margin to retreat eastwards (accompanied by deglacial seismicity) and direct solar warming that caused the icesheet to ablate from its upper surface (Grønlie, 1975; Mörner, 1979; Andersen and Karlsen, 1986; Sørensen et al., 1987; Mangerud, 1991; Bergstrøm, 1995). The melting height followed an empirical parabolic time relationship (H=0.75t2: Grønlie, 1975), based on many geomorphological observations. Faulkner (2005) reconstructed the Grønlie formula using information about the Younger Dryas (YD) isostatic uplift that increased inland as: H=1700+5(YD isobase-220)-0.75x10-4x(13500-t)2 m, where t=14Ca BP. Deglaciation was modelled by drawing deglacial maps at c. 300a intervals that show the advance of the sea, the recession of the icesheet margin, the synchronous thinning of the icesheet, and the evolution of ice-dammed lakes (IDLs), after the ice began to melt vigorously in the Bølling interstadial below the present 1700m altitude (at the 220m YD isobase at Børgefjell) that was already ice-free. After c. 11ka BP, the melting height lowered at roughly 0.5ma-1 at all isobases. The formula agrees with many marine dates to within 300a in the central and northern part of the area, but downwasting by calving was much faster along the coast, as the sea submerged large areas of the isostatically-depressed strandflat. Across the Swedish border, there is evidence that large IDLs and glaciers remained longer than predicted. Most of the area was systematically flooded by glacial meltwater for periods of 800-120014Ca during deglaciation as local IDLs lowered and coalesced (commonly at j

  18. Historical Seismicity of Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.

    2013-05-01

    Central Panama lies in the Panama microplate, neighboring seismically active regions of Costa Rica and Colombia. This region, crossed by the Panama Canal, concentrates most of the population and economic activity of the Republic of Panama. Instrumental observation of earthquakes in Panama began on 1882 by the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique de Panama and continued from 1904 to 1977 by the Panama Canal Company. From October 1997 to March 1998 the USGS deployed a temporary digital seismic network. Since 2003 this region is monitored by a digital seismic network operated by the Panama Canal Authority and I complemented by the broad band stations of the University of Panama seismic network. The seismicity in this region is very diffuse and the few events which are recorded have magnitudes less than 3.0. Historical archives and antique newspapers from Spain, Colombia, Panama and the United Sates have been searched looking for historical earthquake information which could provide a better estimate of the seismicity in this region. We find that Panama City has been shaken by two destructive earthquakes in historical times. One by a local fault (i.e. Pedro Miguel fault) on May 2, 1621 (I=Vlll MM), and a subduction event from the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB) on September 7, 1882 (I=Vll MM). To test these findings two earthquakes scenarios were generated, using SELENA, for Panama City Old Quarter. Panama City was rebuilt on January 21, 1673, on a rocky point facing the Pacific Ocean after the sack by pirate Morgan on January 28, 1671. The pattern of damage to calicanto (unreinforced colonial masonry) and wood structures for a crustal local event are higher than those for an event from the NPDB and seem to confirm that the city has not been shaken by a major local event since May 2, 1621 and a subduction event since September 7, 1882

  19. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Sengor, A.M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  20. Centralization and directional preference: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    May, Stephen; Aina, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    Centralization is a symptom response to repeated movements that can be used to classify patients into sub-groups, determine appropriate management strategies, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature relating to centralization and directional preference, and specifically report on prevalence, prognostic validity, reliability, loading strategies, and diagnostic implications. Search was conducted to June 2011; multiple study designs were considered. 62 studies were included in the review; 54 related to centralization and 8 to directional preference. The prevalence of centralization was 44.4% (range 11%-89%) in 4745 patients with back and neck pain in 29 studies; it was more prevalent in acute (74%) than sub-acute or chronic (42%) symptoms. The prevalence of directional preference was 70% (range 60%-78%) in 2368 patients with back or neck pain in 5 studies. Twenty-one of 23 studies supported the prognostic validity of centralization, including 3 high quality studies and 4 of moderate quality; whereas 2 moderate quality studies showed evidence that did not support the prognostic validity of centralization. Data on the prognostic validity of directional preference was limited to one study. Centralization and directional preference appear to be useful treatment effect modifiers in 7 out of 8 studies. Levels of reliability were very variable (kappa 0.15-0.9) in 5 studies. Findings of centralization or directional preference at baseline would appear to be useful indicators of management strategies and prognosis, and therefore warrant further investigation. PMID:22695365

  1. External Review Teams Training in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Trivino, Moises; Ramirez-Gatica, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries have started actions to promote a higher education quality assurance system. Central America appears as a regional effort that includes universities from all seven countries under the initiative of Central American University Higher Council (CSUCA). After focusing in quality management and self-study processes, CSUCA…

  2. Historic America: The South Central States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Many sites in the south central states recall the procession of people who came across the continent with the passing frontier. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the south central United States. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of U.S. history. The paper recommends that…

  3. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  4. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Eligibility for a Grant and Requirements for a Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is... includes accurate, up-to-date information about— (a) Public and private early intervention...

  5. 34 CFR 303.162 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Components of A Statewide System-Application Requirements § 303.162 Central directory. Each application must include information and assurances demonstrating to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the State has developed a central directory of information that meets...

  6. 34 CFR 303.162 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Components of A Statewide System-Application Requirements § 303.162 Central directory. Each application must include information and assurances demonstrating to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the State has developed a central directory of information that meets...

  7. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  8. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  9. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  10. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  11. Comment on ``Subgraph centrality in complex networks''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanović, Dragan

    2013-08-01

    We disprove a conjecture of Estrada and Rodríguez-Velázquez [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.71.056103 71, 056103 (2005)] that if a graph has identical subgraph centrality for all nodes, then the closeness and betweenness centralities are also identical for all nodes.

  12. The Role Centrality on Story Category Saliency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omanson, Richard C.

    Four experiments involving 54 adults were performed to examine the relationship between the effects of story grammar categories and content centrality on subjects' importance ratings, summaries, immediate recall, and delayed recall. Results of the studies indicated that central content units were judged as more important and were better recalled…

  13. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  14. Connecting Students, Creating Futures at Central Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Julie; Erbes, Elizabeth; Britt, James; Good, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Des Moines is an urban community located in the heart of Iowa. Des Moines Public Schools serves 32,000 students in a system with 62 buildings, including Central Campus--a Regional Academy. Central Campus is housed in four buildings, including the main campus at 1800 Grand located on the western edge of downtown Des Moines. As a regional academy,…

  15. Voices from the Field: Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    School systems' central office administrators sometimes take paths that seem easiest, even when it is clear the paths will not lead to sustained positive results that are needed--particularly in terms of twice-exceptional (2e) students. To appropriately address the needs of 2e learners, we must ensure that central office administrative services…

  16. Centralization and Decentralization in American Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the trend toward centralization in American education policy over the last century through a variety of lenses. The overall picture that emerges is one of a continuous tug-of-war, with national and local policymakers stumbling together toward incrementally more standardized and centralized policies. There is a center of power…

  17. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1... that provide assistance to children eligible under this part and their families. (b) The information... be available— (1) In each geographic region of the State, including rural areas; and (2) In...

  18. [Bilateral occipital infarction with central homonymous hemianopia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Tanabe, Y

    1991-09-01

    A 45-year-old man of bilateral occipital infarction with central homonymous hemianopia is reported. He was admitted to our hospital with complaints of visual loss and large central scotoma on both eyes. Pupillary light reaction and ocular fundi were normal. On admission, bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis was suspected. However, congruous, irregular central scotomas with vertical step were observed in both eyes with Goldmann perimetry. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the infarction in bilateral occipital tips. Bilateral central homonymous hemianopia is considered to be rare and a case in which occipital lobe lesions were detected with X-ray CT and MRI has not been reported. We stress that bilateral central scotomas with vertical step indicate bilateral occipital lesions.

  19. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  20. 12 CFR 234.4 - Standards for central securities depositories and central counterparties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated financial market utility that is designated on the basis of its role as a central securities... disclosed, and permit fair and open access. (3) The central securities depository or central counterparty holds assets in a manner whereby risk of loss or of delay in its access to them is minimized....

  1. 12 CFR 234.4 - Standards for central securities depositories and central counterparties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated financial market utility that is designated on the basis of its role as a central securities... disclosed, and permit fair and open access. (3) The central securities depository or central counterparty holds assets in a manner whereby risk of loss or of delay in its access to them is minimized....

  2. Report of the Central Tracking Group

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, D.G.; Hanson, G.G.

    1986-10-01

    Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4..pi.. detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4..pi.. detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved.

  3. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles.

  4. Current and future centrally acting antitussives☆

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight some important issues regarding current centrally acting antitussive drugs as well as discuss the implications of these matters on the development of future cough suppressants. Drugs that act in the central nervous system to inhibit cough are termed centrally acting and this designation is based exclusively on evidence obtained from animal models. This classification can include drugs that act both at peripheral and central sites following systemic administration. These drugs are intended to reduce the frequency and/or intensity of coughing resulting from disorders of any etiology. There are a number of central cough suppressants identified by their efficacy in animal models and the most prominent of these are codeine and dextromethorphan. Although the exact neural elements on which these drugs act are currently unknown, they are thought to inhibit a functionally identified component of the central system for cough known as the gating mechanism. The efficacy of codeine and dextromethorphan in humans has recently been questioned. These drugs are less effective on cough induced by upper airway disorders than in pathological conditions involving the lower airways in humans. The reasons for this difference in antitussive sensitivity are not clear. We propose that sensory afferents from different regions of the airways actuate coughing in humans by antitussive sensitive and insensitive control elements in the central nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with results from an animal model in which laryngeal and tracheobronchial cough had different sensitivities to codeine. Other factors that may be very important in the action of central antitussive drugs in humans include the role of sensations produced by a tussigenic stimulus as well as plasticity of central pathways in response to airway inflammation. Resolution of these issues in the human will be a challenging process, but one which will lay the foundation for the

  5. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  6. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Castillo, Mauricio

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews the characteristic imaging appearances of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, including cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, malariasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis, and American and African trypanosomiases. Routine precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging helps in localization, characterization, delineation of extension, and follow-up of the parasitic lesions. Moreover, recently developed tools, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, help to differentiate parasitic diseases of the central nervous system from simulating lesions. Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

  7. New Neanurinae (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ru; Wang, Wen-Bin; Jiang, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, two of Vitronura and one of Lobellina of subfamily Neanurinae (Neanuridae, Collembola) from Central China are described. In addition a key for valid Lobellina species is included. PMID:27470797

  8. Centralized Copying Saves Time and Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Deer Park School District, Long Island, New York, is saving money while boosting efficiency by centralizing its high-volume printing and duplicating operations. The new arrangement saves space, time, and expenses. (LMI)

  9. NCI Central Review Board Receives Accreditation

    Cancer.gov

    The Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs has awarded the NCI Central Institutional Review Board full accreditation. AAHRPP awards accreditation to organizations demonstrating the highest ethical standards in clinical res

  10. Francis Crick, DNA, and the Central Dogma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olby, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This essay describes how Francis Crick, ex-physicist, entered the field of biology and discovered the structure of DNA. Emphasis is upon the double helix, the sequence hypothesis, the central dogma, and the genetic code. (VW)

  11. Genetics and diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2012-04-01

    Most of the central diabetes insipidus cases seen in general practice are acquired but the rare cases of hereditary autosomal dominant or recessive neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus have provided further cellular understanding of the mechanisms responsible for pre-hormone folding, maturation and release. Autosomal dominant central diabetes insipidus is secondary to the toxic accumulation of vasopressin mutants as fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons producing vasopressin. As well, Trpv1(-/-) and Trpv4(-/-) mice have shed new light on the perception of tonicity through the stretch receptors TRPVs expressed both in central and peripheral neurons. The genomic information provided by sequencing the AVP gene is key to the routine care of these patients and, as in other genetic diseases, reduces health costs and provides psychological benefits to patients and families. In addition, simple, inexpensive blood and urine measurements together with clinical characteristics and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could distinguish between central, nephrogenic and polydipsic cases. PMID:22520736

  12. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  13. Solar central receiver systems comparative economics

    SciTech Connect

    Eicker, P J

    1980-04-01

    Several major conceptual design studies of solar central receiver systems and components have been completed in the last year. The results of these studies are used to compare the projected cost of electric power generation using central receiver systems with that of more conventional power generation. The cost estimate for a molten salt central receiver system is given. Levelized busbar energy cost is shown as a function of annual capacity factor indicating the fraction of the cost due to each of the subsystems. The estimated levelized busbar energy cost for a central receiver (70 to 90 mills per kilowatt hour) is compared with the levelized busbar energy cost for a new coal fired Rankine cycle plant. Sensitivities to the initial cost of coal and the delta fuel escalation are shown. (WHK)

  14. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  15. Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; De Domenico, Manlio; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-06-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  16. Overview of Glutamatergic Dysregulation in Central Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Miladinovic, Tanya; Nashed, Mina G.; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate plays a key role in many central pathologies, including gliomas, psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Post-mortem and serological studies have implicated glutamatergic dysregulation in these pathologies, and pharmacological modulation of glutamate receptors and transporters has provided further validation for the involvement of glutamate. Furthermore, efforts from genetic, in vitro, and animal studies are actively elucidating the specific glutamatergic mechanisms that contribute to the aetiology of central pathologies. However, details regarding specific mechanisms remain sparse and progress in effectively modulating glutamate to alleviate symptoms or inhibit disease states has been relatively slow. In this report, we review what is currently known about glutamate signalling in central pathologies. We also discuss glutamate’s mediating role in comorbidities, specifically cancer-induced bone pain and depression. PMID:26569330

  17. Genetics and diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2012-04-01

    Most of the central diabetes insipidus cases seen in general practice are acquired but the rare cases of hereditary autosomal dominant or recessive neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus have provided further cellular understanding of the mechanisms responsible for pre-hormone folding, maturation and release. Autosomal dominant central diabetes insipidus is secondary to the toxic accumulation of vasopressin mutants as fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons producing vasopressin. As well, Trpv1(-/-) and Trpv4(-/-) mice have shed new light on the perception of tonicity through the stretch receptors TRPVs expressed both in central and peripheral neurons. The genomic information provided by sequencing the AVP gene is key to the routine care of these patients and, as in other genetic diseases, reduces health costs and provides psychological benefits to patients and families. In addition, simple, inexpensive blood and urine measurements together with clinical characteristics and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could distinguish between central, nephrogenic and polydipsic cases.

  18. Central diffractive resonance production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Schicker, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    Central production of resonances resulting from the scattering of Pomerons in the central rapidity region of proton-proton scattering is studied. Estimates for relevant cross sections are presented. L.J. gratefully acknowledges an EMMI visiting Professorship at the University of Heidelberg for completion of this work. He is grateful to the organizers of this meeting for their hospitality and support. His work was supported also by DOMUS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

  19. Central regions of keloids are severely ischaemic.

    PubMed

    Touchi, Ryoma; Ueda, Koichi; Kurokawa, Norifumi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    We classified scars as keloids, hypertrophic scars and mature scars, and then examined the scars for differences in central and marginal vascularization. We found significant differences in localized hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and vascular density in keloids, but no localized differences in hypertrophic or mature scars. The central areas of keloids exhibited higher HIF-1α expression and lower vascular density than marginal areas, suggesting that the former are severely ischaemic. PMID:26794626

  20. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  1. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. PMID:26632483

  2. Centralizing physician office functions. A paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Croopnick, J G

    1999-01-01

    Recent trends show that organizations that once thought business office centralization was beneficial are re-thinking their strategies and decentralizing business office functions. This article focuses on the paradigm shift from business office centralization to decentralization and the political factors effecting this shift. It provides actual case summaries to demonstrate what has transpired, and presents an alternative strategy to establishing successful business office functions, a hybrid business office.

  3. Central neurocytoma: establishment of the disease entity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    The establishment and identification of central neurocytoma as a distinct disease entity are invaluable in catalyzing investigations of neuronal differentiation in central nervous system tumors. The discovery of neuronal differentiation in neuroepithelial tumors has been extended to extraventricular tumors and potentially to various glial tumors undergoing neuronal differentiation. Understanding the disease spectrum of neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors is important for deciphering the mechanism of gliomagenesis.

  4. [How to do: central vein catheterization].

    PubMed

    Allgäuer, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    The cannulation of a central vein is a standard acces to the vascular system of critically ill patients. It can be used for administration of medication and parenteral nutrition, haemodynamic monitoring as well as hemodialsis via Shaldon catheter.The technique of implantation of a central venous catheter is described step by step in this article. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques and puncture sites as well as indications and contraindications are critically discussed regarding the most recent literature.

  5. Central Rotations of Milky Way Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Noyola, Eva; Rukdee, Surangkhana; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Thomas, Jens; Opitsch, Michael; Williams, Michael J.

    2014-06-01

    Most Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit measurable flattening, even if on a very low level. Both cluster rotation and tidal fields are thought to cause this flattening. Nevertheless, rotation has only been confirmed in a handful of GCs, based mostly on individual radial velocities at large radii. We are conducting a survey of the central kinematics of Galactic GCs using the new Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W. We detect rotation in all 11 GCs that we have observed so far, rendering it likely that a large majority of the Milky Way GCs rotate. We use published catalogs of GCs to derive central ellipticities and position angles. We show that in all cases where the central ellipticity permits an accurate measurement of the position angle, those angles are in excellent agreement with the kinematic position angles that we derive from the VIRUS-W velocity fields. We find an unexpected tight correlation between central rotation and outer ellipticity, indicating that rotation drives flattening for the objects in our sample. We also find a tight correlation between central rotation and published values for the central velocity dispersion, most likely due to rotation impacting the old dispersion measurements. This Letter includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  6. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  7. Community centrality and social science research

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  8. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  9. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  10. CENTRAL ROTATIONS OF MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Rukdee, Surangkhana; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Thomas, Jens; Williams, Michael J.; Noyola, Eva; Opitsch, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Most Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit measurable flattening, even if on a very low level. Both cluster rotation and tidal fields are thought to cause this flattening. Nevertheless, rotation has only been confirmed in a handful of GCs, based mostly on individual radial velocities at large radii. We are conducting a survey of the central kinematics of Galactic GCs using the new Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W. We detect rotation in all 11 GCs that we have observed so far, rendering it likely that a large majority of the Milky Way GCs rotate. We use published catalogs of GCs to derive central ellipticities and position angles. We show that in all cases where the central ellipticity permits an accurate measurement of the position angle, those angles are in excellent agreement with the kinematic position angles that we derive from the VIRUS-W velocity fields. We find an unexpected tight correlation between central rotation and outer ellipticity, indicating that rotation drives flattening for the objects in our sample. We also find a tight correlation between central rotation and published values for the central velocity dispersion, most likely due to rotation impacting the old dispersion measurements.

  11. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  12. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  13. Peripheral chemoreceptors in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perez, Iris A; Keens, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare disorder caused by a mutation in the PHOX2B gene resulting in hypoventilation that is worse during sleep. Human physiologic studies show that patients with CCHS have absent or decreased rebreathing ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxemia during sleep as well as during wakefulness. Some ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hyperoxia can be demonstrated using a step change in inspired oxygen. However, these suggest that both central and peripheral chemoreceptor functions are generally defective in all states in children with CCHS. The defect in CCHS may lie in central nervous system pathways regulating ventilation, whose development and function are controlled by PHOX2B. Moreover, the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) may be the major defect in CCHS, where central and peripheral inputs converge. Human physiological studies predicted that the defect in CCHS lies in central integration of the central and peripheral chemoreceptor signals. New evidence suggests the RTN may be the respiratory controller where chemoreceptor inputs are integrated. In this review we present the clinical presentation of CCHS, revisit results of human physiologic studies, and discuss the findings in light of new knowledge about the role of PHOX2B and RTN in CCHS.

  14. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    PubMed

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  15. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  16. Velocardiofacial syndrome with single central incisor.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Snehlata; Vargervik, Karin

    2005-01-15

    Three siblings and their mother are reported who all had cytogenetically proven velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). One boy had normal dental and craniofacial findings, except for an increased cranial base angle. His sister had only one central incisor in the maxilla. One central incisor had also been missing in the primary dentition. She had no labial frenulum present. Cephalometry showed a small maxillary unit length indicating mild maxillary hypoplasia, an increased anterior face height, steep mandibular plane angle, retruded chin, and a large cranial base angle. Dental measurements showed retroclined lower incisors and increased interincisal angle. A second sister had a cleft of the secondary palate. All permanent teeth were present with the exception of a missing central incisor in the lower jaw: the single lower central incisor was situated in the midline. Her cephalometry showed similar findings as in her sister. All three siblings required palate surgery for speech. Mother was not available for detailed dental and other oral investigations. A single maxillary central incisor has previously been reported in VCFS, but to our knowledge a single central incisor in the mandible has not been reported previously in this entity.

  17. Perturbation Centrality and Turbine: A Novel Centrality Measure Obtained Using a Versatile Network Dynamics Tool

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Csermely, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of network dynamics became a focal point to understand and predict changes of complex systems. Here we introduce Turbine, a generic framework enabling fast simulation of any algorithmically definable dynamics on very large networks. Using a perturbation transmission model inspired by communicating vessels, we define a novel centrality measure: perturbation centrality. Hubs and inter-modular nodes proved to be highly efficient in perturbation propagation. High perturbation centrality nodes of the Met-tRNA synthetase protein structure network were identified as amino acids involved in intra-protein communication by earlier studies. Changes in perturbation centralities of yeast interactome nodes upon various stresses well recapitulated the functional changes of stressed yeast cells. The novelty and usefulness of perturbation centrality was validated in several other model, biological and social networks. The Turbine software and the perturbation centrality measure may provide a large variety of novel options to assess signaling, drug action, environmental and social interventions. PMID:24205090

  18. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  19. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  20. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  1. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  2. [Central hyperacusis with phonophobia in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pfadenhauer, K; Weber, H; Rösler, A; Stöhr, M

    2001-12-01

    Auditory disturbances are a well known symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Uni- or bilateral hypacusis or deafness in patients with normal auditory testing is considered to be a result of lesions in the central auditory pathway. Only rarely described is a central phonophobia whereby acoustic stimuli induce unpleasant and painful perceptions, with consecutive avoidance of these factors. Our first patient described acute shooting pain in the right cheek, triggered only through the ringing of a telephone. The second patient had uncomfortable perception of nonverbal noise. For example the wrinkling of paper bags was unbearable for him. The third patient had difficulties localizing the source of sound and disturbing echos while listening to speech or music. Clinically, in all patients symptoms of a brainstem syndrome were found, whereas auditory testing including inspection, audiometry, and stapedius reflex was normal. We found pathological acoustic evoked potentials (AEP) in all three patients with a prolonged latency III-V and T2 lesions in the ipsilateral pons and central auditory pathway. In case one, we suppose a lateral spread between the lateral lemniscus and the central trigeminal pathway. In the other cases, a dysfunction of the central sensory modulation which controls the regulation of sensitivity of incoming acoustic stimuli seems to be the cause of hyperacusis. All our patients developed clinically confirmed MS in the further course after suffering from phonophobia as their first symptom.

  3. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  4. Central depression of nuclear charge density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Yanyun; Ren Zhongzhou; Wang Zaijun; Dong Tiekuang

    2010-08-15

    The center-depressed nuclear charge distributions are investigated with the parametrized distribution and the relativistic mean-field theory, and their corresponding charge form factors are worked out with the phase shift analysis method. The central depression of nuclear charge distribution of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S is supported by the relativistic mean-field calculation. According to the calculation, the valence protons in {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S prefer to occupy the 1d{sub 3/2} state rather than the 2s{sub 1/2} state, which is different from that in the less neutron-rich argon and sulfur isotopes. As a result, the central proton densities of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S are highly depressed, and so are their central charge densities. The charge form factors of some argon and sulfur isotopes are presented, and the minima of the charge form factors shift upward and inward when the central nuclear charge distributions are more depressed. Besides, the effect of the central depression on the charge form factors is studied with a parametrized distribution, when the root-mean-square charge radii remain constant.

  5. Central poststroke pain: An abstruse outcome

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James L; Lalloo, Chitra; Yashpal, Kiran

    2008-01-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP), formerly known as thalamic pain syndrome of Déjerine and Roussy, is a central neuropathic pain occurring in patients affected by stroke. It is one manifestation of central pain, which is broadly defined as central neuropathic pain caused by lesions or dysfunction in the central nervous system. Thalamic pain was first described 100 years ago by Déjerine and Roussy and has been described as “among the most spectacular, distressing, and intractable of pain syndromes”. CPSP is characterized by constant or intermittent pain and is associated with sensory abnormalities, particularly of thermal sensation. While the pain is frequently described as burning, scalding, or burning and freezing, other symptoms are usually vague and hard to characterize, making an early diagnosis particularly difficult. In fact, those who develop CPSP may no longer be under the care of health care professionals when their symptoms begin to manifest, resulting in misdiagnosis or a significant delay before treatment begins. Diagnosis is further complicated by cognitive and speech limitations that may occur following stroke, as well as by depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances. Patients may also exhibit spontaneous dysesthesia and the stimulus-evoked sensory disturbances of dysesthesia, allodynia and hyperalgesia. The present study offers a historical reference point for future clinical and basic research into this elusive type of debilitating pain. PMID:18301815

  6. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. Health and health services in Central America.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R M; Rodriguez, P F

    1985-08-16

    Despite rapid economic growth since World War II, health conditions improved only slowly in most of Central America. This is a result of poor medical, social, and economic infrastructure, income maldistribution, and the poor utilization of health investments. The economic crisis of the 1980s and civil strife have further endangered health in the region. Life expectancy has fallen among men in El Salvador and civil strife has become the most common cause of death in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Large-scale US assistance has done little to improve conditions, and refugees continue to pour into North America. It is estimated that there are more than a million refugees within Central America, while a million have fled to the United States. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are partial exceptions to this dismal health picture. An effective approach to the many health problems in Central America will require joint planning and cooperation among all countries in the region.

  8. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  9. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  10. Estimation for large non-centrality parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inácio, Sónia; Mexia, João; Fonseca, Miguel; Carvalho, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of estimability for models for which accurate estimators can be obtained for the respective parameters. The study was conducted for model with almost scalar matrix using the study of estimability after validation of these models. In the validation of these models we use F statistics with non centrality parameter τ =‖λ/‖2 σ2 when this parameter is sufficiently large we obtain good estimators for λ and α so there is estimability. Thus, we are interested in obtaining a lower bound for the non-centrality parameter. In this context we use for the statistical inference inducing pivot variables, see Ferreira et al. 2013, and asymptotic linearity, introduced by Mexia & Oliveira 2011, to derive confidence intervals for large non-centrality parameters (see Inácio et al. 2015). These results enable us to measure relevance of effects and interactions in multifactors models when we get highly statistically significant the values of F tests statistics.

