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Sample records for central incisor restored

  1. Esthetic improvement in the patient with one missing maxillary central incisor restored with porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Jin; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk

    2010-09-01

    This article describes esthetic improvement in a patient with a missing maxillary left central incisor. Space analysis of the anterior dentition showed that minor tooth rearrangement was needed. Optimal space distribution for restorations was attained by orthodontic treatment. Through transforming tooth shape with porcelain laminate veneers, the maxillary left lateral incisor was transformed into central incisor and the maxillary left canine into a lateral incisor. The maxillary right central incisor was also restored for esthetic improvement. In a case of changing a tooth shape with porcelain laminate veneers, pre-treatment evaluation, space analysis and diagnostic wax-up are important factors.

  2. Prosthetic considerations in the restoration of orthodontically treated maxillary lateral incisors to replace missing central incisors: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Chaushu, S; Becker, A; Zalkind, M

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of young patients with missing maxillary incisors poses a challenge to prosthodontists and orthodontists. The 2 principal treatment options are (1) the reopening or maintenance of space for future autotransplantation and/or prosthodontic restoration of the missing teeth, or (2) total orthodontic space closure, followed by prosthodontic modification of the lateral incisors to simulate the central incisors. This article discusses only the second option and describes 2 alternative methods for the modification of crown anatomy. These procedures facilitate the orthodontic closure of missing central incisor spaces to ensure satisfactory, esthetic results. PMID:11319528

  3. Multidisciplinary treatment approach to restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita P; Karandikar, Aamod B

    2014-01-01

    This case report demonstrates sequential periodontic, orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment modalities to save and restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor. The location of fracture was deep in the mucosa which reveals less than 2 mm of tooth structure to receive the crown. The procedures like surgical crown lengthening, endodontic post placement, orthodontic forced eruption, core build-up and metal-ceramic crown restoration were sequentially performed to conserve the fractured tooth. Forced eruption is preferred to surgical removal of supporting alveolar bone, since forced eruption preserves the biologic width, maintains esthetics, and at the same time exposes sound tooth structure for the placement of restorative margins.

  4. Corono-radicular biological restoration of maxillary central incisors by direct method

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sonia; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Pandharkar, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    This case report refers to the esthetic and functional restorations of extensively damaged maxillary central incisors with dental caries in a 32-year-old woman, with the use of posts and crowns made from natural extracted teeth. Proper restoration of such teeth with the use of natural teeth fragments are known as “biological restoration.” Biological restorations can be done by using the fragments of the patients own tooth and if that is not available, tooth fragment can be obtained from an extracted tooth. These biological posts and crowns present a low cost option and an alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged teeth. There are limitations with the use of natural extracted teeth (homogenous bonding) for restoration such as the difficulty of finding teeth with a similar color and shape as that of the destroyed element, or patient may refuse to accept a tooth fragment from another patient, which prevents execution of the restoration. PMID:25540666

  5. Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Amirian Chaijan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores. Materials and Methods Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and composite core (group 2), composite post and core (group 3), and controls (group 4). Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4). Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Results Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4) > cast post and core (group 1) > fiber post and composite core (group 2) > composite post and core (group 3). All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58%) in group 1 were non-restorable. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors. PMID:26295027

  6. Stress distributions in maxillary central incisors restored with various types of post materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Madfa, A A; Kadir, M R Abdul; Kashani, J; Saidin, S; Sulaiman, E; Marhazlinda, J; Rahbari, R; Abdullah, B J J; Abdullah, H; Abu Kasim, N H

    2014-07-01

    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (p<0.05), especially along the centre of the post. Of the materials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface.

  7. Stress distributions in maxillary central incisors restored with various types of post materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Madfa, A A; Kadir, M R Abdul; Kashani, J; Saidin, S; Sulaiman, E; Marhazlinda, J; Rahbari, R; Abdullah, B J J; Abdullah, H; Abu Kasim, N H

    2014-07-01

    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (p<0.05), especially along the centre of the post. Of the materials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface. PMID:24834856

  8. Esthetic restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Carranza, F; García-Godoy, F

    1999-04-01

    A simple and esthetic technique for restoring cariously involved primary maxillary incisors is described. The technique includes mini-pins, a preformed celluloid crown and resin-based composite. PMID:10477982

  9. Influence of post and resin cement on stress distribution of maxillary central incisors restored with direct resin composite.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, A O; Galafassi, D; de Meira-Júnior, A D; Braz, R; Garbin, C A

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of two endodontic post systems and the elastic modulus and film thickness of resin cement on stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor (MCI) restored with direct resin composite using finite element analysis (FEA). A three-dimensional model of an MCI with a coronary fracture and supporting structures was performed. A static chewing pressure of 2.16 N/mm2 was applied to two areas on the palatal surface of the composite restoration. Zirconia ceramic (ZC) and glass fiber (GF) posts were considered. The stress distribution was analyzed in the post, dentin and cement layer when ZC and GF posts were fixed to the root canals using resin cements of different elastic moduli (7.0 and 18.6 GPa) and different layer thicknesses (70 and 200 microm). The different post materials presented a significant influence on stress distribution with lesser stress concentration when using the GF post. The higher elastic modulus cement created higher stress levels within itself. The cement thicknesses did not present significant changes. PMID:19363979

  10. Comparison of Stress Distribution in a Maxillary Central Incisor Restored with Two Prefabricated Post Systems with and without Ferrule Using Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Sabarinathan; Raja, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction When restoring an endodontically treated tooth with deficient coronal tooth structure, posts can be used to strengthen the tooth. Recently prefabricated posts are widely used as they exclude the need for complex laboratory procedures making the procedure time saving. But the post-placement can produce stresses that cause root fracture. Different techniques can be used to study the stress distribution due to different posts, but most of them are two-dimensional and difficult to reproduce. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor with Titanium and Glass fiber posts with and without ferrule using the three dimensional finite element analysis. Materials and Methods In this study 3D finite element analysis was used. Four models P1(Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with a ferrule of coronal dentin and restored with parallel sided prefabricated titanium post and composite resin core), P2 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with parallel sided prefabricated Titanium post and composite resin core without a ferrule of coronal dentin), P3 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with a ferrule of coronal dentin and restored with parallel sided prefabricated glass fiber reinforced composite post and composite core), P4 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with parallel sided prefabricated glass fiber reinforced composite post and composite core without a ferrule of coronal dentin), were modeled using PRO E software. Then stress analysis was done using ANSYS WORKBENCH 10.0software. A load of 100 N was applied to the models at 2mm from the incisal edge on the palatal surface with an angle of 45o to the long axis of the tooth. Results The results suggested that maximum stresses were seen around posts in order of Titanium post without ferrule followed by Titanium post with ferrule next Glass fiber post without ferrule followed by Glass fiber post

  11. Ex vivo fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and experimental dentin posts

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Ambica; Kavitha, M; Khetarpal, Suchit

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and experimental dentin posts milled from human root dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups of ten each. Twenty teeth were restored with FRC posts and solid dentin posts and numbered as Groups 2 and 3 respectively while Group 1 acted as the control, without any post. The teeth were loaded at 135° angle to their long axes after core build-up and the failure loads were recorded. Results: One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni multiple comparisons revealed a significant difference among test groups with the control group showing the highest fracture resistance, followed by the dentin post group and lastly the FRC post group. Conclusions: Teeth restored with dentin posts exhibited better fracture resistance than those restored with FRC posts. PMID:22144812

  12. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Srilatha, KT; Nandlal, B; Dhull, Kanika Singh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load-bearing capacity of fractured incisal edge of maxillary permanent central incisors restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite. Materials and methods: Thirty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors randomly divided in three groups were used for the present study. Group I (control) contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II and III were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third) part of the crown horizontally and subjected to enamel preparations and restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite respectively. All restored teeth were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was evaluated as peak load at failure (Newton) for samples tested in a cantilever-bending test using Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were microscopically examined. Results: Highest mean peak failure load (Newton) among experimental groups was observed in glass fiber-reinforced nano composite group (863.50 ± 76.12 N) followed by nanocomposite group (633.67 ± 40.14 N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the restoration technique significantly affected the load-bearing capacity (p < 0.001). Scheffe’s post-hoc comparison test (subset for α = 0.05) revealed that there was significant difference in the mean peak failure load values of nanocomposite and glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite groups when considered together (p < 0.001). Experimental groups showed similar types of failure modes with majority occurring ascohesive and mixed type. Fifty-eight percent of the teeth in glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. Conclusion: By using fiber-reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in the repair of fractured incisors, the load-bearing capacity of the restored incisal edge could be substantially

