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Sample records for central incisor restored

  1. Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Amirian Chaijan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores. Materials and Methods Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and composite core (group 2), composite post and core (group 3), and controls (group 4). Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4). Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Results Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4) > cast post and core (group 1) > fiber post and composite core (group 2) > composite post and core (group 3). All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58%) in group 1 were non-restorable. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors. PMID:26295027

  2. Biologic restoration of a traumatized maxillary central incisor in a toddler: a case report.

    PubMed

    John, Sheen Ann; Anandaraj, S; George, Sageena

    2014-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth is relatively common in young children and teenagers. Traumatized anterior teeth require quick functional and aesthetic repair, and poses a challenge to the dental practitioner owing to the lack of co-operation ceded and the longer time invested. Reattachment of tooth fragment should be the first choice to restoring teeth when a usable fragment is available, since it gives a psychological and aesthetic advantage over the conventional technique. With the vast improvement in adhesive technology, reattachment is definitely a predictable treatment option for very young children. This paper describes the treatment of a 2½ year old female child who sustained crown-root fracture, extending subgingivally, in primary upper central incisor.

  3. Effect of the length of glass fiber posts on the fracture resistance of restored maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Bruna; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Ferrari, Marco

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of post length insertion on the fracture resistance of directly restored endodontically treated teeth. 30 maxillary central incisors were restored with glass fiber posts and composite cores to produce groups with post lengths of (1) 5 mm, (2) 7 mm, and (3) 9 m. Specimens were loaded at 130 degrees (Instron). Fracture strengths were analyzed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test to verify the normality of the data distribution and with ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at P < 0.05. Fracture patterns (restorable or unrestorable) were analyzed (Pearson's Chi-square test). The average fracture resistance was: Group 1 = 366.4 N, Group 2 = 507.4 N and Group 3 = 509.9 N. No significant difference was found among the three groups for fracture resistance or for failure mode. The insertion length did not influence the fracture pattern; more restorable fractures were detected.

  4. Comparison of Stress Distribution in a Maxillary Central Incisor Restored with Two Prefabricated Post Systems with and without Ferrule Using Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Sabarinathan; Raja, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction When restoring an endodontically treated tooth with deficient coronal tooth structure, posts can be used to strengthen the tooth. Recently prefabricated posts are widely used as they exclude the need for complex laboratory procedures making the procedure time saving. But the post-placement can produce stresses that cause root fracture. Different techniques can be used to study the stress distribution due to different posts, but most of them are two-dimensional and difficult to reproduce. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor with Titanium and Glass fiber posts with and without ferrule using the three dimensional finite element analysis. Materials and Methods In this study 3D finite element analysis was used. Four models P1(Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with a ferrule of coronal dentin and restored with parallel sided prefabricated titanium post and composite resin core), P2 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with parallel sided prefabricated Titanium post and composite resin core without a ferrule of coronal dentin), P3 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with a ferrule of coronal dentin and restored with parallel sided prefabricated glass fiber reinforced composite post and composite core), P4 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with parallel sided prefabricated glass fiber reinforced composite post and composite core without a ferrule of coronal dentin), were modeled using PRO E software. Then stress analysis was done using ANSYS WORKBENCH 10.0software. A load of 100 N was applied to the models at 2mm from the incisal edge on the palatal surface with an angle of 45o to the long axis of the tooth. Results The results suggested that maximum stresses were seen around posts in order of Titanium post without ferrule followed by Titanium post with ferrule next Glass fiber post without ferrule followed by Glass fiber post

  5. Multidisciplinary Restoration of Traumatized and Displaced Maxillary Central Incisor by Bent Wire System-A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jogani, Vivek; Pai, Suryakanth M; Chour, Rashmi C; Balehosur, Deepti V

    2016-01-01

    Management of traumatic injuries to teeth is a challenge to dental practice, as it occurs when dentists are least prepared for it. The direction and the force of the object or the fall significantly affects the diagnosis, treatment plan and therefore the outcome of the treatment. These traumatic injuries may present with different clinical situations which demand immediate attention and assessment by the clinician. The maxillary central incisor crown fractures are the most common variant of trauma, because of the anterior and protrusive positioning. This case report describes the novel method to produce expansion of the dental arches to correct the post-traumatic displacement of the central incisor along with aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of Ellis Class IV fracture of permanent maxillary central incisor. PMID:28050519

  6. Evaluation of the biomechanical behavior of maxillary central incisors restored by means of endocrowns compared to a natural tooth: a 3D static linear finite elements analysis.

    PubMed

    Zarone, Fernando; Sorrentino, Roberto; Apicella, Davide; Valentino, Bartolomeo; Ferrari, Marco; Aversa, R; Apicella, A

    2006-11-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating different restoring configurations of a crownless maxillary central incisor, in order to compare the biomechanical behavior of the restored tooth with that of a sound tooth. A 3D FE model of a maxillary central incisor is presented. An arbitrary static force of 10 N was applied with an angulation of 125 degrees to the tooth longitudinal axis at level of the palatal surface of the crown. Different material configurations were tested: composite, syntered alumina, feldspathic ceramic endocrowns and glass post resorations with syntered alumina and feldspathic ceramic crown. High modulus materials used for the restoration strongly alter the natural biomechanical behavior of the tooth. Critical areas of high stress concentration are the restoration-cement-dentin interface both in the root canal and on the buccal and lingual aspects of the tooth-restoration interface. Materials with mechanical properties underposable to that of dentin or enamel improve the biomechanical behavior of the restored tooth reducing the areas of high stress concentration. The use of endocrown restorations present the advantage of reducing the interfaces of the restorative system. The choice of the restorative materials should be carefully evaluated. Materials with mechanical properties similar to those of sound teeth improve the reliability of the restoartive system.

  7. Solitary median maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Bolan, Michele; Derech, Carla D'Agostini; Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Pereira, Eliana Ternes; Almeida, Izabel Cristina Santos

    2009-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCIS) is a rare abnormality characterized by the presence of a central incisor positioned at the maxillary mid-axis. This morphologic defect also can be associated with other diseases. The purpose of this paper was to present a case report of a 4-year-old twin child with SMMCIS. The patient showed a symmetrical primary maxillary central incisor located at the midline, with an absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum, and an incisive papilla. Radiographic examination confirmed the presence of only a maxillary central incisor in both dentitions. The patient was referred for a genetic and otolaryngological assessment, however, no other abnormality than the ones reported were detected.

  8. Effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of maxillary central incisors with Class III restorations: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abduljawad, Mohammed; Samran, Abdulaziz; Kadour, Jadalkareem; Karzoun, Wassim; Kern, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with Class III restorations show reduced fracture resistance. The placement of glass fiber posts may affect fracture resistance and should be further evaluated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with Class III restorations. Forty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 4 test groups (n=10 each) according to the restoration strategy: control group; endodontically treated teeth without endodontic posts (GHT); endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations simulating coronal destruction (GCT); endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations and a carbon fiber post (GCF); and endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations and a glass-fiber post (GGF). The fiber posts were adhesively cemented with composite resin cement, and the cavities were restored with composite resin. After 3 months of water storage, all specimens were loaded at 45 degrees in a universal testing machine until fracture and evaluated for fracture mode. The data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey honest significant difference multiple comparisons test (α=.05). Mean ±SD failure loads ranged from 687.5 ±84.0 N to 943.8 ±93.1 N. One-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference among the groups (P≤.05). The control group (GHT) had significantly higher resistance to fracture than the other groups (P≤.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, placement of a fiber post did not affect the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with 2 Class III restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Srilatha, KT; Nandlal, B; Dhull, Kanika Singh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load-bearing capacity of fractured incisal edge of maxillary permanent central incisors restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite. Materials and methods: Thirty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors randomly divided in three groups were used for the present study. Group I (control) contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II and III were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third) part of the crown horizontally and subjected to enamel preparations and restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite respectively. All restored teeth were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was evaluated as peak load at failure (Newton) for samples tested in a cantilever-bending test using Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were microscopically examined. Results: Highest mean peak failure load (Newton) among experimental groups was observed in glass fiber-reinforced nano composite group (863.50 ± 76.12 N) followed by nanocomposite group (633.67 ± 40.14 N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the restoration technique significantly affected the load-bearing capacity (p < 0.001). Scheffe’s post-hoc comparison test (subset for α = 0.05) revealed that there was significant difference in the mean peak failure load values of nanocomposite and glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite groups when considered together (p < 0.001). Experimental groups showed similar types of failure modes with majority occurring ascohesive and mixed type. Fifty-eight percent of the teeth in glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. Conclusion: By using fiber-reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in the repair of fractured incisors, the load-bearing capacity of the restored incisal edge could be substantially

  10. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ps Praveen; Srilatha, K T; Nandlal, B; Dhull, Kanika Singh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load-bearing capacity of fractured incisal edge of maxillary permanent central incisors restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite. Thirty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors randomly divided in three groups were used for the present study. Group I (control) contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II and III were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third) part of the crown horizontally and subjected to enamel preparations and restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite respectively. All restored teeth were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was evaluated as peak load at failure (Newton) for samples tested in a cantilever-bending test using Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were microscopically examined. Highest mean peak failure load (Newton) among experimental groups was observed in glass fiber-reinforced nano composite group (863.50 ± 76.12 N) followed by nanocomposite group (633.67 ± 40.14 N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the restoration technique significantly affected the load-bearing capacity (p < 0.001). Scheffe's post-hoc comparison test (subset for α = 0.05) revealed that there was significant difference in the mean peak failure load values of nanocomposite and glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite groups when considered together (p < 0.001). Experimental groups showed similar types of failure modes with majority occurring ascohesive and mixed type. Fifty-eight percent of the teeth in glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. By using fiber-reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in the repair of fractured incisors, the load-bearing capacity of the restored incisal edge could be substantially increased. How to cite this article: Kumar PSP, Srilatha KT, Nandlal B

  11. Restoration of a fractured primary incisor.

    PubMed

    Romero, M; Saez, M; Cabrerizo, C

    2001-01-01

    Esthetic restoration on primary teeth has been a special challenge to pediatric dentists. Composite restorations are the most often used treatment for decay and fractures of primary teeth, however, there are other possible alternatives. We present a case in which we have used an acrylic crown to treat a fractured primary incisor in a 1.8 years old child.

  12. Unusual Case of Extraction of Maxillary Lateral Incisors and Mandibular Central Incisors.

    PubMed

    Yañez-Vico, Rosa-María; Cadenas de Llano-Perula, Maria; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This article's purpose is to report a case where maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular central incisors are extracted and a canine substitution was performed as the best therapeutic option in order to obtain symmetry in a malocclusion with an upper lateral incisor with poor prognostic, solve moderate crowding, get enough space for the permanent dentition, and provide stability to the results. An 11-year-old boy with straight profile with acute-to-normal nasolabial angle and protruded lips, mixed dentition, lower and upper severe crowding, and a bilateral molar angle Class I. The left maxillary lateral incisor failed endodontic treatment secondary to an intrusive traumatic lesion in the primary and permanent dentition. The treatment of choice was the extraction of both upper lateral incisors and both central lower incisors. The patient finished with molar and canine angle Class I and coincident midlines and was functionally stable; both lateral and protrusive jaw movements were effectively made by the first premolars and central incisors and canines without improper contacts of the rest of the teeth. Overbite of one-third and correct overjet were also achieved, and the esthetic outcome was satisfactory due to the composed material restorations of both the central and lateral incisors, as well as recontouring of the first maxillary premolars.

  13. Direct restoration modalities of fractured central maxillary incisors: A multi-levels validated finite elements analysis with in vivo strain measurements.

    PubMed

    Davide, Apicella; Raffaella, Aversa; Marco, Tatullo; Michele, Simeone; Syed, Jamaluddin; Massimo, Marrelli; Marco, Ferrari; Antonio, Apicella

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the influence of fracture geometry and restorative materials rigidity on the stress intensity and distribution of restored fractured central maxillary incisors (CMI) with particular investigation of the adhesive interfaces. Ancillary objectives are to present an innovative technology to measure the in vivo strain state of sound maxillary incisors and to present the collected data. A validation experimental biomechanics approach has been associated to finite element analysis. FEA models consisted of CMI, periodontal ligament and the corresponding alveolar bone process. Three models were created representing different orientation of the fracture planes. Three different angulations of the fracture plane in buccal-palatal direction were modeled: the fracture plane perpendicular to the long axis in the buccal-palatal direction (0°); the fracture plane inclined bucco-palatally in apical-coronal direction (-30°); the fracture plane inclined palatal-buccally in apical-coronal direction (+30°). First set of computing runs was performed for in vivo FE-model validation purposes. In the second part, a 50N force was applied on the buccal aspect of the CMI models. Ten patients were selected and subjected to the strain measurement of CMI under controlled loading conditions. The main differences were noticed in the middle and incisal thirds of incisors crowns, due to the presence of the incisal portion restoration. The stress intensity in -30° models is increased in the enamel structure close to the restoration, due to a thinning of the remaining natural tissues. The rigidity of the restoring material slightly reduces such phenomenon. -30° model exhibits the higher interfacial stress in the adhesive layer with respect to +30° and 0° models. The lower stress intensity was noticed in the 0° models, restoration material rigidity did not influenced the interfacial stress state in 0° models. On the contrary, material rigidity influenced the interfacial stress state

  14. Esthetic restoration of discolored primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Fred S

    2005-01-01

    Restoring primary teeth can be a strenuous task for many dentists who would like to have an esthetic, easy-to-use and relatively quick restoration for children. But, the restoration of carious, fractured or discolored primary incisors gives the dentist the satisfaction of knowing that he/she has restored the smile and self-confidence of a growing child. This article describes a technique which is relatively easy and produces a beautiful outcome in a relatively short time. The author has used the technique in hundreds of children for over twenty-five years. Modifications in the technique have been made as newer materials and techniques have evolved.

  15. Immediate Implant Placement of a Single Central Incisor Using a CAD/CAM Crown-Root Form Technique: Provisional to Final Restoration.

    PubMed

    Vafiadis, Dean; Goldstein, Gary; Garber, David; Lambrakos, Anthony; Kowalski, Bj

    2017-02-01

    Preserving soft and hard tissues after extraction and implant placement is crucial for anterior esthetics. This technique will show how the information gathered from a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the maxillary left central incisor and an intra-oral digital impression can be merged to fabricate a CAD/CAM crown-root matrix to be used as an immediate provisional restoration that mimics the natural anatomy. Due to trauma, a left central incisor appeared to be fractured and was scheduled for extraction and implant placement. The crown-root configuration captured by the CBCT scan was merged with the digital files from an intra-oral digital impression. A CAD/CAM crown-root matrix was fabricated. Because the matrix shell was fabricated with the exact anatomy of the natural tooth, it replicated the position and three dimensional anatomy of the soft and hard tissue. It was connected to the implant with a customized provisional abutment. A digital impression of a coded healing abutment was made to fabricate the final implant abutment and final restoration. Throughout the treatment time and 36 months after completion, the thickness of tissue, emergence profile, and adjacent papilla was analyzed by clinical evaluation and photography and seemed to be maintained. The use of a pre-operative intra-oral digital scan of the clinical crown-root architecture and the CBCT scan of the bone/root anatomy, can be used together to fabricate a CAD/CAM crown-root form provisional matrix. This digital design helps in the preservation of the 3D tissue topography, as well as the final restoration. The preservation of soft and hard tissue after extraction and implant placement has always been paramount for ideal anterior implant esthetics. Using the information from digital files from CBCT scans and intra-oral scans may help the clinician identify critical anatomical features that can be replicated in the provisional and final CAD/CAM restoration. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29

  16. Velocardiofacial syndrome with single central incisor.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Snehlata; Vargervik, Karin

    2005-01-15

    Three siblings and their mother are reported who all had cytogenetically proven velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). One boy had normal dental and craniofacial findings, except for an increased cranial base angle. His sister had only one central incisor in the maxilla. One central incisor had also been missing in the primary dentition. She had no labial frenulum present. Cephalometry showed a small maxillary unit length indicating mild maxillary hypoplasia, an increased anterior face height, steep mandibular plane angle, retruded chin, and a large cranial base angle. Dental measurements showed retroclined lower incisors and increased interincisal angle. A second sister had a cleft of the secondary palate. All permanent teeth were present with the exception of a missing central incisor in the lower jaw: the single lower central incisor was situated in the midline. Her cephalometry showed similar findings as in her sister. All three siblings required palate surgery for speech. Mother was not available for detailed dental and other oral investigations. A single maxillary central incisor has previously been reported in VCFS, but to our knowledge a single central incisor in the mandible has not been reported previously in this entity.

  17. Glassfiber post: an alternative for restoring grossly decayed primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Manjul; Grover, Rashu

    2012-05-01

    Restoration of primary incisors, which have been severely damaged by rampant caries or trauma, is a difficult task for the pediatric dentist. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, alternative approaches for treating these teeth have been proposed. This paper discusses the restoration of carious primary maxillary incisors using composite resin restoration reinforced with fiberglass post. Two case reports are presented here to describe the procedure. Over a 1 year period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. How to cite this article: Mehra M, Grover R. Glassfiber Post: An Alternative for Restoring Grossly Decayed Primary Incisors. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):159-162.

  18. A simple prosthetic restorative solution of a single peg-shaped upper central primary incisor in a case of ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Răducanu, Anca Maria; Păuna, Mihaela; Feraru, I V

    2010-01-01

    This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of a 7-year-old male diagnosed with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and anodontia. Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) comprises a large, heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, which are defined by primary defects in the development of two or more tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm (skin, hair follicles, nails, teeth, sebaceous and sweat glands). Our patient exhibited the typical general and cranio-facial features of ED as well as emotional and behavioral problems. The patient presents only one conical primary central incisor. The treatment was focused to improve his esthetic needs and oral functions and included the fabrication of removable prostheses and of an acrylic crown on the single tooth existing in his mouth, manufactured by an original simple method. Six months follow-up points out that restorative treatment provided psychosocial and functional comfort to the young boy. This clinical report demonstrates the importance of the prosthodontic treatment for oral rehabilitation in children with ED. The partial and complete removable dentures associated with the acrylic crown can be a reversible and inexpensive method of treatment for ED patients.

  19. Esthetic restoration of infra-occluded retained primary mandibular incisors with all-ceramic crowns in adult dentition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuang-Wei; Shen, Yu-Fu

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of hypodontia is reported to be between 1.5% to 10% in the permanent dentition. In the anterior teeth, maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular central incisors are the most frequently involved teeth. This causes esthetic problems for the patient. Several reports have focused on restoration of retained maxillary primary anterior teeth, but none have described restoration of retained mandibular primary incisors. This clinical report describes the restoration of infra-occluded retained primary mandibular central incisors of a 17 year-old girl diagnosed with hypodontia. All-ceramic crowns made with computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing technology were used to restore the teeth incisally and interproximally. Due to a relatively short root length and inadequate crown-root ratio, the primary mandibular central incisors were splinted and adjusted to distribute the protrusive force evenly across the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Functional and esthetic results were achieved.

  20. Treatment of cariously involved fused maxillary primary lateral and central incisors.

    PubMed

    ElBadrawy, H E; Diab, M

    2001-01-01

    A 3-and-a-half-year-old male child presented with fused cariously involved right maxillary primary central and lateral incisors as well as a previously traumatized non-vital left primary central incisor with a draining fistula. The child also had other restorative needs and the decision taken was to address all needs under a G.A. With respect to the fused incisors, these were split and root canals treatment was performed for all three incisors which were then restored with stainless steel crowns with esthetic facings.

  1. Impacted primary mandibular central incisors: case report.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Salwa M; Salama, Fouad S

    2002-01-01

    Impaction of primary teeth is very rare especially in the maxillary anterior teeth. A tooth that fails to erupt into a normal functional position by the time it normally should, is considered impacted. The purpose of this article is to present a case of a 2 year and 4-month-old male with an impacted primary mandibular central incisors. Clinical examination did not reveal systemic diseases or trauma in the facial region. Clinical and radiographic examinations are described. Treatment consisted of a period of observation for 6 months and the extraction of the impacted primary mandibular central incisors. Eight months after the surgery, the permanent central incisors were erupted in the proper position.

  2. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    PubMed

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique.

  3. The primary Maxillary Central Incisor in the Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, I; Balslev-Olesen, M

    2012-03-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor (SMMCI) is a developmental anomaly in the permanent dentition with one single central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This condition has been associated with extra- and intraoral malformations in the frontonasal segment of the cranium and face. It is not known whether the centrally located permanent incisor is always preceded by a centrally located primary incisor. The aim was to analyse whether a permanent single central incisor in SMMCI is always preceded by a primary single central incisor and to study extra- and intraoral phenotypic traits of the condition. cross-sectional radiographic study of 11 children, visual analysis of photos and dental and panoramic radiographs. Nine of the 11 cases exhibited a primary SMMCI with one symmetrical crown and root. Two cases exhibited two separate primary central incisor crowns with fused roots. The phenotypical traits (indistinct philtrum, lack of normal upper lip contour, missing superior labial frenulum and distinct mid-palatal ridge) were findings observed in young children with a primary SMMCI. The present study concludes and stresses the necessity of diagnosing of the SMMCI condition early in life. Furthermore, paediatric dentists are recommended to be aware of the condition and to refer these patients to interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment.

  4. Complete Management of a Mutilated Young Permanent Central Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Varun; Singh, Asha

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This case report throws light on treatment of immature apices through apexogenesis and an esthetic postobturation restoration of traumatized young permanent central incisor using a relatively newer methodology of anatomic posts, i.e. shaping the post to the root anatomy. The authors would also like to underline the significance of rubber dam isolation for more predictable outcomes. The new method of anatomic post is simple, viable, practical, and less time consuming than thought. PMID:27616859

  5. Beware the solitary maxillary median central incisor.

    PubMed

    DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2008-03-01

    The incidence of a solitary maxillary median central incisor (SMMCI) tooth in the general population is low, in either the primary or secondary dentition. The most common cause of a missing maxillary central incisor is trauma, or more rarely hypodontia. However, SMMCI is also a recognized genetic anomaly and affected individuals can be carriers for a potentially more serious condition affecting midline development of the brain and face, holoprosencephaly (HPE). The presence of an SMMCI of unknown aetiology is therefore considered a risk factor for HPE, even in the absence of any other clinical signs. The orthodontist may be responsible for diagnosing cases of SMMCI with no obvious cause, and in these subjects due consideration should be given to referral for the appropriate genetic testing and counselling.

  6. In vitro fracture resistance of mandibular incisors restored with modified partial-coverage ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana-Vivo, Jaime; Vilaplana-Vivo, Carlos; Miguel-Sánchez, Alfonso; García-Ballesta, Carlos; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the impact fracture resistance of anterior teeth that had been fractured and restored with modified partial-coverage ceramics using the edge-up technique. A total of 178 extracted human mandibular central and lateral incisors were included in this study. The incisors were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 89) teeth were cleaved and restored with modified partial-coverage ceramics using the edge-up technique; Group 2 (n = 89) consisted of intact teeth that served as control. Impact strength was tested in a modified impact testing machine (pendulum type), and the severity of crown fracture after fracture resistance test was registered. Impact strength was insignificantly lower in restored teeth (median 5.39 and range 0.81-14.12 kJ m(-2) ) than in intact teeth (median 5.45 and range 0.31-16.47 kJ m(-2) ), although no statistically significant differences were observed. Regarding the severity of crown fracture, restored teeth showed a lower rate of severe fractures (20.22%) compared to intact teeth (25.84%), but no statistically significant differences were observed. Restoration of cleaved mandibular incisors with modified partial-coverage ceramics using the edge-up technique shows fracture resistance and severity of crown fracture following traumatism similar to intact teeth. In this way, this technique can be used successfully for the treatment of fractured anterior teeth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, G; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V

    2012-09-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI.

  8. Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Shilpa, G.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V.

    2012-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI. PMID:23230364

  9. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  10. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-04-09

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th-38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18-22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated.

  11. Restoration of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using mini implants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ron

    2013-07-01

    In this author's opinion, the advent of mini implants, or small diameter implants (SDIs) as they are more frequently being called, are becoming in many situations a viable alternative to the more traditional root form implants. They offer advantages of less cost, a more simplified placement technique, usually faster healing times, and generally less post-operative complications. A case presentation is given to demonstrate their usage for a narrow ridge application to restore congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors.

  12. Restoration of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using mini implants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ron

    2013-11-01

    In this author's opinion, the advent of mini implants, or small diameter implants (SDIs) as they are more frequently being called, is becoming in many situations a viable alternative to the more traditional root form implants. They offer advantages of less cost, a more simplified placement technique, usually faster healing times, and generally less post-operative complications. A case presentation is given to demonstrate their usage for a narrow ridge application to restore congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors.

  13. Management of maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severely intruded maxillary central incisor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hisanobu; Yanamoto, Souichi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Fujiwara, Taku; Umeda, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    An 11-year-old male who injured his maxilla and right maxillary central incisor and lip during a fall was presented to our hospital. His lower lip and upper gingiva were lacerated with swelling and epistaxis, and he had a maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severe intrusion of the right maxillary central incisor, which had penetrated the floor of the nasal cavity with avulsion. Under local anesthesia, we repositioned the incisor and bone segment and fixed them with a titanium micromesh plate and self-tapping screws and splints. The incisor was also treated by root canal 3 days after the operation and was restored with a crown. We performed root canal filling 1 month later. Five months later, the plate and screws were removed. In prognosis of our case, no symptoms of inflammatory root resorption or ankylosis have observed for more than 1 year and 6 months of follow up based on both clinical and radiographic findings.

  14. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  15. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98.

  16. Dilaceration of maxillary central incisor: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Topouzelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousoglou, Phoebus; Pisoka, Vasiliki; Zouloumis, Lampros

    2010-10-01

    The main purpose of this review is to present the aetiological factors and the mechanism that cause dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. In early developmental stages, the permanent tooth germ of the maxillary incisor is situated palatally and superiorly to the apex of the primary incisor and gradually changes direction in a labial direction with its crown coming closer to the resorbing primary root. For reasons of this close relationship between the permanent tooth germ and the apex of the primary incisor, it is believed that an acute trauma to the primary predecessor can cause dilaceration of the long axis of the permanent successor. Clinically, dilaceration can be revealed by palpation high in the labial sulcus or in the hard palate, while its radiographic view is characteristic. The therapeutic approach to the dilacerated maxillary central incisors has to be carefully planned and needs the cooperation of several specialities to attain the final objective. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Permanent maxillary central incisor impaction: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Sushant S; Kumar, G S; Raghunath, Vandana; Rekha, K P

    2003-01-01

    Impaction of the permanent maxillary central incisor is rare. Trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth is the most common cause. Two case reports of impacted permanent maxillary central incisors with a history of trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth are presented. In one case there was radiographic evidence of complete arrest of root formation, and in the other case the root was dilacerated from the cervical third and the enamel surface was rough.

  18. Case report: twin supernumerary maxillary central incisors, unerupted maxillary central incisors. Early orthodontic treatment in ten-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Glenn, F B

    1994-03-01

    This is the case report of a 10 year-old female Caucasian with a mixed dentition Class I right and Class II left side malocclusion and unerupted maxillary central incisors. It was necessary for the oral surgeon to remove twin supernumerary mesiodens prior to the placement of orthodontic appliances. Space was created to accommodate the customary, also unerupted central incisors, which were rotated 90 degrees to the midline.

  19. Dental transposition of canine and lateral incisor and impacted central incisor treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gebert, Tarcisio Jacinto; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental transposition and impaction are disorders related to ectopic eruption or failure in tooth eruption, which can affect child physical, mental and social development and may be difficult to be clinically solved. Methods We describe a case of transposition between the upper left canine and lateral incisor associated with impaction of the central incisor on the same side, in a 12-year-old patient. Conservative treatment involving surgical-orthodontic correction of transposed teeth and traction of the central incisor was conducted. Conclusion The option of correcting transposition and orthodontic traction by means of the segmented arch technique with devices such as cantilever and TMA rectangular wire loops, although a complex alternative, was proved to be esthetically and functionally effective. PMID:24713567

  20. Preformed resin-veneered stainless steel crowns for restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P; Helpin, M L

    1996-05-01

    Stainless steel crown forms with bonded resin veneers for primary incisors are commercially available to dentists. This type of preveneered crown was developed to serve as a convenient, durable, reliable, and esthetic solution to the difficult challenge of restoring severely carious primary incisors. This article describes preveneered crowns, reviews their advantages and disadvantages, and details a technique for placement of such restorations.

  1. Unevenness of the apical constriction in human maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Olson, David G; Roberts, Steven; Joyce, Anthony P; Collins, D Edward; McPherson, James C

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the incisoapical extent of the apical constriction in 45 human maxillary central incisors. The null hypothesis was that the apical constriction is a flat ring. Our working hypothesis was that the constriction is actually uneven or "skewed" as it traces a path around the circumference of the canal. Teeth were split and imaged with 25x magnification, and the most apical and coronal limits of the apical constriction were identified and measured. Analysis of the data indicates that a majority (>70%) of maxillary central incisors exhibit an unevenness or "skew" of the apical constriction of greater than 100 microm in the incisoapical dimension, with a maximum measured skew of 385 microm. On the basis of the results of this study, a statistically significant (P < .05) variation in the longitudinal position of the apical constriction around its circumference was confirmed in maxillary central incisors.

  2. Clinical evaluation of a patient with single maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Youko, Kamasaki; Satoshi, Fukumoto; Kubota, Kazumi; Goto, George

    2002-01-01

    Hypodontia in permanent dentition is the most common developmental anomaly and frequently found in the second premolar and maxillary lateral incisor In the primary dentition, however, hypodontia appears to be less frequent, with the exception of cases such as ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip and palate. We report a child with one primary maxillary central incisor at midline. The presence of a single permanent maxillary central incisor was also confirmed by radiological examination. Other intraoral abnormalities were detected including absence of upper labial frenulum and abnormal palatal structure, but no other facial or brain anomalies. Although the condition is exceedingly rare, a thorough examination for more serious anomalies should be conducted since it is suggested to be the mildest feature of holoprosencephaly.

  3. Complete intrusion of a maxillary right primary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Merkle, A

    2000-01-01

    This clinical article presents a rare presentation of complete intrusion of a maxillary right primary central incisor. Routine examination of a 29-month old female patient revealed an intrusion injury where the primary central incisor was displaced through the floor of the nasal cavity. The traumatic impaction was erroneously diagnosed as an avulsion injury by the attending emergency room physician and later discovered by the dental team during routine care. The injury was documented with radiographs. The intruded incisor was removed through the right naris utilizing general anesthesia to manage behavior and surgical access. This article emphasizes the importance of radiographs and demonstrates the need to involve the dental professional in initial assessment of dental trauma.

  4. Management of unerupted maxillary deciduous central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shakra, Karam Abu

    2014-01-01

    Failure of eruption of primary teeth can be considered rare, especially in maxillary anterior teeth. The problem can be either mechanical obstruction of eruption or a failure of the eruption mechanism. This case report presents failure of eruption of the maxillary right deciduous central incisor in a 4-year-old girl. The unerupted primary tooth was removed surgically. The histological finding revealed fibroma with reactive giant cells. Periodic follow-up visits were advised to monitor the developing dentition and to ensure enough space for the permanent incisor. How to cite this article: Shakra KA. Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):58-60.

  5. Esthetic periodontal surgery for impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The orthodontic center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Stephens, C D

    1979-08-01

    The cephalometric records of sixty-four Class II, Division 1 cases treated exclusively with removable orthodontic appliances have been used in a study of the manner in which maxillary central incisors tilt. The center of rotation was most frequently located in the middle third of the incisor root. The longer the time interval between the pre- and posttreatment cephalograms, the more apical was the rotation axis likely to be, an effect ascribed to growth changes in the maxilla. If the effects of growth are taken into account, it seems that the maxillary central incisor seldom, if ever, tilts about the apical third of its root when force levels customarily recommended for tipping movements are employed. The results suggest that the instantaneous and orthodontic centers of rotation are one and the same and support the view that the manner in which incisor teeth move in response to a single applied force depends principally on the physical properties of the tooth root, supporting bone, and periodontal membrane. An unexplained correlation was found between the rate of incisor movement measured at the cervical margin of the tooth and the level of the rotation center.

  7. A Case Report of Dilacerated Crown of a Permanent Mandibular Central Incisor.

    PubMed

    Bolhari, Behnam; Pirmoazen, Salma; Taftian, Ensieh; Dehghan, Somayeh

    2016-11-01

    Trauma to primary teeth can lead to devastating sequels in development of permanent successors. The disturbance may range from enamel hypoplasia and/or hypo-calcification to arrest of dental bud development. Crown dilaceration of permanent teeth is one of the consequences of trauma to deciduous teeth mainly due to intrusion or avulsion. This report presents a mandibular central incisor with dilacerated crown and yellowish discoloration with symptomatic apical abscess. History revealed avulsion of primary mandibular central incisors. The purpose of this report is to present: 1. Reasons of dilacerated crown, yellowish discoloration and necrotic pulp in this case, 2. Treatment options in different types of crown dilacerations and also in this case. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with composite resin to restore esthetics. We emphasize that trauma to deciduous teeth should not be understated, and regular follow up is essential.

  8. A Case Report of Dilacerated Crown of a Permanent Mandibular Central Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Pirmoazen, Salma; Taftian, Ensieh

    2016-01-01

    Trauma to primary teeth can lead to devastating sequels in development of permanent successors. The disturbance may range from enamel hypoplasia and/or hypo-calcification to arrest of dental bud development. Crown dilaceration of permanent teeth is one of the consequences of trauma to deciduous teeth mainly due to intrusion or avulsion. This report presents a mandibular central incisor with dilacerated crown and yellowish discoloration with symptomatic apical abscess. History revealed avulsion of primary mandibular central incisors. The purpose of this report is to present: 1. Reasons of dilacerated crown, yellowish discoloration and necrotic pulp in this case, 2. Treatment options in different types of crown dilacerations and also in this case. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with composite resin to restore esthetics. We emphasize that trauma to deciduous teeth should not be understated, and regular follow up is essential. PMID:28243307

  9. Age determination from central incisors of fetuses and infants.

    PubMed

    Aka, P Sema; Canturk, Nergis; Dagalp, Rukiye; Yagan, Murat

    2009-01-30

    Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of this study is to determine the age of deceased fetuses and infants by examining metric tooth development of central incisors in deceased fetuses and infants. Five dimensions of 76 maxillary and mandibular central incisors were measured: mesio-distal (MD), bucco-lingual (BL), crown height (CH), crown thickness (CT), and root height (RH). The results showed that 44.45+/-0-2 weeks is a sectional time for age calculations, which corresponds to 40 weeks from conception plus 4 to 5 weeks after birth. Four ATA entitled age formulas are derived to give the relation of age with tooth dimensions before and after 44.45 weeks [ATA is the special name given to the honor of the great Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)]. Age estimation can be calculated from these formulas with an accuracy of the age +/-0-2 weeks. Also, calcification time can be determined from ATA formulas. In conclusion, the age of fetuses and infants can be assessed by the measurements of a single central incisor. According to this research, when estimating age during identification studies, forensic researchers must take into consideration the period of embryonic human growth and development.

  10. Bilateral triplicated primary central incisors: clinical course and therapy.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Weidner, Nelly; Ansari, Franziska; Mueller-Lessmann, Viola; Wetzel, Willi-Eckhard

    2007-05-01

    Uncommon developmental abnormalities such as fused or geminated teeth are of interest for the clinical problems associated with them. A rare case of fusion between maxillary primary central and lateral incisors and a supplemental incisor occurring bilaterally is presented. The patient was a 4-year-old Thai boy. Intraoral examination revealed an abscess and fistula in the region of the fused teeth as a result of periapical osteolysis. Access cavities were prepared as acute procedures. Because of the unpromising prognosis, surgical removal of the teeth was inevitable. For functional, esthetic, and phonetic rehabilitation, an acrylic denture was incorporated.

  11. Vibration perception thresholds of human maxillary and mandibular central incisors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lee T; Levy, Jay H; Petrisor, Daniel; Lilly, David J; Dong, W K

    2003-04-01

    Tactile information from dental mechanoreceptors contributes to the perception of food bolus textures and the control of mastication. While numerous studies have measured the light-touch sensory thresholds of teeth, little information is available about the vibrotactile perception thresholds of teeth. This study uses an adaptive psychophysical procedure to determine thresholds of vibratory stimulation of maxillary and mandibular central incisors in 16 healthy human subjects. An electromechanical vibrator delivered labiolingual forces perpendicular to the long axis of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at 10 stimulation frequencies between 40 and 315 Hz. The median thresholds ranged between 44 and 104 mN. A linear regression analysis revealed a significant increase in the vibrotactile thresholds with increasing frequencies for stimulation of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. No significant differences were found between regression slopes of the thresholds of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. These results indicated that maxillary and mandibular incisors should be able to discriminate effectively among a variety of textures based on their ability to encode a wide range of vibration frequencies.

  12. Simultaneous Replacement of Maxillary Central Incisors with CEREC Biogeneric Reference Technique: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Bal, Eray; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Biogeneric Reference Technique (BRT) of the CEREC 3D v.3.8 software is an effective technique for single anterior ceramic crowns because it provides computer-controlled match of the tooth form to the contralateral tooth. BRT also enables the fabrication of two or more anterior all-ceramic crowns simultaneously. This clinical report demonstrates the clinical application of BRT for designing and milling two central incisors in one appointment using a single optical impression. After completing the virtual design of the first central incisor, it was copied and a mirror image was created. The second central incisor was designed using this replicated image and therefore a computer-controlled symmetry was obtained. The crowns were milled from monolithic feldspathic ceramic blocks and adhesively luted with dual-cured resin cement following dentin conditioning. At the two-year follow-up appointment, the restorations were intact, no adverse effects were noted, and the resultant appearance was highly satisfactory for the patient. A step-by-step protocol is described from design to cementation of these restorations. PMID:23875091

  13. Elastic band causing exfoliation of the upper permanent central incisors.

    PubMed

    Alves, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira; Kitakawa, Dárcio; Becker, Joao Batista Macedo; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before.

  14. Elastic Band Causing Exfoliation of the Upper Permanent Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before. PMID:25874135

  15. The influence of maxillary central incisor position in complete dentures on /s/ sound production.

    PubMed

    Runte, C; Lawerino, M; Dirksen, D; Bollmann, F; Lamprecht-Dinnesen, A; Seifert, E

    2001-05-01

    The insertion of prosthodontic restorations often leads to speech defects, most of which are transient but nevertheless a source of concern to the patient. For the dental practitioner, there are few guidelines on designing a prosthetic restoration with maximum phonetic success. This study investigated the effect of different maxillary central incisor positions on phonetic patterns. The inclination angle of central incisor blocks in duplicate complete maxillary dentures was changed in a range of -30 degrees to +30 degrees from the original position (0 degrees). Test words and sentences were acoustically analyzed. Spectral parameters such as first peak, noise band (defined by upper and lower limits of the most intensively blackened frequency area), Fast Fourier Transformation power spectrum, energy spectrum, and time were investigated. Influences of oral stereognosis, hearing, and age as cofactors on /s/ articulation were also taken into account. The change of incisor block angle in both directions usually caused a poorer execution of the /s/ sound. The labial angulation seemed to have a greater effect than the palatal angulation. The most significant changes were those in the noise band and energy spectrum. Immediate phonetic adaptation of prosthetic restorations in the maxillary incisor region can be achieved only if the original position of the natural teeth is transferred to the denture. Although these misarticulations are, in most cases, likely to disappear within a few weeks, they may persist and even lead to psychosocial problems. A better understanding of the causes of misarticulation and the limits of adaptation according to certain morphologic parameters of dentures is important.

  16. Management of synodontia between dilacerated permanent maxillary central incisor and supernumerary tooth with aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suroopa; Warhadpande, Manjusha M.; Redij, Saurabh Anil; Sabir, Husain; Shirude, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    A malformed tooth characterized by one or more developmental disturbances is often difficult to treat. When such teeth are present in anterior region, they pose a technical challenge for the clinician to restore esthetics as well as function. This case describes endodontic, surgical, and restorative management of fused and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used in the present case to aid in understanding of complicated tooth morphology and managing the case successfully. PMID:25829699

  17. ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF UNUSUALLY LONG DISCOLORED MAXILLARY CENTRAL INCISOR: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun-Solanke, I.M.F.; Ajayi, D.M.; Abu, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough biomechanical preparation followed by complete obturation of the canal system together with prompt and adequate restoration. Therefore, the endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external anatomy, and its variation in presentation. Such treatment may be performed in root canal systems that do not comply with normal anatomic features described in standard textbooks. This article presents a case of endodontic treatment in an unusually long discolored maxillary central incisor. Case Presentation: A 31 year-old male patient was referred to conservation clinic for endodontic treatment of discolored left maxillary central incisor with associated history of recurrent swelling. Root canal therapy was performed and patient was found to have an unusually long working length of 29mm. This was then followed by enucleation of apical cyst without apical resection. Conclusion: Though the patient presents a maxillary central incisor with canal length in the upper limit of some reported cases, it is unusual in our environment. PMID:25161420

  18. Fusion of central incisors with supernumerary teeth: a 10-year follow-up of multidisciplinary treatment.

    PubMed

    Steinbock, Nelly; Wigler, Ronald; Kaufman, Arieh Y; Lin, Shaul; Abu-El Naaj, Imad; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-07-01

    Macrodontia of anterior teeth may occur as an isolated condition or as a result of fusion or gemination and may cause clinical problems such as tooth crowding and esthetic problems. Preliminary planning and careful management are often required by a dental team comprising an orthodontist, an endodontist, a prosthodontist, and an oral surgeon. A multidisciplinary treatment approach in a case with fused teeth is presented. A 9-year-old girl presented with macrodontia of a left maxillary central incisor. The patient was referred to the orthodontic department because of a large central incisor as a result of fusion with an unspecific supernumerary tooth. The surgical procedure included sectioning off the mesial segment as far as possible, both apically and subgingivally, and extracting 1 of the fused supernumerary teeth. During the sectioning procedure, the pulp of the remaining tooth was exposed at the middle third of the root. Direct pulp capping was performed by an endodontist using mineral trioxide aggregate. Twelve weeks later, orthodontic treatment was commenced, and finally after a 26-month orthodontic treatment period, the central incisors' crown was restored using composite material. A 10-year clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed that the remaining resected central incisor kept its vitality, and the patient was pleased with the esthetic result. Proper interdisciplinary treatment planning of complicated cases such as anomalous teeth, which involve fusion to a supernumerary tooth, may lead to minimal invasive conservative procedures that maintain tooth vitality and result in a pleasing esthetic result. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interim restorative approach for the management of congenitally missing permanent mandibular incisors: presentation of three cases.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Prashanth; Hallur, Jayadev M; Gowda, Rachana Narse

    2011-01-01

    Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to comfort the young patient during this transition period. Interim restorations may include resin-modified additions to the existing teeth as well as more sophisticated restorations such as resin-retained bridge and removable partial dentures. However, this restoration differs for different clinical situations based on various factors such as age and patient compliance, and also consideration has to be given for the growth changes of the child. The aim of this present paper is to discuss the esthetic management of three cases with bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular incisors and retained primary incisors with composite interim restoration.

  20. Interim Restorative Approach for the Management of Congenitally Missing Permanent Mandibular Incisors: Presentation of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Prashanth; Hallur, Jayadev M.; Gowda, Rachana Narse

    2011-01-01

    Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to comfort the young patient during this transition period. Interim restorations may include resin-modified additions to the existing teeth as well as more sophisticated restorations such as resin-retained bridge and removable partial dentures. However, this restoration differs for different clinical situations based on various factors such as age and patient compliance, and also consideration has to be given for the growth changes of the child. The aim of this present paper is to discuss the esthetic management of three cases with bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular incisors and retained primary incisors with composite interim restoration. PMID:22567446

  1. An impacted malformed primary maxillary central incisor diagnosed as a compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Aizenbud, Dror; Front, Yael Pery

    2008-01-01

    An odontoma is usually found in the surrounding area of the unerupted permanent tooth bud and rarely adjacent to the primary central incisor This report presents a case of an unerupted malformed primary central incisor, histologically diagnosed as a compound odontoma. A 5.5 year-old healthy boy presented with an unerupted maxillary left primary central incisor and mild gingival buccal swelling. No history of traumatic injury was recorded. Radiological examination revealed a tooth-like mass with a partially developed root and a malformed crown in the area of the left primary central incisor Delayed development of the successor left permanent incisor in comparison to the right one was noted. The rational for early surgical intervention to enable normal development and eruption of permanent incisors is described. Clinical and radiographic diagnoses as well as several etiological factors and a differential diagnosis are considered and reviewed.

  2. A Labially Positioned Mesiodens and Its Repositioning as a Missing Central Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Ephraim, Rena; Dilna, N C; Sreedevi, S; Shubha, M

    2014-01-01

    Hyperdontia is an increased number of teeth within the dental arches. This is of particular interest to pediatric dentists who commonly make the initial diagnosis. Most often a large portion of these teeth is completely embedded or impacted within the jaws and can be viewed only radiographically. Hyperdontia can occur on virtually every tooth-bearing surface. However, the most frequent is the mesiodens, in the anterior maxillary region. Anterior maxillary teeth are one of the most important features contributing to aesthetics of an individual. Missing anterior teeth can cause undue psychological stress in children, during their growing years. Most of the literature available show that the mesiodens are situated on the palatal aspect of the permanent incisors. Their treatment frequently involves an early recognition, extraction through a traditional palatal technique and guiding the associated permanent tooth to its original position. The purpose of this article is to enlighten the clinician of the need of deviating from the traditional approach of early extraction in particular situations and to conserve the mesiodens if favorable as an alternative treatment to a malformed permanent tooth, which may fail to erupt. This report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach to treatment of a unerrupted, labially placed mesiodens in conjunction with a dilacerated and impacted permanent tooth, in a child with a missing left central incisor. Treatment consisted of localizing and confirming the placement of the mesiodens to be labial, surgically exposing the crown of the mesiodens through a labial surgical approach, orthodontically guiding it to the position of the missing central incisor, extracting the malformed permanent incisor, and restoring the mesiodens to the required anatomy with composites, to establish aesthetics and function of the affected region. PMID:25395807

  3. A labially positioned mesiodens and its repositioning as a missing central incisor.

    PubMed

    Ephraim, Rena; Dilna, N C; Sreedevi, S; Shubha, M

    2014-09-01

    Hyperdontia is an increased number of teeth within the dental arches. This is of particular interest to pediatric dentists who commonly make the initial diagnosis. Most often a large portion of these teeth is completely embedded or impacted within the jaws and can be viewed only radiographically. Hyperdontia can occur on virtually every tooth-bearing surface. However, the most frequent is the mesiodens, in the anterior maxillary region. Anterior maxillary teeth are one of the most important features contributing to aesthetics of an individual. Missing anterior teeth can cause undue psychological stress in children, during their growing years. Most of the literature available show that the mesiodens are situated on the palatal aspect of the permanent incisors. Their treatment frequently involves an early recognition, extraction through a traditional palatal technique and guiding the associated permanent tooth to its original position. The purpose of this article is to enlighten the clinician of the need of deviating from the traditional approach of early extraction in particular situations and to conserve the mesiodens if favorable as an alternative treatment to a malformed permanent tooth, which may fail to erupt. This report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach to treatment of a unerrupted, labially placed mesiodens in conjunction with a dilacerated and impacted permanent tooth, in a child with a missing left central incisor. Treatment consisted of localizing and confirming the placement of the mesiodens to be labial, surgically exposing the crown of the mesiodens through a labial surgical approach, orthodontically guiding it to the position of the missing central incisor, extracting the malformed permanent incisor, and restoring the mesiodens to the required anatomy with composites, to establish aesthetics and function of the affected region.

  4. Management of Talons Cusp associated with Primary Central Incisor: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bahadure, Rakesh N; Thosar, Nilima; Jain, Eesha S

    2012-05-01

    The talon cusp is a relatively rare dental developmental anomaly characterized by cusp-like projections, usually observed on the lingual surface of the affected tooth. Normal enamel covers the cusp and fuses with the lingual aspect of the tooth. The cusp may or may not contain an extension of the pulp. The condition can occur in both the primary and permanent dentitions. However, the occurrence of anomalous cusp is rather infrequent in the primary dentition. Little data is available about the treatment of talon cusps in the primary dentition as compared with the permanent dentition. A case of talon cusp in the primary maxillary left central incisor is reported. This dental anomaly was not associated with any other somatic or dental abnormality. The tooth was carious. Pulpal extension into the cusp was detected radiographically. Pulpectomy of the tooth was carried out and restored with composite restoration. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Thosar N, Jain ES. Management of Talons Cusp associated with Primary Central Incisor: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2): 142-144.

  5. A morphometric analysis of maxillary central incisor on the basis of facial appearance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ji-Eun; Yang, Hong-So

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to identify a more esthetic width-to-length ratio by analyzing maxillary central incisor of Korean adult population. Information regarding tooth ratio in the Korean population may be useful to clinicians when restoring anterior teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 40 men and 40 women were included in this study. The NON-MEDIA group included 40 non-celebrities, who were healthy and 25 to 39 years old, with normal dentofacial appearance. The MEDIA group consisted of 40 celebrities selected only on the basis of their soft-tissue facial appearance. The facial photographs of 40 celebrities were collected from the Internet websites. The width and length of the maxillary central incisor were measured using Adobe Photoshop® 7.0, a software for analysis, measurement and edition of photographs. Data were analyzed statistically using the Independent t-test at 5% statistical significance level. RESULTS The mean ratio for the MEDIA group was 0.77, whereas that of the NON-MEDIA group was 0.88. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No significant gender differences were found in the width-to-length ratio in MEDIA group. In NON-MEDIA group, however, there were significant differences between female and male. CONCLUSION After analyzing maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults, our results were in accordance with the general Western standards of esthetics. A dentist restoring the natural look and beauty of teeth will have to consider those standards. PMID:22439095

  6. Successful autotransplantation of a mature mesiodens to replace a traumatized maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Dharmani, U; Rajput, A; Kamal, C; Talwar, S; Verma, M

    2015-06-01

    This case describes the successful transplantation of a mature mesiodens tooth to replace a traumatized maxillary central incisor. A 17-year-old male attended 1 week after a traumatic injury to his left maxillary central incisor (tooth 21). Radiographs revealed a horizontal root fracture and a poor prognosis. The tooth was atraumatically removed and replaced with a mesiodens lying in the same region. After stabilization, root canal treatment was performed and aesthetics were restored with a tooth coloured restoration. A 2-year follow-up revealed the tooth had good aesthetics and function. A supernumerary nonfunctional tooth such as a mesiodens can be successfully used to replace a missing permanent tooth by autotransplantation. Autotransplantation has a high success rate if case selection is good, appropriate surgery is carried out and excellent hygiene is maintained. Autotransplantation should be considered as one of the most biologic techniques for replacing a missing tooth with minimal cost. Autotransplantation can be carried out even after complete root formation in the donor tooth. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fracture resistance of incisor teeth restored using fibre-reinforced posts and threaded metal posts: effect of post length, location, pretreatment and cementation of the final restoration.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, M; Lippenberger, S; Rues, S; Gilde, H; Rammelsberg, P

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the fracture load of incisor teeth restored using short, threaded, parallel-sided posts (TMP) is, under special conditions, not inferior to that of teeth restored using long TMPs or fibre-reinforced posts (FRP). Seventy-two maxillary incisors and 72 mandibular incisors were collected. Sixty-four in each group were root filled; in half of these FRPs were cemented, and in the other half TMPs were used. Half of the FRPs were pretreated; the others were not pretreated. In the TMP-group, half of the teeth received a long post (10 mm), the other half a short post (3 mm). Crowns were fabricated and cemented with Ketac-cem or Panavia. Eight maxillary incisors and eight mandibular incisors with intact natural crowns were used as control groups. All specimens were loaded until fracture. Fracture loads were higher for pretreated FRPs than for untreated FRPs. If the FRPs were not pretreated, fracture loads for maxillary incisors after use of short metal posts were significantly higher (248 N compared with 133 N, P = 0.027). Fracture loads for teeth restored using long TMPs were not higher than for teeth restored using short TMPs (277 N compared with 266 N). Fracture loads for mandibular incisors restored using long (10 mm) pretreated FRP were higher than for mandibular incisors restored using short (3 mm) metal posts (436 N compared with 285 N). Cementation of the crowns using an adhesive resin cement did not increase the fracture load for mandibular incisors, whereas for maxillary incisors, this cementation technique tended to increase fracture loads in teeth restored with FRP, although this increase was not significant at the P < 0.05 level (P = 0.06). In both groups, fracture loads were higher for mandibular incisors. Short, threaded, parallel-sided metal posts might be an alternative to fibre- reinforced posts for maxillary incisors, for teeth with short roots or when FRP cannot be pretreated.