  11. The Fermilab Central Computing Facility architectural model

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, J.

    1989-05-01

    The goal of the current Central Computing Upgrade at Fermilab is to create a computing environment that maximizes total productivity, particularly for high energy physics analysis. The Computing Department and the Next Computer Acquisition Committee decided upon a model which includes five components: an interactive front end, a Large-Scale Scientific Computer (LSSC, a mainframe computing engine), a microprocessor farm system, a file server, and workstations. With the exception of the file server, all segments of this model are currently in production: a VAX/VMS Cluster interactive front end, an Amdahl VM computing engine, ACP farms, and (primarily) VMS workstations. This presentation will discuss the implementation of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Architectural Model. Implications for Code Management in such a heterogeneous environment, including issues such as modularity and centrality, will be considered. Special emphasis will be placed on connectivity and communications between the front-end, LSSC, and workstations, as practiced at Fermilab. 2 figs.

  12. Deformation of Central Anatolia: GPS implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktuğ, Bahadır; Parmaksız, Erdem; Kurt, Mustafa; Lenk, Onur; Kılıçoğlu, Ali; Gürdal, M. Ali; Özdemir, Soner

    2013-07-01

    Central Anatolia plays a key role to connect the theories about the subduction of African Plate along Hellenic and Cyprian Arcs and the collision of Arabia indenter along Bitlis-Zagros Thrust Zone. Taking place between the North Anatolian and East Anatolian mega shear zones, the neotectonics of seismically less active Central Anatolia is often regarded as tectonic escape or extrusion tectonics. Although, available GPS studies dating back to early 1990s reported coherent rotation, they were mostly focused on the seismically more active and more populated Western Anatolia and lack sufficient spatial resolution in quantifying second-order structures such as Tuz Gölü Fault Zone, Central Anatolia Fault Zone which comprises Ecemiş Fault and Erciyes Fault, Ezinepazarı Fault and their related basins and associated processes. Besides, the new dense GPS velocity field of Central Anatolia exhibits systematic local patterns of internal deformation which is inconsistent with either coherent rotation or translation. The velocity gradients computed along the rotation profiles of Central Anatolia show nearly westward and smooth increments which cannot be explained through a simple rotation/transport of Central Anatolia Basin. Moreover, estimating and removing an Euler rigid-body rotation rate which is computed from the sites lying in the middle part of Central Anatolia absorbs the velocity discrepancies between the Eastern and Western part of Central Anatolia down to a few millimetres and leaves out systematic residuals. Upon completion of Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network (TNFGN) in 1999, early revision surveys were carried out in Marmara region because of the 1999 Marmara earthquakes. Additional observations were carried out in Central Anatolia, resulting in a velocity field of unprecedented spatial density with average inter-station distance of 30-50 km.We computed the horizontal velocity field with respect to a not-net rotation frame, to Eurasia, and to a computed

  13. [Centralized biobanks: a basis for medical research].

    PubMed

    Bernemann, Inga; Kersting, Markus; Prokein, Jana; Hummel, Michael; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Biobanks are the basis for a substantial part of biomedical research. The development, establishment and operation of biobanks are connected to a broad range of aspects, mainly concerning the preparation, storage, usage and dissemination of samples and associated data, in addition to the social and public involvement of these processes. These complex requirements can often only be managed in large centralized biobanks. In recent years, centralized clinical biobanks have been established in several university clinics in Germany. Similar activities take place in other European countries and worldwide. This article highlights the requirements and main tasks of centralized clinical biobanks: high-quality pre-analytics and sample storage, the creation of professional IT structures, data protection, ethical issues, in addition to quality and project management.

  14. [Ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans in central Africa].

    PubMed

    Swinne, D; Taelman, H; Batungwanayo, J; Bigirankana, A; Bogaerts, J

    1994-01-01

    Cryptococcosis associated with AIDS is mainly due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans which is found in saprophytic form in pigeon droppings. This variety has been isolated in Central Africa, particularly in Zaire, Burundi and Rwanda, from dust collected from the houses of patients with cryptococcosis. Several patients confirmed frequent contact with pigeons. Recent studies in Australia demonstrated a link between the yeast and Eucalyptus of the camaldulensis and teriticornis species. These two species were imported to Central Africa from Australia. Examination of 657 Eucalyptus specimens collected in Rwanda did not detect the yeast in any type of tree. This finding casts doubt on the role of Eucalyptus in the ecology of cryptococcosis in Central Africa. PMID:8196527

  15. Health and health services in Central America.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R M; Rodriguez, P F

    1985-08-16

    Despite rapid economic growth since World War II, health conditions improved only slowly in most of Central America. This is a result of poor medical, social, and economic infrastructure, income maldistribution, and the poor utilization of health investments. The economic crisis of the 1980s and civil strife have further endangered health in the region. Life expectancy has fallen among men in El Salvador and civil strife has become the most common cause of death in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Large-scale US assistance has done little to improve conditions, and refugees continue to pour into North America. It is estimated that there are more than a million refugees within Central America, while a million have fled to the United States. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are partial exceptions to this dismal health picture. An effective approach to the many health problems in Central America will require joint planning and cooperation among all countries in the region. PMID:4021026

  16. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    PubMed

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  17. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by

  18. Agreement Between Central Michigan University and Central Michigan University District of Michigan Association of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This document presents the agreement between the Central Michigan University (CMU) and Central Michigan University, District of Michigan Association of Higher Education. The agreement covers the purpose and intent, recognition, aid to other collective bargaining agents, deduction of district dues and initiation fees, special conferences, grievance…

  19. 75 FR 14436 - Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois Public Service Company, Ameren Energy Resources Company, LLC, AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company; Notice of Filing March 18, 2010. Take notice that on March 15, 2010, Ameren...

  20. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  1. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  2. Hydrological climate change projections for Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Amador, Jorge A.; Alfaro, Eric J.; Quesada, Beatriz

    2013-07-01

    Runoff climate change projections for the 21st century were calculated from a suite of 30 General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations for the A1B emission scenario in a 0.5° × 0.5° grid over Central America. The GCM data were downscaled using a version of the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) method and then used in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrological model. The VIC model showed calibration skill in Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, but the results for some of the northern countries (Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize) and for the Caribbean coast of Central America was not satisfactory. Bias correction showed to remove effectively the biases in the GCMs. Results of the projected climate in the 2050-2099 period showed median significant reductions in precipitation (as much as 5-10%) and runoff (as much as 10-30%) in northern Central America. Therefore in this sub-region the prevalence of severe drought may increase significantly in the future under this emissions scenario. Northern Central America could warm as much as 3 °C during 2050-2099 and southern Central America could reach increases as much as 4 °C during the same period. The projected dry pattern over Central America is consistent with a southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). In addition, downscaling of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data from 1948 to 2012 and posterior run in VIC, for two locations in the northern and southern sub-regions of Central America, suggested that the annual runoff has been decreasing since ca. 1980, which is consistent with the sign of the runoff changes of the GCM projections. However, the Reanalysis 1980-2012 drying trends are generally much stronger than the corresponding GCM trends. Among the possible reasons for that discrepancy are model deficiencies, amplification of the trends due to constructive interference with natural modes of variability in the Reanalysis data, errors in the Reanalysis

  3. On central-difference and upwind schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Turkel, Eli

    1990-01-01

    A class of numerical dissipation models for central-difference schemes constructed with second- and fourth-difference terms is considered. The notion of matrix dissipation associated with upwind schemes is used to establish improved shock capturing capability for these models. In addition, conditions are given that guarantee that such dissipation models produce a Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme. Appropriate switches for this type of model to ensure satisfaction of the TVD property are presented. Significant improvements in the accuracy of a central-difference scheme are demonstrated by computing both inviscid and viscous transonic airfoil flows.

  4. [Centralization in obstetrics: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Roemer, V M; Ramb, S

    1996-01-01

    Possible advantages and disadvantages of a general centralization of German obstetric facilities are analysed in the study. The need for centralization of risk cases, especially premature births (regionalization) is pointed out. Centralization appears appropriate, since every fifth maternity unit in Germany (19.78%) has 300 or fewer deliveries per year. This one fifth of perinatal clinics accounts for 6.3% of all deliveries (N = 49450). There are appreciable differences between the old and new federal states (Bundesländer): in the recently acceded federal states, 48.7% of all perinatal clinics have deliveries of 300 and less per year. This group of perinatal clinics accounts for 29% of all deliveries in the new federal states. We have carried out a survey of the mother's attitude to centralization: out of 416 patients in the Detmold women's hospital whose mean age was 29.0 +/- 4.2 years, 90.4% were not in favor of general centralization of obstetrics. 43% were also against a centralization of risk cases (regionalization). 75% of the women surveyed objected to centralized obstetrics because of the 'possible absence of the family', the 'possible absence of students and trainees' (44.9%), the 'unfamiliarity with staff and premises' (41.8%) and 'fear of anonymity' (44.5%). The majority of all women (84.1%) did not want to have a drive more than 20 km to an obstetrics center. Fear of 'delivery in a taxi'(78.6%), the 'fear that the husband will come too late to the delivery' (65.4%) and that the 'overall course of the delivery might not be adequate for reasons of time'. The presence of a pediatrics department in conjunction with the perinatal clinic was rated very positively (93%). It is concluded from the data and further juridical considerations that centralization of risk cases (regionalization) is indispensable in the near future and that somewhat more further into the future decentralization should be carried out by closing obstetrics departments with substantially

  5. Centralized surveillance and control of satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzewnicki, S. E.; McBeath, J. W.; Brostrup-Jensen, P.

    Satellite based services and networks are increasing in number. This paper describes how such networks can be operated efficiently using software based systems to do satellite transmission surveillance and remote earth station status, alarm and control monitoring at a centralized operations control center. Arrangements are available to accomplish real time, customer controlled configuration of space segments and earth station equipment. Application of the system elements satellite transmission surveillance, alarm and control central, earth station remote, and customer control terminals - to a number of typical networks is described.

  6. Centrally acting muscle relaxants in tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Webster, R. A.

    1961-01-01

    The anti-tetanus activity of a number of phenothiazine derivatives and other centrally acting muscle relaxants, such as mephenesin, dicyclopropyl ketoxime, 2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole and meprobamate, has been determined in rabbits with experimental local tetanus. Structure-activity relationships were obtained for the phenothiazine derivatives and their anti-tetanus activity correlated with other central and peripheral properties. Both dicyclopropyl ketoxime and 2-amino-6-methyl-benzothiazole were twice as active as mephenesin. Meprobamate does not appear to be primarily a muscle relaxant of the mephenesin type. PMID:14005498

  7. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

  8. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

  9. Central Adaptation following Brachial Plexus Injury.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Franz, Colin K; Gupta, Nalin; Alden, Tord; Kliot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus trauma (BPT) often affects young patients and may result in lasting functional deficits. Standard care following BPT involves monitoring for clinical and electrophysiological evidence of muscle reinnervation, with surgical treatment decisions based on the presence or absence of spontaneous recovery. Data are emerging to suggest that central and peripheral adaptation may play a role in recovery following BPT. The present review highlights adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system changes following BPT that may contribute to functional outcomes. Rehabilitation and other treatment strategies that harness or modulate these intrinsic adaptive mechanisms may improve functional outcomes following BPT. PMID:26409073

  10. Considerations for centralized EMS system control

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, T.A.

    1983-06-01

    This paper describes a large central computer control system designed to communicate with energy management equipment. The problems and solutions involved in the use of ''black boxes,'' simple energy management controllers, dumb CRT and ''block structured'' communication protocols, duty cycling, and ladder logic are discussed. The hardware is divided into five groups: communications, operator interface, data storage, peripheral devices, and auxilliary processing. The central system configuration is given. Functional software organization is schematicized. Alarm monitoring, anomaly detection, and program validity checking and load simulation are highlighted. Such a computer system should be modular, and dictated by the requirements of energy management in the specific facility--not the other way around.

  11. Repair in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J; Fawcett, J

    2007-11-01

    The subject of central nervous system damage includes a wide variety of problems, from the slow selective 'picking off' of characteristic sub-populations of neurons typical of neurodegenerative diseases, to the wholesale destruction of areas of brain and spinal cord seen in traumatic injury and stroke. Experimental repair strategies are diverse and the type of pathology dictates which approach will be appropriate. Damage may be to grey matter (loss of neurons), white matter (cutting of axons, leaving neurons otherwise intact, at least initially) or both. This review will consider four possible forms of treatment for repair of the human central nervous system. PMID:17998174

  12. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Madeline L.; Russo, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress. PMID:25506605

  13. Qualification testing for a central station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, D. L.

    1983-11-01

    Qualification testing for a Central Station Photovoltaic (PV) Facility depends to a great extent on the system design, (fixed versus tracking), and the level of data acquisition/control which is incorporated into the system. The basic elements which require qualification tests include: dc power production/collection; tracker conversion systems; ac utility interface; system level control; and data acquisition/reporting. The qualification tests from the Lungo (ARCO) 1 MW Facility which were completed in January 1983 are discussed. The philosophy and many of the procedures are applicable to any central station PV facility.

  14. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lakes are among the most valued natural resources of central Florida. The landscape of central Florida is riddled with lakeswhen viewed from the air, it almost seems there is more water than land. Florida has more naturally formed lakes than other southeastern States, where many lakes are created by building dams across streams. The abundance of lakes on the Florida peninsula is a result of the geology and geologic history of the State. An estimated 7,800 lakes in Florida are greater than 1 acre in surface area. Of these, 35 percent are located in just four counties (fig. 1): Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Polk (Hughes, 1974b). Lakes add to the aesthetic and commercial value of the area and are used by many residents and visitors for fishing, boating, swimming, and other types of outdoor recreation. Lakes also are used for other purposes such as irrigation, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Residents and visitors commonly ask questions such as Whyare there so many lakes here?, Why is my lake drying up (or flooding)?, or Is my lake spring-fed? These questions indicate that the basic hydrology of lakes and the interaction of lakes with ground water and surface water are not well understood by the general population. Because of the importance of lakes to residents of central Florida and the many questions and misconceptions about lakes, this primer was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and the South Florida Water Management District. The USGS has been collecting hydrologic data in central Florida since the 1920s, obtaining valuable information that has been used to better understand the hydrology of the water resources of central Florida, including lakes. In addition to data collection, as of 1994, the USGS had published 66 reports and maps on central Florida lakes (Garcia and Hoy, 1995). The main purpose of this primer is to describe the hydrology of lakes in central

  15. Central control element expands computer capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Redundant processing and multiprocessing modes can be obtained from one computer by using logic configuration. Configuration serves as central control element which can automatically alternate between high-capacity multiprocessing mode and high-reliability redundant mode using dynamic mode switching in real time.

  16. Best Minds Sought for Central Office, Startups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    The central office isn't being overlooked in the movement to find and develop top talent for school districts. Although ways to recruit, groom, and keep top teachers and strong principals tend to dominate discussions of "human capital" needs in education, a handful of nonprofit organizations and foundations also see providing smart managers as…

  17. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  18. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  19. 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    * Do floods contribute to the transport and fate of contaminants that affect human and ecosystem health? In an effort to help address these and other questions, USGS Professional Paper 1798 consists of independent but complementary chapters dealing with various scientific aspects of the 2011 floods in the Central United States.

  20. SUNY's Centralization: Normal Schools as Precedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, H. Warren; Corby, Betsey C.

    This report presents the historical background of New York State's normal school system, the system that predated the centralized organization of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. New York's first state normal school was established in Albany in 1844. Nineteen years later the state began to provide support for the normal school at…

  1. Centrality measures for networks with community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Anurag; Cherifi, Hocine

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the network structure, and finding out the influential nodes is a challenging issue in large networks. Identifying the most influential nodes in a network can be useful in many applications like immunization of nodes in case of epidemic spreading, during intentional attacks on complex networks. A lot of research is being done to devise centrality measures which could efficiently identify the most influential nodes in a network. There are two major approaches to this problem: On one hand, deterministic strategies that exploit knowledge about the overall network topology, while on the other end, random strategies are completely agnostic about the network structure. Centrality measures that can deal with a limited knowledge of the network structure are of prime importance. Indeed, in practice, information about the global structure of the overall network is rarely available or hard to acquire. Even if available, the structure of the network might be too large that it is too much computationally expensive to calculate global centrality measures. To that end, a centrality measure is proposed here that requires information only at the community level. Indeed, most of the real-world networks exhibit a community structure that can be exploited efficiently to discover the influential nodes. We performed a comparative evaluation of prominent global deterministic strategies together with stochastic strategies, an available and the proposed deterministic community-based strategy. Effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by performing experiments on synthetic and real-world networks with community structure in the case of immunization of nodes for epidemic control.

  2. Central serous chorioretinopathy in Susac syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artunay, Ozgur; Sengul, Alper; Sonmezay, Eda; Gaffarli, Emil; Ertugay, Cigdem Kalaycik

    2015-06-01

    We report central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in a patient with Susac syndrome. The diagnosis of Susac syndrome was based on the results of funduscopy, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and audiometric testing. Our case demonstrates that possible choroidal involvement in Susac syndrome may lead to the development of CSC. PMID:25786202

  3. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2001-12-01

    Bruxism is a controversial phenomenon. Both its definition and the diagnostic procedure contribute to the fact that the literature about the aetiology of this disorder is difficult to interpret. There is, however, consensus about the multifactorial nature of the aetiology. Besides peripheral (morphological) factors, central (pathophysiological and psychological) factors can be distinguished. In the past, morphological factors, like occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region, have been considered the main causative factors for bruxism. Nowadays, these factors play only a small role, if any. Recent focus is more on the pathophysiological factors. For example, bruxism has been suggested to be part of a sleep arousal response. In addition, bruxism appears to be modulated by various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. More specifically, disturbances in the central dopaminergic system have been linked to bruxism. Further, factors like smoking, alcohol, drugs, diseases and trauma may be involved in the bruxism aetiology. Psychological factors like stress and personality are frequently mentioned in relation to bruxism as well. However, research to these factors comes to equivocal results and needs further attention. Taken all evidence together, bruxism appears to be mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

  4. Gabapentin inhibits central sensitization during migraine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanbo; Shao, Guo; Zhang, Wei; Li, Sijie; Niu, Jingzhong; Hu, Dongmei; Yang, Mingfeng; Ji, Xunming

    2013-11-15

    Peripheral and central sensitizations are phenomena that occur during migraine. The role of pentin, a migraine preventive drug, on central sensitization remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of migraine was established by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion, and the an-imals were given intragastric gabapentin. Changes in amino acid content in the cerebrospinal fluid and protein kinase C membrane translocation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus were examined to clarify the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of gabapentin in the treatment of central sensitization during migraine. Electrophysiology, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and western blot analysis results revealed that gabapentin reduces neuronal excitability in the spinal nucleus in the trigeminal nerve, decreases excitatory amino acid content and inhibits the activation of protein ki-nase C. This provides evidence that excitatory amino acids and protein kinase C are involved in the formation and maintenance of central sensitization during migraine. Gabapentin inhibits migraine by reducing excitatory amino acid content in the cerebrospinal fluid and inhibiting protein kinase C ac-tivation. PMID:25206620

  5. SPIRONOLACTONE FOR NONRESOLVING CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Elodie; Beydoun, Talal; Rothschild, Pierre-Raphaël; Bergin, Ciara; Zhao, Min; Batista, Rui; Brandely, Marie-Laure; Couraud, Benedicte; Farman, Nicolette; Gaudric, Alain; Chast, François

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, for nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy. Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) for at least 3 months were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either spironolactone 50 mg or placebo once a day for 30 days, followed by a washout period of 1 week and then crossed over to either placebo or spironolactone for another 30 days. The primary outcome measure was the changes from baseline in SRF thickness at the apex of the serous retinal detachment. Secondary outcomes included subfoveal choroidal thickness and the ETDRS best-corrected visual acuity. Results: The mean duration of central serous chorioretinopathy before enrollment in study eyes was 10 ± 16.9 months. Crossover data analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in SRF in spironolactone treated eyes as compared with the same eyes under placebo (P = 0.04). Secondary analysis on the first period (Day 0–Day 30) showed a significant reduction in subfoveal choroidal thickness in treated eyes as compared with placebo (P = 0.02). No significant changes were observed in the best-corrected visual acuity. There were no complications related to treatment observed. Conclusion: In eyes with persistent SRF due to central serous chorioretinopathy, spironolactone significantly reduced both the SRF and the subfoveal choroidal thickness as compared with placebo. PMID:26017871

  6. The Suffix "-oso" in Central American Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the lexical formative "-oso," which is added to nominal and verbal roots to form adjectives to denote possession of the quality contained in the primitive, in Central American Spanish. Concludes it is used with traditional Spanish denotations and has undergone various semantic shifts and is being applied to roots in a completely…

  7. Equity and Difference in Centralized Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the promise of equity that underlies centralized evaluation policies and its relation to difference, or in other words to the singularity of the subject. I defend that without taking the issue of difference into consideration, there is no education, and that the unique subject is what is aspired by education. The analyses rely…

  8. Central Computational Facility CCF communications subsystem options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, K. B.

    1979-01-01

    A MITRE study which investigated the communication options available to support both the remaining Central Computational Facility (CCF) computer systems and the proposed U1108 replacements is presented. The facilities utilized to link the remote user terminals with the CCF were analyzed and guidelines to provide more efficient communications were established.

  9. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  10. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  11. Computers in Central Government Ten Years Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majestys Stationery Office, London (England).

    A consultant team made an independent assessment of future prospects for the field of computer use in the central government of Great Britain. They first assessed the level of use of computers at the present time in all governmental agencies. They then forecast the future computer applications which developing technology will permit. They…

  12. Gastroenteritis outbreak at holiday resort, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Giacomo; Prencipe, Vincenza; Ripani, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Cristina; Casaccia, Claudia; Crudeli, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola; Giovannini, Armando; Marconi, Maria Maddalena; Marfoglia, Cristina; Melai, Valeria; Savini, Giovanni; Scortichini, Giampiero; Semprini, Primula; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2008-03-01

    During the summer of 2003, a gastroenteritis outbreak spread throughout a holiday resort in central Italy. Fecally contaminated groundwater and seawater were leaking into the non-drinking-water system, which was found to be connected to the drinking-water system of a large resort. This contamination had a primary role in the onset of the outbreak and spread of the infection.

  13. Central Endoscopy Reading in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Panés, Julián; Feagan, Brian G; Hussain, Fez; Levesque, Barrett G; Travis, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic assessment of the presence and severity of endoscopic lesions has become an essential part of clinical trials in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, for both patient eligibility and outcome measures. Variability in lesion interpretation between and within observers and the potential bias of local investigators in patient assessment have long been recognized. This variability can be reduced, although not completely removed, by independent evaluation of the examinations by experienced off-site (central) readers, properly trained in regard to lesion definition and identification, that should be removed from direct patient contact and blinded to any other clinical or study data. Adding endoscopic demonstration of active disease to eligibility criteria has the potential to reduce placebo response rates, whereas in outcome assessment it has the potential to provide a more precise estimation of the treatment effect, increasing the efficiency of the study. Central endoscopy reading is still at the beginning of its development, and the paradigms of central reading need refinement in terms of the number of readers, the process by which a final score is assigned, the selection and sequence of central readers, and the endoscopic indices of choice. PMID:27604978

  14. Central Park East: An Alternative Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah

    1987-01-01

    Central Park East school was founded in 1974 in Harlem (NY) as an alternative elementary school within the public inner city school system. In 1984 it had expanded into three elementary alternative schools and added a fourth secondary school. It is considered a progressive school following in the tradition of New York city's private schools. (MD)

  15. Workers' Central Life Interests and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Robert; Champoux, Joseph E.

    Supervisors' ratings of individual industrial workers appear to be related to the central life interests (CLI) of the workers. The group of workers who had a job-oriented CLI received the highest ratings from their superivsors among the three CLI groups on Initiative and Application, Cooperation and Quantity of Work and were rated low on…

  16. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  17. Testing the Predictions of the Central Capacity Sharing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The…

  18. [The insula and the central core concept].

    PubMed

    Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Oliveira, Evandro de

    2007-03-01

    The characterization of well defined and circumscribed brain regions is particularly useful for the neurosurgical practice once it enhances the tridimensional understanding of its structures and related lesions, and because it induces the development and the utilization of more standard microneurosurgical approaches. In this direction, it is noteworthy that each cerebral hemisphere harbors an evident central core constituted externally by the insula, internally by the basal ganglia and the thalamus, and with the internal capsule within. With a biconvex configuration when seen from above, and located between the sylvian cistern and the supratentorial ventricular cavities, morphologically this central core resembles a head of each brainstem half top, covered by the neocortical mantle of its hemisphere. The central core is attached to the rest of the cerebral hemisphere by isthmi constituted by the different internal capsule fibers. Anteriorly and under the anterior limiting sulcus of the insula there are fibers of the internal capsule anterior limb, superiorly and under the superior limiting sulcus there are the rest of the anterior limb fibers, and the knee and posterior limb fibers that harbors the corticonuclear and the corticospinal tracts, and inferiorly and under the insular inferior limiting sulcus there are the sub- and the retrolentiform internal capsule fibers that enclose the auditory and the optic radiations. Laterally the central core is composed by the insular surface that resembles a shield of the main cerebral subcortical structures. The options of microneurosurgical approaches to the central core related lesions should consider particularly their relationships with the thalamus and with the internal capsule fibers.