  13. Esthetic restoration of discolored primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Fred S

    2005-01-01

    Restoring primary teeth can be a strenuous task for many dentists who would like to have an esthetic, easy-to-use and relatively quick restoration for children. But, the restoration of carious, fractured or discolored primary incisors gives the dentist the satisfaction of knowing that he/she has restored the smile and self-confidence of a growing child. This article describes a technique which is relatively easy and produces a beautiful outcome in a relatively short time. The author has used the technique in hundreds of children for over twenty-five years. Modifications in the technique have been made as newer materials and techniques have evolved. PMID:15739584

  14. Velocardiofacial syndrome with single central incisor.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Snehlata; Vargervik, Karin

    2005-01-15

    Three siblings and their mother are reported who all had cytogenetically proven velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). One boy had normal dental and craniofacial findings, except for an increased cranial base angle. His sister had only one central incisor in the maxilla. One central incisor had also been missing in the primary dentition. She had no labial frenulum present. Cephalometry showed a small maxillary unit length indicating mild maxillary hypoplasia, an increased anterior face height, steep mandibular plane angle, retruded chin, and a large cranial base angle. Dental measurements showed retroclined lower incisors and increased interincisal angle. A second sister had a cleft of the secondary palate. All permanent teeth were present with the exception of a missing central incisor in the lower jaw: the single lower central incisor was situated in the midline. Her cephalometry showed similar findings as in her sister. All three siblings required palate surgery for speech. Mother was not available for detailed dental and other oral investigations. A single maxillary central incisor has previously been reported in VCFS, but to our knowledge a single central incisor in the mandible has not been reported previously in this entity.

  15. Treatment of cariously involved fused maxillary primary lateral and central incisors.

    PubMed

    ElBadrawy, H E; Diab, M

    2001-01-01

    A 3-and-a-half-year-old male child presented with fused cariously involved right maxillary primary central and lateral incisors as well as a previously traumatized non-vital left primary central incisor with a draining fistula. The child also had other restorative needs and the decision taken was to address all needs under a G.A. With respect to the fused incisors, these were split and root canals treatment was performed for all three incisors which were then restored with stainless steel crowns with esthetic facings. PMID:11572502

  16. Fragment Reattachment after Atypical Crown Fracture in Maxillary Central Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Vanessa Torraca Peraro; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Jordão, Keren Cristina Fagundes; Paleari, André Gustavo; Dantas, Andrea Abi-Rached; Segalla, José Claudio Martins; de Oliveira Junior, Osmir Batista

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fracture by trauma is one of the most common types of dental injury in the permanent dentition among children and teenagers. Aim. The aim of this study was to report the treatment performed to an atypical dental trauma case in a maxillary central incisor of a young patient by means of reattachment of the tooth fragment. Case Description. A 12-year-old male patient suffered a vertical crown fracture to the maxillary right central incisor. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a conservative restorative treatment which consisted in the reattachment of the tooth fragment with flow resin was performed in order to preserve the dental element and to obtain maximum aesthetics. Conclusion. The reattachment of fractured fragment is a fast and easy technique that can be used successfully as an option to restore dental element which suffered trauma. Clinical Significance. This technique restores the aesthetics and function of the dental element with minimal discomfort to the patient. PMID:25610663

  17. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    PubMed

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique. PMID:1884866

  18. Primary incisor restoration using resin-veneered stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P

    1998-01-01

    The restoration of primary incisors with extensive caries lesions is a clinical challenge of severe dimensions. Not only are these teeth difficult to restore, but the patient's behavior can affect the treatment negatively. Requirements for an acceptable restoration include natural color; durability; adhesive cementation that is biocompatible with the pulp; easily and rapidly placed; requires only one treatment visit. Compared to other options, stainless steel crowns are the easiest to place. The most attractive restoration for these cases today is the adhesively bonded resin-composite crown, made by using acetate crown-form matrices, but this is being surpassed by the stainless steel crown forms (3M Unitek) that can be preveneered. This article describes a step-by-step method of placing preveneered stainless steel crowns for primary incisors. PMID:9617447

  19. Esthetic considerations for reshaping of autotransplanted premolars replacing maxillary central incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lima, Juliana Paiva Marques; Neto, José Jeová Siebra Moreira; Beltrão, Haroldo César Pinheiro; Borges, Fátima Maria Cavalcante; Nogueira, Renato Luis Maia; de Araújo Lima, Augusto Darwin Moeira

    2009-12-01

    Autotransplantation is a safe and currently common procedure in cases of agenesis and tooth loss. Autotransplantation of premolars to replace missing maxillary central incisors has been shown to be an excellent treatment choice, especially in young patients in the 9-12-year-old age range. The choice for adequate restorative materials and techniques is also essential, direct composite resin being indicated in most cases. This paper reports the case of two premolars autotransplanted to replace both maxillary central incisors and addresses the esthetic issues involved in the reshaping of these teeth to incisor morphology. PMID:19788424

  20. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98.

  1. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  2. Canine transposition following trauma and loss of a central incisor: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B; Durning, P; McLaughlin, W; Nicholson, P T

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of canine transposition following loss of the upper central incisor. Using two case reports it considers the opportunities for rehabilitation of the occlusion, and discusses surgical, orthodontic and restorative considerations. PMID:15784937

  3. Dental transposition of canine and lateral incisor and impacted central incisor treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gebert, Tarcisio Jacinto; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental transposition and impaction are disorders related to ectopic eruption or failure in tooth eruption, which can affect child physical, mental and social development and may be difficult to be clinically solved. Methods We describe a case of transposition between the upper left canine and lateral incisor associated with impaction of the central incisor on the same side, in a 12-year-old patient. Conservative treatment involving surgical-orthodontic correction of transposed teeth and traction of the central incisor was conducted. Conclusion The option of correcting transposition and orthodontic traction by means of the segmented arch technique with devices such as cantilever and TMA rectangular wire loops, although a complex alternative, was proved to be esthetically and functionally effective. PMID:24713567

  4. Preformed resin-veneered stainless steel crowns for restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P; Helpin, M L

    1996-05-01

    Stainless steel crown forms with bonded resin veneers for primary incisors are commercially available to dentists. This type of preveneered crown was developed to serve as a convenient, durable, reliable, and esthetic solution to the difficult challenge of restoring severely carious primary incisors. This article describes preveneered crowns, reviews their advantages and disadvantages, and details a technique for placement of such restorations.

  5. Preformed resin-veneered stainless steel crowns for restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P; Helpin, M L

    1996-05-01

    Stainless steel crown forms with bonded resin veneers for primary incisors are commercially available to dentists. This type of preveneered crown was developed to serve as a convenient, durable, reliable, and esthetic solution to the difficult challenge of restoring severely carious primary incisors. This article describes preveneered crowns, reviews their advantages and disadvantages, and details a technique for placement of such restorations. PMID:8941812

  6. Management of a congenitally missing maxillary central incisor. A case study.

    PubMed

    Tichler, Howard M; Abraham, Jenny E

    2007-03-01

    When a maxillary lateral incisor is missing, often the treatment options can be clearly defined, that is, substitute an adjacent tooth for the missing one; open the space for an implant, a bonded bridge or fixed bridge. When a maxillary central incisor is missing and the space for the tooth is absent, the treatment choices become complicated, especially in a growing child. There must be multi-disciplinary coordination among the restorative dentist, the oral surgeon or periodontist, and the orthodontist to obtain the optimum result. At the initiation of treatment, this information must be relayed and the treatment plan agreed upon by the patient or the parents of the patient.