  8. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown–root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Zahedpasha, Samir; Safarcherati, Hengameh; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Mehrani-Sabet, Javad

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth. PMID:23087746

  9. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Zahedpasha, Samir; Safarcherati, Hengameh; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Mehrani-Sabet, Javad

    2012-05-01

    This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth.

  10. Multiple talon cusps on maxillary central incisor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    KV, Suresh; C, Pramod R; Yadav, Seema Roodmal; Kumar, Nilesh; C D, Mounesh Kumar; Kumar, Sreeja P

    2017-01-01

    Dental anomalies affecting the teeth are relatively common. Simultaneous occurrence of multiple dental abnormalities in a single tooth is uncommon and relatively rare. One such abnormality routinely encountered in dental clinics is the talon cusp. It is also referred to as dens evaginatus, characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp-like structure projecting from the cingulum of anterior teeth. It has an increased predilection for maxillary teeth and permanent dentition. Although numerous cases of talon cusp have been reported in the literature, occurrence of multiple talon cusps in maxillary central incisors has not been found in the literature. This case report highlights the presence of talon cusps in maxillary anterior teeth with multiple impacted supernumerary teeth. PMID:28748055

  11. Pre-treatment radiographic features predict root resorption of treated impacted maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Ho, K H; Liao, Y F

    2012-08-01

    To determine independent predictors of root resorption for surgical-orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary central incisors. The Department of Dentistry at Show Chwan Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan. Eighty patients with unilateral osseous-impacted maxillary central incisors receiving a surgical-orthodontic treatment. This is a retrospective observational study. Root resorption and its predictors were abstracted from patients' charts, pre-treatment cephalometric radiographs, and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Predictors included demographics, treatment duration, crown angle, crown height, crown depth, and root dilacerations. The patients' mean age was 9.2 ± 2.3 years (6.4-20.6 years), and 60% were females. Impacted maxillary central incisors had greater root resorption than naturally erupted contralateral incisors (Δ = -2.8 mm, p < 0.001). Independent predictors of root resorption for impacted maxillary central incisors were shown by linear regression analysis to be crown height (β = -0.2, p < 0.01), crown depth (β = -0.3, p = 0.001), treatment duration (β = 0.2, p < 0.01), and root dilacerations (β = 3.1, p = 0.001). Impacted maxillary central incisors had greater root resorption during surgical-orthodontic treatment than their naturally erupted contralateral incisors. Predictors of a greater root resorption were highly and deeply impacted incisors, longer treatment, and root dilacerations. These predictors may help to inform patient and family counseling before treatment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Management of an unerupted dilacerated maxillary central incisor after trauma to the primary predecessor.

    PubMed

    Küchler, Erika Calvano; Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Costa, Marcelo de Castro; Gleiser, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    The most common cause of permanent maxillary incisor dilaceration is usually trauma to the primary predecessor, such as avulsions, intrusions, or gross displacement of primary incisors. The purpose of this case report was to describe the surgical exposure and orthodontic traction of an unerupted dilacerated permanent maxillary central incisor performed on a young girl. During the surgical exposure, a hole was placed in the tooth crown, and elastic chains, inserted though the hole, were used for traction. The alignment and leveling of the impacted incisor were performed with sequential stainless steel wires. Good periapical and periodontal health, combined with adequate occlusion and a positive esthetic outcome, demonstrated the satisfactory results of this case.

  13. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pavuluri, Chaitanya; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral in either of the jaws. This paper reports the presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth in the right maxillary central incisor region with trauma involving both maxillary central incisors and also the management of the supernumerary tooth and traumatized teeth in a 14-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Pavuluri C, Nuvvula S. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):30-32.

  14. Bilateral distal ectopic eruption of the permanent mandibular central incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Sanchez, Ana Lúcia Freire; Gleiser, Rogério

    2003-02-01

    A 7-year-old female patient presented with a rare case of bilateral distal ectopic eruption of the mandibular permanent central incisors. Treatment instituted was extraction of the retained primary teeth and placement of a fixed appliance for alignment and repositioning of the mandibular permanent incisors.

  15. Post-traumatic treatment of maxillary incisors by immediate dentoalveolar restoration with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ariádene Cristina Pértile de Oliveira; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Alonso, Ana Carolina; Filho, Leopoldino Capelozza; da Rosa, José Carlos Martins

    2015-02-01

    Replacing both missing maxillary anterior teeth is particularly challenging, especially in compromised sockets. This case report describes the management of an 18-year-old female patient, who suffered avulsion of both maxillary central incisors at 7 years of age. This multidisciplinary implant technique, called Immediate Dentoalveolar Restoration (IDR), included extraction of the injured teeth and a single procedure for immediate implant placement and restoration of the compromised sockets after root fracture and periapical lesion development were detected during orthodontic treatment. Successful esthetic and functional outcomes and reestablishment of the alveolar process after bone reconstruction were observed during the 3-year follow-up period. The predictable esthetic outcomes and soft- and hard-tissue stability that can be achieved following IDR are demonstrated.

  16. Clinical recommendations for management of mesiodens and unerupted permanent maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Ayers, E; Kennedy, D; Wiebe, C

    2014-12-01

    Un-erupted maxillary incisors may result secondary to supernumerary teeth. Despite the removal of such mesiodentes, orthodontic traction of a permanent un-erupted maxillary incisor may be required. The literature regarding the impacted maxillary central incisor(s) was reviewed and all pertinent publications on the subject assessed. The review specifically relative to mesiodentes, surgical exposure and orthodontic management was interpreted together with the clinical experience of a number of the authors' cases. From this analysis a set of recommendations was developed. (1) A sufficient arch space has to be ensured or orthodontically created for permanent maxillary central incisor(s). (2) Early surgical extraction of a mesiodens or mesiodentes (ideally before 7 years of age), with simultaneous closed surgical exposure of the permanent impacted maxillary incisor with bonding of an attachment with gold chain. (3) Re-evaluation after 2-3 months to assess for any natural eruption of the maxillary central incisor. (4) Application of orthodontic traction in the event of non-eruption. Early diagnosis of the presence of mesiodentes is imperative. Appropriate surgical and/or orthodontic traction is often indicated with regular post-surgical follow-up assessments.

  17. Orthodontic-surgical-endodontic management of unerupted maxillary central incisor with distoangular root dilaceration.

    PubMed

    Valladares Neto, José; de Pinho Costa, Sérgio; Estrela, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Root dilaceration refers to a dental anomaly characterized by an abrupt deviation in the longitudinal axis of the tooth. It can be localized in the crown, between the crown and the root, or, most frequently, in the root. This report describes a horizontally unerupted maxillary central incisor with distoangular root dilacerations most likely caused by a traumatic dental injury to its primary predecessor. Surgical-orthodontic traction was applied after the redistribution of the space in the anterior maxillary region. Root dilaceration of the tractioned tooth was evident and did not allow the alignment of the tooth into proper position in the dental arch. Root canal filling and apicoectomy were performed. This procedure restored the normal appearance of the anterior maxillary teeth. Long-term follow-up (8 years) by periapical radiography indicated stable periodontal health without the presence of root resorption. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthodontic approach to dilacerated central incisor localized horizontally on the anterior nasal spine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Olmez, Hüseyin; Esenlik, Elçin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present a case of surgical exposure of a horizontally impacted permanent maxillary left central incisor followed by fixed orthodontic treatment to eruption in a 9-year-old boy with a 2-mm overjet and 2-mm overbite who had sustained a traumatic injury to his primary maxillary central incisors when he was 6-years-old. Panoramic, occlusal, and cepholometric radiographs showed the affected tooth's crown to be positioned horizontally, and a CT scan showed the impacted central incisor's crown to be located below the anterior nasal spine and its apex to be located parallel to the palatal plane. A treatment plan was devised that included surgically exposing the impacted teeth and applying extrusive forces in the direction of the occlusal plane to bring about eruption. After 22 months of treatment, the central incisor erupted into the oral cavity. The patient now possesses the confidence to smile and enhanced self-esteem.

  19. [Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome:a case of report].

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-ying; Liu, Xin-qiang

    2014-04-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly characterized by a symmetric central incisor of normal size, developed and erupted precisely in the midline of the maxilla in both primary and permanent dentitions. SMMCI may occur alone or be associated with other midline structures defects of the body or other systemic disorders. The best known association is holoprosencephaly (HPE). This paper reported a case of SMMCI that companied with other midline structures defects of the body.

  20. An efficient biomechanical approach for the management of an impacted maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Chandhoke, Taranpreet K; Agarwal, Sachin; Feldman, Jonathan; Shah, Raja A; Upadhyay, Madhur; Nanda, Ravindra

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of an impacted maxillary central incisor poses a unique challenge to the orthodontist because of its position within the esthetic zone, requiring careful management of the soft tissues and an effective biomechanical setup for alignment. This article describes a novel method of extending an extrusion wire from cross tubes attached on the base archwire for forced eruption of impacted central incisors. The effectiveness and versatility of this method are demonstrated with 2 patients.

  1. Effectiveness of optical illusions 
applied on a single composite resin veneer for the diastema closure 
of maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Thomai; Antoniadou, Maria; Papazoglou, Efstratios

    To assess the esthetic effectiveness of four illusion techniques applied to a composite resin veneer for diastema closure between maxillary central incisors. An acrylic model with six natural maxillary anterior teeth was fabricated with a 2-mm diastema between the central incisors. Resin veneers were constructed on the left central incisor and the following cases were derived: V0: no veneer; V1: veneer without optical illusion features; V2: veneer with centralized interproximal ridges; V3: veneer with curved incisal edges; V4: veneer with gray pigment mesially/distally; V5: veneer with gray pigment on the developmental lobes. Digital printed photos of the models (13.2 x 17.8 cm, and 6.1 x 8 cm), with low, medium, and high smile lines and without a smile line (processed by Adobe Photoshop CS6) were shown to three groups of people (faculty members, senior undergraduate students, and patients; n = 25/group) for them to assess the overall size and width of the two central incisors. The results were analyzed by Pearson's and chi-square goodness of fit tests. There was no significant influence in the estimation of the two central incisors as being the same size, according to the technique used (P = 0.869) and group of evaluators (P = 0.209). The estimated probability of assessing the tested incisor as wider was indicatively lower in V2 compared to V1 (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; P = 0.088). The height of the smile line affected the evaluation of the veneers only in the large-sized photos. No interference is the best esthetic decision concerning a 2-mm diastema closure when restoring only one central incisor with a laminate veneer. The next best option is to deliver a veneer with centralized interproximal ridges.

  2. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    PubMed

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2017-09-16

    Which post-and-core combination will best improve the performance of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule is still unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the restoration of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule using glass-ceramic crowns bonded to various composite resin foundation restorations and 2 types of posts. Sixty decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors without a ferrule were divided into 4 groups and restored with various post-and-core foundation restorations. NfPfB=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and bulk-fill resin foundation restoration (B); NfPfP=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and dual-polymerized composite resin core foundation restoration (P); NfPt=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and resin core foundation restoration; and NfPtB=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and bulk-fill resin core foundation restoration (B). Two additional groups from previously published data from the same authors (FPf=2mm of ferrule (F) and glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration; and NfPf=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration), which were tested concomitantly and using the same experimental arrangement, were included for comparison. All teeth were prepared to receive bonded glass-ceramic crowns luted with dual-polymerized resin cement and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing under submerged conditions at room temperature. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the incisal edge at an angle of 30 degrees with a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 100 N (5000 cycles). A 100-N load increase was applied every 15000 cycles. The specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 1000 N (140000 cycles). The 6 groups (4 groups from the present study and 2 groups from the previously published study) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival

  3. Do different vertical positions of maxillary central incisors influence smile esthetics perception?

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Erica Bretas Cabral; Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira; Machado, Andre Wilson

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and layperson, with respect to different maxillary central incisors vertical positions in full-face and close-up smile analyses. METHODS: Frontal photographs of the smiles of two adult women were used. Images were altered to create a symmetrical image with the gingival margin levels of the maxillary canines matching the central incisors and a 1.0-mm central-to-lateral incisal step. Later, the images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. The images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 114 judges, 57 orthodontists and 57 laypersons, who were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were statistically analyzed by means of 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post-hoc test and the Student t test. RESULTS: The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins matched or were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins and; b) the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The worst smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins and; b) no step between the centrals and laterals or a 2.5-mm step. CONCLUSION: The vertical position of the maxillary central incisors significantly affected the perception of the smile esthetics, whereas slightly extruded central incisors were more esthetically preferred than intruded. PMID:28658361

  4. Movement of an upper central incisor across the midline in a patient with cleft of primary palate.

    PubMed

    Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Pisek, Poonsak; Chittiwatanapong, Nisa

    2013-09-01

    Orthodontic treatment for a 10-years-old girl, with repaired bilateral cleft lip and left incomplete unilateral alveolar cleft, was performed by moving her right maxillary central incisor across the midline to replace her congenital missing central incisor and then moving the right lateral incisor toward the midline to act as a new central incisor. A malformed supernumerary tooth, positioned between the right central and lateral incisor, was extracted during incisor movement. Significant lip profile improvement was accomplished by maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth retraction into three-premolar extraction spaces. Not only natural functional occlusion, deviated midpalatal suture along the central incisor, and no obvious root resorption were obtained but also narrowing the alveolar bone cleft which was beneficial for bone continuity supporting dental structures, satisfactory results were possible for the patient with primary palate cleft.

  5. Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mahesh; Mogra, Subraya; Chalasani, Srikrishna; D’mello, Kuldeep; Dhakar, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion. PMID:25395777

  6. The sandwich technique and strip crowns: an esthetic restoration for primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Fred S

    2002-12-01

    The restoration of carious, fractured, or discolored primary incisors is rewarding to dentists because it gives them the satisfaction of knowing they have restored the smile and self-confidence of a growing child. However, restoring primary teeth can be a strenuous task because of the difficulty in keeping these patients' teeth dry and the uncooperative behavior of the child that sometimes occurs. Dentists are always seeking procedures that are esthetic, easy to use, and relatively quick to complete. This article describes a relatively easy technique that produces a beautiful outcome in a comparatively short time. The author has used this procedure on hundreds of children for more than 20 years, modifying the approach as appropriate when new methods and materials become available.

  7. Autotransplantation of a Strange Positioned Impacted Central Incisor in a surgically Prepared Socket: A Miracle Esthetic Concept

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswara, Chandresh; Dhiman, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Esthetics is a prime concern for a young lady. Any anomaly in the anterior tooth may create anxiety and depression. This anxiety and depression may hamper her married life and overall personality. This case report reveals an unerupted right central incisor situated in a strange position, creating space in the maxillary anterior region and giving an unesthetic appearance. Autotransplantation is a method of choice for a strangely positioned impacted central incisor in a new appropriate site. This method offers a new treatment option for some clinical situations if orthodontic approach is not possible. It permits tooth movement to a distant or the opposite side of the same dental arch as well as to the opposite jaw. This procedure also offers potential benefits of reestablishment of normal alveolar process development, esthetics, functions, and arch integrity. This procedure has the potential to become a viable alternative treatment plan for young patients of low socioeconomic status, allowing the reestablish-ment and restoration of a missing tooth and their functions. This article discusses methods of auto-reimplantation of a tooth in a fresh surgically prepared socket, its biological principle, and establishment of functions, esthetics, and phonetics. How to cite this article Jaiswara C, Srivastava VK, Dhiman N. Autotransplantation of a Strange Positioned Impacted Central Incisor in a surgically Prepared Socket: A Miracle Esthetic Concept. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):269-272. PMID:27843261

  8. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  9. Load-bearing capacity of human incisor restored with various fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    PubMed

    Le Bell-Rönnlöf, Anna-Maria; Lassila, Lippo V J; Kangasniemi, Ilkka; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the load-bearing capacity and microstrain of incisors restored with posts of various kinds. Both prefabricated titanium posts and different fiber-reinforced composite posts were tested. The crowns of human incisors were cut and post preparation was carried out. The roots were divided into groups: (1) prefabricated serrated titanium posts, (2) prefabricated carbon fiber-reinforced composite posts, (3) individually formed glass fiber-reinforced composite posts with the canal full of fibers, and (4) individually formed "split" glass fiber-reinforced composite posts. The posts were cemented and composite crowns were made. Intact human incisors were used as reference. All roots were embedded in acrylic resin cylinders and stored at room temperature in water. Static load was applied under a loading angle of 45° using a universal testing machine. On half of the specimens microstrain was measured with strain gages and an acoustic emission analysis was carried out. Failure mode assessment was also made. The group with titanium posts showed highest number of unfavorable failures compared to the groups with fiber-reinforced composite posts. With fiber-reinforced composite posts the failures may more often be favorable compared to titanium posts, which clinically means repairable failures. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the retentive strength of 3 different posts in restoring badly broken primary maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Gujjar, Kumar R; Indushekar, K R

    2010-01-01

    The management of mutilated primary incisors in early childhood caries is a clinical challenge and necessitates the use of intraradicular retention. This study's purpose was to compare the retentive strength of 3 different types of posts in restoring broken primary incisors: (1) composite posts; (2) orthodontic "gamma" wire posts; and (3) glass fiber posts. This vitro study was performed on 30 extracted human primary maxillary incisors. Samples were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each: group 1 (composite posts and composite core); group 2 (orthodontic "gamma" wire posts and composite core); and group 3 (glass fiber posts and composite core). Mounted specimens were subjected for tensile strength on an Instron testing machine. The values were statistically analyzed. Mean tensile strength values for glass fiber posts was 5.89+/-0.66 kg force, followed by 4.46+/-0.82 and 3.56+/-0.53 kg force for orthodontic wire posts and composite posts, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between and within the groups (P<.01). Groups 1 and 2 showed more bulk cohesive failure and less adhesive bond failure. Group 3 showed only adhesive bond failure. Glass fiber posts showed greater dislodging strength, followed by orthodontic "gamma" wire posts and, least of all, composite posts.

  11. Odontoma-like malformation in a permanent maxillary central incisor subsequent to trauma to the incisor predecessor.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel A B; Faria, Gisele; Freitas, Aldevina Campos

    2005-10-01

    This report describes a case of a patient (1 year and 8 months old) with traumatic avulsion of the maxillary right primary central incisor and morphological changes in the germ of the permanent successor. One year after the trauma, an odontoma-like malformation developed. This malformation was removed 6 years after trauma and orthodontic treatment was started. Clinical follow-up and periodic radiographs are necessary after traumatic avulsion of primary teeth to monitor possible sequelae in the permanent successor. An odontoma-like malformation requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Unusual ectopic eruption of a permanent central incisor following an intrusion injury to the primary tooth.

    PubMed

    Canoglu, Ebru; Akcan, Cenk Ahmet; Baharoglu, Erdinç; Gungor, H Cem; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-10-01

    Intrusive luxation of primary teeth carries a high risk of damage to underlying permanent tooth germs. Ectopic eruption of permanent incisors is an unusual outcome of traumatic injury to their predecessors. In this case report, we describe the multidisciplinary management of the consequences of a primary tooth intrusion that led to severe ectopic eruption of the permanent left central incisor in a horizontal position at the level of the labial sulcus.

  13. Innovative biomechanics for orthodontic correction of torsiversion of maxillary central incisor caused by twin mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Monga, Nitika; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Duggal, Ritu

    2014-04-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. Early and proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is critical in eluding the extent of treatment needed. This case report presents the successful orthodontic and esthetic management of an unusual case of Indian origin with twin mesiodens in the maxillary arch causing torsiversion and attrition of mandibular incisors due to occlusal trauma.

  14. Innovative biomechanics for orthodontic correction of torsiversion of maxillary central incisor caused by twin mesiodens

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Nitika; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Duggal, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. Early and proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is critical in eluding the extent of treatment needed. This case report presents the successful orthodontic and esthetic management of an unusual case of Indian origin with twin mesiodens in the maxillary arch causing torsiversion and attrition of mandibular incisors due to occlusal trauma. PMID:24963264

  15. Estimating the color of maxillary central incisors based on age and gender

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo-Diaz, David; Johnston, William M.; Wee, Alvin G.

    2008-01-01

    Statement of problem There is no scientific information regarding the selection of the color of teeth for edentulous patients. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear regression models that may be used to predict color parameters for central incisors of edentulous patients based on some characteristics of dentate subjects. Material and methods A spectroradiometer and an external light source were set in a noncontacting 45/0 degree (45-degree illumination and 0-degree observer) optical configuration to measure the color of subjects’ vital craniofacial structures (maxillary central incisor, attached gingiva, and facial skin). The subjects (n=120) were stratified into 5 age groups with 4 racial groups and balanced for gender. Linear first-order regression was used to determine the significant factors (α=.05) in the prediction model for each color direction of the color of the maxillary central incisor. Age, gender, and color of the other craniofacial structures were studied as potential predictors. Final predictions in each color direction were based only on the statistically significant factors, and then the color differences between observed and predicted CIELAB values for the central incisors were calculated and summarized. Results The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 36% of the total variability in L*. The statistically significant predictor of age accounted for 16% of the total variability in a*. The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 21% of the variability in b*. The mean ΔE (SD) between predicted and observed CIELAB values for the central incisor was 5.8 (3.2). Conclusions Age and gender were found to be statistically significant determinants in predicting the natural color of central incisors. Although the precision of these predictions was less than the median color difference found for all pairs of teeth studied, and may be considered an acceptable precision, further

  16. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: A case report of a rare dental anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Yezdani, Arif; Tajir, Faizal; Saravanan, B.; Rajasekar, L.

    2015-01-01

    The solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly and has an incidence of 1:50,000 live births. In SMMCI, there is only one central incisor present, and it develops exactly at the midline. SMMCI occurrence has been described with growth hormone deficiency or other structural anomalies in the midline of the body. In this case, the 8-year-old female patient reported a single median maxillary central incisor with missing maxillary and mandibular frena, with apparently no other abnormalities. Early diagnosis and recognition of SMMCI are important for all practicing Orthodontists, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. PMID:26015739

  17. Solitary median maxillary central incisor, short stature, choanal atresia/midnasal stenosis (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, R K; Bankier, A; Aldred, M J; Kan, K; Lucas, J O; Perks, A G

    1997-12-01

    This article describes a series of 21 consecutive cases, each involving a solitary median maxillary central incisor; the patients were seen in the Department of Dentistry or the Victorian Clinical Genetics Unit, Murdoch Institute, at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, from 1966 to 1997. The spectrum of anomalies and associated features present in these cases--solitary median maxillary central incisor, choanal atresia, and holoprosencephaly--is described, and the literature related to the features, including genetic studies in these conditions, is reviewed. We relate our findings in these cases to current knowledge of developmental embryology. It is hoped that the findings, together with our interpretation of them, will help to clarify understanding of solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome. This syndrome was previously considered a simple midline defect of the dental lamina, but it is now recognized as a possible predictor of holoprosencephalies of varying degrees in the proband, in members of the proband's family, and in the family's descendants.

  18. Comparative analysis of the stress distribution in five anatomical types of maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Wu, Xifeng; Li, Yang; Lin, Zhenyan; Xu, Duoling; Lin, Xuan; Gao, Yongbo

    2017-07-20

    The maxillary central incisor is one of the most important anatomical indicators in esthetics, and stress distribution may vary among its five anatomical views (labial, palatal, mesial, distal, and incisal). To compare stress distribution among the five anatomical views of the maxillary central incisor under loading force at five angles and to observe and analyze the stress distribution in the dentin and periodontal ligament. We established three-dimensional finite element models of the five different views, which simulated the bite force with a static load force at 0∘, 30∘, 45∘, 60∘, and 90∘. The stress and displacement values for the cementoenamel junction (CEJ)-apical labial, palatal, mesial, and distal and the equivalent stress values on the periodontal ligament of the maxillary central incisor were calculated. As the angle increased, the equivalent stress on the periodontal ligament, overall tooth displacement, equivalent stress, and displacement over the four views increased. The peaks of equivalent stress over the four views appeared within 0.8-17 mm below the CEJ, although all equivalent stress values decreased while approaching the peak. Within 1-19 mm below the CEJ, the equivalent stress over the M1 and P1 views of the maxillary central incisor decreased substantially. The peaks of the equivalent stress over the M1 and P1 views of the maxillary central incisor and their stress distribution were lower than those of the other three types. Our findings provided theoretical data on the biomechanics of this esthetically important tooth, which may be useful during implantation of missing maxillary central incisors.

  19. The application of fiber core posts in restoring badly destroyed primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Aly A

    2002-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) represents a challenge to pediatric dentists especially, when teeth are badly destroyed. ECC involves the upper anterior teeth early in life and by the time the dentist sees the child, most of the coronal structure is lost. Dentally, this is a very devastating situation for both the dentist and parents, as in many cases, extraction of these teeth is the only option. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, a new approach for treating these teeth is explained and documented by clinical cases, where fiber core posts are introduced into the root canals of primary incisors for a distance of 2 to 3 mm. It is retained in place by flowable composite, then the coronal part is reconstructed by a strip crown to restore the crown form. After a follow up period of one year, only 2 teeth out of 30 had to be extracted. The failure was attributed to failure in pulpal therapy rather than failure in the restorations, which were totally intact. A laboratory testing of the fracture load resistance of the restored teeth proved that this technique significantly improved the fracture load resistance of composite celluloid crowns, making it a valuable procedure to consider when the coronal tooth structure is not enough to support and retain a composite celluloid strip crown.

  20. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral in either of the jaws. This paper reports the presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth in the right maxillary central incisor region with trauma involving both maxillary central incisors and also the management of the supernumerary tooth and traumatized teeth in a 14-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Pavuluri C, Nuvvula S. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):30-32. PMID:25206184

  1. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with an unusual impaction of a central incisor: case report.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Paola; Marino, Alessandra; Ballanti, Fabiana

    2003-01-01

    This report documented an unusual case with impaction of a right permanent central incisor. The purpose of this work was to illustrate how the original lingual lever arm moved the impacted central incisor in the dental arch. The authors used a modified lingual arch made of .036 inch stainless steel wire soldered to bands on the second primary molars. The lingual arch caused some minor inconveniences, but the discomfort was slight. Patient compliance was not a problem because a fixed appliance was used in the primary dentition.

  2. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule.

  3. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. Results: 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. Conclusion: With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule. PMID:26464537

  4. Altered Esthetics in Primary Central Incisors: The Child's Perception.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fernanda Cunha; Cardoso, Mariane; Bolan, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine preschool-age children's social perceptions and self-perceptions regarding altered dental esthetics. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 431 four- to five-year-olds. The participants were shown four photographs of children with incisors exhibiting discoloration, crown fracture, missing tooth, or normal teeth. The children were asked four questions for analysis of social perceptions and two additional questions for analysis of self-perceptions. Binary logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Children had negative social perceptions, as a significant association was found between their negative feelings and the altered dental esthetics in children pictured in the photographs. The affected anterior incisor was indicated as the main reason for this feeling (odds ratio equals 4.68, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] equals 2.39 to 9.15). When analyzing self-perceptions, a significant association was found between negative feelings and the child's own altered dental esthetics. Children with altered esthetics felt 1.92-fold sadder than those without altered esthetics (95 percent CI equals 1.22 to 3.02). Again, the affected teeth were indicated as the main reason for this feeling (prevalence ratio equals 1.22) in comparison to reasons cited. Four- to five-year-olds have negative social perceptions and self-perceptions regarding altered dental esthetics.

  5. Management of a facial talon cusp on a maxillary permanent central incisor: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yazıcıoğlu, Oktay; Ulukapı, Haşmet

    2014-01-01

    A talon cusp is a morphologically well-delineated accessory cusp. This case report discusses the unusual appearance of a talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary right permanent central incisor, which was conservatively treated and followed up for a period of 1 year. A 21-year-old female was referred for the treatment of a maxillary right central incisor that caused an esthetic problem. Intraoral examination and radiographic and computerized tomographic investigation indicated that there was no connection between the pulp chamber, a "V"-shaped radiopaque structure, and three radiolucent globe areas. The accessory cusp was treated by selective cuspal grinding, followed by resin-based composite placement. The restoration was clinically evaluated 1 week after placement, as a baseline, and after 1 year. The restoration did not exhibit postoperative sensitivity at the 1-year evaluation. No difference was observed in the color match, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, or anatomic form compared with the baseline evaluation. The management and treatment outcome of a talon cusp depends on its size, presenting complications and patient cooperation. The present case report outlines the conservative management of a talon cusp. This paper outlines a viable esthetic treatment option and a review of the relevant literature with regards to managing a facial talon cusp. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Non-linear viscoelastic finite element analysis of the effect of the length of glass fiber posts on the biomechanical behaviour of directly restored incisors and surrounding alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marco; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Apicella, Davide; Aversa, Raffaella; Apicella, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The study aimed at estimating the effect of insertion length of posts with composite restorations on stress and strain distributions in central incisors and surrounding bone. The typical, average geometries were generated in a FEA environment. Dentin was considered as an elastic orthotropic material, and periodontal ligament was coupled with nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties. The model was then validated with experimental data on displacement of incisors from published literature. Three post lengths were investigated in this study: root insertion of 5, 7, and 9 mm. For control, a sound incisor model was generated. Then, a tearing load of 50 N was applied to both sound tooth and simulation models. Post restorations did not seem to affect the strain distribution in bone when compared to the control. All simulated post restorations affected incisor biomechanics and reduced the root's deforming capability, while the composite crowns underwent a higher degree of deformation than the sound crown. No differences could be noticed in incisor stress and strain. As for the influence of post length, it was not shown to affect the biomechanics of restored teeth.

  7. Management of an intruded primary central incisor with a natural crown under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Bilgin, Mehmet Selim

    2014-04-01

    Tooth intrusion is the most common trauma during early infancy. Primary maxillary central incisors are the most affected teeth. There are a few treatment approaches which depend upon the severity of the trauma, and the treatment must be managed professionally. In this case report, a 3-year-old girl with a history of trauma 40 days before referring to our pediatric clinic is presented. Deciduous maxillary right central incisor was intruded through labial and alveolar socket and completely covered with soft tissue. The intruded deciduous incisor tooth was surgically extracted and impression was taken under general anesthesia. The removable partial prosthesis was completed by using the patient's own extracted tooth. Using natural crown on removable prosthesis gives psychological satisfaction to the patient and his/her family, and can be better tolerated since its shape, size, and color are exactly in harmony.

  8. Forced orthodontic extrusion and use of CAD/CAM technique for reconstruction of a maxillary central incisor with a severely damaged crown: rehabilitation with a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Patil, Suvarna

    2012-01-01

    Dentists encounter fractured anterior teeth on a regular basis. Various methods have been reported in the literature for rehabilitation of an extremely compromised tooth. This report presents a case where esthetic rehabilitation of a fractured maxillary right central incisor was performed employing a multidisciplinary approach: conventional endodontic treatment followed by orthodontic extrusion and final restoration using a CAD /CAM-fabricated one-piece milled zirconia post and core with a full-coverage zirconia crown.

  9. The nose shape as a predictor of maxillary central and lateral incisor width.

    PubMed

    Sülün, Tonguç; Ergin, Ugur; Tuncer, Necat

    2005-09-01

    One of the primary aspects of complete denture prosthodontics is determining the correct proportion for the maxillary central incisor width to the lateral incisor width. It has been suggested that the anatomy of the patient's nose is a reliable guide for deciding this ratio. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis about the relationship between the shape of the nose and the proportion of the central incisor width (CIW) to the lateral incisor width (LIW). The CIW and LIW from a total of 138 subjects (73 males, 65 females) were measured intraorally. The interalar width (IAW) and the width of the root of the nose (WRN) were measured on standard photographs of the subjects. Spearman's rho test was used to analyze the correlation between the proportions of the CIW to the LIW and the IAW to the WRN. The Mann-Whitney Utest was applied to test for any possible gender differences. The IAW, the WRN, and the nose angle (NA) were statistically significantly wider in male subjects than in female subjects. The correlation between IAW/WRN, NA, and CIW/LIW was statistically significant only in female subjects. In the general population, the only statistically significant relationship was between CIW/LIW on the left side and IAW/WRN. Within the results of the IAW, WRN, and NA measurements, we suggest that males have wider, more triangular-shaped noses than females. The proportion of IAW to WRN seems to be a reliable guide for deciding the proportion of the maxillary central incisor width to the lateral incisor.

  10. Correlation between maxillary central incisor crown morphology and mandibular dental arch form in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Lima, Carolina Souto; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Torres, Fernando Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the mandibular dental arch and the maxillary central incisor crown. Cast models from 51 Caucasian individuals, older than 15 years, with optimal occlusion, no previous orthodontic treatment, featuring 4 of the 6 keys to normal occlusion by Andrews (the first being mandatory) were observed. The models were digitalized using a 3D scanner, and images of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular dental arch were obtained. These were printed and placed in an album below pre-set models of arches and dental crowns, and distributed to 12 dental surgeons, who were asked to choose which shape was most in accordance with the models and crown presented. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate the concordance among evaluators while the chi-square test was used to verify the association between the dental arch and central incisor morphology, at a 5% significance level. The Kappa test showed moderate agreement among evaluators for both variables of this study, and the chi-square test showed no significant association between tooth shape and mandibular dental arch morphology. It may be concluded that the use of arch morphology as a diagnostic method to determine the shape of the maxillary central incisor is not appropriate. Further research is necessary to assess tooth shape using a stricter scientific basis.

  11. Congenital defect of maxillary primary central incisor associated with exposed pulp and gingival [fibrosis]: case report.

    PubMed

    Sano, Tomiko; Tomizawa, Mieko; Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Noda, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of hypoplastic primary incisor in which the pulp was exposed at the crown portion and covered by the gingiva in a 1-year-11-month-old boy. The patient was referred to us due to swelling of his labial cervical gingiva of the maxillary right primary central incisor, and on examination, extended to the hypoplastic labial surface. Radiographically, there was a round radiolucent area on the crown including the edge. Surgical removal of the swollen gingiva revealed a large defect of the labial aspect of the incisor, showing pulpal tissue inside. The tooth was treated by vital pulpotomy. Histopathologically, the removed gingival tissue contained many pieces of dysplastic tooth elements in the lamina propria portion which should have been connected to the exposed pulp. The findings suggested that pulp exposure resulted from focal dental hypoplasia not from resorption of the tooth.

  12. Association between the facial type and morphology of the upper central incisor in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Zaroni, Miller; Carli, João Paulo de; Okamoto, Roberta; Zogheib, Lucas Villaça; Torres, Fernando César

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the association between the facial type and the morphology of the upper central incisor, to potentially provide a guide for artificial tooth selection in esthetic and prosthetic rehabilitation. The sample consisted of 51 lateral teleradiographs (lateral cephalometric radiographs) and cast models of subjects with a naturally optimal occlusion and at least four of the six keys of Andrews, for optimal occlusion. The facial type was defined by two cephalometric measurements (SN.Gn and SN.GoGn) and classified into dolichofacial, meso- facial and brachyfacial after digitizing the radiographs. The incisor morphology was classified into quadrangular, oval and triangular after 3D digitizing the models and evaluation of the images by 12 dentists. The evaluation between the examiners was performed by Kappa test. In order to test the differences between the variables, it was used a chi-square test (5%). No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the studied variables. Facial type was not associated with the morphology of the upper central incisor, considering the methodology and population included in the present study. Using the facial type as a way to select the morphology of the upper central incisor proved to be inadequate in this study.

  13. [Roentgenological study of the form of pulp cavities on upper central incisors].

    PubMed

    Tamazawa, Y

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the form of pulp cavities of upper central incisors using roentgenograms. Materials were fifty extracted upper central incisors. First, roentgenograms of these materials were taken from labio-lingual and mesio-distal directions. Then ten dentists read and traced the form of pulp cavities as shown by the roentgenograms, after which the percentage of readability was determined. Furthermore, the incisors were then cut in order to trace the actual form of pulp cavities and these tracings were compared with those made by the dentists as based on the roentgenograms. It was shown by this study that the tracings of pulp chamber at the dental cervix based on the roentgenograms taken from the labio-lingual direction and the tracings at the horn of pulp chamber based on the roentgenograms taken from the mesio-distal direction closely approximated the tracings of the cut materials. It was also found that readability of these points was 100% for all ten dentists. Based on these results, the two above mentioned points were designated as the datum points to be used when estimating the form of pulp cavities. Furthermore, the form of pulp cavities of the cut teeth was considered in order to determine the angle of the mesial and distal projection of the horn of pulp chamber against the datum plane of the dental cervix. In the above manner, a possible method of estimating the form of pulp cavities of upper central incisors using two roentgenograms was investigated.

  14. Er:YAG Laser and Fractured Incisor Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, C.; Petruzzella, S.; Podda, R.; Merigo, E.; Nammour, S.; Vescovi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an Er:YAG laser on enamel and dentine in cases of dental restorations involving fractured teeth, utilizing the dental fragment. Materials and Methods. Seventy-two freshly extracted bovine incisors were fractured at the coronal level by using a hammer applied with a standardized method, and the fragment was reattached by using three different methods: Er:YAG laser, orthophosphoric acid, and laser plus acid. The different groups were evaluated by a test realized with the dynamometer to know the force required to successfully detach the reattached fragment and by a microinfiltration test by using a 0.5% methylene blue solution followed by the optic microscope observation. Results. The compression test showed only a slight difference between the three groups, without any statistical significance. The infiltration test used to evaluate the marginal seal between the fracture fragment and the tooth demonstrated that etching with Er:YAG laser alone or in combination with orthophosphoric acid gives better results than orthophosphoric acid alone, with a highly significant statistical result. Discussion. Reattaching a tooth fragment represents a clinically proven methodology, in terms of achieving resistance to detachment, and the aim of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of Er:YAG laser on this procedure. Conclusion. This “in vitro” study confirms that Er:YAG laser can be employed in dental traumatology to restore frontal teeth after coronal fracture. PMID:23091491

  15. Treatment of an avulsed maxillary permanent central incisor by autotransplantation of a primary canine tooth.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, D; Dalci, K; Tunç, E Sen

    2008-07-01

    To present a case in which an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor was replaced by autotransplantation of a primary canine tooth. The present case describes transplantation of a primary canine tooth into the space left by an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor after a delay of several days. After root canal treatment, the primary canine tooth was extracted and placed into the prepared socket. To provide better adaptation of the donor tooth, the recipient alveolar site was remodeled using surgical burs. Semi-rigid splinting was maintained for 15 days. The crown of the primary canine was reshaped with composite resin and with an interim prosthesis, preventing movement of the lateral incisor tooth into the space of the transplanted canine. After 24-month follow-up the autotransplanted primary canine showed ankylosis but the tooth was in an acceptable state. The use of permanent tooth autotransplantation has been well documented. However a literature search revealed only one case report on the autotransplantation of primary teeth. Long term results of primary tooth autotransplantation are scarce but the procedure in this case report could be considered as a temporary space maintainer for the treatment of a patient with a lost permanent incisor under 10 years of age. Success of primary tooth autotransplantation may be affected by several factors, such as case selection, extra oral time, surgical and endodontic procedures.

  16. Dental Items of Interest: The Case of Delphic Sibyl by Michelangelo: Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor or Mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Perciaccante, Antonio; Coralli, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    A case of an anomaly in the maxillary dental arch on "Delphic Sibyl," a fresco by Michelangelo is reported. An accurate analysis of this fresco shows a single incisor tooth is present precisely in the midline. We hypothesize that it may be a case of solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) and discuss the differential diagnosis with another similar anomaly--the mesiodens.

  17. Delayed eruption of maxillary permanent central incisors as a consequence of mesiodens: a surgical re-treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Simões; Farinhas, João Alfredo; Gleiser, Rogerio; Primo, Laura Guimarães

    2004-01-01

    The presence of mesiodens can cause some clinical problems. This paper reports a case of delayed eruption of permanent central incisors in a nine-year-old male as a consequence of a mesiodens and three surgical approaches prior to the eruption of incisors, which occurred after the third surgery when the crown was exposed and submitted to a gentle luxation.

  18. Correction of a severely rotated maxillary central incisor with the Whip device

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Baghaii, Bahareh; Parisay, Iman

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case report was to introduce an appliance that can be used for correcting severe rotation of anterior teeth in pre-adolescent children. Appliance design and testing This is a case report of an 11-year-old Iranian boy with a mixed dentition Class I malocclusion defined by a severe rotation of upper left central incisor and a mesiodens between the centrals. The supernumerary tooth was first extracted, and then a Whip device including removable appliance, a cantilever spring and bonded tube on rotated tooth was inserted into his mouth. After 8 months, the upper left central incisor was orthodontically brought into proper alignment. Circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy was done next to overcorrection of the tooth and one week after surgery, the device was removed and the retention was started. Conclusion The whip device, a removable appliance can be very effective for correcting severe rotation of anterior teeth. PMID:24151406

  19. Preservative management of traumatized maxillary central incisor using fiber reinforced composite and mineral trioxide aggregate: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Sai Kalyan; Chandki, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The myriads of technological advancements in dentistry in last two decades have led to a dramatic shift from conventional invasive procedures to more conservative biomimetic therapies. In this series, management of traumatic dental injuries has taken a big leap in that now it is possible to conserve many of these teeth which were otherwise doomed to extraction. Depending on the extent of injury, esthetic and functional requirements, traumatic dental injuries can be managed by a variety of clinical procedures including composite resin restorations, reattachment of fractured fragment, endodontic therapy with or without post and core or lastly extraction. Reattaching natural tooth structure offers an advantage over the others in that it is instant, provides superior esthetics, preserves the natural tooth structure and is best accepted by the patient. This paper describes the comprehensive management of traumatized maxillary central incisor involving pulp exposure while maintaining pulp vitality and natural appearance of a tooth. PMID:26604608

  20. Preservative management of traumatized maxillary central incisor using fiber reinforced composite and mineral trioxide aggregate: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, Sai Kalyan; Chandki, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The myriads of technological advancements in dentistry in last two decades have led to a dramatic shift from conventional invasive procedures to more conservative biomimetic therapies. In this series, management of traumatic dental injuries has taken a big leap in that now it is possible to conserve many of these teeth which were otherwise doomed to extraction. Depending on the extent of injury, esthetic and functional requirements, traumatic dental injuries can be managed by a variety of clinical procedures including composite resin restorations, reattachment of fractured fragment, endodontic therapy with or without post and core or lastly extraction. Reattaching natural tooth structure offers an advantage over the others in that it is instant, provides superior esthetics, preserves the natural tooth structure and is best accepted by the patient. This paper describes the comprehensive management of traumatized maxillary central incisor involving pulp exposure while maintaining pulp vitality and natural appearance of a tooth.

  1. A three-dimensional finite-element stress analysis of an endodontically prepared maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Williamson, L J; Fotos, P G; Goel, V K; Spivey, J D; Rivera, E M; Khera, S C

    1995-07-01

    This study is an application of a three-dimensional Finite-Element Method to investigate the changes in stress characteristics of a prepared maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this study was to analyze stress distributions in this tooth after simulated canal preparation and static loading. A maxillary central incisor was embedded in acrylic, sectioned, photographed, and digitized. A three-dimensional finite-element model was generated by a computer and appropriately modified to simulate canal preparation. Data identified the highest stress magnitudes to be located between the middle and coronal thirds of the root; an area clinically observed to be prone to fracture during treatment. In addition, the magnitude of generated stresses was directly correlated with the simulated prepared canal diameter. The development of a validated three-dimensional finite-element method could identify areas that may predispose a tooth to structural failure during condensation loads.

  2. DiGeorge syndrome associated with solitary median maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai-Chih; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Huang, Li-Hsin; Chang, Yi-Chi; Wen, Da-Chin; Liang, Pei-Hsuan; Lin, Mao-Tsair

    2005-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by dysgenesis of the thymus and parathyroid glands, conotruncal cardiac anomalies, and other dysmorphic features. Although most patients have a common microscopic deletion in chromosome 22q11.2, marked clinical variability exists. A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly which may be an isolated occurrence or associated with congenital nasal airway abnormalities or holoprosencephaly. We report a patient with DiGeorge syndrome who was diagnosed at nearly 1 month of age and was later found to have a solitary median central incisor. Initially, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of respiratory distress attributed to partial airway obstruction, one of the phenotypic features of SMMCI. A fluorescence in situ hybridization study showed a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion.

  3. Severe root resorption of the upper central incisors as a consequence of playing the flute.

    PubMed

    Seres, Laszlo; Vetro, Eva; Perenyi, Janos; Kocsis, Andras

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a case of severe root resorption of the maxillary central incisors in an 18-year-old woman who was referred for orthodontic treatment of irregular dental arches. A detailed history revealed that she used to play the block flute on an everyday basis during childhood. Against all warnings, she continued to firmly press her teeth into the mouthpiece of the instrument. Impressions of the upper central incisors were clearly visible on the instrument. Although it is well known that excessive occlusal forces can result in root resorption, to the authors' knowledge, this case involves one of the first reported occurrences of extensive root resorption that was most likely caused by playing a wind instrument during childhood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome associated with unique cleft palate: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Holla, Goda; Ramakrishna, Yeluri; Holla, Anup; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2014-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly that affects 1:50,000 live births. SMMCI syndrome is characterized by the presence of a single central incisor located on the maxillary midline in both primary and permanent dentitions. It may occur as an isolated finding or in association with developmental defects and systemic involvement. Congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI syndrome can include short stature, mild forms of deviation in craniofacial morphology, mild to severe intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, and cleft lip and/or palate. This report describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old girl with SMMCI syndrome--in addition to bilateral residual cleft and associated nasal regurgitation--that was treated with a removable maxillary obturator.

  5. Successful Restoration of Severely Mutilated Primary Incisors Using a Novel Method to Retain Zirconia Crowns - Two Year Results.

    PubMed

    El Shahawy, Osama Ibrahim; O'Connell, Anne C

    This manuscript describes a simple reliable technique for restoring severely mutilated primary anterior teeth. A rigid glass ionomer post is created over which zirconia crowns can be fitted to achieve a long-term stable esthetic restoration for primary anterior teeth. Children aged 2-5 years with two up to six extensively decayed upper primary incisors were included. Fuji IX was condensed into an intracanal space created to a depth of 3mm, to provide a core which also extended 3mm supragingivally. Crown preparations were completed upon these cores. Zirconia crowns (Nusmile, Houston Texas USA) were fitted and cemented over the prepared cores. All patients were recalled at regular intervals. Twenty-three healthy children with 86 restorations participated in the study. The overall survival of the restorations was 95.3% after 12 months and 80.2% after 24 months. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the median survival time was not reached while the estimated mean survival time was 22.9 months. This newly described clinical technique is simple and reliable to use for restoration of extensively decayed primary incisors. Use of zirconia crowns retained using this technique offers superior esthetic, durable restorations with remarkable gingival response up to 24 months.

  6. Pulp therapy in a maxillary fused primary central incisor--report of a case.

    PubMed

    Santos, L M; Forte, F D S; Rocha, M J C

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a case in which pulp therapy was provided in a fused maxillary primary central incisor in a 4-year-old patient with a history of fistula on the gingival mucosa. The tooth involved was larger than expected, suggesting fusion. The diagnosis of fusion was confirmed on radiographical examination. The clinical management of the case is described and the diagnosis and treatment discussed.

  7. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis in association with solitary median maxillary central incisor: unique radiologic features.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sara; Orta, Pedro; Renk, Elizabeth M; Inman, Jared C

    2016-09-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) coexists in 34%-65% of patients initially diagnosed with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis. SMMCI, a genetic syndrome, warrants consideration for further screening because of its high prevalence of other diagnostic possibilities-specifically central defects, like nasal obstruction and hypothalamo-pituitary axis abnormalities. We report on a presentation of SMMCI with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis which highlights the unique radiologic features and notes the relationship between these two central associated findings in the literature.

  8. Rare Root Morphology of a Maxillary Central Incisor Associated With Gingival Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Monea, Monica; Moldovan, Cosmin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dilaceration is a developmental disturbance characterized by the angulation of the crown or root of a permanent tooth, which is often related to trauma of primary dentition. We report a case of a dilacerated root in a maxillary central incisor associated with gingival hyperplasia in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment, a combination of pathological conditions that had never been mentioned before in the scientific literature. A 10-year-old female patient presented to the Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology with tenderness to palpation and bleeding from the oral aspect of the central incisor, alerted by the proliferation of the gingiva. During clinical examination, the palpation performed with a dental probe revealed a carious lesion with dental pulp exposure on the distal aspect of right central incisor and the presence of a sessile mass of inflamed gingival tissue that proliferated inside the defect. On the preoperative radiograph a dilacerated root canal was noted, without periapical bone resorption. The main diagnosis was irreversible pulpitis and gingival hyperplasia and the treatment option was surgical removal of the inflamed tissue with histopathological examination and root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment with a good prognosis was recorded. The measurement of the root curvature proved to be extremely helpful in choosing the right endodontic technique and made the treatment easier than expected. An important observation was that, despite the rare clinical and radiographic aspect of this dilacerated tooth, the endodontic treatment proved to be relatively easy to perform and, therefore, the prognosis was considered favorable. PMID:27149498

  9. Rare Root Morphology of a Maxillary Central Incisor Associated With Gingival Hyperplasia: An Endodontic Case Report.

    PubMed

    Monea, Monica; Moldovan, Cosmin

    2016-05-01

    Dilaceration is a developmental disturbance characterized by the angulation of the crown or root of a permanent tooth, which is often related to trauma of primary dentition. We report a case of a dilacerated root in a maxillary central incisor associated with gingival hyperplasia in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment, a combination of pathological conditions that had never been mentioned before in the scientific literature.A 10-year-old female patient presented to the Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology with tenderness to palpation and bleeding from the oral aspect of the central incisor, alerted by the proliferation of the gingiva. During clinical examination, the palpation performed with a dental probe revealed a carious lesion with dental pulp exposure on the distal aspect of right central incisor and the presence of a sessile mass of inflamed gingival tissue that proliferated inside the defect. On the preoperative radiograph a dilacerated root canal was noted, without periapical bone resorption.The main diagnosis was irreversible pulpitis and gingival hyperplasia and the treatment option was surgical removal of the inflamed tissue with histopathological examination and root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment with a good prognosis was recorded.The measurement of the root curvature proved to be extremely helpful in choosing the right endodontic technique and made the treatment easier than expected. An important observation was that, despite the rare clinical and radiographic aspect of this dilacerated tooth, the endodontic treatment proved to be relatively easy to perform and, therefore, the prognosis was considered favorable.

  10. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Namineni, Srinivas; Tupalli, Abhinaya Reddy; Challa, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Concordance is an identical expression of phenotype in two related individuals. Concordance expression of hypodontia is an uncommon condition where associated individuals are affected with exactly similar kind and number of missing teeth. There is very limited documentation of this condition either in twins or in siblings, and literature shows paucity of data with regard to this anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the literature, which has actually showed similar missing lower central incisors in siblings. This report presents a case of two girl siblings aged 11 and 13 years with congenital bilateral missing of permanent mandibular central incisors, which is an absolute concordant condition. Apart from discussing etiology, clinical implications and management, this article highlights the significance of concordant and discordant condition of hypodontia and expression of this condition in twins and siblings. How to cite this article: Kagitha PK, Namineni S, Tupalli AR, Challa SK. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):74-77. PMID:27274160

  11. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  12. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  13. Successful minimally invasive management of primary maxillary central incisors after lateral luxation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brito, Daniel Ibrahim; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2011-01-01

    Lateral luxation in primary maxillary incisors is a traumatic injury that can lead to darkening of the tooth, pulp necrosis, root resorption, and damage to the permanent teeth. Management of this kind of trauma typically includes pulpectomy or extraction in cases of root resorption. However, in young children, removal of the tooth may be psychological stressing, especially for the parents, while increased mobility can make immediate endodontic treatment difficult to perform. This article outlines a severe palatal luxation on the maxillary right central incisor treated with conservative management in a 2-year-old boy. At the one-year follow-up appointment, the surrounding bone was healthy, the roots displayed physiological resorption, the crowns showed color improvement, and there was no radiographically noticeable damage to the permanent teeth.

  14. Conservative treatment of severely luxated maxillary primary central incisors: case report.

    PubMed

    Holan, G

    1999-01-01

    The treatment and follow-up evaluation of two orally luxated maxillary primary central incisors in a three-year-old girl is described. The injured teeth were displaced into a cross-bite with their mandibular opposing teeth. They were repositioned shortly after the injury and splinted with composite resin for two weeks. Oral hygiene instructions and antibiotic therapy were prescribed. Two weeks after the injury a necrotic pulp was removed and the root canals filled with a resorbable paste. Thirty months after the injury, the teeth and the surrounding tissues were clinically and radiographically asymptomatic and physiologic root resorption could be noted. The permanent successors erupted soon after natural exfoliation of the injured primary teeth. Only mild hypocalcified defects were observed on the permanent incisors.