  19. Central Diabetes Insipidus, Central Hypothyroidism, Renal Tubular Acidosis and Dandy-Walker Syndrome: New Associations

    PubMed Central

    Alafif, MM; Aljaid, SS; Al-Agha, AE

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare brain malformation involving the cerebellum, and the fluid filled spaces around it, usually detected during the antenatal period or the early infancy. Clinically, it is characterized by mental retardation, developmental delay as well as cerebellar ataxia. It has been frequently associated with other conditions such as congenital heart diseases, primary hypothyroidism, and other disorders of the central nervous, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and orthopedic systems. In this report, we describe a 3-month-old Saudi boy with the rare association of DWS with central diabetes insipidus, congenital central hypothyroidism, and type-2 renal tubular acidosis. PMID:25861538

  20. Peripherally inserted central catheters are equivalent to centrally inserted catheters in intensive care unit patients for central venous pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Latham, Heath E; Rawson, Scott T; Dwyer, Timothy T; Patel, Chirag C; Wick, Jo A; Simpson, Steven Q

    2012-04-01

    To determine the equivalency of pressure measurements from peripherally inserted central catheters(PICCs) versus centrally inserted central venous catheters(CVCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. The in vitro study was performed in a clinical laboratory. Static pressure measurements from PICCs and CVCs were obtained in vitro over a physiologic range of 5–25 mmHg. Triple and dual lumen PICCs were directly compared to CVC controls.Dynamic pressure waveforms were recorded to simulate physiologic intravascular pressure variation. The in vivo study was executed in the medical intensive care unit(MICU) of a tertiary-level academic medical center. Data was collected from ten adult patients with both a PICC and a CVC in place for on-going clinical care. Measurements of central venous pressure (CVP) were recorded simultaneously from PICCs and CVCs. Duplicate measurements were taken after a stable waveform was recorded. For the in vitro study, a total of 540 pressure measurements were recorded. The average bias determined by Bland–Altman plot was 0 mmHg for the 5Fr PICC and 0.071 mmHg for the 6Fr PICC. The correlation coefficient for both catheters was 1.0 (P<0.001). Dynamic pressure waveforms revealed equivalent amplitude. During the in vivo trial, 70CVP measurements were collected. The paired CVP measurements were found to be highly reliable across subjects (r = 0.99, P<0.0001). No significance in the average difference in CVP measurement (PICC–CVC) was determined by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test (S = 1,P = 0.93). In conclusion, PICCs are equivalent to CVCs when measuring static and dynamic pressure in vitro and CVP in ICU patients.

  1. A Climatology of Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, P. P.; Griffin, K. S.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Monsoon gyres, commonly found over the western Pacific Ocean, are characterized by broad low-level cyclonic circulations that occur at a variety of spatial scales ranging from 1500-3000 km. Low-level cyclonic gyre circulations, while less frequent and occupying a smaller scale, have also been observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. A noteworthy gyre observed during the 2010 PREDICT field project served as a "collector" of TC Matthew and a source for TC Nicole. During October 2011, devastating flooding occurred in Guatemala and El Salvador when TD 12-E, embedded in a gyre circulation, made landfall on the Pacific coast of Central America. These gyre occurrences, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high-impact weather motivates this presentation. A preliminary analysis of Central American gyres suggests that their spatial scales vary between 1000-2000 km. These gyres also tend to be co-located with reservoirs of deep moisture that are characterized by high precipitable water values (>50 mm) and embedded deep convection on their southern and eastern sides. Catastrophic flooding can occur when gyre cyclonic circulations interact with the topography of Central America. A Central American gyre climatology including gyre frequency over the TC season and individual gyre duration will be presented. This climatology is then used to craft a gyre composite using previous gyre cases from 1980-2010. Particular attention will be given to the common synoptic and sub-synoptic scale features that precede and take place during gyre formation. This includes the role that intraseasonal and interannual circulations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) might play in gyre development. TC genesis events within gyre circulations will also be highlighted and examined further. Finally, the results of a September 2010 case study will be used to illustrate the impact that Central American

  2. The central power source in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, Roger; Stoner, Ronald

    Potential sources for the central power in AGN are examined. The continuum, emission line profiles, and time variability and broad emission line region for AGN are analyzed. The supermassive black hole hypothesis, the supermassive magnetized core model of Kundt (1978), and the model of Stoner and Ptak (1984) in which the supermassive stars maintain a kind of long-term quasi-stability, but accretion is balanced by mass loss and spherical bursts rather than in jets are considered. It is argued that the hypothesis that the supermassive blackholes are the central engines for AGN is based on theoretical principles; however, AGN emission line profiles and variability suggest a spherical geometry for the observed components of these engines. Also the supermassive black hole models do not account for all the AGN observations.

  3. [Central nervous system tumors in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Podciechowski, Lech; Nowakowska, Dorota; Bielak, Adam; Nowosławska, Emilia; Szymański, Wojciech; Polis, Lech; Krasomski, Grzechorz; Fiks, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jan

    2003-12-01

    Central nervous system tumour in pregnancy constitutes a serious complication. Considering frequent difficulties in diagnostics and therapy, the aim of the study was to present our experience in management with pregnant women with brain and spinal cord tumours. Between 1988-2000, in The Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Lodzi, 4 pregnant women had been diagnosed with brain and spinal cord tumours. The incidence of tumours complicating pregnancy was 1/11460. Two patients diagnosed at 29 weeks' gestation, underwent craniotomy and tumour resection during pregnancy. Two other women with central nervous system tumours diagnosed at 39 weeks' gestation, were operated in the postpartum period. The analysis of the postoperative period, gestation and/or postpartum period in all women and well-being of their new-borns confirm undertaken medical decisions. PMID:15029742

  4. Iowa Central Quality Fuel Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Heach, Don; Bidieman, Julaine

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project is to finalize the creation of an independent quality fuel testing laboratory on the campus of Iowa Central Community College in Fort Dodge, Iowa that shall provide the exploding biofuels industry a timely and cost-effective centrally located laboratory to complete all state and federal fuel and related tests that are required. The recipient shall work with various state regulatory agencies, biofuel companies and state and national industry associations to ensure that training and testing needs of their members and American consumers are met. The recipient shall work with the Iowa Department of Ag and Land Stewardship on the development of an Iowa Biofuel Quality Standard along with the Development of a standard that can be used throughout industry.

  5. Infections associated with the central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Drasković, Biljana; Fabri, Izabella; Benka, Anna Uram; Rakić, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Central venous catheters are of an essential importance to critically ill patients who require long-term venous access for various purposes. Their use made the treatment much easier, but still they are not harmless and are prone to numerous complications. Catheter infections represent the most significant complication in their use. The frequency of infections varies in different patient care settings, but their appearance mostly depends on the patient's health condition, catheter insertion time, localization of the catheter and type of the used catheter. Since they are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and related to significant number of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, it is very important that maximal aseptic precautions are taken during the insertion and the maintenance period. Prevention of infection of the central venous catheters demands several measures that should be applied routinely.

  6. Comprehensive management of presbycusis: central and peripheral.

    PubMed

    Parham, Kourosh; Lin, Frank R; Coelho, Daniel H; Sataloff, Robert T; Gates, George A

    2013-04-01

    The prevailing otolaryngologic approach to treatment of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), presbycusis, emphasizes compensation of peripheral functional deficits (ie, hearing aids and cochlear implants). This approach does not address adequately the needs of the geriatric population, 1 in 5 of whom is expected to consist of the "old old" in the coming decades. Aging affects both the peripheral and central auditory systems, and disorders of executive function become more prevalent with advancing age. Growing evidence supports an association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline. Thus, to facilitate optimal functional capacity in our geriatric patients, a more comprehensive management strategy of ARHL is needed. Diagnostic evaluation should go beyond standard audiometric testing and include measures of central auditory function, including dichotic tasks and speech-in-noise testing. Treatment should include not only appropriate means of peripheral compensation but also auditory rehabilitative training and counseling. PMID:23396589

  7. A study of Central Exclusive Production

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, James

    2006-01-01

    Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh → h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME.

  8. Spherical explosion with a central energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Miyu; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution that describes the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements needed to satisfy the boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus-derived applicable range, and compare the results with the semi-analytic solutions.

  9. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei S.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  10. Rotavirus vaccination in Central American children.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Avila-Aguero, María L

    2014-06-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age around the world. Severe dehydration and mortality rates are higher in developing countries, especially those from Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The vaccine has been introduced in the national immunization programs of more than half of Latin American countries, and impact data from some of these nations has been already published. The two rotavirus vaccines, the 2-dose monovalent (RV-1) and the 3-dose pentavalent (RV-5) vaccine, have been available in the market to all Central American countries. Rotavirus vaccine has been universally introduced in the expanded immunization national programs of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Panama, but not in Belize and Costa Rica. This review summarizes what has been published about the epidemiology and impact of universal rotavirus vaccination in Central America.

  11. Imaging the fetal central nervous system.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, B; Claus, F; De Catte, L

    2011-01-01

    The low prevalence of fetal central nervous system anomalies results in a restricted level of exposure and limited experience-- for most of the obstetricians involved in prenatal ultrasound. Sonographic guidelines for screening the fetal brain in a systematic way will probably increase the detection rate and enhance a correct referral to a tertiary care center, offering the patient a multidisciplinary approach of the condition. This paper aims to elaborate on prenatal sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis and outcome of various central nervous system malformations. Detailed neurosonographic investigation has become available through high resolution vaginal ultrasound probes and the development of a variety of 3D ultrasound modalities e.g. ultrasound tomographic imaging. In addition, fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the detection of gyration and neurulation-- anomalies and disorders of the gray and white matter. PMID:24753859

  12. Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Mosbrugger, Volker; Utescher, Torsten; Dilcher, David L

    2005-10-18

    Continental climate evolution of Central Europe has been reconstructed quantitatively for the last 45 million years providing inferred data on mean annual temperature and precipitation, and winter and summer temperatures. Although some regional effects occur, the European Cenozoic continental climate record correlates well with the global oxygen isotope record from marine environments. During the last 45 million years, continental cooling is especially pronounced for inferred winter temperatures but hardly observable from summer temperatures. Correspondingly, Cenozoic cooling in Central Europe is directly associated with an increase of seasonality. In contrast, inferred Cenozoic mean annual precipitation remained relatively stable, indicating the importance of latent heat transport throughout the Cenozoic. Moreover, our data support the concept that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, although linked to climate changes, were not the major driving force of Cenozoic cooling.

  13. Improving the accuracy of central difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli

    1988-01-01

    General difference approximations to the fluid dynamic equations require an artificial viscosity in order to converge to a steady state. This artificial viscosity serves two purposes. One is to suppress high frequency noise which is not damped by the central differences. The second purpose is to introduce an entropy-like condition so that shocks can be captured. These viscosities need a coefficient to measure the amount of viscosity to be added. In the standard scheme, a scalar coefficient is used based on the spectral radius of the Jacobian of the convective flux. However, this can add too much viscosity to the slower waves. Hence, it is suggested that a matrix viscosity be used. This gives an appropriate viscosity for each wave component. With this matrix valued coefficient, the central difference scheme becomes closer to upwind biased methods.

  14. [Central nervous system malformations: neurosurgery correlates].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-León, Juan C; Betancourt-Fursow, Yaline M; Jiménez-Betancourt, Cristina S

    2013-09-01

    Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them.

  15. Does the central dogma still stand?

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-08-23

    Prions are agents of analog, protein conformation-based inheritance that can confer beneficial phenotypes to cells, especially under stress. Combined with genetic variation, prion-mediated inheritance can be channeled into prion-independent genomic inheritance. Latest screening shows that prions are common, at least in fungi. Thus, there is non-negligible flow of information from proteins to the genome in modern cells, in a direct violation of the Central Dogma of molecular biology. The prion-mediated heredity that violates the Central Dogma appears to be a specific, most radical manifestation of the widespread assimilation of protein (epigenetic) variation into genetic variation. The epigenetic variation precedes and facilitates genetic adaptation through a general 'look-ahead effect' of phenotypic mutations. This direction of the information flow is likely to be one of the important routes of environment-genome interaction and could substantially contribute to the evolution of complex adaptive traits.

  16. Centrally acting agents and visceral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2002-07-01

    The evidence relating to the site and mechanism of action of "centrally acting" agents which may affect visceral sensitivity is reviewed. Antidepressant drugs such as amitriptyline as well as the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are thought to act at the level of the CNS. Opiates, including morphine as well as compounds such as trimebutine or fedotozine designed for therapeutic use in irritable bowel syndrome, are effective in reducing visceral nociception. Cytokines in the CNS are known to be involved in the modulation of pain and there is also evidence to suggest that centrally acting cytokines may play a role in the production of visceral hypersensitivity. Consequently, they may provide an interesting target for future research. PMID:12077076

  17. Centralization vs. Decentralization in Medical School Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Helen

    1966-01-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  18. New insights into central cardiovascular control during exercise in humans: a central command update.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J W; Fadel, P J; Mitchell, J H

    2006-01-01

    The autonomic adjustments to exercise are mediated by central signals from the higher brain (central command) and by a peripheral reflex arising from working skeletal muscle (exercise pressor reflex), with further modulation provided by the arterial baroreflex. Although it is clear that central command, the exercise pressor reflex and the arterial baroreflex are all requisite for eliciting appropriate cardiovascular adjustments to exercise, this review will be limited primarily to discussion of central command. Central modulation of the cardiovascular system via descending signals from higher brain centres has been well recognized for over a century, yet the specific regions of the human brain involved in this exercise-related response have remained speculative. Brain mapping studies during exercise as well as non-exercise conditions have provided information towards establishing the cerebral cortical structures in the human brain specifically involved in cardiovascular control. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of current concepts on central command in humans, with a particular emphasis on the regions of the brain identified to alter autonomic outflow and result in cardiovascular adjustments. PMID:16239250

  19. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  20. Gravitational Study of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted at 1G are discussed with reference to the role of calcium ions in information processing by the central nervous system. A technique is described which allows thin sections of a mammalian hippocampus to be isolated while maintaining neural activity. Two experiments carried out in hypergravic fields are also addressed; one investigating altered stimulation in the auditory system, the other determining temperature regulation responses in hypergravic fields.

  1. Second-generation central receiver technology comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, P. C.; Becker, M.

    Fifteen years of solar thermal technology development have produced a considerable amount of knowledge relating to the production of electricity from central receiver power plants. This body of knowledge is under examination by researchers from the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany for the purpose of defining the next generation central receiver electricity producers. This second generation power plant is expected to represent a significant step towards commercialization of these systems. During the course of the study, specific activities needed to realize this next-step technology are being defined. The study is an international team effort. Under the International Energy Agency Small Solar Power Systems project, researchers from DLR, Interatom, Sandia National Laboratories, and Bechtel have designed a study in which technologies relating to existing systems are quantified, logical next-step systems are characterized, and future potential advances are identified. The receiver concepts under investigation are: salt-in-tube, volumetric, and direct absorption. Two plant performance levels are examined, 30 and 100 MW(sub e). Each concept is applied with common capacity factors, solar multiples, and types and sizes of heliostats at each performance level. Availability and uncertainty analyses are also performed. Annual energy production figures are calculated using the SOLERGY computer code. Capital and Operation and Maintenance cost methodologies are mutually agreed upon in order that levelized energy cost calculations will be consistent for each power plant. During the course of this effort, further potential advances in central receiver technology have continued to become apparent. These possible areas for improvement will be described. An additional comparison is being made between central receivers and trough-based systems.

  2. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    PubMed

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  3. DNA, the central molecule of aging.

    PubMed

    Lenart, Peter; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of aging could have enormous medical implications. Despite a century of research, however, there is no universally accepted theory regarding the molecular basis of aging. On the other hand, there is plentiful evidence suggesting that DNA constitutes the central molecule in this process. Here, we review the roles of chromatin structure, DNA damage, and shortening of telomeres in aging and propose a hypothesis for how their interplay leads to aging phenotypes.

  4. Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Lyles; Jenny Chapman; John Healey; David Gillespie

    2006-09-30

    Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses.

  5. Solar central receiver integration with Hoover Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Remmers, H.E.; Zelenka, R.L.; Kitchen, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of integrating a 100 MWe solar central receiver powerplant located in Yuma, Arizona with the Hoover Dam hydroelectric power system is discussed. Technical feasibility was determined by evaluating the effects of integration on the hydrologic and power operations of the existing hydro system. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of the integrated system with that of the most likely alternative source of power generation--an oil-fired,combined-cycle plant.

  6. Symmetry reduction for central force problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, Robert I.; Modin, Klas; Verdier, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    We given an elementary illustration of symmetry reduction for central force problems, drawing phase portraits of the reduced dynamics as the intersection of Casimir and energy level sets in three dimensions. These systems form a classic example of symplectic reduction which can usefully be compared to the more commonly seen case of the free rigid body. Dedicated to the memory of Jerry Marsden, 1942–2010.

  7. CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Michigan State U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /CHEP, Taegu /Seoul Natl. U.

    2007-02-01

    The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

  8. JUNO Central Detector and its prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    JUNO is a multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator experiment; its R&D and civil construction all are in progress. During this July, 2015, JUNO collaboration selects the acrylic option as central detector (CD) scheme. The R&D progress of support point structure and acrylic panel of CD acrylic option all are in good shape. At the same time, a prototype detector of JUNO is designed and under construction, the goal is mainly to study different PMTs, background, electronics etc.

  9. Central conduction time in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Pakalnis, A; Drake, M E; Huber, S; Paulson, G; Phillips, B

    1992-01-01

    Progressive nuclear palsy (PSP) is a parkinson-like extrapyramidal disorder with pathological evidence of brain stem demyelination. We studied brain stem auditory (BAEP) and somatosensory (SSEP) evoked potentials in 8 patients with progressive supra-nuclear palsy to look for evidence of such central demyelination. We found minor alterations in BAEPs and frequently abnormal SSEPs, suggestive of brain stem white matter involvement in this disorder. Evoked potentials may assist in the differentiation of PSP from other parkinsonian conditions. PMID:1541246

  10. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  11. Neuroimaging supports central pathology in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Hilz, Max J; Berlin, Dena; Yau, Po Lai; Javier, David; Sweat, Victoria; Bruehl, Hannah; Convit, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a hereditary peripheral and central nervous system disorder with poorly defined central neuropathology. This prospective pilot study aimed to determine if MRI would provide objective parameters of central neuropathology. There were 14 study subjects, seven FD individuals (18.6 +/- 4.2 years, 3 female) and seven controls (19.1 +/- 5.8 years, 3 female). All subjects had standardized brain MRI evaluation including quantitative regional volume measurements, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of white matter (WM) microstructural integrity by calculation of fractional anisotropy (FA), and proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to assess neuronal health. The FD patients had significantly decreased FA in optic radiation (p = 0.009) and middle cerebellar peduncle (p = 0.004). Voxel-wise analysis identified both GM and WM microstructural damage among FD subjects as there were nine clusters of WM FA reductions and 16 clusters of GM apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) elevations. Their WM proportion was significantly decreased (p = 0.003) as was the WM proportion in the frontal region (p = 0.007). (1)H MRS showed no significant abnormalities. The findings of WM abnormalities and decreased optic radiation and middle cerebellar peduncle FA in the FD study group, suggest compromised myelination and WM micro-structural integrity in FD brains. These neuroimaging results are consistent with clinical visual abnormalities and gait disturbance. Furthermore the frontal lobe atrophy is consistent with previously reported neuropsychological deficits. PMID:19705052

  12. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-01-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  13. Tuberculoma of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    DeLance, Arthur R; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Clark, Aaron J; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sun, Matthew Z; Bollen, Andrew W; Phillips, Joanna J; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with the majority of cases occurring in children and immunocompromised patients. Despite advancements in imaging and laboratory diagnostics, tuberculomas of the central nervous system remain a diagnostic challenge due to their insidious nature and nonspecific findings. On imaging studies tuberculous meningitis is characterized by diffuse basal enhancement, but tuberculomas may be indistinguishable from neoplasms. Early diagnosis is imperative, since clinical outcomes are largely dependent on timely treatment. Stereotactic biopsy with histopathological analysis can provide a definitive diagnosis, but is only recommended when non-invasive methods are inconclusive. Standard medical treatment includes rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. In cases of drug resistance, revision of the treatment regimen with second-line agents is recommended over the addition of a single drug to the first-line regimen. Advances in genomics have identified virulent strains of tuberculosis and are improving our understanding of host susceptibility. Neurosurgical referral is advised for patients with elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, or brain or spinal cord compression. This review synthesizes pertinent findings in the literature surrounding central nervous system tuberculoma in an effort to highlight recent advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  14. Characterization of hantaviruses circulating in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo-Silva, Carolina R; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K; Bisordi, Ivani; Suzuki, Akemi; Brigido, Marcelo M

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, an outbreak of HCPS in Brazil made hantaviruses a national threat to the rural and urban population. During this outbreak, 164 cases were reported, and 18.3% of them occurred in the Federal District. In this study, hantavirus genomic sequences were amplified from seven patients who resided in Central Brazil and then sequenced and compared to other hantavirus sequences. The complete S segment sequence, which is 1847 bases long and potentially encodes the 428 amino acid nucleocapsid protein, was determined for one patient. Moreover, a 700 base-pair sequence of the S segment was obtained from two other patients, and we analyzed M segment sequences from all samples. It can be inferred by both identity and phylogenetic analysis that the sequences obtained are highly related to Araraquara variant and Maciel virus. Phylogenetic results show that hantaviruses isolated in Central Brazil can be divided into two monophyletic groups: one group that clusters with Araraquara variant and the other group that includes the complete S segment sequence obtained in this study. Therefore, we propose the name Paranoa for this variant that co-exists with the Araraquara-like hantavirus in Central Brazil.

  15. Decreased central corneal thickness in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ortak, Huseyin; Inanır, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Uysal, Alper; Şahin, Şafak; Sağcan, Mustafa; Önder, Yalçın; Alim, Sait; Demir, Ayşe Kevser

    2014-04-01

    Central corneal thickness and dry eye tests were evaluated in a study population consisting of 68 ankylosing spondylitis patients diagnosed according to the modified New York criteria, and 61 age-matched controls without ankylosing spondylitis. A full ophthalmological evaluation was performed on each subject. All subjects were screened for age, gender, HLA-B27, tear break-up time test, Schirmer test, and duration of disease. Central corneal thickness was measured under topical anesthesia with an ultrasonic pachymeter. The mean central corneal thickness was 537.3 ± 30.6 μm, range 462-600 μm, in ankylosing spondylitis patients, whereas it was 551.7 ± 25.2 μm, range 510-620 μm, in controls (p = 0.005). The Schirmer test result was 7.3 ± 5.9 mm for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 11.7 ± 5.8 mm for the control group (p = 0.002). Tear break-up time was 7.3 ± 3.2 s for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 14.0 ± 4.5 s for the control group (p < 0.001). The possibility of a thinner cornea should be taken into consideration in ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, attention must be given to lower dry eye tests in surgical interventions such as photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis in ankylosing spondylitis patients.

  16. LANDSAT imagery of the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komer, C. A.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The central Andes of South America extend from approximately 14 deg. S to 28 deg. S as an unbroken chain of mountains and volcanoes over 2000 km long. It is here that the Nazca plate dives under the South American plate at angles varying from 10 deg to 30 deg. Very little is known about the volcanoes comprising this classic, subduction-type plate margin. A catalogue of the volcanoes in the central Andes is being prepared by Dr. P.W. Francis and Dr. C.A. Wood at the NASA Lunar and Planetary Institute. At present, more than 800 volcanoes of Cenozoic age have been recognized in the chain, with an estimated 75-80 major, active Quarternary volcanoes. Approximately one hundred 1536 x 1536 pixel color composite Optronics positives were produced from six full LANDSAT Thermatic Mapper scenes and three partial TM scenes. These positives cover a large portion of the central Andes. The positives were produced from LANDSAT data using the VAX imaging package, LIPS. The scenes were first transferred from magnetic tape to disk. The LIPS package was then used to select volcanically interesting areas which were then electronically enhanced. Finally, the selected areas were transferred back to tape and printed on the Optronics equipment. The pictures are color composites using LANDSAT TM bands 7,4, and 2 in the red, green, and blue filters, respectively.

  17. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Antonios, Rafic S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. PMID:27784979

  18. Temporal node centrality in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly--on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  19. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  20. Fibromyalgia: the prototypical central sensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boomershine, Chad S

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), the most common central sensitivity syndrome (CSS) affecting over 5% of the population, is a disorder of chronic widespread pain accompanied by numerous other symptoms that causes significant functional impairment. The core FM symptom domains can be recalled using the FIBRO mnemonic and include Fatigue and Fog (cognitive dysfunction), Insomnia (difficulties with all aspects of sleep including initiation, maintenance and restorative), Blues (depression and anxiety), Rigidity (stiffness in muscles and joints) and Ow! (widespread pain and tenderness). While typically presenting in middle-aged women, FM can affect both sexes at any age. FM is a syndrome of abnormal central pain processing and increased central sensitivity caused by neurobiological changes that cause dysregulation of mechanisms that normally regulate pain sensation. There are currently three different methods for diagnosing FM; the 1990, 2010 and modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. While disabling, FM symptoms can be managed with a regimen of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. Medication types with benefit in treating FM include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxers, tramadol, and stimulants. Beneficial nonpharmacologic therapies include aerobic and resistance exercise, stretching, cognitive behavioral therapy, and education. Effective management requires formulation of an individualized regimen since patients differ widely in symptoms and treatments they find beneficial. Such an individualized regimen should be based on a systematic assessment of problematic symptoms conducted at baseline and each follow-up with treatments modified over time. While challenging, FM symptoms can be effectively managed and patients can lead full, productive lives.

  1. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  2. Central gating of fly optomotor response.