  7. Esthetic periodontal surgery for impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved. PMID:22999678

  8. Simultaneous Replacement of Maxillary Central Incisors with CEREC Biogeneric Reference Technique: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Bal, Eray; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Biogeneric Reference Technique (BRT) of the CEREC 3D v.3.8 software is an effective technique for single anterior ceramic crowns because it provides computer-controlled match of the tooth form to the contralateral tooth. BRT also enables the fabrication of two or more anterior all-ceramic crowns simultaneously. This clinical report demonstrates the clinical application of BRT for designing and milling two central incisors in one appointment using a single optical impression. After completing the virtual design of the first central incisor, it was copied and a mirror image was created. The second central incisor was designed using this replicated image and therefore a computer-controlled symmetry was obtained. The crowns were milled from monolithic feldspathic ceramic blocks and adhesively luted with dual-cured resin cement following dentin conditioning. At the two-year follow-up appointment, the restorations were intact, no adverse effects were noted, and the resultant appearance was highly satisfactory for the patient. A step-by-step protocol is described from design to cementation of these restorations. PMID:23875091

  9. Compound odontoma associated with an impacted permanent central incisor.

    PubMed

    Shelton, J T; Owens, B M; Schuman, N J

    1997-10-01

    In this case report, an eleven-year-old female presented to a rural dental clinic for routine dental examination. Upon evaluation of the dentition, the attending dentist discovered an over-retained primary tooth. Radiographically, a compound odontoma was present, gingival to an unerupted permanent maxillary left central incisor (number nine) and apical to the erupted primary central incisor (F). The odontoma and its overlying primary tooth were removed by an oral surgeon. The extraction site has healed uneventfully and an Orthodontic treatment plan was formulated. The etiology of odontomas is unknown but thought to be caused by trauma, infection, inheritance and/or genetic mutation. These lesions are usually found in the second decade of life and are more common in male patients. Treatment consists of complete enucleation and curettage of the odontoma site.

  10. Age estimation using maxillary central incisors: A radiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahuja, Parul; Sinha, Abhishek; Singh, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the field of forensic dentistry, secondary changes in teeth with advancing age have been used as reliable predictors of age in various studies. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and morphological parameters of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects between 20-70 years of age were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were taken in relation to maxillary central incisors using paralleling technique. The following measurements were recorded: lengths of tooth, pulp, root and width of root and pulp at three different points. Regression formulas were used to calculate the dental age. Results: The mean estimated age showed no statistically significant difference from the actual mean age (P > 0.05). Also, maximum difference was seen for root length variable (-1.035 ± 1.86 years). PMID:23741151

  11. Atypical presentation of bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors with unusual talon cusp.

    PubMed

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Pavuluri, Chaitanya; Mohapatra, Abinash; Nirmala, S V S G

    2011-01-01

    Delayed eruption of maxillary permanent central incisors in a child poses a distressing esthetic quandary to parents, by virtue of its location in the dental architecture. Well-aligned anterior teeth add confidence to smile and have enhanced self-esteem, which is critical even in early life. Impaction of the maxillary central incisors compared to third molars or the canines is less reported; bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors related to impacted permanent maxillary central incisors are rare and one of the supplemental central incisors showing unusual talon is still infrequent. A case of impacted maxillary permanent central incisors related to supplemental maxillary central incisors, with one of them showing an unusual talon cusp, is presented. PMID:21911955

  12. A Simplified Method for the Restoration of Severely Decayed Primary Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Maryam; Parisay, Iman; Khorakian, Fatemeh; Nik, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Caries and dental trauma are common reasons for primary anterior teeth restorations in children. This non-control clinical trial was designed to evaluate crown restorations reinforced with a sectioned file post for the restoration of severely damaged primary maxillary incisors. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight primary maxillary incisors of 12 children (3–5 years old) with early childhood caries (ECC) received composite restorations with a custom made post. The restorations were evaluated using the modified United State Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. The results were statistically analyzed by descriptive –analytical tests. Results: In this trial, the quality of marginal adaptation decreased after three and 12 months intervals. Recurrent carious lesions were observed during intervals. In terms of restoration retention, only one patient lost both the post and the restoration at the 12-month follow up. Conclusion: The sectioned file post technique showed good retention and aesthetics for restoring severely damaged primary maxillary anterior teeth. PMID:26622269

  13. Management of synodontia between dilacerated permanent maxillary central incisor and supernumerary tooth with aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suroopa; Warhadpande, Manjusha M.; Redij, Saurabh Anil; Sabir, Husain; Shirude, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    A malformed tooth characterized by one or more developmental disturbances is often difficult to treat. When such teeth are present in anterior region, they pose a technical challenge for the clinician to restore esthetics as well as function. This case describes endodontic, surgical, and restorative management of fused and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used in the present case to aid in understanding of complicated tooth morphology and managing the case successfully. PMID:25829699

  14. Surgical Management of Mandibular Central Incisors with Dumbbell Shaped Periapical Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Patil, Jayaprakash D.; Jayaprakash, Thumu; Chaitanya, C. H. Krishna; Kalluru, Rama S.

    2014-01-01

    Dental traumatic injuries may affect the teeth and alveolar bone directly or indirectly. Pulpal necrosis and chronic and apical periodontitis with cystic changes are the most common sequelae of the dental traumatic injuries, if the teeth are not treated immediately. This case report focuses on the conventional and surgical management of mandibular central incisors. A twenty-four-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular central incisors. Radiographic examination revealed mandibular central incisors with dumbbell shaped periapical lesion. After root canal treatment, parendodontic surgery was performed for mandibular central incisors. After one-year recall examination, the teeth were asymptomatic and periapical lesion had healed. PMID:25105031

  15. Interim Restorative Approach for the Management of Congenitally Missing Permanent Mandibular Incisors: Presentation of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Prashanth; Hallur, Jayadev M.; Gowda, Rachana Narse

    2011-01-01

    Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to comfort the young patient during this transition period. Interim restorations may include resin-modified additions to the existing teeth as well as more sophisticated restorations such as resin-retained bridge and removable partial dentures. However, this restoration differs for different clinical situations based on various factors such as age and patient compliance, and also consideration has to be given for the growth changes of the child. The aim of this present paper is to discuss the esthetic management of three cases with bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular incisors and retained primary incisors with composite interim restoration. PMID:22567446

  16. Traumatic loss of a maxillary central incisor treated with nonextraction orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiyou; Kang, Ting; Duan, Yinzhong

    2013-02-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a girl who lost her maxillary left central incisor from trauma. The patient had a concave profile, a Class I molar relationship on the right side and a Class II molar relationship on the left side, with a slight maxillary retrusion, an anterior edge-to-edge bite, and a posterior crossbite. Therefore, the treatment consisted of rapid palatal expansion to widen the maxilla in a transverse direction along with reverse headgear to improve the incisor relationship. The crown of the left canine was modified to resemble the left lateral incisor, and a porcelain veneer was placed to make the left lateral incisor resemble the left central incisor. This case report illustrates how orthodontics alone can be used to treat a missing central incisor, without a bridge or an implant. PMID:23374932

  17. A morphometric analysis of maxillary central incisor on the basis of facial appearance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ji-Eun; Yang, Hong-So

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to identify a more esthetic width-to-length ratio by analyzing maxillary central incisor of Korean adult population. Information regarding tooth ratio in the Korean population may be useful to clinicians when restoring anterior teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 40 men and 40 women were included in this study. The NON-MEDIA group included 40 non-celebrities, who were healthy and 25 to 39 years old, with normal dentofacial appearance. The MEDIA group consisted of 40 celebrities selected only on the basis of their soft-tissue facial appearance. The facial photographs of 40 celebrities were collected from the Internet websites. The width and length of the maxillary central incisor were measured using Adobe Photoshop® 7.0, a software for analysis, measurement and edition of photographs. Data were analyzed statistically using the Independent t-test at 5% statistical significance level. RESULTS The mean ratio for the MEDIA group was 0.77, whereas that of the NON-MEDIA group was 0.88. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No significant gender differences were found in the width-to-length ratio in MEDIA group. In NON-MEDIA group, however, there were significant differences between female and male. CONCLUSION After analyzing maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults, our results were in accordance with the general Western standards of esthetics. A dentist restoring the natural look and beauty of teeth will have to consider those standards. PMID:22439095

  18. Variation in Size and Form between Left and Right Maxillary Central Incisor Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vadavadagi, Suneel V; Hombesh, M N; Choudhury, Gopal Krishna; Deshpande, Sumith; Anusha, C V; Murthy, D Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the variation in size of left and right maxillary central incisors for male patients (using digital calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy). To compare the variation in size of left and right maxillary central incisors for female patients (using digital calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy). To find out the difference between the maxillary central incisors of men and women. Its clinical applicability if difference exists. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 dental students of PMNM Dental College and Hospital were selected. Of 70 dental students, 40 male and 30 female were selected. Impressions were made for all subjects, using irreversible hydrocolloid (Algitex, manufacturer DPI, Batch-T-8804) using perforated stock metal trays. The mesiodistal crown width and cervical width were measured for each incisor and recorded separately for left and right teeth. The length was measured for each incisor and recorded separately for left and right maxillary central incisor using digitec height caliper. Results: The mean value of maximum crown length of maxillary left central incisor of male was greater in length compared with maxillary right central incisor. Mean value of maximum crown length for male patient right and left side was greater compared with maximum crown length of female patient. Conclusion: When compared the dimensions of teeth between two sex, male group shows larger values to female group. PMID:25859104