  15. Congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors and orthodontic treatment considerations for the single-tooth implant.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G; Russell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Implant restorations have become a primary treatment option for the replacement of congenitally missing lateral incisors. The central incisor and canine often erupt in less than optimal positions adjacent to the edentulous lateral incisor space, and therefore preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is frequently required. Derotation of the central incisor and canine, space closure and correction of root proximities may be required to create appropriate space in which to place the implant and achieve an esthetic restoration. This paper discusses aspects of preprosthetic orthodontic diagnosis and treatment that need to be considered with implant restorations.

  16. Influence of different post design and composition on stress distribution in maxillary central incisor: Finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Natércia R; Castro, Carolina G; Santos-Filho, Paulo C F; Silva, Gisele R; Campos, Roberto E; Soares, Paulo Vinicins; Soares, Carlos José

    2009-01-01

    Post design and material has very important effects on dentinal stress distribution since the post placement can create stresses that lead to root fracture. In this study we use finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate stress distribution on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors that have been restored with different prefabricated posts. Six models were generated from the image of anatomical plate: Four metallic posts (ParaPost XH, ParaPost XT, ParaPost XP, and Flexi-Flange) and one fiberglass post (ParaPost Fiber Lux). The sixth model was a control-a sound maxillary central incisor. We used CAD software and exported the models to ANSYS 9.0. All the materials and structures were considered elastic, isotropic, homogeneous, and linear except the fiberglass post which was considered orthotropic. The values for the mechanical properties were obtained by a review of the literature and the model was meshed with 8-node tetrahedral elements. A load of 2N was applied to the lingual surface at an angle of 135 degrees. The stress results were recorded by shear stress and von Mises criteria; it was observed that there was no difference for stress distribution among the titanium posts in the radicular portions and into posts. There was higher stress concentration on the coronary portion with the titanium posts than with the glass fiber post. It seems that the metallic posts' external configuration does not influence the stress distribution. Fiber posts show more homogeneous stress distribution than metallic posts. The post material seems to be more relevant for the stress distribution in endodontically treated teeth than the posts' external configuration.

  17. Re-attachment of Subgingivally Oblique Fractured Central Incisor Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Ok, Evren; Erdek, Yesim

    2008-01-01

    This case report presents a 32 year old male with an oblique fractured maxillary right central incisor. The procedure used to repair the fracture included flap surgery with an intrasulcular incision and endodontic treatment. The root canal was filled with a root canal sealer and gutta-percha. After root canal obturation, fragments were luted with composite resin using a glass fibers post. After 12 months, clinical and radiographic examinations showed a stable reattachment of the fragments, good aesthetics and periodontal health. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:138–141) PMID:19212525

  18. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  19. Developmental disturbance of a mandibular central incisor following trauma to the primary predecessor.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Hirano, Yoriyuki; Hira, Akiko; Aida, Yasuyo; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2015-06-01

    When a primary tooth sustains a traumatic injury, development of the permanent tooth can be disturbed, leading to various malformations. This case report details the 7-year follow-up of a developmental anomaly of a central mandibular incisor in a 10-year-old Japanese girl with a history of dental trauma that had occurred at age 4. The trauma had resulted in unusual crown dilaceration in the permanent successor, which exhibited a discoloured and abnormal crown morphology. Radiographic examination revealed crown dilaceration of the tooth, which had a curved root canal.

  20. Asymmetric crying facies with a couple of primary mandibular central incisor and 22q11 deletion.

    PubMed

    Karagol, Belma Saygili; Zenciroglu, Aysegul

    2010-01-01

    Facial asymmetry present only on crying has been described as a separate entity and termed asymmetric crying facies. The cause of the facial asymmetry in this disorder is congenital absence or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle at the corner of the mouth. This defect is associated at times with major congenital anomalies, most commonly in the cardiovascular system. Chromosome 22q11 microdeletions in cases with ACF have been reported. We report a newborn infant who had ACF associated with a couple of primary mandibular central incisor teeth and chromosome 22q11 microdeletion. This clinical sign in association with ACF has not been previously described.

  1. Compound odontoma associated with an unerupted rotated and dilacerated maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Vanka, Amit; Shashikiran, N D

    2011-07-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors containing various component tissues of teeth. They usually remain asymptomatic and are diagnosed on routine radiographs. Clinically, they are often associated with delayed eruption or impaction of permanent teeth and retained primary teeth. A case of compound odontoma in association with an unerupted, rotated and dilacerated maxillary permanent right central incisor in a 12-year-old boy is reported. Such combination is rare, making it an interesting case for reporting. We have also discussed the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of such a condition.

  2. Mandibular midline supernumerary tooth associated with agenesis of permanent central incisors: a diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Gaurav; Parashar, Vijay P; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant hypo-hyperdontia is a rare mixed numeric anomalous condition. The presence of this condition in the same area of dental arch and specifically in the mandibular anterior region is reported very infrequently. This case report presents a case of 20 years old male with congenitally missing permanent mandibular central incisors in conjunction with a mandibular midline supernumerary tooth. Only 3 cases have been documented in English literature till date. The article focuses on the review of mandibular mesiodens and the clarity regarding the usage of the terminology "mesiodens".

  3. Ectopic eruption of maxillary central incisor through abnormally thickened labial frenum: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, Neeraj; Pandit, I K; Gupta, Monika; Gugnani, Shalini; Vishnoi, Ashmi; Sabharwal, Ozasvita; Manhas, Swati

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic eruption is a deviation from the normal eruption pattern, making the tooth erupt out of its normal position, and possibly causing resorption of adjacent primary teeth. A wide range of etiological factors may be responsible for ectopic eruption of the teeth, so their management depends on the correction of the established etiological factor. The present case report describes an unusual case of ectopically erupted central incisor encased within an abnormally thickened labial frenum, which was treated by orthodontic repositioning of the ectopically erupting tooth after frenectomy.

  4. Comparison of Parental Satisfaction with Three Tooth-Colored Full-Coronal Restorations in Primary Maxillary Incisors.

    PubMed

    Salami, A; Walia, T; Bashiri, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the parental satisfaction among resin composite strip crown, preveneered stainless steel crown (PVSSC) and the newly introduced pre-fabricated primary zirconia crown for restoring maxillary primary incisors. A prospective clinical study on 39 children with carious or traumatized primary maxillary incisors. They were randomly and equally distributed in three groups and received one of the full-coronal restorations. Children were recalled to evaluate and compare parental satisfaction about performance of crowns after one year through a questionnaire. Parents were satisfied with all three tooth colored full-coronal restoration techniques. A significant relationship was found between colour of PVSSC (p=0.003) and durability of resin strip crowns (p=0.009) with the overall parental satisfaction levels. Parents who gave poor ratings in these two variables however rated their overall acceptance levels as being satisfied. Parental overall satisfaction was highest for zirconia primary crowns followed by resin composite strip crowns and lowest satisfaction was reported for pre-veneered SSCs. Parents were least satisfied with durability of resin composite strip crowns and colour of pre-veneered stainless steel crowns. However, this did not affect their overall satisfaction with these crowns.

  5. Where to position osteotomies in genioglossal advancement surgery based on locations of the mental foramen, canine, lateral incisor, central incisor, and genial tubercle.

    PubMed

    Park, Joshua S; Lee, Christopher; Rogers, Jason M; Sun, Ho-Hyun; Liu, Yuan F; Elo, Jeffrey A; Inman, Jared C

    2017-05-11

    The study aimed to provide precise measurements of anterior mandibular structural anatomy and to explore potential osteotomies for genioglossal advancement. Cone beam computed tomography was used to analyze 33 randomly selected patients undergoing surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) between 2014 and 2016 at an academic surgical hospital. The locations of relevant mandibular structures were measured and statistical modeling was performed. Mean horizontal distances from midline to the mental foramina and the roots of the canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor were 22.11 ± 1.92, 13.56 ± 3.01, 6.19 ± 1.58, and 2.04 ± 0.87 mm, respectively. Mean vertical distances from the inferior border of the mandible were 15.15 ± 1.77, 17.11 ± 3.28, 20.48 ± 3.10, and 21.81 ± 3.49 mm, respectively. The superior border of the genial tubercle was 15.63 ± 2.75 mm, and the inferior border was 6.87 ± 3.29, from the inferior border of the mandible. The angle of decline of the best-fit line through the important structures was about 18° from the occlusion plane at the midline. A straight line estimating the mental foramen, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor tooth roots crosses at a mean of 22.3-22.6 mm above the inferior border of the mandible at the midline and has an angle of decline of about 18°. Potential osteotomies made parallel to and below this line result in tradeoffs between maximizing capture of the genioglossus muscle attachment and risk of dental/neurovascular injury.

  6. Alveolar bone thickness around maxillary central incisors of different inclination assessed with cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Lou; Liu, Fang; Sun, Hong-Jing; Lv, Pin; Cao, Yu-Ming; Yu, Mo; Yue, Yang

    2015-09-01

    To assess the labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness in adults with maxillary central incisors of different inclination by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Ninety maxillary central incisors from 45 patients were divided into three groups based on the maxillary central incisors to palatal plane angle; lingual-inclined, normal, and labial-inclined. Reformatted CBCT images were used to measure the labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness (ABT) at intervals corresponding to every 1/10 of the root length. The sum of labial ABT and lingual ABT at the level of the root apex was used to calculate the total ABT (TABT). The number of teeth exhibiting alveolar fenestration and dehiscence in each group was also tallied. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test were applied for statistical analysis. The labial ABT and TABT values at the root apex in the lingual-inclined group were significantly lower than in the other groups (p < 0.05). Lingual and labial ABT values were very low at the cervical level in the lingual-inclined and normal groups. There was a higher prevalence of alveolar fenestration in the lingual-inclined group. Lingual-inclined maxillary central incisors have less bone support at the level of the root apex and a greater frequency of alveolar bone defects than normal maxillary central incisors. The bone plate at the marginal level is also very thin.

  7. A clinical study to evaluate the correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar R; Budihal, Dhanyakumar H

    2012-09-01

    A study was performed to examine the correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form in males and females in an Indian population. The selection of prosthetic teeth for edentulous patients is a primary issue in denture esthetics, especially in the case of maxillary central incisors, which are the most prominent teeth in the arch. Two hundred dental students of Indian origin comprising 79 males and 121 females aged 18-28 years studying at Bapuji Dental College and Hospital were randomly selected as the study subjects. A standardized photographic procedure was used to obtain images of the face and the maxillary central incisors. The outline forms of the face and the maxillary right central incisor tooth were determined using a standardized method. The outline forms obtained were used to classify both face form and tooth form on the basis of visual and William's methods. The means were considered after evaluation by five prosthodontists, and the results were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test for association and Z-test for equality of proportions. A correlation greater than 50% was observed between tooth form and face form by the visual method, compared with one of 31.5% by William's method. There was no highly defined correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form among the male and female Indian subjects studied.

  8. Influence of the vertical position of maxillary central incisors on the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and laypersons.

    PubMed

    Machado, Andre Wilson; McComb, Ryan W; Moon, Won; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and laypeople with respect to different upper central incisor vertical positions in a frontal smile analysis. A frontal close-up smile photo of an adult Caucasian woman was selected. The patient had healthy upper anterior dentition and had no history of orthodontic treatment. Images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. All images were assessed in three different views: full smile, gingival close-up excluding incisal edges, and incisal close-up excluding gingival margins. Images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 120 judges: 60 orthodontists and 60 laypersons. Each rater was asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were then statistically analyzed. The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.5 mm; and the central incisor gingival margins matched the laterals, and both were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins. The least attractive smile was the one with no step between the centrals and laterals, and with the central incisor gingival margins 1.0 mm above the canine gingival margins. The results of this study indicate that slightly extruded upper central incisors are more esthetically preferred than intruded. The upper central incisors are the key determinant in evaluating smile esthetics, and thus, the assessment of their ideal vertical positioning is an aspect of paramount importance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An impacted central incisor due to supernumerary teeth: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzano, G F; Cantile, T; Roberto, L; Baldares, S; Manzo, P; Martina, R

    2014-07-01

    Hyperdontia is a disorder of odontogenesis characterised by excess teeth. Many complications can be associated with supernumerary teeth, such as crowding, tooth displacement, diastema, deep caries, retention or impaction, delayed eruption or ectopic eruption of adjacent teeth, aesthetic problems, neuralgic manifestations, root resorption of adjacent teeth, and dentigerous cyst formation with significant bone destruction. Treatment of hyperdontia depends on the area and number of supernumerary teeth, and also on the presence of pathologic processes that can affect them and/or the teeth of the normal series that could be erupted, retained or impacted. The present case report describes the clinical management of two impacted supernumerary teeth, which impeded the eruption of the maxillary right central incisor in a paediatric patient. A multidisciplinary treatment approach was planned, including the surgical removal of the supernumerary teeth and the orthodontic correction of the unerupted permanent maxillary right central incisor. Combined surgical and orthodontic treatment resulted in an aesthetically pleasant and balanced occlusion. Thus, early multidisciplinary treatment is required for greater hard and soft tissue preservation.

  10. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kalaskar, Ritesh R.; Kalaskar, Ashita R.

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens) is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. The present case reports describe the successful management of the impacted permanent maxillary central incisor positioned high in the vestibule. A combination of surgical and orthodontic techniques was employed to improve treatment outcome with greater hard and soft tissue preservation and to prevent psychological problems. In the surgical phase, supernumerary teeth and dentigerous cyst were removed. Subsequently traction was employed by bonding bracket on the labial surface using closed and open eruption techniques. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was started to align permanent maxillary central incisors in an occlusal plane. Thus, combination of surgical and orthodontic method can be the treatment of choice over surgical extraction, implant placement, and surgical repositioning. PMID:22114457

  11. Orthodontic treatment of an impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisor combined with surgical exposure and apicoectomy.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Setsuko; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi; Deguchi, Toshio; Kurihara, Saburo

    2004-02-01

    The impacted incisor was moved into its proper position with surgical exposure and orthodontic traction. Although apicoectomy was performed during the orthodontic treatment, the incisor showed good stability after the long retention period.

  12. Volume measurement of crowns in mandibular primary central incisors by micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Lan; Shi, Si-Zhen; Ide, Y; Saka, H; Matsunaga, S; Agematsu, H

    2013-09-01

    To determine sex differences in the tissue proportions of crowns of mandibular primary central incisors in Chinese children and to quantify the volume of crown components in three dimensions using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The specimens used in this study were 41 mandibular first deciduous incisor teeth with intact crowns (21 males and 20 females) obtained from patients between 5-6 years of age. Each specimen was scanned using micro-CT at a resolution of 0.05 mm and 3D-rendered images were created. The volume of each component of the crown was measured and examined for differences in different sex and ages. The pulp chamber volume decreased with age and the volume ratio of the pulp chamber to the whole crown was significantly smaller in 6-year-olds than in 5-year-olds (p < 0.05). Males had significantly larger tooth crown volumes and dentin volumes than females did (p < 0.001), while the volume of enamel showed no sexual dimorphism.

  13. Replantation of an avulsed maxillary primary central incisor and management of dilaceration as a sequel on the permanent successor.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Moretti, Ana Beatriz Silveira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Abdo, Ruy Cesar Camargo; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira

    2008-10-01

    This case report outlines the sequel and possible management of a permanent tooth traumatized through the predecessor, a maxillary right primary central incisor that was avulsed and replanted by a dentist 1 h after the trauma in a 3-year-old girl. Three years later, discoloration and fistula were present, so the primary tooth was extracted. The patient did not come to the scheduled follow-ups to perform a clinical and radiographic control of the succeeding permanent incisor, and only returned when she was 10 years old. At that moment, the impaction and dilaceration of the maxillary right permanent central incisor were observed through radiographic examination. The dilacerated permanent tooth was then surgically removed, and an esthetic fixed appliance was constructed with the crown of the extracted tooth. Positive psychological influence of the treatment on this patient was also observed.

  14. Evaluation of root and alveolar bone development of unilateral osseous impacted immature maxillary central incisors after the closed-eruption technique.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangru; Xie, Xiaoyan; Quan, Junkang; Wang, Xiaozhe; Sun, Xiangyu; Zhang, Chenying; Zheng, Shuguo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated root and alveolar bone development in unilateral osseous impacted immature maxillary central incisors by cone-beam computed tomography before and after closed-eruption treatment, in comparison with naturally erupted contralateral immature maxillary central incisors. The study included 30 patients, 20 boys and 10 girls, with a mean age of 8.44 ± 1.20 years (range, 6.5-11.2 years). After treatment, the root lengths of both the impacted maxillary central incisors (10.66 ± 2.10 mm) and the contralateral maxillary central incisors (11.04 ± 1.76 mm) were significantly greater than their pretreatment values (6.67 ± 1.94 and 9.02 ± 2.13 mm, respectively). The root canal widths of the incisors decreased significantly after treatment. From the posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography images, the ratio of exposed root length to total root length and the thickness of the alveolar bone at 1 mm under the alveolar crest and at the apex were calculated to evaluate alveolar bone development. Impacted immature maxillary central incisors differed significantly from contralateral immature maxillary central incisors in labial exposed root length, labial ratio to total root length, and lingual alveolar crest. Clinical crown height was higher (statistically but not clinically) for the impacted incisors (9.87 mm) than for the contralateral incisors (9.37 mm). Impacted immature incisors grew to the same stage as did erupted contralateral incisors after closed-eruption treatment. Both incisor types had some alveolar bone loss, and thin alveolar bone surrounded the roots. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of a Two-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography: Importance of Three-dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Gupta, Saurabh; Saxena, Payal; Khetarpal, Shaleen; Solanki, Mishthu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a two-rooted maxillary central incisor, stressing the importance of three-dimensional imaging in treatment planning and conservative approach of management. Endodontic treatment of this central incisor was carried out with a successful outcome. PMID:26697155

  16. Endodontic and esthetic management of a dilacerated maxillary central incisor having two root canals using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarang; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Mittal, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics.

  17. Endodontic and Esthetic Management of a Dilacerated Maxillary Central Incisor Having Two Root Canals Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Mittal, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics. PMID:24955260

  18. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post.

  19. Retreatment of failed regenerative endodontic of orthodontically treated immature permanent maxillary central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Tammami, Musaed Fahad; Al-Nazhan, Saad A

    2017-02-01

    A revascularization procedure was shown to be the best alternative therapy for immature teeth with necrotic pulp and apical infection. A 12 year old female with a history of trauma to her upper central incisor and a sinus tract was referred for endodontic treatment. She was an active orthodontic patient and had undergone regenerative endodontic treatment for the past 2 years. Clinical examination revealed no response to sensibility, percussion, and palpation tests. The preoperative radiograph showed an open apex and apical rarefaction. The case was diagnosed as previously treated tooth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Regenerative endodontic retreatment was performed, and the case was followed for 3 years. Clinical, radiographic, and cone-beam computed tomography follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic tooth, with evidence of periapical healing and root maturation.

  20. Retreatment of failed regenerative endodontic of orthodontically treated immature permanent maxillary central incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tammami, Musaed Fahad

    2017-01-01

    A revascularization procedure was shown to be the best alternative therapy for immature teeth with necrotic pulp and apical infection. A 12 year old female with a history of trauma to her upper central incisor and a sinus tract was referred for endodontic treatment. She was an active orthodontic patient and had undergone regenerative endodontic treatment for the past 2 years. Clinical examination revealed no response to sensibility, percussion, and palpation tests. The preoperative radiograph showed an open apex and apical rarefaction. The case was diagnosed as previously treated tooth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Regenerative endodontic retreatment was performed, and the case was followed for 3 years. Clinical, radiographic, and cone-beam computed tomography follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic tooth, with evidence of periapical healing and root maturation. PMID:28194367

  1. An endo-aesthetic management of crown dilaceration in a permanent mandibular central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Wankhade, Abhijit D; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Naphade, Milind V

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may result in a wide range of developmental disturbances to succedaneous permanent teeth. The prevalence of morphological disturbances, secondary to dental injuries in the primary dentition, ranges from 12% to 69%. One of the morphological disturbances are crown dilacerations which are defined as the displacement of a portion of the developing crown at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the tooth. The prevalence of crown dilaceration constitutes 3% of the total injuries in developing teeth and is usually because of intrusion or avulsion of their primary predecessors. The present article narrates a case of crown dilaceration of a permanent mandibular right central incisor with open apex and large periradicular pathosis and its endo-aesthetic management with 2 years of follow-up. PMID:23417377

  2. Auto-alloplastic transplantation of a primary canine after traumatic loss of a permanent central incisor.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Y; Filippi, A; Kirschner, H

    2001-08-01

    This report describes the transplantation of a primary canine after traumatic loss of a central incisor in an 8-year-old boy. The 7-month follow-up revealed normal periodontal healing with absence of infection, ankylosis or progressive resorption. The patient was then lost for control. After 16 months another trauma in the same patient resulted in an avulsion of the transplant. However, the alveolar bone was maintained in vertical and sagittal dimensions. Another primary canine was transplanted and followed for further 11 months. Again normal periodontal healing could be observed. The transplantation of a primary canine is seen as a promising method to replace a lost permanent tooth and maintain the surrounding tissues in very young patients.

  3. An endo-aesthetic management of crown dilaceration in a permanent mandibular central incisor.

    PubMed

    Wankhade, Abhijit D; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Naphade, Milind V

    2013-02-14

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may result in a wide range of developmental disturbances to succedaneous permanent teeth. The prevalence of morphological disturbances, secondary to dental injuries in the primary dentition, ranges from 12% to 69%. One of the morphological disturbances are crown dilacerations which are defined as the displacement of a portion of the developing crown at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the tooth. The prevalence of crown dilaceration constitutes 3% of the total injuries in developing teeth and is usually because of intrusion or avulsion of their primary predecessors. The present article narrates a case of crown dilaceration of a permanent mandibular right central incisor with open apex and large periradicular pathosis and its endo-aesthetic management with 2 years of follow-up.

  4. Using a dental operating microscope for endodontic management of a mandibular central incisor with 3 root canals.

    PubMed

    Aswinkumar, Vijayakumar; Nandini, Suresh; Velmurgan, Natanasabapathy

    2013-08-01

    Endodontic management of teeth with aberrant root canal morphology can be challenging. This article presents a case in which multiple angulated radiographs and a dental operating microscope clearly revealed the presence of 3 root canals in a right mandibular central incisor with 2 different canal patterns. This case report emphasizes the importance of utilizing a dental operating microscope to understand unusual root canal morphology.

  5. Clinical and histological observations of continuously formed bilateral mandibular deciduous central incisor roots after traumatic coronal destruction.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, M; Mochizuki, K; Machida, Y

    1996-05-01

    We encountered a rare case of continuously forming bilateral mandibular deciduous central incisor roots after traumatic coronal destruction. The patient, 3 year 3 month old boy, had sustained an external injury which had caused the crowns of hist bilateral deciduous central incisors to fall out when he was 12 months old. Oral examination revealed two small, hard tissues resembling tooth structures on the alveolar ridge in the area of the lost mandibular central incisors. X-ray examination revealed them to be deciduous central incisor roots. We observed the extracted roots histologically and found that the lesion of the crown fracture and pulpal exposure on these roots was completely covered by newly formed irregular dentin and cementoid tissues. In this case, the causes of the continuous root formation were considered to be that the pulp tissues of traumatized teeth were able survive, so the injured lesion was quickly healed and covered with gingival tissue. The vital pulp produced the reparative hard tissue, sealing the site of pulpal exposure and continuing root formation after the trauma.

  6. Effect of mesiodistal angulation of the maxillary central incisors on esthetic perceptions of the smile in the frontal view.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuying; Guo, Yunfei; Yang, Xianrui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Jingyi; Li, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mesiodistal angulation of the maxillary central incisors on the smiling esthetics in young adults. Frontal smile photographs of a young man and a young woman were digitally modified to produce 28 smile images that were grouped into 4 series. These images were judged using visual analog scales by 52 orthodontists and 61 laypeople. The effects of the judges' professions, subjects' sexes, and photograph framings on the appreciation of smile esthetics with different mesiodistal angulations of the maxillary central incisors were evaluated. The data were analyzed with paired t tests, Dunnett t tests, and independent samples t tests; statistical significance was set at P <0.05. The images were ranked less attractive as the mesiodistal angulation of the maxillary central incisors increased during smiling. No relationship was found between the judges' professions and the esthetic evaluations of incisal angulation, but the statistical analysis showed that both the subject's sex and the photograph framing were significant variables (P <0.05). The mesiodistal angulation of the maxillary central incisors plays an essential role in smile esthetics in the frontal view. When formulating treatment plans, orthodontists should never underestimate the influence of mesiodistal angulation on smile attractiveness. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arrest of root formation in a permanent maxillary central incisor subsequent to trauma and pulp necrosis to the primary predecessor.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; de Freitas, Aldevina Campos; Assed, Sada

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports a case in which a previous traumatic injury at the age of 2 and pulp necrosis to a primary incisor resulted in a rare injury to the permanent successor tooth. The radiographic examination at the age of 9 showed the arrest of root formation of the permanent maxillary right central incisor, which did not erupt. Tooth 11 was extracted and a functional removable space maintainer was prepared. At the age of 17, the patient received an anterior fixed prosthesis for re-establishment of the esthetics, phonetics and deglutition.

  8. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the stress distribution in the endodontically treated maxillary central incisor by glass fiber post and dentin post

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Mehta, Sonal; Malik, Salim; Nirmal, Narendra; Sharma, Deeksha; Arora, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: From the point of dental practice, the restoration of endodontically treated teeth has become an important aspect as it involves a range of treatment options of variable complexity. Restoring teeth with insufficient coronal tooth structure, it is always indicated to use the post to retain a core for definitive restoration. Fiber post has a modulus of elasticity in analogs to dentin structure, thus reducing the stress areas at the dowel dentin interface. However, the only material that can substantiate all these properties can be none other than dentin itself. Materials and Methodology: Three-dimensional (3D) models of the maxillary central incisor were developed incorporating all the nonlinearities. Continuum 3D elements were used in three dimensions. Maxillary central incisor was laser scanned, duplicated with the help of reverse engineering into STL format, and it was converted into 3D model for finite element analysis (FEA). For the model, fixed boundary conditions were applied at the outer bone, while 100 N static vertical occlusal loads were prescribed at 135° on the loading component of the simulated tooth. The stress distribution was evaluated using dentin and fiber post with prescribed materials, loading and boundary conditions in endontically treated teeth by 3D FEA. Results: The analysis for von Misses stress for dentin post showed that the stress in the dentin post at the cervical area was 127 MPa. The displacement in the dentin post was <0.025 mm. Von Misses stress for the fiber post at the cervical area was approximately 182 MPa and the displacement was <0.035 mm. Conclusion: The FEA results showed that the stress in the cervical area of the dentin was more for fiber post when compared to dentin post, and maximum displacement values were less for dentin post in comparison to fiber post. PMID:27134431

  9. Forces and moments applied during derotation of a maxillary central incisor with thinner aligners: An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Elkholy, Fayez; Schmidt, Falko; Jäger, Rudolf; Lapatki, Bernd G

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that therapeutic loads applied to individual teeth by aligners may substantially exceed recommended values. The primary purpose of this study was to quantify force and moment components during derotation of a maxillary central incisor when 0.3-mm-thick or 0.4-mm-thick polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners were used instead of conventional polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners with a minimum thickness of 0.5 mm. The test setup consisted of an acrylic model of a maxilla with a separated right central incisor mounted on a 3-dimensional force and moment sensor. The force and moment components were recorded for aligners with thicknesses ranging from 0.3 to 0.75 mm during ±10° rotation and derotation of the separated incisor. Moments exerted by the thinnest aligner currently available, 0.5 mm, were 73.57 Nmm for the 10° mesiorotation. In comparison, the corresponding moments with the 0.4-mm and 0.3-mm aligners were 41.08 and 17.84 Nmm, respectively. Moment values for derotation of the maxillary right central incisor into neutral position showed nonlinear return curves indicating viscoelastic material behavior. A significant load reduction can be achieved with the new thinner aligners. Because of the form instability of the 0.3-mm aligner during handling, we suggest the novel sequence 0.4, 0.5, and 0.75 mm for aligner systems based on sequentially increased material thickness. This sequence combines sufficiently low initial aligner stiffness and steady load increases in single setup steps. The viscoelastic behavior of polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners observed during incisor derotation should lead to a reduction of the high initial load exerted directly after intraoral aligner insertion. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical management of multiple supernumerary teeth and an impacted maxillary permanent central incisor.

    PubMed

    Rallan, Mandeep; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh; Goswami, Mousumi; Rawat, Kamini

    2013-05-22

    Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. The most common site is the maxillary incisor region; but the prevalence of more than three teeth supernumerary tooth is less than 1%. A case of 13 year male patient is reported with a multiple impacted supernumerary tooth in maxillary anterior region hindering the eruption of right permanent central incisor. The supernumerary tooth was treated via surgical approach followed by an interim prosthesis for permanent central incisor which later on erupted in due course of time. Background Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. The presence of supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region often poses unique diagnostic and managerial concerns for the practitioner. Rarely is the surplus number compensated by an absence or deficiency of other teeth. Therefore, the dysfunctional nature of supernumerary teeth and their ability to create a variety of pathological disturbances in the normal eruption and position of adjacent teeth warrants their early detection and prudent management. Approximately 76-86% of cases represent single-tooth hyperdontia, with two supernumerary teeth noted in 12-23% and three or more extra teeth noted in less than 1% of cases. Multiple supernumerary teeth are also associated with many syndromes like cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner’s syndrome etc. However, it is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. In such cases, the maxillary anterior region is the common site of occurrence. The exact aetiology is not clearly understood. The supernumerary teeth result from any disturbance in the initiation and proliferation stages of odontogenesis. There are several theories regarding the

  11. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): conservative treatment management to restore affected teeth.

    PubMed

    Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month clinical performance of glass ionomer restorations in teeth with MIH. First permanent molars affected by MIH (48) were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and evaluated at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months, by assessing tooth enamel breakdown, GIC breakdown and caries lesion associations. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and actuarial survival analysis. The likelihood of a restored tooth remaining unchanged at the end of 12 months was 78%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p > 0.05) for a 6-month period, or between increased MIH severity and previous unsatisfactory treatment at baseline (p > 0.05) for both a 6- and 12-month period. A statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and extension of the restoration, involving 2 or more surfaces (p < 0.05) at both periods, and between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p < 0.05) at a 12-month period. Because the likelihood of maintaining the tooth structures with GIC restorations is high, invasive treatment should be postponed until the child is sufficiently mature to cooperate with the treatment, mainly of teeth affected on just one face.

  12. Surgical repositioning of a developing maxillary central incisor. A case report.

    PubMed

    Spoerri, Andreas; Signorelli, Caroline; van Waes, Hubertus

    2015-07-01

    A traumatic injury to the primary dentition can cause damage to the germ of the permanent successor. As a clinical consequence a dilaceration with root deformation, malpositioning and disturbances of eruption can occur. Surgical repositioning of such a dislocated crown of a developing tooth can be a treatment option. A four year old patient was referred to our clinic because of a mobile upper primary central incisor and a radiographically visible displaced dental crown. Her history revealed a traumatic dental injury one year ago. Radiologic examination confirmed an inflammatory root resorption on tooth 61 and a dislocation of the developing tooth 21. In order to avoid further displacement due to the inflammation, 61 was extracted at the first appointment. A radiographic image 7 months later showed no improvement in the malposition of tooth 21. Therefore tooth 21 was surgically repositioned into its correct position. Follow-up over 3 years confirmed a continued root development and a full eruption of 21 in its correct position. Early diagnosis and early treatment of a dislocated permanent tooth germ is essential to allow a favorable outcome. Surgical repositioning can be successful in avoiding later malpositioning of the permanent teeth. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relationship between maxillary central incisor proportions and facial proportions.

    PubMed

    Radia, Sapna; Sherriff, Martyn; McDonald, Fraser; Naini, Farhad B

    2016-06-01

    No universally accepted parameter exists for selecting maxillary central incisors (MCIs) relative to facial proportions. The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to determine the relationship between MCIs and facial height and width in adults, intersex differences, and measurement differences between right and left MCI. A prospective study was undertaken of 149 dental students (F:76; M:73) aged between 18 and 30 years. Anthropometric MCI and horizontal and vertical facial measurements were recorded with digital calipers by 1 operator. Correlation was investigated with Pearson correlation coefficients (α=.05). Two-sample t tests were used for intersex comparisons and paired t tests to compare right and left MCIs. Intraexaminer reliability was tested by remeasuring 25 participants and applying the Bland-Altman and Lin analyses. The mean MCI height was 10.28 mm (right and left) and the mean widths were 8.65 mm (right) and 8.66 mm (left). Intersex incisor differences existed for height measurements (M:F 0.54 mm [right], 0.46 mm [left]) and width measurements (M:F 0.26 mm) but not for width-to-height ratios (F=0.85; M=0.84). A mean ratio of 15.56 was found between bizygomatic width:tooth width (M=15.75, F=15.37) and of 17.93 between total face height:MCI height (M=17.97, F=17.89). Correlation coefficients were low for all tooth:face measurements. Intraexaminer reliability was clinically acceptable. Men had larger teeth and faces but similar width:height ratios. There was no significant size difference between right and left MCI, little individual relationship between tooth:face proportions, and insignificant sex influence. The "biometric ratio"' of 1:16 for MCI:bizygomatic width was not reconfirmed exactly. A ratio of 1:18 is proposed for MCI height to total face height (Tr-Me') and 1:12 for face height (N'-Me'). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Solitary median maxillary central incisor in association with hemifacial microsomia: A rare case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Utreja, Ashok; Zahid, Syed Naved; Gupta, Richa

    2011-10-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor in that the crown form is symmetric and it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Presence of SMMCI with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a very rare clinical condition. We report a case of HFM in a male of Indian origin who presented with SMMCI in both primary and permanent dentitions. The association of HFM with SMMCI may be due to defective development of neural crest cells and/or lack of space in maxilla.

  15. Solitary median maxillary central incisor in association with hemifacial microsomia: A rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Utreja, Ashok; Zahid, Syed Naved; Gupta, Richa

    2011-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor in that the crown form is symmetric and it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Presence of SMMCI with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a very rare clinical condition. We report a case of HFM in a male of Indian origin who presented with SMMCI in both primary and permanent dentitions. The association of HFM with SMMCI may be due to defective development of neural crest cells and/or lack of space in maxilla. PMID:22346174

  16. Ectopic eruption of the maxillary central permanent incisors and mandibular first permanent molars: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Pomarico, Luciana; Primo, Laura Guimarães; Noce, Denise

    2006-10-01

    Ectopic eruption is a disturbance in which the tooth does not follow its usual course. Among its more important etiologic factors are macrodontism, shortened arch length, posterior positioning of the maxilla, atypical eruption angle, and genetic factors. This article reports a rare case of ectopic eruption of 4 permanent teeth, maxillary central incisors and mandibular first molars, in a child aged 7 years and 11 months, in which the treatment consisted of extracting the maxillary primary central incisors and making an orthodontic intervention on the mandibular arch. A bilateral fixed appliance containing 2 hooks with loops, 1 buccal and the other lingual, was placed on the mandibular primary first molars. The hooks were activated in a niche made of light-curing resin on the occlusal surface of the mandibular permanent molars, to bring about the distal drift of these teeth. After 6 months, complete eruption of the mandibular permanent molars occurred, and a slight displacement of the maxillary permanent central incisors toward the median line was noted. The importance of early, adequate treatment is discussed.

  17. A Global Numerical analysis of the "central incisor/local maxillary bone" system using a meshless method.

    PubMed

    Moreira, S F; Belinha, J; Dinis, L M J S; Jorge, R M Natal

    2014-09-01

    In this work the maxillary central incisor is numerically analysed with an advance discretization technique--Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Method (NNRPIM). The NNRPIM permits to organically determine the nodal connectivity, which is essential to construct the interpolation functions. The NNRPIM procedure, based uniquely in the computational nodal mesh discretizing the problem domain, allows to obtain autonomously the required integration mesh, permitting to numerically integrate the differential equations ruling the studied physical phenomenon. A numerical analysis of a tooth structure using a meshless method is presented for the first time. A two-dimensional model of the maxillary central incisor, based on the clinical literature, is established and two distinct analyses are performed. First, a complete elasto-static analysis of the incisor/maxillary structure using the NNRPIM is evaluated and then a non-linear iterative bone tissue remodelling analysis of the maxillary bone, surrounding the central incisive, is performed. The obtained NNRPIM solutions are compared with other numerical methods solutions available in the literature and with clinical cases. The results show that the NNRPIM is a suitable numerical method to analyse numerically dental biomechanics problems.

  18. Treatment of class II malocclusion with open bite and absence of central maxillary incisor lost by trauma aided by use of orthodontic mini-implants.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this article is to report the clinical case of non-surgical treatment of a Class II malocclusion with anterior open bite, associated with absence of a maxillary central incisor avulsed due to trauma. Treatment proceeded with the use of orthodontic mini-implants as an anchorage device for intrusion of the maxillary molars and for mesial movement of the lateral incisor to replace the central incisor. Treatment resulted in good occlusion, with anterior and lateral guides, enhancement of the facial profile, and good dental esthetic appearance without the need for prosthetic treatment. The treatment outcome was satisfactory but needs long-term or permanent retention.

  19. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Small-Diameter Dental Implant Used for the Restoration of Patients with Permanent Tooth Agenesis (Hypodontia) in the Maxillary Lateral Incisor and Mandibular Incisor Regions: A 36-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    King, Paul; Maiorana, Carlo; Luthardt, Ralph G; Sondell, Katarina; Øland, Jesper; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For patients with narrow, single-tooth edentulous ridges as a result of permanent tooth agenesis (hypodontia) in the maxillary lateral and mandibular incisor regions, dental implant treatment may present a reliable and predictable restorative treatment solution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical reliability and outcome of small-diameter dental implants placed in a one-stage procedure with early loading replacing maxillary lateral or mandibular incisor teeth. Patients with hypodontia in the maxillary lateral incisor or mandibular incisor region analyzed in this report were selected from a larger prospective multicenter study. Small-diameter dental implants (AstraTech OsseoSpeed TX 3.0 S, Dentsply) of different lengths were placed using a one-stage surgical protocol with a 6- to 10-week healing period before loading. Probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and gingival zenith score were assessed after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Radiographic examination was assessed at 6, 12, and 36 months. In total, 38 patients were included in this analysis and 62 small-diameter implants were placed. The mean distance between adjacent teeth was 6.30 mm (SD: 1.36). All patients received a titanium transmucosal abutment and cement-retained ceramic crown after 6 to 10 weeks of healing. Two implants were lost during the healing period before loading, providing a total implant survival rate of 96.8%. No implant fractures were reported. Mean marginal bone level change from surgery to follow-up visits at 6, 12, and 36 months were 0.39 mm, 0.22 mm, and 0.23 mm, respectively. The condition of soft tissue was stable at all follow-up visits with clinically insignificant changes in probing depth, bleeding on probing, and gingival zenith score. This study evaluated the behavior over 36 months of AstraTech Osseospeed TX 3.0 S dental implants placed into narrow one-tooth defect edentulous ridges as a result of hypodontia. The data collected highlighted the stability of

  20. Developmental disturbances of a maxillary central incisor due to trauma to its predecessor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Merve Safa; Sönmez, Işıl Şaroğlu

    2013-01-01

    To report the effects of a primary tooth trauma on the underlying permanent tooth germ. A 12-year-old girl was referred to our clinic with a complaint of poor aesthetic appearance. The crown of the permanent maxillary left central tooth exhibited an increased clinical crown height with an 'enamel hyperplasia' in the cervical third and had hypoplastic enamel with yellowish-brown discoloration extending from the middle third to the incisal edge. Radiographic examination revealed that the permanent maxillary left central tooth had abnormal root morphology with root dilaceration. The patient revealed a history of trauma at the age of 4 years. An aesthetic restoration with light-curing resin composite was performed on the vestibular surface of the maxillary left permanent central tooth. Sequelae of a primary tooth trauma on the permanent tooth were restored. We recommend that parents should be aware of the consequences of untreated trauma to a primary tooth. Educational and preventive programmes on dental trauma are required to educate parents about emergency knowledge and sequelae of dental trauma. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Polyethylene ribbon fibers: a new alternative for restoring badly destroyed primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Island, Gema; White, G E

    2005-01-01

    Dentistry has advanced to the point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. With the introduction of new materials and adhesive systems the use of polyethylene fibers as post and core offer a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed primary anterior teeth. These fibers offer root and coronal retention, stability and esthetics, and it is done chair side. The present study compared two different types of fibers and analyzed the fracture resistance between the two of them. Two groups were formed. Group I used non pre-impregnated resin fibers (glasSpan) and group II used pre-impregnated resin fibers (Splint-it). Both types of fibers have been used as post and core in the restoration of primary teeth and clinical studies have been published. Our results indicated that the mean fracture resistance for group I was 71.346 and for group II 97.952 (p = 0.004). During the observation of the fractured samples, adhesive failures were noted for group I at the junction between the fiber and its core to the interior wall of the root canal. In group II, the fibers were dislodged out of the canal and the core part of the canal remained intact. It can be concluded that pre-impregnated fibers offer a better fracture resistance when used as post in endodontically treated primary anterior teeth.

  2. Dilaceration of a central incisor with iatrogenic root perforation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Yen, H T; Diau, M H; Tsai, J W; Roan, R T

    1991-07-01

    Dilacerated tooth is caused by disruption of the follicle of the developing tooth secondary to traumatic injury of its deciduous predecessor. This case presented a dilacerated permanent maxillary incisor which was perforated in root canal at buccal side by general practitioner and treated successfully by conservative endodontic therapy.

  3. Εvaluation of a treatment protocol for unerupted maxillary central incisors: retrospective clinical study of 46 children.

    PubMed

    Lygidakis, N N; Chatzidimitriou, K; Theologie-Lygidakis, N; Lygidakis, N A

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of a treatment protocol performed in children with unerupted permanent maxillary central incisors, including surgical removal of any related obstruction and traction initiation in one stage, under fully repositioned flap, combined with pre- and post-operative orthodontics for space creation and final alignment. Forty-six patients aged 7.3-12.7 years (mean = 9.44 ± 1.36) having 54 impacted maxillary central incisors were reviewed. The study group included 37 patients fully treated by us and nine referrals with eruption failure of impacted incisors following previous surgical removal of various obstructions. Detailed patient's clinical and radiographic data were recorded. Aetiology of unerupted incisors included 9 patients with odontomas, 24 with supernumerary teeth, 1 with skeletal lack of space, 1 with a dentigerous cyst, 4 with dilaceration, 1 with severe incisor MIH, 5 with luxation injuries to primary predecessors and 1 with coexisting dilaceration and odontoma. The total treatment time following the standardised protocol ranged from 5 to 21 months (mean 9.88 ± 3.10), while the time needed using different approaches (no pre-operative orthodontics or obstruction removal and then to wait over an assessment period) ranged from 12 to 18 months (mean 15 ± 2.12) and 17 to 30 months (mean 23.73 ± 5.14), respectively (p < 0.05). The time needed for full alignment depended on the inclination, the height of the impacted tooth (p = 0.001) and the patient's age (p = 0.002). Additionally, the absence of pre-operative orthodontics for space creation dramatically increased treatment time (p = 0.018). In contrast, the maturity of the impacted tooth and the developmental stage of the anterior teeth did not affect treatment time. Finally, when the location of the impacted tooth and the space availability allowed waiting for spontaneous eruption, treatment time was not statistically different from that of the main treatment protocol (p = 0

  4. Removable thermoplastic appliances modified by incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Kramer, Katharina; Böhrnsen, Florian; Gruber, Rudolf Matthias; Batschkus, Sarah; Rödig, Tina; Hahn, Wolfram

    2017-08-28

    The present study aimed to evaluate the force delivery of removable thermoplastic appliances (RTAs), modified by different sized incisal cuts, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor in palatal and vestibular direction. Forty-five RTAs from three different materials (Biolon®, Erkodur®, Ideal Clear®) of the same thickness (1 mm) were used. Analysis was performed on a separated maxillary central incisor which was part of a resin model with a complete dentition. In 15 RTAs, of different material, a cut was inserted at the incisal edge of tooth 11. In 15 other appliances, the cut was extended to teeth 12 and 21. Fifteen aligners remained uncut. The experimental tooth was tipped starting from the zero position in 0.05° steps to a maximal deflection of ± 0.42° of the incisal edge in vestibular and palatal direction, after positioning the RTA onto the model. The horizontal (Fx) and the vertical (Fz) force components were decreased by approximately half with increasing cut size. Fz values changed during palatal tipping from a weak intrusive force, for aligners without cut, to an extrusive force with increasing cut size. Compared to both other materials used (Erkodur® and Ideal Clear®), the Biolon® aligners showed significantly higher Fx and Fz values (p < 0.0001, respectively). RTAs modified by different sized incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties and an inversion of the vertical force component, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

  5. Periradicular regenerative surgery in a maxillary central incisor: 7-year results including cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kourkouta, Stella; Bailey, Graham C

    2014-07-01

    A case of a symptomatic maxillary central incisor that underwent periradicular regenerative surgery with a successful long-term clinical and radiographic outcome is presented. A 52-year old woman was referred to the Endodontology Clinic, UCL Eastman Dental Institute and Hospital, London, UK, in 2004 for swelling and discoloration of the maxillary right central incisor. There was a history of trauma 21 years previously. The tooth was endodontically treated 5 years before the referral. At presentation, there was diffuse facial swelling/erythema and a periodontal probing depth of 11 mm on the midfacial surface with bleeding on probing and purulent exudate. Endodontic retreatment was completed along with subgingival debridement. Reassessment at 6 weeks showed persistent purulent exudate and a probing depth up to 13 mm facially. Periradicular surgery was performed for the purposes of surgical exploration, apical resection and root-end filling with mineral trioxide aggregate, and guided tissue regeneration using a bone xenograft and collagen membrane. Histopathology confirmed the presence of a radicular cyst. Clinical and radiographic evaluation, including cone-beam computed tomographic imaging, at 7 years postoperatively showed a probing depth up to 3 mm and hard tissue formation apically, interproximally, and partly facially on the root surface. In this case of a combined endodontic-periodontic lesion in a maxillary central incisor, regenerative periradicular surgery led to the resolution of the defect, significant attachment gain, and a stable clinical and radiographic outcome after 7 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphometric analysis of pulp size in maxillary permanent central incisors correlated with age: An indirect digital study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, S. V.; Mamatha, G. P.; Sunita, J. D.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Sardana, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Teeth are hardest part of the body and are least affected by the taphonomic process. They are considered as one of the reliable methods of identification of a person in forensic sciences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish morphometeric measurements by AutoCad 2009 (Autodesk, Inc) of permanent maxillary central incisors in different age groups of Udaipur population. Setting and Design: Hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Udaipur. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out on 308 subjects of both genders with the age range of 9-68 years. Standardized intra-oral radiographs were made by paralleling technique and processed. The radiographs were scanned and the obtained images were standardized to the actual size of radiographic film. This was followed by measuring them using software AutoCad 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: F-test, post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation test. Results: For left maxillary central incisor, the total pulp area was found to be of 38.41 ± 12.88 mm and 14.32 ± 7.04 mm respectively. For right maxillary central incisor, the total pulp size was 38.39 ± 14.95 mm and 12.35 ± 5 mm respectively. Males (32.50, 32.87 mm2) had more pulp area when compared with females (28.82, 30.05 mm2). Conclusion: There was a decrease in total pulp area with increasing age which may be attributed to secondary dentin formation. PMID:26816461

  7. Complete root resorption of an upper central incisor due to ectopic eruption of canine in a deaf-mute child.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, I; Hashida, S; Mihara, J; Takagaki, M; Sobue, S

    1990-12-01

    Unilateral complete root resorption of the permanent central incisor was experienced in a boy with deaf and dumb. Transposition of tooth germ or abnormally directed eruption of the canine caused not only an entire root but a part of enamel resorption. The patient was diagnosed clinically and radiographically as an ectopic eruption of the right maxillary upper canine and then treatments were provided to improve esthetic and functional conditions in terms of eruption guidance. It should be emphasized that the early diagnosis and the subsequent eruption guidance is essential in the patient with these kinds of eruption disorder of the mixed dentition.

  8. Treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and compromised ferrule: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bryan T; Caicedo, Ricardo; Lin, Wei-Shao; Morton, Dean

    2014-05-01

    This clinical report presents the treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and a compromised ferrule. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy combined with periodontal surgery was provided for debridement. Direct light-polymerizing resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a zirconia crown were used to repair the defect. Symptomatic endodontic complication was diagnosed with localized cone beam computed tomography at 6-month follow-up, and periapical microsurgery was rendered. The patient was followed-up for 30 months after treatment and had no further complications. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 10-year follow-up of calcifying odontogenic cyst in the periapical region of vital maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    de Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; de Araújo Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Radiographic images may lead to misinterpretations of lesions of endodontic and nonendodontic origin. This report describes a case of a 10-year follow-up of a calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) in the periapical region of a vital maxillary central incisor in a 9-year-old boy. The patient revealed a history of a swelling in the periapical area of tooth #9. The patient denied any dental trauma or history of pain. Clinical examination revealed no mobility, but there was discrete discomfort when horizontal pressure was applied. Pulp vitality was present in all maxillary anterior teeth. Radiographs revealed an oval radiolucent lesion in the periapical region of maxillary central incisor. The therapeutic option was enucleation of the periapical lesion and histologic examination of the specimen. Microscopic findings suggested the diagnosis of a COC. At a follow-up visit 10 years after surgery, panoramic and periapical radiographs showed new bone formation; the patient did not have any pain, and pulp vitality was maintained in all teeth in this area. A COC should be part of the differential diagnosis of other jaw lesions, such as apical periodontitis. The definitive diagnosis of a COC can only be made after microscopic evaluation of the specimen. The follow-up is a helpful reference because it confirms the survival of pulp tissue and no recurrence of the COC. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  11. Management of talon cusp affecting the primary central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Aileen I; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2003-09-01

    Talon cusps are relatively rare dental anomalies that manifest as accessory cusplike structures and project from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. The condition can occur in both the primary and permanent dentitions. However, the occurrences of anomalous cusps are rather infrequent in the primary dentition. Little has been written about the treatment of talon cusps in the primary dentition compared with their counterparts in the permanent dentition. The purpose of this article was to document the management of a patient with a maxillary primary incisor affected by a talon cusp and the long-term follow up.

  12. Compound odontoma associated with an unerupted and dilacerated maxillary primary central incisor in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Yeung, K H; Cheung, R C T; Tsang, M M H

    2003-05-01

    The occurrence of odontoma in the primary dentition is uncommon. There are very few reports of non-eruption of a dilacerated primary tooth in the literature. A rare case of compound odontoma in association with an unerupted dilacerated maxillary primary incisor in a young patient is reported. There was also a developing supernumerary tooth in the vicinity of the odontoma. The clinical features and management of these conditions are discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed. A possible causal relationship between odontoma and dilaceration is highlighted.

  13. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a root-fractured maxillary central incisor: A 12-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    Incerti Parenti, Serena; Ciocci, Maurizio; Checchi, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Single-tooth implantation has become a common treatment solution for replacement of a root-fractured maxillary incisor in adults, but the long-term esthetic results can be unfavorable due to progressive marginal bone loss, resulting in gingival recession. In this case report, a maxillary central incisor with a root fracture in its apical one-third was orthodontically extruded and extracted in a 21-year-old female. Implant surgery was performed after a 3-month healing period, and the final crown was placed about 12 months after extraction. After 12 years, favorable osseous and gingival architectures were visible with adequate bone height and thickness at the buccal cortical plate, and no gingival recession was seen around the implant-supported crown. Although modern dentistry has been shifting toward simplified, clinical procedures and shorter treatment times, both general dentists and orthodontists should be aware of the possible long-term esthetic advantages of orthodontic extrusion of hopelessly fractured teeth for highly esthetically demanding areas and should educate and motivate patients regarding the choice of this treatment solution, if necessary. PMID:25133136

  14. Influence of fatigue testing and cementation mode on the load-bearing capability of bovine incisors restored with crowns and FRC posts.

    PubMed

    Nothdurft, Frank P; Schmitt, Thomas; Rupf, Stefan; Pospiech, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of fatigue and cementation mode on the fracture behaviour of endodontically treated bovine incisors restored with fiber-reinforced-composite (FRC) posts and crowns. Forty-eight endodontically treated incisors were restored with FRC posts, composite build-ups, and cast crowns. In 16 teeth, each of the posts were cemented conventionally with KetacCem (3M Espe) or adhesively with Panavia F (Kuraray) or RelyXUniCem (3M Espe). One-half of the specimens in each group were subjected to thermal cycling with 10,000 cycles at 5-55°C and mechanical aging, loading the specimens in 1,200,000 cycles with 50 N. Fracture resistance was determined by loading the specimens until fracture at an angle of 45°. The loading test showed that cementation mode and fatigue testing had an influence on the load bearing capability. Before fatigue testing no statistically significant differences between the different cementation modes could be detected. After fatigue testing, conventionally cemented FRC posts lead to statistically significant higher fracture loads compared to adhesively luted posts. Most specimens fractured in a favourable way, independent from the type of cementation.