    PubMed

    Haag, Juergen; Wertz, Adrian; Borst, Alexander

    2010-11-16

    We study the integration of multisensory and central input at the level of an identified fly motoneuron, the ventral cervical nerve motoneuron (VCNM) cell, which controls head movements of the animal. We show that this neuron receives input from a central neuron signaling flight activity, from two identified wide-field motion-sensitive neurons, from the wind-sensitive Johnston organ on the antennae, and from the campaniform sensillae of the halteres. We find that visual motion alone leads to only subthreshold responses. Only when it is combined with flight activity or wind stimuli does the VCNM respond to visual motion by modulating its spike activity in a directionally selective way. This nonlinear enhancement of visual responsiveness in the VCNM by central activity is reflected at the behavioral level, when compensatory head movements are measured in response to visual motion. While head movements of flies have only a small amplitude when flies are at rest, the response amplitude is increased by a factor of 30-40 during flight. PMID:21045125

  3. Plants and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed.

  4. Central gating of fly optomotor response

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Juergen; Wertz, Adrian; Borst, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We study the integration of multisensory and central input at the level of an identified fly motoneuron, the ventral cervical nerve motoneuron (VCNM) cell, which controls head movements of the animal. We show that this neuron receives input from a central neuron signaling flight activity, from two identified wide-field motion-sensitive neurons, from the wind-sensitive Johnston organ on the antennae, and from the campaniform sensillae of the halteres. We find that visual motion alone leads to only subthreshold responses. Only when it is combined with flight activity or wind stimuli does the VCNM respond to visual motion by modulating its spike activity in a directionally selective way. This nonlinear enhancement of visual responsiveness in the VCNM by central activity is reflected at the behavioral level, when compensatory head movements are measured in response to visual motion. While head movements of flies have only a small amplitude when flies are at rest, the response amplitude is increased by a factor of 30–40 during flight. PMID:21045125

  5. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    PubMed

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  6. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  7. Central star formation in S0 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressel, L. L.; Oconnell, R. W.; Telesco, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    As a class, S0 galaxies are characterized by a lack of resolved bright stars in the disk. However, several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that a high rate of star formation is occurring at the centers of some S0 galaxies. Many of the warmest, most powerful far infrared sources in nearby bright galaxies occur in S0 galaxies. (Dressel 1988, Ap. J., 329, L69). The ratios of radio continuum flux to far infrared flux for these S0 galaxies are comparable to the ratios found for spiral galaxy disks and for star-burst galaxies. Very Large Array (VLA) maps of some of these S0 galaxies show that the radio continuum emission originates in the central few kiloparsecs. It is diffuse or clumpy, unlike the radio sources in active S0 galaxies, which are either extremely compact or have jet-lobe structures. Imaging of some of these galaxies at 10.8 microns shows that the infrared emission is also centrally concentrated. Many of the infrared-powerful S0 galaxies are Markarian galaxies. In only one case in this sample is the powerful ultraviolet emission known to be generated by a Seyfert nucleus. Optical spectra of the central few kiloparsecs of these S0 galaxies generally show deep Balmer absorption lines characteristic of A stars, and H beta emission suggestive of gas heated by O stars. A key question to our understanding of these galaxies is whether they really are S0 galaxies, or at least would have been recognized as S0 galaxies before the episode of central star formation began. Some of Nilson's classifications (used here) have been confirmed by Sandage or de Vaucouleurs and collaborators from better plates; some of the galaxies may be misclassified Sa galaxies (the most frequent hosts of central star formation); some are apparently difficult to classify because of mixed characteristics, faint non-S0 features, or peculiarities. More optical imaging is needed to characterize the host galaxies and to study the evolution of their star-forming regions.

  8. Comparing Central Peak and Central Pit Craters on Mercury and Mars: Implications for Crustal Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Horstman, Ryan M.

    2016-10-01

    We have measured and classified 20,782 impact craters on Mercury and 24,495 craters on Mars 5 km in diameter and larger for a comparison study of these features. We identified 1144 floor pit and 638 summit pit craters on Mars and 32 summit pit craters but no floor pits on Mercury. We also identified 1682 central peak craters on Mars and 1764 on Mercury. We computed the ratio of the pit or basal peak diameter to the crater diameter in each case and compared the results for the two bodies. Summit pits on Mars have a median pit-to-crater diameter (Dp/Dc) ratio of 0.12 compared to 0.09 on Mercury, indicating pits are slightly larger relative to their parent crater on Mars. We find no correlation of the distribution of Mercury's central pits with features attributed to volatiles, i.e. radar-bright polar craters and craters containing hollows. This indicates that Mercury's central pits form by collapse of a weak brecciated core in the central peak and do not require the presence of volatiles, as is commonly assumed for central pit formation. The median peak-to-crater diameter (Dpk/Dc) ratio for the peaks on which summit pits are found on both bodies is statistically identical to that of the respective normal unpitted central peaks. This indicates that the peaks on which summit pits occur form in the same manner as normal central peaks but subsequently undergo core collapse to create the summit pit. Interestingly, the median Dpk/Dc for Martian peaks is twice as high as for their Mercurian counterparts (0.30 versus 0.15, respectively). Because Mercury and Mars have essentially the same surface gravity, the only major difference between the two bodies that could explain this observation is target characteristics. Prior studies of the composition of the crust and the detection of larger-than-normal secondary craters have led to the proposal that Mercury's crust is stronger than the crusts of the other terrestrial planets. Mercury's low number of central pit craters, the

  9. Central hemodynamics and target organ damage in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have enabled the noninvasive evaluation of pulsatile hemodynamics in the central aorta; namely, central pressure and flow measurements. The central blood pressure represents the true load imposed on the heart, kidney and brain, and the central blood flow influences the local flow into these vital organs. An elevation of the central blood pressure has a direct, adverse impact on the target organ and, thus, the cardiovascular prognosis in patients with hypertension. A decrease in the central blood flow can cause organ dysfunction and failure. The central pressure and flow dynamics were conventionally regarded as unidirectional from the heart to the periphery. However, current evidence suggests that it should be recognized as a bidirectional interplay between the central and peripheral arteries. Specifically, the pressure pulse wave is not only transmitted forward to the periphery but also reflected backward to the central aorta. The flow pulse wave is also composed of the forward and reverse components. Aortic stiffening and arteriolar remodeling due to hypertension not only augment the central pressure by increasing the wave reflection but also may alter the central bidirectional flow, inducing hemodynamic damage/dysfunction in susceptible organs. Therefore, central hemodynamic monitoring has the potential to provide a diagnostic and therapeutic basis for preventing systemic target organ damage and for offering personalized therapy suitable for the arterial properties in each patient with hypertension. This brief review will summarize hypothetical mechanisms for the association between the central hemodynamics and hypertensive organ damage in the heart, kidney and brain.

  10. HIS Central and the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project maintains a comprehensive workflow for publishing hydrologic observations data and registering them to the common Hydrologic Metadata Catalog. Once the data are loaded into a database instance conformant with the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model (ODM), the user configures ODM web service template to point to the new database. After this, the hydrologic data become available via the standard CUAHSI HIS web service interface, that includes both data discovery (GetSites, GetVariables, GetSiteInfo, GetVariableInfo) and data retrieval (GetValues) methods. The observations data then can be further exposed via the global semantics-based search engine called Hydroseek. To register the published observations networks to the global search engine, users can now use the HIS Central application (new in HIS 1.1). With this online application, the WaterML-compliant web services can be submitted to the online catalog of data services, along with network metadata and a desired network symbology. Registering services to the HIS Central application triggers a harvester which uses the services to retrieve additional network metadata from the underlying ODM (information about stations, variables, and periods of record). The next step in HIS Central application is mapping variable names from the newly registered network, to the terms used in the global search ontology. Once these steps are completed, the new observations network is added to the map and becomes available for searching and querying. The number of observations network registered to the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog at SDSC is constantly growing. At the time of submission, the catalog contains 51 registered networks, with estimated 1.7 million stations.

  11. Temperature Scale of Central Stars Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffry

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to gain new insight into both the true temperatures of the central stars of planetary nebulae and their evolutionary histories. The temperature scale of the hottest central stars of planetary nebulae is poorly known. The temperature diagnostics available at visible wavelengths are not useful for these very hot stars, or suffer from as-yet unresolved systematic uncertainties. However, the combination of FUSE FUV spectra and HST NUV spectra allows precise temperature determinations by utilizing ionization balances of C III, C IV and O V, O VI lines. The sample comprises hot hydrogen-rich central stars covering the hottest phase of post-AGB evolution (T_eff greater than 70,000K). The spectra were analyzed with fully metal line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres in order to determine T_eff, surface gravity, and chemical composition. In addition to the temperature scale, the spectra help address the question of metal abundances at the surface of these stars. Depending on the particular star, the metal abundances are either dominated by ongoing diffusion processes or they originate from dredge-up phases during previous AGB evolution. The sample was selected so as to include objects that were expected to exhibit both processes, in order to assess their relative importance and to gain insight into the evolutionary history of the stars. The objects that show qualitatively a metal abundance pattern which points at dredge-up phases, can be used to quantitatively check against abundance predictions of stellar evolution theory. The other objects, where gravitational diffusion and radiative acceleration determine the photospheric metal abundances, will be used to check our NLTE models which for the first time include diffusion processes self-consistently.

  12. Local Data Integration in East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Manobianco, John T.

    1999-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit has configured a Local Data Integration System (LDIS) for east central Florida which assimilates in-situ and remotely-sensed observational data into a series of high-resolution gridded analyses. The ultimate goal for running LDIS is to generate products that may enhance weather nowcasts and short-range (less than 6 h) forecasts issued in support of the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the Melbourne National Weather Service (NWS MLB) operational requirements. LDIS has the potential to provide added value for nowcasts and short-ten-n forecasts for two reasons. First, it incorporates all data operationally available in east central Florida. Second, it is run at finer spatial and temporal resolutions than current national-scale operational models such as the Rapid Update Cycle and Eta models. LDIS combines all available data to produce grid analyses of primary variables (wind, temperature, etc.) at specified temporal and spatial resolutions. These analyses of primary variables can be used to compute diagnostic quantities such as vorticity and divergence. This paper demonstrates the utility of LDIS over east central Florida for a warm season case study. The evolution of a significant thunderstorm outflow boundary is depicted through horizontal and vertical cross section plots of wind speed, divergence, and circulation. In combination with a suitable visualization too], LDIS may provide users with a more complete and comprehensive understanding of evolving mesoscale weather than could be developed by individually examining the disparate data sets over the same area and time.

  13. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  14. Martian Sedimentary Basins and Central Mound Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. A.; Bell, J. F., III

    2014-12-01

    Central mounds on Mars are observed as sedimentary deposits within crater interiors, but the specific processes responsible for their formation and subsequent modification are still debated. The deposits are hypothesized to have been created by either subaerial or subaqueous processes through one of two general formation mechanisms. The prevailing hypothesis suggests that after their craters were formed, sediment filled the entire crater and was later eroded into the morphologies we observe today. Alternatively, the sediment could have been deposited as the features we observe today without any significant erosion contributing to their mound shape. We conducted a survey of central mounds that occur within craters larger than 25 km in diameter located between ± 60° latitude on Mars. We use mound locations, mound offsets within their host craters, and mound heights to address various mound formation hypotheses. The results of this survey support the hypothesis that mound sediment once filled the entire host crater and was later eroded into the features we observe today. We propose that large Martian impact craters act as simplistic sedimentary basins. These basins "catch" any sediment that is being transported through the region. Any geologic process that involves transport of material (airfall dust, explosive volcanism, impact ejecta, etc.) could have contributed to the growth of this sediment fill, although the dominant process could vary based on location. During this depositional phase, several processes (ice/frost, water, etc.) could have cemented the material; then, at some point, the environment changed from depositional to erosional, leading to the formation of isolated mounds of sediment within these craters. Our study reveals that most mounds are offset from the center of their host crater in the same direction as the regional winds. For example, the mounds in Arabia Terra are offset towards the western portion of their craters. This observation is

  15. Angiotensin II during Experimentally Simulated Central Hypovolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, such as the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist compound 21, is yielding many opportunities to uncover more knowledge about angiotensin II receptor profiles and possible therapeutic use. Cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective therapeutic use of compound 21 have been suggested. However, there has not yet been a focus on the use of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies, investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of angiotensin II during episodes of central hypovolemia. To examine this, we reviewed results from studies with three experimental models of simulated hypovolemia: head up tilt table test, lower body negative pressure, and hemorrhage of animals. A systemic literature search was made with the use of PubMed/MEDLINE for studies that measured variables of the renin–angiotensin system or its effect during simulated hypovolemia. Twelve articles, using one of the three models, were included and showed a possible organ-protective effect and an effect on the sympathetic system of angiotensin II during hypovolemia. The results support the possible organ-protective vasodilatory role for the AT2-receptor during hypovolemia on both the kidney and the splanchnic tissue. PMID:26973842

  16. 21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking to southeast, showing meeting of north and central building elements. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  17. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING FURNACES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  18. 51. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION ON FIRST FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATOR MOTOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  19. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING WEST, FERRYMEN'S QUARTERS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 75 FR 12562 - Central Utah Project Completion Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... THE UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION Central Utah Project Completion Act AGENCY... Mitigation and Conservation Commission; and the Central Utah Water Conservancy District. ACTION: Notice of... Interior (Interior), Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission (Mitigation Commission),...

  1. Interior overview of central room on the east side, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior overview of central room on the east side, view facing south - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  3. Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill furnace building in foreground. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Central Boiler House, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Central Texas coast gas search bears fruit

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-03

    A group led by American Exploration Co., Houston, plans to drill 40 wells this year on its Yoakum Gorge property in Lavaca County, Tex., where it is completing acquisition of a 152 sq mile 3D seismic survey. The companies planned to spud the first wildcat to Eocene Lower Wilcox on the Central Texas Gulf Coast property in late February. They completed eight exploratory wells as commercial gas discoveries in late 1996 in Oligocene Frio, Miocene, and Eocene Yegua. The eight Frio and Yegua wells drilled during October--December 1996 had combined initial flow rates of 3.730 MMcfd of gas.

  5. Central limit theorems under special relativity

    PubMed Central

    McKeague, Ian W.

    2015-01-01

    Several relativistic extensions of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution have been proposed, but they do not explain observed lognormal tail-behavior in the flux distribution of various astrophysical sources. Motivated by this question, extensions of classical central limit theorems are developed under the conditions of special relativity. The results are related to CLTs on locally compact Lie groups developed by Wehn, Stroock and Varadhan, but in this special case the asymptotic distribution has an explicit form that is readily seen to exhibit lognormal tail behavior. PMID:25798020

  6. Neuroimaging in Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Vossough, Arastoo; Hajmomenian, Mehrdad; Assadsangabi, Reza; Mohan, Suyash

    2016-08-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive high-grade type of extranodal lymphoma. PCNSL can have a variable imaging appearance and can mimic other brain disorders such as encephalitis, demyelination, and stroke. In addition to PCNSL, the CNS can be secondarily involved by systemic lymphoma. Computed tomography and conventional MRI are the initial imaging modalities to evaluate these lesions. Recently, however, advanced MRI techniques are more often used in an effort to narrow the differential diagnosis and potentially inform diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. PMID:27443998

  7. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  8. Histoplasmosis of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, V; Wilkins, P; Badve, S; Coppen, M; Lucas, S; Hay, R; Schon, F

    1992-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the central nervous system is extremely rare in the United Kingdom partly because the organism is not endemic. However, because the organism can remain quiescent in the lungs or the adrenal glands for over 40 years before dissemination, it increasingly needs to be considered in unexplained neurological disease particularly in people who lived in endemic areas as children. In this paper a rapidly progressive fatal myelopathy in an English man brought up in India was shown at necropsy to be due to histoplasmosis. The neurological features of this infection are reviewed. Images PMID:1640242

  9. Central nervous system involvement in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Dinesh; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2006-12-01

    Diabetic complications result in much morbidity and mortality and considerable consumption of scarce medical resources. Thus, elucidation of the risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying diabetic complications is important. The effects of diabetes on the central nervous system (CNS) result in cognitive dysfunction and cerebrovascular disease. Treatment-related hypoglycemia also has CNS consequences. Advances in neuroimaging now provide greater insights into the structural and functional impact of diabetes on the CNS. Greater understanding of CNS involvement could lead to new strategies to prevent or reverse the damage caused by diabetes mellitus.

  10. On Tenth Order Central Spatial Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sjogreen, B; Yee, H C

    2007-05-14

    This paper explores the performance of the tenth-order central spatial scheme and derives the accompanying energy-norm stable summation-by-parts (SBP) boundary operators. The objective is to employ the resulting tenth-order spatial differencing with the stable SBP boundary operators as a base scheme in the framework of adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order multistep filter schemes of Yee et al. (1999), Yee and Sj{umlt o}green (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), and Sj{umlt o}green and Yee (2004). These schemes were designed for multiscale turbulence flows including strong shock waves and combustion.

  11. Mold Infections of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Matthew; Rosengart, Axel; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The recent outbreak of exserohilum rostratum meningitis linked to epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate has brought renewed attention to mold infections of the central nervous system (CNS).1 Although uncommon, these infections are often devastating and difficult to treat. This focused review of the epidemiologic aspects, clinical characteristics, and treatment of mold infections of the CNS covers a group of common pathogens: aspergillus, fusarium, and scedosporium species, molds in the order Mucorales, and dematiaceous molds. Infections caused by these pathogen groups have distinctive epidemiologic profiles, clinical manifestations, microbiologic characteristics, and therapeutic implications, all of which clinicians should understand. PMID:25006721

  12. Surgical treatment of central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Berker, Nilufer; Batman, Cosar

    2008-05-01

    The treatment of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is still a subject of debate. Medical therapy efforts, as well as retinal laser photocoagulation, have mostly dealt with management of the sequelae of CRVO, and have shown limited success in improving visual acuity. The unsatisfactory results of such therapeutic efforts led to the development of new treatment strategies focused on the surgical treatment of the occluded retinal vein. The purpose of this review is to summarize the outcomes of commonly reported surgical treatment strategies and to review different opinions on the various surgical approaches to the treatment of CRVO.

  13. Central and North Gulf Coast, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this view of the central and north Gulf Coast of Texas (30.0N, 96.0W), San Antonio Bay, Matagorda Bay and Galveston/Trinity Bay are clearly seen though small sediment plumes at the tidal passes are visible. The large field patterns of irrigated agriculture highlights an ancient deltaic plain formed by the Colorado and Brazos Rivers. Many manmade lakes and reservoirs, as far west as Lake Belton and Lake Waco and as far east as Toledo Bend are visible.

  14. CHL 01-2 CENTRAL HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Huan

    2016-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is conventionally measured with a pressure cuff over an upper arm and a cutoff of 140/90 mmHg in the office is the current criteria for diagnosing hypertension. Recently, out of office BP has been suggested as the reference standard for the management of hypertension, due to its better prognostic value over office BP.However, the above BP parameters are all measured at brachial arteries and may be different from the central blood pressure (CBP) measured in the ascending aorta or carotid arteries. The individual discrepancies between CBP and peripheral BP may be substantial and highly variable, and may magnify during hemodynamic changes or after pharmacological interventions. Growing evidence suggests that central BP may be more relevant than peripheral BP in predicting target organ damage and cardiovascular outcomes, central and peripheral BP may respond differently to antihypertensive medication in randomized controlled trials, and end-organ changes after antihypertensive medication are more strongly related to changes in central BP than peripheral BP.Currently,_ENREF_2_ENREF_5 non-invasive CBP can be obtained with either tonometry-based or cuff-based techniques. Using an outcome-driven approach to examine the discriminatory ability of CBP for long-term cardiovascular outcomes, an operational threshold for CBP has been derived and validated in two independent Taiwanese cohorts. A CBP cutoff, 130/90 mmHg, was characterized by a greater discriminatory power for long-term events, and can be considered to be implemented for the management of hypertension in routine daily clinical practice. CBP may have greater sensitivity and negative predictive value than peripheral BP in the diagnosis of hypertension. In the recently updated hypertension management guidelines, we have made a Level IIb recommendation that Measurement of CBP with a cutoff of 130/90 mmHg is recommended when a diagnosis of hypertension is clinically suspected but cannot be

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in central pontine myelinolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, P D; Miller, D; Gledhill, R F; Rossor, M N

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in two patients in whom a clinical diagnosis of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) had been made. MRI showed lesions in the pons in both cases about 2 years after the illness, at a time when the spastic quadriparesis and pseudobulbar palsy had recovered. The persisting abnormal signals in CPM are likely to be due to fibrillary gliosis. Persistence of lesions on MRI means that the diagnosis of CPM may be electively, after the acute illness has resolved. Images PMID:2732743

  16. Pathology of the Trachea and Central Bronchi.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Girish S; Ocazionez, Daniel; Vargas, Daniel; Carter, Brett W; Wu, Carol C; Nachiappan, Arun C; Gupta, Pushpender; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    A wide variety of disorders can affect the trachea and central bronchi. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of tracheobronchial disease. Tracheobronchial abnormalities are sometimes incidentally detected on routine imaging or when imaging is performed for another reason. Abnormalities of the tracheobronchial tree, however, can be easily missed because they can be subtle. Furthermore, because symptoms in patients with tracheobronchial disorders often overlap symptoms of lung disease, radiologists may focus their attention on the lungs and overlook the tracheobronchial tree. In this article, we review a wide range of tracheobronchial diseases with emphasis on their computed tomographic appearances.

  17. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  18. A climatology of Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, Philippe P.

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are large, low-level, cyclonic circulations that are observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. CAGs often occur in conjunction with TCs, and can result in torrential rainfall over portions of Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and eastern United States. The lack of prior research on CAGs, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high- impact weather motivates this study. To study CAG occurrence, an algorithm was developed to identify cyclonic circulations possessing similar characteristics to monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs) in other ocean basins. This algorithm also includes a series of tests that distinguishes CAG events from large TCs and non-closed circulations. This algorithm was run between May-November 1980-2010 using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis 0.5o gridded dataset to produce the CAG climatology. 42 CAGs were classified (˜1.4 per season) with a bimodal distribution of occurrence favoring the early (May-Jun) and late (Sep-Nov) TC season. Stratification of CAG occurrence by the phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) shows that over 75% of all CAGs develop in phases 8,1, and 2. A gyre-relative, time-lagged, CAG composite analysis is performed on CAG cases spanning from three days prior to two days after CAG formation. Positive low-level geopotential height anomalies are present in the east Pacific and Atlantic basins and are associated with anomalous low-level flow before the formation of the CAG. This results in increasing cyclonic vorticity near anomalously high precipitable water over Central America, a pattern that aids the generation of deep convection and the broad closed low-level cyclonic circulation that defines the CAG. CAGs are also split into two subsets using potential vorticity (PV) on the 350K isentropic surface. Tropical CAGs possess upper-tropospheric ridging associated with low

  19. Viral diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Phillip A; McGavern, Dorian B

    2015-04-01

    Virus-induced diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a significant burden to human health worldwide. The complexity of these diseases is influenced by the sheer number of different neurotropic viruses, the diverse routes of CNS entry, viral tropism, and the immune system. Using a combination of human pathological data and experimental animal models, we have begun to uncover many of the mechanisms that viruses use to enter the CNS and cause disease. This review highlights a selection of neurotropic viruses that infect the CNS and explores the means by which they induce neurological diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis.

  20. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

  1. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  2. Discos en estrellas centrales de nebulosas planetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saker, L.; Gómez, M.

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of investigating the possible existence of disks in the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN), in this contribution we present the spectral energy distributions of ten CSPN that show infrared (IR) excesses. Basic parameters of the disks such as internal radius and temperature are derived. When comparing the characteristics of these disks with the previously found around white dwarfs, it was found that the latter are significantly smaller. The disk sizes are compared with associated nebula. In general, disks are very compact and small in relation to the characteristic dimension of the nebula.

  3. Vascularisation of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Mathew; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Fantin, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The developing central nervous system (CNS) is vascularised through the angiogenic invasion of blood vessels from a perineural vascular plexus, followed by continued sprouting and remodelling until a hierarchical vascular network is formed. Remarkably, vascularisation occurs without perturbing the intricate architecture of the neurogenic niches or the emerging neural networks. We discuss the mouse hindbrain, forebrain and retina as widely used models to study developmental angiogenesis in the mammalian CNS and provide an overview of key cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the vascularisation of these organs. PMID:26222953

  4. [A central pathological mechanism explaining diabetic complications?].

    PubMed

    Defraigne, J O

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated to micro- and macro-vascular lesions responsible for myocardial infarction, nephropathy, retinopathy and polyneuropathy. Four main pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed, all associated with hyperglycaemia: 1) increased flux in the polyol pathway; 2) increased flux in the hexosamine pathway; 3) protein kinase C activation; and 4) increased formation of advanced glycation endproducts. A common mechanism seems to play a central role in the activation of these various pathways. Indeed, an increased production of free radicals by mitochondria induced by hyperglycaemia may be responsible for the observed metabolic disturbances. The present article describes that theory and presents its possible therapeutic implications. PMID:16035314

  5. Acute central cervical spinal cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morse, S D

    1982-08-01

    Two cases of the acute central cervical spinal cord syndrome are presented. A 63-year-old diabetic hypertensive man manifested the syndrome as a result of atraumatic ischemia of the cord. A 32-year-old health man developed it after sustaining a hyperextension injury in a baseball game. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this entity are reviewed. Knowledge of this entity is of major importance in the analysis and management of head and neck trauma, as well as in the recognition and management of atraumatic neurologic dysfunction due to ischemia, hemorrhage, or thrombosis.

  6. Fully dynamical simulation of central nuclear collisions.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, Wilke; Romatschke, Paul; Pratt, Scott

    2013-11-27

    We present a fully dynamical simulation of central nuclear collisions around midrapidity at LHC energies. Unlike previous treatments, we simulate all phases of the collision, including the equilibration of the system. For the simulation, we use numerical relativity solutions to anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory for the preequilibrium stage, viscous hydrodynamics for the plasma equilibrium stage, and kinetic theory for the low-density hadronic stage. Our preequilibrium stage provides initial conditions for hydrodynamics, resulting in sizable radial flow. The resulting light particle spectra reproduce the measurements from the ALICE experiment at all transverse momenta. PMID:24329444

  7. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  8. Systematic Review of Central Post Stroke Pain: What Is Happening in the Central Nervous System?

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Gulseren; Kuru, Pinar

    2016-08-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most common central neuropathic pain syndromes seen after stroke. It is mainly related with vascular damage at certain brain territory and pain related to corresponding body areas. In the past, it was described as one of the definitive symptoms of thalamic lesion. However, recent findings suggest that it is not only seen after thalamic lesions but also seen after vascular lesions in any part of the central nervous system. Although there are certain hypotheses to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of CPSP, further evidence is needed. The majority of the cases are intractable and unresponsive to analgesic treatment. Electrical stimulation such as deep brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation seems to be effective in certain cases. In this systematic review, recent advancements related to CPSP mechanisms have been evaluated. Further investigations are needed in order to reveal the mystery of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CPSP. PMID:27175563

  9. Prepackaged central line kits reduce procedural mistakes during central line insertion: a randomized controlled prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central line catheter insertion is a complex procedure with a high cognitive load for novices. Providing a prepackaged all-inclusive kit is a simple measure that may reduce the cognitive load. We assessed whether the use of prepackaged all-inclusive central line insertion kits reduces procedural mistakes during central line catheter insertion by novices. Methods Thirty final year medical students and recently qualified physicians were randomized into two equal groups. One group used a prepackaged all-inclusive kit and the other used a standard kit containing only the central vein catheter and all other separately packaged components provided in a materials cart. The procedure was videotaped and analyzed by two blinded raters using a checklist. Both groups performed central line catheter insertion on a manikin, assisted by nursing students. Results The prepackaged kit group outperformed the standard kit group in four of the five quality indicators: procedure duration (26:26 ± 3:50 min vs. 31:27 ± 5:57 min, p = .01); major technical mistakes (3.1 ± 1.4 vs. 4.8 ± 2.6, p = .03); minor technical mistakes (5.2 ± 1.7 vs. 8.0 ± 3.2, p = .01); and correct steps (83 ± 5% vs. 75 ± 11%, p = .02). The difference for breaches of aseptic technique (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 3.0 ± 3.6, p = .06) was not statistically significant. Conclusions Prepackaged all-inclusive kits for novices improved the procedure quality and saved staff time resources in a controlled simulation environment. Future studies are needed to address whether central line kits also improve patient safety in hospital settings. PMID:23631396

  10. Management of ischemic stroke in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Budincevic, Hrvoje; Tiu, Cristina; Bereczki, Daniel; Kõrv, Janika; Tsiskaridze, Alexander; Niederkorn, Kurt; Czlonkowska, Anna; Demarin, Vida

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability in Europe. Central and Eastern European countries have the highest incidence and mortality rates through Europe. The improvements in stroke prevention and treatment in Central and Eastern European countries did not completely reach the quality parameters present in Western European countries. We present features of current management of stroke in Central and Eastern European countries.