  19. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with varying ferrule heights and configurations: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Thareja, Prerna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the best ferrule configuration of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were collected. Teeth were allocated into following four groups of each having 10 teeth. Group 1 teeth restored with crowns (CRN), Group 2 endodontically treated teeth restored with crowns (RCT and CRN), Group 3 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 2 mm ferrule (2 FRL), Group 4 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 1 mm ferrule (1 FRL). Crown preparation was performed with varying ferrule heights, crowns were cemented with resin modified glass ionomer cement and were kept in 100% humidity for 3 days, all specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Results were obtained in the form of kilo Newton and Newton. Result: The statistical analysis applied was an analysis of variance to detect the presence of group differences. Pair wise comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Tukey Kramer significant difference test for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Ferrule had a significant role in the fracture resistance of custom cast post core restored teeth. Endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with a uniform 2 mm ferrule were more fracture resistant than those with a uniform 1 mm ferrule. PMID:24778504

  20. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The endodontic management of immature permanent incisors in young children can be challenging. This case reported an avulsed immature maxillary central incisors that underwent complete endodontic obturation using mineral trioxide aggregate. A 10-year-old male who suffered a fall injury avulsed both his central incisors. The revascularization process was not possible due to patient compliance and geographic reasons. Mineral trioxide aggregate was utilized as a novel endodontic treatment. After one year post-injury, the teeth remained symptom-free, the clinical and radiographic follow-up showed evidence of healthy periodontium. How to cite this article: Al-Kahtani A. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):88-96. PMID:24155609

  1. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  2. Innovative biomechanics for orthodontic correction of torsiversion of maxillary central incisor caused by twin mesiodens

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Nitika; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Duggal, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. Early and proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is critical in eluding the extent of treatment needed. This case report presents the successful orthodontic and esthetic management of an unusual case of Indian origin with twin mesiodens in the maxillary arch causing torsiversion and attrition of mandibular incisors due to occlusal trauma. PMID:24963264

  3. Estimating the color of maxillary central incisors based on age and gender

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo-Diaz, David; Johnston, William M.; Wee, Alvin G.

    2008-01-01

    Statement of problem There is no scientific information regarding the selection of the color of teeth for edentulous patients. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear regression models that may be used to predict color parameters for central incisors of edentulous patients based on some characteristics of dentate subjects. Material and methods A spectroradiometer and an external light source were set in a noncontacting 45/0 degree (45-degree illumination and 0-degree observer) optical configuration to measure the color of subjects’ vital craniofacial structures (maxillary central incisor, attached gingiva, and facial skin). The subjects (n=120) were stratified into 5 age groups with 4 racial groups and balanced for gender. Linear first-order regression was used to determine the significant factors (α=.05) in the prediction model for each color direction of the color of the maxillary central incisor. Age, gender, and color of the other craniofacial structures were studied as potential predictors. Final predictions in each color direction were based only on the statistically significant factors, and then the color differences between observed and predicted CIELAB values for the central incisors were calculated and summarized. Results The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 36% of the total variability in L*. The statistically significant predictor of age accounted for 16% of the total variability in a*. The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 21% of the variability in b*. The mean ΔE (SD) between predicted and observed CIELAB values for the central incisor was 5.8 (3.2). Conclusions Age and gender were found to be statistically significant determinants in predicting the natural color of central incisors. Although the precision of these predictions was less than the median color difference found for all pairs of teeth studied, and may be considered an acceptable precision, further

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Ferrule Designs on Fracture Resistance of Maxillary Incisors Restored with Bonded Posts and Cores

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi Izadi, Z.; Jalalian, E.; Eyvaz Ziaee, A.; Zamani, L.; Javanshir, B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In cases of severe hard tissue loss, 2 mm circumferential ferrule is difficult to achieve. So in these cases we should use different ferrule designs. This in vitro study investigated the effect of different ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of teeth restored with bonded post and cores. Materials and Methods: Forty freshly-extracted central incisors were endodontically treated. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups; group 1 were teeth with 2 mm circumferential ferrule above the CEJ, group 2 were teeth with 2 mm ferrule only on the palatal side of the teeth, group 3 consisted of teeth with 2 mm ferrule only on the facial side and group 4 were teeth with 2 mm ferrule on the palatal and facial side of teeth with interproximal concavities. All teeth were restored with fiber posts and composite cores. The specimen was mounted on a universal testing machine and compressive load was applied to the long axis of the specimen until failure occurred. Results: The fracture resistance was 533.79 ± 232.28 in group 1, 634.75± 133.35 in group 2, 828.90 ±118.27 in group 3 and 678.78± 160.20 in group 4. The post hoc analysis showed statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 3. Conclusions: The results of this in vitro study showed that facial ferrule increases the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with bonded post and cores. PMID:21998789

  5. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, M; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B; Lakshmi, Amudha

    2014-04-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  6. The application of fiber core posts in restoring badly destroyed primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Aly A

    2002-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) represents a challenge to pediatric dentists especially, when teeth are badly destroyed. ECC involves the upper anterior teeth early in life and by the time the dentist sees the child, most of the coronal structure is lost. Dentally, this is a very devastating situation for both the dentist and parents, as in many cases, extraction of these teeth is the only option. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, a new approach for treating these teeth is explained and documented by clinical cases, where fiber core posts are introduced into the root canals of primary incisors for a distance of 2 to 3 mm. It is retained in place by flowable composite, then the coronal part is reconstructed by a strip crown to restore the crown form. After a follow up period of one year, only 2 teeth out of 30 had to be extracted. The failure was attributed to failure in pulpal therapy rather than failure in the restorations, which were totally intact. A laboratory testing of the fracture load resistance of the restored teeth proved that this technique significantly improved the fracture load resistance of composite celluloid crowns, making it a valuable procedure to consider when the coronal tooth structure is not enough to support and retain a composite celluloid strip crown. PMID:11990042

  7. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. Results: 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. Conclusion: With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule. PMID:26464537

  8. Management of an intruded primary central incisor with a natural crown under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Bilgin, Mehmet Selim

    2014-01-01

    Tooth intrusion is the most common trauma during early infancy. Primary maxillary central incisors are the most affected teeth. There are a few treatment approaches which depend upon the severity of the trauma, and the treatment must be managed professionally. In this case report, a 3-year-old girl with a history of trauma 40 days before referring to our pediatric clinic is presented. Deciduous maxillary right central incisor was intruded through labial and alveolar socket and completely covered with soft tissue. The intruded deciduous incisor tooth was surgically extracted and impression was taken under general anesthesia. The removable partial prosthesis was completed by using the patient's own extracted tooth. Using natural crown on removable prosthesis gives psychological satisfaction to the patient and his/her family, and can be better tolerated since its shape, size, and color are exactly in harmony. PMID:24966781

  9. Finite elements study of the Flexi Post and Flexi Flange post systems in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, Hugo Roberto; Youssef, Michel Nicolau; Matson, Maurício Rufaiel; Bocangel, Jorge Antônio Javier Saldivar; Netto, Camillo Anauate; Amore, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    The use of post and core systems has become an excellent alternative for restoring endodontically treated teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the von Mises, maximal compressive and tensile stresses distribution using the Finite Element Method (FEM) on human teeth restored with different post and core systems. The analysis was made on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. The post systems used in this investigation were the stainless steel or titanium Flexi Post/Flexi Flange. Composite resin was used as core material and resin cement was the cement material of choice to seat a full porcelain crown. The bi-dimensional mathematical model was created from pictures taken from an intact human maxillary central incisor and prefabricated posts. This image was transferred to a personal computer in the MSC/Nastran 4.5 software. A static and linear analysis treatment was performed when a 45 load of 100 N was applied on the lingual surface of the tooth. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the post design and its material can alter the stress pattern distribution. PMID:14569354