  15. Influence of fatigue testing and cementation mode on the load-bearing capability of bovine incisors restored with crowns and zirconium dioxide posts.

    PubMed

    Nothdurft, F P; Schmitt, T; Motter, P J; Pospiech, P R

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of fatigue and cementation mode on the fracture behavior of endodontically treated bovine incisors restored with zirconium dioxide posts and crowns. Forty-eight endodontically treated bovine primary incisors were restored with zirconium dioxide posts (Cerapost, Brasseler), composite build-ups, and crowns cast from a chromium cobalt alloy. In 16 teeth, each of the posts was cemented conventionally with KetacCem (3M ESPE) or adhesively with Panavia F (Kuraray) or RelyX UniCem (3M ESPE). One-half of the specimens in each group were subjected to thermocycling with 10,000 cycles at 5-55 degrees C and mechanical aging, loading the specimens at an angle of 45 degrees in 1,200,000 cycles with 50 N. Fracture resistance was determined by loading the specimens until fracture at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the teeth. The loading test showed that neither cementation mode nor fatigue testing had an influence on the load bearing capability. Most specimens fractured in a favorable way, independent from the type of cementation.

  16. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary central incisor dictates a need to be vigilant to canine eruption pattern: A 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Shilpy; Gupta, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Canine deviation from its path of eruption is usually followed by either delayed or impaction of canine. One of the important and not so noticed reasons for canine displacement is formerly impacted central incisor. The difference in age of eruption of these two teeth is 4 years; however, the absence of maxillary incisor should be perceived with utmost conviction about impending canine displacement leading to its impaction as well. This case presents similar picture where composite, compound odontoma with respect to maxillary central incisor led to its impaction resulted in deviated path of eruption for erupting canine. This canine displacement to worsen prognosis ended up getting impacted if not dealt with cautiously in the later stages of occlusal development. PMID:27307685

  17. Treatment of class 2 division 1 malocclusion with severe short roots of upper central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Ramaswamy; Sridevi, Kondety Sambamoorthy

    2013-01-01

    The average amount of resorption per root of examined maxillary incisors or anterior teeth is < 1.5 mm during comprehensive orthodontic treatment. About 5% of adults and 2% of adolescents are likely to have at least one tooth with resorption of more than 5 mm during active treatment. Although resorption stops once the active appliances are removed, fortunately, truly severe resorption that threatens the longevity of the tooth or forces a halt to treatment is rare. The fact is, however that orthodontic tooth movement does directly cause irreversible resorption of the root. As the movers of the teeth, it is incumbent for us to know as much as possible about the causes, effects and prevention of this phenomenon. PMID:23956601

  18. Class III malocclusion with missing maxillary central incisor and facial asymmetry treated with orthodontics and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kiyoshi; Park, Jae Hyun; Sato, Yasumori

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female with a Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry was treated with orthodontics combined with intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). She had severe skeletal Class III (Wits: -9.7 mm). She was missing her maxillary left central incisor and had a fixed three-unit bridge on her maxillary anterior teeth. The patient presented a concave profile with a protrusive mandible. Her dental and mandibular midline was shifted 3 mm toward the left. After presurgical orthodontic treatment, IVRO was performed. The total active treatment time was 16 months including surgery. Both occlusion and facial appearance were significantly improved by the surgical-orthodontic treatment. Posttreatment records after 2 years showed excellent results with good, stable occlusion, facial balance and harmony, and long-term stability.

  19. Prosthetic rehabilitation and management of an MTA-treated maxillary central incisor with root perforation and severe internal resorption.

    PubMed

    Abuabara, Allan; Costa, Rogério G; Morais, Eduardo C; Furuse, Adilson Y; Gonzaga, Carla C; Filho, Flares Baratto

    2013-07-01

    Root canal perforation and root resorption are challenging clinical conditions to correctly diagnose and treat, especially when they occur in anterior teeth. This clinical report describes the computed tomography findings, endodontic treatment, prosthetic rehabilitation, and clinical outcome of an iatrogenic root perforation and internal resorption in a maxillary central incisor. The case management consisted of endodontic retreatment, periodontal surgery, and prosthetic rehabilitation. Gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was used to fill the resorption space and seal the perforation. The prosthetic treatment was performed with glass fiber-reinforced dowels and all-ceramic crowns. No signs or symptoms, including discomfort, pain, or esthetic defects were observed in 30 months of follow-up. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. [Differences between laypersons and orthodontists in recognizing the light reflection zone on the maxillary central incisors crowns].

    PubMed

    Shmuli, T; Wasserstein, A; Turgeman, R; Brezniak, N

    2014-07-01

    The light reflection zone (LRZ) is a new parameter that may serve as a tool for the diagnosis of smile esthetics. It is a bright white dot or area that appears on the surface of the maxillary central incisors and/or the gingiva of the front teeth, visible in intra-oral and smile extra-oral photographs. Recently it was found that the general population defines a nicer smile when the LRZ is located in the gingival area of the upper central incisors' surface rather than the incisal third. The aim of this study was to find out in two populations that are not aware of this new parameter, laypersons and orthodontists, whether there is a difference in the identification of the LRZ and the importance of the LRZ in determining the quality of the smile. Twelve pairs of facial photographs, including 10 of ordinary smiling persons and 2 of smiling models, were presented to 108 laypersons and 30 orthodontists. The only difference between each pair was the location of the LRZ that was moved, compared to the original photograph, gingivally or incisally respectively, using Photoshop (Adobe). Each participant was asked to mark whether he/she noticed a difference between the 2 pictures, and if so, to score the nicer smile. Data analysis was carried out using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test (SPSS v17). The results showed that both populations had difficulty in recognizing the differences between the pictures that were based solely on the LRZ parameter. However, when differences were recognized, most of the participants in both populations pointed on the smile where the LRZ was located gingivally as the nicer one. The orthodontic population recognized the difference between the two pictures, in which only the LRZ was changed, to a lesser extent compared to the laypersons populations. This result was with statistical significance (p = 0.007).

  1. Correlation between Visible Length of the Iris and the Length of the Maxillary Central Incisor Using Digital Image Analysis- A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rohini; Hemalatha; Chander, Gopi Naveen; Anitha, Kuttae Viswanathan

    2017-02-01

    Complete denture therapy is one such modality where science and art goes hand in hand. Selection of artificial teeth for completely edentulous patients is not easy in the absence of pre extraction records, because till date concrete guidelines do not exist. The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between the visible length of the iris and the length of the maxillary central incisor to potentially provide a guide for teeth selection. A total of 20 Indian dental students consented to participate in the pilot study. Standardized digital images of the face revealing the eyes and component of teeth on smiling was captured using a digital camera. The digital measurements of the visible iris length (medial aperture height, tangential to iris) and the length of the maxillary central incisor from the zenith to the incisal edge were analysed using Adobe Photoshop creative cloud software. The data was statistically evaluated and results were tabulated. Karl Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation was utilized to detect if any association existed between the two variables. The mean value of length of central incisor was 10.39 mm and the mean value of the visible length of iris was found to be 12.9 mm. A Pearson correlation analysis revealed an r-value <0.3 indicating minimal association between the two variables with a p-value >0.01 (.322). On inference, the correlation between the visible iris length and that of maxillary central incisor were unable to produce a strong positive statistical association. However, an association factor between the two has been obtained. Deduction of 2.5 mm from the dimension of visible iris length will help in attaining the length of artificial maxillary central incisor tooth.

  2. Effects of cleft lip and palate on the development of permanent upper central incisors: a cone-beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ahmet A; Ucar, Faruk I; Sekerci, Ahmet E; Caglaroglu, Murat; Tan, Enes

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate 1. the differences among the cleft sides of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients, non-cleft sides of the same UCLP patients and well matched control patients in the root development and position of permanent upper central incisors and 2. possible gender differences. The study sample consisted of 40 patient (20 males and 20 females; mean age: 14.84±3.2 years) with non-syndromic UCLP patients, and 40 control patients (20 males and 20 females; mean age: 13.38±1.6 years). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were taken off from all patients. All tomographs were obtained in supine position by using CBCT (NewTom 5G, QR, Verona, Italy). Significant smaller root volume of central incisor was observed on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side of UCLP patients (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the root development and position of the central incisors was found between the non-cleft side of the UCLP and the control group (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant gender differences in any linear, angular, or volumetric measurements (P > 0.05). Only the root volume of the cleft side was smaller in females than in males (P < 0.05). In general, root volumes of central incisors on the cleft side were 12.15 per cent smaller than non-cleft side. Root development of the central incisor was much more influenced by the cleft in females than in males. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Correlation between Visible Length of the Iris and the Length of the Maxillary Central Incisor Using Digital Image Analysis- A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rohini; Hemalatha; Chander, Gopi Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Complete denture therapy is one such modality where science and art goes hand in hand. Selection of artificial teeth for completely edentulous patients is not easy in the absence of pre extraction records, because till date concrete guidelines do not exist. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between the visible length of the iris and the length of the maxillary central incisor to potentially provide a guide for teeth selection. Materials and Methods A total of 20 Indian dental students consented to participate in the pilot study. Standardized digital images of the face revealing the eyes and component of teeth on smiling was captured using a digital camera. The digital measurements of the visible iris length (medial aperture height, tangential to iris) and the length of the maxillary central incisor from the zenith to the incisal edge were analysed using Adobe Photoshop creative cloud software. The data was statistically evaluated and results were tabulated. Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation was utilized to detect if any association existed between the two variables. Results The mean value of length of central incisor was 10.39 mm and the mean value of the visible length of iris was found to be 12.9 mm. A Pearson correlation analysis revealed an r-value <0.3 indicating minimal association between the two variables with a p-value >0.01 (.322). Conclusion On inference, the correlation between the visible iris length and that of maxillary central incisor were unable to produce a strong positive statistical association. However, an association factor between the two has been obtained. Deduction of 2.5 mm from the dimension of visible iris length will help in attaining the length of artificial maxillary central incisor tooth. PMID:28384979

  4. Relationship between crown-root angulation (collum angle) of maxillary central incisors in Class II, division 2 malocclusion and lower lip line.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bhadrinath; Kailasam, Vignesh; Chitharanjan, Arun; Ramalingam, Arthi

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure the magnitude of the collum angle (crown-root angulation) of maxillary central incisors present in Class II, division 2 malocclusion and to relate the changes in its magnitude with variations in the lower lip line. A set of 120 conventional lateral cephalograms were selected and divided into three groups of 40 each based on the type of malocclusion presented: Class II, division 2 (group 1); Class II, division 1 (group 2); and Class I (group 3). The collum angle of the maxillary central incisor was measured, and the lower lip line was recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the mean collum angle was statistically significantly different in the three groups. The mean collum angle was greatest in Class II, division 2 malocclusion (group 1). The mean collum angles were 3.24 ± 4.69 degrees, 0.95 ± 1.06 degrees, and 1.05 ± 1.50 degrees in groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively. In χ ² test comparison of the location of the lower lip line (incisal, middle, or apical third of the central incisor) among the three groups, the lower lip line was found to contact the middle third of the central incisor most frequently in Class II, division 2 malocclusion. ANOVA followed by Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test showed that the mean collum angle is significantly increased when the lower lip is in the middle third (P < .05) of the central incisor. Variations in magnitude of the collum angle with the change in the lower lip line suggest a probable etiologic role of the lower lip line in the development of the collum angle.

  5. [Cone-beam CT evaluation of volume and surface area changes of impacted upper central incisors before and after orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Jiang, Yin-Hua; Tao, Hai-Biao; Sun, Hao; Hu, Rong-Dang

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate root resorption by cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) after orthodontic treatment of impacted upper central incisors. Ten patients (12 impacted incisors and 8 contralateral corresponding teeth) were included in this study. With self-designed modified nance arch and straight wire arch, the impacted incisors were treated by combined orthodontics and surgery approach. CBCT images of all patients were taken before and immediately after the treatment. Mimics software was used to build three-dimensional images. The upper central incisors were isolated. Volumes of teeth and superficial area were calculated. The difference between pre- and post- treatment was statistically evaluated with paired samples t test using SPSS13.0 software package. Significant difference in volume and superficial area was found between pre- and post- treatment (P<0.05). The average whole dental volume increase was (9.67±10.86) mm(3), and the superficial area increase was (28.97±14.36)mm(2). Statistical significance was achieved among 12 impacted incisors. The average whole dental volume increase of the control group was(12.38±10.22)mm(3), and the superficial area increase was(30.64±16.74)mm(2). There was no significant difference between the impacted and the control group in dental volume and superficial area before and after treatment (P>0.05). The treatment by combined orthodontics and surgery approach could promote tooth development for impacted incisors without causing root absorption, which can be safely performed.

  6. Influence of thermoplastic appliance thickness on the magnitude of force delivered to a maxillary central incisor during tipping.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Wolfram; Dathe, Henning; Fialka-Fricke, Julia; Fricke-Zech, Susanne; Zapf, Antonia; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances made of 2 materials with 2 thicknesses to a maxillary central incisor during tipping. Two materials were tested, each in 2 thicknesses: Erkodur (Erkodent Erich Kopp GmbH, Pfalzgrafenweiler, Germany) 1.0 and 0.8 mm, and Biolon (Dreve Dentamid GmbH, Unna, Germany), 1.0 and 0.75 mm. For each material, 5 appliances were produced. To measure the forces applied, an isolated measuring tooth, part of a standardized resin model, was deflected in 0.05 degrees steps from 0 degrees to 0.42 degrees in the vestibular and palatine directions, after placing the respective appliance on the model. For statistical analysis, the force components Fx/tipping and Fz/intrusion at a displacement of +/- 0.151 mm from the incisor edge were selected. Means and standard deviations were calculated. The Wilcoxon 2-sample test for group pairings was used. The norms for the mean Fx forces ranged from 1.62 (SD, 0.41) to 5.35 N (SD, 0.63). The mean Fz forces were between 0.07 (SD, 0.13) and -2.47 N (SD, 0.34). The highest intrusive forces were measured during vestibular displacement of the measuring tooth. The forces delivered by the thick appliances were overall significantly higher (P <0.0001) than those of the thin materials. The forces delivered by the Biolon appliances were generally significantly higher (P <0.0001) than those for the Erkodur materials. The forces applied were mostly too high when compared with those stated in the literature as ideal. In addition to thickness, the thermoforming process influences the magnitude of the force delivered by a thermoformed appliance.

  7. Endo-restorative treatment of a severly discolored upper incisor: resolution of the “aesthetic” problem through Componeer veneering System

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Romeo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental aesthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct or indirect veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. The aim of the study is to evaluate clinically the effectiveness of a direct composite veneering system in resolving aesthetic problem of an upper incisor with a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Methods Patient with a severe discolored upper incisor came to our attention; at the X-ray exam there was an evidence of a past not good root canal treatment and also old and incongruent composite obturation. After removing all the material inside the root canal was performed a new correct endodontic filling, then Authors tried to bleach the tooth trough “walking-bleach” technique with a hydrogen peroxide (30 volumes) and sodium perborate solution without excellent results. So it was decided to insert a glass-fiber post and than to perform a direct composite veneer with Componeer System (Coltene). Componeer System is a system of prefabricated composite veneers that are abled to be applied directly in the first appointment: after a conservative preparation of the tooth, it must be used an adhesive agent (for example a “three steps”) and then with composite stratification it’s possible to apply the componeer veneer (choosing the right measure, modified as necessary) as the last covering aesthetic layer. Result The evaluation of result of this multidisciplinary treatment was essentially clinical and radiological; in fact it’s possible to observe, from a clinical point of view, the good aesthetic aspect of the direct composite restoration with componeer veneer that offers also some advantages: conservative preparation with

  8. Molar incisor hypomineralization, prevalence, and etiology.

    PubMed

    Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB), atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P = 0.01). The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P = 0.001), adenoiditis (P = 0.001), asthma (P = 0.001), fever (P = 0.014), and antibiotics intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  9. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB), atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P = 0.01). The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P = 0.001), adenoiditis (P = 0.001), asthma (P = 0.001), fever (P = 0.014), and antibiotics intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake. PMID:24949012

  10. The Immediate Aesthetic and Functional Restoration of Maxillary Incisors Compromised by Periodontitis Using Short Implants with Single Crown Restorations: A Minimally Invasive Approach and Five-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Marincola, Mauro; Lombardo, Giorgio; Pighi, Jacopo; Corrocher, Giovanni; Mascellaro, Anna; Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The functional and aesthetic restoration of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis presents numerous challenges for the clinician. Horizontal bone loss and soft tissue destruction resulting from periodontitis can impede implant placement and the regeneration of an aesthetically pleasing gingival smile line, often requiring bone augmentation and mucogingival surgery, respectively. Conservative approaches to the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (i.e., treatments that use minimally invasive tools and techniques) have been purported to yield positive outcomes. Here, we report on the treatment and five-year follow-up of patient suffering from aggressive periodontitis using a minimally invasive surgical technique and implant system. By using the methods described herein, we were able to achieve the immediate aesthetic and functional restoration of the maxillary incisors in a case that would otherwise require bone augmentation and extensive mucogingival surgery. This technique represents a conservative and efficacious alternative to the aesthetic and functional replacement of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:26649207

  11. Biologic Restoration: A Treatment Option for Reconstruction of Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Priyanka; S, Shankar; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinaykumar S

    2014-01-01

    Several procedures are advised to manage fractured anterior tooth structure using acrylic resin, composite restoration, ceramic or metal crown with ceramic facing. Biologic restoration is a procedure to restore fractured tooth structure with natural tooth material. In this in vitro case we have made an attempt for aesthetic rehabilitation of maxillary central incisor with similar biologic crown taken form extracted maxillary central incisor. It was observed that biologic restoration is an aesthetic, economical, fast and functional procedure which can be used as an alternative method to restore fractured primary or permanent anteriors. PMID:25584332

  12. Biologic restoration: a treatment option for reconstruction of anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Babaji, Prashant; Khanna, Priyanka; S, Shankar; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinaykumar S

    2014-11-01

    Several procedures are advised to manage fractured anterior tooth structure using acrylic resin, composite restoration, ceramic or metal crown with ceramic facing. Biologic restoration is a procedure to restore fractured tooth structure with natural tooth material. In this in vitro case we have made an attempt for aesthetic rehabilitation of maxillary central incisor with similar biologic crown taken form extracted maxillary central incisor. It was observed that biologic restoration is an aesthetic, economical, fast and functional procedure which can be used as an alternative method to restore fractured primary or permanent anteriors.

  13. [Measurement of orthodontic forces exerted on the upper right central incisor with the increase of the distance of tooth movement and thickness of the aligner].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chaochao; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Zheyao; Wang, Hongmei; Bai, Yuxing

    2014-03-01

    To measure the orthodontic forces exerted on the upper right central incisor with the increase of the distance of tooth movement and the thickness of the aligner. The labial movement of upper right central incisor at various distances (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8 mm) was designed and the stereolithography model (2 times bigger than the original model) was created with 3-D scanning and tomography output. These models were used to fabricate the aligners with different thicknesses (0.8, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) of the thermoplastic materials (6 samples for various distances of tooth movement and thicknesses). Orthodontic forces exerted on the upper right central incisor were measured with the micro-stress sensor measurement system. The orthodontic forces increased with the increase of the thickness of the aligner at the same distance of tooth movement (P < 0.05). The orthodontic force was (1.237 ± 0.082), (1.543 ± 0.059), (3.602 ± 0.102), (6.734 ± 0.063) N when the labial movement of upper right central incisor was 0.3 mm with the aligner of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm. The orthodontic forces also increased with the increase of the distance of the tooth movement at the same thickness of the aligner(P < 0.05). The orthodontic force of the aligner of 0.8 mm were (1.354 ± 0.039), (1.288 ± 0.037), (1.479 ± 0.031), (1.799 ± 0.039) N when the upper right central tooth labial movement at 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 mm. The orthodontic forces increased with the increase of the distance of tooth movement and the thickness of the aligner.

  14. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carolina Castro; Chalub, Loliza; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard). 49 children (aged 7-9 years) were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67) and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49%) compared with the photographic method (36.7%). The photographic method presented higher specificity (96%) than sensitivity (70.8%), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.

  15. Management of a rare case of impacted primary central incisors in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Sood, P B; Singh, A; Sachdeva, S

    2012-01-01

    Impaction of primary anterior teeth is very rare. A tooth that fails to erupt into normal functional position by the time it normally should is considered impacted. A rare case of impacted dilacerated maxillary primary incisors in a 3-year-old child is presented. The diagnostic position of impacted primary incisors was determined using conical beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assist in surgical intervention with least surgical trauma to the tissues.

  16. Fracture resistance of bovine incisors restored with different glass fiber posts: effect of the diameter of fiber post.

    PubMed

    Zogheib, Lucas Villaça; Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Balducci, Ivan; Pagani, Clovis; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Compare the effect of three post designs on the fracture resistance and failure modes of composite core - fiber post - crownless tooth sets. Ninety bovine incisors were selected and divided into nine groups of 10 specimens. The teeth were assigned to three groups based on the post design: Cylindrical, tapered, and double-tapered. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups in accordance with the diameter of the post: Small (No.1), medium (No.2), and large (No.3). The Panavia F system was used for post cementation. The specimens were mounted in acrylic resin blocks with a layer of silicone rubber covering the roots. A universal testing machine compressively loaded the specimens from the palatal side at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and at an angle of 135Ί to the long axis of the teeth, until failure occurred. The failure mode was determined by a stereomicroscope inspection of all the specimens. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). The fracture resistance was affected by the type of post (P < 0.0001). A narrower diameter for all of the post systems allowed for higher resistance. The main failure mode in the large cylindrical group was catastrophic fractures, while the main failures in the other eight groups were favorable. Narrower diameter posts showed higher fracture resistance. The dominant failure pattern was repairable fracture, except for those with large cylindrical groups.

  17. [Morphological characteristics of upper alveolar bone around central incisor in Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusion on cone-beam CT].

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-qian; Gu, Yong-jia; Gao, Mei-qin

    2016-02-01

    During orthodontic treatment, the incisors in patients with Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusion showed different clinical features, which determine the different ways to move the teeth to the suitable position. This study analyzed the morphology of alveolar bone around upper central incisor with cone-beam CT (CBCT). The sample consisted of 20 normal malocclusion and 40 patients with Class II malocclusion (division 1 20 cases and division 2 20 cases). CBCT images before orthodontic treatment were reconstructed by INVIVO 5.0 image processing software. Paired t test was used for statistical analysis with SPSS 19.0 software package. At the upper central incisors, the alveolar thickness between normal malocclusion and Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusion had significant difference except the palate thickness between normal malocclusion and Class II division 2 malocclusion (P<0.05). Orthodontist should consider the relationship between the teeth position and alveolar bone shape comprehensively, choose the correct plan in order to avoid root desorption, alveolar bone loss, fenestration and other adverse reactions.

  18. Neonatal line width in deciduous incisors from Neolithic, mediaeval and modern skeletal samples from north-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Marta; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Sitek, Aneta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Rosset, Iwona; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal line is usually the first accentuated incremental line visible on the enamel. The prenatal environment significantly contributes to the width of the neonatal line, influencing the pace of reaching post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. Studies of the enamel of the earliest developing deciduous teeth can provide an insight into the prenatal development and the perinatal conditions of children of past human populations, thus being an additional source contributing to consideration of the influence of prenatal and perinatal factors modifying growth processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether the neonatal line, reflecting the conditions of the prenatal and perinatal environment, differed between the Neolithic, the mediaeval and the modern populations from the Kujawy region in north-central Poland. The material consisted of longitudinally ground sections of 57 human deciduous incisors obtained from children aged 1.0-7.5 years representing three archaeological series from Brześć Kujawski site. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-linqual plane using a diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed with the microscope Delta Optical Evolution 300 at 10× and 40× magnifications. For each tooth, linear measurements of the neonatal line width were performed on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. No significant difference was found in the mean neonatal line width depending on the tooth type and archaeological site, although the thickest neonatal line characterised children from the Neolithic series. In all analysed series, the neonatal line width was diversified depending on the child's age at death. The value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the child's age at death and the neonatal line width was statistically significant. A clear increase in the width of the neonatal line was thus observed along with a decrease in the child

  19. Amalgamation of allogenic bone graft, platelet-rich fibrin gel, and PRF membrane in auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Zainab; Kumar, Yuvika Raj; Mohanty, Sujata; Khetrapal, Ambica

    2015-01-01

    "Social six" teeth refers to the maxillary incisors and canines that play a vital role in the appearance of an individual and absence of any one of them has a significant psycho-social impact. Hence, early treatment and rehabilitation of the same are extremely important. A multitude of treatment options ranging from orthodontic extrusion, extraction followed by implant placement, fixed partial denture, and auto-transplantation have been advocated. This case report discusses the unique amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), demineralized freeze-dried bone graft with use of PRF membrane during auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor. The authors have focused on maximum usage of autogenous materials in the most economic and least invasive manner. Furthermore, this amalgamation has been used to provide rehabilitation in the least span of time.

  20. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in lateral and central incisors by peri-apical X-ray.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Cunha, E; Wasterlain, S N; De Luca, S; Sassaroli, E; Pagliara, F; Nuzzolese, E; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, several papers on the analysis of the apposition of secondary dentine have been published. The aim of this paper was to study a sample of peri-apical X-ray images of upper and lower incisors, both lateral and medial, to examine the application of pulp/tooth area ratio as an indicator of age. A sample of 116 individuals, 62 men and 54 women, aged between 18 and 74 years, was studied. Data were fitted with age as a linear function of the pulp/tooth ratio of incisors. The total variance explained by the regression equation ranged from 51.3% of age, when lower lateral incisors were used as explanatory variable, to 81.6% when upper lateral incisors were used. The accuracy of the corresponding regression model yielded ME = 8.44 and 5.34 years, respectively. These results show that, although incisors are less reliable than canines or lower premolars, they can be used to estimate age-at-death when the latter are absent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  2. A Rare Bilateral Presentation of Multiple Dens Invaginatus, Shovel-Shaped Incisor and Talon Cusp With Mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Hegde, S; Jain, M; Shubha, A B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a unique and unusual case of concomitant appearance of morphological dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region, along with its management in a patient with no systemic abnormality. This case report describes the clinical and radiographic features of talon cusp, dens invaginatus, shovel-shaped incisors and a supernumerary tooth occurring in a single patient, which is a rare presentation. All 4 permanent maxillary incisors had dens invaginatus, the permanent maxillary canines showed the presence of talon cusps, the permanent maxillary central incisors were shovel-shaped and an erupted mesiodens was also observed. Treatment included restorative, surgical and orthodontic approaches.

  3. Incisor crown bending strength correlates with diet and incisor curvature in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Deane, Andrew S

    2015-02-01

    Anthropoid incisors are large relative to the postcanine dentition and function in the preprocessing of food items. Previous analyses of anthropoid incisor allometry and shape demonstrate that incisor morphology is correlated with preferred foods and that more frugivorous anthropoids have larger and more curved incisors. Although the relationship between incisal crown curvature and preferred foods has been well documented in extant and fossil anthropoids, the functional significance of curvature variation has yet to be conclusively established. Given that an increase in crown curvature will increase maximum linear crown dimensions, and bending resistance is a function of linear crown dimensions, it is hypothesized that incisor crown curvature functons to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces. This study uses beam theory to calculate the mesiodistal and labiolingual bending strengths of the maxillary and mandibular incisors of hominoid and platyrrhine taxa with differing diets and variable degrees of incisal curvature. Results indicate that bending strength correlates with incisal curvature and that frugivores have elevated incisor bending resistance relative to folivores. Maxillary central incisor bending strengths further discriminate platyrrhine and hominoid hard- and soft-object frugivores suggesting this crown is subjected to elevated occlusal loading relative to other incisors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that incisor crown curvature functions to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces but does not preclude the possibility that incisor bending strength is a composite function of multiple dentognathic variables including, but not limited to, incisor crown curvature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In vitro evaluation of fracture resistance and failure mode of internally restored endodontically treated maxillary incisors with differing heights of residual dentin.

    PubMed

    Varvara, Giuseppe; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Di Iorio, Donato; Murmura, Giovanna; Caputi, Sergio

    2007-11-01

    Some of the associated effects of different restorative systems placed in endodontically treated teeth with varying heights of residual dentin have yet to be examined in a comprehensive manner. There is a need for additional information regarding fracture resistance and mode of failure. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of 3 different restorative techniques with varying amounts of remaining dentin heights on the fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated teeth. Three groups of 40 human maxillary incisors were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=10) with respect to the uniform height of the residual coronal dentin, defined as 0-, 2-, 4-, or 5-mm from the cemento-enamel junction, and then restored internally using a composite resin (Z100 MP) (control group), a cobalt-chromium ceramic alloy custom-made cast post and core (IPS d.SIGN 30; CCPC group), or a carbon fiber post system (Tech Xop 2000; CFP group). All specimens were then restored with nonprecious cast crowns. Static loading tests were performed on each specimen until failure (crack without a complete fracture). The data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni-corrected t test for independent samples (alpha=.05). Failure was classified as either favorable (allowing repair) or catastrophic (not allowing repair). The fracture resistance values (N) for the 0-, 2-, 4-, and 5-mm residual dentin heights were: 88, 143, 154, and 202 for the control group, 230, 264, 364, and 383 for the CCPC group, and 153, 235, 346, and 357 for the CFP group, respectively. Generally, all the differences tested were statistically significant. The failure mode was catastrophic for no control specimens, for 36 CCPC specimens, and for 4 CFP specimens. The highest and lowest fracture resistances were recorded for the CCPC and control groups, respectively, at each residual dentin height. An increased height of residual dentin generally provided greater fracture resistance. The fracture

  5. Effect of labiolingual inclination of a maxillary central incisor and surrounding alveolar bone loss on periodontal stress: A finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether labial tooth inclination and alveolar bone loss affect the moment per unit of force (Mt/F) in controlled tipping and consequent stresses on the periodontal ligament (PDL). Methods Three-dimensional models (n = 20) of maxillary central incisors were created with different labial inclinations (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) and different amounts of alveolar bone loss (0, 2, 4, and 6 mm). The Mt/F necessary for controlled tipping (Mt/Fcont) and the principal stresses on the PDL were calculated for each model separately in a finite element analysis. Results As labial inclination increased, Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm decreased. In contrast, increased alveolar bone loss caused increases in Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm. When Mt/F was near Mt/Fcont, increases in Mt/F caused compressive stresses to move from a predominantly labial apical region to a palatal apical position, and tensile stresses in the labial area moved from a cervical position to a mid-root position. Although controlled tipping was applied to the incisors, increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in maximum compressive and tensile stresses at the root apices. Conclusions Increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in stresses that might cause root resorption at the root apex, despite the application of controlled tipping to the incisors. PMID:27226961

  6. Clinical course and implications of congenital nasal pyriform stenosis and solitary median maxillary central incisor in a newborn: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and solitary median maxillary central incisor are uncommon anomalies and are associated with further malformations. Solitary median maxillary central incisor itself has initially no impact on a child’s health, but congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Case presentation A Caucasian baby boy showed severe dyspnoea and was intubated orotracheally. Multiple anomalies were detected, including urogenital and craniofacial malformations. Computed tomography scans revealed congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis with a diameter of 4.9mm and a solitary median maxillary central incisor. A 3.0mm tube was inserted in his left nasal cavity, and the baby was able to breathe sufficiently and spontaneously. The nasal tube was removed after seven days, and the baby was discharged under application of decongestant drops. After seven months, the baby was readmitted with respiratory distress, and surgery was carried out using an intraoral sublabial approach. The stenotic area of the pyriform aperture was widened, and 3.0mm tubes were inserted in both nasal cavities for 10 days. Over a period of six months, no further respiratory distress has occurred. Conclusions The decision to perform surgery was delayed since the baby’s nasal breathing was adequate as a result of the insertion of a nasal tube. Since treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, it is appropriate in some cases to take a conservative approach at first, and to keep surgery as a last resort. Once a conservative approach has been selected for congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis, awareness of the life-threatening nature of the condition should be kept in mind, and a surgical approach must still be taken into account. PMID:24950703

  7. Bilateral symmetry of anterior maxillary incisors: evaluation of a community-based population.

    PubMed

    Ormianer, Z; Solodukhin, A L; Lauritano, D; Segal, P; Lavi, D; Carinci, F; Block, J

    2017-01-01

    The final outcome of dental treatment needs to be not only clinically sufficient, but also esthetically pleasing. Bilateral symmetry in the maxillary incisor teeth is of significant importance in esthetic dentistry. In restorative dentistry, symmetry refers to the appearance of balance around the dental midline. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the maxillary incisor teeth dimensions from both sides of the dental midline, in order to asses if this symmetry occurs naturally. From the student community population at Tel Aviv University, 66 students between the ages of 20-35 (35 males, 31 females) were enrolled and gave consent. The inclusion criteria for this study were: upper maxillary incisors that have never undergone restorative or rehabilitative treatment, and no history of orthodontic treatment. Standardized digital photographs were taken, and the length and width of the maxillary central and lateral incisors were measured and proportions were calculated. SPSS was used to compare the measured differences between teeth on the left versus right of the midline. Tooth proportions were not significantly different between the left and right sides. Asymmetry was found only between the lengths of the maxillary lateral incisors (p=0.009); the width for these teeth was symmetrical. A significant statistical difference was not found on most parameters when evaluating symmetry of the upper incisors. Therefore, when treating the esthetically important anterior of the mouth, care must be taken to ensure bilateral symmetry to mirror the natural symmetry found in most patients.

  8. Surgical resolution of an aggressive iatrogenic root perforation in a maxillary central incisor: a case report with a 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo; Agnoletto, Marcelo; Engelke Back, Eduardo Donato Eing; Tomazinho, Luiz Fernando; Paganini, Fabricio Abel; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of teeth with root perforations depends on several factors, including size, location, and time since occurrence. Root perforations are clinical situations that can be solved by either nonsurgical or surgical approaches. The purpose of this article is to present a case of an aggressive iatrogenic root perforation in a maxillary right central incisor solved surgically using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Even in an unfavorable situation, MTA was able to induce new bone formation and reestablish gingival and periodontal health, as confirmed in follow-up examinations at 2 and 4 years.

  9. Crown dilaceration of permanent incisors following trauma to their primary predecessors.

    PubMed

    Maragakis, M G

    1995-01-01

    Crown dilaceration of a permanent tooth constitutes 3% of traumatic injuries to developing teeth. It usually involves the maxillary incisors and less frequently their mandibular counterparts. This report concerns a patient, whose primary mandibular central incisors, following a fall at the age of 14 months, sustained partial avulsion with displacement. The teeth were repositioned by the father, with the aid of a pediatrician, and without the assistance of a dentist. The patient presented at the age of 8 years, and, following clinical and radiographic examination, a diagnosis was made of crown dilaceration with lingual displacement of the incisal third of the permanent mandibular central incisors, and hypoplastic enamel on all but the gingival third of their crowns. In addition to this, a supernumerary tooth was discovered labial to and between the mandibular right permanent central incisor and the mandibular right primary lateral incisor. After a brief review of the literature, the treatment of this patient is described and the restoration of the dilacerated teeth, followed by a discussion on crown dilaceration and issues concerning the restoration of such teeth.

  10. Root morphology and development of labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors in the mixed dentition: a retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Yi; Sun, Chaofan; Ye, Qingsong; Dai, Weiwei; Wang, Xiuying; Xu, Qingchao; Pan, Sisi; Hu, Rongdang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze 3-dimensional data of root morphology and development in labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors. Cone-beam computed tomography images from 41 patients with impacted incisors were divided into early and late dental age groups according to their dental age. Sagittal slices in which the labiolingual width of the tooth was the widest in the axial view were evaluated. The inverse angle, the dilaceration angle, and the length of both impacted and homonym teeth were evaluated with SimPlant Pro software (version 13.0; Materialise Dental NV, Leuven, Belgium). The Student t test indicated that the lengths of the impacted teeth were significantly shorter than those of the homonym teeth (P <0.05), and the root lengths of the early dental age group were significantly shorter than those of the late dental age group. The results from chi-square tests indicated that the incidence of dilacerations was significantly higher in the late dental age group when compared with the early dental age group. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the independent variables for root length of the impacted teeth were dental age (β = 0.958; P <0.001) and length of the nondilacerated part of the root (β = 0.435; P <0.001). Dilaceration was more common in the late dental age group. The roots of labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors continue developing, but their potential is limited. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strong genetic control of emergence of human primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Hughes, T E; Bockmann, M R; Seow, K; Gotjamanos, T; Gully, N; Richards, L C; Townsend, G C

    2007-12-01

    Our understanding of tooth eruption in humans remains incomplete. We hypothesized that genetic factors contribute significantly to phenotypic variation in the emergence of primary incisors. We applied model-fitting to data from Australian twins to quantify contributions of genetic and environmental factors to variation in timing of the emergence of human primary incisors. There were no significant differences in incisor emergence times between zygosity groups or sexes. Emergence times of maxillary central incisors and mandibular lateral incisors were less variable than those of maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular central incisors. Maxillary lateral incisors displayed significant directional asymmetry, the left side emerging earlier than the right. Variation in timing of the emergence of the primary incisors was under strong genetic control, with a small but significant contribution from the external environment. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability ranged from 82 to 94% in males and 71 to 96% in females.

  12. Unusual Transalveolar and Transmuco-Gingival Root Avulsion of a Fractured Primary Central Incisor: A Case with an 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ferrés-Amat, E.; Díaz-Martínez, C.; Herrera-Martínez, S.; Maura-Solivellas, I.; Ferrés-Padró, E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this unique case report is to describe a very unusual dentoalveolar fracture associated with avulsion of the near-complete root. A 3-year-old male patient came for consultation after a dentoalveolar trauma with a “fragment that looks like canine” found in his mouth by his mother. This boy suffered root fracture of the upper primary central right incisor, accompanied by transalveolar and transmuco-gingival avulsion of the tooth root fragment, leaving the crown in its position in the dental arch. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed in order to follow up the case: 15 days, one month, and three months after trauma, the crown had a slight mobility without other clinical or radiological signs. After six months, the upper primary central right incisor's crown was exfoliated. Open bite due to the persistence of the pacifier habit favored the crown retention in the mouth. This case emphasizes the importance of primary diagnosis and follow-up of trauma cases. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of dental injury has not been previously described in the literature nor in the current Dental Trauma guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition. PMID:25793129

  13. Unusual transalveolar and transmuco-gingival root avulsion of a fractured primary central incisor: a case with an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ferrés-Amat, E; Díaz-Martínez, C; Herrera-Martínez, S; Maura-Solivellas, I; Ferrés-Padró, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this unique case report is to describe a very unusual dentoalveolar fracture associated with avulsion of the near-complete root. A 3-year-old male patient came for consultation after a dentoalveolar trauma with a "fragment that looks like canine" found in his mouth by his mother. This boy suffered root fracture of the upper primary central right incisor, accompanied by transalveolar and transmuco-gingival avulsion of the tooth root fragment, leaving the crown in its position in the dental arch. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed in order to follow up the case: 15 days, one month, and three months after trauma, the crown had a slight mobility without other clinical or radiological signs. After six months, the upper primary central right incisor's crown was exfoliated. Open bite due to the persistence of the pacifier habit favored the crown retention in the mouth. This case emphasizes the importance of primary diagnosis and follow-up of trauma cases. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of dental injury has not been previously described in the literature nor in the current Dental Trauma guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition.

  14. Influence of ProTaper finishing files and sodium hypochlorite on cleaning and shaping of mandibuldar central incisors--a histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Baratto-Filho, Flares; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Zielak, João César; Vanni, José Roberto; Sayão-Maia, Sandra Maria Alves; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the last apical instrument of the ProTaper system with and without 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for cleaning mandibular central incisors. Thirty two mandibular central incisors were divided into six study groups: Group I--F1 instrument with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; Group II--F1 and F2 with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; Group III--F1, F2 and F3 with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; Group IV--F1 with distilled water; Group V--F1 and F2 with distilled water; Group VI--F1, F2 and F3 with distilled water. The two remaining teeth comprised the negative control group. The specimens were prepared following the principles of the technique suggested by the manufacturer and then submitted to histological preparation and morphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal Wallis test at 1% significance level. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between all study groups, except between Groups I and VI. It was concluded that no technique allowed complete cleaning of the root canals. However, the technique of finishing preparation of the apical third with the F3 instrument with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation was the most effective.

  15. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

    2003-06-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  16. Use of Cone-beam Computed Tomography during Retreatment of a 2-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor: Case Report of a Complex Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levin, Avi; Shemesh, Avi; Katzenell, Vered; Gottlieb, Ayelet; Ben Itzhak, Joe; Solomonov, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A double-rooted maxillary incisor is an extremely rare anatomic variation. Only a few case reports describe this abnormal anatomy. In recent decades, cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has become more common for endodontic purposes. This case report describes the retreatment of double-rooted maxillary central incisors using CBCT imaging. In 2012, a 20-year-old man was referred to our department because of asymptomatic periapical lesions in teeth #8, #9, and #10. During the evaluation of a periapical radiograph, a rare anatomic variation, in the form of an additional root of tooth #9, was detected, and it was impossible to decide about the source of the lesion between teeth #9 and #10. During retreatment, after gutta-percha removal, CBCT imaging was performed; this allowed proper treatment of the additional root and a final diagnosis of normal periapical tissue of tooth #10 with no treatment needed. The 18-month follow-up revealed a healing lesion in tooth #9 and normal periapical tissue in tooth #10. During the treatment of teeth with an anatomic variation, CBCT imaging can serve as an auxiliary tool for 3-dimensional evaluation that influences treatment steps and techniques. CBCT scanning can be very useful in assessing the actual location of a periapical lesion, which influences diagnosis and treatment planning. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Forces and moments delivered by the PET-G aligner to a maxillary central incisor for palatal tipping and intrusion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lixia; Wichelhaus, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of material thickness and width of the gingival edge on the forces and moments delivered by aligners prepared from Duran foil (PET-G) to a maxillary incisor during tipping and intrusion. Aligners prepared from PET-G of three material thicknesses (0.5, 0.625, and 0.75 mm) and three widths of gingival edges (0-1, 3-4, and 6-7 mm) were investigated during incisor palatal tipping and intrusion of 0.5 mm each. Forces and moments were measured with a six-component measuring device. The influence of aligner thickness and aligner extend on the force and moment development were tested for statistical significance (P < .05). The Fx and Fz forces produced during palatal tipping and intrusion by the 0.75-mm aligner material was significantly higher than those produced by the 0.5-mm-thick material (P = .005 and P = .047, respectively). There was no statistical difference between aligner thickness of 0.5 and 0.625 mm and between 0.625 and 0.75 mm. The same behavior was observed for the palatal moment (My). The Fx and Fz forces produced during palatal tipping and intrusion by the aligner with an extension of 0-1 mm edge was significantly lower than that of the aligner with a larger extension (3-4 mm edge: P = .003; 6-7 mm: P = .001). However, there was no statistical difference between aligners with a 3-4-mm and a 6-mm edge. The same behavior was observed for the palatal moment (My). The forces and moments exerted by the PET-G aligner on teeth vary, depending on the material thickness, width of the aligner edge, and direction of tooth movement.

  18. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  19. Relationship of central incisor implant placement to the ridge configuration anterior to the nasopalatine canal in dentate and partially edentulous individuals: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the ridge contour anterior to the nasopalatine canal, and the difference between the incidences of the nasopalatine canal perforation in dentate and partially edentulous patients by cone-beam computed tomography. Methods. Cone-beam computed tomography scan images from 72 patients were selected from database and divided into dentate and partially edentulous groups. The configuration of the ridge anterior to the canal including palatal concavity depth, palatal concavity height, palatal concavity angle, bone height coronal to the incisive foramen, and bone width anterior to the canal was measured. A virtual implant placement procedure was used, and the incidences of perforation were evaluated after implant placement in the cingulum position with the long axis along with the designed crown. Results. Comparing with variable values from dentate patients, the palatal concavity depth and angle were greater by 0.9 mm and 4°, and bone height was shorter by 1.1 mm in partially edentulous patients, respectively. Bone width in edentulous patients was narrower than in dentate patients by 1.2 mm at incisive foramen level and 0.9 mm at 8 mm subcrestal level, respectively. After 72 virtual cylindrical implants (4.1 × 12 mm) were placed, a total of 12 sites (16.7%) showed a perforation and three-fourths occurred in partially edentulous patients. After replacing with 72 tapered implants (4.3 × 13 mm), only 6 implants (8.3%) broke into the canal in the partially edentulous patient group. Conclusions. The nasopalatine canal may get close to the implant site and the bone width anterior to the canal decreases after the central incisor extraction. The incidence of nasopalatine canal perforation may occur more commonly during delayed implant placement in central incisor missing patients. PMID:26557434

  20. Complications following replantation of a primary incisor: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Al-Khayatt, A S; Davidson, L E

    2005-06-11

    The replantation of avulsed primary incisors is contra-indicated. This case describes an 8-year-old child who six years previously had avulsed and had replanted a primary central incisor. At presentation, this tooth was retained, the permanent successor had failed to erupt and appearance of the adjacent lateral incisor was notably delayed. Investigation revealed a radicular cyst in relation to the replanted deciduous incisor together with severe displacement of the permanent tooth, which could not be saved.

  1. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Rao, Murali H; Aluru, Srikanth C; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Bandlapalli, Anila; Patel, Nikunj

    2016-07-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect affecting teeth. High prevalence rates of MIH and its clinical implications are significant for both the patients and clinicians. A wide variation in defect prevalence (2.4-40.2%) is reported. It seems to differ with regions and various birth cohorts. Some of the recent prevalence studies are tabulated. Patient implications include hypersensitive teeth, rapid progression of caries, mastication impairment due to rapid attrition, and esthetic repercussions. Implications for clinicians include complexity in treatment planning and treatment implementation, poor prognosis of the restorations, difficulty in achieving pain control during treatment, and behavior management problems. Intention of this paper is to review the etio-pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical features, diagnostic features, and eventually present a sequential treatment approach, i.e., in accordance with current clinical practice guidelines.

  2. An unusual developmental disturbance of an unerupted permanent incisor due to trauma to its predecessor - a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Melek D; Tekçiçek, Meryem; Canoglu, Harun

    2006-10-01

    Developmental disturbances of unerupted permanent tooth result from trauma to primary tooth as there is a close proximity between the root of the primary tooth and its permanent successor. The damage to the unerupted permanent tooth occurs by the transmission of traumatic forces to the permanent tooth germ. In the present case, however, a developmental disturbance on the permanent maxillary central incisor resulting from a direct effect of the inversely intruded primary maxillary central incisor is presented. The intruded tooth was extracted under general anesthesia. Upon eruption of the permanent central incisor, a localized crown malformation along with enamel hypoplasia which was not classified as a developmental disturbance before was observed. The damaged sites were restored with a light-cured composite resin.

  3. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Ozel, Emre; Arukaslan, Goze; Tekce, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention. PMID:26962321

  4. [Incisors with a mind of their own].

    PubMed

    van Heumen, C M; Termeer, D; Oosterkamp, B C M; Meijer, G J

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old man, known to have hypodontia, was bothered by his over-erupted central incisors. After the placement of implants and the accompanying crown- and bridgework, the central incisors appear to be increasingly over-erupted. The history shows that this phenomenon has already been seen in the past. Three mechanisms can be responsible for the over-eruption, specifically: continuous facial growth, over-eruption of both central incisors in the maxilla as a consequence of agenesis of opposing dentition and relapse of the orthodontic treatment as a result of the fact that orthodontic retention is not readily possible. After the central incisors were first cut in such a way that an acceptable incisal line has again been formed, the single-unit fixed dental prostheses on the front elements were replaced with porcelain ones.

  5. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8.

  6. 78 FR 2685 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft environmental assessment for the East Hobble Creek Restoration Project is available for public review and comment. The assessment analyzes the anticipated environmental...

  7. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant to Central Michigan University to Monitor Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced that Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, has received a $10 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grant to monitor coastal wetlands around the Great Lakes basin over

  8. Comprehensive therapy of a fusion between a mandibular lateral incisor and supernumerary tooth: case report.

    PubMed

    Onçag, Ozant; Candan, Umit; Arikan, Fatih

    2005-08-01

    The term fusion is used to define a developmental anomaly characterised by the union of two adjacent teeth. In the case reported here, clinical and radiographic examinations suggested a unilateral fusion between the mandibular left permanent incisor and a super-numerary tooth. Radiographs showed that the fused teeth had two distinct pulp chambers and canals. A diagnosis of chronic periapical abscess of the supernumerary tooth was made. Before root canal therapy, a periodontal surgical procedure was performed to section the central incisor and its fused supernumerary. Also, odontoplasty was performed on the roots, to establish an anatomy consistent with a normal central incisor. Later, the chronic apical abscess on the supernumerary tooth was instrumented chemo-mechanically, root canal filling was performed and an anterior composite resin restoration was placed. The patient was evaluated for one year after root canal therapy. The tooth was asymptomatic, not exhibiting any pathological root resorption or alveolar resorption, and the anterior composite restoration was intact. Instead of extracting the supernumerary tooth, the application of endodontic, periodontal, and restorative procedures proved to be an alternative treatment.

  9. Conservative treatment for malaligned permanent mandibular incisors in the early mixed dentition.

    PubMed

    Gellin, M E

    1989-01-01

    When mandibular permanent incisors erupt lingually to the corresponding primary tooth, the lingually erupted permanent incisor should be allowed to correct itself. This self correction will usually occur by eight years of age. If the primary incisor is still present at eight years of age, it should be considered overretained. Extraction is indicated. No primary mandibular central incisors are indicated for extraction, when the mandibular permanent central incisors initially erupt malaligned. In addition, if there is an apparent lack of space for the unerupted mandibular lateral incisor after the permanent central incisors have erupted, wait for the permanent lateral incisor to erupt fully. This waiting period allows for maximum intercanine width to occur. Other factors can allow for further improvement of the malaligned mandibular permanent incisors.

  10. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Savitha, K. C.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  11. Treatment and restoration of adult dentoalveolar trauma: A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pastor, Blanca; Penarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Penarrocha-Diago, María; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén

    2016-12-01

    Adult dentoalveolar trauma most often occurs in the context of sports activities and traffic accidents. Coronal fractures are the most common type of lesion, followed by tooth luxation. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman who suffered alveolar bone damage and coronal fractures of the upper incisors, with extrusive luxation of the right central incisor, as the result of a fall. On the first visit, manual reduction of the buccal plate was carried out under local anesthesia, with repositioning of the right central incisor and splinting to the neighboring teeth. Composites were used to restore the coronal fractures. After one month, both upper central incisors and the right lateral incisor were subjected to endodontic treatment. Internal bleaching of the right lateral incisor was also carried out, due to pigmentation secondary to pulp necrosis. At follow-up 5 months later, the alveolar bone fracture was seen to have healed. Definitive anterior restorative treatment with porcelain veneers was therefore carried out. After two years the patient remains asymptomatic and in good dental condition. Key words:Dental trauma, extrusive luxation, dento-alveolar fracture, esthetic restoration.

  12. Treatment and restoration of adult dentoalveolar trauma: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Penarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Penarrocha-Diago, María; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Adult dentoalveolar trauma most often occurs in the context of sports activities and traffic accidents. Coronal fractures are the most common type of lesion, followed by tooth luxation. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman who suffered alveolar bone damage and coronal fractures of the upper incisors, with extrusive luxation of the right central incisor, as the result of a fall. On the first visit, manual reduction of the buccal plate was carried out under local anesthesia, with repositioning of the right central incisor and splinting to the neighboring teeth. Composites were used to restore the coronal fractures. After one month, both upper central incisors and the right lateral incisor were subjected to endodontic treatment. Internal bleaching of the right lateral incisor was also carried out, due to pigmentation secondary to pulp necrosis. At follow-up 5 months later, the alveolar bone fracture was seen to have healed. Definitive anterior restorative treatment with porcelain veneers was therefore carried out. After two years the patient remains asymptomatic and in good dental condition. Key words:Dental trauma, extrusive luxation, dento-alveolar fracture, esthetic restoration. PMID:27957283

  13. Retention of permanent incisors by mesiodens: a family affair.

    PubMed

    Gallas, M M; García, A

    2000-01-22

    The term mesiodens refers to a supernumerary tooth that is present in the midline of the maxilla between the two central incisors. One or two mesiodentes may be present. We present a rare case of two sisters, in both of whom a pair of mesiodentes caused the retention of permanent incisors. They were referred to our hospital with asymptomatic delayed eruption of upper incisors. This article is written to point out genetic factors as the possible origin of supernumerary teeth.