  11. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  12. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  13. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  14. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  15. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  16. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  17. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  18. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs....

  19. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs....

  20. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs....

  1. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  2. Central Falls High School: First Year Transformation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Amy; Whitney, Joye; Shah, Hardeek; Foley, Ellen; Dure, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    In January 2010, the Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE) identified Central Falls High School (CFHS) as one of the state's persistently lowest-achieving schools. The Central Falls School District (CFSD) and the Central Falls Teachers Union (CFTU) considered the transformation model but could not come to an agreement initially around…

  3. THE LOCUS COERULEUS AND CENTRAL CHEMOSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Gargaglioni, Luciane H.; Hartzler, Lynn K.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) lies in the dorsal pons and supplies noradrenergic (NA) input to many regions of the brain, including respiratory control areas. The LC may provide tonic input for basal respiratory drive and is involved in central chemosensitivity since focal acidosis of the region stimulates ventilation and ablation reduces CO2-induced increased ventilation. The output of LC is modulated by both serotonergic and glutamatergic inputs. A large percentage of LC neurons are intrinsically activated by hypercapnia. This percentage and the magnitude of their response are highest in young neonates and decrease dramatically after postnatal day P10. The cellular bases for intrinsic chemosensitivity of LC neurons are comprised of multiple factors, primary among them being reduced extracellular and intracellular pH, which inhibit inwardly rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels, and activate L-type Ca2+ channels. Activation of KCa channels in LC neurons may limit their ultimate response to hypercapnia. Finally, the LC mediates central chemosensitivity and contains pH-sensitive neurons in amphibians, suggesting that the LC has a long-standing phylogenetic role in respiratory control. PMID:20435170

  4. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  5. Psychosocial Factors and Central Sensitivity Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Leah M.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSSs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders (e.g., fibromyalgia [FM], irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], chronic headache, temporomandibular disorders [TMDs], pelvic pain syndromes) that share common symptoms, with persistent pain being the most prominent feature. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of CSSs are currently incompletely understood, central sensitization has emerged as one of the significant mechanisms. Given that there are currently no known cures for CSSs, people living with these disorders must learn to cope with and manage their symptoms throughout their lives. Medical interventions alone have not proven to be sufficient for helping people with CSSs manage their symptoms. A biopsychosocial perspective that considers the ways that biological, psychological, and social factors work independently and jointly to affect a person's experience is the most effective conceptualization and guide for effective treatment. In this article, we discuss several psychological and social features that may influence the experience of a person with CSS and their symptom management, regardless of their specific diagnosis. We highlight the longitudinal aspect of adjustment to illness, the distinction between psychosocial factors as causes of symptoms versus modifiers and perpetuators of symptoms, dispel the notion that all patients with the same diagnosis are a homogeneous group (the “patient-uniformity myth”), and acknowledge the importance of environmental and situational context on symptom management for individuals with any CSS. PMID:26088211

  6. Centralized Planning for Multiple Exploratory Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Barrett, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    A computer program automatically generates plans for a group of robotic vehicles (rovers) engaged in geological exploration of terrain. The program rapidly generates multiple command sequences that can be executed simultaneously by the rovers. Starting from a set of high-level goals, the program creates a sequence of commands for each rover while respecting hardware constraints and limitations on resources of each rover and of hardware (e.g., a radio communication terminal) shared by all the rovers. First, a separate model of each rover is loaded into a centralized planning subprogram. The centralized planning software uses the models of the rovers plus an iterative repair algorithm to resolve conflicts posed by demands for resources and by constraints associated with the all the rovers and the shared hardware. During repair, heuristics are used to make planning decisions that will result in solutions that will be better and will be found faster than would otherwise be possible. In particular, techniques from prior solutions of the multiple-traveling- salesmen problem are used as heuristics to generate plans in which the paths taken by the rovers to assigned scientific targets are shorter than they would otherwise be.

  7. Parasitoses with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2014-10-01

    Most of the parasitoses manifest systemically, including the central nervous system (CNS). Among the most prevalent parasitoses in Central Europe (cysticercosis, toxocarosis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis), cerebral involvement is well recognized and part of the clinical presentation, which cannot be neglected. CNS involvement results from invasion of larvae of these parasites via the blood stream or by direct migration into the CNS. Most frequently larvae reside within the cerebral parenchyma, but sometimes also within the ventricles, in the meningeas within cerebral aneurysms, or in the parenchyma of the spinal cord. Depending on the stage of their development, they cause a local defect or more widespread damage, such as encephalitis, ventriculitis, ependymitis, arachnoiditis, meningitis, myelitis, polyradiculitis, mechanical obstruction of the arterial or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, or vasculitis with appropriate clinical presentations. These include epilepsy, headache, impaired consciousness, orientation, cognition, focal neurological motor, sensory, or vegetative deficits, or visual impairment. CNS involvement is diagnosed on the clinical presentation, the epidemiological background, blood and CSF investigations, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy. Treatment is based on various antihelminthic agents and, occasionally, surgery. PMID:25297698

  8. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic-scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are "random environment" settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic-scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark's law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)-in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes-and present "randomized counterparts" to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  9. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic—scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are “random environment” settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic—scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark’s law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)—in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes—and present “randomized counterparts” to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  10. Does the central dogma still stand?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Prions are agents of analog, protein conformation-based inheritance that can confer beneficial phenotypes to cells, especially under stress. Combined with genetic variation, prion-mediated inheritance can be channeled into prion-independent genomic inheritance. Latest screening shows that prions are common, at least in fungi. Thus, there is non-negligible flow of information from proteins to the genome in modern cells, in a direct violation of the Central Dogma of molecular biology. The prion-mediated heredity that violates the Central Dogma appears to be a specific, most radical manifestation of the widespread assimilation of protein (epigenetic) variation into genetic variation. The epigenetic variation precedes and facilitates genetic adaptation through a general ‘look-ahead effect’ of phenotypic mutations. This direction of the information flow is likely to be one of the important routes of environment-genome interaction and could substantially contribute to the evolution of complex adaptive traits. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka, Pierre Pontarotti and Juergen Brosius. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers’ Reports section. PMID:22913395

  11. Recent advances in central congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Nadia; Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16 000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated neonatal hypothyroidism. Alternatively, coexisting growth hormones or ACTH deficiency may pose additional risks, such as life threatening hypoglycaemia. Genetic ascertainment is possible in a minority of cases and reveals mutations in genes controlling the TSH biosynthetic pathway (TSHB, TRHR, IGSF1) in isolated TSH deficiency, or early (HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, SOX3, OTX2) or late (PROP1, POU1F1) pituitary transcription factors in combined hormone deficits. Since TSH cannot be used as an indicator of euthyroidism, adequacy of treatment can be difficult to monitor due to a paucity of alternative biomarkers. This review will summarize the normal physiology of pituitary development and the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, then describe known genetic causes of isolated central hypothyroidism and combined pituitary hormone deficits associated with TSH deficiency. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of these conditions will then be discussed. PMID:26416826

  12. Issues concerning centralized versus decentralized power deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.; Harty, Richard B.; Robin, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study of proposed lunar base architectures to identify issues concerning centralized and decentralized power system deployment options are presented. The power system consists of the energy producing system (power plant), the power conditioning components used to convert the generated power into the form desired for transmission, the transmission lines that conduct this power from the power sources to the loads, and the primary power conditioning hardware located at the user end. Three power system architectures, centralized, hybrid, and decentralized, were evaluated during the course of this study. Candidate power sources were characterized with respect to mass and radiator area. Two electrical models were created for each architecture to identify the preferred method of power transmission, dc or ac. Each model allowed the transmission voltage level to be varied at assess the impact on power system mass. The ac power system models also permitted the transmission line configurations and placements to determine the best conductor construction and installation location. Key parameters used to evaluate each configuration were power source and power conditioning component efficiencies, masses, and radiator areas; transmission line masses and operating temperatures; and total system mass.

  13. Centralized versus decentralized lunar PMAD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    A study of proposed lunar base architectures was performed to identify issues concerning centralized and decentralized power system deployment options. The power management and distribution (PMAD) system analysis is addressed. The PMAD system consists of power conditioning components that convert the generated power into the form desired for transmission, transmission lines that conduct this power from the power sources to the loads, and power conditioning hardware that converts the power into the form selected for secondary distribution to the loads. Three PMAD architecture configurations were evaluated: centralized, hybrid, and decentralized. Two models were created for each architecture to identify the preferred method of power transmission, DC or AC. Each model permitted the load power demands and distribution voltage level to be varied to assess the impact on power system mass. The AC power system models also allowed the distribution frequency to be changed. Finally, individual models were developed for different transmission line configurations and placements to determine the best conductor construction and installation location.

  14. Protection of mammal diversity in Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Clinton N.; Giri, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Central America is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, but varies widely in the attention its countries devote to conservation. Protected areas, widely considered the cornerstone of conservation, were not always created with the intent of conserving that biodiversity. We assessed how well the protected-area system of Central America includes the region's mammal diversity. This first required a refinement of existing range maps to reduce their extensive errors of commission (i.e., predicted presences in places where species do not occur). For this refinement, we used the ecological limits of each species to identify and remove unsuitable areas from the range. We then compared these maps with the locations of protected areas to measure the habitat protected for each of the region's 250 endemic mammals. The species most vulnerable to extinction—those with small ranges—were largely outside protected areas. Nevertheless, the most strictly protected areas tended toward areas with many small-ranged species. To improve the protection coverage of mammal diversity in the region, we identified a set of priority sites that would best complement the existing protected areas. Protecting these new sites would require a relatively small increase in the total area protected, but could greatly enhance mammal conservation.

  15. Refined genetic localization for central core disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mulley, J.C.; Kozman, H.M.; Phillips, H.A.; Gedeon, A.K.; McCure, J.A.; Haan, E.A. ); Iles, D.E. ); Gregg, R.G.; Hogan, K.; Couch, F.J. ); MacLennan, D.H. )

    1993-02-01

    Central core disease (CCO) is an autosomal dominant myopathy clinically distinct from malignant hyperthermia (MHS). In a large kindred in which the gene for CCO is segregating, two-point linkage analysis gave a maximum lod score, between the central core disease locus (CCO) and the ryanodine receptor locus (RYR1), of 11.8, with no recombination. Mutation within RYR1 is responsible for MHS, and RYR1 is also a candidate locus for CCO. A combination of physical mapping using a radiation-induced human-hamster hybrid panel and of multipoint linkage analysis using the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain families established the marker order and sex-average map distances (in centimorgans) on the background map as D19S75-(5.2)-D19S9-(3.4)-D19S191-(2.2)-RYR1-(1.7)-D19S190-(1.6)-D19S47-(2.0)-CYP2B. Recombination was observed between CCO and the markers flanking RYR1. These linkage data are consistent with the hypothesis that CCO and RYR1 are allelic. The most likely position for CCO is near RYR1, with a multipoint lod score of 11.4, in 19q13.1 between D19S191 and D19S190, within the same interval as MHS (RYR1). 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  17. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  18. Clinical Assessment of Central Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Central aortic blood pressure (CBP) is increasingly considered a better cardiovascular prognostic marker than conventional cuff brachial blood pressure. Because CBP cannot be directly measured noninvasively, it has to be estimated from peripheral pressure pulses. To assess estimated CBP appropriately, the accuracy and features of the estimation method should be considered. The aim of this review is to provide basic knowledge and information useful for interpreting and assessing estimated CBP from a methodological point of view. Precise peripheral pressure pulse recording has been enabled by the introduction of arterial applanation tonometry, for which the radial artery may be the optimal site. An automated tonometry device utilizing a sensor array is preferable in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. Calibration of a peripheral pressure waveform has unresolved problems for any estimation method, due to imperfect brachial sphygmomanometry. However, if central and peripheral pressure calibrations are equivalent, two major methods to estimate CBP—those based on generalized pressure transfer function or radial late systolic pressure—may be comparable in their accuracy of CBP parameter estimation. PMID:22866025

  19. Episodic karstification, Edwards Plateau, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kastning, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Edwards Plateau and Llano Basin of central Texas form one of the largest contiguous regions of karst in North America (>80,000 km/sup 2/). Solutional phenomena show that several major episodes of karstification are documentable from late Cambrian to Holocene. Relict landforms representing intervals of solutional activity correlate well with the accepted geomorphic chronology for central Texas. Secondary porosity are vertically controlled by lithology, topographic incision of streams, position of the potentiometric surface, and attitude of bedding. Areally, development of karst is strongly influenced by the extent, density, and orientation of fractures and by hydrodynamic characteristics such as points of recharge and discharge, degree of integration of groundwater flow paths, and hydraulic gradients. Early episodes of karstification correspond to intervals of subaerial exposure of carbonate rocks during marine regression or following regional uplift. Paleokarst is prevalent in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. Infilled dolines and solution-collapse breccias have been exhumed by extensive regional denudation during the Cenozoic Era. Subaerial conditions during the middle Cretaceous account for infilled solutional cavities within lower Cretaceous carbonate beds. The most extensive karstification began with regional uplift in the early Miocene. Enhanced relief along the Balcones escarpment promoted incision of streams, lowering of water tables, steepened hydraulic gradients, and increases in discharge. Caves at various-elevations attest to sequential dissection of the plateau during the late Quaternary.

  20. Central mechanisms II: pharmacology of brainstem pathways.

    PubMed

    Bolser, D C

    2009-01-01

    Following systemic administration, centrally acting antitussive drugs are generally assumed to act in the brainstem to inhibit cough. However, recent work in humans has raised the possibility of suprapontine sites of action for cough suppressants. For drugs that may act in the brainstem, the specific locations, types of neurones affected, and receptor specificities of the compounds represent important issues regarding their cough-suppressant actions. Two medullary areas that have received the most attention regarding the actions of antitussive drugs are the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and the caudal ventrolateral respiratory column. Studies that have implicated these two medullary areas have employed both microinjection and in vitro recording methods to control the location of action of the antitussive drugs. Other brainstem regions contain neurones that participate in the production of cough and could represent potential sites of action of antitussive drugs. These regions include the raphe nuclei, pontine nuclei, and rostral ventrolateral medulla. Specific receptor subtypes have been associated with the suppression of cough at central sites, including 5-HT1A, opioid (mu, kappa, and delta), GABA-B, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK-1) and neurokinin-2, non-opioid (NOP-1), cannabinoid, dopaminergic, and sigma receptors. Aside from tachykinin NK-1 receptors in the NTS, relatively little is known regarding the receptor specificity of putative antitussive drugs in particular brainstem regions. Our understanding of the mechanisms of action of antitussive drugs would be significantly advanced by further work in this area. PMID:18825342

  1. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  2. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  3. Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Keith R; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude is usually attributed to Angelo Mosso who published in 1898. It can occur in susceptible individuals at altitude above 2000 m, but at very high altitude, say above 5000 m, it will occur in most subjects. Severity is correlated with ventilatory responsiveness, particularly to hypoxia. Theoretically, it should spontaneously improve with time and acclimatization. Although the time course of resolution is not well described, it appears to persist for more than a month at 5000 m.It occurs due to the interaction of hypocapnia with stages 1 and 2 NREM sleep, in the presence of increased loop-gain. The hypocapnia is secondary to hypoxic ventilatory drive. With acclimatization, one might expect that the increase in PaO2 and cerebral blood flow (CBF) would mitigate the CSA. However, over time, both the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses increase, causing an increase in loop gain which is a counteracting force.The severity of the CSA can be reduced by descent, supplemental oxygen therapy, oral or intravenous acetazolamide. Recent studies suggest that acute further increases in cerebral blood flow will substantially, but temporarily, reduce central sleep apnea, without altering acid based balance. Very recently, bi-level noninvasive ventilation has also been shown to help (mechanism unknown). Sleep quality can be improved independent of the presence of CSA by the use of benzodiazepine sedation. PMID:27343103

  4. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Horton, Richard H.; Zdeb, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.

  5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Taojun; Kaplan, Samuel; Kamboj, Mini; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are potentially life threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. The initial clinical presentations of many CNS infections are non-specific, making a definitive etiologic diagnosis challenging. Nucleic acid in vitro amplification-based molecular methods are increasingly being applied for routine microbial detection. These methods are a vast improvement over conventional techniques with the advantage of rapid turnaround and higher sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, molecular methods performed on cerebrospinal fluid samples are considered the new gold standard for diagnosis of CNS infection caused by pathogens, which are otherwise difficult to detect. Commercial diagnostic platforms offer various monoplex and multiplex PCR assays for convenient testing of targets that cause similar clinical illness. Pan-omic molecular platforms possess potential for use in this area. Although molecular methods are predicted to be widely used in diagnosing and monitoring CNS infections, results generated by these methods need to be carefully interpreted in combination with clinical findings. This review summarizes the currently available armamentarium of molecular assays for diagnosis of central nervous system infections, their application, and future approaches. PMID:27686677

  6. Floods in Central Texas, December 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R., Jr.; Slade, Raymond M.; Jennings, Marshall E.

    1996-01-01

    Record-breaking peak discharges were recorded at eight U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations in central Texas during December 1991 (fig. 1), and substantial peak discharges also occurred at numerous other stations. Large peak discharges during December are unusual in central Texas. The rainfall causing the flooding began on December 18, with 6-day totals exceeding 10 inches (in.) in the area of heaviest rainfall.This report documents peak discharges and runoff volumes during December 1991. Recurrence intervals were determined for the peak discharges and runoff volumes for 1-, 3-, and 7-day periods. A recurrence interval references the approximate number of years during which a given peak discharge or runoff volumes is expected to be equaled or exceeded only once. A flood of a given recurrence interval is defined on the basis of peak discharge – for example, a 100-year flood is defined as the peak discharge that has a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

  7. Morphology of AGN in the Central Kiloparsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Paul

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of the central kiloparsec of AGN have revealed a wealth of structure, particularly nuclear bars and spirals, that are distinct from analogous features in the disks of spiral galaxies. WFPC2 and NICMOS images of a large sample of AGN observed at high spatial resolution make it possible to quantify the frequency and detailed properties of these structures. Nearly all AGN have nuclear spiral dust lanes in the central kiloparsec, while only a small minority contain nuclear bars. If these nuclear dust spirals trace shocks in the circumnuclear, gaseous disks, they may dissipate sufficient angular momentum to fuel the active nucleus. I would like to thank my collaborators in this project---Rick Pogge, John Mulchaey, and Mike Regan---for allowing me to present this work in advance of publication, as well as Johan Knapen for organizing such an interesting meeting. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers GO-7867 and GO-8597 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  9. Central Tibetan Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Wei-Liang; Zeng, Lu; Li, Jian-Feng; Xu, Li-Feng

    2014-12-01

    We report the occurrences of the remnants of a Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, encompassing an area of ~ 2 × 105 km2 in central Tibet. The plateau remnants include large volumes of pillow basalt formed largely by emergent to subaerial eruption, minor ultramafic intrusives and cumulates, exotic blocks of limestone, radiolarian chert, graywacke, and shale. Isotopic and paleontological dating suggest two major plateau eruptive events at 193-173 Ma and at 128-104 Ma, respectively. The basalts are characterized by enrichment of incompatible elements and a wide range of Sr-Nd isotope composition (initial εNd from -3.71 to + 7.9, initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.703927 to 0.707618). The trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that these basalts are of affinity with those from the Kerguelen and Tethyan plumes, indicative of a plume mantle upwelling origin with involvement of continental material. The wholesale obduction of the Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, along with the dismembered normal oceanic crustal fragments, over the Tibetan continental crust could have given rise to perhaps 2 km elevation of central Tibet during the Late Cretaceous.

  10. NOx emissions from a Central California dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Alam S.; Ogunjemiyo, Segun O.; Trabue, Steven; Ashkan, Shawn; Scoggin, Kenwood; Steele, Julie; Olea, Catalina; Middala, Srikar; Vu, Kennedy; Scruggs, Austen; Addala, Laxmi R.; Nana, Lucien

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations of NOx (NO + NO2) were monitored downwind from a Central California dairy facility during 2011 and 2012. NOx concentrations at the dairy were significantly higher than the background levels during August 2011 primarily due to the presence of elevated NO, but were indistinguishable from background concentrations during January and April 2012. A Gaussian plume model (AERMOD) and a Lagrangian back trajectory model (Wind Trax) were used to estimate the flux of NO from the dairy during August 2011 with the assumption that emissions were primarily from animal feed. NO emissions from silage were also directly measured from feed to provide additional insight into the sources. Isolation flux chamber measurements imply an NO flux from the feed of about 1.3 × 10-3 g m-2 h-1, but these relatively low fluxes are inconsistent with the elevated NO concentrations observed during August 2011. This implies that either the flux chamber method grossly underestimates the true NO emissions from feed, or that most of the ambient NO measured at the dairy is from other sources. Emissions from farm machinery may account for the NO concentrations observed. Animal feed thus appears to be a small contributor to NOx emissions within Central California.

  11. Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rhodnius prolixus is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. In Central America, it was first discovered in 1915 in El Salvador, from where it spread northwest to Guatemala and Mexico, and southeast to Nicaragua and Costa Rica, arriving also in Honduras in the late 1950s. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) by the antimalaria services of Costa Rica prevented its spread southwards, and similar IRS programmes appear to have eliminated it from El Salvador by the late 1970s. In 1997, by resolution of the Ministers of Health of the seven Central American countries, a multinational initiative against Chagas disease (IPCA) was launched with one of the specific objectives being the elimination of R. prolixus from the region. As a result, more and more infested areas were encountered, and progressively sprayed using an IRS strategy already deployed against Triatoma infestans in the southern cone countries of South America. In 2008, Guatemala became the first of these countries to be formally certified as free of Chagas disease transmission due to R. prolixus. The other infested countries have since been similarly certified, and none of these has reported the presence of R. prolixus since June 2010. Further surveillance is required, but current evidence suggests that R. prolixus may now been eliminated from throughout the mesoamerican region, with a corresponding decline in the incidence of T. cruzi infections. PMID:22357219

  12. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression.

  13. Eye movement correlates of acquired central dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Schattka, Kerstin I; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-08-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has been no research attempting to analyze both word-based viewing time measures and local fixation patterns in dyslexic readers. The goal of the study was to find out whether specific eye movement parameters reflect pathologically preferred segmental reading in contrast to lexical reading. We compared oral reading of single words of normal controls (n=11) with six aphasic participants (two cases of deep, surface and residual dyslexia each). Participants were asked to read aloud lines of target words differing in length and frequency. Segmental reading was characterized by deviant spatial distribution of saccadic landing positions with initial fixations located mainly at the beginning of the word, while lexical readers showed the normative 'preferred landing positions' left to the center of the words. Contrary to expectation, word length did not distinguish between segmental and lexical readers, while word frequency showed the expected effect for lexical readers only. Their mean fixation duration was already prolonged during first pass reading reflecting their attempts of immediate access to lexical information. After first pass reading, re-reading time was significantly increased in all participants with acquired central dyslexia due to their exceedingly higher monitoring demands for oral reading.

  14. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  15. Reading performance and central field loss.

    PubMed

    Kanonidou, E

    2011-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in Europe and the U.S. and a leading cause of significant loss of visual acuity in elderly patients. Reading is a key visual task in everyday living involving a synthesis of a number of different motor, sensory and cognitive functions. When the centre of a reader's visual field is obscured, reading speed declines and oculomotor pattern differs, compared to normal reading. Improvement in the generation of visual stimuli using computer-generated images and projection/display systems as well as advances in eye movement recording techniques, including infrared pupil tracking and magnetic search coils, have contributed greatly to our understanding of these sensorimotor abnormalities. The developed reading strategies have been thoroughly investigated in individuals with central field loss either induced artificially or related to eye pathology.The following review aims at presenting the contemporary literature regarding the sensory and oculomotor deficits in reading ability, resulting from central field loss and should contribute to a greater understanding of the functional visual deficit caused by this visual impairment.

  16. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

  17. Reading performance and central field loss.

    PubMed

    Kanonidou, E

    2011-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in Europe and the U.S. and a leading cause of significant loss of visual acuity in elderly patients. Reading is a key visual task in everyday living involving a synthesis of a number of different motor, sensory and cognitive functions. When the centre of a reader's visual field is obscured, reading speed declines and oculomotor pattern differs, compared to normal reading. Improvement in the generation of visual stimuli using computer-generated images and projection/display systems as well as advances in eye movement recording techniques, including infrared pupil tracking and magnetic search coils, have contributed greatly to our understanding of these sensorimotor abnormalities. The developed reading strategies have been thoroughly investigated in individuals with central field loss either induced artificially or related to eye pathology.The following review aims at presenting the contemporary literature regarding the sensory and oculomotor deficits in reading ability, resulting from central field loss and should contribute to a greater understanding of the functional visual deficit caused by this visual impairment. PMID:22110289

  18. [AIDS and tuberculosis in central Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Jemni, L; Bahri, S; Saadi, M; Letaif, A; Dhidah, M; Lahdhiri, H; Bouchoucha, S

    1991-05-01

    7 men and 2 women seropositive for HIV were carefully screened for tuberculosis in the internal medicine service of a hospital in Sousse, central Tunisia, and all tuberculosis patients aged 20-50 years registered at the tuberculosis treatment center in Sousse between May 1987-December 1988 were screened for HIV infections using the ELISA test. The HIV seropositive patients ranged in age from 21-42 years and averaged 28 at the time of diagnosis. Marriage to an HIV-positive man was the only risk factor for the 2 seropositive women. 1 of the men had hemophilia and the rest had travelled abroad and used drugs or had homosexual or heterosexual relations while outside Tunisia. 4 of the 9 HIV positive patients were diagnoses with tuberculosis, 2 with isolated pulmonary tuberculosis, 1 with pulmonary and hepatoslenic tuberculosis, and 1 with a cervical ganglionary tuberculosis. 3 of the 4 with tuberculosis had apparently normal thoracic X-rays. The 4 were treated with the normal course of antitubercular drugs for a year or more. Screening for HIV in the 104 tuberculosis patients aged 20-50 years revealed no cases of HIV infection. Tuberculosis appears to be 1 of the most frequent opportunistic infections among patients seropositive for HIV, but it is not an indicator or predictor of HIV infection in central Tunisia as it reportedly is in some African countries.