  10. Non-linear viscoelastic finite element analysis of the effect of the length of glass fiber posts on the biomechanical behaviour of directly restored incisors and surrounding alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marco; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Apicella, Davide; Aversa, Raffaella; Apicella, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The study aimed at estimating the effect of insertion length of posts with composite restorations on stress and strain distributions in central incisors and surrounding bone. The typical, average geometries were generated in a FEA environment. Dentin was considered as an elastic orthotropic material, and periodontal ligament was coupled with nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties. The model was then validated with experimental data on displacement of incisors from published literature. Three post lengths were investigated in this study: root insertion of 5, 7, and 9 mm. For control, a sound incisor model was generated. Then, a tearing load of 50 N was applied to both sound tooth and simulation models. Post restorations did not seem to affect the strain distribution in bone when compared to the control. All simulated post restorations affected incisor biomechanics and reduced the root's deforming capability, while the composite crowns underwent a higher degree of deformation than the sound crown. No differences could be noticed in incisor stress and strain. As for the influence of post length, it was not shown to affect the biomechanics of restored teeth. PMID:18833761

  11. Correlation between maxillary central incisor crown morphology and mandibular dental arch form in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Lima, Carolina Souto; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Torres, Fernando Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the mandibular dental arch and the maxillary central incisor crown. Cast models from 51 Caucasian individuals, older than 15 years, with optimal occlusion, no previous orthodontic treatment, featuring 4 of the 6 keys to normal occlusion by Andrews (the first being mandatory) were observed. The models were digitalized using a 3D scanner, and images of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular dental arch were obtained. These were printed and placed in an album below pre-set models of arches and dental crowns, and distributed to 12 dental surgeons, who were asked to choose which shape was most in accordance with the models and crown presented. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate the concordance among evaluators while the chi-square test was used to verify the association between the dental arch and central incisor morphology, at a 5% significance level. The Kappa test showed moderate agreement among evaluators for both variables of this study, and the chi-square test showed no significant association between tooth shape and mandibular dental arch morphology. It may be concluded that the use of arch morphology as a diagnostic method to determine the shape of the maxillary central incisor is not appropriate. Further research is necessary to assess tooth shape using a stricter scientific basis.

  12. Crowns to create esthetics for mal-aligned central incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Savadi, Ravindra C; Savadi, Anupama R; Kumar, Preeti Satheesh

    2011-06-01

    This case report describes the smile design of crowded upper central anteriors in a female patient aged 25 years. The patient wanted the correction to be completed in a short period of time. A smile design schedule was drawn up involving root canal treatment of the central incisors and placing posts in both the teeth. All ceramic crowns were then fabricated to establish a very satisfactory and pleasing esthetics.

  13. Er:YAG Laser and Fractured Incisor Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, C.; Petruzzella, S.; Podda, R.; Merigo, E.; Nammour, S.; Vescovi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an Er:YAG laser on enamel and dentine in cases of dental restorations involving fractured teeth, utilizing the dental fragment. Materials and Methods. Seventy-two freshly extracted bovine incisors were fractured at the coronal level by using a hammer applied with a standardized method, and the fragment was reattached by using three different methods: Er:YAG laser, orthophosphoric acid, and laser plus acid. The different groups were evaluated by a test realized with the dynamometer to know the force required to successfully detach the reattached fragment and by a microinfiltration test by using a 0.5% methylene blue solution followed by the optic microscope observation. Results. The compression test showed only a slight difference between the three groups, without any statistical significance. The infiltration test used to evaluate the marginal seal between the fracture fragment and the tooth demonstrated that etching with Er:YAG laser alone or in combination with orthophosphoric acid gives better results than orthophosphoric acid alone, with a highly significant statistical result. Discussion. Reattaching a tooth fragment represents a clinically proven methodology, in terms of achieving resistance to detachment, and the aim of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of Er:YAG laser on this procedure. Conclusion. This “in vitro” study confirms that Er:YAG laser can be employed in dental traumatology to restore frontal teeth after coronal fracture. PMID:23091491

  14. Dental Items of Interest: The Case of Delphic Sibyl by Michelangelo: Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor or Mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Perciaccante, Antonio; Coralli, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    A case of an anomaly in the maxillary dental arch on "Delphic Sibyl," a fresco by Michelangelo is reported. An accurate analysis of this fresco shows a single incisor tooth is present precisely in the midline. We hypothesize that it may be a case of solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) and discuss the differential diagnosis with another similar anomaly--the mesiodens.

  15. Management of chronic luxated central incisor with hopeless prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gauresh Kumar; Gujjari, Sheela Kumar; Annapoorna, B. M.; Veerendra Kumar, S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries are the most studied yet most challenging for a dentist. Extrusive luxation injuries are usually managed by repositioning tooth in the original position and pulp sensibility is evaluated at regular periodic intervals. However, when injuries are chronic, tooth is necrotic with compromised periodontal support, treatment is a challenge. Intentional replantation utilizing growth factors in fibrin rich network of platelet rich fibrin can be a treatment modality in such patients where other restorative modalities to establish function-esthetics rehabilitation is not possible. PMID:24174766

  16. Rare Root Morphology of a Maxillary Central Incisor Associated With Gingival Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Monea, Monica; Moldovan, Cosmin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dilaceration is a developmental disturbance characterized by the angulation of the crown or root of a permanent tooth, which is often related to trauma of primary dentition. We report a case of a dilacerated root in a maxillary central incisor associated with gingival hyperplasia in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment, a combination of pathological conditions that had never been mentioned before in the scientific literature. A 10-year-old female patient presented to the Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology with tenderness to palpation and bleeding from the oral aspect of the central incisor, alerted by the proliferation of the gingiva. During clinical examination, the palpation performed with a dental probe revealed a carious lesion with dental pulp exposure on the distal aspect of right central incisor and the presence of a sessile mass of inflamed gingival tissue that proliferated inside the defect. On the preoperative radiograph a dilacerated root canal was noted, without periapical bone resorption. The main diagnosis was irreversible pulpitis and gingival hyperplasia and the treatment option was surgical removal of the inflamed tissue with histopathological examination and root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment with a good prognosis was recorded. The measurement of the root curvature proved to be extremely helpful in choosing the right endodontic technique and made the treatment easier than expected. An important observation was that, despite the rare clinical and radiographic aspect of this dilacerated tooth, the endodontic treatment proved to be relatively easy to perform and, therefore, the prognosis was considered favorable. PMID:27149498

  17. Rare Root Morphology of a Maxillary Central Incisor Associated With Gingival Hyperplasia: An Endodontic Case Report.

    PubMed

    Monea, Monica; Moldovan, Cosmin

    2016-05-01

    Dilaceration is a developmental disturbance characterized by the angulation of the crown or root of a permanent tooth, which is often related to trauma of primary dentition. We report a case of a dilacerated root in a maxillary central incisor associated with gingival hyperplasia in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment, a combination of pathological conditions that had never been mentioned before in the scientific literature.A 10-year-old female patient presented to the Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology with tenderness to palpation and bleeding from the oral aspect of the central incisor, alerted by the proliferation of the gingiva. During clinical examination, the palpation performed with a dental probe revealed a carious lesion with dental pulp exposure on the distal aspect of right central incisor and the presence of a sessile mass of inflamed gingival tissue that proliferated inside the defect. On the preoperative radiograph a dilacerated root canal was noted, without periapical bone resorption.The main diagnosis was irreversible pulpitis and gingival hyperplasia and the treatment option was surgical removal of the inflamed tissue with histopathological examination and root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment with a good prognosis was recorded.The measurement of the root curvature proved to be extremely helpful in choosing the right endodontic technique and made the treatment easier than expected. An important observation was that, despite the rare clinical and radiographic aspect of this dilacerated tooth, the endodontic treatment proved to be relatively easy to perform and, therefore, the prognosis was considered favorable.