  14. Esthetic rehabilitation of maxillary incisors in conjunction with flapless surgical techniques, an implant zirconia crown, and porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Douglas H; Polack, Mariano A

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Esthetic replacement of a maxillary central incisor using a dental implant can be a challenging task. The hard and soft tissues must be managed in a way that minimizes the risk of tissue loss, while preserving and/or regenerating full interdental papillae. In order to achieve this, flapless surgical techniques have been developed. Advances in dental materials have led to the introduction of zirconia abutments and crowns that can be synergistically combined with other ceramic materials. This article describes a case in which a hopeless maxillary central incisor is replaced with an implant using flapless techniques, and restored with a customized zirconia abutment and crown. In addition, the remaining maxillary incisors were restored with feldspathic porcelain veneers to yield a highly esthetic result. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE This case demonstrates how a conservative multidisciplinary approach facilitates excellent results in an esthetically demanding area. Atraumatic surgical techniques can maintain the natural soft tissue architecture, while a detailed approach to provisional and final restorations allows for a highly esthetic smile. (J Esthet Restor Dent 21:294-303, 2009).

  15. Three-dimensional characterization of root morphology for maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    Ahlbrecht, Carly A.; Paniagua, Beatriz; Schilling, Juan A.; McNamara, James A.; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) surface models of maxillary incisors and to propose a characterization of root morphology. The sample was comprised of pre-treatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of fifty-five patients. The CBCTs were used to construct 3D surface models of the maxillary incisors. The reproducibility of surface models was tested by repeated construction of them by two observers. A 3D surface model that corresponded to the average of all lateral and all central incisors was generated. 3D surface distances and vector differences were calculated for each individual tooth and the average of the teeth considered. The corresponding points on the 3D surface mesh for each subgroup were compared statistically to those of the neutral subgroup using shape analysis MANCOVA and Hotelling’s t-statistic (p < 0.05). Repeated construction of surface models demonstrated adequate inter-rater reproducibility. The distribution of 3D models into root morphology subgroups was: blunt (11% and 26% of the central and lateral incisors, respectively), conical (15% of the central incisors), long (27% and 20% of the central and lateral incisors, respectively), and short (15% and 4% of the central and lateral incisors, respectively). Compared to the neutral average, statistically significant differences in root morphology were found for blunt, long, conical, and short central incisors and for blunt, long, and short lateral incisors. We can conclude that 3D surface models construction for upper incisors is reproducible. 3D shape analysis using CBCT images allows a phenotypic characterization of incisor root morphology. PMID:28594852

  16. Continuous and short fiber reinforced composite in root post-core system of severely damaged incisors.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2009-03-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the static load-bearing capacity of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with post-core complex made of experimental fiber composite resin (FC) and complete crown made of particulate filler composite (PFC). Further aim was to evaluate the effect of FC resin on the failure mode of the restoration. The experimental composite resin (FC) was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers (3 mm in length) and 22.5 wt% of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) resin with 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers. Thirty extracted sound upper central incisors were used. Twenty teeth were prepared by cutting the clinical crown 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction horizontally. Restorations were made by two techniques (n=10). Group A (control group) contained samples of sound incisor teeth. Group B had teeth restored using glass fiber post (everStick, Stick- Teck) and PFC (Filtek Z250, 3M-ESPE) to build up core and complete crown. In Group C, the teeth were restored with FC as post-core and complete crown of PFC. The root canals were prepared and posts were cemented with a dual cure resin cement. The restorations were polymerized with a hand-light curing unit. All restored teeth were stored in water at room temperature for 24 h before they were statically loaded with speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p=0.05). Failure modes were visually examined. ANOVA revealed that restored incisors (Group B and C) had a statistically significantly lower load-bearing capacity (p<0.05) than the control group. Restorations made from FC post-core and PFC coverage (Group C) gave force value of 363 N (112 SD), which was higher than the value of Group B (211 N, 50 SD). Within the limitations of this study, the teeth restored with experimental fiber composite post-core demonstrated higher load bearing capacity than those with fiber post and PFC core.

  17. Agroforestry for landscape restoration and livelihood development in Central Asia.

    Treesearch

    U. Djanibekov; Klara Dzhakypbekova; James Chamberlain; Horst Weyerhaeuser; Robert Zomer; G. Villamor; J. Xu

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how the adoption of agroforestry for ecosystem and livelihood improvement in Central Asian countries can be enhanced. First, it describes how previous and current developments lead to changing environmental conditions, and how these changing conditions consequently affected the welfare of people. Environmental issues on a global level, such as...

  18. Restored agricultural wetlands in Central Iowa: habitat quality and amphibian response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Rebecca A.; Pierce, Clay; Smalling, Kelly L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are declining throughout the United States and worldwide due, partly, to habitat loss. Conservation practices on the landscape restore wetlands to denitrify tile drainage effluent and restore ecosystem services. Understanding how water quality, hydroperiod, predation, and disease affect amphibians in restored wetlands is central to maintaining healthy amphibian populations in the region. We examined the quality of amphibian habitat in restored wetlands relative to reference wetlands by comparing species richness, developmental stress, and adult leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) survival probabilities to a suite of environmental metrics. Although measured habitat variables differed between restored and reference wetlands, differences appeared to have sub-lethal rather than lethal effects on resident amphibian populations. There were few differences in amphibian species richness and no difference in estimated survival probabilities between wetland types. Restored wetlands had more nitrate and alkaline pH, longer hydroperiods, and were deeper, whereas reference wetlands had more amphibian chytrid fungus zoospores in water samples and resident amphibians exhibited increased developmental stress. Restored and reference wetlands are both important components of the landscape in central Iowa and maintaining a complex of fish-free wetlands with a variety of hydroperiods will likely contribute to the persistence of amphibians in this landscape.

  19. Long-term Success of Nonvital, Immature Permanent Incisors Treated With a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Plug and Adhesive Restorations: A Case Series from a Private Endodontic Practice.

    PubMed

    Ree, Marga H; Schwartz, Richard S

    2017-08-01

    This case series evaluated the long-term clinical outcome of nonvital immature teeth treated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apical barrier and an adhesive restoration with or without a fiber post. Eighty-three teeth in 72 patients were treated by the first author with an apical MTA plug and an adhesive restoration of composite resin and in 45 of the 83 teeth 1 or more fiber posts. All of the patients had been referred to the first author's private endodontic practice with at least 1 immature tooth with signs of pulpal necrosis and subsequent apical periodontitis that had been caused by a variety of traumatic dental injuries. Three teeth presented had dens invaginatus. Of 83 teeth, 69 teeth in 60 patients were available for follow-up after 5 to 15 years (recall rate = 83%). The mean follow-up time was 8.29 years. No teeth were lost because of a root fracture. Ninety-six percent (66/69) of the recalled teeth were characterized as healed. Based on periapical radiographs and clinical examination, 96% of teeth treated with the MTA barrier technique and adhesive restorations were characterized as "healed" and were in function after 5 to 15 years (mean = 8.29 years). These results indicate that this is a viable and predictable treatment approach for the long-term success of nonvital immature teeth. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dental management of a talon cusp on a primary incisor.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Richard K; Chussid, Steven

    2007-01-01

    There are many treatment options for the pediatric patient with a talon cusp (TC). The purpose of this paper was to report the case of a TC involving a primary maxillary right central incisor in a 14-month-old male causing displacement of the affected tooth. The etiology of a TC is thought to be a disturbance during the morphodifferentiation stage of tooth development. Clinical problems include: (1) occlusal interferences; (2) esthetic disturbances; (3) accidental cusp fracture; (4) tongue irritation; (5) nursing difficulty; (6) caries; and (7) displacement of the affected tooth. The TC affecting the central incisor was reduced over a period of 4 visits, followed by immediate placement of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish at the conclusion of each reduction visit. Restoration of esthetics and function was evident within 1 month following complete cusp reduction. There were no clinical signs of any problems related to the reduction, and the prognosis was considered to be guarded. The pediatric patient was placed on a 6-month oral hygiene maintenance follow-up.

  1. Reattachment of fractured teeth fragments in mandibular incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Mohammed K

    2015-01-01

    The majority of dental trauma involves anterior teeth, especially the maxillary central incisors. A mandibular incisor fracture with or without pulp tissue involvement is considerably less common. Different approaches for treating these fractured teeth have been reported in the literature. The type of treatment rendered depends mainly on the extent of fracture, pulp involvement, radicular fracture, biologic width infringement or violation, and presence of the fractured piece. This case report illustrates reattachment of fractured fragments on two mandibular incisors without pulp exposure using a new proposed reattachment method using a combination of two different types of composite materials together with an orthodontic lingual retention wire. An 8-year-old female patient presented with fractured mandibular left incisors (Ellis class II fracture). Broken pieces were saved and brought in a closed container in water. Periapical radiographs revealed no evidence of pulpal involvement in either tooth and no periapical radiolucency was noticed. Fractured fragments and the broken teeth were prepared with circumferential bevels. Reattachment of the fractured fragments were done using two types of composite resin materials and a lingual orthodontic retention wire was also used. The patient was recalled after 8 months to follow up both teeth. Clinical examination revealed excellent composite restorations covering the fracture lines. PMID:25897267

  2. Die spacer thickness reproduction for central incisor crown fabrication with combined computer-aided design and 3D printing technology: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lisa N; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Cho, Seok-Hwan; Berzins, David W; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-05-01

    The inability to control die spacer thickness has been reported. However, little information is available on the congruency between the computer-aided design parameters for die spacer thickness and the actual printout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the die spacer thickness achieved by combining computer-aided design and 3-dimensional printing technology. An ivorine maxillary central incisor was prepared for a ceramic crown. The prepared tooth was duplicated by using polyvinyl siloxane duplicating silicone, and 80 die-stone models were produced from Type IV dental stone. The dies were randomly divided into 5 groups with assigned die spacer thicknesses of 25 μm, 45 μm, 65 μm, 85 μm, and 105 μm (n=16). The printed resin copings, obtained from a printer (ProJet DP 3000; 3D Systems), were cemented onto their respective die-stone models with self-adhesive resin cement and stored at room temperature until sectioning into halves in a buccolingual direction. The internal gap was measured at 5 defined locations per side of the sectioned die. Images of the printed resin coping/die-stone model internal gap dimensions were obtained with an inverted bright field metallurgical microscope at ×100 magnification. The acquired digital image was calibrated, and measurements were made using image analysis software. Mixed models (α=.05) were used to evaluate accuracy. A false discovery rate at 5% was used to adjust for multiple testing. Coefficient of variation was used to determine the precision for each group and was evaluated statistically with the Wald test (α=.05). The accuracy, expressed in terms of the mean differences between the prescribed die spacer thickness and the measured internal gap (standard deviation), was 50 μm (11) for the 25 μm group simulated die spacer thickness, 30 μm (10) for the 45 μm group, 15 μm (14) for the 65 μm group, 3 μm (23) for the 85 μm group, and -10 μm (32) for the 105 μm group. The

  3. The effect of incomplete crown ferrules on fracture resistance and failure modes of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with quartz fiber post, composite core, and crowns

    PubMed Central

    Muangamphan, Panorjit; Sattapan, Boonrat; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Thammasitboon, Kewalin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the fracture resistance of restored endodontically treated teeth (RETT) with fiber posts, cores, and crowns with limited ferrules. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically treated and decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, and then divided into 6 groups of 10 teeth each; Group circumferential ferrule (2FR), Group ferrule in the labial, mesial, and palatal region (2FR-LaMPa), Group ferrule in the labial, and palatal region (2FR-LaPa), Group 2FR-Pa and 2FR-La respectively, and Group 0FR (no ferrule). All 60 prepared teeth were then restored with quartz fiber posts, resin composite cores, and metal crowns. The specimens were subjected to load until failure occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The mode of failure was determined under a stereoscope. Results: A statistical significant difference was found among groups 2FR-LaMPa, 2FR-Pa, 2FR-LaPa, and 2FR from the group 2FR-La, and from the group 0FR (P < 0.01). The predominant mode of failure was an oblique palatal to labial root fracture for the groups with remaining ferrules. Conclusion: For RETT that have incomplete crown ferrules, the location of the ferrules may affect their fracture resistance. PMID:26069401

  4. Esthetic rehabilitation with tooth bleaching, enamel microabrasion, and direct adhesive restorations.

    PubMed

    Bezerra-Júnior, Douglas Machado; Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Martins, Leandro de Moura; Cohen-Carneiro, Flávia; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to report esthetic rehabilitation with combined tooth bleaching, enamel microabrasion, and anterior restoration replacement in a 26-year-old man. Clinical examination showed deficient restorations in the maxillary anterior teeth, significant discoloration of the maxillary left central incisor, and hypoplastic stains affecting the maxillary right lateral incisor. A radiograph of the left central incisor showed satisfactory endodontic treatment, allowing preparation for the walking bleach technique. For 3 weeks, 37% carbamide peroxide in the pulp chamber was renewed every week. In-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was also performed on the maxillary teeth. After 21 days, all teeth had been bleached to shade A1. After bleaching was completed, enamel microabrasion of the maxillary right lateral incisor was conducted with 6% hydrochloric acid. In later sessions, microhybrid composite resin restorations were placed in all 4 maxillary incisors. A combination of dental bleaching techniques, enamel microabrasion, and resin restorations was a successful and conservative choice for reestablishing the natural appearance of discolored teeth, improving the self-esteem of the patient.

  5. Forest products cluster development in central Arizona—implications for landscape-scale forest restoration

    Treesearch

    David. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, close to 50,000 ac of hazardous fuels have been mechanically treated in east-central Arizona as part of the USDA Forest Service's first 10-year stewardship project on national forest lands. The need for coordinated wood products and biomass utilization in Arizona is likely to increase as broad-scale restoration treatments across Arizona's national...

  6. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  7. Concomitant hypohyperdontia: simultaneous occurrence of a mesiodens and agenesis of a maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Segura, J J; Jiménez-Rubio, A

    1998-10-01

    A 13-year-old boy appeared for evaluation with a missing maxillary left lateral incisor. He also had an abnormally shaped tooth in the midline between his maxillary central incisors. This mesiodens had an incompletely developed root. The unusual association of these 2 anomalies is discussed as a possible transposition of the lateral incisor to the mesiodens position.

  8. Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) with congenital nasal puriform aperture stenosis: literature review and case report with comprehensive dental treatment and 14 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lygidakis, N N; Chatzidimitriou, K; Petrou, N; Lygidakis, N A

    2013-12-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome [SMMCI] is an extremely rare anomaly, especially when no other abnormalities are present. The defect is often found together with various nasal abnormalities and short stature with or without decreased levels of growth hormone. In more severe cases, SMMCI has been associated with holoprosencephaly, the CHARGE and the VACTERL association. Also, published sporadic cases have been related with rare variants of ectodermal dysplasia, chromosomal abnormalities, precocious puberty, hypothalamic hamartoma, congenital heart defects, physical/mental retardation, genital hypoplasia and ear abnormalities. For these reasons when the initial diagnosis is made by the paediatric dentist, ENT, neurological and paediatric evaluations are essential. A 4-year-old boy with SMMCI was referred for dental treatment. Clinical/radiographic examination revealed a symmetrical primary and permanent SMMCI, a skeletal Class I and a unilateral crossbite. Medical history indicated respiratory distress and surgery soon after birth due to congenital nasal puriform aperture stenosis. Gradual orthodontic treatment started at the age of 4 years and completed at the age of 13 years. Following maxillary expansion, upper lateral segments were moved backwards and anterior space was created for accommodating a second central incisor. Retainers with a supplementary acrylic incisor were provided for aesthetic and functional replacement until the age of 16 years, when a fixed Maryland ceramic bridge was placed. Two years recall, at the age of 18 years, revealed a satisfactory and stable aesthetic and functional result. Successful dental management of SMMCI patients is possible, following a detailed long-lasting treatment plan requiring multidisciplinary paediatric dental, orthodontic and prosthetic approach.

  9. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  10. Assessing the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Nahuelhual, Laura; Vásquez, Felipe; Echeverría, Cristian

    2012-04-30

    Investment in natural capital restoration is increasing as a response to the widespread ecological degradation of dryland forests. However, finding efficient mechanisms to promote restoration among private landowners is a significant challenge for policy makers with limited financial resources. Furthermore, few attempts have been made to evaluate the costs and benefits of restoration interventions even though this information is relevant to orient decision making. Hence, our goal was to estimate the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration by means of reforestation with native trees in a study area in central Chile. To determine benefits we applied a Contingent Valuation questionnaire that allowed for the calculation of willingness to pay measures. Restoration costs were calculated based on market prices following existing technical recommendations developed for the study area. The results showed that the restoration project had a negative NPV irrespective of the discount rate applied in the analysis. Thus, the NPV varied between -US$71,000 and -US$258,000. The NPV attained positive results only for negative discount rates (US$15,039 for -2%) and only when the national subsidy available for forest restoration was taken into account. This shows that landowners in Colliguay do not have incentives for carrying out restoration interventions due to a classic market failure: that in which ecosystems are mismanaged because many of their benefits are externalities from the perspective of landowners. Overall, these results stress the need for developing new compensation mechanisms and enhancing those in existence, with the aim of making restoration competitive with other land uses.

  11. Esthetic Reconstruction of Diastema with Adhesive Tooth-Colored Restorations and Hyaluronic Acid Fillers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This report presents a comprehensive esthetic treatment with adhesive tooth-colored restorations in a combination with hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers of diastema in an orthodontic patient with relapse. Case Report. A 36-year-old female patient consulted about 1.5–2 mm midline diastema after an orthodontic relapse of replacing missing central incisors with lateral incisors and dark-colored gingival tissue as a result of a metal post and core with porcelain fused to a metal (PFM) crown at the left lateral incisor. Restorative treatments included replacing the PFM with all-ceramic material and placing a ceramic veneer on the right lateral incisor. To close the space, crown forms of both lateral incisors were altered. A direct resin composite was then used to reform right and left canines to a more ideal lateral incisor shape. An HA fillers injection was used to fill the remaining open gingival embrasure. Eighteen months after treatment, the interdental papilla remained stable and the patient was satisfied with the result. Conclusion. Esthetic reconstruction of diastema and open gingival embrasure in this case can be accomplished without orthodontic retreatment. Tooth-colored restorations and HA filler injection appear as a promising modality to address this patient's esthetic concern. PMID:28386488

  12. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, H.

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  13. Management of impacted dilacerated maxillary incisor with strategic positioning of a straightwire appliance.

    PubMed

    Celli, D; Greco, A L; Sferra, S; Deli, R

    2015-09-01

    To describe the orthodontic management of root dilaceration of an impacted maxillary tooth following trauma to its deciduous predecessors, to show the clinical management of root dilaceration of a maxillary central incisor and describe how the dilacerated tooth was successfully moved into alignment in a young patient with a proper multidisciplinary approach, using the simple and effective straightwire technique. After surgical exposure and orthodontic traction, the impacted dilacerated tooth was brought to alignment in the arch. The patient's chewing and speech function, and aesthetics were restored. The radiograph shows that the root is finally straight and relatively well developed. This approach avoids extraction and prosthetic rehabilitation of the dilacerated tooth.

  14. A rare association of compound odontome with missing lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Nammalwar, Rangeeth Bollam; Moses, Joyson

    2014-01-01

    Odontomas are a common type of odontogenic tumor, usually asymptomatic and mostly detected on routine radiographic examination. An 11-years-old male child with the chief complaint of mobility of deciduous dentition in the upper front region was diagnosed with an odontome with an impacted central incisor, missing lateral incisor and retained deciduous incisors following radiographic analysis. Histopathology revealed a compound odontoma following a conservative enucleation. Odontomas associated with primary dentition, impacted teeth and erupting into oral cavity have been described, but the association with a missing lateral incisor makes this an interesting case report. How to cite this article: Nammalwar RB, Moses J. A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):50-53.

  15. Bonded composite resin crowns for primary incisors: technique update.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P

    1990-02-01

    A technique for restoration of carious primary maxillary incisors with a hybrid visible light-curing composite resin and a dentinal bonding agent is described. Careful use of this technique and the new materials can provide a restoration that is esthetic and resistant to fracture and displacement. The technique requires careful preparation of the operative field and precise handling of the restorative materials. The method is illustrated by the placement of bonded composite resin crowns in a 3-year-old boy.

  16. The effects of impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on permanent incisors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic features associated with impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth, to determine the relationship between their characteristics and their effects on permanent incisors, and to investigate the types of orthodontic treatment that patients received after the extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth. Materials and Methods The clinical records and radiographs of 193 patients whose impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth were removed were retrospectively reviewed, and 241 impacted supernumerary teeth were examined. Cone-beam computed tomographic images and panoramic radiographs were examined to determine the number, location, sagittal position, orientation, and morphology of the supernumerary teeth. Their effects on permanent incisors and the orthodontic treatment received by patients after the extraction of the supernumeraries were also investigated. Results Supernumerary teeth were most frequently observed in the central incisor region, in the palatal position, in the inverted orientation, and were most commonly conical in shape. The most common complication was median diastema, followed by displacement and delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 odontomas showed delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Displacement of the incisors was more frequently observed in association with supernumerary teeth with tuberculate or supplemental shapes. Orthodontic traction was most frequently performed after the removal of odontomas. In 32 cases (13.3%), permanent incisors erupted after the orthodontic creation of sufficient space. Conclusion Median diastema was most common complication. The delayed eruption of incisors was common in supernumerary teeth with a vertical orientation and an odontoma shape. PMID:28035303

  17. Treatment of severely mutilated incisors: a challenge to the pedodontist.

    PubMed

    Usha, M; Deepak, V; Venkat, S; Gargi, M

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease. In early childhood caries, there is early carious involvement and gross destruction of the maxillary anterior teeth. This leads to difficulty in speech, decreased masticatory efficiency, development of abnormal tongue habits and subsequent malocclusion and psychological problems if esthetics are compromised. The restoration of severely decayed primary incisors is often a difficult procedure that presents a special challenge to pediatric dentists. This case report documents the restoration of severely mutilated lateral incisors in a patient with early childhood caries.

  18. [Molar incisor hypomineralisation in the first permanent teeth].

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Mirjana; Zivojinović, Vesna; Sindolić, Mirjana; Marković, Dejan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to point out the prevalence of hypomineralised molars and incisors and emphasize importance of this condition in paediatric dentistry. This condition is defined as hypomineralisation of one or more first permanent molars frequently affecting incisors and referred to as molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). Aetiology of MIH has not been fully clarified and numerous aetiological factors have been cited. Hypomineralised molars are more prone to caries, cause severe restorative problems and are frequently extracted due to serious damage and caries complications. Incisors can present demarcated enamel opacities, while enamel breakdown is uncommon. Considering the fact that permanent first molars with severe defects demand complex treatment, they represent a serious problem for the patient as well as for the dentist.

  19. Use of glass fiber post and composite resin in restoration of a vertical fractured tooth.

    PubMed

    Fidel, Sandra Rivera; Sassone, Luciana; Alvares, Gustavo Ribeiro; Guimarães, Rodrigo Prada Sant'anna; Fidel, Rivail Antônio Sérgio

    2006-12-01

    Combined coronal and vertical root fractures are difficult to treat and extraction of the affected tooth is quite often indicated. In anterior teeth, esthetics and function must be reestablished immediately. This case describes the restoration of a fractured upper right central incisor using a glass fiber post and adhesive composite. At the follow-up appointment, 13 months later, clinical and radiographical examinations revealed the glass fiber post and restoration in place, suggesting the efficacy of the treatment in maintaining fractured tooth.

  20. [Postfire restoration of organic substance in the ground cover of the larch forests in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia].

    PubMed

    Prokushkin, S G; Bogdanov, V V; Prokushkin, A S; Tokareva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The role of ground fires in transformation of organic substances in the ground cover of larch stands in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia was studied, as was the postfire restoration dynamics of organic substances. Ground fires lead to a considerable decrease in concentrations and resources of organic carbon and its individual fractions in the ground cover, and restoration takes many decades.

  1. Surgical and orthodontic treatment of an impacted permanent incisor: case report.

    PubMed

    Kocadereli, Ilken; Turgut, Melek D

    2005-08-01

    This case report presented a combined surgical/orthodontic treatment of an impacted permanent incisor of a 10-year-old boy. Trauma to the primary dentition caused the impaction of the maxillary left permanent central incisor. Application of push coil spring between the adjacent teeth created space for the impacted tooth. A button with an extension of ligature wire was bonded to the maxillary left permanent central incisor to bring it into the arch. The maxillary left permanent central incisor was brought to its proper position after 16 months of active orthodontic treatment.

  2. Molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Erin

    2012-04-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a common condition in New Zealand children and children around the world and can result in a significant defect in first permanent molars. This condition inevitably leads to a large amount of dental treatment for young children and may even result in the removal of their first permanent molars. This lecture will outline the understanding of the physical properties of these teeth and provide an evidence based review of the treatment options for affected teeth.

  3. Developmental disturbance of maxillary lateral incisor after trauma.

    PubMed

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yolcu, Umit; Tozoglu, Ummuhan

    2007-04-01

    Traumatic injury to a primary tooth has a potential to damage the underlying permanent tooth germ. It may lead to developmental disturbance of permanent dentition. The impaction of the permanent maxillary central incisor because of the root dilaceration in children is rare. The purpose of this paper is to report a developmental disturbance of a permanent right maxillary lateral incisor in a 12-year-old girl with a history of trauma at an early age.

  4. Comparative evaluation of strength of various core restorative materials for endodontically treated anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabas, V K

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, four restorative materials were used for the restoration of endodontically treated anterior teeth and their strength were compared with that of natural teeth. 100 freshly extracted Maxillary Central Incisors were used. The teeth were restored with Pin-retained amalgam-core buildups, Dowel-post with Glass ionomer-Amalgam alloy combination Cast Core build up. The natural tooth showed the maximum strength. Though some of the restorative materials showed promising results, none of them is able to show strength anywhere near to that of natural tooth.

  5. Treatment of mandibular anterior crowding with incisor extraction using lingual orthodontics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Divya; Shetty, Sandeep; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Husain, Akhter

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman presented with a labially displaced mandibular right central incisor with severe attrition. Her maxillary dentition was well-aligned, and she had a straight profile. The respective central incisor was extracted. Subsequently, all teeth were aligned and the extraction space was closed with 2D lingual brackets. The result was esthetically pleasing.

  6. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure".

  7. Are endodontically treated incisors reliable abutments for zirconia-based fixed partial dentures in the esthetic zone?

    PubMed

    Tunjan, René; Rosentritt, Martin; Sterzenbach, Guido; Happe, Arndt; Frankenberger, Roland; Seemann, Rainer; Naumann, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This ex vivo pilot study tested the influence of defect extension and quartz-fiber post placement (QFP) on the ex vivo survival rate and fracture resistance of root-treated upper central incisors served as abutments for zirconia 2-unit cantilever fixed partial dentures (2U-FPDs) exposed to 10 years of simulated clinical function. Human maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated and divided into the following 5 groups (n = 8): (1) access cavity filled with core build-up composite, (2) biproximal class III cavities filled as in group 1, (3) specimens restored as in group 2 with QFP placed, (4) specimens decoronated and core buildup as in group 1, and (5) specimens restored as in group 4 but with QFP as in group 3. On all specimens, 2U-FPDs were placed with dual-curing resin cement. In order to simulate 10 years of clinical function, specimens were exposed to thermal cycling and mechanical loading with subsequent loading to failure. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and log-rank tests were performed. Fracture force and patterns were compared by means of Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U (post hoc), and Fisher exact tests, respectively (P = .05). For specimens only with an access cavity, it was observed that 25% had catastrophic tooth fractures and the lowest load-to-fracture values. In all other groups, chipping combined with or without debonding occurred. Groups did not differ significantly regarding the survival rate (P = .603) and fracture patterns (P = .633), but they did for fracture load including technical failures (P = .017). After 10 years of simulated clinical function, both defect extension and placement of QFP had no significant influence on survival of root-treated upper central incisors as abutments restored with zirconia-based 2U-FPDs. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Karine; Correia, Adriana de Sales Cunha; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2009-01-01

    Enamel defects are common alterations that can occur in both the primary or permanent dentition. A range of etiological factors related to this pathology can be found in the literature. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a kind of enamel defect alteration that requires complex treatment solutions, and for this reason, it is of great clinical interest for dental practice. This article describes the management of a clinical case of MIH in a 7-year-old child. The different treatment options depending on the extension of the defect, the degree of tooth eruption and the hygiene and diet habits of the patient are also discussed.

  9. Apexogenesis and revascularization treatment procedures for two traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman; Maghsoudlou, Amir

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic injuries to an immature permanent tooth may result in cessation of dentin deposition and root maturation. Endodontic treatment is often complicated in premature tooth with an uncertain prognosis. This article describes successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with complicated crown fracture three months after trauma. The radiographic examination showed immature roots in maxillary central incisors of a 9-year-old boy with a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the right central incisor. Apexogenesis was performed for the left central incisor and revascularization treatment was considered for the right one. In 18-month clinical and radiographic follow-up both teeth were asymptomatic, roots continued to develop, and periapical radiolucency of the right central incisor healed. Considering the root development of these contralateral teeth it can be concluded that revascularization is an appropriate treatment method in immature necrotic teeth.

  10. Apexogenesis and revascularization treatment procedures for two traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Maryam; Maghsoudlou, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to an immature permanent tooth may result in cessation of dentin deposition and root maturation. Endodontic treatment is often complicated in premature tooth with an uncertain prognosis. This article describes successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with complicated crown fracture three months after trauma. The radiographic examination showed immature roots in maxillary central incisors of a 9-year-old boy with a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the right central incisor. Apexogenesis was performed for the left central incisor and revascularization treatment was considered for the right one. In 18-month clinical and radiographic follow-up both teeth were asymptomatic, roots continued to develop, and periapical radiolucency of the right central incisor healed. Considering the root development of these contralateral teeth it can be concluded that revascularization is an appropriate treatment method in immature necrotic teeth. PMID:24010086

  11. Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

  12. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics.

  13. Community based ecological restoration of peatland in Central Mongolia for climate change mitigation and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Chultem, Dugarjav; Grootjans, Ab; Yamkhin, Jambaljav; Sirin, Andrey; Suvorov, Gennady; Batdorj, Oyunbileg; Tsamba, Batdorj

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands cover almost 2 % of Mongolia. They play crucial role in regulation of key natural processes in ecosystems and provide unique resources to maintain traditional way of life and livelihoods of herders. During the last decades, Mongolian peatlands severely degraded both due to the climate related events and due to overgrazing. The peat degradation causes significant losses of carbon store, GHG emissions and is followed by changes in water balance and water composition. The issue arises if such a type of ecosystems as peatlands could be a subject for ecosystem restoration in this arid and subhumid climate. Could it be considered as measure for climate change mitigation and adaptation? With funding opportunities from the Asian Development Bank a pilot project for peatland restoration had been launched in 2016 in Khashaat soum, Arkhangai aimag in Central Mongolia. The pilot aimed to merge local interests of herders with global targets of climate change mitigation. The following questions are addressed: what are the losses of natural functions and ecosystem services of peatland; what are expectations and demands of local communities and incentives for their involvement; how should and could look the target ecosystem; what are the technical solutions in order to achieve the target ecosystem characteristics; and what are the parameters for monitoring to assess the success of the project? The comprehensive baseline study addressed both natural and social aspects. The conclusions are: most of peat in the study area had been mineralised and has turned to organic rich soil with carbon content between 20 to 40 %, the key sources of water - small springs - are partly destroyed by cattle; the permafrost disappeared in this area and could not be the subject for restoration; local herders understand the value of peatland as water source and had carried out some voluntary activities for water storage and regulation such as dam construction; nevertheless there is no

  14. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  15. Relationship of Incisive Papilla to Maxillary Incisors and Canines.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Suraksha; Joshi, Sarita Pradhan; Yadav, Santosh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The study was carried to find a relationship between the postextraction stable landmark, the incisive papilla, and the most labial position of the maxillary central incisor teeth, which occurred in Nepalese population. Casts of the subjects selected by nonprobability random sampling meeting the inclusion criteria were obtained. Each casts were standardized with respect to the occlusal plane and a photographic technique was used to measure the distance from the tangent of the labial surface of the central incisors to the posterior border of the incisive papilla. The measurements were made using Adobe Photoshop and results were analyzed by using appropriate statistical methods. Most appropriate software (SPSS) for the purpose was used to generate all desired values. The data obtained suggested that the distance from the labial surface of maxillary central incisors to the posterior border of the incisive papilla ranged from 9 to 15.9 mm with a mean of 11.59 mm (SD 1.3). Various other results were also found after evaluation of the arch forms in relation to sex and race. Within the limitations of the study, these results suggested that there is a relationship between the maxillary central incisors and the incisive papilla aiding in the anteroposterior positioning of the anterior tooth. The clinical relevance of the study lies in application of the incisive papilla as a starting point in the preliminary location of maxillary incisors and canines during construction of the denture in absence of preextraction records.

  16. Molar incisor hypomineralization: review and recommendations for clinical management.

    PubMed

    William, Vanessa; Messer, Louise B; Burrow, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molars (FPMs) that are associated frequently with affected incisors. Etiological associations with systemic conditions or environmental insults during the child's first 3 years have been implicated. The complex care involved in treating affected children must address their behavior and anxiety, aiming to provide a durable restoration under pain-free conditions. The challenges include adequate anaesthesia, suitable cavity design, and choice of restorative materials. Restorations in hypomineralized molars appear to fail frequently; there is little evidence-based literature to facilitate clinical decisions on cavity design and material choice. A 6-step approach to management is described: (1) risk identification; (2) early diagnosis; (3) remineralization and desensitization; (4) prevention of caries and posteruption breakdown; (5) restorations and extractions; and (6) maintenance. The high prevalence of MIH indicates the need for research to clarify etiological factors and improve the durability of restorations in affected teeth. The purpose of this paper was to describe the diagnosis, prevalence, putative etiological factors, and features of hypomineralized enamel in molar incisor hypomineralization and to present a sequential approach to management.

  17. ["Molar-incisor hypomineralization"].

    PubMed

    Kellerhoff, Nadja-Marina; Lussi, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Hypocalcification of the enamel is the most common developmental disorder observed in teeth. The prevalence of this kind of hypomineralisation is about 10-19%. These molars are often referred to as cheese molars, because the lesions clinically resemble cheese in color and consistency. Other descriptions are: idiopathic enamel hypomineralisation in the permanent first molars, idiopathic enamel opacities in the permanent first molars, non fluoride enamel hypomineralisation in the permanent first molars, non-endemic mottling of enamel in the permanent first molars. Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation is today the proposed expression for this disease. Occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molar are most commonly affected. The lesions are more frequent in the upper jaw than in the lower jaw. The incisors are affected to a lesser degree than the molars. Several aetiological factors can cause these defects. Some studies show a relation between intake of dioxins via mother's milk after prolonged breast feeding and developmental defects of the child's teeth. Because the ameloblasts are very sensitive to oxygen supply, complications involving oxygen shortages during birth or respiratory diseases such as asthma or bronchitis and pneumonia are discussed as further aetiological factors. Renal insufficiency, hypoparothyroidism, diarrhoea, malabsorption and malnutrition and high-fever diseases can be other reasons for the occurrence of these defects. Defective enamel can be a locus of lowered resistance for caries. Histologically there are areas of porosity of varying degrees. The affected teeth can be very sensitive to air, cold, warm and mechanical stimuli. Toothbrushing may create toothache in these teeth. We therefore suggest that these patients receive intensified prevention with fluoride varnish, a fissure sealing, GIZ, composits, stainless steel crowns or implants. In some cases an interdisciplinary approach with an orthodontist can result in the extraction of the molars

  18. Release of suppressed red spruce using canopy gap creation—Ecological restoration in the Central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rentch, J.S.; Ford, William; Schuler, T.S.; Palmer, J.; Diggins, Corinne A.

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the results of an understory red spruce release experiment in hardwood-dominated stands that have a small component of understory red spruce. In 2005, 188 target spruce were identified in sample plots at six locations in central West Virginia. We projected a vertical cylinder above the crown of all target spruces, and in 2007, we performed a release treatment whereby overtopping hardwoods were treated with herbicide using a stem injection technique. Release treatments removed 0–10% (Control), 11–50% (Low), 51–89% (Medium), and ≤90% (High) of the basal area of overtopping trees. We also took canopy photographs at the time of each remeasurement in 2007, 2010, and 2013, and compared basal removal treatments and resulting 2010 canopy openness and understory light values. The high treatment level provided significantly greater six-year dbh and height growth than the other treatment levels. Based on these results, we propose that a tree-centered release approach utilizing small canopy gaps that emulate the historical, gap-phase disturbance regime provides a good strategy for red spruce restoration in hardwood forests where overstory spruce are virtually absent, and where red spruce is largely relegated to the understory.

  19. Pulp revascularization after repositioning of impacted incisor with a dilacerated root and a detached apex.

    PubMed

    Plakwicz, Paweł; Kapuścińska, Agnieszka; Kukuła, Krzysztof; Czochrowska, Ewa Monika

    2015-06-01

    Severely impacted and dilacerated incisors are rarely considered for surgical exposure because they may not respond favorably to orthodontic extrusion. These incisors are often extracted, resulting in the need for tooth replacement; however, prosthetic solutions are limited in growing patients. Transalveolar autotransplantation of an impacted incisor may be the only method to preserve the natural tooth and maintain the shape of the alveolus. The severely impacted upper central incisor (#9) with a developing root was diagnosed in a 9-year-old girl. The unfavorable tooth position and dilaceration of its root made orthodontic extrusion of the impacted incisor impossible. Initial orthodontic space opening at the recipient site was performed before the surgery. Transalveolar transplantation of the impacted incisor to its normal position was performed to avoid tooth extraction. The incisor was later aligned using fixed orthodontic appliances. At the 5-year follow-up, the transplanted incisor presented features that were typical of a revascularized tooth (ie, obliteration of root canal but a positive response to vitality tests). Healthy periodontal tissues and continued root development were also noted. However, the root apex, which separated from the transplant at the time of the surgery, continued formation in its initial position. Transalveolar transplantation of an unfavorably impacted upper central incisor with a dilacerated root is a successful treatment, which stands the test of time. The early stage of root development allowed revascularization of the tooth despite dilaceration of the root and detachment of its apex.

  20. Euglycemia restoration by central leptin in type 1 diabetes requires STAT3 signaling but not fast-acting neurotransmitter release

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Central leptin action is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. To examine the role of intracellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways, we used LepRs/s mice with disrupted...

  1. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  2. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  3. Orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors: a 3D finite element method study

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Armando Yukio; Maruo, Hiroshi; Argenta, Marco André; Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In orthodontic treatment, intrusion movement of maxillary incisors is often necessary. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to evaluate the initial distribution patterns and magnitude of compressive stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) in a simulation of orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors, considering the points of force application. Methods: Anatomic 3D models reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to simulate maxillary incisors intrusion loading. The points of force application selected were: centered between central incisors brackets (LOAD 1); bilaterally between the brackets of central and lateral incisors (LOAD 2); bilaterally distal to the brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 3); bilaterally 7 mm distal to the center of brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 4). Results and Conclusions: Stress concentrated at the PDL apex region, irrespective of the point of orthodontic force application. The four load models showed distinct contour plots and compressive stress values over the midsagittal reference line. The contour plots of central and lateral incisors were not similar in the same load model. LOAD 3 resulted in more balanced compressive stress distribution. PMID:27007765

  4. Weak central coherence in weight-restored adolescent anorexia nervosa: Characteristics and remediation.

    PubMed

    Weinbach, Noam; Perry, Amit; Sher, Helene; Lock, James D; Henik, Avishai

    2017-08-01

    Weak central coherence (WCC) refers to a bias towards processing details (local processing) at the expense of paying attention to the bigger picture (global processing). Multiple studies reported WCC in adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Evidence for WCC in adolescents with AN has been inconsistent. The current study characterizes WCC in weight-restored adolescents with AN (WR-AN) using a direct measure of WCC, and examines whether WCC can be remediated by increasing alertness level-a manipulation that was found useful in enhancing global processing in healthy individuals and clinical populations. 40 adolescents (18 WR-AN and 22 healthy adolescents) performed a global/local processing task (Navon task). Auditory alerting cues that elevate alertness level were integrated into the task. Both groups processed global information faster than local information. However, compared with controls, adolescents with WR-AN were better at ignoring an irrelevant bigger picture while attending to details (smaller global interference) and had greater difficulty ignoring irrelevant details while attending to the bigger picture (larger local interference). These differences were attenuated when adolescents with WR-AN were under a state of high alertness. Additionally, the local interference effect was positively correlated with three independent self-report questionnaires assessing eating disorders symptomatology. This study suggests that abnormal interference by irrelevant global and local information is a central characteristic of WCC in adolescents with WR-AN that cannot be accounted for by enduring illness or malnourishment. Additionally, this study demonstrates that WCC can be temporarily remediated by encouraging a state of high alertness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Different manifestations of class II division 2 incisor retroclination and their association with dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro Mariano; Ferreira, Afonso Pinhão; Tavares, Purificação; Braga, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether there is an association between dental developmental anomalies (DDAs) and different manifestations of class II division 2 (CII/2) malocclusion incisor retroclination. Retrospective comparative study. Private orthodontic practice in the regions of Lisbon and Porto, Portugal. The sample comprised 115 CII/2 malocclusions distributed into two groups on the basis of incisor retroclination: Group I composed of 48 CII/2 with retroclination exclusively of both maxillary central incisors; Group II composed of 67 CII/2 with retroclination of all four maxillary incisors. Using the initial orthodontic records, it was determined for each patient the presence of the following DDAs: tooth impaction, tooth agenesis, maxillary lateral incisor microdontia, tooth transpositions and supernumerary teeth. Fifty-five per cent of patients were diagnosed with at least one of the DDAs studied. In the total sample the prevalence rates were: 20.0% of palatal maxillary canine impaction, 27.4% of third molar agenesis, and 15.7% of maxillary lateral incisor microdontia. No patient exhibited any transposition or supernumerary teeth. The distribution of the DDAs studied by groups revealed a strong association of palatal canine impaction, tooth agenesis and maxillary lateral incisor microdontia with Group II but not with Group I. The association of DDAs with CII/2 malocclusion is not common to all types of maxillary incisor retroclination, suggesting different etiologic factors among the different manifestations of CII/2 incisor retroclination.

  6. Biological Restoration of a Fractured Anterior Tooth with the Use of Dentine Pin (Biopins)

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lilian Capanema; Tavano, Karine Taís Aguiar; Ferraz, Nayara Kelly Lyrio; Glória, José Cristiano Ramos; Botelho, Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    This case study describes the esthetic and functional reconstruction of a fractured maxillary central incisor. Due to the requirement for additional retention, treatment was performed using the homogenous technique of biological restoration associated with cementation of posts made from human dentin (biopins). This type of treatment is a new alternative to conventional techniques and favors the dental esthetic and function, as well as biocompatibility, and is an inexpensive procedure. PMID:26779352

  7. Tongue granulomatous lesion caused by mandibular primary incisors eruption.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Luciana Tiemi; Sullcahuamán, Judith Angelica Gonzales; Hernandez Lara, Sandra Marisol; Dezan, Cássia Cilene; Walter, Luiz Reynaldo De Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report was to present a case of granulomatous lesion on the ventral surface of the tongue in a 9-month-old, healthy, infant girl, caused by the habit of scraping the tongue on mandibular central incisors. Clinical treatment consisted of manual smoothing of the sharp edges of both incisors and excision of the 2-cm pediculate ulcerative granulomatous mass localized on the ventral surface of the tongue. After 3 weeks, the child could be properly fed and a complete healing of the lesion was observed.

  8. Incisor-molar relationships in chimpanzees and other hominoids: implications for diet and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Pickford, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In chimpanzees, the cutting edge of the incisor battery is longer in relation to the length of the molar row than in any other hominoid, extant or fossil, the only other lineage approaching it being the orangutan. Apart from their increased mesio-distal dimensions, the upper and lower incisors of chimpanzees differ in additional ways from those of almost all other hominoids. The I2/ is enlarged, so that the difference in size between it and the central upper incisor is less than it is in the heteromorphic upper incisors of other hominoids. The lower incisors are expanded mesio-distally, so much so that isolated I/2 crowns can resemble upper central incisors. In chimpanzees the lingual surface of the lower incisors is generally more procumbent than it is in other hominoids, which have more vertically oriented incisor crowns and there is a greater difference in enamel thickness between labial and lingual sides. The re-orientation of the lower incisor crown is reflected in the root, which in lateral view is anteriorly concave in chimpanzees whereas it is more orthogonal or convex in other hominoids. The molars of chimpanzees, especially the lowers, have extensive and relatively deep occlusal basins, and the main cusps are peripheralised and labio-lingually compressed, making them more trenchant than those of other hominoids. This paper examines the incisor-lower molar proportions in extinct and living hominoids and develops a new hypothesis about the evolution of the dentition of chimpanzees and links it to their diet. It also examines the incisor-molar proportions of hominids and African apes in order to throw light on the phylogenetic relationships between them. It is shown that chimpanzees are highly derived in this respect and that several recent ideas concerning the chimp-like appearance of the last common ancestor of hominids and African apes are likely to be incorrect.

  9. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Parisa; Gerami, Alayar; Najafi, Amirhosein; Torkan, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth. PMID:26636119

  10. Development of odontoma-like malformation in the permanent dentition caused by intrusion of primary incisor--a case report.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Ilanit; Peretz, Benny; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2008-06-01

    A case is presented of a 10-year-old girl, referred for consultation for failure of the maxillary central incisor to erupt. At 18 months, the patient underwent intrusion of the right central primary incisor, which re-erupted several months later. Radiographic examination revealed a complex odontoma-like malformation located next to the floor of the nose, away from the permanent incisors. Clinical examination revealed space loss of the corresponding permanent incisor and severe hypoplasia of the permanent right lateral incisor. Because of its deep location, it was decided not to remove the odontoma, but to recommend yearly radiographic follow up to rule out the development of a dentigerous cyst. This case describes a very rare complication of intrusion of primary incisors and emphasizes the importance of follow up until eruption of the corresponding permanent teeth.

  11. Central and peripheral effects of chronic food restriction and weight restoration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kinzig, Kimberly P; Hargrave, Sara L; Tao, Erin E

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that some endocrine consequences of long-term caloric restriction persist after weight restoration in human subjects. Here we evaluate effects of chronic food restriction in rats that were restricted to 70% of control kcal for 4 wk and subsequently weight restored. Measures were taken from rats at 80% (chronically restricted; CR), 90% (partially weight restored; PR), 100% (fully weight restored; FR), and after 4 wk at 100% body weight of controls (extended weight restored; ER). Plasma insulin and leptin were decreased, and ghrelin was increased in CR compared with controls. Leptin and ghrelin normalized with weight restoration at PR, FR, and ER; however, baseline insulin was not normalized until the ER state. Hypothalamic mRNA expression levels for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) revealed significantly less POMC mRNA expression in CR and PR rats, and significantly less arcuate NPY mRNA in PR and FR. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus, CR, PR, and FR rats had significantly increased NPY expression that was not normalized until the ER state. In response to a test meal, insulin and ghrelin release patterns were altered through the FR stage, and ghrelin remained affected at ER. Collectively, these data demonstrate that mere weight restoration is not sufficient to normalize hypothalamic gene expression levels and endocrine responses to a meal, and that meal-related ghrelin responses persist despite weight restoration for up to 4 wk.

  12. Hybrid centralized pre-computing/local distributed optimization of shared disjoint-backup path approach to GMPLS optical mesh network intelligent restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qian; Xu, Rong; Lin, Jintong

    2004-04-01

    Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) networks that route optical connections using intelligent optical cross-connects (OXCs) is firmly established as the core constituent of next generation networks. Rapid failure recovery is fundamental to building reliable transport networks. Mesh restoration promises cost effective failure recovery compared with legacy ring networks, and is now seeing large-scale deployment. Many carriers are migrating away from SONET ring restoration for their core transport networks and replacing it with mesh restoration through "intelligent" O-E-O cross-connects (XC). The mesh restoration is typically provided via two fiber-disjoint paths: a service path and a restoration path. this scheme can restore any single link failure or node failure. And by used shared mesh restoration, although every service route is assigned a restoration route, no dedicated capacity needs to be reserved for the restoration route, resulting in capacity savings. The restoration approach we propose is Centralized Pre-computing, Local Distributed Optimization, and Shared Disjoint-backup Path. This approach combines the merits of centralized and distributed solutions. It avoids the scalability issues of centralized solutions by using a distributed control plane for disjoint service path computation and restoration path provisioning. Moreover, if the service routes of two demands are disjoint, no single failure will affect both demands simultaneously. This means that the restoration routes of these two demands can share link capacities, because these two routes will not be activated at the same time. So we can say, this restoration capacity sharing approach achieves low restoration capacity and fast restoration speed, while requiring few control plane changes.

  13. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California’s Central Valley

    PubMed Central

    Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006–2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the “existing” landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  14. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Matchett, Elliott L; Fleskes, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  15. Projected impacts of climate, urbanization, water management, and wetland restoration on waterbird habitat in California’s Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006–2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the “existing” landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  16. Surgical removal of supernumerary teeth and the fate of incisor eruption.

    PubMed

    Foley, J

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the fate of unerupted permanent maxillary incisor teeth following supernumerary tooth removal and secondly to make recommendations regarding the management of such incisor teeth following supernumerary tooth extraction. This is a retrospective study. Records of children attending the Departments of Paediatric Dentistry, Edinburgh Dental Institute, Lothian Primary Care NHS Trust and Dundee Dental Hospital, Tayside University Hospitals Trust between 1995 and 2002 were examined with regard to non-eruption of one or both maxillary central incisors in association with supernumerary teeth requiring surgical removal. Subsequent permanent maxillary incisor eruption was recorded and in those cases of incisor non-eruption, further surgical interventions were noted. In all 118 sets of patient records were included in the study (87 males, 31 females) with a mean age at presentation of 8.8 years (range 5.3-11.6 years). Failure of eruption of the associated permanent maxillary central incisor teeth occurred in 27% of cases, in relation to both conical and tuberculate supernumerary teeth. All tuberculate supernumerary teeth associated with non-eruption cases were palatally placed and 59% were adjacent to maxillary incisors with near complete apex formation. To facilitate incisor eruption in these cases, 41% required surgical exposure of the non-erupted incisor tooth and 59% required surgical exposure with bonding of an orthodontic bracket and gold chain for orthodontic traction. Non-erupted permanent maxillary incisor teeth with near complete apical formation, associated with palatally placed, tuberculate-shaped supernumerary teeth, may benefit from having an orthodontic bracket and gold chain placed at the same time as the surgical procedure to remove the supernumerary tooth to facilitate future orthodontic traction.

  17. Pulpotomy versus pulpectomy for carious vital primary incisors: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Howley, Brega; Seale, N Sue; McWhorter, Alton G; Kerins, Carolyn; Boozer, Kent B; Lindsey, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, split-mouth investigation was to compare the success rates of formocresol pulpotomies (FC) and Vitapex(®) pulpectomies (RCT) in asymptomatic carious vital primary incisors. Matched contralateral pairs of asymptomatic, carious, vital primary incisors were randomized to receive FC or RCT by 2 standardized operators and restored with stainless steel crowns. Seventy-four incisors were followed clinically and radiographically for up to 23 months. Two standardized examiners evaluated radiographic findings using separate pulpotomy and pulpectomy scales (modified Zurn/Seale). Incisors present at each interval (5-9, 10-14, and 15-23 months) showed no clinical failures. One FC incisor was lost early and counted as a failure. Though not significantly different, there were higher numbers of successful radiographic outcomes for FC than RCT at each observation interval. Cumulative final radiographic success was 89% (n=33) for FC and 73% (n=27) for RCT. (P=.11). Anecdotal claims that pulpotomies are unsuccessful in primary incisors are unfounded. There was no significant difference in success rates of pulpotomies and pulpectomies in the pulp treatment of asymptomatic vital primary incisors. Intracanal resorption of Vitapex(®) was seen in all pulpectomy teeth and did not affect pulpectomy outcome.

  18. Enamel hypoplasia: challenges of esthetic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Araújo, Élito; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2016-01-01

    Enamel defects, such as white or yellow-brown spots, usually cause problems that are more esthetic than functional. Enamel hypoplasia may be the result of hereditary, systemic, or local factors. Dental trauma is a local etiologic factor. It is relatively common in the primary dentition and can cause defects on the surface of permanent successors. Treatment for such defects can differ, depending on the depth of the spots. For deeper white-spot lesions, a composite resin restoration may be necessary. This is an excellent mode of treatment, due to both its low cost and its conservation of healthy tooth structure. The objective of this case report is to describe composite resin restoration of a maxillary central incisor affected by enamel hypoplasia.