  19. Exploration in Ordovician of central Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.H.; Barratt, M.W.

    1985-12-01

    Deep wells in the central Michigan basin have provided sufficient data to define two new mappable formations - the Foster Formation and the Bruggers Formation. Recent conodont studies have corrected the age assignments of the strata containing these formations. Previously, the lower section (Foster) was classified as mostly Cambrian, and the upper unit (Bruggers) was identified as Early Ordovician. Conodont identifications indicate an Early and Middle Ordovician age for the Foster Formation and a Middle Ordovician age for the Bruggers Formation. The Michigan basin existed in embryonic form in the Late Cambrian, but the full outline of the present-day basin did not develop until Early Ordovician. Gas and condensate are produced from the Bruggers Formation as deep as 11,252 ft (3429 m). Geothermal investigations suggest that gas production is possible to the base of the Paleozoic section in the central basin (17,000 ft or 5181 m). Paleotemperatures were higher during the Paleozoic owing to 3000-4000 ft (914-1291 m) of additional sedimentary cover. Five wells are producing from the Bruggers Formation. All are deeper tests in anticlines producing from Devonian reservoirs discovered earlier. The structures are the result of vertical movements of basement fault blocks activated by regional stresses. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Fluorine, fluorite, and fluorspar in central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorine (F) is a widespread element that was deposited in a variety of rocks, minerals, and geologic environments in central Colorado. It occurs as a trace element, as a major component of the mineral fluorite (CaFs), and as a major economic source of fluorine in fluorspar deposits, which are massive concentrations of fluorite. This study has compiled available geochemical analyses of rocks, both unmineralized and mineralized, to determine the distribution of fluorine in specific age-lithologic categories, ranging from 1.8-giga-annum (Ga) metamorphic rocks to modern soils, throughout central Colorado. It also draws upon field studies of fluorine-rich mineral deposits, including fluorspar deposits, to decipher the nearly two-billion-year-long geologic history of fluorine in the study area, with implications for mineral-resource evaluations and exploration. The resulting compilation provides an important inventory of the naturally occurring levels and sources of fluorine that ultimately weather, erode, and become part of surface waters that are used for domestic water supplies in densely populated areas along the Colorado Front Range. Most commonly, fluorine is a trace element in virtually all rocks in the region. In the 3,798 unmineralized rocks that were analyzed for fluorine in the study area, the average fluorine content was 1,550 parts per million (ppm). The median was 640 ppm, nearly identical to the average crustal abundance of 650 ppm, and some high-fluorine rocks in the Pikes Peak area skewed the average to a value much greater than the median. Most unmineralized age-lithologic rock suites, including Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, 1.7- and 1.4-Ga granitic batholiths, Cambrian igneous rocks, Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, and Laramide and Tertiary igneous rocks, had median fluorine values of 400 to 740 ppm fluorine. In all suites, however, a small number of analyzed samples contained more than 1 percent (10,000 ppm) fluorine. The 1.1-Ga plutonic rocks

  1. Dynamics of the Central American Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieytez, Begonia; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; José Machín, Francisco; José Gavidia, Francisco; Castro, Mi

    2014-05-01

    The Central American Pacific (CAP) is the area located in front of the Central America coast, within the Eastern Tropical Pacific region (ETP). The CAP dynamic is strongly influenced by the NE and SE trade winds, also this area is characterized by the presence of coastal wind jets at Gulf of Papagayo and Gulf of Panama, which are product of wind pulses blowing through the mountain gaps of the central cordillera, generating important eddies as the cyclonic eddy of Costa Rica Dome (CRD). Nevertheless, the implications of the topography of the continental margin of Central America in the determination of the dynamic processes in the area related to the action of winds and currents are still unknown. Between November and December 2010 (dry season), onboard the R/V Miguel Oliver, oceanographic parameters were measured in the CAP area, which despite its importance, has been poorly investigated until date. Available oceanographic information was processed in order to describe the dynamic along the Pacific coast of Central America, which is notable for its particularly strong stratification in the water column and the distribution of properties, as response to the presence of areas with high temperatures (above 28° C) and other areas with salinity minimum (less than 24). In this study was possible to distinguish three hydrographic zones: PM, south, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Panama, PY, in the center, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Papagayo, and FC, to the north, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Fonseca. The surface transformations of the water bodies, from south to north, observed in these zones could be indicting the presence of Costa Rica current. The prevailing wind system is the main force of variations in the surface distribution of the temperature in the area, and they are responsible of important structures as the anticyclonic eddy in front Gulf of Fonseca, eddies derived from the wind pulses of Gulf of Papagayo, and the relatively low temperatures in

  2. Central galaxies in different environments: Do they have similar properties?

    SciTech Connect

    Lacerna, I.; Avila-Reese, V.; Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.

    2014-06-10

    We perform an exhaustive comparison among central galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalogs in different local environments at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.08. The central galaxies are separated into two categories: group centrals (host halos containing satellites) and field centrals (host halos without satellites). From the latter, we select two subsamples: isolated centrals and bright field centrals, both with the same magnitude limit. The stellar mass (M {sub s}) distributions of the field and group central galaxies are different, which explains why in general the field central galaxies are mainly located in the blue cloud/star-forming regions, whereas the group central galaxies are strongly biased to the red sequence/passive regions. The isolated centrals occupy the same regions as the bright field centrals since both populations have similar M {sub s} distributions. At parity of M {sub s}, the color and specific star formation rate (sSFR) distributions of the samples are similar, especially between field and group centrals. Furthermore, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass (M {sub s}-M {sub h}) relation of isolated galaxies does not depend on the color, sSFR, and morphological type. For systems without satellites, the M {sub s}-M {sub h} relation steepens at high halo masses compared to group centrals, which is a consequence of assuming a one-to-one relation between group total stellar mass and halo mass. Under the same assumption, the scatter around the M {sub s}-M {sub h} relation of centrals with satellites increases with halo mass. Our results suggest that the mass growth of central galaxies is mostly driven by the halo mass, with environment and mergers playing a secondary role.

  3. Post-treatment lyme syndrome and central sensitization.

    PubMed

    Batheja, Shweta; Nields, Jenifer A; Landa, Alla; Fallon, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Central sensitization is a process that links a variety of chronic pain disorders that are characterized by hypersensitivity to noxious stimuli and pain in response to non-noxious stimuli. Among these disorders, treatments that act centrally may have greater efficacy than treatments acting peripherally. Because many individuals with post-treatment Lyme syndrome (PTLS) have a similar symptom cluster, central sensitization may be a process mediating or exacerbating their sensory processing. This article reviews central sensitization, reports new data on sensory hyperarousal in PTLS, explores the potential role of central sensitization in symptom chronicity, and suggests new directions for neurophysiologic and treatment research. PMID:24026711

  4. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Central auditory tests.

    PubMed

    Dlouha, Olga; Novak, Alexej; Vokral, Jan

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this project is to use central auditory tests for diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI), in order to confirm relationship between speech-language impairment and central auditory processing. We attempted to establish special dichotic binaural tests in Czech language modified for younger children. Tests are based on behavioral audiometry using dichotic listening (different auditory stimuli that presented to each ear simultaneously). The experimental tasks consisted of three auditory measures (test 1-3)-dichotic listening of two-syllable words presented like binaural interaction tests. Children with SLI are unable to create simple sentences from two words that are heard separately but simultaneously. Results in our group of 90 pre-school children (6-7 years old) confirmed integration deficit and problems with quality of short-term memory. Average rate of success of children with specific language impairment was 56% in test 1, 64% in test 2 and 63% in test 3. Results of control group: 92% in test 1, 93% in test 2 and 92% in test 3 (p<0.001). Our results indicate the relationship between disorders of speech-language perception and central auditory processing disorders. PMID:17382411

  5. Ordovician sponges from west-central and east-central Alaska and western Yukon Territory, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Blodgett, R.B.; Britt, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate collections of fossil sponges have been recovered over a several-year period from a few scattered localities in west-central and east-central Alaska, and from westernmost Yukon Territory of Canada. Two fragments of the demosponge agelasiid cliefdenellid, Cliefdenella alaskaensis Stock, 1981, and mostly small unidentifiable additional fragments were recovered from a limestone debris flow bed in the White Mountain area, McGrath A-4 Quadrangle in west-central Alaska. Fragments of the agelasiid actinomorph girtyocoeliids Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby & Potter, 1986) and Girtyocoelia minima n. sp., plus a specimen of the vaceletid colospongiid Corymbospongia amplia Rigby, Karl, Blodgett & Baichtal, 2005, were collected from probable Ashgillian age beds in the Livengood B-5 Quadrangle in east-central Alaska. A more extensive suite of corymbospongiids, including Corymbospongia betella Rigby, Potter & Blodgett, 1988, C. mica Rigby & Potter, 1986, and C.(?) perforata Rigby & Potter, 1986, along with the vaceletiid colospongiids Pseudo-imperatoria minima? (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and Pseudoimperatoria media (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and with the heteractinid Nucha naucum? Pickett & Jell, 1983, were recovered from uppermost part of the Jones Ridge Limestone (Ashgillian), on the south flank of Jones Ridge, in the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle, in westernmost Yukon Territory, Canada. The fossil sponges from the McGrath A-4 and Livengood B-5 quadrangles were recovered from attached Siberian terranes, and those from the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle were recovered from an allochthonous Laurentian terrane in the Yukon Territory.

  6. Implementation of harm reduction in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Anya; Stuikyte, Raminta; Bykov, Roman

    2007-03-01

    Harm reduction (HR) interventions began in Central-Eastern Europe and Central Asia in the mid-1980s with the establishment of substitution treatment (ST) in Yugoslavia. In the mid-1990s, the first needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) opened in selected countries following the outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs). The number of NSPs continues to increase via a combination of international and state funding with large expansions made possible via the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. While ST is still unaccepted in several countries, others have made some progress which is especially visible in South Eastern and Central Europe and the Baltic States. Development of regional networking including Central and Eastern European HR Network and a number of national networks helped to coordinate joint advocacy effort and in some cases sustain HR services. Activism of drug users and people living with HIV (PLWH) increased in the region in the last several years and helped to better link HR with the affected communities. Still a number of challenges remain important for the movement today such as repressive drug policies; stigma and discrimination of IDUs, PLWH, sex workers and inmates, including poor access to prevention and treatment; lack of important components of HR work such as naloxone distribution and hepatitis B vaccination, prevention in prisons; issues of quality control; sustaining services after finishing of major international projects; reaching of adequate coverage and others.

  7. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: Focus on the central melanocortin system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiologi...

  8. Community Resources Guide for Central Florida = Una Guia de Recursos en la Comunidad de Florida Central.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Linda, Comp.

    Designed to orient Hispanic refugees to the services that are available in Central Florida, this bilingual guide consists of a section of general information on living and working in the United States and a section devoted to various public and private agencies. Provided first are addresses and phone numbers of various government agencies:…

  9. Atmospheric hydrocarbon chemistry in central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Ann Elizabeth

    Hydrocarbon chemistry plays a central role in the determination of the concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter in the ambient troposphere. Many years of research have led to a preliminary understanding of the complex chemistry of the thousands of hydrocarbons that are emitted into the atmosphere by biogenic and anthropogenic sources. However, much remains unresolved. This thesis will address several of the unresolved issues in the complex hydrocarbon chemistry that occurs in urban atmospheres. The first portion of this thesis reports atmospheric concentrations of hydrocarbons in Central Texas. These concentrations were compared to hydrocarbon concentrations observed in other urban areas. Probable sources of atmospheric hydrocarbons within Central Texas were identified from spatially resolved hydrocarbon emission inventories. These measurements and identified probable sources suggest the second major portion of the thesis: an analysis of one of the most commonly used source resolution tools, the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) method. CMB uses linear algebra to identify the sources and source strengths of hydrocarbons in ambient air samples. However, there are several assumptions made by the model to accomplish this task, and these assumptions are believed to impair the model's accuracy. Therefore, the second portion of the thesis characterized the uncertainties associated with the accuracy of CMB, particularly when it was applied to ambient data from Southeast Texas. A multistage box model was constructed to simulate ambient hydrocarbon concentrations in Houston. The box model simulated the inputs of hydrocarbon sources into a hypothetical air mass, while accounting for the unique reactivities of each of the modeled hydrocarbons. The CMB tool was then applied to the data generated by the box model and used to estimate source strengths. The source strengths estimated by CMB were compared to the original inputs to the model. The results indicated

  10. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  11. Does central sensitization help explain idiopathic overactive bladder?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger; Wein, Alan; Bruehl, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) can include dysfunction of sensory pathways of the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in bladder hypersensitivity. Central sensitization describes an induced state of spinal hypersensitivity that is associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders that share many attributes with OAB, albeit without the presence of pain. As such, the concept of central sensitization might be relevant to understanding the mechanisms and clinical manifestations of OAB syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of central sensitization, and the evidence that supports a role of central sensitization in OAB, including the potential implications of mechanisms of central sensitization for the treatment of patients with OAB could provide a novel approach to the treatment of patients with this disease. Such an approach would be especially relevant to those patients with central sensitization-related comorbidities, and has the potential to improve the outcomes of these patients in particular.

  12. Does central sensitization help explain idiopathic overactive bladder?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, W. Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger; Wein, Alan; Bruehl, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) can include dysfunction of sensory pathways of the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in bladder hypersensitivity. Central sensitization describes an induced state of spinal hypersensitivity that is associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders that share many attributes with OAB, albeit without the presence of pain. As such, the concept of central sensitization might be relevant to understanding the mechanisms and clinical manifestations of OAB syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of central sensitization, and the evidence that supports a role of central sensitization in OAB, including the potential implications of mechanisms of central sensitization for the treatment of patients with OAB could provide a novel approach to the treatment of patients with this disease. Such an approach would be especially relevant to those patients with central sensitization-related comorbidities, and has the potential to improve the outcomes of these patients in particular. PMID:27245505

  13. Bedrock topography of west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.; Runkle, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock in Iowa (Hershey 1969) generally is overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, consisting of glacial till and glacial outwash, ranges in thickness from zero to more than 500 feet in western Iowa; the alluvium in stream valleys ranges in thickness from less than 1 to more than 70 feet. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 12-county area in west-central Iowa, is the eighth of a series of nine reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock topograhy of Iowa. 

  14. Taro monoculture of central New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Morren, G.E.B. Jr.; Hyndman, D.C.

    1987-09-01

    An ancient, sustainable, and low risk Colocasia taro monoculture has persisted until modern times among the Mountain Ok peoples of central New Guinea. There is a monoculture-polyculture axis in the region with taro monocultures predominant in the rain forests of the mid-altitude fringe. The authors argue than when examined from the standpoint of ecosystem simplification, biological variability, and subsistence vulnerability, the taro monocultures exhibit many ecological and systemic properties commonly attributed to polycultures. Monoculture is not an exclusive category; specific cases must be placed in a broader context of the larger ecosystem and the options people have at their disposal. Reduction of the taro monoculture is occurring in response to modernization pressures.

  15. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D; Musiek, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  16. ITER CENTRAL SOLENOID COIL INSULATION QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N; Mann, T L; Miller, J R; Freudenberg, K D; Reed, R P; Walsh, R P; McColskey, J D; Evans, D

    2009-06-11

    An insulation system for ITER Central Solenoid must have sufficiently high electrical and structural strength. Design efforts to bring stresses in the turn and layer insulation within allowables failed. It turned out to be impossible to eliminate high local tensile stresses in the winding pack. When high local stresses can not be designed out, the qualification procedure requires verification of the acceptable structural and electrical strength by testing. We built two 4 x 4 arrays of the conductor jacket with two options of the CS insulation and subjected the arrays to 1.2 million compressive cycles at 60 MPa and at 76 K. Such conditions simulated stresses in the CS insulation. We performed voltage withstand tests and after end of cycling we measured the breakdown voltages between in the arrays. After that we dissectioned the arrays and studied micro cracks in the insulation. We report details of the specimens preparation, test procedures and test results.

  17. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  18. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  19. Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

  20. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D.; Musiek, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  1. Steroid-induced central serous retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Samidh P; Desai, Chetna K; Desai, Mira K; Dikshit, R K

    2011-09-01

    A-24 year-old male was prescribed prednisolone (60 mg/day) for left sided facial palsy. After three days of therapy, the patient complained of black spots in his vision in right eye. Fluorescein angiography of right eye showed evidence of central serous retinopathy (CSR). Prednisolone dose was withdrawn gradually and the patient improved within a week. There were no other systemic or ophthalmic diseases reported by the patient, which could have caused this condition. An improvement after dechallenge confirmed steroid-induced CSR. Recurrent CSR is known to cause permanent loss of vision. Hence, awareness regarding this adverse drug reaction (ADR) with steroids and its reporting can minimize this complication and help in better patient management.

  2. PLAN FOR CLOSURE OF HANFORDS CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    AUSTIN, B.A.

    2004-12-15

    This paper summarizes an approach to reduce risk to the public and environment through accelerated closure of Hanford's Central Plateau, based on a plan developed by Fluor Hanford and submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE)-Richland Office, for consideration, in September, 2004. This plan provides a framework and starting point for discussions with regulators and further planning for closure activities on the Plateau. The closure strategy and approach required developing a full inventory of items needing closure as well as identifying and defining technical and regulatory approaches that were compatible with current regulatory processes, reduce risks, and met DOE objectives. This effort, and the paper that follows, integrates closure activities among several contractors and two DOE field offices.

  3. Imaging of the central skull base.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandra

    2009-08-01

    The central skull base (CSB) constitutes a frontier between the extracranial head and neck and the middle cranial fossa. The anatomy of this region is complex, containing most of the bony foramina and canals of the skull base traversed by several neurovascular structures that can act as routes of spread for pathologic processes. Lesions affecting the CSB can be intrinsic to its bony-cartilaginous components; can arise from above, within the intracranial compartment; or can arise from below, within the extracranial head and neck. Crosssectional imaging is indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with CSB lesions. This review focuses on a systematic approach to this region based on an anatomic division that takes into account the major tissue constituents of the CSB.

  4. Imaging of the central skull base.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandra

    2009-11-01

    The central skull base (CSB) constitutes a frontier between the extracranial head and neck and the middle cranial fossa. The anatomy of this region is complex, containing most of the bony foramina and canals of the skull base traversed by several neurovascular structures that can act as routes of spread for pathologic processes. Lesions affecting the CSB can be intrinsic to its bony-cartilaginous components; can arise from above, within the intracranial compartment; or can arise from below, within the extracranial head and neck. Crosssectional imaging is indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with CSB lesions. This review focuses on a systematic approach to this region based on an anatomic division that takes into account the major tissue constituents of the CSB.

  5. [Histopathology of central nervous system cavernomas].

    PubMed

    Mosnier, J-F; Brunon, J; Nuti, C

    2007-06-01

    Central nervous system cavernomas are vascular malformations, which occur in two circumstances: sporadic forms and familial autosomal dominant forms. The lesion consists of enlarged, closely packed vessels without interposition of brain parenchyma, surrounded by hemosiderin and gliosis, calcified in few cases. In 80% of sporadic forms the lesion is unique, multiple lesions are rare (median: 4). In familial forms the lesions are always multiple. Cavernomas are often associated with other vascular malformations, especially with venous developmental anomalies. The size of cavernomas is variable from 1 mm to several centimeters. About 70% of cases are supratentorial and 30% in the posterior fossa, particularly in the brain stem. Macroscopic and histopathological findings are typical and the diagnostic is generally easy. PMID:17498756

  6. The Paleozoic petroleum geology of central Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    McGillivray, J.G.; Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent exploratory drilling in central Saudi Arabia indicates that all the geological elements of a major petroleum basin are present in this province. Several Paleozoic siliciclastic sequences which were deposited along the stable Arabian margin of Gondwanaland constitute excellent reservoirs. The identified reservoir targets include the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation, Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian glaciogenic clastics of the Sarah and Zarqa formations, and both fluvial and shallow marine sandstones of the Permian-Carboniferous Unayzah Formation. The source rock is a widespread organic-rich shale which was deposited during the regional deglaciation in the earliest Silurian. Migration occurred vertically along faults and/or updip from the regional Qusaiba shale subcrop through the reservoirs. Interbedded upper Permian shales and evaporites form the basal sequence of a major carbonate transgression and provide a capping seal. The traps are broad, low-relief, fault-generated structures which developed primarily during the Triassic.

  7. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  8. Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Green, Carla B; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    The circadian system of mammals is composed of a hierarchy of oscillators that function at the cellular, tissue, and systems levels. A common molecular mechanism underlies the cell-autonomous circadian oscillator throughout the body, yet this clock system is adapted to different functional contexts. In the central suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, a coupled population of neuronal circadian oscillators acts as a master pacemaker for the organism to drive rhythms in activity and rest, feeding, body temperature, and hormones. Coupling within the SCN network confers robustness to the SCN pacemaker, which in turn provides stability to the overall temporal architecture of the organism. Throughout the majority of the cells in the body, cell-autonomous circadian clocks are intimately enmeshed within metabolic pathways. Thus, an emerging view for the adaptive significance of circadian clocks is their fundamental role in orchestrating metabolism.

  9. [Central pontine myelinolysis--case report].

    PubMed

    Gałka, Małgorzata; Chudzik, Wiesław; Chmielewski, Henryk; Dworniak, Daniela; Kaczorowska, Beata; Przybyła, Monika

    2006-05-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a neurologic disorder, consists of demyelinisation without inflammation in the base of pons, with a relative sparing of the axons and the nerve cells. Clinical symptoms have various manifestations. They include pseudobalbular paralysis, tetraparesis, locked-in syndrome, coma. Rapid correction of persistence hyponatremia is a well recognized factor predisposing to CPM and nutritional deficiency is a commonly evoked cause of CMP as well. In more than half the cases it appeared in the late stages of chronic alcoholism. Among other medical conditions conjoined with CMP are liver failure and transplantation, electrolyte disturbances, cachexia from various causes, carcinoma, and severe bacterial infections. The autors report the cases of 31 year old patient with 4 year history of alkohol abuse in whom CPM developed with mild tetraparesis.

  10. Central odontogenic fibroma of the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Veeravarmal, V; Madhavan, R Nirmal; Nassar, M Mohamed; Amsaveni, R

    2013-05-01

    The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic mesenchymal tumor of jaw bones. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes two variants of COF namely: 1) Epithelial-rich type (WHO) and 2) epithelial-poor type (simple type). Rare variants like ossifying COF, COF associated with giant cell lesions, and amyloid have been documented. This article presents a case of an epithelial-rich variant of COF in a 24-year-old female. It presented as a bony swelling of the maxilla and appeared as a mixed lesion in radiographs. Histopathology showed a highly cellular fibrous connective tissue stroma with plump fibroblasts and long strands of odontogenic epithelium exhibiting mild eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. Numerous cementum-like hematoxyphilic calcifications of various sizes akin to dentin or acellular cementum were observed. We believe that clinical and radiographic features of this case may add valuable knowledge to the already existing literature. PMID:24250106

  11. The Paleotethys suture in Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, S.; Stampfli, G. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Triassic rocks of the Nakhlak area have been used to justify the hypothesis of the rotation of the Central-East Iranian microplate, mainly based on paleomagnetic data. Davoudzadeh and his coworkers (1981) pointed out the existing contrast between the Nakhlakh succession and the time-equivalent lithostratigraphic units exposed in the surrounding regions and compared them with the Triassic rocks of the Aghdarband area on the southern edge of the Turan plate. We recently gathered evidences that this part of central Iran effectively belongs to the Northern Iranian Paleo-Tethys suture zone and related Variscan terrains of the Turan plate. This is the case for the northwestern part of central Iran, where the Anarak-Khur belt (Anarak schists and their thick Cretaceous-Paleocene sedimentary cover) presents all the elements of an orogenic zone such as dismembered ophiolites and silisiclastics, calcareous and volcanic cover which has been deformed and metamorphosed. This belt is separated to the northwest from the Alborz microcontinent by the Great Kavir fault and Cretaceous ophiolite mélanges. To the southeast it is bounded by the Biabanak fault and serpentinites and the Biabanak block, part of the central-east Iranian plate. The later zone is formed by Proterozoic metamorphic basement and marine sedimentary cover, nearly continuous from the Ordovician to the Triassic, at the uppermost part upper Triassic-lower Jurassic bauxites and silisiclastics are observed. Excepted the Ordovician angular unconformities and the boundary between lower Jurassic and younger layers, this sequence displays no significant main unconformities and can be attributed to the Cimmerian super-terrain. Thus, this sequences represents the classical evolution of the southern Paleo-Tethys passive margin, as found in the Alborz microcontinent or the Band-e Bayan zone of Afghanistan and is the witness of large scale duplication of the Paleo-Tethys suture zone through major Alpine strike-slip faults

  12. Isoprene reaction product concentrations in central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Friedfeld, S.J.; Fraser, M.P.

    1999-07-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbons play an important role in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Studies have shown that Texas contains significant amounts of vegetation types that emit isoprene. In this study the atmospheric concentrations of methacrolein, formaldehyde, and other carbonyls were measured using the 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) derivatization method on C18 cartridges and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. Isoprene samples were collected concurrently by another group using stainless steel canisters and analyzed with GC-FID. The measurements were taken at one urban and three rural sites in Central Texas over a two-week period in August 1998. This paper reports the carbonyl concentrations observed, compares the concentrations with other studies, and discusses the temporal and spatial variability of the results.