  18. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Namineni, Srinivas; Tupalli, Abhinaya Reddy; Challa, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Concordance is an identical expression of phenotype in two related individuals. Concordance expression of hypodontia is an uncommon condition where associated individuals are affected with exactly similar kind and number of missing teeth. There is very limited documentation of this condition either in twins or in siblings, and literature shows paucity of data with regard to this anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the literature, which has actually showed similar missing lower central incisors in siblings. This report presents a case of two girl siblings aged 11 and 13 years with congenital bilateral missing of permanent mandibular central incisors, which is an absolute concordant condition. Apart from discussing etiology, clinical implications and management, this article highlights the significance of concordant and discordant condition of hypodontia and expression of this condition in twins and siblings. How to cite this article: Kagitha PK, Namineni S, Tupalli AR, Challa SK. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):74-77. PMID:27274160

  19. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis in association with solitary median maxillary central incisor: unique radiologic features.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sara; Orta, Pedro; Renk, Elizabeth M; Inman, Jared C

    2016-09-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) coexists in 34%-65% of patients initially diagnosed with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis. SMMCI, a genetic syndrome, warrants consideration for further screening because of its high prevalence of other diagnostic possibilities-specifically central defects, like nasal obstruction and hypothalamo-pituitary axis abnormalities. We report on a presentation of SMMCI with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis which highlights the unique radiologic features and notes the relationship between these two central associated findings in the literature. PMID:27594945

  20. The non-vital discolored central incisor dilemma.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Stanley, Kyle; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of anterior teeth is frequently a demanding mission. Patients generally have high expectations for the anterior region, which makes the emotional side of treatment especially important. When this involves discolored endodontically treated teeth, consensus can hardly ever be found as to the chosen approach. Bleaching with direct composites is undoubtedly the most conservative choice for these cases. However, this may require more maintenance (touch-up bleaching and repairs) in the long term, which is an important issue for adult patients. On the other hand, bonded porcelain veneers represent a more 'high-end' option, as they recover the original biomechanics of the intact tooth, allow an optimal masking of the substrate, remain stable, and have a reasonable biological cost when compared to full-coverage crowns. This strategy is explained in this article and documented with a clinical case. We describe treatment planning based on the biomimetic concept, taking into consideration what is possible with current materials and techniques when combined with the patient's particular needs, including the introduction of an innovative step during dentin sealing--the microsuction. The laboratory work was totally accomplished by 'teledentistry', with no direct contact between the dental technologist and the patient. PMID:26794051

  1. Management of a Horizontally Impacted and Dilacerated Central Incisor in the Early Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Dave, Heemanshu R; Samrit, Vilas D; Duggal, Ritu; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    An impacted maxillary incisor in the early mixed dentition can pose a clinical challenge for orthodontists and pediatric dentists. Clinical observations supported with a 3-D imaging technique can help not only in assessing the precise location of the impacted tooth and its relation with neighboring teeth but also in correctly executing a treatment plan. The purpose of this paper is to describe the management of a severely rotated and horizontally impacted central incisor using intrabony rotation and simultaneous orthodontically-guided eruption. Timely intervention avoided disturbance in arch integrity and meticulous management helped to produce an excellent outcome in terms of function, esthetics, and stability of occlusion during two years of follow-up.

  2. Dental Items of Interest: The Case of Delphic Sibyl by Michelangelo: Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor or Mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Perciaccante, Antonio; Coralli, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    A case of an anomaly in the maxillary dental arch on "Delphic Sibyl," a fresco by Michelangelo is reported. An accurate analysis of this fresco shows a single incisor tooth is present precisely in the midline. We hypothesize that it may be a case of solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) and discuss the differential diagnosis with another similar anomaly--the mesiodens. PMID:26930847

  3. Analysis of dentinal stress distribution of maxillary central incisors subjected to various post-and-core applications.

    PubMed

    Toksavul, Suna; Zor, Mehmet; Toman, Muhitten; Güngör, Mehmet Ali; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Artunç, Celal

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the stress distribution on an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with different post-and-core systems by using a three-dimensional finite element analysis model. Seven three-dimensional finite element models were created. Each model contained cortical bone, cancelous bone, periodontal ligament, 3 mm apical root canal filling, post-and-core and all-ceramic crowns. Two different pre-fabricated zirconia ceramic post systems, a glass fiber-reinforced post system and a titanium post system were modeled. As a control, an all-ceramic crown on an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor without a post-and-core was modeled. Each model received a 45 degrees oblique occlusal load at a constant intensity of 100 N. In each model, the ratio of Von Mises stress distribution was compared. The greatest stresses were observed in the coronal third of the roots on facial surfaces. The ratio of Von Mises stress distribution in dentin for the zirconia ceramic post (CosmoPost) and ceramic core (Cosmo Ingot), zirconia ceramic post (CosmoPost) and composite core (Tetric Ceram), glass fiber-reinforced post (FRC Postec) and composite core (Tetric Ceram), titanium post (Er post) and composite core (Tetric Ceram), zirconia ceramic post (Cerapost) and ceramic core (Cosmo Ingot), zirconia ceramic post (Cerapost) and composite core (Tetric Ceram) and the control group were 0.886, 0.889, 0.988, 0.924, 0.889, 0.893 and 1, respectively. The stress concentrations in dentin created by two different zirconia ceramic post systems were nearly the same. The zirconia ceramic post systems created slightly less stress concentration in dentin than the glass fiber-reinforced and titanium posts.

  4. Rare Root Morphology of a Maxillary Central Incisor Associated With Gingival Hyperplasia: An Endodontic Case Report.

    PubMed

    Monea, Monica; Moldovan, Cosmin

    2016-05-01

    Dilaceration is a developmental disturbance characterized by the angulation of the crown or root of a permanent tooth, which is often related to trauma of primary dentition. We report a case of a dilacerated root in a maxillary central incisor associated with gingival hyperplasia in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment, a combination of pathological conditions that had never been mentioned before in the scientific literature.A 10-year-old female patient presented to the Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology with tenderness to palpation and bleeding from the oral aspect of the central incisor, alerted by the proliferation of the gingiva. During clinical examination, the palpation performed with a dental probe revealed a carious lesion with dental pulp exposure on the distal aspect of right central incisor and the presence of a sessile mass of inflamed gingival tissue that proliferated inside the defect. On the preoperative radiograph a dilacerated root canal was noted, without periapical bone resorption.The main diagnosis was irreversible pulpitis and gingival hyperplasia and the treatment option was surgical removal of the inflamed tissue with histopathological examination and root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment with a good prognosis was recorded.The measurement of the root curvature proved to be extremely helpful in choosing the right endodontic technique and made the treatment easier than expected. An important observation was that, despite the rare clinical and radiographic aspect of this dilacerated tooth, the endodontic treatment proved to be relatively easy to perform and, therefore, the prognosis was considered favorable. PMID:27149498

  5. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  6. Re-attachment of Subgingivally Oblique Fractured Central Incisor Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Ok, Evren; Erdek, Yesim

    2008-01-01

    This case report presents a 32 year old male with an oblique fractured maxillary right central incisor. The procedure used to repair the fracture included flap surgery with an intrasulcular incision and endodontic treatment. The root canal was filled with a root canal sealer and gutta-percha. After root canal obturation, fragments were luted with composite resin using a glass fibers post. After 12 months, clinical and radiographic examinations showed a stable reattachment of the fragments, good aesthetics and periodontal health. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:138–141) PMID:19212525

  7. Implant Prosthetic Rehabilitation with Bone Regenerative Techniques after Fracture of the Upper Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Massimo; Bruno, Vincenzo; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Cerutti, Antonio; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    A case of implant-bone prosthetic rehabilitation, after the fracture of the maxillary central incisors, which had been treated with grafting of a bone substitute, is reported. This case was followed by the normal procedures of implantology within the traditional timeframe for bone regeneration. However, a barrier membrane was not used which shows that even along with the use of graft material a sufficient amount of bone could be achieved for a subsequent rehabilitation. Therefore, after a five-year follow-up period, osseointegration was maintained with no marginal bone loss. PMID:23762642

  8. Survival rate and fracture strength of maxillary incisors, restored with different kinds of full veneers.

    PubMed

    Stappert, C F J; Stathopoulou, N; Gerds, T; Strub, J R

    2005-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture strength of different kinds of ceramic full veneers, fabricated with a new experimental press ceramic (EPC VP2117/TC2, Ivoclar-Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Eighty, caries-free human maxillary central incisors were used as abutments and were randomly divided into one control group and four test-groups of 16 samples each. In group A, unprepared teeth served as control. In the test groups, four different types of full veneer preparations were performed. In test groups B/C, the preparation was maintained in enamel and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. In test groups D/E, the preparation was extended into dentin and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. All veneers were adhesively luted using Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent AG). Then, the samples were exposed to the artificial mouth for 1.2 million chewing cycles (49 N). After exposure in the artificial mouth, a survival rate of the abutment teeth of 81-100% was reported among the different groups, but was not significantly different between the groups. However, no failures of the ceramic materials could be recognized. The median fracture strength of group A was 713.3 N, of group B 647.1 N, of group C 594.8 N, of group D 483.8 N and of group E 502.6 N. Among the different groups no significant difference was found. All mean values obtained were within the limits of clinical acceptance, indicating further clinical investigations on full veneers made out of the EPC.