  19. Changes in microbial activity of soils during the natural restoration of abandoned lands in central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, Lilit; Mostovaya, Anna; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Most changes in land use affect significantly the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) and alter the nutrition status of soil microbial community. The arable lands withdrawal induced usually the carbon sequestration in soil, the significant shifts in quality of soil organic matter and structure of microbial community. This study was aimed to determine the microbial activity of the abandoned lands in Central Russia due to the process of natural self-restoration. For the study, two representative chronosequences were selected in Central Russia: (1) deciduous forest area, DFA (Moscow region, 54o49N'; 37o34'E; Haplic Luvisols) and (2) forest steppe area, FSA (Belgorod region 50o36'N, 36o01'E Luvic Phaeozems). Each chronosequence included current arable, abandoned lands of different age, and forest plots. The total soil organic carbon (Corg, automatic CHNS analyzer), carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic, SIR method), and respiratory activity (RA) were determined in the topsoil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers) for each plots. Relationships between Corg, Cmic, and RA were determined by liner regression method. Our results showed that the conversion of croplands to the permanent forest induced the progressive accumulation Corg, Cmic and acceleration of RA in the top 10-cm layer for both chronosequences. Carbon stock increased from 24.1 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 45.3 Mg C ha-1 in forest soil (Luvic Phaeozems, Belgorod region). In Haplic Luvisols (Moscow region), SOC build up was 2 time less: from 13.5 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 27.9 Mg C ha-1 in secondary forest. During post-agrogenic evolution, Cmic also increased significantly: from 0.34 to 1.43 g C kg-1 soil in Belgorod region and from 0.34 to 0.64 g C kg-1 soil in Moscow region. RA values varied widely in soils studied: from 0.54-0.63 mg C kg-1h-1 in arable plots to 2.02-3.4 mg C kg-1h-1 in forest ones. The close correlations between Cmic, RA and Corg in the top 0-5cm layer (R2 = 0.81-0.90; P<0.01-0.05) were

  20. Mandibular incisor apicoectomy in a Canadian Beaver.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Gerhard; Venter, Leon; Crossley, David; Buss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A 52-month-old Canadian beaver was presented for treatment of lip trauma resulting from overgrowth of the right mandibular incisor tooth following earlier loss of the right maxillary incisor tooth. Extraction of the affected tooth was considered, but rejected due to the length of the embedded portion of rodent mandibular incisor teeth. The lip injury was managed by crown reduction (odontoplasty) of the overgrowing incisor tooth pending a more permanent treatment plan. A 2-cm apicoectomy of the right mandibular incisor tooth was performed to arrest growth of the tooth when the beaver was 82-months-old. The remainder of the tooth continued to erupt and was completely expelled during a 9-month period with one additional odontoplasty being required. The beaver continued to feed normally with just the left maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth until its death at 118-months, with odontoplasty performed twice on the remaining incisor teeth during the 30-months following exfoliation.

  1. Aesthetic restoration of deciduous anterior teeth after removal of carious tissue with Papacárie.

    PubMed

    Motta, Lara J; Martins, Manoela D; Porta, Kristianne P; Bussadori, Sandra K

    2009-01-01

    The development of conservative techniques for the removal of carious tissue and the improvement of dental restoration materials allow better preservation of the dental structure. Chemomechanical caries removal is a conservative and atraumatic alternative. Papacárie is a papain-based material developed to act only on the carious dentin, allowing its easy removal with a blunt curette. This study aims to present a clinical case of aesthetic restoration of both upper deciduous central incisors after the removal of carious tissue with Papacárie.

  2. Restoration of the depression structure at the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan by means of dislocation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Takemura, Keiji; Fukuda, Yoichi; Takemoto, Shuzo

    1999-02-01

    We have attempted to restore a subsurface structure in the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan, by combining fault motions which were modeled as dislocation planes embedded in an elastic isotropic half space. The simulated crustal deformation pattern was compared with the subsurface structures estimated from gravity anomalies and/or seismic prospecting. The modeling procedure successfully restored all tectonic basins in the area without any need for motive forces for uplift or subsidence. The results also suggest that two major tectonic events have occurred in this region. Those are (1) the formation of half-graben caused by north-south extension, and (2) the formation of the pull-apart basin caused by east-west compression.

  3. Multidisciplinary treatment of a subgingivally fractured tooth with indirect composite restoration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ayca T; Tunc, Emine Sen; Cil, Feride; Isci, Devrim; Lutfioglu, Muge

    2012-01-01

    In pediatric patients, anterior teeth with fractures that extend subgingivally require a complex treatment plan that addresses biologic, esthetic, and functional factors, such as mastication and speech. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe a technique using indirect composite restoration to restore a subgingivally fractured permanent maxillary right central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. Due to the complex nature of the treatment, a multidisciplinary approach was used to restore the tooth. The crown fragment was removed, and endodontic treatment was performed. The tooth was then extruded orthodontically. A glass fiber post was placed to improve retention, and an indirect composite restoration was placed. A clinical and radiographic evaluation at a follow-up appointment 1 year later confirmed that the technique used in this case can be a good option for restoring anterior teeth with subgingival fractures.

  4. Impacted permanent incisors associated with compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cintia de Vasconcellos; Knop, Luégya Amorin Henriques; da Rocha, Maria Celina Barreiros Siquara; Telles, Paloma Dias da Silva

    2015-01-12

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours of the maxillary bones, characterised by a slow growth and benign behaviour. They are usually small, asymptomatic and diagnosed after routine radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to report a case of a compound odontoma in the anterior maxilla of a 7-year-old girl, which was causing the impaction of the maxillary right central and lateral incisors, as well as the prolonged retention of the corresponding primary teeth. We also aimed to review the literature about these tumours, since they are not part of the dentist's day-to-day clinical practice. The clinical and radiographic features, the diagnosis and treatment of the case were discussed in this work.

  5. Overjet and overbite analysis during the eruption of the upper permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Cuoghi, Osmar A; Sella, Rodrigo C; Mamede, Igo; de Macedo, Fernanda A; Miranda-Zamalloa, Yésselin M; de Mendonça, Marcos R

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the overjet and overbite behavior during eruption of the upper permanent incisors. Fourth-eight plaster casts of 16 patients from ages 6-13 years were appraised longitudinally. It was found that the overjet remains constant, starting at the eruption of the upper permanent central incisors until eruption of the upper permanent canine teeth, while the overbite increases after eruption of the upper permanent lateral incisors and remains constant with the eruption of the canine teeth.

  6. Endodontic Treatment of Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Aydemir, Seda

    2012-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors, and premolars. This paper describes the root canal treatment of Oehlers' type II dens invaginatus in maxillary left lateral incisors. A 16-year-old boy presented to the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Kocaeli, to receive his dental treatments. During the caries removal, the pulp was exposed then anendodontic treatment was initiated. Two canals, one of which represented the invagination, were instrumented, irrigated, and then obturated with a lateral condensation technique. PMID:23213576

  7. Mandibular incisor extraction treatment in Angle's Class I malocclusion with peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ankit H; Shah, Darshit H

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning are essential for obtaining ideal treatment result in cases involving mandibular incisor extraction. This case report describes a 15-year-old female with balanced soft-tissue profile, peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors, and moderate mandibular anterior crowding treated with a mandibular incisor extraction. Ideal overbite and overjet were achieved. “Black triangle” formation was avoided due to the bodily movement of mandibular incisors and the use of uprighting springs for ideal axial inclination of mandibular incisors. A mandibular incisor extraction can be an effective treatment option in carefully selected clinical situations. PMID:27556022

  8. Responses to riparian restoration in the Spring Creek watershed, Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, R.F.; Walsh, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Riparian treatments, consisting of 3- to 4-m buffer strips, stream bank stabilization, and rock-lined stream crossings, were installed in two streams with livestock grazing to reduce sediment loading and stream bank erosion. Cedar Run and Slab Cabin Run, the treatment streams, and Spring Creek, an adjacent reference stream without riparian grazing, were monitored prior to (1991-1992) and 3-5 years after (2001-2003) riparian buffer installation to assess channel morphology, stream substrate composition, suspended sediments, and macroinvertebrate communities. Few changes were found in channel widths and depths, but channel-structuring flow events were rare in the drought period after restoration. Stream bank vegetation increased from 50% or less to 100% in nearly all formerly grazed riparian buffers. The proportion of fine sediments in stream substrates decreased in Cedar Run but not in Slab Cabin Run. After riparian treatments, suspended sediments during base flow and storm flow decreased 47-87% in both streams. Macroinvertebrate diversity did not improve after restoration in either treated stream. Relative to Spring Creek, macroinvertebrate densities increased in both treated streams by the end of the posttreatment sampling period. Despite drought conditions that may have altered physical and biological effects of riparian treatments, goals of the riparian restoration to minimize erosion and sedimentation were met. A relatively narrow grass buffer along 2.4 km of each stream was effective in improving water quality, stream substrates, and some biological metrics. ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  9. Seeing the bigger picture: multi-partner spruce restoration in the central and southern Appalachian mountains

    Treesearch

    Jack Tribble; Thomas Minney; Catherine Johnson; Ken. Sturm

    2010-01-01

    Habitat-based ecosystem partnerships are necessary for implementing strategic forest restoration plans. Overwhelming environmental threats such as climate change and invasive pests and pathogens could have traumatic and devastating effects to our native forests. Additionally, past land-use history has left existing forests isolated, fragmented and in some cases...

  10. Using SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics in assessment, monitoring and proposing environmental restoration tools in central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Hennekens, Stephan; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Thomas, Jacob; Schaminee, Joop; El-Keblawy, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Successful restoration of degraded habitats requires information about the history and factors led to the deterioration of these habitats. This study analyzed SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics, which is a big phytosociological database about plant communities and other environmental factors affecting them in the Najd-Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A phytosociological survey with more than 3000 vegetation relevés was conducted during 2013. The data were used to correlate the plant community attributes, such as abundance and species diversity in natural and ruderal habitats with environmental factors, such as human impacts, soil physical and chemical properties, and land uses. The data were subjected to multivariate analyses using programs, such as TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA, via Juice package. Fourteen vegetation associations were described under provisional classification of the Central Saudi Arabia deserts. These associations were broadly grouped into desert vegetation types. One alliance group, Haloxylonion salicornici, is the most widespread and contains four associations on the wadis and desert plains. Three associations are dominant on the depression habitats (raudhas) and two associations of Tamarixidetum spp. on the wetland and salt pan habitats. Four associations inhabit the man-made habitat and abandoned field habitats and one association, the Neurado procumbentis-Heliotropietum digyni, dominates the overgrazed sandy dunes. As human impact is huge and increasing, the vegetation ecoinformatics of the present study would form a baseline description that could be used as a vital tool for future monitoring and for proposing environmental restoration processes in central Saudi Arabia. It could also help both Governmental and Non-governmental organizations (NGO) in formulating strategies and on-ground plans for protection, management and restoration of the natural vegetation.

  11. Genetic covariance structure of incisor crown size in twins.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, P J; Townsend, G C; Martin, N G; Neale, M C

    1995-07-01

    Previous studies of tooth size in twins and their families have suggested a high degree of genetic control, although there have been difficulties separating the various genetic and environmental effects. A genetic analysis of variation in crown size of the permanent incisors of South Australian twins was carried out, with structural equation modeling used to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Maximum mesiodistal crown dimensions of maxillary and mandibular permanent incisors were recorded from dental models of 298 pairs of twins, including 149 monozygous (MZ) and 149 dizygous (DZ) pairs. The analysis revealed that: (i) an adequate fit required additive genetic and unique environmental components; (ii) augmenting the model with non-additive genetic variation did not lead to a significant improvement in fit; (iii) there was evidence of shared environmental influences in the upper central incisors of males; (iv) the additive genetic component constituted a general factor loading on all eight teeth, with group factors loading on antimeric pairs of teeth; (v) unique environmental effects were mostly variable-specific; (vi) most factor loadings on antimeric tooth pairs could be constrained to be equal, indicating a symmetry of genetic and environmental influences between left and right sides; and (vii) estimated heritability of the incisor mesiodistal dimensions varied from 0.81 to 0.91.

  12. Lower molar and incisor displacement associated with mandibular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Bravo, L A; Ben-Bassat, Y; Curry, S; Korn, E L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of alveolar modeling at the apices of the mandibular incisor and first molar specifically associated with appositional and resorptive changes on the lower border of the mandible during growth and treatment. Cephalometric data from superimpositions on anterior cranial base, mandibular implants of the Björk type, and anatomical "best fit" of mandibular border structures were integrated using a recently developed strategy, which is described. Data were available at annual intervals between 8.5 and 15.5 years for a previously described sample of approximately 30 children with implants. The average magnitudes of the changes at the root apices of the mandibular first molar and central incisor associated with modeling/remodeling of the mandibular border and symphysis were unexpectedly small. At the molar apex, mean values approximated zero in both anteroposterior and vertical directions. At the incisor apex, mean values approximated zero in the anteroposterior direction and averaged less than 0.15 mm/year in the vertical direction. Standard deviations were roughly equal for the molar and the incisor in both the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Dental displacement associated with surface modeling plays a smaller role in final tooth position in the mandible than in the maxilla. It may also be reasonably inferred that anatomical best-fit superimpositions made in the absence of implants give a more complete picture of hard tissue turnover in the mandible than they do in the maxilla.

  13. Mandibular talon cusp in primary lateral incisor: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Swaminathan; Selvakumar, Haridoss; Barathan, Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    A talon cusp is a dental anomaly commonly occurring in the permanent dentition compared to the primary dentition. It commonly affects the maxillary anterior teeth. In primary dentition, the most commonly affected tooth is the maxillary central incisors. This is a rare case report of a 5-year-old male patient with a talon cusp affecting the mandibular primary lateral incisor. Recognition and treatment of this anomaly at early stages is important to avoid complications.

  14. Does the presence of unilateral maxillary incisor edge asymmetries influence the perception of smile esthetics?

    PubMed

    Betrine Ribeiro, Joanna; Alecrim Figueiredo, Bruna; Wilson Machado, Andre

    2017-07-08

    Determine orthodontists and laypersons' perception of maxillary central and lateral incisor edge asymmetries in full-face and close-up smiles. Four smile photos were selected for this study: two full-face and two close-up smile photos of two male subjects, a white man and an Afro-descendant man. Both were considered pleasant smiles, following some principles of an ideal smile. Images were digitally altered to create tooth wear asymmetries on the maxillary left central and lateral incisor in 0.5 mm increments. Final images were arranged randomly into a photo album and were shown to 86 judges (43 orthodontists and 43 laypersons). Judges were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images according to a visual analog scale. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Tukey's post hoc test and the Student t test. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean esthetic scores of the full-face and close-up smile photos. The most attractive smiles were those without asymmetries and those with 0.5 mm wear in the lateral incisor, whereas the least attractive ones were those with 1.0-1.5 mm wear in the central incisors. Statistically significant difference was found in the mean scores given by the judges in most cases. The orthodontists were more critical and assigned lower scores than the laypersons. The presence of maxillary incisor asymmetries is a critical factor influencing the perception of smile esthetics. The most attractive smiles of the men investigated were those without asymmetry and those with 0.5 mm incisor edge asymmetry in the lateral incisor. The presence of incisal asymmetries (especially in maxillary central incisors) negatively influences smile esthetics, corroborating the clinical hypothesis that the closer to the facial midline, the greater the need for symmetry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Gotler, M; Ratson, T

    2010-04-01

    MIH was defined by Weerheijm (2001) as "hypomineralisation of systemic origin of 1-4 permanent first molars, frequently associated with affected incisors". The prevalence of MIH varies between 2.8% and 25%, dependent upon the study. At their sixth congress in 2003, The European Association of pediatric dentistry defined criteria for diagnosis of the phenomena. It included the presence of demarcated opacity, posteruptive enamel breakdown, atypical restoration, extracted molar due to MIH and unerupted teeth. According to the teeth involved and to the time of the crown formation, researches focused on environmental and systemic conditions as possible reasons for MIH.The etiologies were divided into five groups: Exposure to environmental contaminants, pre/peri and neonatal problems, exposure to fluoride, common childhood illnesses and medically compromised children. The clinical implications include highly sensitive teeth, difficulty to achieve adequate anesthesia, behavioral problems and anxiety, rapid progression of caries and the esthetic implications. A six step approach to management was described suggested: risk identification, early diagnosis, remineralization and desensitization, prevention of caries and posteruption breakdown, restorations and extractions and finally maintenance. Restoring an affected molar can vary from adhesive intra coronal restorations (resin composite is the material of choice) to extra coronal restorations (e.g. preformed metal crown). Esthetic solutions to affected incisors may include microabrasion (that shows little improvement) and resin composite or porcelain veneer. The key for a successful treatment is early diagnosis, intense follow up and usage of remineralizating agents as soon as the teeth erupt. There is still need for further research to clarify the etiological factors and improve the durability of restoration in affected teeth.

  16. [Incisor repositioning: a new approach in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Dallel, Ines; Khemiri, Mourad; Fathallah, Safa; Ben Rejeb, Salwa; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-12-01

    Lower incisors axis has a "key" position in different cephalometric analysis. However, several critics are directed towards the cephalometric profile and cephalometric landmarks (point, line and angle). The published norms and the cephalometric standards recommended for the optimal positioning of incisors could only be used as general clinical guidelines. Incisor repositioning to achieve optimal facial aesthetics requires taking into consideration the hard and soft tissues of the face, the profile, the muscular dynamics as well as the facial growth. In this work, we propose a new approach of incisor repositioning taking into account the variability of periodontal, functional and aesthetic factors. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  17. Assessing the value of the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) in Everglades restoration: an ecosystem service approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Keefe, Kelly; Huber, Christopher C.; Racevskis, Laila; Gregg, Reynolds; Thourot, Scott; Miller, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a full range of ecosystem services that could be affected by a restoration project in the central Everglades and monetizes the economic value of a subset of these services using existing data. Findings suggest that the project will potentially increase many ecosystem services that have considerable economic value to society. The ecosystem services monetized within the scope of this study are a subset of the difference between the future-with the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) and the future-without CEPP, and they totaled ~ $1.8 billion USD at a 2.5% discount rate. Findings suggest that the use of ecosystem services in project planning and communications may require acknowledgment of the difficulty of monetizing important services and the limitations associated with using only existing data and models. Results of this study highlight the need for additional valuation efforts in this region, focused on those services that are likely to be impacted by restoration activities but were notably challenging to value in this assessment due to shortages of data.

  18. Molar incisor hypomineralization: considerations about treatment in a controlled longitudinal case.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniela Cristina; Favretto, Carla Oliveira; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2015-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect in the tooth enamel of systemic origin and may affect one or all four first permanent molars frequently associated with the permanent incisors. This case reports a 7-year-old child with severe MIH in the permanent molars associated with tooth decay and intense pain. In the first stage of treatment, therapy was performed with fluoride varnish and restoration with glass ionomer cement (GIC). After 6 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up, the restorations presented wear and fractures on the margins, indicating their replacement with composite resin. Severe cases of MIH in the early permanent molars can be treated with varnish and GIC to restore the patient's comfort and strengthen the hypomineralized dental structures. The clinical and radiographic monitoring frequently indicated when the restoration with composite resin should be performed.

  19. A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

    2010-07-01

    The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood.

  20. The relationship between a primary maxillary incisor with a talon cusp and the permanent successor: a study of 57 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Kei; King, Nigel Martyn; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Cho, Shiu-Yin

    2007-05-01

    Most reported cases of talon cusps in the primary dentition have been on the maxillary central incisors and the permanent successors have remained unaffected. Four of the five reported cases on a maxillary lateral incisor, however, have been associated with a supernumerary permanent successor. This paper describes the relationship between the presence of talon cusps on a primary maxillary incisor, and the morphology and number of the permanent successors in a population of Chinese children. The dental records of children diagnosed with a talon cusp on a primary incisor were retrieved for review. The diagnoses took place in a regional school dental clinic in Hong Kong between April 2002 and August 2005. Fifty-eight primary maxillary incisors with talon cusps were found. When the central incisors were involved, 32 of the 35 (91.4%) underlying permanent successors were not found to be associated with any odontogenic abnormalities. When the lateral incisors were involved, however, 18 of the 23 cases (78.3%) showed odontogenic abnormalities, 14 of which were associated with supernumerary teeth. The present study shows that, when there is a talon cusp on a primary maxillary lateral incisor, a high proportion of the underlying permanent successors can be expected to exhibit odontogenic abnormalities.

  1. Central gain restores auditory processing following near-complete cochlear denervation

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Anna R.; Resnik, Jennifer; Yuan, Yasheng; Whitton, Jonathon P.; Edge, Albert S.; Liberman, M. Charles; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory organ damage induces a host of cellular and physiological changes in the periphery and the brain. Here, we show that some aspects of auditory processing recover after profound cochlear denervation due to a progressive, compensatory plasticity at higher stages of the central auditory pathway. Lesioning >95% of cochlear nerve afferent synapses, while sparing hair cells, in adult mice virtually eliminated the auditory brainstem response and acoustic startle reflex, yet tone detection behavior was nearly normal. As sound-evoked responses from the auditory nerve grew progressively weaker following denervation, sound-evoked activity in the cortex – and to a lesser extent the midbrain – rebounded or surpassed control levels. Increased central gain supported the recovery of rudimentary sound features encoded by firing rate, but not features encoded by precise spike timing such as modulated noise or speech. These findings underscore the importance of central plasticity in the perceptual sequelae of cochlear hearing impairment. PMID:26833137

  2. Comparison of the Physiological Properties of Human Periodontal-Masseteric Reflex Evoked by Incisor and Canine Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, Hiroko; Kirimoto, Hiroaki; Ono, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR) differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in seven healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL) and the correlation coefficient (CC) between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality. PMID:22754541

  3. Aesthetic effect of minor changes in incisor angulation: an internet evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brunzel, S; Kern, M; Freitag, S; Wolfart, S

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the aesthetic assessment of different tiltings of the upper incisors with surrounding tissues. A picture of a smiling mouth revealing the upper anterior teeth from 15 to 25 was digitally transformed producing different tiltings of the incisors. These seven versions presented in a web-based survey were evaluated concerning their attractiveness. Overall 439 judges joined the evaluation. However, 249 judges were included in analysis, because only judges with normal wellbeings and completed questionnaires were accepted. These judges consisted of 38 dentists, 26 dental and 24 other students, 45 academics and 89 non-academics, while 27 gave no data about their profession. The results [median (first; third quartile)] showed significant that symmetrical incisors [67.5 (47.5; 85.0)] and minor changes in the angulation of one [65.0 (42.5; 80.0)] or both lateral incisors [65.0 (42.5; 80.0)], respectively, are aesthetically more attractive than the angulation of one [45.0 (27.5; 62.5)] or both central incisors [27.5 (16.3; 45.0)], or the combination of one tilted lateral and central incisor [37.5 (25.0; 60.0)]. These results confirm the results of a previous study where similar image versions without surrounding tissues were assessed concerning their attractiveness on printed photos.

  4. Incisor compliance following operative procedures: a rapid 3-D finite element analysis using micro-CT data.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Tan, Derek T

    2008-02-01

    New methods are available for the rapid generation of 3-D finite element models of dental structures and restorations. Validation of these methods are required. The aim of the present study is to utilize stereolithography and surface-driven automatic meshing to generate models of specific restorative conditions, and to examine these models under loading. The data generated are compared to existing experimental data in an attempt to validate the model. An intact maxillary central incisor was digitized with a micro-CT scanner. Surface contours of enamel and dentin were fitted following tooth segmentation based on pixel density using an interactive medical image control system. Stereolithography (STL) files of enamel and dentin surfaces were then remeshed to reduce mesh density and imported in a rapid prototyping software, where Boolean operations were used to assure the interfacial mesh congruence (dentinoenamel junction) and simulate different tooth preparations (endodontic access, veneer, proximal, and Class III preparations) and restorations (Class III composites). The different parts were then imported in a finite element software package to create 3D solid models. A 50-N point load perpendicular to the tooth's long axis and centered on the incisal edge was applied either on the buccal or palatal surface. The surface strain was obtained from selected nodes corresponding to the location of the strain gauges in the validation experiments. The increase in crown flexure (compared to the unaltered tooth) ranged from near zero values (conservative endodontic access, removal of proximal enamel) to ca 10% (aggressive endodontic access, conservative Class III preparations), 23% and 34% (moderate and aggressive Class III preparations, respectively), and 91% (veneer preparation). Placement of Class III composite resin restorations resulted in 85% recovery of the original crown stiffness. 3D FEA data correlated well with existing experimental data. In two situations, smaller

  5. First permanent molars with molar incisor hypomineralisation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Laura; O'Connell, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common enamel defect presenting in the first permanent molars (FPM) and permanent incisors. This article presents the clinical findings and management considerations for the FPM with MIH to the general practitioner. The various treatment options are described with emphasis placed on early diagnosis as the most important prognostic factor.

  6. Facial talon in mandibular incisor: An unusual occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2011-01-01

    Talon cusp, also known as an eagle's talon, is a dental anomaly that occurs on the lingual aspect of teeth commonly, but occurrence on the facial aspect has rarely been reported. It is an extra cusp on an anterior tooth, which arises as a result of evagination on the surface of a crown before calcification has occurred. The incidence of talon cusp on lingual side is less than 6% and is even lesser on the facial aspect. Commonly involved teeth are maxillary incisors, usually unilateral but in some instances bilateral. The classical radiographical feature of talon cusp is double teeth appearance. The anomaly has been reported to be unusual in the mandibular dentition and extremely rare on the facial aspect. We report one such extremely rare case of facial talon cusp in mandibular central incisor. PMID:22135696

  7. Forest health restoration in south-central Alaska: a problem analysis.

    Treesearch

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; Jerry L. Boughton; Thomas M. Quigley

    2001-01-01

    A spruce beetle outbreak of unprecedented size and intensity killed most of the spruce trees on millions of acres of forest land in south-central Alaska in the 1990s. The tree mortality is affecting every component of the ecosystem, including the socioeconomic culture dependent on the resources of these vast forests. Based on information obtained through workshops and...

  8. Successional dynamics and restoration implications of a montane coniferous forest in the central Appalachians, USA

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Schuler; Rachel J. Collins

    2002-01-01

    Central Appalachian montane red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) communities have been greatly reduced in extent and functional quality over the past century. This community decline has put several plant and animal species, such as the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus Shaw), at risk from habitat...

  9. Experimental ex vivo traumatic intrusion in the mandibular incisors of the farm pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Amanda; Popowics, Tracy

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic intrusion of incisor teeth occurs frequently in young children, as well as in teens and adults; however, the biological mechanisms promoting negative sequelae or recovery are not well understood (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:493 and Vital Health Stat 11 2007;248:1). Modeling intrusive trauma and post-traumatic healing in an animal model offers the opportunity to define these biological mechanisms and to inform the design of treatments. The objective of this study was to investigate the pig, Sus scrofa, as a model for intrusive trauma, using an in vitro approach. Mandibular segments from ex vivo farm pigs were bisected and primary central incisors were prepared to either receive axial traumatic loads or to serve as non-intruded controls. A class 2 lever modeled traumatic impact to the incisors. Damage to the periodontal support in intruded and control specimens (n = 10) was evaluated through compression testing and comparison of elastic moduli. Incisor displacement was measured on X-ray images taken before and after trauma, and following compressive tests. Lingual x-rays showed a mean postinjury displacement of the incisor root of 3.81 ± 1.87 mm. With compression testing, the root length embedded in bone increased in traumatized and non-traumatized teeth by 2.9 mm and 0.81 mm, respectively (P = 0.03). The intrusion group Young's modulus was significantly lower than the control group (4452 vs 7704 Mpa; P = 0.05). In vitro modeling of traumatic intrusion resulted in damage to the periodontal support of central incisors and axial tooth displacement. Pig incisors offer an important model for further study of incisor trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Bone marrow stromal cells. An alternative source of restorative therapy in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Alberti-Amador, E; García-Miniet, R

    The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of bone marrow cells to limit or slow down the damage and chronic neuronal degeneration produced by degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), as well as the potential capacity of the method to provide other substances or genetic material. The search for new sources of cells that maintain the ability to divide and distinguish themselves from different cellular phenotypes opens up huge new opportunities in the restorative therapy of these clinical entities. Bone marrow cells, and especially stromal stem cells, have been seen to conserve a high capacity to distinguish and originate different strains of characteristic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and glial cells), and also the capacity to restore the population of stem cells when they are stimulated in a suitable fashion. Future experimental studies will be aimed at searching for new ways to enhance the composition, viability and differentiation of the cells to be implanted and will evaluate their effects on diseases of the CNS.

  11. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  12. Monitoring of Ecological Restoration at the Central Quake-Hit Areas of Wenchuan Earthquake Using RS & GIS Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The 2008 Sichuan earthquake, occurred on 12 May 2008 with a magnitude of 8.0 and the center at Wenchuan (31.021°N, 103.367°E), has not only caused a large number of human casualties and property loss, but also severely damaged the ecological system in its surrounding 10 counties, threatening the local ecological safety. As part of the post-disaster reconstruction services, a systematic monitoring of the ecological restoration at the central quake-hit areas has been made based on RS & GIS remote sensing. In this paper we selected the Dujiangyan area for analysis. The reason to select this region is because that Dujiangyan area is about 40 km from the epicenter, and as a region in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, it has a well developed forest ecosystem in the northern part before the earth quake. The coverage of grassland in this region is relatively less. Since the ecological restoration after the earthquake is a long term process, the restoration for different vegetation types has different characteristics. From the analysis of the spatiotemporal change of land-use and vegetation cover in Dujiangyan area from the post-earthquake in 2008 to 2013, we found: (1) During the earthquake, the major vegetation type destroyed is the woodland, which accounts for 99.34% of the destroyed area, and the next are arable land and grassland. (2) The ecological restoration started from the grassland and gradually transited to shrub. In two years after the earthquake, the most significant increase in both area of coverage and magnitude is the grassland, and by 2013, the area of grassland decreased slightly, and instead the area of shrub increased, demonstrating a transition trend from the grassland to the shrub. (3) From the map of vegetation cover, we can see these change occurs mainly in the northern mountain area, while the change of land use mainly occurred in the southern part of the city. These changes can be linked clearly with the earthquake disaster and the post

  13. Strategic planning for instream flow restoration: a case study of potential climate change impacts in the central Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Donley, Erin E; Naiman, Robert J; Marineau, Mathieu D

    2012-10-01

    We provide a case study prioritizing instream flow restoration activities by sub-basin according to the habitat needs of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmonids relative to climate change in the central Columbia River basin in Washington State (USA). The objective is to employ scenario analysis to inform and improve existing instream flow restoration projects. We assess the sensitivity of late summer (July, August, and September) flows to the following scenario simulations - singly or in combination: climate change, changes in the quantity of water used for irrigation and possible changes to existing water resource policy. Flows for four sub-basins were modeled using the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) under historical and projected conditions of 2020 and 2040 for each scenario. Results indicate that Yakima will be the most flow-limited sub-basin with average reductions in streamflow of 41% under climate conditions of 2020 and 56% under 2040 conditions; 1.3-2.5 times greater than those of other sub-basins. In addition, irrigation plays a key role in the hydrology of the Yakima sub-basin - with flow reductions ranging from 78% to 90% under severe to extreme (i.e., 20-40%) increases in agricultural water use (2.0-4.4 times the reductions in the other sub-basins). The Yakima and Okanogan sub-basins are the most responsive to simulations of flow-bolstering policy change (providing salmon with first priority water allocation and at biologically relevant flows), as demonstrated by 91-100% target flows attained. The Wenatchee and Methow sub-basins do not exhibit similar responsiveness to simulated policy changes. Considering climate change only, we conclude that flow restoration should be prioritized first in the Yakima and Wenatchee sub-basins, and second in the Okanogan and Methow. Considering both climate change and possible policy changes, we recommend that the Yakima sub-basin receive the highest priority for flow restoration activities to sustain

  14. Planning extensive esthetic restorations for anterior teeth: use of waxed-up study casts and composite resin mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Baratto, Samantha Schaffer Pugsley; Spina, Denis Roberto Falcão; Correr, Gisele Maria; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of appropriate planning protocols when direct composite resin restorations are used to solve extensive esthetic problems. A 30-year-old patient complained about her small maxillary anterior teeth and short upper lip. All teeth were healthy and light colored, and the patient exhibited good oral hygiene. The anterior teeth were relatively short, resulting in a compromised esthetic relationship between height and width. The maxillary and mandibular right central incisors were in an edge-to-edge relationship. After diagnostic casts and waxed-up study casts were obtained, occlusal adjustment and recontouring of the incisal and labial surfaces of the mandibular right central incisor were performed to increase overjet. To increase the volume of the upper lip, composite resin restorations were planned for the maxillary anterior teeth. To confirm that the contours and color of the new smile were acceptable to the patient, composite resin esthetic mock-ups were made directly in the mouth before the definitive procedure. After definitive restoration of the anterior teeth, additional occlusal adjustments were performed. At the 36-month follow-up, no fracturing or severe wear of the restorations was observed. The restored anterior guidance provided excellent function after 3 years of clinical service.

  15. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces pain, fatigue and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol G T; Liebano, Richard E; Amrit, Anand S; Bush, Heather M; Lee, Kyoung S; Lee, Jennifer E; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2013-11-01

    Because transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we tested the hypothesis that TENS would reduce pain and fatigue and improve function and hyperalgesia in people with fibromyalgia who have enhanced central excitability and reduced inhibition. The current study used a double-blinded randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design to test the effects of a single treatment of TENS with people with fibromyalgia. Three treatments were assessed in random order: active TENS, placebo TENS and no TENS. The following measures were assessed before and after each TENS treatment: pain and fatigue at rest and in movement; pressure pain thresholds, 6-m walk test, range of motion; 5-time sit-to-stand test, and single-leg stance. Conditioned pain modulation was completed at the end of testing. There was a significant decrease in pain and fatigue with movement for active TENS compared to placebo and no TENS. Pressure pain thresholds increased at the site of TENS (spine) and outside the site of TENS (leg) when compared to placebo TENS or no TENS. During active TENS, conditioned pain modulation was significantly stronger compared to placebo TENS and no TENS. No changes in functional tasks were observed with TENS. Thus, the current study suggests TENS has short-term efficacy in relieving symptoms of fibromyalgia while the stimulator is active. Future clinical trials should examine the effects of repeated daily delivery of TENS, similar to the way in which TENS is used clinically on pain, fatigue, function, and quality of life in individuals with fibromyalgia.

  16. No effect of lip bumper therapy on the pressure from the lower lip on the lower incisors.

    PubMed

    Ingervall, B; Thüer, U

    1998-10-01

    The pressures from the lower lip on the lower incisors were measured at the midline between the central incisors and between the left lateral incisor and canine. The measurements were made with the lip at rest and during swallowing of water in 24 boys and 40 girls aged 9-15 years. The children were divided into four groups, two treated with a lip bumper with and without an oral shield, and two with a lingual arch with and without springs for proclination of the lower incisors. Recordings of the pressures were made before the start of the treatment, and 3 and 8 months after the use of the appliance, as well as 4 months after the removal of the lip bumper or lingual arch. The treatment with a lip bumper did not change the pressure from the lip on the lower incisors at rest. The pressure at the midline during swallowing was also unaffected by the lip bumper therapy, but the pressure between the lateral incisor and canine increased. Thus, lip bumper therapy did not lead to decreased pressure from the lip on the incisors. Proclination of the lower incisors with a lingual arch resulted in an increase of the pressure from the lip at rest. Thus, no adaptation of the lower lip to the proclination occurred. After relapse of the proclination the pressure from the lip decreased to a value no different from that before the start of the treatment.

  17. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939

  18. Replacing four missing maxillary incisors with regular- or narrow-neck implants: analysis of treatment options.

    PubMed

    Vailati, Francesca; Belser, Urs Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The restoration of the missing maxillary incisors is a complex and delicate treatment challenge. When implant therapy is used, proper treatment planning is critical, as selecting the proper number, location, and dimension of the implants is a difficult task. Thus, this article discusses the issues that must be addressed during diagnosis and treatment planning to achieve a predictable esthetic outcome when using implants to replace the maxillary incisors. The advantages and disadvantages of several implant-supported treatment options-using a combination of regular- and narrow-neck implants-are presented. Ultimately, the use of narrow-neck implants at the lateral incisor sites is presented as the best option for ensuring excellent esthetic outcomes, and the corresponding indications and contraindications are discussed. Further, all treatment options are ranked based on the predictability of their esthetic outcomes.

  19. Replantation of permanent incisors in children using Emdogain.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Edward J; Kenny, David J; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Sigal, Michael J; Johnston, Douglas H

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether application of an enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain (Biora AB Malmo, Sweden) to the root surface of avulsed permanent incisors would improve postreplantation outcomes in a pediatric population. Between June 1999 and May 2002, 25 avulsed permanent maxillary incisors (22 centrals and three laterals) were treated with Emdogain and followed for up to 32 months, mean duration 20.6 months (range: 6.9-32.5 months). Mean patient age at the time of treatment was 12.0 years (range: 7.7-17.6 years) and mean extra-alveolar duration was 185 min (range: 100-300 min). At the end of their follow-up each of the replanted incisors demonstrated radiographic evidence of replacement root resorption and clinical evidence of ankylosis. None of the replanted teeth were affected by inflammatory root resorption and there was no evidence of infection. When compared with the control samples from Barrett and Kenny (Endod Dent Traumatol 1997;15:269-72.) and Andersson et al. (Endod Dent Traumatol 1989;5:38-47.) this sample treated with the Emdogain protocol demonstrated significantly less root resorption than either of the control samples (anova, P < 0.0001). Although the Emdogain protocol did not produce periodontal regeneration, it did eliminate inflammatory resorption and infection and led to significantly less root resorption compared with the two historical controls.

  20. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-07-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  1. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-01-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-Year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 Months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  2. Different manifestations of Class II Division 2 incisor retroclination: a morphologic study.

    PubMed

    Mariano Pereira, Pedro; Pinhão Ferreira, Afonso; Tavares, Purificação; Braga, Ana Cristina

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a different transverse morphologic pattern of dental arches among patients with different manifestations of Class II Division 2 incisor retroclination and to evaluate to what extent the pattern of smaller-than-average teeth in Class II Division 2 malocclusion is common to all groups studied. This information might clarify whether different Class II Division 2 phenotypes represent a single etiology or multiple etiologies. The sample comprised 108 subjects with Class II Division 2 malocclusions, divided into 2 groups according to the type of incisor retroclination: group I included 43 Class II Division 2 subjects with retroclination exclusively of the maxillary central incisors, and group II included 65 Class II Division 2 subjects with retroclination of the 4 maxillary incisors. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar widths as well as mesiodistal crown dimensions of the 4 maxillary and mandibular incisors were determined from the patients' initial study models. Mean values of all variables were compared between the 2 groups by sex with analysis of variance. From the comparison between these 2 groups, no statistically significant differences were found for all transverse measurements (P >0.05). For all mesiodistal measurements analyzed, statistically significant differences between the groups were only found for the mean value of both maxillary lateral incisors' mesiodistal dimensions in both sexes (P <0.05). It is not possible to attribute a characteristic pattern of dental arch-width and incisor mesiodistal dimensions to the different manifestations of incisor retroclination in Class II Division 2 malocclusion. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional anatomy of equine incisors: tooth length, enamel cover and age related changes.

    PubMed

    Schrock, Patricia; Lüpke, Matthias; Seifert, Hermann; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-12-09

    Equine incisors are subjected to continuous occlusal wear causing multiple, age related changes of the extragingival crown. It is assumed that the occlusal wear is compensated by continued tooth elongation at the apical ends of the teeth. In this study, μCT-datasets offered the opportunity to analyze the three-dimensional appearance of the extra- and intraalveolar parts of the enamel containing dental crown as well as of the enamel-free dental root. Multiple morphometric measurements elucidated age related, morphological changes within the intraalveolar part of the incisors. Equine incisors possess a unique enamel cover displaying large indentations on the mesial and distal sides. After eruption tooth elongation at the apical end outbalances occlusal wear for two to four years resulting in increasing incisor length in this period of time. Remarkably, this maximum length is maintained for about ten years, up to a tooth age of 13 to 15 years post eruption. Variances in the total length of individual teeth are related to different Triadan positions (central-, middle- and corner incisors) as well as to the upper and lower arcades. Equine incisors are able to fully compensate occlusal wear for a limited period of time. However, after this ability ceases, it is expected that a diminished intraalveolar tooth length will cause massive changes in periodontal biomechanics. The time point of these morphodynamic and biomechanical changes (13 to 15 years post eruption) occurs in coincidence with the onset of a recently described destructive disease of equine incisor (equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis) in aged horses. However, further biomechanical, cell biological and microbiological investigations are needed to elucidate a correlation between age related changes of incisor morphology and this disease.

  4. Masking of Enamel Fluorosis Discolorations and Tooth Misalignment With a Combination of At-Home Whitening, Resin Infiltration, and Direct Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, J; Lam, V Q; Burseth, B G; Real, C

    This clinical report illustrates a conservative technique to mask enamel discolorations in maxillary anterior teeth caused by hypomineralization associated with enamel fluorosis and subsequent direct resin composite to improve the anterior esthetics. The treatment consisted of at-home whitening with 10% carbamide peroxide gel with potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride in a custom-fitted tray to mask the brown-stained areas, followed by resin infiltration to mask the white spot areas. An existing resin composite restoration in the maxillary right central incisor was subsequently replaced after completion of the whitening and resin infiltration procedures, whereas the two misaligned and rotated maxillary lateral incisors were built up with direct resin composite restorations to provide the illusion of adequate arch alignment, as the patient was unable to use orthodontic therapy.

  5. Spectrophotometric color evaluation of permanent incisors, canines and molars. A cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    POP-CIUTRILA, IOANA-SOFIA; COLOSI, HORATIU ALEXANDRU; DUDEA, DIANA; BADEA, MANDRA EUGENIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims An accurate color reproduction represents the final validation level of an esthetic anterior or posterior restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color of permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars, using a clinical spectrophotometer. Methods The Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0® intraoral spectrophotometer was used by one clinician to determine the color of 369 permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars. The best matches to Vitapan Classical® and 3D-Master® shade guides were recorded. A one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare L*, a*, b*, c* and h* color coordinates among the 3 types of teeth. Differences between the mean values of all color coordinates were evaluated by use of Bonferroni corrections. Color difference (ΔE*) between incisors, canines and molars was calculated from ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* data and the results were compared to ΔE*=3.3 acceptability threshold. Results Except for Δa* and Δh* between canines and molars, statistically significant differences among the mean differences of all color coordinates were found when the 3 types of teeth were compared by pairs. The most frequently measured shades were A1 (48.4%), respectively 1M1 (31.5%) for incisors, B3 (36.6%), respectively 2M3 (39.8%) for canines and B3 (44.7%), respectively 2M3 (52%) for molars. Incisors had the highest lightness values, followed by canines and molars. Molars were the most chromatic with the highest a* and b* values. Conclusions Despite the limitations of this study, color differences among incisors, canines and molars were found to be statistically significant, above the clinical acceptability threshold established. In conclusion, successful esthetic restorations of permanent teeth of the same patient need an individual color assessment and reproduction of every type of tooth. PMID:26733753

  6. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ∼0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  7. Experimental concepts for toxicity prevention and tissue restoration after central nervous system irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, Carsten; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Astner, Sabrina T

    2007-01-01

    Several experimental strategies of radiation-induced central nervous system toxicity prevention have recently resulted in encouraging data. The present review summarizes the background for this research and the treatment results. It extends to the perspectives of tissue regeneration strategies, based for example on stem and progenitor cells. Preliminary data suggest a scenario with individually tailored strategies where patients with certain types of comorbidity, resulting in impaired regeneration reserve capacity, might be considered for toxicity prevention, while others might be "salvaged" by delayed interventions that circumvent the problem of normal tissue specificity. Given the complexity of radiation-induced changes, single target interventions might not suffice. Future interventions might vary with patient age, elapsed time from radiotherapy and toxicity type. Potential components include several drugs that interact with neurodegeneration, cell transplantation (into the CNS itself, the blood stream, or both) and creation of reparative signals and a permissive microenvironment, e.g., for cell homing. Without manipulation of the stem cell niche either by cell transfection or addition of appropriate chemokines and growth factors and by providing normal perfusion of the affected region, durable success of such cell-based approaches is hard to imagine. PMID:17603905

  8. Developing a unified monitoring and reporting system: a key to successful restoration of mixed-oak forests throughout the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Thomas M. Schuler; Daniel C. Dey; Eugene J. DeGayner

    2008-01-01

    Many national forests and grasslands in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States recently have undergone Land Management Plan revision, which include management areas that promote restoration through a variety of management activities. Monitoring is a vital component of adaptive management whereby the effects from a variety of treatments (including controls)...

  9. A multidisciplinary treatment of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: a 14-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; MORANDINI, Ana Carolina Faria; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; CASTRO, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; INSABRALDE, Natalia Martins

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and the teeth, including the presentation of malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion must be considered. The objective of this study was to describe the etiology, prevalence and alternative treatment modalities for dental agenesis and to present a clinical case of agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors treated by the closure of excessive spaces and canine re-anatomization. A clinical case is presented to illustrate the interdisciplinary approach between orthodontics and restorative dentistry for improved esthetic results. In this report, the treatment of a girl with a Class II malocclusion of molars and canines with missing maxillary lateral incisors and convex facial profile is shown. Treatment was successfully achieved and included the space closure of the areas corresponding to the missing upper lateral incisors, through movement of the canines and the posterior teeth to mesial by fixed appliances as well as the canines transformation in the maxillary lateral incisors. This is a 14-year follow-up case report involving orthodontics and restorative dentistry in which pretreatment, post-treatment, and long-term follow-up records for the patient are presented. PMID:25466480

  10. Contour ripping is more beneficial than composted manure for restoring degraded rangelands in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bradford P; Fox, William E; Prcin, Lisa J; McAlister, Jason; Wolfe, June; Thomas, Diana M; Knight, Robert W; Hoffman, Dennis W; Smeins, Fred E

    2012-11-30

    Rangelands in the United States that have been the site of military training exercises have suffered extensive ecological damage, largely because of soil compaction, creation of ruts, and damage to or destruction of vegetation--all of which lead to higher runoff and accelerated erosion. In this paper we report on a study carried out within the Fort Hood Military Reservation in Central Texas, where we evaluated the extent to which application of composted dairy manure and contour ripping affect soil infiltrability, amount of runoff, and nutrient concentrations in runoff. We conducted experiments at two locations, using rainfall simulation at one and monitoring discharge from small (0.3-ha) watersheds at the other. At the rainfall simulation site, we used six levels of compost application: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 Mg/ha. We found that compost application had little effect on runoff, soil infiltration, sediment production, or nutrient concentrations in the runoff--except at the micro-watershed scale (12 and 24 Mg/ha); in this case, nutrient concentrations in runoff were initially high (for the rainfall simulations done immediately after compost application). In contrast, contour ripping--carried out 22 months after compost application on two of the micro-watersheds--was highly effective: runoff on the treated micro-watershed was reduced by half compared with the untreated micro-watershed. Our results suggest that (1) one-time applications of composted dairy manure do little to enhance infiltration of degraded rangelands over the short term (at the same time, these experiments demonstrated that compost application poses very little risk to water quality); and (2) for degraded rangelands with limited infiltration capacity, contour ripping is an effective strategy for increasing infiltration rates.

  11. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  12. The clinical and radiographic success of bonded resin composite strip crowns for primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Kupietzky, Ari; Waggoner, William F; Galea, Jon

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and radiographic success of the treatment of maxillary anterior primary incisors with composite resin strip crowns placed in a private practice setting. This was a retrospective, clinical study of patients who had strip crowns (SC) placed on maxillary primary incisors, returned for at least 1, 6-month recall examination, and whose parents consented to participate in the study. Radiographic and photographic examinations were used for evaluation. Two evaluators rated the images independently. When ratings were not in agreement, the 2 examiners reviewed the photograph or radiograph together and reached a consensus rating. One hundred twelve restorations placed in 40 children were evaluated. The evaluations were performed after the crowns had been in place for an average of 18 months. None of the restorations were totally lost, and only 12% were rated as having lost some resin material, resulting in an 88% overall retention rate. There was no difference in restoration success if the crowns were placed 4 at a time, or if fewer crowns were placed in a single sitting; the failure rates were comparable. Teeth that had pulpal treatment were judged to have far more significant color match discrepancies than those teeth without pulpal treatment. Ninety-one percent of the teeth demonstrated healthy pulps. Eight percent had some pulpal changes but did not require immediate attention. Only 1 tooth showed radiographic evidence of pulpal necrosis. Only 11 teeth had pulpal treatment, but of these, 10 demonstrated clinical success. Composite resin strip crowns for restoring primary incisors with large or multisurface caries performed well. Color match of these crowns with adjacent teeth may be significantly reduced when placed upon teeth that have undergone pulpectomy treatment and have been obturated with an iodoform paste. However, based upon the results of this study, the strip crown may provide an esthetic and durable restoration

  13. Dentists' and parents' perceptions of health, esthetics, and treatment of maxillary primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Woo, Dawn; Sheller, Barbara; Williams, Bryan; Mancl, Lloyd; Grembowski, David

    2005-01-01

    Dentists' and parents' assessment of primary maxillary incisors regarding attractiveness, perceived health, and treatment preferences were investigated in this study. Sample groups of 103 general dentists, 67 pediatric dentists, 97 parents of children in low-income families and 112 parents of children in high-income families completed questionnaires presenting color photographs and radiographs of maxillary incisors. Questions addressed treatment need, health beliefs, and demographics. All groups recognized grossly carious teeth and carious teeth with visible sinus tracts as unhealthy and unattractive. All agreed that grossly carious teeth warranted extraction (dentists = 92%, parents = 73%). For carious teeth with sinus tracts, dentists favored extraction and restorations while parents favored fluoride application. Dentists rated a dark incisor as healthy and not requiring treatment. Parents rated a dark incisor as neutral for attractiveness and health, but favored extraction or restoration. All groups found anterior steel crowns esthetically unacceptable. Trust of the dentist, pain for the child, and dentist skill was important for parents in treatment plan acceptance. A dentist's inexperience in pediatrics may result in a failure to diagnose or recognize the significance of some conditions. Proper parental education can better inform parents on dental conditions requiring prompt professional attention. Although parents today are more involved in clinical decision-making, they still rely on the dentist's expertise and advice.

  14. Smooth surface glass ionomer restoration for primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Killian, C M; Croll, T P

    1991-01-01

    Glass ionomer restorative cement offers the clinician an alternative to bonded composite resin for restoration of certain lesions in primary teeth. This article details a step-by-step procedure for restoration of a smooth surface carious lesion in a primary incisor using an encapsulated glass ionomer restorative material and reviews advantages and limitations of the cement. A light-hardened glass ionomer liner/base that has proven useful as an enamel and dentin restorative is also described.

  15. Primary incisor intruded through the nasal cavity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereria; Barbosa, Michele Vale; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Marcos Antônio; Castagno, Clarissa Delpizzo; Baldissera, Elaine Fátima Zanchin; Torriani, Dione Dias

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive luxation may cause complications for the primary tooth and generate adverse sequelae in the permanent successor. Although intrusion is prevalent in the primary dentition, full intrusion is a rare event that requires specialized treatment and a multidisciplinary approach. This article describes the case of a 1-year-old girl who presented with traumatic displacement of the maxillary left central incisor into the nasal cavity. The parents sought treatment 1 month after the child sustained the injury, and the impacted tooth was removed through her left nostril under general anesthesia. Four-year clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed no adverse sequelae.

  16. Postendodontic restoration of severely decayed primary tooth using modified omega loop as a post

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ruchi; Raiyani, Chirag M.; Singh, Vikram; Katageri, Abhinandan Anand

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic concern of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease of the preschool child. The case report presented here is of a three year old boy with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central incisors were reinforced using modified omega post and followed by using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes shape, function, and esthetics. PMID:27003983

  17. Postendodontic restoration of severely decayed primary tooth using modified omega loop as a post.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ruchi; Raiyani, Chirag M; Singh, Vikram; Katageri, Abhinandan Anand

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic concern of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease of the preschool child. The case report presented here is of a three year old boy with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central incisors were reinforced using modified omega post and followed by using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes shape, function, and esthetics.

  18. Single anterior tooth restoration using a self-etching adhesive system and a reinforced microfill composite.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Norman

    2003-08-01

    Treatment for a single discolored anterior tooth may involve placement of a direct composite veneer to enhance a patient's smile and mask underlying discoloration. Among the challenges clinicians may face in this endeavor are the selection of suitable composite materials, application of an adhesive bonding system, and re-creation of the natural shade variations inherent in natural teeth. This article discusses the characteristics and placement protocol for a recently introduced self-etching adhesive system and a reinforced microfill composite when they are used to restore a single discolored central incisor.