  13. Nocardiosis of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostou, Theodora; Arvanitis, Marios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Desalermos, Athanasios; Carneiro, Herman A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is a rare disease entity caused by the filamentous bacteria Nocardia species. We present a case series of 5 patients from our hospital and a review of the cases of CNS nocardiosis reported in the literature from January 2000 to December 2011. Our results indicate that CNS nocardiosis can occur in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals and can be the result of prior pulmonary infection or can exist on its own. The most common predisposing factors are corticosteroid use (54% of patients) and organ transplantation (25%). Presentation of the disease is widely variable, and available diagnostic tests are far from perfect, often leading to delayed detection and initiation of treatment. The optimal therapeutic approach is still undetermined and depends on speciation, but lower mortality and relapse rates have been reported with a combination of targeted antimicrobial treatment including trimethoprim/sulfomethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for more than 6 months and neurosurgical intervention. PMID:24378740

  14. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  15. Non-malignant central airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Barros Casas, David; Fernández-Bussy, Sebastian; Folch, Erik; Flandes Aldeyturriaga, Javier; Majid, Adnan

    2014-08-01

    The most common causes of non-malignant central airway obstruction are post-intubation and post-tracheostomytracheal stenosis, followed by the presence of foreign bodies, benign endobronchial tumours and tracheobronchomalacia. Other causes, such as infectious processes or systemic diseases, are less frequent. Despite the existence of numerous classification systems, a consensus has not been reached on the use of any one of them in particular. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of this entity has allowed us to improve diagnosis and treatment. For the correct diagnosis of nonspecific clinical symptoms, pulmonary function tests, radiological studies and, more importantly, bronchoscopy must be performed. Treatment must be multidisciplinary and tailored to each patient, and will require surgery or endoscopic intervention using thermoablative and mechanical techniques.

  16. Vitamin D and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wrzosek, Michał; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Matsumoto, Halina; Piątkiewicz, Paweł; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Wojnar, Marcin; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is formed in human epithelial cells via photochemical synthesis and is also acquired from dietary sources. The so-called classical effect of this vitamin involves the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Apart from this, non-classical effects of vitamin D have recently gained renewed attention. One important yet little known of the numerous functions of vitamin D is the regulation of nervous system development and function. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin D is associated with its influence on neurotrophin production and release, neuromediator synthesis, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and prevention of oxidative damage to nervous tissue. Clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of disease of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the neonatal period seems to be crucial in terms of prevention of these diseases.

  17. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26475775

  18. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  19. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  20. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Giesbrecht, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  1. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas. PMID:17556578

  2. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Niharika; Madala, Jaya Kiran; Mareddy, Ajay Reddy; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal tissue such as the periodontal ligament, dental papilla or dental follicle. It is an extremely rare tumor, accounting less than five percent of all odontogenic tumors. In this report, we describe the case of an eight year old girl who presented with a painless swelling of the left mandible. Radiographic evaluation revealed a well-defined unilocular radiolucency extending from the distal aspect of the displaced mandibular left premolar to the ascending ramus of the mandible. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of COF of the simple type. Surgical excision of the lesion was done and no recurrence was noted thereafter. PMID:27620521

  3. Planning applications in East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W. (Principal Investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.; Millard, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This is a study of applications of ERTS data to planning problems, especially as applicable to East Central Florida. The primary method has been computer analysis of digital data, with visual analysis of images serving to supplement the digital analysis. The principal method of analysis was supervised maximum likelihood classification, supplemented by density slicing and mapping of ratios of band intensities. Land-use maps have been prepared for several urban and non-urban sectors. Thematic maps have been found to be a useful form of the land-use maps. Change-monitoring has been found to be an appropriate and useful application. Mapping of marsh regions has been found effective and useful in this region. Local planners have participated in selecting training samples and in the checking and interpretation of results.

  4. [Central diabetes insipidus: diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Ballan, B Köhler; Hernandez, A; Rodriguez, E Gonzalez; Meyer, P

    2012-11-14

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is caused by deficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) due to different conditions that can affect the hypothalamic neurons. It results in an inability to retain normal quantities of free water, which leads to polyuria, including at night, and polydipsia. In adults, it is mostly due to the "idiopathic" form or present after pituitary surgery or a traumatic brain injury. In rare cases, an underlying systemic disease is found. The diagnosis of CDI is based on the water deprivation test. Pituitary MRI and specific clinical and biological work-up are recommended to precise etiology. Treatment of choice is desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of the endogenous ADH hormone. A multidisciplinary team generally provides management and monitoring of CDI.

  5. Airway obstruction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reverdin, Alexandra K; Mosquera, Ricardo; Colasurdo, Giuseppe N; Jon, Cindy K; Clements, Roya M

    2014-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is the failure of the autonomic system to control adequate ventilation while asleep with preserved ventilatory response while awake. We report a case of a patient with CCHS who presented with intrathoracic and extrathoracic airway obstruction after tracheostomy tube decannulation and phrenic nerve pacer placement. Nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) revealed hypoxia, hypercapnia and obstructive sleep apnoea, which required bilevel positive airway pressure titration. Airway endoscopy demonstrated tracheomalacia and paretic true vocal cords in the paramedian position during diaphragmatic pacing. Laryngeal electromyography demonstrated muscular electrical impulses that correlated with diaphragmatic pacer settings. Thus, we surmise that the patient's upper and lower airway obstruction was secondary to diaphragmatic pacer activity. Thorough airway evaluation, including NPSG and endoscopy, may help identify the side effects of diaphragmatic pacing, such as airway obstruction, in patients with CCHS.

  6. [Plasmapheresis in central nervous system disorders].

    PubMed

    Antozzi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic plasmapheresis (TPE) has an established role in disorders of the peripheral nervous system, but its use in disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) does not rely upon evidence-based data. Nevertheless, TPE is currently used in severe acute forms of demyelinating disease (multiple sclerosis/acute encephalomyelitis) unresponsive to corticosteroids. Recently, antibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 have been detected in patients affected by neuromyelitis optica (Devic syndrome) and their pathogenetic role has been demonstrated, supporting the use of TPE in this disease. TPE has been reported to be effective in some patients affected by stiff-person syndrome or limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies against voltagegated potassium channels. TPE has also been used in selected patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy or status epilepticus within complex syndromes of various etiologies. The available data still do not support the use of TPE in most paraneoplastic disorders of the CNS. PMID:22388844

  7. Central Hyperadrenergic State After Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114

  8. Virtual Queue in a Centralized Database Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Amitava; Pal, Dibyendu Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Today is the era of the Internet. Every matter whether it be a gather of knowledge or planning a holiday or booking of ticket etc everything can be obtained from the internet. This paper intends to calculate the different queuing measures when some booking or purchase is done through the internet subject to the limitations in the number of tickets or seats. It involves a lot of database activities like read and write. This paper takes care of the time involved in the requests of a service, taken as arrival and the time involved in providing the required information, taken as service and thereby tries to calculate the distribution of arrival and service and the various measures of the queuing. This paper considers the database as centralized database for the sake of simplicity as the alternating concept of distributed database would rather complicate the calculation.

  9. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP)-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano-neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. PMID:26170667

  10. Pesticides in Streams in Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water from non-point sources is a national issue. Examples of nonpoint-source contaminants from agricultural activities are pesticides, which include fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides; sediment; nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus); and fecal bacteria. Of these contaminants, pesticides receive the most attention because of the potential toxicity to aquatic life and to humans. Most farmers use pesticides to increase crop yields and values. Herbicides prevent or inhibit the growth of weeds that compete for nutrients and moisture needed by the crops. Herbicides are applied before, during, or following planting. In addition to agricultural use, herbicides are used in urban areas, often in larger rates of application, for weed control such as among rights-of-way. Alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, which are referred to as organonitrogen herbicides, were the four most commonly applied herbicides (1991) in the Central Nebraska Basins (CNB). These herbicides are used for corn, sorghum, and soybean production. Atrazine was the most extensively applied pesticide (1991) in central Nebraska. Insecticides are used to protect the crop seeds in storage prior to planting and also to protect the plants from destruction once the seeds have germinated. Like herbicides, insecticides are also used in urban areas to protect lawns, trees, and ornamentals. Many of the 46 pesticides shown in the table have either a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of Health Advisory Level (HAL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for public water supplies. The purposes of this Fact Sheet are to (1) to provide water-utility managers, water-resources planners and managers, and State regulators an improved understanding of the distributions of concentrations of pesticides in streams and their relation to respective drinking-water regulations or criteria, and (2) to describe concentrations of pesticides in streams draining a

  11. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so

  12. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  13. Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases.

    PubMed

    Nogaret, Alain; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Lataro, Renata M; Salgado, Helio C; Meliza, C Daniel; Duncan, Edward; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-02-15

    Cardiac rhythm management devices provide therapies for both arrhythmias and resynchronisation but not heart failure, which affects millions of patients worldwide. This paper reviews recent advances in biophysics and mathematical engineering that provide a novel technological platform for addressing heart disease and enabling beat-to-beat adaptation of cardiac pacing in response to physiological feedback. The technology consists of silicon hardware central pattern generators (hCPGs) that may be trained to emulate accurately the dynamical response of biological central pattern generators (bCPGs). We discuss the limitations of present CPGs and appraise the advantages of analog over digital circuits for application in bioelectronic medicine. To test the system, we have focused on the cardio-respiratory oscillators in the medulla oblongata that modulate heart rate in phase with respiration to induce respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We describe here a novel, scalable hCPG comprising physiologically realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley type) neurones and synapses. Our hCPG comprises two neurones that antagonise each other to provide rhythmic motor drive to the vagus nerve to slow the heart. We show how recent advances in modelling allow the motor output to adapt to physiological feedback such as respiration. In rats, we report on the restoration of RSA using an hCPG that receives diaphragmatic electromyography input and use it to stimulate the vagus nerve at specific time points of the respiratory cycle to slow the heart rate. We have validated the adaptation of stimulation to alterations in respiratory rate. We demonstrate that the hCPG is tuneable in terms of the depth and timing of the RSA relative to respiratory phase. These pioneering studies will now permit an analysis of the physiological role of RSA as well as its any potential therapeutic use in cardiac disease. PMID:25433077

  14. The construction of a Central Netherlands temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schrier, G.; van Ulden, A.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    The Central Netherlands Temperature (CNT) is a monthly daily mean temperature series constructed from homogenized time series from the centre of the Netherlands. The purpose of this series is to offer a homogeneous time series representative of a larger area in order to study large-scale temperature changes. It will also facilitate a comparison with climate models, which resolve similar scales. From 1906 onwards, temperature measurements in the Netherlands have been sufficiently standardized to construct a high-quality series. Long time series have been constructed by merging nearby stations and using the overlap to calibrate the differences. These long time series and a few time series of only a few decades in length have been subjected to a homogeneity analysis in which significant breaks and artificial trends have been corrected. Many of the detected breaks correspond to changes in the observations that are documented in the station metadata. This version of the CNT, to which we attach the version number 1.1, is constructed as the unweighted average of four stations (De Bilt, Winterswijk/Hupsel, Oudenbosch/Gilze-Rijen and Gemert/Volkel) with the stations Eindhoven and Deelen added from 1951 and 1958 onwards, respectively. The global gridded datasets used for detecting and attributing climate change are based on raw observational data. Although some homogeneity adjustments are made, these are not based on knowledge of local circumstances but only on statistical evidence. Despite this handicap, and the fact that these datasets use grid boxes that are far larger then the area associated with that of the Central Netherlands Temperature, the temperature interpolated to the CNT region shows a warming trend that is broadly consistent with the CNT trend in all of these datasets. The actual trends differ from the CNT trend up to 30 %, which highlights the need to base future global gridded temperature datasets on homogenized time series.

  15. A dynamical systems view of network centrality

    PubMed Central

    Grindrod, Peter; Higham, Desmond J.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insights about dynamic networks, the dominant paradigm is to study discrete snapshots, or timeslices, as the interactions evolve. Here, we develop and test a new mathematical framework where network evolution is handled over continuous time, giving an elegant dynamical systems representation for the important concept of node centrality. The resulting system allows us to track the relative influence of each individual. This new setting is natural in many digital applications, offering both conceptual and computational advantages. The novel differential equations approach is convenient for modelling and analysis of network evolution and gives rise to an interesting application of the matrix logarithm function. From a computational perspective, it avoids the awkward up-front compromises between accuracy, efficiency and redundancy required in the prevalent discrete-time setting. Instead, we can rely on state-of-the-art ODE software, where discretization takes place adaptively in response to the prevailing system dynamics. The new centrality system generalizes the widely used Katz measure, and allows us to identify and track, at any resolution, the most influential nodes in terms of broadcasting and receiving information through time-dependent links. In addition to the classical static network notion of attenuation across edges, the new ODE also allows for attenuation over time, as information becomes stale. This allows ‘running measures’ to be computed, so that networks can be monitored in real time over arbitrarily long intervals. With regard to computational efficiency, we explain why it is cheaper to track good receivers of information than good broadcasters. An important consequence is that the overall broadcast activity in the network can also be monitored efficiently. We use two synthetic examples to validate the relevance of the new measures. We then illustrate the ideas on a large-scale voice call network, where key features are discovered that are

  16. Molecular prey identification in Central European piscivores.

    PubMed

    Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Mayr, Hannes; Obwexer, Armin; Zeisler, Christiane; Traugott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diet analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish-eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time-consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. Here, we present a two-step multiplex PCR system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fish DNA in dietary samples. This approach encompasses 78 fish and lamprey species native to Central European freshwaters and enables the identification of 31 species, six genera, two families, two orders and two fish family clusters. All targeted taxa were successfully amplified from 25 template molecules, and each assay was specific when tested against a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting aquatic environments. The applicability of the multiplex PCR system was evaluated in a feeding trial, wherein it outperformed morphological prey analysis regarding species-specific prey identification in faeces of Eurasian otters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of fish species was detected in field-collected faecal samples and regurgitated pellets of Common Kingfishers and Great Cormorants, demonstrating the broad applicability of the approach. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR system provides an efficient, easy to use and cost-effective tool for assessing the trophic ecology of piscivores in Central Europe. Furthermore, the multiplex PCRs and the primers described therein will be applicable wherever DNA of the targeted fish species needs to be detected at high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26053612

  17. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  18. Central chemoreceptors and sympathetic vasomotor outflow

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Thiago S; Takakura, Ana C; Colombari, Eduardo; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2006-01-01

    The present study explores how elevations in brain PCO2 increase the sympathetic nerve discharge (SND). SND, phrenic nerve discharge (PND) and putative sympathoexcitatory vasomotor neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were recorded in anaesthetized sino-aortic denervated and vagotomized rats. Hypercapnia (end-expiratory CO2 from 5% to 10%) increased SND (97 ± 6%) and the activity of RVLM neurons (67 ± 4%). Injection of kynurenic acid (Kyn, ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist) into RVLM or the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) eliminated or reduced PND, respectively, but did not change the effect of CO2 on SND. Bilateral injection of Kyn or muscimol into the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG-pre-Bötzinger region, also called CVLM) eliminated PND while increasing the stimulatory effect of CO2 on SND. Muscimol injection into commissural part of the solitary tract nucleus (commNTS) had no effect on PND or SND activation by CO2. As expected, injection of Kyn into RVLM or muscimol into commNTS virtually blocked the effect of carotid body stimulation on SND in rats with intact carotid sinus nerves. In conclusion, CO2 increases SND by activating RVLM sympathoexcitatory neurons. The relevant central chemoreceptors are probably located within or close to RVLM and not in the NTS or in the rVRG-pre-Bötzinger/CVLM region. RVLM sympathoexcitatory neurons may be intrinsically pH-sensitive and/or receive excitatory synaptic inputs from RTN chemoreceptors. Activation of the central respiratory network reduces the overall sympathetic response to CO2, presumably by activating barosensitive CVLM neurons and inhibiting RTN chemoreceptors. PMID:16901945

  19. Soil indigenous knowledge in North Central Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and classifying soils is part of an important learning process to improve soil management practices, soil quality and increase productivity. In order to assess soil quality improvement related to an ongoing land reform in North-Central Namibia, the characteristics that determine soil quality in the local land use context were determined in this study. To do so, we collated the indigenous soil knowledge in North-Central Namibia where the Ovakwanyama cultivate pearl millet for centuries. Local soil groups are defined mostly based on their productivity potential, which varies depending on the rainfall pattern. The morphological criteria used by the farmers to differentiate the soil groups (colour, consistence) were supported by a conventional analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Now, they can be used to develop a soil quality assessment toolbox adapted to the regional use. The characteristics of the tool box do not directly indicate soil quality, but refer to local soils groups. The quality of these groups is relatively homogenous at the local scale. Our results show that understanding of indigenous soil knowledge has great potential to improve soil quality assessment with regards to land use. The integration of this knowledge with the conventional soil analysis improves the local meaning of such a "scientific" assessment and thus facilitates dialog between farmers and agronomists, but also scientists working in different regions of the world, but in similar conditions. Overall, the integration of indigenous knowledge in international classification systems (e.g. WRB) as attempted in this study has thus a major potential to improve soil mapping in the local context.

  20. Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nogaret, Alain; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Lataro, Renata M; Salgado, Helio C; Meliza, C Daniel; Duncan, Edward; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm management devices provide therapies for both arrhythmias and resynchronisation but not heart failure, which affects millions of patients worldwide. This paper reviews recent advances in biophysics and mathematical engineering that provide a novel technological platform for addressing heart disease and enabling beat-to-beat adaptation of cardiac pacing in response to physiological feedback. The technology consists of silicon hardware central pattern generators (hCPGs) that may be trained to emulate accurately the dynamical response of biological central pattern generators (bCPGs). We discuss the limitations of present CPGs and appraise the advantages of analog over digital circuits for application in bioelectronic medicine. To test the system, we have focused on the cardio-respiratory oscillators in the medulla oblongata that modulate heart rate in phase with respiration to induce respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We describe here a novel, scalable hCPG comprising physiologically realistic (Hodgkin–Huxley type) neurones and synapses. Our hCPG comprises two neurones that antagonise each other to provide rhythmic motor drive to the vagus nerve to slow the heart. We show how recent advances in modelling allow the motor output to adapt to physiological feedback such as respiration. In rats, we report on the restoration of RSA using an hCPG that receives diaphragmatic electromyography input and use it to stimulate the vagus nerve at specific time points of the respiratory cycle to slow the heart rate. We have validated the adaptation of stimulation to alterations in respiratory rate. We demonstrate that the hCPG is tuneable in terms of the depth and timing of the RSA relative to respiratory phase. These pioneering studies will now permit an analysis of the physiological role of RSA as well as its any potential therapeutic use in cardiac disease. PMID:25433077

  1. Options for Braille Centralization. Study I--Implementation Study of Centralized Braille Book Storage and Distribution System. Part 1--Options for Braille Centralization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ManTech Technical Services Corp., Fairfax, VA.

    This final report presents results of the first phase of an effort to develop in detail the resource requirements, operating procedures, and estimated costs for several centralized braille service options at the Library of Congress. Existing procedures and services were analyzed, and three models for centralized braille services were formulated.…

  2. Baseline predictors of central aortic blood pressure: a PEAR substudy.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Rebecca F; Shah, Niren K; Smith, Steven M; Wen, Xuerong; Gong, Yan; Gums, John G; Nichols, Wilmer W; Chapman, Arlene B; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie; Epstein, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Elevated central systolic blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and appears superior to peripheral BP for long term risk prediction. The objective of this study was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with central pressures in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. We prospectively examined peripheral BP, central aortic BP, and arterial wall properties and wave reflection in 57 subjects with uncomplicated essential hypertension in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study. Significant predictors of central SBP included height, smoking status, heart rate (HR), and peripheral systolic BP (SBP), while central diastolic BP (DBP) was explained by peripheral DBP and HR. These variables accounted for nearly all of the variability in central SBP and central DBP (R(2) = 0.94 and R(2) = 0.98, respectively). Central pulse pressure variability was largely explained by gender, ex-smoking status, HR, peripheral SBP, and peripheral DBP (R(2) = 0.94). Central augmented pressure had a direct relationship with smoking status, peripheral SBP, and duration of hypertension, whereas it was indirectly related to height, HR, and peripheral DBP. Easily obtainable demographic and clinical factors are associated with central pressures in essential hypertensive persons. These relationships should be considered in future studies to improve assessment of BP to reduce cardiovascular risk and mortality.

  3. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  4. Contrasting response of glacierized catchments in the Central Himalaya and the Central Andes to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Immerzeel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The Andes of South America and the Himalaya in high-mountain Asia are two regions where advanced simulation models are of vital importance to anticipate the impacts of climate change on water resources. The two mountain systems hold the largest ice masses outside the polar regions. Major rivers originate here and downstream regions are densely populated. In the long run, glacier recession generates concerns about the sustainability of summer runoff. This study benefits from recent efforts of carefully planned short-term field experiments in two headwater catchments in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Central Himalaya in Nepal. The two study catchments contrast in terms of their climate and in the characteristics of their glaciers. A systematic approach is developed, built upon the available local data, to reduce the predictive uncertainty of a state-of-the-art glacio-hydrological model used for the projection of 21st century glacier changes and catchment runoff. The in-situ data are used for model development and step-wise, multivariate parameter calibration. Catchment runoff and remotely sensed MODIS and Landsat snow cover are used for model validation. The glacio-hydrological model simulates the water cycle with a high temporal (hourly time steps) and spatial (100 m grid cells) resolution and accounts for processes typical of both regions like glacier melt under debris cover or mass redistribution through avalanching. Future projections are based on the outputs of twelve stochastically downscaled global climate models for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). This is one of the first truly intercomparative modeling studies at the catchment scale across mountain regions of the world to assess and compare future changes in glaciers and snow cover and associated impacts on streamflow production. Both catchments will experience significant glacier mass loss throughout the twenty-first century. However, the trajectories of simulated future runoff and

  5. Ambient noise levels in north central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzorati, S.; Bindi, D.

    2006-09-01

    The characteristics of background seismic noise in north central Italy have been investigated by means of velocity power spectral analysis within the frequency range 0.1-15 Hz. The method proposed by McNamara and Buland (2004) has been applied to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of power spectra computed for ten different stations. Since the target region is the most industrialized area of Italy, a large variability among the power spectra for different sites is observed in the frequency range 1-15 Hz, with the noise levels at two stations exceeding the New High Noise Model (NHNM) of Peterson (1993). The 95th percentile of the PDF varies from -165 to -125 dB (relative to (m/s)2/Hz). This variability could significantly affect the detection capabilities of a network installed for recording the small to moderate size seismicity occurring in north central Italy. We also observed that the dispersion of the powers, estimated at each site as the difference between the 95th and the 5th percentiles, shows a positive trend with frequency that can be ascribed to the diurnal variation of the background noise levels. In the frequency range 0.1-1 Hz, the dominant feature is the double frequency (DF) peak of microseisms generated by oceanic storms. At one of the considered stations, the seasonal variability of the maximum amplitude of the DF peak has been observed in the period from April 2004 to December 2005. Considering the barometric maps provided by the UK Meteorological Office, we observed that the strongest powers in the range 0.10-0.25 Hz occur when intense storms are present over the North Atlantic Ocean, whereas the measurements of the height, frequency, and azimuth of the sea waves at two buoys of the Rete Ondametrica Italiana deployed in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas suggest that the DF microseisms in the frequency range 0.25-0.50 Hz are generated by storms over the Mediterranean Sea. Finally, the analyzed region is characterized by two large

  6. Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dumond, D E; Muller, F

    1972-03-17

    The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of Puebla-Tlax-cala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of red-on-buff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause

  7. Groundwater quality in central New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 14 production wells and 15 private wells in central New York from August through December 2012 in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The samples were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers in this area. Fifteen of the wells are finished in sand-and-gravel aquifers, and 14 are finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 29 wells were sampled in a previous central New York study, which was conducted in 2007. Water samples from the 2012 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, dissolved gases (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that the groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although for all of the wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: color (2 samples), pH (7 samples), sodium (9 samples), chloride (2 samples), fluoride (2 samples), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (8 samples), aluminum (4 samples), arsenic (1 sample), iron (9 samples), manganese (13 samples), radon-222 (13 samples), total coliform bacteria (6 samples), and heterotrophic bacteria (2 samples). Drinking-water standards for nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, and

  8. Tropical Cyclone Interactions Within Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, P. P.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are broad (~1000 km diameter) low-level cyclonic circulations that organize over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. While CAGs have rarely been studied, prior work on similar circulations has been conducted on monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs), which possess spatial scales of 1000 - 2500 km in the west Pacific basin. A key difference between MDs and MGs is related to the organization of vorticity around the low-level circulation. MDs possess a symmetrical vorticity pattern where vorticity accumulates near the circulation center over time, occasionally developing into a large TC. In contrast, MGs possess asymmetrical vorticity, organized in mesovorticies, which rotate cyclonically along the periphery of the MG circulation. Small tropical cyclones (TCs) occasionally develop from these mesovorticies. Interaction and development of TCs within CAGs are also common, as noted by a CAG identified during the 2010 PREDICT field project, which involved the interaction of TC Matthew and the development of TC Nicole within the larger CAG. This project is motivated by the lack of prior research on CAGs, as well as the complex scale interactions that occasionally occur between TCs and CAGs. This presentation focuses on the mutual interaction of vortices embedded in the larger-scale cyclonic flow comprising the CAG circulation. Case studies will be presented using a circulation framework to illustrate the relationship between different scale vorticity elements within the CAG. Some of these case studies resemble a MD-like evolution, where a large TC develops through the accumulation of symmetrical vorticity around the CAG (e.g. TC Opal 1995, TC Frances 1998). Other instances resemble a MG-like evolution, where smaller mesovorticies rotate around a common circulation center (e.g. TC Florence 1988). The circulation analysis framework aids in the diagnosis of interaction between different scale cyclonic vortices, and

  9. Geology and petroleum resources of central and east-central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum provinces of central and east-central Africa include the Somali basin, the Ethiopian plateau and rift belt, and the central African rift basins. The western shelf on the Somali basin in the horn of Africa contains a sedimentary cover 1000-10,000 m (3000-3500 ft) thick of Mesozoic and Tertiary marine and continental clastic, carbonate, and evaporite deposits with good reservoir and potentially adequate source rock properties. To date, no commercial oil or gas discoveries have been made. The Ethiopian plateau and rift belt is a high-risk area with minimum potential for commercial petroleum because the Neogene rifting origin of the province has resulted in high geothermal gradients, extensive volcanism, and inadequate marine deposits and petroleum source rocks. The central Africa interior basins are continental craton-rifted depressions of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age containing as much as 4000 m (13,000 ft) or more of fluvial and lacustrine clastic beds, which inter-tongue with nearshore marine clastic and carbonate beds in the western basins. Since the mid-1970s, approximately 13 oil discoveries have been made in the Upper Nile, Doba-Doseo, and Chad basins. These basins produce from fluvial and lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, sourced by lacustrine organic shale beds of Cretaceous age. The Benue trough is a rifted depression of middle Cretaceous age adjoined on the southwest by the prolific Niger Delta petroleum province. The trough is filled with 6000 m (20,000 ft) or more of clastic and carbonate marine and continental rocks of late Early Cretaceous and early Cenozoic age. Very few exploratory wells have been drilled, and no commercial discoveries have been made although good reservoir and source rocks are present.