  9. Temporary management of permanent central incisors loss caused by trauma in primary dentition with natural crowns: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Tamer; Kuşgöz, Adem; Nur, Bilge Gülsüm

    2009-10-01

    Primary teeth injuries may cause developmental disturbances in the permanent dentition and loss of permanent incisors could be treated with different options. In this case report, an 11-year-old boy, with a history of trauma at the age of 4 years, is presented. Premature loss of permanent upper right central and upper left central teeth because of the mobility and arrest in root development were treated using patient's own natural crowns on a removable appliance. This treatment option could be considered as an esthetic and functional temporary management of permanent central incisors loss until the definitive treatment will be completed in the future.

  10. Management of a Two-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography: Importance of Three-dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Gupta, Saurabh; Saxena, Payal; Khetarpal, Shaleen; Solanki, Mishthu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a two-rooted maxillary central incisor, stressing the importance of three-dimensional imaging in treatment planning and conservative approach of management. Endodontic treatment of this central incisor was carried out with a successful outcome. PMID:26697155

  11. Surgical Retreatment of an Invaginated Maxillary Central Incisor Following Overfilled Endodontic Treatment: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ozbas, Hakan; Subay, Rustem Kemal; Ordulu, Melike

    2010-01-01

    This case report presents the periapical surgical retreatment of an Oehlers Class III invaginated maxillary central incisor with extruded root canal filling into the periapical lesion. After local anesthesia, a full-thickness mucoperiosteal flap was reflected, and the granulomatous tissue and extruded gutta-percha points were curetted carefully. A deep and wide root-end cavity was prepared and filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). At 6 months and 2 years after the treatment, the tooth exhibited no clinical symptoms, and the radiograph performed during the 2-year follow-up showed a complete periapical healing around the root end. The present report indicates that MTA retrofilling can be used successfully in the surgical retreatment of dens invaginatus type III cases in which the invagination exits apically. PMID:20613922

  12. A new computational method for automatic dental measurement: The case of maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P; Bernardi, S; Continenza, M A

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human teeth. The aim of the proposed computer based method is to reduce inaccuracy of measurement with respect to traditional approaches. Starting from a 3D model of the teeth which is obtained from 3D scanning, the method algorithmically evaluates the most important dimensional features detectable in central incisors. For this purpose, specific rules are put forward and implemented in original software with a view to identifying repere points, from which to detect dimensional features both unambiguously and accurately. The automatic method which is proposed here is verified by means of the analysis of real teeth and is then compared with the current state-of-the-art methods for teeth measurement. PMID:26851728

  13. Replacement of mandibular central incisors with implant-supported crowns: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bäumer, Daniel; Zuhr, Otto; Hürzeler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Anterior teeth are often affected by accidental dental trauma and may eventually be lost. When the neighboring teeth are unharmed, implant-supported crowns are often the preferred treatment choice. When not only the teeth but also the supporting hard and soft tissue has been lost, surgical reconstruction may be needed. However, in combined horizontal and vertical class III defects, the available augmentation techniques are often not predictable. In this case report, two neighboring mandibular central incisors were replaced by two implants after soft and hard tissue augmentation with the cortical bone plate method. The interdental soft tissue was reconstructed with remarkable success, making this an example of what can be achieved in cases such as this. PMID:27092347

  14. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post.

  15. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post. PMID:26543733

  16. Torquing an upper central incisor with aligners--acting forces and biomechanical principles.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Wolfram; Zapf, Antonia; Dathe, Henning; Fialka-Fricke, Julia; Fricke-Zech, Susanne; Gruber, Rudolf; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza

    2010-12-01

    The forces delivered by aligners during torquing have still not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to measure the forces delivered to an upper central incisor during torquing with three different materials of the same thickness, and to describe the biomechanical principles of torquing with aligners. Five identical appliances were manufactured from each of three materials, all with a thickness of 1.0 mm (Ideal Clear®, Erkodur®, and Biolon®). An upper central incisor, as part of the measuring device, was torqued in defined steps in the vestibular and palatal directions with the respective appliance in place. For statistical analysis, the resulting forces, Fx (forces acting in the palatal and facial directions) and Fz (intrusive force as a side-effect) at a displacement of ±0.15 and ±0.8 mm from the tooth at the gingival margin were calculated. The mean Fx forces for ±0.15 mm displacement ranged from -1.89 N [standard deviation (SD) 0.48] to 0.11 N (SD 0.1). The mean Fz forces were between -0.97 N (SD 0.57) and -0.07 N (SD 0.22). The highest intrusive forces were measured during palatal displacement of the measuring tooth. An influence of direction of displacement on the levels of force was observed, especially for Fz at the greater displacement of ±0.8 mm. In relation to the intended amount of root movement during torquing, aligners tend to 'lift up' and therefore no effective force couple can be established for further root control. The force delivery properties are also influenced by the material used and the shape of the tooth.

  17. Endodontic and Esthetic Management of a Dilacerated Maxillary Central Incisor Having Two Root Canals Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Mittal, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics. PMID:24955260

  18. Initial forces generated by three types of thermoplastic appliances on an upper central incisor during tipping.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Wolfram; Fialka-Fricke, Julia; Dathe, Henning; Fricke-Zech, Susanne; Zapf, Antonia; Gruber, Rudolf; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza

    2009-12-01

    The force properties of thermoformed appliances have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to quantify the forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances manufactured from three different materials, with the same thickness, on a central upper incisor, during tipping. Five identical appliances were manufactured from three different materials all with a thickness of 1.0 mm (Ideal Clear, Erkodur, and Biolon). For measuring the forces, an isolated measuring tooth, as part of a standardized resin model incorporated in a newly developed measuring device, was tipped in nine 2.7 arc minute (0.04629 degree) steps, from 0 to 0.416 degrees in the vestibular and palatal directions around a rotational axis through the virtual apex, after positioning an appliance on the model. For statistical analysis, the force components Fx/tipping and Fz/intrusion at a displacement of +/-0.151 mm from the incisor edge were determined. Means and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test for overall effects and the Wilcoxon two-sample test for individual group pairings were used (P < 0.05 significance level). The mean Fx forces ranged from -2.82 N (SD 0.62) to 5.42 N (SD 0.56). The mean Fz forces were between -0.14 N (SD 0.52) and -2.3 N (SD 0.43). The highest intrusive forces were measured during vestibular displacement of the measuring tooth. The forces delivered by the Biolon appliance were found to be much greater (P < 0.01) than those of the other materials. The forces delivered by the materials investigated were mostly higher than those stated in the literature.

  19. Strain Distribution in Root Surface Dentin of Maxillary Central Incisors during Lateral Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Raphael; Metzger, Zvi; Brosh, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Aim To precisely quantify the circumferential strains created along the radicular dentin of maxillary incisors during a simulated clinical procedure of lateral compaction. Methods Six miniature strain gauges were bonded on the roots of fourteen recently extracted maxillary central incisors that were subjected to root canal instrumentation. The strain gauges were bonded at three levels (apical, middle, and coronal) and four aspects (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal) of the roots. Each tooth was embedded in a PVC cylinder containing polyvinyl-siloxane impression material. Root filling was then performed by simulating the clinical procedure of lateral compaction using nickel-titanium finger spreaders. The force applied to the spreader and the strains developing in the surface root dentin were continuously recorded at a frequency of 10 Hz. Results The highest strains that developed during lateral compaction were in the mesial and distal aspects at the apical level of the root. The magnitudes of the maximal mesial/distal strains at the apical as well as the mid-root levels were approximately 2.5–3 times higher than those at the buccal/lingual aspects (p = 0.041). The strains decreased significantly (p<0.04) from the apical through the mid-root levels to the coronal level, yielding gradients of 2.5- and 6-fold, respectively. The mesial and distal strains were consistently tensile and did not differ significantly; however, the buccal strains were generally 35–65% higher than the lingual strains (p = 0.078). Lateral compaction resulted in the gradual build-up of residual strains, resulting in generation of a 'stair-step' curve. These strains declined gradually and almost completely disappeared after 1000 sec. Conclusions With proper mounting of several miniature strain gauges at various levels and aspects of the root, significant circumferential strains can be monitored under clinically relevant compaction forces. The residual strains at the end of lateral