  19. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Nayara; Souza-Flamini, Luis Eduardo; Mendonça, Isabela Lima; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair. PMID:28119787

  20. Interdisciplinary Management of Maxillary Canine Buccal Ectopia Associated with Peg Shaped Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Sawhny, Asheesh

    2016-01-01

    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. The purpose of this report is to illustrate an interdisciplinary approach involving both orthodontic management and conservative tooth restoration. The case was treated through an orthodontic nonextraction fixed appliance mechanotherapy for successful alignment of buccally ectopic upper left canine followed by a conservative direct composite tooth buildup of peg lateral incisor associated with the upper left ectopic canine in a 16-year-old adolescent North Indian female. Posttreatment records demonstrated good alignment of the displaced tooth and restoration of normal anatomy of the peg shaped lateral incisor. PMID:27725890

  1. Early Rehabilitation of Incisors with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II - Case Report.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Ana Paula Ca; Rosa, Maíra Mery; Noschang, Ricardo At; Almeida, Izabel Cs

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta is an phenotypic alteration in the formation of the organic matrix. It causes the rapid and progressive wear of tooth structure, which may compromise tooth function and aesthetics. This is a case of a 1y, 8m-old child with dentinogenesis imperfecta. All teeth presented with an opalescent appearance and grayish color hue. Compromised structural integrity was noted as excessive wear and fracturing of the enamel from the dentin layer. With low doses of midazolam (oral) and chloral hydrate (rectal) administration, in a hospital environment, sedation was used to aid full mouth rehabilitation. Direct bonded restorations were performed on primary maxillary incisors and indirect restorations, pre-made on a plaster model using composite resin, were performed on primary mandibular incisors. After 32 months, we observed that diagnosis and early treatment allowed preventive maintenance of the patient's primary dentition, maintaining tooth function and esthetics.

  2. Perception of the esthetic impact of mandibular incisor extraction treatment on laypersons, dental professionals, and dental students.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Couto, Felipe Santos; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; de Freitas, Lívia Maria Andrade; de Souza, Ricardo Alves; Dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the degree of perception of laypersons, dental professionals, and dental students regarding dental esthetics in cases with mandibular central incisor extraction. Using a smile photograph of a person with normal occlusion and all teeth, modifications were made to reflect the extraction of a mandibular incisor of various compositions and sizes. For this purpose a program specifically for image manipulation (Adobe Photoshop CS3, Adobe Systems Inc) was used. After manipulation the images were printed on photographic paper, attached to a questionnaire and distributed to laypersons, dental professionals, and dental students (n  =  90) to evaluate the degree of perception and esthetic using a scale of attractiveness, where 0  =  hardly attractive, 5  =  attractive, and 10  =  very attractive. The differences between examiners were checked by the Mann-Whitney test. All the statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. The results demonstrated the skill of the dental professionals and dental students in perceiving the difference between cases of normal occlusion and cases where an incisor was lacking (P < .05). The photograph in which the lateral incisors were shown to be larger than the central incisor was the one that obtained the highest value among the cases of extraction in all groups of evaluators. It can be concluded that dental professionals and dental students are more skillful at identifying deviation from normality. In addition, central incisor extraction should always be discarded when there are other treatment options available.

  3. Age estimation from pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary incisors among Egyptians using dental radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Jaklin Fekri; Fawzy, Irene Atef; Habib, Sahar Refaat; Ali, Magdy Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Age estimation from dental radiographs is a non-destructive, simple method to obtain information. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of age estimation from Egyptians' incisors radiographs. 144 periapical radiographs of maxillary (central & lateral) incisors (both sexes) aged 12-60 were used. Digital camera was used to image the radiographs. Images were computed and pulp/tooth area ratios were determined by AutoCAD Program. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis which showed statistically significant correlation (r = 0.23 &P = 0.006 for maxillary central incisors and r = -0.2 &P = 0.05 for maxillary lateral incisors) between age and pulp tooth area ratio. Linear regression equations were determined separately for both central and lateral incisors along with the corresponding Standard Error of Estimate, which ranged from 1.2 to 5.08 years. Consequently, it was concluded that pulp/tooth area ratios of incisors are reliable for estimation of age among Egyptians in forensic work.

  4. Precision of marginal adaptation of the incisor and molar Procera allceram crown copings.

    PubMed

    Pilathadka, S; Slezák, R; Srinivasan, V; Ivancáková, R

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this in vitro study was to compare the absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) of CAD/CAM produced Procera AllCeram crown copings, fabricated on die stone master models of two different tooth groups, incisor and molar. Two maxillary central incisors and two first molars typodont teeth were prepared with 0.8 mm of circumferential chamfer, duplicated 9 times to obtain 36 die stone models and allotted into three groups of 12 models (incisors = 6 & molars = 6). Procera AllCeram 0.6 mm copings were fixed with zinc phosphate (AZ), glass ionomer (AG) and resin (AR) cement accordingly under 50 N static finger force. The AMDs were measured using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) on four axial walls with 4 measurements on each wall to obtain 16 readings for one tooth. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The analysis did not find any significant differences in the mean AMD of incisor and molar crown copings, and in different axial surfaces too (p < or = 0.05). Recorded mean AMD of incisor copings were AZ group 59 microm, AG 37.9 microm, and AR 44.4 microm and molar copings were AZ 48.8 microm, AG 27 microm, and AR 50.2 microm. It can be concluded that AMD of Procera AllCeram copings were within accepted level of 100 microm. Incisors showed higher AMD than molars. Molars demonstrated the higher AMD on mid-distal and mid-lingual surfaces whereas for incisor it was mid-buccal and mid-lingual surface.

  5. Bodily labializing lateral incisors: 3D analysis using finite element method.

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar

    2013-01-01

    Among all tooth types and movements, bodily labializing the upper lateral incisors is a challenging one. The main goal of this study is to introduce and analyze a method to labialize palatally erupted lateral incisors. Five three dimensional finite element models were designed in SolidWorks 2010 of a segment of maxilla containing the upper left anterior teeth (with the lateral incisor in palatal position), their brackets, their PDLs, the spongy and cortical bone. A segment of 0.016 wire passing through the central incisor and canine brackets (bypassing the lateral incisor bracket) and a designed hook in the lateral incisor bracket (which comprises an inventory approach/design to treat a palatally erupted tooth). The hook and vertical bypassed segment height were 8, 10, 11.5 (stage 1), 9.5 (stage 2) and 9.45 mm (stage 3). Two equal forces (0.15 N each) were applied. Tooth displacements were recorded. A hook length of 8 mm resulted in a tipping movement (apical = -7.78 × 10(-5) mm; incisal = 3.8 × 10(4) mm). The other two caused root movement. Stage 2 (hook = 9.5 mm) resulted in root movement (-1.4 × 10(-4) mm in incisal; 1.58 × 10(4) mm in apical area). Hook length = 9.45 produced bodily movement (incisal = 7.1 × 10(5) mm; apical = 6.9 × 10(5) mm). A definite length of the hook was shown to produce bodily movement. This definite length of hook in combination with the same length of bypassed wire can be applied to produce bodily movement of the lateral incisor. An intrusive component can also be added.

  6. A jig for measuring incisor inclination.

    PubMed

    Shah, N; Spary, D J; Rock, W P

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to design and construct a jig for measuring the inclination of the upper incisors to the maxillary plane and of the lower incisors to the mandibular plane. After several prototypes had been tested, the required properties for a successful jig were identified and a simple inexpensive device was produced. Measurements obtained when using the jig on 51 subjects were compared with cephalometric values by means of regression analysis. This revealed that measurements obtained using the jig against the upper and then the lower incisor crowns could be converted to cephalometric incisor angulations with 96 per cent accuracy to 10 degrees, by adding 23 and 3 degrees, respectively. The jig was accurate to 5 degrees on 69 per cent of occasions for the upper teeth. The 5 degrees accuracy with the lower incisors was only 27 per cent, although over a 6 degree range it improved to 78 per cent. For upper and lower tooth measurements combined, the jig was accurate to within 6 degrees on 75 per cent of occasions.

  7. [Clinical management of mandibular incisors with multiple root canals using dental operating microscope].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiong; Liu, Hong-yan; Ling, Jun-qi; Luo, Dan-feng

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the role of dental operating microscope in clinical treatment of lower incisors with multiple root canals. 143 mandibular incisors in 128 patients were treated endodontically. Two kinds of preoperative radiographs were taken for each tooth, using straight projection and eccentric projection. The root canal morphology was recorded according to Vertucci's classification. Under dental operating microscope, the teeth with multiple root canals were shaped using Ni-Ti rotary instruments Hero 642, cleaned using sodium hypochlorite, and obturated with vertical condensation technique. The following information was recorded: The number of teeth that were found to have multiple canals in two kinds of preoperative radiographs, and when using and without using microscope. The efficiency of preparation and obturation was analyzed with radiographs before, during and after operation. The mandibular central incisor with one canal was 73.53% and multiple canals was 26.47% in treated teeth. The mandibular lateral incisor with one canal was 70.67% and multiple canals was 29.33% in treated teeth. By eccentric projection radiograph and treatment using microscope, more teeth with multiple canals were found. No complication was found during root canal preparation. 134 teeth were well filled and 9 showed slight over-filling. With dental operating microscope, the mandibular incisors with multiple root canals could be treated well in combination with rotary instrumentation and vertical condensation technique.

  8. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnapriya, V; Sriram, CH; Reddy, Maheshwar KR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surgical derotation is a method of placing a rotated tooth in normal alignment in a dental arch; surgically, immediately and permanently. It is a potentially convenient and cost-effective treatment modality as compared to conventional orthodontic procedure for rotated maxillary incisor with open apex. Here is a presentation of a severely rotated maxillary left permanent central incisor in a nine and half years old girl, with a radiographic evidence of immature root apex which was surgically derotated, orthodontically retroclined and intruded to its normal position. Postsurgical clinical and radiographic evaluation was done for a period of one and half years to confirm the vitality and continued physiological root formation of the affected tooth. How to cite this article: Dutta B, Krishnapriya V, Sriram CH, Reddy MKR. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):220-223. PMID:26604541

  9. Class I malocclusion treatment: influence of a missing mandibular incisor on anterior guidance.

    PubMed

    Barros, Sérgio Estelita C; Janson, Guilherme; Torres, Fernando César; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with a deep-overbite Angle Class I malocclusion, agenesis of a mandibular central incisor, and 2 supernumerary teeth, which caused impaction of the mandibular first premolars. The 15-year-old patient also had a convex profile, maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion, and deficiency of space for the correct alignment of teeth. Therefore, treatment consisted of fixed appliance therapy, cervical headgear, extraction of the supernumeraries and the mandibular and maxillary first premolars, and mesiodistal reduction of the maxillary incisors to solve the arch perimeter discrepancy as much as possible with interproximal stripping. This method of treatment significantly improved the patient's facial and dental esthetics and provided a good functional occlusion, despite the absence of a mandibular incisor, which generally impairs achieving adequate incisal guidance.

  10. Restoring primary anterior teeth: updated for 2014.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature associated with the techniques and materials for the restoration of primary anterior teeth and make clinical recommendations based upon the available literature. A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available to utilize for restoring primary incisors. Awareness of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material can enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are either some type of stainless steel or zirconia crown. There is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, the amount of tooth structure remaining, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables that affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative solution is chosen.

  11. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  12. Reversal of Diet-Induced Obesity Increases Insulin Transport into Cerebrospinal Fluid and Restores Sensitivity to the Anorexic Action of Central Insulin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; Liu, Min; Reedy, Brianne M.; D'Alessio, David A.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces the ability of centrally administered insulin to reduce feeding behavior and also reduces the transport of insulin from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS). The current study was designed to determine whether reversal of high-fat DIO restores the anorexic efficacy of central insulin and whether this is accompanied by restoration of the compromised insulin transport. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially maintained on either a low-fat chow diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). After 22 weeks, half of the animals on the HFD were changed to the LFD, whereas the other half continued on the HFD for an additional 8 weeks, such that there were 3 groups: 1) a LFD control group (Con; n = 18), 2) a HFD-fed, DIO group (n = 17), and 3) a HFD to LFD, DIO-reversal group (DIO-rev; n = 18). The DIO reversal resulted in a significant reduction of body weight and epididymal fat weight relative to the DIO group. Acute central insulin administration (8 mU) reduced food intake and caused weight loss in Con and DIO-rev but not DIO rats. Fasting cerebrospinal fluid insulin was higher in DIO than Con animals. However, after a peripheral bolus injection of insulin, cerebrospinal fluid insulin increased in Con and DIO-rev rats but not in the DIO group. These data provide support for previous reports that DIO inhibits both the central effects of insulin and insulin's transport to the CNS. Importantly, DIO-rev restored sensitivity to the effects of central insulin on food intake and insulin transport into the CNS. PMID:23337529

  13. Treatment modalities for primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, S J

    1989-10-01

    The present article reviewed some of the treatment modalities for restoring anterior teeth in the primary dentition. It divided the treatment types into three classifications based on the severity of the carious lesions or injury. Treatments that are not usually found in current textbooks were outlined and commented upon. It was suggested that dentists have to consider a wide range of treatment options since factors such as the age of the child, ability to cope with treatment and cost of treatment have to be taken into account.

  14. Restorative orthodontic treatment approach in the correction of anterior proclination in special cases (Port Harcourt-Onyeaso appliance): two case reports.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, E I; Onyeaso, C O; Aikins, E A

    2013-12-01

    Removable orthodontic appliance may be indicated in the management of anterior proclination and increased overjet especially in the younger age group. Generally, proclined maxillary incisors are prone to trauma in young active children. This makes prompt preventive and interceptive intervention very necessary. This condition is complicated in the event of associated trauma to such tooth/teeth that could require orthodontic tooth movement. The first report involves a 12-year-old boy who presented three years ago with loss of his two central incisors due to traumatic avulsion. The second report is a 10- year-old boy who presented a year ago with a dento alveolar abscess in relation to a long standing Ellis class III and class II fractures on the maxillary right and left central incisors, respectively. In both cases two different innovative management procedures were undertaken which combined restorative and orthodontic procedures concurrently, which helped the children psychologically in school. The first has been discharged to continue with the appliance as both a retainer and a denture while the second has completed an acceptable dental restoration and is still receiving orthodontic care with satisfactory progress. These innovative procedures yielded good results. Both patients and parents were very co-operative and appreciative of the outcomes.

  15. Esthetic rehabilitation of severely decayed primary incisors using glass fiber reinforced composite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Metha, Deepak; Gulati, Akanksha; Basappa, N; Raju, O S

    2012-01-01

    Restoration of primary maxillary incisors severely damaged by caries or trauma is a clinical challenge in pediatric dental clinics. Early childhood caries is observed in approximately half the child population. In the past, the only treatment option would have been to extract the affected teeth and replace them with prosthetic substitutes. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, alternative approaches in treating these teeth have been proposed. The purpose of this paper was to describe the rehabilitation of primary anterior teeth in a 5-year-old patient using glass fiber reinforced composite resin as an intracanal post.

  16. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and defect characteristics in Iraqi children.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Morgan, Michael; Mariño, Rodrigo; Bailey, Denise; Manton, David

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND.  Little prevalence data relating to molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) exist for Middle East populations. AIM.  To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical features of MIH in school-aged children residing in Mosul City, Iraq. DESIGN.  A cluster sample of 823 7- to 9-year-old children had their first permanent molars and incisors (index teeth) evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria for MIH. The examinations were conducted at schools by a calibrated examiner. RESULTS.  Of the children examined, 177 (21.5%) had hypomineralisation defects in at least one index tooth, 153 (18.6%) had at least one affected first molar or first molars and incisors and were considered as having MIH. The most commonly affected teeth were maxillary molars. Demarcated creamy white opacities were the most frequent lesion type. Dental restorations and tooth extraction because of MIH were uncommon. Children with three or more affected teeth were 3.7 times more likely to have enamel breakdown when compared with those children having only one or two affected teeth. CONCLUSIONS.  Molar incisor hypomineralisation was common amongst Iraqi children. Demarcated opacities were more prevalent than breakdown. The severity of the lesions increased with the number of affected teeth. The more severe the defect, the greater the involved tooth surface area.

  17. A clinical study of formocresol pulpotomy versus root canal therapy of vital primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Gajan, Esrafil Balayi

    2008-01-01

    Pulpotomy of primary incisors is a serious challenge due to the lack of a distinct boundary between the coronal and the radicular pulp and the inaccuracy of the clinical indication criteria. The aim of the present study is the clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpotomy versus root canal therapy (RCT) of vital primary incisors. A total of 100 incisors in 50 patients (female: 27, male: 23) aged 3-4 years were allocated to formocresol pulpotomy (45 teeth) and RCT (46 teeth) using zinc oxide-eugenol. The radiographic and clinical evaluation of treatment outcomes was performed at 12 and 24 months post-operatively. A history of spontaneous pain, missing restorations, recurrent caries, mobility and percussion sensitivity, parulis or fistula, erythema, and swelling were recorded. Data analysis was performed based on two sample proportional test. The clinical success rate was 86.9% for pulpotomy and 95.6% for RCT (P > 0.05). The radiographic assessment exhibited no pathologic signs in 76.08% of pulpotomy group and 91.3% of RCT group and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The most common pathologic finding was periodontal widening followed by external/internal root resorption. Periapical radiolucency and fistula in pulpotomized teeth was significantly higher than in RCT-treated teeth (P < 0.05) It may be concluded that the root canal therapy of vital primary incisors may be efficiently substituted for the pulpotomy of these teeth.

  18. Morphological features of the maxillary incisors roots and relationship with neighbouring anatomical structures: possible implications in endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Taschieri, S; Weinstein, T; Rosano, G; Del Fabbro, M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the root apex of the upper incisors and neighbouring anatomical structures as well as the morphology of the root-end foramen after apicoectomy. Fifty-seven patients requiring endodontic surgical treatment for a maxillary anterior root were enrolled. A preoperative diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan was analysed to determine: the distance between the anterior wall of the nasopalatine duct and the central (CI-ND) incisor root 4mm from the apex; and the distance between the floor of the nasal cavity and the tip of either the central (CI-NF) or the lateral (LI-NF) incisor root. After apicoectomy, root-end foramen endoscopic pictures were taken in order to characterize their morphology. Fifty-nine central and 26 lateral incisors were evaluated. The average CI-ND was 4.71 ± 1.26 (SD) mm. The average CI-NF was 10.62 ± 2.25 mm. The average LI-NF was 13.05 ± 2.43 mm. The foramen shape after apicoectomy was ovoid to circular in about 90% of cases in both central and lateral incisors. A sound knowledge of the anatomical relationships at the surgical site is essential for the clinician to perform a safe endodontic surgical procedure. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term photographic and radiographic assessment of bonded resin composite strip crowns for primary incisors: results after 3 years.

    PubMed

    Kupietzky, Ari; Waggoner, William E; Galea, Jon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the photographic and radiographic success of the treatment of maxillary anterior primary incisors with composite resin strip crowns (SCs) placed in a private-practice setting after a minimum of 18 months. This was a retrospective, clinical study of patients who had SCs placed on primary maxillary incisors, returned for at least one 18-month recall examination, and whose parents consented to participate in the study. Radiographic and photographic examinations were used for evaluation. Two evaluators rated the images independently. One hundred forty-five restorations, placed in 52 children, were evaluated. The evaluations were performed after the crowns had been in place for an average of 31.3 months. None of the restorations were totally lost: 20% were rated as having lost some resin material, resulting in an 80% overall retention rate; 92% of the teeth demonstrated healthy pulps; 6% had some pulpal changes, but did not require immediate attention. Only 2 teeth showed radiographic evidence of pulpal pathology requiring treatment. SCs performed well for restoring primary incisors with large or multisurface caries for periods of over 3 years. This study suggests that SCs are likely to be successful and may be indicated as an excellent treatment choice for carious primary incisors with adequate tooth structure after caries removal, especially if esthetic concerns predominate.

  20. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  1. Analysis of the golden proportion and width/height ratios of maxillary anterior dentition in patients with lateral incisor agenesis.

    PubMed

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; de-Marchi, Luciana Manzotti; Gribel, Bruno Frazão; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-12-01

      The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of the golden proportion (GP) in the facial view tooth-to-tooth width proportion of the six maxillary anterior teeth and to evaluate the width/height (W/H) ratios of the incisors of patients with maxillary lateral incisor (LI) agenesis treated either with implants or orthodontically (by moving canines into the position of the laterals, recontouring them, and placing composite restorations over the repositioned teeth).   Forty-eight patients with LI agenesis were divided into four experimental groups: unilateral recontouring group (N = 10), bilateral recontouring group (BRG, N = 18), unilateral implant group (UIG, N = 10), bilateral implant group (N = 10), and a control group (CG, N = 25) of patients without agenesis. GP ratios were determined on patients' dental casts placed over Levin's grids, whereas W/H ratios were measured directly on the casts and a millimeter ruler to determine these distances. Statistical analysis was performed with Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (p < 0.05).   The incidence of GP in the tooth-to-tooth width proportions was significantly different between groups and more commonly found between centrals and laterals than between laterals and canines. The GP was more likely to be observed in the BRG, UIG, and CG. The results demonstrated that the GP was not found to be present in the majority of the cases treated with maxillary agenesis, regardless of the method of treatment. The mean W/H ratios of the laterals ranged between 0.75 and 0.90.   Although the GP may be a useful diagnostic guide, it was not observed in the majority of esthetic outcomes of patients treated with maxillary LI agenesis in this study. The assessment of the golden proportion and width/height ratio of upper anterior teeth in patients with upper lateral incisor agenesis treated with either implants or tooth re-contouring may assist dentists and

  2. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  3. The distribution of magnesium in developing rat incisor dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfort, J.; Driessens, F.C.; Heijligers, H.J.; Beertsen, W. )

    1991-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that rat incisor dentin contains a considerable amount of magnesium that is distributed heterogeneously. The cementum-related dentin, especially its incisal portion, is richest in magnesium. It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the changes that occur in the magnesium content during dentin maturation. Cross-sections were prepared from rat incisors at the apical, middle, and incisal levels. By means of an electron microprobe, tracings were made of the Ca-, Mg-, and P- signal frequencies. Comparison of corresponding dentin layers within and between the cross-sections showed that the Mg/P molar ratio was always higher in the cementum-related dentin (CRD) than in the enamel-related dentin (ERD) and increased from the apex toward the incisal edge. Especially in the incisal cross-section, an increase in Mg/P was found from the older (peripheral) toward the younger (central) dentin layers. As the Mg/P ratio varied from 0.07 to 0.33, the Ca/P ratio was found to fluctuate from 1.48 to 1.15. The two ratios appeared to be highly correlated (r = -0.97; p less than 0.001), suggesting that Mg replaces Ca and is bound to phosphate.

  4. Traumatic displacement of maxillary permanent incisor into the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Bueno, Sebastião Cristian; da Silveira, Daniel Trivelato; Custódio, Antônio Luís Neto

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe a case of unviable alveolar repositioning of an intruded tooth into the nasal cavity and to bring the subject of intrusive tooth injury among patients with dentoalveolar fractures to the attention of trauma surgeons. A 26-year-old male was involved in a car accident and crashed his mouth against the dashboard due to sudden deceleration. Intraoral examination revealed an anterior maxillary dentoalveolar fracture and absence of the central maxillary incisors, right lateral maxillary incisor, and left maxillary canine. Computed tomography showed a dislocated tooth in the nasal cavity. The "missing" left maxillary canine was easily recovered from the floor of the left nostril. Because complete dislocation of a tooth can cause a frontal sinus abscess, an airway complication, a respiratory tract obstruction, and a complicated lung abscess or sinusitis, anytime a tooth is not accounted for after a dentoalveolar trauma, the possibility that it has been fully intruded should be considered. Computed tomographic scan should be a routine diagnostic study in all cases with associated missing anatomical structures in the oral and maxillofacial region. The need to involve the dental professional in the initial assessment of dental trauma in emergency rooms in hospitals is important in order to identify how many teeth might be missing after dental trauma and to correctly reposition the avulsed teeth when possible.

  5. Data for projected impacts of climate, urbanization, water management, and wetland restoration on waterbird habitat in California’s Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    he Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there.  Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats.  Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial.  Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006–2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework.  Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario.  Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time.  After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the “existing” landscape most years.  The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats.  This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning.  Results indicate that increased wetland

  6. Molars and incisors: show your microarray IDs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGFβ/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NFκB complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in

  7. Zirconia crowns for rehabilitation of decayed primary incisors: an esthetic alternative.

    PubMed

    Ashima, G; Sarabjot, K Bhatia; Gauba, K; Mittal, H C

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic management of extensively decayed primary maxillary anterior teeth requiring full coronal coverage restoration is usually challenging to the pediatric dentists especially in very young children. Many esthetic options have been tried over the years each having its own advantages, disadvantages and associated technical, functional or esthetic limitations. Zirconia crowns have provided a treatment alternative to address the esthetic concerns and ease of placement of extra-coronal restorations on primary anterior teeth. The present article presents a case where grossly decayed maxillary primary incisors were restored esthetically and functionally with ready made zirconia crowns (ZIRKIZ, HASS Corp; Korea). After endodontic treatment the decayed teeth were restored with zirconia crowns. Over a 30 months period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. Dealing with esthetic needs in children with extensive loss of tooth structure, using Zirconia crowns would be practical and successful. The treatment described is simple and effective and represents a promising alternative for rehabilitation of decayed primary teeth.

  8. Relationship between maxillary canine intra-alveolar position and maxillary incisor angulation: a cone beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Baratieri, Carolina; Canongia, Ana Carolina Portes; Bolognese, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the angulation and inclination of permanent maxillary incisors and to correlate the results to the intra-alveolar permanent maxillary canine position during mixed dentition, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The subjects were 30 children aged 7 to 10 years in the inter-transitory period of mixed dentition (permanent incisors and first molars erupted; primary canines, first and second molars erupted; and permanent canines intraosseous). The CBCT scans were obtained and, using the Dolphin Imaging(®) software - version 11.0, 3D images were reconstructed and the measurements were performed. The angulation of the right and left lateral and central maxillary incisors was measured in relation to the sagittal plane and their inclination was measured in relation to the coronal plane. The intra-alveolar height of the right and left maxillary canines was measured from the cusp tip to the axial plane. Pearson's correlation at 5% significance level showed positive correlation between the canine height and the lateral incisor angulation. It was concluded that the intra-alveolar position of the maxillary canines has a direct influence on the angulation of maxillary incisors, especially the lateral incisors.

  9. Pulp canal obliteration in an unerupted permanent incisor following trauma to its primary predecessor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Moskovitz, Moti; Moshonov, Joshua; Holan, Gideon

    2004-06-01

    Trauma to a primary tooth may result in damage to the underlying developing permanent tooth bud because of the close proximity between the root of the primary tooth and its permanent successor. We report an unusual case where injury to the primary dentition resulted in pulp canal obliteration (PCO) of a permanent maxillary central incisor prior to its eruption. The other permanent maxillary central incisor was diagnosed as malformed because of trauma to the primary dentition at an earlier age. The occurrences of PCO or crown malformation dose not routinely disrupt the eruption of those teeth. Periodic assessment is required to determine the need for endodontic intervention. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  10. Angle Class I malocclusion treated with lower incisor extraction.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Vanessa Leal Tavares

    2013-01-01

    In planning orthodontic cases that include extractions as an alternative to solve the problem of negative space discrepancy, the critical decision is to determine which teeth will be extracted. Several aspects must be considered, such as periodontal health, orthodontic mechanics, functional and esthetic alterations, and treatment stability. Despite controversies, extraction of teeth to solve dental crowding is a therapy that has been used for decades. Premolar extractions are the most common, but there are situations in which atypical extractions facilitate mechanics, preserve periodontal health and favor maintenance of the facial profile, which tends to unfavorably change due to facial changes with age. The extraction of a lower incisor, in selected cases, is an effective approach, and literature describes greater post-treatment stability when compared with premolar extractions. This article reports the clinical case of a patient with Angle Class I malocclusion and upper and lower anterior crowding, a balanced face and harmonious facial profile. The presence of gingival and bone recession limited large orthodontic movements. The molars and premolars were well occluded, and the discrepancy was mainly concentrated in the anterior region of the lower dental arch. The extraction of a lower incisor in the most ectopic position and with compromised periodontium, associated with interproximal stripping in the upper and lower arches, was the alternative of choice for this treatment, which restored function, providing improved periodontal health, maintained facial esthetics and allowed finishing with a stable and balanced occlusion. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diplomate title.

  11. Central insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) restores whole-body insulin action in a model of age-related insulin resistance and IGF-1 decline.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Derek M; Farias Quipildor, Gabriela; Mao, Kai; Zhang, Xueying; Wan, Junxiang; Apontes, Pasha; Cohen, Pinchas; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-02-01

    Low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is associated with improved longevity, but is paradoxically linked with several age-related diseases in humans. Insulin-like growth factor-1 has proven to be particularly beneficial to the brain, where it confers protection against features of neuronal and cognitive decline. While aging is characterized by central insulin resistance in the face of hyperinsulinemia, the somatotropic axis markedly declines in older humans. Thus, we hypothesized that increasing IGF-1 in the brain may prove to be a novel therapeutic alternative to overcome central insulin resistance and restore whole-body insulin action in aging. Utilizing hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we show that old insulin-resistant rats with age-related declines in IGF-1 level demonstrate markedly improved whole-body insulin action, when treated with central IGF-1, as compared to central vehicle or insulin (P < 0.05). Furthermore, central IGF-1, but not insulin, suppressed hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal rates in aging rats (P < 0.05). Taken together, IGF-1 action in the brain and periphery provides a 'balance' between its beneficial and detrimental actions. Therefore, we propose that strategies aimed at 'tipping the balance' of IGF-1 action centrally are the optimal approach to achieve healthy aging and longevity in humans.

  12. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Y; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  13. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  14. Immediate provisional restoration of implant placed using flapless surgery and ridge mapping. Case report.

    PubMed

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2011-04-01

    Loss of an anterior tooth as the result of trauma is relatively common, especially in the young. Orthodontic treatment is not always the definitive therapy of choice; instead, an implant can be placed to replace the missing tooth. This article describes the case of a 19-year-old woman whose maxillary left central incisor was replaced by an immediately restored dental implant, placed using flapless surgery. The implant achieved excellent primary stability, as determined by resonance frequency analysis, so it was immediately restored with a provisional acrylic resin crown in no centric occlusion. This case report supports the use of single implants for replacing a missing anterior tooth where esthetics are a priority.

  15. Comparison of the marginal fit of pressable ceramic to metal ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jason E; Goldstein, Gary R; Hittelman, Eugene L; Clark, Elizabeth A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal adaptation of a pressed ceramic material, when used with and without a metal substructure, to a traditional feldspathic porcelain-fused-to-metal restoration with a porcelain butt margin. A maxillary central incisor typodont tooth was prepared with a 1.5 mm 360 degrees shoulder with rounded internal line angle, and 30 polyether impressions were made. Dies were poured in type IV dental stone, and 30 restorations were fabricated: 10 metal ceramic restorations (MCR) with porcelain butt joints, 10 pressed to metal restorations (PTM), and 10 all-ceramic restorations (PCR). All restorations were evaluated on their respective dies at 45x magnification using an Olympus SZX-12, measurements of the marginal openings were made, and ANOVA and Scheffé post hoc tests were used to evaluate the data. The mean marginal opening was 72.2 +/- 5.9 microm for MCR, 49.0 +/- 5.9 microm for PTM, and 55.8 +/- 5.9 microm for PCR. The post hoc tests showed that there was a statistical difference between the marginal adaptation of the PTM and MCR groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in marginal adaptation between the PTM and the PCR groups, or the PCR and the MCR groups. The PTM group demonstrated a smaller mean marginal opening than the MCR group. The mean marginal openings of all three groups were within a clinically acceptable range.

  16. Risk factors associated with external apical root resorption of the maxillary incisors: a 15-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rakhshan, Vahid; Nateghian, Nazanin; Ordoubazari, Morteza

    2012-05-01

    To determine the possible risk factors for external apical resorption (EARR) of the maxillary incisors. Panoramic radiographs of 132 orthodontic patients with a mean age of 16.9 +/- 3.6 years were selected from two practice centres in Tehran. The radiographs were taken between 1990 and 2005 and 63.6% of the subjects were female. Mean, standard deviation and distribution of EARR for various variables were assessed. Prevalence significance, as well as differences between frequency distributions of clinical EARR (> or = 1.2 mm) between genders, treatment plans (extraction/ non-extraction), initial overjet and overbite magnitude, and incisor types (centrals/laterals) were evaluated by the chi-squared test. The mean resorption rates on central and lateral incisors were compared using the independent-samples t-test. Associations between EARR with the age, duration of treatment, pretreatment overjet and overbite were assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. The reliability of the method was determined by remeasuring 117 randomly selected incisors and determining the associations between both sets of measurements with the Pearson's correlation coefficients. The prevalence of EARR, and clinical EARR (> or = 1.2 mm) were 91.8% and 44.78% respectively. The average of EARR was 1.377 +/- 1.214 mm, or 8.65 +/- 8.021% of pretreatment root lengths. The prevalence of clinical EARR was significantly higher in extraction cases, cases with greater initial overjet and on lateral incisors. Using the t-test, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the extent of resorption between genders (higher in females), treatment plans (higher in extraction cases) and incisor types (greater on lateral incisors). Longer treatment times and excessive initial overjet were correlated with higher EARR levels (p < 0.05, r < 0.2). Factors related to premolar extraction, initial ovejet size, treatment time and being female may be correlated with higher EARR. Clinically significant

  17. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    PubMed

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p <0.05. There is correlation between TVP and NB line (NB) (0.8614), Frankfort mandibular incisor angle (FMIA) (0.8894), IMPA (0.6351), Apo line (Apo) (0.609), IMPACOM (0.8895) and McHorris angle (MH) (0.7769). ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the means for the 7 variables with 95% confidence level, P=0.0001. The multiple range test showed no significant difference among means: APoNB (0.88), IMPAMH (0.36), IMPANB (0.65), FMIAIMPACOM (0.01), FMIATVP (0.18), TVPIMPACOM (0.17). There was correlation among all reference planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination.

  18. Evaluation of scraping treatments to restore initial infiltration capacity of three artificial recharge projects in central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Sayed-Farhad; Rezai, Vafa

    A limiting factor in developing artificial recharge of groundwater is clogging of the soil surface and consequent reduction of infiltration rates. In order to evaluate the degree of improving infiltration rates by scraping away various amounts of the upper soil materials, a study was conducted at three artificial recharge sites (Kohrouyeh, Bagh-Sorkh, and Kachak) in Isfahan Province, central Iran. Five treatments (T1-T5) were considered. Infiltration was measured: T1, on deposited sediment layer; T2, after removing the sediments; T3, scraping of sediments and 5cm of soil; T4, scraping of sediments and 10cm of soil; and T5, removing sediments and 15cm of soil. Initial soil-moisture content of the sites ranged from 1.0-2.87% for Kohrouyeh, 1.18-3.47% for Bagh-Sorkh, and 1.89-3.93% for Kachak. The main texture of the soils was sandy loam. Clay particles have penetrated to a depth of more than 40cm in some of the recharge basins. A significant increase in final infiltration rate of T5 as compared to T1 treatment was observed for all recharge sites. The final infiltration rates of T1 and T5 treatments for Kohrouyeh, Bagh-Sorkh, and Kachak sites were 0.35, 7.9; 1.22, 12.3; and 0.93, 6.2cm/h, respectively. The differences between infiltration rates of T2, T3, and T4 treatments were not statistically significant. It is concluded that on average, the infiltration capacity of the untreated recharge facilities have reached 20.3% of the original values, and that scraping the top sediment layer and 15cm of topsoil could restore 68.3% of the initial infiltration capacity. Résumé Un facteur limitant lorsqu'on développe la recharge artificielle d'une nappe est le colmatage de la surface du sol et la réduction concomitante des taux d'infiltration. Afin d'évaluer le degré d'amélioration de l'infiltration en grattant de différentes manières la surface du sol, une étude a été conduite sur trois sites de recharge artificielle (Kohrouyeh, Bagh-Sorkh et Kachak) dans la

  19. Multi-disciplinary management of a patient with a post-traumatised incisor presenting concurrent replacement and inflammatory resorption: a case report.

    PubMed

    Doğramaci, Esma J; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Jonest, Allan G

    2015-11-01

    This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of a young male who presented with a Class I incisor relationship and bi-maxillary dento-alveolar protrusion on a Class I skeletal base. The occlusion was complicated by an ankylosed and moderately infra-positioned upper left permanent central incisor, an anterior crossbite, crowding, a reduced overbite and centreline discrepancy. The incisor was traumatised and avulsed when the root was immature and the tooth was reimplanted with delay. On referral for orthodontic treatment at age 11 .5 years, the upper left central incisor was experiencing ankylosis-related (osseous replacement) resorption and external root resorption simultaneously. Aside from the orthodontic aims, it was important to address the disrupted alveolar development to facilitate later prosthodontic replacement of the upper left permanent central incisor by idealising the inter-coronal and inter-radicular spaces. Treatment consisted of fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with the extraction of all second premolars and the upper left permanent central incisor with episodic surgical curettage. An upper Hawlix retainer was provided immediately at debond and a cantilevered resin-retained bridge was placed four months later.

  20. Autotransplantation of mesiodens for missing maxillary lateral incisor with cone-beam CT-fabricated model and orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Chang, S W; Perinpanayagam, H; Yoo, Y J; Lim, S M; Oh, S R; Gu, Y; Ahn, S J; Kum, K-Y

    2014-09-01

    Autotransplantation is a viable treatment option for a missing tooth when there is a suitable donor, especially in adolescents with remaining facial growth. This report presents the aesthetic restoration of a missing maxillary lateral incisor through orthodontic treatment and autotransplantation of a mesiodens using a CBCT-fabricated rapid-prototyping model. A 14-year-old male patient with a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor was referred from the Department of Orthodontics. The teeth were moved orthodontically to regain space for the missing lateral incisor and to close the space of the mesiodens after transplantation. A replica of the donor tooth was fabricated from a cone-beam computed tomography scan through a rapid-prototyping machine before autotransplantation surgery. The model was used to create a socket for the graft tooth, thereby shortening the extra-oral time and minimizing the damage to the root surface. After transplantation and orthodontic tooth movement, the mesiodens was finally restored with an aesthetic laminate restoration. Over 3 years, the aesthetics remained excellent, and the transplant functioned normally without any signs or symptoms of root resorption. Missing anterior teeth may be replaced through a combination of orthodontics, autotransplantation with a rapid-prototyping model and prosthodontic restoration, in growing patients. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mandibular incisor position for English consonant sounds.

    PubMed

    Burnett, C A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mandibular incisor positions for the 24 consonant sounds of the English language. Further aims were to determine if the incisor format for each sound is affected by its position in a word, or by combination with an open or closed vowel. A total of 30 young adult subjects had their incisal positions determined using an electrognathographic technique during performance of a number of speech tests. The mean values of the 24 consonants, in the vertical direction, showed a range from the intercuspal position of 2.5 mm for a sibilant sound to 11.7 mm for the /H/ sound, and an anteroposterior range of 1.4 mm anterior for a sibilant sound to 1.8 mm posterior for the /M/ sound. The range in the mean lateral dimension was always less than 1 mm on either side of the midline. The placement of a sound in the initial or final position in a word had no effect on the incisal position. The degree of vertical opening was significantly greater for 8 of the consonant sounds when in combination with an open vowel sound. The anteroposterior and lateral positions were unaffected by vowel association. The incisor position for consonant sounds is unaffected by initial or final word placement. Some consonant sound positions are affected by combination with an open or closed vowel sound. Sibilant sounds produced a clinically acceptable measure of the most superior and anterior speaking positions in all subjects.

  2. The association between traumatic dental injuries and atypical external root resorption in maxillary primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Holan, Gideon; Yodko, Elizabeth; Sheinvald-Shusterman, Kineret

    2015-02-01

    Atypical root resorption (ARR), which is observed on radiographs of primary incisors, has been reported in the dental literature to result from digit sucking; thus ignoring any association between ARR and traumatic dental injuries (TDI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the contributions of sucking habits and TDI to external ARR in primary incisors. A history of dental trauma was assessed based on clinical and radiographic findings. Periapical radiographs of the premaxilla were evaluated for the presence of ARR. The presence or history of sucking habits was based on parents' report. Data were collected from files of 727 patients with a mean age of 52 months. Sixty-four children (8.8%) presented ARR in one or both central incisors. All 64 had experienced some type of TDI. Five hundred and forty-nine (76%) of the children had sucking habits; of them, 501 were pacifier-suckers and 48 digit suckers. Digit sucking was found in only 4 (6%) of the 64 children presenting ARR. These findings support the association of traumatic dental injury, and not of digit sucking, with ARR in primary incisors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. First records of talon cusps on baboon maxillary incisors argue for standardizing terminology and prompt a hypothesis of their formation.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Jason L; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2013-12-01

    Dental characters can provide vital clues for understanding intra- and intertaxonomic morphological variation and its underlying genetic and environmental components. However, the unambiguous identification of particular traits and their comparative study is often confounded by lack of consistent terminology in the relevant literature. This difficulty is exacerbated when the etiologies are not completely understood, as is the case with talon cusps. To date, research on talon cusps has focused on modern humans. In many instances, descriptions of talon cusps appear in clinical case studies focusing on their treatment and removal. What is lacking in those discussions, though, is a comparative framework, in which the occurrence of talon cusps in nonhuman primates, and possibly other mammals, is established and understood. Here, we report on a taloned upper central incisor of a wild baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) from South Africa. The anomalous incisor of this individual includes an exaggerated accessory cusp diagnosed as a Type II talon. Microcomputed tomographic and radiographic analyses show that the taloned cusp possesses enamel, dentin, and pulp. In addition, we identified an unclassifiable talon cusp on a central maxillary incisor of a baboon skull housed in the Smithsonian Institution's Natural History Museum collection. Our observations of talon cusps on baboon incisors demonstrate that, with regard to this phenomenon, systematic study of nonhuman primates is much needed, along with a consistent use of terminology in the anatomical and anthropological literature. Finally, we present a hypothesis of the formation of talon cusps on mammalian incisors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas.

  5. Non-carious cervical lesions: influence of morphology and load type on biomechanical behaviour of maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Soares, P V; Santos-Filho, P C F; Soares, C J; Faria, V L G; Naves, M F; Michael, J A; Kaidonis, J A; Ranjitkar, S; Townsend, G C

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of simulating two different loads on maxillary incisors displaying eight morphological types of non-carious cervical lesions, unrestored and restored with an adhesive restoration, by quantifying the stress distributions generated using finite element analysis. Virtual models of maxillary incisors were generated using the CAD software (RhinoCeros). After composing virtual dental and supporting structures with and without non-carious cervical lesions, each model was meshed using a control mesh device (ANSYS Finite Element Analysis Software). All of the virtual models were subjected to two load types, oblique load and vertical load, to simulate occlusal forces of 100 N each. Comparisons were made between simulated teeth with non-carious cervical lesions, with and without composite resin restorations, and a simulated sound tooth. Data summarizing the stress distributions were obtained in MPa using von Mises criteria. Oblique loading on simulated non-carious cervical lesions resulted in greater stress concentration compared with vertical loading, and non-carious cervical lesions with acute angles displayed higher stress concentrations at the depth of the lesion. Restoring the lesions with an adhesive restoration, such as composite resin, appeared to overcome this stress concentration. Restoring NCCLs with adhesive restorative materials, such as a nanohybrid composite resin, appears to recover the biomechanical behaviour similar to sound teeth. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Developmental disturbance of an unerupted permanent incisor due to trauma to its predecessor.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Alessandra Cristina; Messias, Leciana Paula De Angelis; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disturbances of permanent teeth can result from trauma to primary teeth because of the proximity of the root of the primary teeth to their permanent successors. We describe the case of a 14-month-old boy who was referred to the baby clinic of the School of Dentistry, Universidad Estadual Paulista, Araçatuba, Brazil, after sustaining a severe trauma that led to intrusion of the right primary central incisor. Radiographic examination 4 years after the trauma showed a developing morphological change in the germ of the permanent successor. On eruption of the permanent central incisor, a crown malformation along with enamel hypoplasia was observed. We conclude that radiographic follow-up is indicated after trauma to monitor possible sequelae in the permanent successors even before their eruption

  7. CBCT analysis of root canal morphology in geminated primary incisor: a proposed classification and case report.

    PubMed

    Gandiban, Kanimozhi; Ramakrishnan, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic management of the geminated tooth requires a proper understanding of root canal morphology. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of complex endodontic morphology, and in revealing morphological variations, has been well documented in the literature. A case involving endodontic management of a geminated primary central incisor with CBCT is presented here. A CBCT analysis was vital in the diagnosis of this unusual root canal system and its successful endodontic treatment.

  8. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  9. Changes in anteroposterior position and inclination of the maxillary incisors after surgical-orthodontic treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bingshuang; Zhou, Yang; Lowe, Alan A; Li, Huiqi; Pliska, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anteroposterior (AP) position and inclination of the maxillary incisors in subjects with class I normal occlusion and a harmonious profile with patients with skeletal class III malocclusions, and to investigate the changes in maxillary incisor inclination and AP position after surgical-orthodontic treatment in class III patients. Sixty-five subjects (35 female and 30 male; mean age: 21.8 ± 3.89 years) with normal profiles and class I skeletal and dental patterns were selected as a control sample. Sixty-seven patients (38 female and 29 male; mean age: 21.3 ± 3.31 years) with skeletal and dental class III malocclusions who sought surgical-orthodontic treatment were used as the study sample. Subjects were asked to smile and profile photographs were taken with the head in a natural position and the maxillary central incisors and the forehead in full view; cephalograms were taken and superimposed on the profile pictures according to the outline of the forehead and nose. Forehead inclination, maxillary incisor facial inclination and the AP position of the maxillary central incisor relative to the forehead (FAFFA) were measured on the integrated images and statistical analyses were performed. In both groups, there were no significant male/female differences in either the maxillary central incisor inclination or AP position. Female subjects had a significantly steeper forehead inclination compared with males (P < 0.001) in both groups. After combined surgical-orthodontic treatment, the significant labial inclination (P < 0.001) and posterior positioning (P < 0.001) of the maxillary central incisors had been corrected to close to normal range (P > 0.05). In the control group, 84.6% had the facial axial point (FA) of their maxillary central incisors positioned between lines through the forehead facial axis (FFA) point and the glabella. In the study group, however, 79.1% had the maxillary central incisors positioned

  10. Parental satisfaction with bonded resin composite strip crowns for primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Kupietzky, Ari; Waggoner, William F

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the parental satisfaction of bonded resin composite strip crowns for the treatment of maxillary anterior primary incisors and compare their satisfaction with the clinical evaluation and success of the crowns. This was a retrospective, clinical study of patients who had strip crowns (SC) placed on maxillary primary incisors, returned for at least 1 recall examination, and whose parents gave consent for them to participate in the study. Color photographs were used for evaluation by 2 independent pediatric dentists. Parental satisfaction regarding the esthetics of the crowns was evaluated by a questionnaire. One hundred and twelve restorations placed in 40 children were evaluated. The evaluations were performed after the crowns had been in place for an average of 18 months (range=6-25 months). Overall parental satisfaction with the treatment was excellent; however, satisfaction with regard to color received the lowest rating. No significant differences were found between dentist and parent evaluations of color, size, and overall appearance (Fisher exact test; P=.194,.776,.291, respectively). Parents rated their overall satisfaction as being positive regardless of their poor ratings of color, size, or overall appearance. However, a significant relationship was found between durability and overall satisfaction (P=.046). Parents who gave poor ratings to durability also rated their overall satisfaction as being poor. Parental satisfaction with bonded resin composite SCs for the treatment of primary incisors with large or multi-surface caries was excellent. Parents' dissatisfaction was most often related to color of the restorations. However, this did not affect their overall satisfaction with the crowns. The durability of restorations negatively affected the rating of overall satisfaction with the crown. Durability seems to be of more concern than excellent color match to this group of parents.

  11. Change in supporting tissue following loss of a permanent maxillary incisor in children.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Helen D; Malhotra, Raakhee; O'Brien, Cathrine H; Elcock, Claire; Davidson, Lesley E; North, Sarah

    2007-12-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is an inevitable consequence of tooth loss and may be detrimental to long-term dental aesthetics and function. The aim of the present study was to quantify the degree of tissue resorption following the loss of a permanent incisor in a young population. The study group comprised 11 boys and five girls who all required the extraction of a permanent maxillary central incisor due to trauma-related sequelae. Mean age at tooth loss was 10.8 years. Upper alginate impressions were taken at regular intervals following tooth loss and were cast in yellow dental stone. Study models were sectioned longitudinally through the mid-point of both the maxillary incisor socket and the contra-lateral incisor to provide a thin plaster section. Digital photographs were acquired of the edentulous (A1) and dentate (A2) surfaces of this section and image analysis software was employed to quantify the surface area of both A1 and A2. At 3 months postextraction, mean A1 was 15.7% less than mean A2. By 6 months mean A1 had further reduced and was 25.3% less than that of the corresponding dentate alveolus. However, at subsequent time intervals following tooth extraction (>6 months), tissue loss appeared to stabilise with an overall reduction in tissue area remaining at 22%. This reduction in supporting tissue area was found to be highly statistically significant (P = 0.002, anova). Furthermore, girls appeared to have an overall greater degree of tissue loss than boys (P = 0.015). Further research is indicated to explore factors influencing the degree of tissue loss following incisor extraction and the benefit of therapeutic interventions in limiting this resorption.

  12. Molar incisor hypomineralization in Hong Kong Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shiu-Yin; Ki, Yung; Chu, Vanessa

    2008-09-01

    Most prevalence studies on molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) were carried out in European countries, and data from the East-Asian populations were lacking. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MIH in Hong Kong Chinese children. Since 2006, charting of teeth with MIH was included into the routine dental examination in a school dental clinic. The dental records of grade 6 primary school children who attended annual check-up in this clinic in 2006 were subsequently reviewed retrospectively. The records were selected for this study if the charting indicated that the children were affected by MIH. A total of 2635 records were reviewed and 73 cases of MIH were identified. The prevalence of MIH in this group of children was 2.8%. Their mean age was 12, and the male-to-female ratio was 1 : 1.2. The mean decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth value of those affected was 1.5, which was higher than that of the general Hong Kong Chinese children aged 12 years old (0.8). A total of 192 teeth were affected. The most commonly affected teeth were permanent maxillary first molars, followed by mandibular first molars and maxillary central incisors. Dental fillings and fissure sealants were found in 52 (38%) and 65 (47%) permanent first molars with hypomineralization, respectively. Medical histories were unremarkable in 60 children, whereas early childhood diseases were reported in 13 cases. The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of Hong Kong Chinese children was 2.8%. Children with MIH showed higher caries experience in the permanent dentition than the general population of similar age.

  13. The etch-bleach-seal technique for managing stained enamel defects in young permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Wright, J Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Hypomineralized enamel defects frequently are manifest as a mottled-white appearance and can be associated with variable degrees of discrete yellow-brown intrinsic staining. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed, ranging from bleaching to enamel reduction to restorative techniques. Bleaching of hypomineralized enamel lesions, using 1 to 2 applications (10 to 15 minutes each) of 5% sodium hypochlorite, has been applied clinically. Treatment using this approach has proven successful in removing yellow-brown discolorations from lesions in young permanent teeth. Young permanent incisors with yellow-brown intrinsic discolorations can often be treated by a simple and conservative bleaching protocol using sodium hypochlorite.

  14. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, S; Krishnan, I S

    2012-01-01

    Odontomas are considered to be the most common odontogenic tumors of the oral cavity. Some authors consider it as malformations rather than true neoplasms. The exact etiology of odontomes is still not known. Most odontomes are asymptomatic and are discovered during routine radiographic investigations. Odontomes generally cause disturbances in the eruption of the teeth, most commonly delayed eruption or deflection. The present report describes the surgical management of a case of compound odontoma in a 10-year-old boy who presented with a complaint of swelling in the maxillary right anterior region and retained deciduous incisors. The related literature is also being reviewed in this article.

  15. Non-invasive management of fused upper incisors.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Pouran; Shirban, Mohammad-Reza; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    The union of two different dental sprouts which can happen in any phase of dental development is commonly called fusion. This developmental anomaly may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, which are mainly treated by endodontic and surgical treatments. There are a few reports of conservative not invasive treatment of fused incisors teeth through restorative or prosthetic techniques. They are rarely reported in mandibular posterior teeth. This paper presents an unusual case of fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth which was treated with a nonendodontic and nonsurgical conservative approach. Patient was a healthy18-year-old female with chief complaint of bad-looking teeth that in intraoral examination revealed the fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth. The space between the mesial of the 6 and 11 teeth was reconstructed. Diastema between the fused teeth was closed. A new lateral tooth was replaced between the fused teeth (7 and 8) and 6 tooth with direct fiber-reinforced composite. The space between the fused teeth (9 and 10) and also tooth 11 was partially closed. Gingival papillas were reconstructed using pink composite. The mandibular anterior missing teeth were replaced with rochett bridge. At the end of treatment the esthetic of the patient was improved. As the treatment was not invasive, major complications are not expected; however, there is potential for eventual long-term periodontal problems due to poor oral hygiene. Debonding of the rochett bridge may happen as well.