  10. Calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system.

    PubMed

    He, Bingwei; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Youfu

    2012-11-01

    A central catadioptric-perspective camera system is widely used nowadays. A critical problem is that current calibration methods cannot determine the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and a perspective camera effectively. We present a novel calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system, in which the central catadioptric camera has a hyperbolic mirror. Two cameras are used to capture images of one calibration pattern at different spatial positions. A virtual camera is constructed at the origin of the central catadioptric camera and faced toward the calibration pattern. The transformation between the virtual camera and the calibration pattern could be computed first and the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and the calibration pattern could be obtained. Three-dimensional reconstruction results of the calibration pattern show a high accuracy and validate the feasibility of our method.

  11. Interpreting Central Surface Brightness and Color Profiles in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Wise, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope imagery has revealed dust features in the central regions of many (50%--80%) nearby bright elliptical galaxies. If these features are an indication of an underlying smooth diffuse dust distribution, then the interpretation of central surface brightness and color profiles in elliptical galaxies becomes significantly more difficult. In this Letter, diagnostics for constraining the presence of such an underlying central dust distribution are presented. We show that easily detectable central color gradients and flattened central surface brightness profiles can be induced by even small amounts of smoothly distributed dust (~100 M⊙). Conversely, combinations of flat surface brightness profiles and flat color gradients or steep surface brightness profiles and steep color gradients are unlikely to be caused by dust. Taken as a whole, these results provide a simple observational tautology for constraining the existence of smooth diffuse dust distributions in the central regions of elliptical galaxies.

  12. Systemic and central immunity in Alzheimer's disease: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Joseph; Holmes, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Clinical pharmaceutical trials aimed at modulating the immune system in Alzheimer's Disease have largely focused on either dampening down central proinflammatory innate immunity or have manipulated adaptive immunity to facilitate the removal of centrally deposited beta amyloid. To date, these trials have had mixed clinical therapeutic effects. However, a number of clinical studies have demonstrated disturbances of both systemic and central innate immunity in Alzheimer's Disease and attention has been drawn to the close communication pathways between central and systemic immunity. This paper highlights the need to take into account the potential systemic effects of drugs aimed at modulating central immunity and the possibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches based on the manipulation of systemic immunity and its communication with the central nervous system.

  13. Central temperature changes are poorly perceived during epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Glosten, B; Sessler, D I; Faure, E A; Karl, L; Thisted, R A

    1992-07-01

    Hypothermia and shivering are common during epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery but are not always accompanied by a sensation of coldness. To test the hypothesis that central temperature changes are not perceived during epidural anesthesia, we measured central and skin temperatures and thermal perception in 30 patients undergoing cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia. Central temperature decreased 1.0 +/- 0.6 degrees C from control values during anesthesia and surgery, but thermal perception scores did not reflect central temperatures (P = 0.56) or changes in central temperature (P = 0.63). A feeling of warmth was significantly correlated with increased mean skin temperature (P = 0.02) and increased upper body skin temperature (P = 0.03). We conclude that central temperature is poorly perceived and is less important than skin temperature in determining thermal perception during high levels of epidural anesthesia.

  14. Utility and technology for a space central power station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technological and economical impacts of a large central power station in Earth orbit on the performance and cost of future spacecraft and their orbital-transfer systems are examined. It is shown that beaming power to remote users cannot be cost-effective if the central power station uses the same power generation system that would be readily available for provision of on-board power. Laser transmitters/receivers to make central power stations feasible are considered. The cost-effectiveness of meeting Earth-orbiting spacecraft electrical demands from a central power station was analyzed, indicating that this application cannot justify the investment required for the central station. Key technology needs which must be met to enable a viable central power station in the future are identified.

  15. Central arterial pressure assessment with intensity POF sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Cátia; Gonçalves, Steve; Antunes, Paulo; Bastos, José M.; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    The central pressure monitoring is considered a new key factor in hypertension assessment and cardiovascular prevention. In this work, it is presented the central arterial systolic pressure assessment with an intensity based POF sensor. The device was tested in four subjects, and stable pulse waves were obtained, allowing the calculation of the central pressure for all the subjects. The results shown that the sensor performs reliably, being a simple and low-cost solution to the intended application.

  16. D Central Line Extraction of Fossil Oyster Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, A.; Puttonen, E.; Harzhauser, M.; Mandic, O.; Székely, B.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry provides a powerful tool to digitally document protected, inaccessible, and rare fossils. This saves manpower in relation to current documentation practice and makes the fragile specimens more available for paleontological analysis and public education. In this study, high resolution orthophoto (0.5 mm) and digital surface models (1 mm) are used to define fossil boundaries that are then used as an input to automatically extract fossil length information via central lines. In general, central lines are widely used in geosciences as they ease observation, monitoring and evaluation of object dimensions. Here, the 3D central lines are used in a novel paleontological context to study fossilized oyster shells with photogrammetric and LiDAR-obtained 3D point cloud data. 3D central lines of 1121 Crassostrea gryphoides oysters of various shapes and sizes were computed in the study. Central line calculation included: i) Delaunay triangulation between the fossil shell boundary points and formation of the Voronoi diagram; ii) extraction of Voronoi vertices and construction of a connected graph tree from them; iii) reduction of the graph to the longest possible central line via Dijkstra's algorithm; iv) extension of longest central line to the shell boundary and smoothing by an adjustment of cubic spline curve; and v) integration of the central line into the corresponding 3D point cloud. The resulting longest path estimate for the 3D central line is a size parameter that can be applied in oyster shell age determination both in paleontological and biological applications. Our investigation evaluates ability and performance of the central line method to measure shell sizes accurately by comparing automatically extracted central lines with manually collected reference data used in paleontological analysis. Our results show that the automatically obtained central line length overestimated the manually collected reference by 1.5% in the test set, which is deemed

  17. Behavioral Hyperventilation and Central Sleep Apnea in Two Children

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Thomas P.; Tam-Williams, Jade; Schmandt, Margaret; Patel, Anand C.; Cleveland, Claudia; Coste, Ferdinand; Kemp, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral hyperventilation is a rarely recognized cause of central sleep apnea (CSA) among children. We report two pediatric patients who presented with prolonged central sleep apnea secondary to behavioral hyperventilation. One patient also had a prolonged corrected QT (QTC) interval resulting from hyperventilation. Citation: Johnston TP, Tam-Williams J, Schmandt M, Patel AC, Cleveland C, Coste F, Kemp JS. Behavioral hyperventilation and central sleep apnea in two children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):487–489. PMID:26106657

  18. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  19. Tectonic architecture of central Georgia Eastern Piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, H.D. Jr.; Brueggemann, M.; Pospisil, M. . Dept. of Geography and Geology); Boland, I.; Pray, J.; Secor, D.T.; Steinke, T.; West, T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Sacks, P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Recent work suggests the following for the tectonic architecture of the central Georgia Eastern Piedmont. The Alleghenian-age, Modoc fault zone (MZ), first defined in S. Carolina, continues along strike (c. S60W) at least to the Ocmulgee R. (net length = 250 km), where it converges with the Ocmulgee (OF) and Goat Rock (GR) faults. Diverging to the S from the MZ is a sharp contact between migmatitic amphibolites and gneisses of the Sinclair Lake terrane (SLt) and lower grade metapelites and metapsammites of the Milledgeville terrane (Mt). Both are introduced by post-kinematic granites (likely Alleghanian). A previously undescribed, 10 km long ultramafite belt within SLt, the Shoulderbone zone (Sz), is concordantly foliated with respect to surrounding rocks--hence emplacement is considered as pre- or synkinematic. Numerous smaller ultramafite bodies exist within SLt, Metavolcanic rocks N of SLt and the intervening MZ are interpreted as Carolina slate belt (CSB) rocks extending farther SW than often depicted. Arc volcanism and plutonism, terrane amalgamation and subsequent Alleghanian plutonism, dextral shear zones (some with extensional components), and local tight folding contributed to the present architecture. Locally, accretionary wedge material may exist, but the authors find published views and maps describing the entire area as primarily an accretionary wedge thrust stack to be inappropriate.

  20. Histology of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this article is to assist pathologists inexperienced in examining central nervous system (CNS) sections to recognize normal and abnormal cell types as well as some common artifacts. Dark neurons are the most common histologic artifact but, with experience, can readily be distinguished from degenerating (eosinophilic) neurons. Neuron degeneration stains can be useful in lowering the threshold for detecting neuron degeneration as well as for revealing degeneration within populations of neurons that are too small to show the associated eosinophilic cytoplasmic alteration within H&E-stained sections. Neuron degeneration may also be identified by the presence of associated macroglial and microglial reactions. Knowledge of the distribution of astrocyte cytoplasmic processes is helpful in determining that certain patterns of treatment-related neuropil vacuolation (as well as some artifacts) represent swelling of these processes. On the other hand, vacuoles with different distribution patterns may represent alterations of the myelin sheath. Because brains are typically undersampled for microscopic evaluation, many pathologists are unfamiliar with the circumventricuar organs (CVOs) that represent normal brain structures but are often mistaken for lesions. Therefore, the six CVOs found in the brain are also illustrated in this article.

  1. Central serous choroidopathy with bullous retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, I; Uyama, M

    1978-05-16

    We report here a new type of secondary retinal detachment that has never been clearly defined. The characteristic features of the disease are: (1) prevalence in middle-aged males, (2) bilateral involvement, (3) frequent existence of prodromal lesions that over long periods resemble central serous retinopathy, (4) in the evolution stage, appearance of multiple yellowish white exudative flecks of one-half to one disc in diameter at or near the posterior pole of the fundus, (5) fluorescein studies revealing pronounced leakage of dye from the choroid into the subretinal space at the sites of exudates, (6) retinal detachment of various degrees with shifting subretinal fluid and without tears, (7) no evidence of intraocular inflammation, (8) no filling abnormalities seen in the choroidal fluorescence, (9) no response to medical therapy, including steroids and antibiotics, (10) photocoagulation to leakage sites leading to rapid resolution of retinal detachment; otherwise, spontaneous healing of detachment occurring within about 7-9 months, leaving fibroblastic macular scars and marked visual loss, and (11) no evidence of systemic findings that may be of etiologic significance. From this characteristic clinical picture, the idea of a new clinical entity must be considered. Our findings in 35 eyes from 18 Japanese patients are discussed.

  2. Central control of thermogenesis in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Madden, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature in mammals and birds during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. The primary sources of neurally regulated metabolic heat production are mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue, increases in heart rate and shivering in skeletal muscle. Thermogenesis is regulated in each of these tissues by parallel networks in the central nervous system, which respond to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate the appropriate sympathetic and somatic efferents. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates thermogenesis and discusses the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors ascends via second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and possibly of sympathetic and somatic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, activates excitatory inputs to spinal sympathetic and somatic motor circuits to drive thermogenesis. PMID:18469069

  3. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  4. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Volonteri, Marta; Ciotti, Luca

    2013-05-01

    We explore how the co-evolution of massive black holes (MBHs) and galaxies is affected by environmental effects, addressing in particular MBHs hosted in the central cluster galaxies (we will refer to these galaxies in general as ''CCGs''). Recently, the sample of MBHs in CCGs with dynamically measured masses has increased, and it has been suggested that these MBH masses (M{sub BH}) deviate from the expected correlations with velocity dispersion ({sigma}) and mass of the bulge (M{sub bulge}) of the host galaxy: MBHs in CCGs appear to be ''overmassive''. This discrepancy is more pronounced when considering the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation than the M{sub BH}-M{sub bulge} one. We show that this behavior stems from a combination of two natural factors: (1) CCGs experience more mergers involving spheroidal galaxies and their MBHs and (2) such mergers are preferentially gas poor. We use a combination of analytical and semi-analytical models to investigate the MBH-galaxy co-evolution in different environments and find that the combination of these two factors is in accordance with the trends observed in current data sets.

  5. The Agua Salud Project, Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, R. F.; Elsenbeer, H.; Ogden, F. L.; Hall, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal's central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. It will be the largest field experiment of its kind in the tropics aimed at quantifying the environmental services (water, carbon, and biodiversity) provided by tropical forests. The Agua Salud Watershed is our principal field site. This watershed and the headwaters of several adjacent rivers include both protected mature forests and a wide variety of land uses that are typical of rural Panama. Experiments at the scale of entire catchments will permit complete water and carbon inventories and exchanges for different landscape uses. The following questions will be addressed: (1) How do landscape treatments and management approaches affect ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water quality and quantity, dry- season water supply, and biodiversity? (2) Can management techniques be designed to optimize forest production along with ecosystem services during reforestation? (3) Do different tree planting treatments and landscape management approaches influence groundwater storage, which is thought to be critical to maintaining dry-season flow, thus insuring the full operation of the Canal during periods of reduced rainfall and severe climatic events such as El Niño. In addition we anticipate expanding this project to address biodiversity, social, and economic values of these forests.

  6. Ionic mechanisms of central CO2 chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, Mykyta M.; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Leiter, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of chemosensory systems in invertebrates and vertebrates reveals that different animals use similar strategies when sensing CO2 to control respiration. A variety of animals possess neurons that respond to changes in pH. These respiratory chemoreceptor neurons seem to rely largely on pH-dependent inhibition of potassium channels, but the channels do not appear to be uniquely adapted to detect pH. The ‘chemosensory’ potassium channels identified thus far are widely distributed, common potassium channels. The pH-sensitivity is a common feature of the channels whether the channels are in chemosensory neurons or not. Thus, the pattern of synaptic connectivity and the mix of potassium channels expressed seem to determine whether a neuron is chemosensory or not, rather than any special adaptation of a channel for pH-sensitivity. Moreover, there are often multiple pH-sensitive channels in each chemosensory neuron. These ionic mechanisms may, however, be only part of the chemosensory process, and pH-dependent modulation of synaptic activity seems to contribute to central chemosensitivity as well. In addition, the exploration of the mechanisms of pH-dependent modulation of ion channel activity in chemosensory cells is incomplete: additional mechanisms of pH modulation of channel activity may be found, and addition conductances, other than potassium channels, may participate in the chemosensory process. PMID:20380898

  7. Sculpting the central parsec of our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations have revealed various structures within the gravitational influence of Sgr A* - the massive black hole in the Galactic center. These structures apparently defy the fundamental principles of star formation and stellar dynamics. On one hand, the red giants display a flat density profile, contrary to the cuspy one predicted by conventional stellar relaxation. On the other, Wolf-Rayet and OB stars are observed where in-situ star formation should have been prohibited by the strong tidal force from Sgr A*, and their spatial and phase-space distributions also contradict our understanding of stellar dynamics. To explain each of these inconsistencies, many scenarios have been proposed, which render the model increasingly complicated. Here, we suggest that the sub-parsec stellar disk surrounding Sgr A*, which was recently discovered, can reconcile all the above inconsistencies. We show that during the fragmenting past of this disk, the star-forming clumps could efficiently deplete red giants by repeatedly colliding with them. We also show that because of the torque exerted by the disk, stars within the central arcsec from Sgr A* would quickly mix in the angular-momentum space, which naturally explains the observed distributions of Wolf-Rayet and OB stars. Our results imply that Sgr A* was fueled by gas and stars several millions years ago and could have been an energetic AGN. We discuss future observations that can further testify our model.

  8. Localized hyperthermia in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, B.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A new localized treatment modality for malignant brain tumors is hyperthermia. Primary brain tumors are ideally suited to localized therapies because they are initially found in a single area of the brain and local recurrence is the general rule, despite aggressive multimodality treatment. The potential of hyperthermia is based on the rationale that these tumors contain a heterogeneous anaplastic cell population. In contrast to radiation and chemotherapy, hyperthermia is equally effective against both hypoxic and oxygenated cells. Moreover, higher temperatures result in tissues that have an inability to cool themselves through perfusion. The feasibility of localized heating in normal and malignant brain tissue was investigated using external ultrasound and microwave applicators and an interstitial microwave antenna array. The ability to generate uniform temperature distributions using these systems was tested in thermal dosimetry studies. Lesion threshold studies were performed to define the acute and chronic histopathological effects of localized hyperthermia in normal brain tissue. Results demonstrated that these techniques can effectively heat clinically relevant volumes of brain tissue to therapeutic temperatures in an extremely controlled and precise manner. Thresholds for cytological damage have been defined over a range of time/temperature parameters. Various physical and physiological factors within the central nervous system as they relate to temperature exposure have also been defined. These feasibility and toxicity studies have led to the initiation of Phase I clinical trials of hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy at several institutions.

  9. Hemoglobin potentiates central nervous system damage.

    PubMed Central

    Sadrzadeh, S M; Anderson, D K; Panter, S S; Hallaway, P E; Eaton, J W

    1987-01-01

    Iron and iron compounds--including mammalian hemoglobins--catalyze hydroxyl radical production and lipid peroxidation. To determine whether hemoglobin-mediated lipid peroxidation might be important in hemorrhagic injuries to the central nervous system (CNS), we studied the effects of purified hemoglobin on CNS homogenates and injected hemoglobin into the spinal cords of anesthetized cats. Hemoglobin markedly inhibits Na/K ATPase activity in CNS homogenates and spinal cords of living cats. Hemoglobin also catalyzes substantial peroxidation of CNS lipids. Importantly, the potent iron chelator, desferrioxamine, blocks these adverse effects of hemoglobin, both in vitro and in vivo. Because desferrioxamine is not known to interact with heme iron, these results indicate that free iron, derived from hemoglobin, is the proximate toxic species. Overall, our data suggest that hemoglobin, released from red cells after trauma, can promote tissue injury through iron-dependent mechanisms. Suppression of this damage by desferrioxamine suggests a rational therapeutic approach to management of trauma-induced CNS injury. Images PMID:3027133

  10. Hydrological trends in Congo basin (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, A.

    2015-12-01

    The last studies concerning some main Congo basin rivers allowed to subdivide their multi-annual flows into several homogeneous phases. As in West Africa, 1970 was the year of the major hydroclimatic event announcing a weaker flowing period. In the absence of long, reliable and available flow series in the whole Congo basin of 3,8 106km2 area, the present study concerns only the Congo River at Brazzaville/Kinshasa and two of the main tributaries of its right bank, Ubangui at Bangui and Sangha at Ouesso, with hydrologic data available from the first half of the 20th century. For Congo River, in comparison with its secular average, after an excess flow noted during the sixties, a significant drop of 10% occurs in the eighties. However, a return to normal conditions is recorded from 1995. For Ubangui and Sangha, the flows remain weaker since 1970. Within the bi-modal hydrological regimes of Sangha and Congo river, because they are equatorial, we also observe since many years a small decline of the secondary flood of april-june. This phenomenon was emphasized especially these last years and is founded in others rivers of Central Africa, where it reflects the variations of de rainfall patterns and the surfaces features. For the Congo basin, the situation is worrying because that affects the inland waterway transport. Moreover that wakes also the project of junction by a canal of the Congo and Chari basins for fighting against the hydrological decline of Lake Chad.

  11. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  12. Update on the TRIUMF Central Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouat, M. M.; Diel, D. A.; Grant, P. A.; Klassen, E.; Lee, K. S.; Ludgate, G. A.; Richards, J. E.; Yogendran, P. J.; Kadantsev, S. G.

    1994-12-01

    The continuing evolution of the TRIUMF Central Control System is currently subject to three major influences. Most imperative is the need to replace the obsolete Nova computers that still handle much of the routine cyclotron operation. Smooth integration of a number of isolated control systems into the CCS is another focus. The third major force arises from the requirements of developing new projects in a system that has reached serious expansion constraints. The plan for phasing out the Novas, integrating the orphaned systems and allowing expansion of the CCS in a smooth fashion is discussed. This is a conservative approach, relying on the strengths of the present hardware configuration, the substantial financial investment in existing equipment, and the expertise of available personnel, while meeting the present and future requirements. Details of the modified and expanded hardware configuration are described. This review also briefly mentions new support for device access, X-window displays, database usage, and plans for one of the upcoming projects, namely an eye cancer proton therapy treatment facility.

  13. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  14. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Treatments: A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Pierluigi; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Falcomatà, Bruno; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a retinal disorder that primarily affects young (20- to 50-year-old) white men, although it is seen occasionally in older patients and females. CSC is characterized by avascular focal leakage through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), resulting in serous detachment of the neurosensory retina. The course is usually self-limiting and in most cases resolves spontaneously within a 3-month period, with visual acuity usually recovering to 20/30 or better. However, chronic CSC may develop as a consequence of recurrences or persistent neurosensory detachment, and can result in progressive RPE atrophy and permanent visual loss. A primary involvement of the RPE and choroidal vascularization play a significant role in the pathogenesis of CSC and the current treatment options attempt to restore the functions of the RPE and the normal choroidal vasculature. The aim of the current review is to provide an overview of the current therapeutical approaches to CSC, including observation, laser treatment, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. PMID:26619293

  15. Central On-Line Data Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.

    1986-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Central On-Line Data Directory (CODD), which allows the general scientist remote access to information about data sets available not only at NSSDC, but throughout the scientific community, is discussed. A user may search for data set information within CODD by specifying spacecraft name, experiment name, investigator name, and/or keywords. CODD will include information on atmospheric science data sets contained not only within the PCDS, but also within other data sets that are deemed important. Keywords to be used in locating these data sets are currently being formulated. The main type of keyword to be used for categorization of data sets will be discipline related. The primary discipline keyword for PCDS-type data sets would be ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE. A good set of subdiscipline keywords is needed under this discipline to subdivide the data sets. A sheet containing a strawman set of subdiscipline keywords was distributed, and a request was made for the knowledgeable scientists to modify or replace the proposed keywords.

  16. Central nervous system tumors in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    De la Torre Mondragón, L; Ridaura Sanz, C; Reyes Mujica, M; Rueda Franco, F

    1993-08-01

    Five hundred and seventy primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors from the Department of Pathology at the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City, collected from 1970 to 1989, were histologically reclassified in order to find out their relative incidence as well as their outstanding features. With this, we could establish a frame of reference for our local population, contributing to the epidemiological analysis of these entities. All the tumors were examined independently by two pathologists (C.R. and M.R.), using the classification of Rorke et al. Histological type, patient age and sex, and tumor location were analyzed. CNS tumors were the secondmost frequently encountered solid tumors, after lymphomas, and were increasing in incidence at a rate of 2.2 annually. Children in the age group 0-9 years were most often affected, and there was a predominance of male patients. Astrocytoma and medulloblastoma were the most common tumor types. The infratentorial region was the most frequent tumor location in the 2- to 9-year age group. By contrast, in the under 2-year-olds a supratentorial location was more frequent, and the incidence of germ cell tumors was proportionally high. In general, some histological types seemed to be associated with particular age groups. Although we found primitive neuroectodermal tumors to be the fifth most common at all ages (except for medulloblastoma), many other authors do not report a similar finding.

  17. Random walk centrality for temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luis E. C.; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Nodes can be ranked according to their relative importance within a network. Ranking algorithms based on random walks are particularly useful because they connect topological and diffusive properties of the network. Previous methods based on random walks, for example the PageRank, have focused on static structures. However, several realistic networks are indeed dynamic, meaning that their structure changes in time. In this paper, we propose a centrality measure for temporal networks based on random walks under periodic boundary conditions that we call TempoRank. It is known that, in static networks, the stationary density of the random walk is proportional to the degree or the strength of a node. In contrast, we find that, in temporal networks, the stationary density is proportional to the in-strength of the so-called effective network, a weighted and directed network explicitly constructed from the original sequence of transition matrices. The stationary density also depends on the sojourn probability q, which regulates the tendency of the walker to stay in the node, and on the temporal resolution of the data. We apply our method to human interaction networks and show that although it is important for a node to be connected to another node with many random walkers (one of the principles of the PageRank) at the right moment, this effect is negligible in practice when the time order of link activation is included.

  18. Karst development in central Butler County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, B.A.

    1993-02-01

    Research was conducted to study the geology and hydrology of sinkholes, springs, and caves formed in Lower Permian, Fort Riley Limestone, located in central Butler County, Kansas. The goal was to better understand the controlling factors of these karst features and the processes that produce them in a portion of Kansas that is undergoing rapid population growth and increased groundwater usage. Research was accomplished in seven phases: literature search, locating karst features, measuring bedrock fracture joint trends, surveying major caves, estimating discharge of springs, dye tracing, and water chemistry analysis. Recognizable karst landforms within the study area were plotted onto a base map to demonstrate their geographic, geologic, and hydrologic relationships. Karst features identified were 125 sinkholes, a major cave system composed of at least three enterable cave segments, and one large spring. The karst terrain found within the study area is clearly a system of interrelated features and processes. Long-term solution of the bedrock allows karst features to form, joints and bedding planes to enlarge, and creates an efficient network of subsurface drainage. Factors that control karst development in the study area are lithology, thickness, and dip of the bedrock; presence of well defined joints and bedding planes; relatively level topography; nearby entrenched river valleys; lack of thick surficial cover; and climate. Of these influences, solutional activity at joints plays a major role in the formation of sinkholes and cave passages; however, a complex combination of all the controlling factors is responsible for the present, unique, and dynamic karst system.

  19. Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

  20. Central Sleep Apnea in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Dharia, Sushma M; Unruh, Mark L; Brown, Lee K

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is an essential function of life and serves a crucial role in the promotion of health and performance. Poor sleep quality and sleep disorders have been a recurrent finding in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can contribute to hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and worsen obesity, all of which are implicated in the etiology of CKD, but CKD itself may lead to OSA. Relationships between CKD/end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and OSA have been the subject of numerous investigations, but central sleep apnea (CSA) also is highly prevalent in CKD/ESRD but remains poorly understood, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in these patients. Emerging literature has implicated CSA as another contributor to morbidity and mortality in CKD/ESRD, and several studies have suggested that CSA treatment is beneficial in improving these outcomes. Patients with CKD/ESRD co-existing with congestive heart failure are particularly prone to CSA, and studies focused on managing CSA in congestive heart failure patients have provided important information concerning how best to manage CSA in kidney disease as well. Adaptive servo-ventilation ultimately may represent the treatment of choice in these patients, although a stepped approach using a variety of therapeutic modalities is recommended.