  16. Non-invasive management of fused upper incisors

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pouran; Shirban, Mohammad-Reza; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    The union of two different dental sprouts which can happen in any phase of dental development is commonly called fusion. This developmental anomaly may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, which are mainly treated by endodontic and surgical treatments. There are a few reports of conservative not invasive treatment of fused incisors teeth through restorative or prosthetic techniques. They are rarely reported in mandibular posterior teeth. This paper presents an unusual case of fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth which was treated with a nonendodontic and nonsurgical conservative approach. Patient was a healthy18-year-old female with chief complaint of bad-looking teeth that in intraoral examination revealed the fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth. The space between the mesial of the 6 and 11 teeth was reconstructed. Diastema between the fused teeth was closed. A new lateral tooth was replaced between the fused teeth (7 and 8) and 6 tooth with direct fiber-reinforced composite. The space between the fused teeth (9 and 10) and also tooth 11 was partially closed. Gingival papillas were reconstructed using pink composite. The mandibular anterior missing teeth were replaced with rochett bridge. At the end of treatment the esthetic of the patient was improved. As the treatment was not invasive, major complications are not expected; however, there is potential for eventual long-term periodontal problems due to poor oral hygiene. Debonding of the rochett bridge may happen as well. PMID:22363372

  17. Using composite resin inclined plane for the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary central incisor with occlusal interference, using a composite inclined plane. The patient was a 4-year-old girl who applied to our clinic three days after the injury. Because of the time delay between injury and presentation, it was not possible to reposition the tooth with pressure. Following a root-canal treatment, an inclined plane was prepared on the lower primary incisors, using composite resin. The tooth was repositioned in two weeks, and the inclined plane was then removed. After 1 year of follow-up, the treatment was found to be successful, both clinically and radiographically. The use of a composite inclined plane, accompanied by careful follow-up, is an effective alternative to extraction for laterally luxated primary incisors with occlusal interference.

  18. Using Composite Resin Inclined Plane for the Repositioning of a Laterally Luxated Primary Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary central incisor with occlusal interference, using a composite inclined plane. The patient was a 4-year-old girl who applied to our clinic three days after the injury. Because of the time delay between injury and presentation, it was not possible to reposition the tooth with pressure. Following a root-canal treatment, an inclined plane was prepared on the lower primary incisors, using composite resin. The tooth was repositioned in two weeks, and the inclined plane was then removed. After 1 year of follow-up, the treatment was found to be successful, both clinically and radiographically. The use of a composite inclined plane, accompanied by careful follow-up, is an effective alternative to extraction for laterally luxated primary incisors with occlusal interference. PMID:21228962

  19. A report of an impacted primary maxillary central incisor tooth.

    PubMed

    Anthonappa, Robert P; Ongtengco, Kristine L; King, Nigel M

    2013-10-01

    Primary tooth impaction is a rare phenomenon when compared to permanent teeth impaction. The purpose of this report is to present a 5-year-old Chinese girl who exhibited impaction of tooth 51, its unusual consequence on the permanent successor tooth and its comprehensive management. Her parents revealed that at 6 months of age, the patient had fallen from her bed and struck her face on the floor; however, there were no teeth present in the oral cavity. The intraoral examinations identified a bony-like projection on the buccal aspect of the alveolus in the 51 region. Radiographic examination revealed that tooth 51 exhibited an unfavourable orientation, with the crown directed towards the palate. Therefore, the impacted tooth 51 was surgically removed, and two years later tooth 11 erupted into the oral cavity with an indentation on its incisal aspect, which resembled the crown of the primary teeth, thus giving the appearance of a tooth within a tooth or 'dens in dente'. Subsequently, enameloplasty and composite resin build-up was performed on tooth 11 for aesthetic reasons. It is very unusual to have the clinical crowns of both primary and permanent teeth in such close proximity within the alveolar bone, and the present case is a good example to emphasize that trauma to the primary teeth is of considerable importance due to the close proximity of the primary teeth to permanent tooth germs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Influence of core material on fracture resistance and marginal adaptation of restored root filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Reill, M I; Rosentritt, M; Naumann, M; Handel, G

    2008-05-01

    To investigate ex vivo the influence of direct placement core materials on the fracture strength and marginal adaptation of root filled maxillary central incisors restored with glass fibre-reinforced posts, various core materials and all-ceramic crowns. Forty-eight human maxillary incisors were root filled. Posts were placed and teeth restored with composite cores and crowns (n = 8). Six core materials were examined after thermal cyclic and mechanical loading (TCML). Fracture force was determined under static loading. The marginal adaptation at the interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-crown were categorized as 'intact margin' or 'marginal gap' using scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was undertaken with the Mann-Whitney U-test (alpha = P < or = 0.05). Median fracture strength varied between 204 N (low viscous experimental core) and 1094 N (Multicore). No difference in fracture resistance was found with varying viscosity of the core material. The layering technique improved the fracture performance (P = 0.059) to a minor degree. Crowns with dedicated core materials (Rebilda 1063 N; Multicore 1094 N) had a significantly higher fracture resistance than crowns with a conventional restorative material (Tetric Ceram 509 N). Significantly poorer marginal adaptation before TCML was found for the layering technique at the tooth-cement interface and for all experimental cores after TCML. At the crown-cement interface significant differences in marginal adaptation could be determined between Multicore-layered core (P = 0.002) and Multicore-Rebilda (P = 0.001) after TCML. The fracture strength of post and core restorations was dependent on the core material and bonding system. Marginal adaptation was influenced by the method of application of the core material and by TCML.

  1. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: clinical management of the young patient.

    PubMed

    Daly, Dympna; Waldron, J M

    2009-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. It presents at eruption of these teeth. Early diagnosis is essential since rapid breakdown of tooth structure may occur, giving rise to acute symptoms and complicated treatment. The purpose of this article is to review MIH and illustrate its clinical management in young children.

  2. Facial talon cusp on mandibular incisor: a rare case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Pradhuman; Dutta, Sanjay; Verma, Kanika Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Talon cusp is a relatively rare developmental dental anomaly thought to arise as a result of evagination on the surface of a tooth crown before calcification has occurred. It is characterized by cusp-like projections from the cingulum area, or cemento-enamel junction of maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth, in both the primary and permanent dentition, usually observed on the lingual surface of the affected tooth. The cusp may or may not contain an extension of the pulp. The etiology remains unknown. The incidence is 0.04-8%. Any tooth may have a talon cusp but most of the cases involve maxillary lateral incisors. The anomaly has been reported to be rare especially when it occurs on mandibular teeth. This article reports a case of talon cusp on permanent mandibular central incisor that too on facial aspect which makes it a rare entity.

  3. Molar-incisor Malformation: Two Cases of a Newly Described Dental Anomaly.

    PubMed

    McCreedy, Chanel; Robbins, Hila; Newell, Adele; Mallya, Sanjay M

    2016-01-01

    Molar-incisor malformation (MIM) is a recently described dental developmental anomaly with marked manifestations in the primary second molars and permanent first molars and sometimes the permanent maxillary central incisors. To date, there are only two known manuscripts that present this anomaly. The major manifestations are severe coronal cervical constriction of the affected molars and significant under-development of one or more roots. These abnormalities may be detected during routine radiographic examination or present as altered or ectopic eruption or early exfoliation. The characteristic radiographic features are sufficient to identify this abnormality properly. The purpose of this paper is to present two cases of MIM and discuss the impact of the dental abnormalities on patient management.

  4. Influence of Alveolar Bone Loss and Cement Layer Thickness on the Biomechanical Behavior of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Incisors: A 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de Assunção E; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the mechanical behavior of a weakened incisor, this study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution caused by different alveolar bone heights and cement layer thickness. A finite element analysis was conducted for this investigation. An intact maxillary central incisor was initially modeled, and the bone of the models was modified in order to simulate 4 levels of bone height: BL0 (no bone loss), BL1 (1/3 bone loss), BL2 (1/2 bone loss), and BL3 (2/3 bone loss). These teeth models were remodeled with a fiber post at 2 different cement thicknesses and restored with a ceramic crown; "A" refers to the well-adapted fiber post (0.3 mm) and "B" to the nonadapted fiber post (1 mm), resulting in 12 models. RelyX ARC (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) cement was simulated for the cementation of the crowns and fiber posts for all groups. Numeric models received a load of 100 N on the lingual surface. All materials and structures were considered linear elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic. Numeric models were plotted and meshed with isoparametric elements, and results were expressed in maximum principal stress. For fiberglass posts, cement, and dentin, the highest stress concentration occurred in the groups with increased bone loss. For cortical bone, the highest values were for the groups with 1/3 bone loss. A greater thickness of cement layer concentrates more stress. More bone loss and greater CLT were the influential factors in concentrating the stress. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) reduces pain, fatigue, and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol GT; Liebano, Richard E; Anand, Amrit S; Bush, Heather M; Lee, Kyoung S; Lee, Jennifer E; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Because TENS works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we tested the hypothesis that TENS would reduce pain and fatigue and improve function and hyperalgesia in people with fibromyalgia who have enhanced central excitability and reduced inhibition. The current study used a double-blinded randomized, placebo controlled cross-over design to test effects of a single treatment of TENS in people with fibromyalgia. Three treatments were assessed in random order: active TENS, placebo TENS, no TENS. The following measures were assessed before and after each TENS treatment: pain and fatigue at rest and movement, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), 6 minute walk test (6MWT), range of motion (ROM), five time sit to stand test (FTSTS), and single leg stance (SLS). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was completed at end of testing. There was a significant decrease in pain and fatigue with movement for active TENS compared to placebo and no TENS. PPTs increased at site of TENS (spine) and outside site of TENS (leg) when compared to placebo TENS or no TENS. During Active TENS CPM was significantly stronger compared to placebo TENS and no TENS. No changes in functional tasks were observed with TENS. Thus, the current study suggests TENS has short-term efficacy in relieving symptoms of fibromyalgia while the stimulator is active. Future clinical trials should examine the effects of repeated daily delivery of TENS, similar to how TENS is used clinically, on pain, fatigue, function and quality of life in individuals with fibromyalgia. PMID:23900134

  6. Restoration of Central Programmed Movement Pattern by Temporal Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Training in Patients with Spinal Cerebellar Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Chang, Yao-Shun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted triphasic electromyography (EMG) patterns of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs during fast goal-directed movements have been found in patients with hypermetria. Since peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) and motor training may modulate motor cortical excitability through plasticity mechanisms, we aimed to investigate whether temporal ES-assisted movement training could influence premovement cortical excitability and alleviate hypermetria in patients with spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA). The EMG of the agonist extensor carpi radialis muscle and antagonist flexor carpi radialis muscle, premovement motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, and the constant and variable errors of movements were assessed before and after 4 weeks of ES-assisted fast goal-directed wrist extension training in the training group and of general health education in the control group. After training, the premovement MEPs of the antagonist muscle were facilitated at 50 ms before the onset of movement. In addition, the EMG onset latency of the antagonist muscle shifted earlier and the constant error decreased significantly. In summary, temporal ES-assisted training alleviated hypermetria by restoring antagonist premovement and temporal triphasic EMG patterns in SCA patients. This technique may be applied to treat hypermetria in cerebellar disorders. (This trial is registered with NCT01983670.).

  7. Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Srikumar, G P V; Varma, K Ravi; Shetty, K Harish; Kumar, Pramod

    2012-10-01

    Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the effects of bleaching agent compared to other temporary restorative materials used in

  8. Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, G. P. V.; Varma, K. Ravi; Shetty, K. Harish; Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the

  9. Dental trauma: restorative procedures using composite resin and mouthguards for prevention.

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, Paulo César de Freitas; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Simamoto, Paulo Cézar; Soares, Carlos José

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a step-by-step protocol for emergency care of a patient with a dentoalveolar injury in the anterior region of the mouth as well as the fabrication of a mouthguard to prevent future trauma. Dental trauma is one of the most serious oral health problems in active children and adolescents. Care of traumatized patients requires immediate initial emergency treatment followed by integrated procedures to restore damaged oral structures along with a subsequent trauma prevention strategy. Dentoalveolar injuries in the anterior region of the mouth are often characterized by tooth avulsion and coronal fracture. They are managed using procedures such as dental splinting, endodontic therapy with its unique characteristics, and restorative techniques to re-establish function and esthetics as well as protective mouthguards. A 16-year-old male presented with avulsion of his maxillary central incisors as a result of a direct, unintentional impact with an opponent during a basketball game. The teeth had been stored in physiological serum immediately following the injury and the patient received immediate care. On clinical examination, the right central incisor was fractured at the incisal third of the crown but no bone fractures were found. The teeth were reimplanted and splinted. The fractured right central incisor was restored following endodontic treatment and a mouthguard was fabricated for the patient. The dentist must be knowledgeable about the most efficient and suitable treatment for each traumatic scenario in order to provide appropriate care for dental injuries. Coordinated multi-disciplinary action is fundamental in the successful treatment of these injuries. The dental mouthguard is an effective device for protecting the teeth and supportive structures during physical activities and must be part of the protective equipment used by athletes. It is the responsibility of the dental professional to make parents, trainers, and athletic

  10. Restoration of motor defects caused by loss of Drosophila TDP-43 by expression of the voltage-gated calcium channel, Cacophony, in central neurons.

    PubMed

    Lembke, Kayly M; Scudder, Charles; Morton, David B

    2017-08-28

    Defects in the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43, are known to cause a variety of neurodegenerative disease including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). A variety of experimental systems have shown that neurons are sensitive to TDP-43 expression levels, yet the specific functional defects resulting from TDP-43 dysregulation have not been well described. Using the Drosophila TDP-43 orthologue TBPH, we previously showed that TBPH null animals display locomotion defects as third instar larvae. Furthermore, loss of TBPH caused a reduction in cacophony, a type II voltage-gated calcium channel, expression and that genetically restoring cacophony in motor neurons in TBPH mutant animals was sufficient to rescue the locomotion defects. In the present study, we examined the relative contributions of NMJ physiology and the motor program to the locomotion defects and identified subsets of neurons that require cacophony expression to rescue the defects. At the NMJ, we showed mEPP amplitudes and frequency require TBPH. Cacophony expression in motor neurons rescued mEPP frequency but not mEPP amplitude. We also showed that TBPH mutants displayed reduced motor neuron bursting and coordination during crawling and restoring cacophony selectively in two pairs of cells located in the brain, the AVM001b/2b neurons, also rescued the locomotion and motor defects, but not the defects in NMJ physiology. These results suggest that the behavioral defects associated with loss of TBPH throughout the nervous system can be associated with defects in a small number of genes in a limited number of central neurons, rather than peripheral defects.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTTDP-43 dysfuction is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases including ALS, FTLD, and Alzheimer's disease. Loss and gain of function models have shown neurons are sensitive to TDP-43 expression levels, but the specific defects caused by TDP-43 loss of function have not been described in

  11. Central Rho kinase inhibition restores baroreflex sensitivity and angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein imbalance in conscious rabbits with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Haack, Karla K V; Gao, Lie; Schiller, Alicia M; Curry, Pamela L; Pellegrino, Peter R; Zucker, Irving H

    2013-03-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its associated kinase ROCKII are involved in vascular smooth muscle cell contraction and endothelial NO synthase mRNA destabilization. Overactivation of the RhoA/ROCKII pathway is implicated in several pathologies, including chronic heart failure (CHF), and may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic outflow seen in CHF as a result of decreased NO availability. Thus, we hypothesized that central ROCKII blockade would improve the sympathovagal imbalance in a pacing rabbit model of CHF in an NO-dependent manner. CHF was induced by rapid ventricular pacing and characterized by an ejection fraction of ≤45%. Animals were implanted with an intracerbroventricular cannula and osmotic minipump (rate, 1 μL/h) containing sterile saline, 1.5 µg/kg per day fasudil (Fas, a ROCKII inhibitor) for 4 days or Fas+100 µg/kg per day Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, a NO synthase inhibitor. Arterial baroreflex control was assessed by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Fas infusion significantly lowered resting heart rate by decreasing sympathetic and increasing vagal tone. Furthermore, Fas improved baroreflex gain in CHF in an NO-dependent manner. In CHF Fas animals, the decrease in heart rate in response to intravenous metoprolol was similar to Sham and was reversed by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Fas decreased angiotensin II type 1 receptor and phospho-ERM protein expression and increased endothelial NO synthase expression in the brain stem of CHF animals. These data strongly suggest that central ROCKII activation contributes to cardiac sympathoexcitation in the setting of CHF and that central Fas restores vagal and sympathetic tone in an NO-dependent manner. ROCKII may be a new central therapeutic target in the setting of CHF.

  12. Effect of provisional restorations on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Aykent, F; Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Yucel, M T

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the different provisional restorations cementation techniques on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs). Thirty-six extracted human central incisors were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction, and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin. Standardized PLV preparations were carried out on labial surfaces of the teeth. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 12 each. In group 1, provisional restorations were cemented with eugenol-free cement. In group 2, prepared teeth surfaces were first coated with a desensitizing agent then provisional restorations were cemented with resin cement. In group 3, provisional restorations were not fabricated to serve as control. After specimens were stored in distilled water for 2 weeks, provisional restorations were removed and final IPS Empress 2 ceramic veneers were bonded with a dual-curing resin. Two microtensile samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microtensile testing and failure values were recorded. The data were analysed by one-way anova and Tukey HSD tests. The PLVs, placed on the tooth surface that had received a dentine desensitizer and provisional restorations luted with resin cement (group 2), showed the lowest bond strength in all test groups. But no statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of PLVs in control group (no provisional restorations) and group 1 (provisional restorations cemented with eugenol-free cement before final cementations). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of this study also showed that the bonding to enamel surface was better in control group and group 1 than group 2.

  13. Orthodontic management of missing lateral incisor by miniscrew-anchored device.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Marco; Militi, Angela; Nucera, Riccardo; Cicciù, Marco; Gherlone, Enrico; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-12-01

    Congenitally missing teeth are one of the most common tooth anomalies associated to therapeutic sets of problems. Orthodontists should consider these clinical cases because management often requires an integrated orthodontic and restorative approach. In the present study authors reported a therapy note referred to a 14-year-old male patient affected by missing maxillary lateral incisors, bilateral dental Class II and deep bite, treated in 2009 at the Department of Orthodontics of the University of Messina. An orthodontic treatment has been planned with the aim of distalize maxillary molar and the following opening of the spaces necessary for the prosthetic restoration of missing lateral incisor. For the distalization of maxillary molars has been decided to use a Distal Jet supported by miniscrew (Distal-Screw, American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA). After seven months of treatment with distal screw, maxillary molar distalization was completed, obtaining a bilateral molar Class I. A multi-bracket orthodontic appliance was bonded in the upper and lower arch using Empower Brackets (American Orthodontics). Class II molar relationship has been over-corrected to Class I in about seven months. The orientation of the force vector resulted in a tipping and rotation of the first molars, without significant vertical changes. Distal Jet reinforced with screws seems to be effective in molar distalization without any type of side effects. The advantages of this device were the absence of patient compliance, relatively predictable outcomes, favorable esthetics, possibility of different activations in each side.

  14. Interdisciplinary treatment of a class III patient with congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Bruno Franco; da Mata Cid Pinto, Larissa Salgado; Figueiredo, Daniel Santos Fonseca; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Seraidarian, Paulo Isaías

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a case report of an adult Class III patient presenting bilateral congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors that compromised occlusal function as well as smile and facial esthetics. After the interdisciplinary diagnosis, spaces for prosthetic substitution were opened with the help of miniscrews. The orthodontic therapy achieved a better dental relationship, and the final interdisciplinary treatment results represented a significant improvement in function and both dental and facial esthetics. The interdisciplinary treatment of orthodontics and restorative dentistry is very important because the two complement each other in search of the best for the patient. This case demonstrates very well that where orthodontics provided the best tooth position prior to implant placement and restorations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Thermal-stress analysis of ceramic laminate veneer restorations with different incisal preparations using micro-computed tomography-based 3D finite element models.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Alper Tunga; Icer, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Baykasoglu, Cengiz; Mugan, Ata; Yildiz, Esra

    2017-11-01

    Main objective of this study is to investigate the thermal behavior of ceramic laminate veneer restorations of the maxillary central incisor with different incisal preparations such as butt joint and palatinal chamfer using finite element method. In addition, it is also aimed to understand the effect of different thermal loads which simulates hot and cold liquid imbibing in the mouth. Three-dimensional solid models of the sound tooth and prepared veneer restorations were obtained using micro-computed tomography images. Each ceramic veneer restoration was made up of ceramic, luting resin cement and adhesive layer which were generated based on the scanned images using computer-aided design software. Our solid model also included the remaining dental tissues such as periodontal ligament and surrounding cortical and spongy bones. Time-dependent linear thermal analyses were carried out to compare temperature changes and stress distributions of the sound and restored tooth models. The liquid is firstly in contact with the crown area where the maximum stresses were obtained. For the restorations, stresses on palatinal surfaces were found larger than buccal surfaces. Through interior tissues, the effect of thermal load diminished and smaller stress distributions were obtained near pulp and root-dentin regions. We found that the palatinal chamfer restoration presents comparatively larger stresses than the butt joint preparation. In addition, cold thermal loading showed larger temperature changes and stress distributions than those of hot thermal loading independent from the restoration technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Mathu-Muju, Kavita; Wright, J Timothy

    2006-11-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a relatively common condition that varies in clinical severity and can result in early loss of the permanent 6-year molars. The etiology of MIH remains unclear, and the diagnosis can be confused with more generalized enamel defects such as those that occur in amelogenesis imperfecta. The management of MIH depends largely on the severity of the enamel defect. Degrees of hypomineralization can range from mild enamel opacities to enamel that readily abrades from the tooth as it emerges into the oral cavity. Usually, severely affected molars are extremely hypersensitive, prone to rapid caries development, and can be difficult to manage in young patients. The purpose of this article is to review approaches to diagnosing and treating MIH.

  17. Amoxicillin may cause molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Laisi, S; Ess, A; Sahlberg, C; Arvio, P; Lukinmaa, P-L; Alaluusua, S

    2009-02-01

    The etiology of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is unclear. Our hypothesis was that certain antibiotics cause MIH. We examined 141 schoolchildren for MIH and, from their medical files, recorded the use of antibiotics under the age of 4 yrs. MIH was found in 16.3% of children. MIH was more common among those children who had taken, during the first year of life, amoxicillin (OR=2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.17) or the rarely prescribed erythromycin (OR=4.14; 95% CI, 1.05-16.4), compared with children who had not received treatment. Mouse E18 teeth were cultured for 10 days with/without amoxicillin at concentrations of 100 microg/mL-4 mg/mL. Amoxicillin increased enamel but not dentin thickness. An altered pattern of amelogenesis may have interfered with mineralization. We conclude that the early use of amoxicillin is among the causative factors of MIH.

  18. Characterization of Progenitor Cells in Pulps of Murine Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Balic, A.; Mina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The continuous growth of rodent incisors requires the presence of stem cells capable of generating ameloblasts and odontoblasts. While epithelial stem cells giving rise to ameloblasts have been well-characterized, cells giving rise to the odontoblasts in incisors have not been fully characterized. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the potential population in dental pulps of unerupted and erupted incisors that give rise to odontoblasts. We show that pulps from unerupted incisors contain a significant mesenchymal-stem-cell (MSC)-like population (cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45-) and few CD45+ cells. Our in vitro studies showed that these cells displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential, but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulps from erupted incisors displayed increased percentages of CD45+ and decreased percentages of cells expressing markers of an MSC-like population. Despite these differences, pulps from erupted incisors also displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential and inability to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. These results provide evidence that continuous generation of odontoblasts and dentin on the labial and lingual sides of unerupted and erupted incisors is supported by a progenitor population and not multipotent MSCs in the dental pulp. PMID:20739699

  19. The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  20. The adaptive significance of enamel loss in the mandibular incisors of cercopithecine primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): a finite element modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits.

  1. Human mandibular incisors from the late Middle Pleistocene locality of Hoedjiespunt 1, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stynder, D D; Moggi-Cecchi, J; Berger, L R; Parkington, J E

    2001-11-01

    The Hoedjiespunt 1 locality is an archaeological and palaeontological site located on the Hoedjiespunt Peninsula at Saldanha Bay, South Africa. In 1996 two human teeth, a left central mandibular incisor and a left lateral mandibular incisor, were discovered during excavations in the late Middle Pleistocene palaeontological layers. These teeth are described and are found to belong to a single subadult individual. Despite their developmental stage, these incisors already display early signs of wear. Their crown diameters are larger than modern and archaeological African comparative material and are most closely comparable with crown diameters of an early Middle Pleistocene and late Middle Pleistocene dental sample from Africa, Europe and Asia. In the light of this metrical evidence, data on two previously excavated maxillary molars, most probably belonging to the same individual, were re-examined. It was found that the Hoedjiespunt 1 hominid possessed dental metrical features (large anterior teeth and small molars) comparable with other African and European hominids referred to the Middle Pleistocene.

  2. The effect of extraction of third molars on late lower incisor crowding: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Harradine, N W; Pearson, M H; Toth, B

    1998-05-01

    The problem of late mandibular incisor crowding is a well established phenomenon, the cause of which has been the substance of considerable debate over the years. A central issue is the possible role of the third molars though no definitive conclusions have been consistently drawn. This prospective study was designed to investigate the effects of randomly assigned early extraction of third molars on late crowding of the mandibular incisors. One-hundred-and-sixty-four patients entered the study from 1984 following completion of retention after orthodontic treatment. Seventy-seven patients (47%) returned for records up to a mean of 66 months later, and their start and finish study casts were digitized on a reflex microscope to determine Little's index of irregularity, intercanine width and arch length. Forty-four of the patients had been randomized to have third molars removed. There was no evidence of responder bias. Where third molars were extracted the mean increase in lower labial segment irregularity was reduced by 1.1 mm from a mean of 2.1 mm for the group where third molars were retained (P = 0.15, not statistically significant). This difference was also not considered to be clinically significant. The principal conclusion drawn from this randomized prospective study is that the removal of third molars to reduce or prevent late incisor crowding cannot be justified.

  3. The restorative management of the deep overbite.

    PubMed

    Beddis, H P; Durey, K; Alhilou, A; Chan, M F W Y

    2014-11-01

    A deep overbite is where the vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors exceeds half of the lower incisal tooth height. Problems associated with the deep overbite can include soft tissue trauma, lack of inter-occlusal space and tooth wear, all of which can present significant challenges for the restorative dentist. While management options very much depend on the nature of the situation and patient's symptoms, options may range from provision of a simple removable appliance or splint and non-surgical periodontal therapy, to multidisciplinary care involving orthodontics, orthognathic surgery and restorative dentistry. Restorative management may involve an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension with fixed restorations or removable prostheses, and careful assessment and treatment planning is essential. This article discusses the aetiology and restorative management strategies for deep and traumatic overbites.

  4. Effect of dentin surface roughness on the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations.

    PubMed

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Poursoltan, Sajjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether dentin surface preparation with diamond rotary instruments of different grit sizes affects the shear bond strength of resin-bonded restorations. The buccal enamel of 60 maxillary central incisors was removed with a low speed diamond saw and wet ground with silicon carbide papers. The polished surfaces of the teeth were prepared with four groups of rotary diamond burs with super-coarse (SC), coarse (C), medium (M), and fine (F) grit sizes. Following surface preparation, 60 restorations were casted with nickel-chromium alloy and bonded with Panavia cement. To assess the shear bond strength, the samples were mounted on a universal testing machine and an axial load was applied along the cement-restoration interface at the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The acquired data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). The mean ± SD shear bond strengths (in MPa) of the study groups were 17.75 ± 1.41 for SC, 13.82 ± 1.13 for C, 10.40 ± 1.45 for M, and 7.13 ± 1.18 for F. Statistical analysis revealed the significant difference among the study groups such that the value for group SC was significantly higher than that for group F (P<.001). Dentin surface roughness created by diamond burs of different grit sizes considerably influences the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations.

  5. Aesthetic management of severely fluorosed incisors in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Ng, F; Manton, D J

    2007-09-01

    Dental fluorosis is a condition of enamel hypomineralization due to the effects of excessive fluoride on ameloblasts during enamel formation. Delayed degradation of enamel matrix proteins or inhibited protein removal results in impaired and incomplete crystal growth, producing hypomineralized and porous enamel. Severely fluorosed teeth may undergo post-eruptive surface breakdown and post-eruptive dark brown to black staining. A 13 year old girl presented with severely discoloured maxillary central incisors. Initial aesthetic management of these teeth was conservative, including in-office tooth whitening, microabrasion and take-home whitening. Dark brown to black staining of the teeth was reduced successfully without the need for gross mechanical preparation of the enamel. Further improvement of aesthetics was achieved with composite veneers. Conservative treatment options such as tooth whitening and microabrasion can dramatically improve severely discoloured fluorosed teeth. This can provide a satisfactory interim outcome or minimize the removal of discoloured enamel and dentine prior to the provision of composite veneers. The use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) may enhance remineralization and decrease postoperative sensitivity following tooth whitening and microabrasion procedures in hypomineralized teeth.

  6. Development of innervation in primary incisors in the foetal period.

    PubMed

    Zmijewska, Cezara; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Zabel, Maciej

    2003-11-01

    Sections from the frontal part of the mandible of 43 human foetuses from 9 to 39 weeks of prenatal age, which contained two, three and sometimes four lower incisors were immunohistochemically examined using protein gene product and neuron specific enolase (NSE) antibodies in order to establish the time of appearance of nerve fibres in the developing tooth germ and to define their topography. Nerve fibres were first detected in the dental follicle in the 11th week of intrauterine life. Their presence in the dental papilla was confirmed in the 18th week when the first layers of dentine and enamel were deposited. In the 24th week of intrauterine life, the nerve fibres first reached the subodontoblastic region. In the subsequent weeks, an increase in the number of nerve fibres accompanying blood vessels in the central portion of the dental papilla resulted in the formation of neuro-vascular bundles. Moreover, the progressive deposition of enamel and dentine was accompanied by branching of papillary nerves, which thereby formed a fan-pattern. In the foetal period, no evidence was found for the formation of a subodontoblastic plexus. However, we did observe single nerve fibres in close proximity to the odontoblast layer at the end of intrauterine life. Nerve fibres were not detected in either predentine or dentine throughout foetal life.

  7. Biologic restoration of primary anterior teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mandroli, P S

    2003-09-01

    Restoration of primary maxillary incisors, severely destroyed by trauma or caries is a commonly faced problem in a Pediatric dental clinic. Most cases are observed in children with early childhood caries. In the past, the only option would have been to extract the affected teeth and replace them with prosthetic substitutes. However, the availability of natural crowns and roots would allow the use of biologic restorations to preserve the integrity of patient's natural dentition as presented in this case report.

  8. Restoration of central blood volume: Application of a simple concept and simple device to counteract cardiovascular instability in syncope and hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Cooke, William H.; Lurie, Keith G.

    2005-08-01

    The inability to tolerate upright standing posture due to development of severe orthostatic hypotension and syncope is a clinical problem that has plagued astronauts and military personnel in their austere operational environments as well as millions of people worldwide. More critically, hemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in both civilian and battlefield trauma. Central hypovolemia and cardiovascular collapse (insufficiency) are the common features shared by syncope and hemorrhagic shock. It is therefore clear that the development of an effective countermeasure against the onset of syncope or hemorrhagic shock should focus on the simple concept of functionally restoring central blood volume. Although replacing blood or fluids may be beneficial in a clinical setting, it can prove impossible in operational settings such as a spacecraft and battlefields.One of the primary mechanisms that contribute to syncope or hemorrhagic shock is the reduction in cardiac filling and stroke volume (SV). Therefore, any therapeutic approach that is designed to increase venous return and SV should be an effective countermeasure against cardiovascular collapse. Increased negative intrathoracic pressure during spontaneous inspiration represents a natural mechanism for enhancing venous return and cardiac filling. Taking advantage of this simple concept, the development and application of a resistance device applied during spontaneous inspiration has been shown to cause an immediate increase in arterial blood pressure when applied in different animal and clinical models associated with significant lifethreatening hypotension [12-16]. This device has been named the impedance threshold device (ITD; Fig. 1). With its design, the inspiratory resistance induced by the ITD results in a greater vacuum within the thorax during each inspiration, and subsequently enhances venous return and preload to the heart [12,14-16].The purpose of this paper is to review observations made from a

  9. 4. Engineering drawing of a timer incisor constructed by West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Engineering drawing of a timer incisor constructed by West Coast Wood Preserving Company, dated 7-2-40. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. [Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors: orthodontic and implant approach].

    PubMed

    Sabri, Roy; Aboujaoude, Nadim

    2008-12-01

    Missing maxillary lateral incisors create a major esthetic problem due to their strategic position in the smile. The two treatment approaches commonly taken are creating adequate space to prosthetically replace the missing lateral incisors or closing the spaces and replacing the missing lateral incisors by the canines. This article will discuss indications, advantages, disadvantages and problems encountered in cases of space opening and space closure for missing laterals. The amount of space to be created, the preparation and the timing for implant placement, the bone volume, the implant size and prosthetic considerations will also be discussed. The methods for reshaping canines and building them up to simulate lateral incisors in orthodontic space closure, and positioning the canines and first premolars - so that they resemble to the teeth they are replacing - will be described.

  11. [Early treatment of mandibular incisor-canine crowding].

    PubMed

    Rerhrhaye, W; Zaoui, F; Aalloula, E

    2011-03-01

    In the mixed dentition, lower incisor crowding can exist. He may be transitory or increase with dental arch evolution because of reduction of arch length by loss of leeway space. Early diagnosis allows the instauration of interceptive therapy, to ovoid extractions. Preserve or loss leeway space will depend of orthodontic space management. The clinical case presented in this article shows the interest of early treatment of incisor crowding to preserve arch length and make the leeway space available to resolve the crowding.

  12. A new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and possible tectonic overpressure in the Penninic Adula Nappe (Central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, J.; Podladchikov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Adula Nappe in the eastern Central Alps is one of the four units in the Alps from which ultrahigh-pressure rocks have been reported. Several very different models for its tectonic history have been published but none of these models is fully satisfactory. In the models of Schmid et al. (1996) and Engi et al. (2001), the main mechanism of exhumation is assumed to be extrusion. The extrusion models require top-to-the-hinterland, i.e. top-to-the-south faulting in the hanging wall of the exhuming nappe for which there is no evidence. Froitzheim et al. (2003) proposed a scenario with two different subduction zones, an internal one in which the South Penninic and Briançonnais domains were subducted, and an external one in which the North Penninc domain and the European margin, including the Adula nappe, were subducted. In this model, the exhumation of the Adula nappe results from the subduction of the overlying sub-Briançonnais and sub-South-Penninic mantle in the internal subduction zone. The Adula nappe would then have been exhumed from below into a top-to-the-north shear zone also affecting the overriding Briançonnais units. The main shortcoming of this model is that otherwise there is little evidence for two Alpine subduction zones. All the models cited above are based on the conversion of peak pressures obtained from geobarometry to depth by assuming lithostatic pressures. This results in a much greater burial depth of the Adula Nappe with respect to the surrounding units which poses major problems when trying to reconcile maximum burial depths of the Penninic nappes with their structural record. We performed a new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section (Schmid et al. 1996) without applying a lithostatic pressure-to-depth conversion but a purely geometrical restoration of deformation events in the Penninic nappe stack. The major constraints on these reconstructions are given by strain estimates for the major deformation phases in the units overlying the

  13. [Light reflection zone on the incisors' surface--a new parameter for smile esthetics evaluation].

    PubMed

    Brezniak, N; Wasserstein, A; Shmuli, T

    2012-07-01

    The light reflection zone (LRZ) is a bright white dot or area that appears on the surface of the maxillary central incisors and/or the gingiva of the front teeth, visible in intra-oral and smile extra-oral photographs. Previously, a positive correlation between the location of the LRZ as observed in intra-oral frontal photographs and the inclination of the upper central incisors as measured on lateral headfims was found. The purpose of this study was to find whether this LRZ location can serve as a new parameter influencing the level of smile esthetics. Twelve pairs of facial photographs, including 10 of ordinary smiling persons and 2 of smiling models, were presented to 138 participants. The only difference between each pair was the location of the LRZ that was moved, compared to the original photograph, gingivally or incisally respectively, using Photoshop (Adobe). Each participant was asked to mark whether he/she noticed a difference between the 2 pictures, and if so, to score the nicer smile. Data analysis was carried out using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test (SPSS v17). The results showed that most of the participants did not recognize the differences between the pairs however, when differences were recognized, most of the participants pointed on the smile where the LRZ was located gingivally as the nicer one. This result was with statistical significance for the 2 models (p < 0.05), In conclusion, the LRZ is a new, yet unrecognized, parameter that can serve as a tool for the diagnosis of esthetic smile. The general population defines a nicer smile when the LRZ is located in the gingival area of the upper central incisors' surface rather than the incisal third. The LRZ should probably be studied not only in Orthodontics but also in other branches of dentistry.

  14. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    PubMed

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  15. Recovering the function and esthetics of fractured teeth using several restorative cosmetic approaches. Three clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Rocha, Eduardo P; Watanabe, Maurício U; de Almeida, Erika O; Freitas-Junior, Amilcar C; Martini, Ana P; Barioni, Sônia R P

    2012-04-01

    The teeth most commonly affected by trauma are the maxillary central incisors. The most frequent types of traumatic dental injuries to permanent teeth are enamel fractures, enamel and dentine fractures, and enamel and dentine fractures with pulp involvement. This article describes three clinical cases with different levels of traumatized maxillary incisors and several cosmetic approaches for recovery of the esthetics and the masticatory function, as well as the social/psychological aspects of treatment. All cases involved young adult men. The three clinical cases involve dentin and enamel fractures, dentin and enamel fractures with pulp exposure, and dentin and enamel fractures with pulp exposure associated with root fracture. The cosmetic treatments used to resolve fractures were direct composite resin by layering technique, indirect all-ceramic restorations (laminate veneer and ceramic crowns over the teeth), and immediate implant after extraction followed by immediate loading (ceramic abutments with ceramic crown over implant). In all three cases, excellent functional and esthetic results were achieved by use of these treatment modalities. The patients were very satisfied with the results. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Onset of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH).

    PubMed

    Fagrell, Tobias G; Salmon, Phil; Melin, Lisa; Norén, Jörgen G

    2013-01-01

    The etiological factors and timing of the onset of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) are still not clear. The aim of this study was to examine ground radial and sagittal sections from teeth diagnosed with MIH using light microscopy, polarized light microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (XMCT) and to estimate the onset and timing of the MIH and to relate the hypomineralized enamel to the incremental lines. Thirteen extracted permanent first molars diagnosed MIH, were analyzed with light microscopy and XMCT. The hypomineralized areas were mainly located in the mesio-buccal cusps, starting at the enamel-dentin-junction and continuing towards the enamel surface. In a relative gray scale analysis the values decreased from the EDJ towards the enamel surface. The findings indicate that the ameloblasts in the hypomineralized enamel are capable of forming an enamel of normal thickness, but with a substantial reduction of their capacity for maturation of enamel. Chronologically, it is estimated that the timing of the disturbance is at a period during the first 6-7 months of age.

  17. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; ten Cate, J M; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Veerkamp, J S J

    2012-06-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop during a period similar to that of second primary molars, with possible comparable risk factors for hypomineralization. Children with DMH have a greater risk of developing MIH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6,161 children (49.8% girls; mean age 74.3 mos, SD ± 5.8). First permanent molars and second primary molars were scored with respect to DMH or MIH. The prevalence of DMH and MIH was 9.0% and 8.7% at child level, and 4.0% and 5.4% at tooth level. The Odds Ratio for MIH based on DMH was 4.4 (95% CI, 3.1-6.4). The relationship between the occurrence of DMH and MIH suggests a shared cause and indicates that, clinically, DMH can be used as a predictor for MIH.

  18. A Compound Composite Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Permanent Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Das, Usha Mohan; Viswanath, Deepak; Azher, Umme

    2009-01-01

    Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and are generally asymptomatic. Frequently they interfere with the eruption of the teeth. This is the case report of a compound composite odontoma in an 11 years old girl, which resulted in failure of eruption of the permanent maxillary right central incisor while the contralateral tooth had erupted. A calcified mass was seen in the radiograph and was provisionally diagnosed as odontoma following which the odontoma was enucleated. Routine follow-up was done for 1½ years and no recurrence was seen. PMID:25206112

  19. A rare case of ankyloglossia and bilateral fusion of mandibular incisors.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Preeti; Verma, Ashish; Grover, Dimple; Sanghi, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Dental anomalies may occur both in primary and permanent dentitions. Abnormalities in tooth size, shape, and structure result from disturbances during the morphodifferentiation stage of development. They are observed frequently during routine dental examinations and might be associated with a syndrome. Dentists must be familiar with the prevalence of such anomalies, as early diagnosis can prevent complications such as compromised aesthetics, space loss, midline shift, and carious exposure. This article describes a rare presentation of bilaterally fused permanent mandibular central and lateral incisors, along with ankyloglossia and fluorosis in a 22-year-old man with the chief complaint of "dirty teeth."

  20. The Grooved Rodent Incisor Recapitulates Rudimentary Teeth Characteristics of Ancestral Mammals.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Tang, Q; Jung, H-S

    2016-07-01

    It is known from the paleontology studies of eutherian mammals that incisor numbers were reduced during evolution. The evolutionary lost incisors may remain as vestigial structures at embryonic stages. The recapitulation of the incisor patterns among mammalian species will potentially uncover the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic transition of incisors during evolution. Here, we showed that a minute tooth formed in the presumptive groove region of the gerbil upper incisor at the early developmental stages, during which multiple epithelial swellings and Shh transcription domains spatiotemporally appeared in the dental epithelium, suggests the existence of vestigial dental primordia. Interestingly, when we trimmed the surrounding mesenchyme from incisor tooth germs at or before the bud stage prior to ex vivo culture, the explants developed different incisor phenotypes ranging from triplicated incisors, duplicated incisors, to Lagomorpha-like incisors, corresponding to the incisor patterns in the eutherian mammals. These results imply that the phenotypic transition of incisors during evolution, as well as the achievement of ultimate incisors in adults, arose from differential integrations of primordia. However, when the incisor tooth germ was trimmed at the cap stage, a grooved incisor developed similar to the normal condition. Furthermore, the incisor tooth germ developed a small but smooth incisor after the additional removal of the minute tooth and a lateral rudiment. These results suggest that multiple dental primordia integrated before the cap stage, with the labial primordia contributing to the labial face of the functional incisor. The minute tooth that occupied the boundary of the 2 labial primordia might be implicated in the groove formation. This study sheds light on how rudiments incorporate into functional organs and aids the understanding of incisor evolution.

  1. Re-eruption of an intruded immature permanent incisor with necrotic pulp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ceyhan; Güven, Günseli; Cehreli, Zafer C; Gurbuz, Taskin; Aydin, Cumhur

    2008-01-01

    Intrusive luxation is a serious dental injury that causes damage to the pulp and supporting structures of a tooth because of its dislocation into the alveolar process. This paper presents the case of the re-eruption of a severely intruded immature permanent incisor with a crown-root fracture. A 9-year-old boy was referred to the clinic 1 day after a fall. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed intrusive luxation of the immature left permanent incisor and a crown-root fracture without pulp exposure. Palatal gingivectomy was done 2 weeks later to facilitate re-eruption. Root canal therapy with intracanal calcium hydroxide paste was initiated during the first month owing to severe spontaneous pain. Six months later, the tooth re-erupted to a normal position, after which root canal obturation and a final esthetic restoration were done. The present case demonstrates the possibility of obtaining re-eruption of intruded immature permanent teeth with interim medication (calcium hydroxide) in the root canal.

  2. The impact of premature birth on the permanent tooth size of incisors and first molars.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Eman; Paulsson, Liselotte

    2017-03-25

    Scientific evidence is insufficient to answer the question of whether premature birth causes altered tooth-crown dimensions. To evaluate permanent tooth-crown dimensions in prematurely born children and to compare the findings with full-term born controls. Preterm children of 8-10 years of age were selected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. One group consisted of 36 extremely preterm children (born before the 29th gestational week); the other group included 37 very preterm children (born during gestational weeks 29-32). The preterm children were compared with 41 matched full-term born children. Clinical examination and study casts were performed on all children. Permanent maxillary and mandibular first molars, central incisors, and laterals were measured with a digital sliding caliper on study casts. The tooth-crowns were measured both mesio-distal and bucco-lingual. Both the mesio-distal and bucco-lingual measurements in the maxillary and mandibular first molars had a significantly smaller width in the extremely preterm group compared with the full-term group. The central incisors and lower laterals were significantly smaller mesio-distally in the extremely preterm group compared to the full-term group. A reduction in tooth size of 4-9% was found between the extremely preterm group and the full-term group for both boys and girls. The maxillary first molars and mandibular left first molar were also smaller mesio-distally in the extremely preterm group compared to the very preterm group. The results indicate that the more preterm the birth, the smaller the tooth-crown dimensions. Independent of gestational age girls had generally smaller teeth than boys. Premature birth is associated with reduced tooth-crown dimensions of permanent incisors and first molars.

  3. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of the Pulpal Peroxide Levels in Intact and Restored Teeth - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Gourismita; Agrawal, Pratik; Panda, Vijeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hydrogen peroxide (30%) is a commonly used "in office" bleaching agent. Deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide on the pulp have been observed. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber through intact teeth and through the surface of teeth, restored with either hybrid composite or Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC). Materials and Methods Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into six groups. Two groups were restored with hybrid composite resin and two with RMGIC, while two groups were left intact. The teeth with acetate buffer solution in their pulp cavity were then immersed in either 30% hydrogen peroxide or distilled water depending upon the group, for 60 minutes at 37°C. Then horseradish peroxidase and leucocrystal violet were added to the acetate buffer solution present in the pulp chamber after it was transferred to a test tube and the optical density of the resultant blue solution obtained was measured spectrophotometrically. Statistical Analysis The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Results The data obtained established that hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp from the bleaching agent used. Hydrogen peroxide (30%) showed the highest pulpal peroxide level in teeth restored with RMGIC followed by teeth restored with hybrid composite resin and the least amount of penetration was observed in intact teeth. Conclusion The amount of peroxide penetration into the tooth is more through restored tooth than intact tooth and is also dependant on the type of restorative materials used. PMID:27656562

  4. A successful outcome using a minimal invasive approach to manage a severe trauma to the primary maxillary incisor in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Charone, Senda; Kuchler, Erika Calvano; Costa, Marcelo de Castro; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2010-06-01

    Intrusive and lateral luxation are common traumatic injuries in children. The aim of this work is to report the successful conservative management of severe intrusion and lateral luxations of the primary maxillary central incisors in a 27-month-old patient.

  5. One-visit RCT of Maxillary Incisors with Extensive Inflammatory Root Resorption and Periradicular Lesions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) is a pathological phenomenon of microbial origin. This study reports a case of external apical inflammatory root resorption of maxillary incisors associated with periradicular lesions in a 22 year old female, which was successfully treated by one-visit root canal therapy (RCT). Radiographic investigation revealed periapical radiolucencies in the upper incisors associated with varying degrees of external inflammatory root resorption of teeth 12, 21 and 22. One-visit RCT of all involved teeth was carried out. Access cavities were permanently restored after 1 week. Clinical and radiographic examinations at 1 day, 1 week and 14 month follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of patient's signs/symptoms. The incisors were fully functional, and complete bone healing of the apical radiolucencies had taken place. The treatment outcomes demonstrated that IERR associated with periradicular lesions can respond successfully to one-visit RCT when conducted with adequate disinfection and a satisfactory coronal seal. Hence, one-visit RCT may be a good alternative to multiple-visit RCT involving intra-canal medicaments.

  6. [Comparative study of root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by cone-beam CT and canal staining and clearing technique].

    PubMed

    Wen, Shan-hui; Lin, Zi-tong; Zhu, Min; Ge, Jiu-yu; Wang, Tie-mei

    2016-02-01

    To compare the root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by using cone-beam CT (CBCT) and canal staining and clearing technique. Sixty-one extracted mandibular incisors with complete dental root and apex which received no endodontic treatment and no post crown restoration were selected. Each tooth was radiographed with CBCT, and the root canal system was stained by canal staining and clearing technique. The consistency of the number of root canal, root canal Vertucci type of mandibular permanent incisors between the two methods were compared, and the differences of the detection rate on root canal branch structure between the two methods were analyzed. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. The Kappa value of single and double root canal types between CBCT and canal staining and clearing technique was 0.847 (P<0.001). The Kappa value of Vertucci root canal types between CBCT and canal staining and clearing technique was 0.861 (P<0.001). The detection rates of root canal branch structure were 8.19% and 22.95%, respectively, with significant difference between the two methods (P=0.025). The canal staining and clearing technique was significantly better than CBCT in detection of root canal branch structure. CBCT can reflect the root canal types nearly perfectly, but inferior to canal staining and clearing technique in detection of root canal branch structure, CBCT is a relatively accurate clinical diagnosis tool of root canal morphology.

  7. Force Eruption of Mandibular Second Incisor in an 11- Year Old Boy: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Sobhnamayan, F; Moazami, F; Hamedi, S; Meshki, R

    2013-01-01

    There is a great challenge in the treatment of deeply fractured and un-restorable teeth among dentists. Orthodontic force eruption is a method of treatment for these teeth to preserve natural root system and periodontal structures. This technical report is a new modification of this procedure presented in an 11- year old boy with deeply fractured left second mandibular incisor. The fractured teeth were treated with root canal therapy and a file #80 was modified to become a hook cemented into the fractured tooth. Anterior teeth were splinted and used as anchorage to help the root extrusion. 1-year follow up of the tooth showed the convenience of the treatment. This simple and low-cost method can be an acceptable alternative to the current high cost techniques, achieving the same results. PMID:24724126

  8. Palatogingival Groove: Recognizing and Managing the Hidden Tract in a Maxillary Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Deepak, Passi; Vivek, Sharma; Ranjan Dutta, Shubha

    2015-01-01

    Palatogingival grooves are developmental malformations quite notorious for precipitating endodontic - periodontal lesions. Owing to their inconspicuous occurrence, funnel-shaped morphology and variable extent on tooth root, they promote adherence of plaque and bacteria to levels significant for the development of pathology. Several treatment approaches have been recognized in literature for the management of this anomaly. Here in this report, a 25-year-old patient reported with the complaint of pain and swelling in maxillary right lateral incisor. Clinical examination confirmed an endodontic - periodontal lesion in relation to palatogingival groove. Endodontic treatment was instituted, followed by odontoplasty of the groove and restoration with newer calcium silicate cement, Biodentine. Combined endodontic - periodontal approach was successful in resolving the pathology with complete healing seen both clinically and radiographically. Timely diagnosis, prevention and management are highly recommended to prevent tooth loss due to complications arising secondary to their presence. PMID:26124612

  9. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus type II: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686

  10. Restore the natural - A review and case series report on reattachment

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Munniswamy

    2014-01-01

    Reattachment of the original tooth fragment to the fractured tooth helps in maintaining the tooth’s color, wear resistance, morphology and translucency in the restoration. This article describes the reattachment of fractured fragment using a fiber post and dual cure resin cement with a self-etching adhesive. Two young male patients reported with a complicated crown fracture of the right maxillary central incisor due a road traffic accident. The fractured fragments were loosely attached to the palatal gingival tissue, which was then surgically removed and preserved for the reattachment procedure. The fractured tooth segments were successfully reattached following fiber post cementation. Tooth fragment reattachment procedure offers ultraconservative, safe, fast and esthetically pleasing results when the fractured fragment is available due to the improvement of adhesive techniques and restorative materials. Fiber reinforced resins not only allows creation of esthetic restoration but also the preservation and reinforcement of tooth structure. At the 18months follow-up, the resultant appearance was acceptable to the patient. Key words:Reattachment, bonding, complicated crown fracture, fibre post, resin cement. PMID:25674333

  11. Resin composite restoration in primary anterior teeth using short-post technique and strip crowns: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; del Conte Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Correa, Maria Salete Nahás Pires

    2004-10-01

    A case report describing a technique for the restoration of endodontically treated primary maxillary incisors with resin composite short posts and celluloid strip crowns in a 3-year-old boy is presented. The technique offers the advantages of using one restorative material, improving esthetics, and reducing chairtime and costs.

  12. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in