  20. Morphometric analysis of pulp size in maxillary permanent central incisors correlated with age: An indirect digital study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, S. V.; Mamatha, G. P.; Sunita, J. D.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Sardana, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Teeth are hardest part of the body and are least affected by the taphonomic process. They are considered as one of the reliable methods of identification of a person in forensic sciences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish morphometeric measurements by AutoCad 2009 (Autodesk, Inc) of permanent maxillary central incisors in different age groups of Udaipur population. Setting and Design: Hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Udaipur. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out on 308 subjects of both genders with the age range of 9-68 years. Standardized intra-oral radiographs were made by paralleling technique and processed. The radiographs were scanned and the obtained images were standardized to the actual size of radiographic film. This was followed by measuring them using software AutoCad 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: F-test, post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation test. Results: For left maxillary central incisor, the total pulp area was found to be of 38.41 ± 12.88 mm and 14.32 ± 7.04 mm respectively. For right maxillary central incisor, the total pulp size was 38.39 ± 14.95 mm and 12.35 ± 5 mm respectively. Males (32.50, 32.87 mm2) had more pulp area when compared with females (28.82, 30.05 mm2). Conclusion: There was a decrease in total pulp area with increasing age which may be attributed to secondary dentin formation. PMID:26816461

  1. Treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and compromised ferrule: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bryan T; Caicedo, Ricardo; Lin, Wei-Shao; Morton, Dean

    2014-05-01

    This clinical report presents the treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and a compromised ferrule. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy combined with periodontal surgery was provided for debridement. Direct light-polymerizing resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a zirconia crown were used to repair the defect. Symptomatic endodontic complication was diagnosed with localized cone beam computed tomography at 6-month follow-up, and periapical microsurgery was rendered. The patient was followed-up for 30 months after treatment and had no further complications. PMID:24423455

  2. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  3. A Fused Maxillary Central Incisor and Its Multidisciplinary Treatment: An 18-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Cahuana, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Fused teeth may cause aesthetic, spacing, periodontal, eruption, and caries problems. The present case report describes a 7-year-old boy patient with a chief complaint of unerupted maxillary incisor. Radiographic examination indicated a fused tooth which had two fused roots but two independent root canals. A complex management of a fused tooth is really difficult to standardize. In this case an orthodontic, endodontic, and surgical treatment (intentional replantation) allowed the tooth to be retained until 18 years following intervention. Maintenance of the root and alveolar bone in young adults at least until full skeletal maturation should be the main treatment objective. PMID:24738034

  4. Compound odontoma associated with an unerupted and dilacerated maxillary primary central incisor in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Yeung, K H; Cheung, R C T; Tsang, M M H

    2003-05-01

    The occurrence of odontoma in the primary dentition is uncommon. There are very few reports of non-eruption of a dilacerated primary tooth in the literature. A rare case of compound odontoma in association with an unerupted dilacerated maxillary primary incisor in a young patient is reported. There was also a developing supernumerary tooth in the vicinity of the odontoma. The clinical features and management of these conditions are discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed. A possible causal relationship between odontoma and dilaceration is highlighted.

  5. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary central incisor dictates a need to be vigilant to canine eruption pattern: A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Singla, Shilpy; Gupta, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Canine deviation from its path of eruption is usually followed by either delayed or impaction of canine. One of the important and not so noticed reasons for canine displacement is formerly impacted central incisor. The difference in age of eruption of these two teeth is 4 years; however, the absence of maxillary incisor should be perceived with utmost conviction about impending canine displacement leading to its impaction as well. This case presents similar picture where composite, compound odontoma with respect to maxillary central incisor led to its impaction resulted in deviated path of eruption for erupting canine. This canine displacement to worsen prognosis ended up getting impacted if not dealt with cautiously in the later stages of occlusal development. PMID:27307685

  6. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary central incisor dictates a need to be vigilant to canine eruption pattern: A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Singla, Shilpy; Gupta, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Canine deviation from its path of eruption is usually followed by either delayed or impaction of canine. One of the important and not so noticed reasons for canine displacement is formerly impacted central incisor. The difference in age of eruption of these two teeth is 4 years; however, the absence of maxillary incisor should be perceived with utmost conviction about impending canine displacement leading to its impaction as well. This case presents similar picture where composite, compound odontoma with respect to maxillary central incisor led to its impaction resulted in deviated path of eruption for erupting canine. This canine displacement to worsen prognosis ended up getting impacted if not dealt with cautiously in the later stages of occlusal development.

  7. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary central incisor dictates a need to be vigilant to canine eruption pattern: A 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Shilpy; Gupta, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Canine deviation from its path of eruption is usually followed by either delayed or impaction of canine. One of the important and not so noticed reasons for canine displacement is formerly impacted central incisor. The difference in age of eruption of these two teeth is 4 years; however, the absence of maxillary incisor should be perceived with utmost conviction about impending canine displacement leading to its impaction as well. This case presents similar picture where composite, compound odontoma with respect to maxillary central incisor led to its impaction resulted in deviated path of eruption for erupting canine. This canine displacement to worsen prognosis ended up getting impacted if not dealt with cautiously in the later stages of occlusal development. PMID:27307685

  8. The Shape of the Maxillary Central Incisors and Its Correlation with Maxillary Anterior Papillary Display: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Nichani, Ashish S; Ahmed, Arshia Zainab; Ranganath, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define shapes of maxillary central incisors and determine their relationship with the visual display of interdental papillae during smiling. A sample of 100 patients aged 20 to 25 years were recruited. Photographs were taken and gingival angle, crown width (CW), crown length (CL), contact surface (CS), CW/CL ratio, CS/CL ratio, gingival smile line (GSL), and interdental smile line (ISL) were measured. The data showed an increase in GA leading to an increase in CW and CS/CL ratio. Women showed a higher percentage of papillary display compared with men. This study reinforces the proposed hypothesis that the shape of the teeth and papilla affect the periodontium. PMID:27333012

  9. [Differences between laypersons and orthodontists in recognizing the light reflection zone on the maxillary central incisors crowns].

    PubMed

    Shmuli, T; Wasserstein, A; Turgeman, R; Brezniak, N

    2014-07-01

    The light reflection zone (LRZ) is a new parameter that may serve as a tool for the diagnosis of smile esthetics. It is a bright white dot or area that appears on the surface of the maxillary central incisors and/or the gingiva of the front teeth, visible in intra-oral and smile extra-oral photographs. Recently it was found that the general population defines a nicer smile when the LRZ is located in the gingival area of the upper central incisors' surface rather than the incisal third. The aim of this study was to find out in two populations that are not aware of this new parameter, laypersons and orthodontists, whether there is a difference in the identification of the LRZ and the importance of the LRZ in determining the quality of the smile. Twelve pairs of facial photographs, including 10 of ordinary smiling persons and 2 of smiling models, were presented to 108 laypersons and 30 orthodontists. The only difference between each pair was the location of the LRZ that was moved, compared to the original photograph, gingivally or incisally respectively, using Photoshop (Adobe). Each participant was asked to mark whether he/she noticed a difference between the 2 pictures, and if so, to score the nicer smile. Data analysis was carried out using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test (SPSS v17). The results showed that both populations had difficulty in recognizing the differences between the pictures that were based solely on the LRZ parameter. However, when differences were recognized, most of the participants in both populations pointed on the smile where the LRZ was located gingivally as the nicer one. The orthodontic population recognized the difference between the two pictures, in which only the LRZ was changed, to a lesser extent compared to the laypersons populations. This result was with statistical significance (p = 0.007).

  10. Glass-fiber reinforced composite in management of avulsed central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, M Yalçin; Kargül, Betül

    2004-01-01

    Reimplantation failure of avulsed anterior tooth in an adolescent patient requires removal of the failed tooth and consideration of restorative options. These options may include a removable partial denture, conventional 3-unit fixed partial denture, implant, or a resin-bonded appliance with a metal substructure (Maryland bridge). The glass-fiber reinforced composite material (everSTICK, StickTech Ltd, Turku, Finland) offers a restorative solution that is conservative and esthetic when compared to other restorations. Advantages include reduction of cost compared to conventional bridges, saving of time, elimination of second visit, ease of application, absence of metal allergy, ease of cleaning, and naturalness of feel. Its limitations include occlusal factors, and the presence of unsuitable abutment teeth. Another traditional contraindication is the presence of diastemas, which may limit the potential esthetic gains. This case of an 11-year-old girl, addresses the indications, preparation guidelines, and restorative procedures for an everSTICK bridge. PMID:15272660

  11. Endo-restorative treatment of a severly discolored upper incisor: resolution of the “aesthetic” problem through Componeer veneering System

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Romeo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental aesthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct or indirect veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. The aim of the study is to evaluate clinically the effectiveness of a direct composite veneering system in resolving aesthetic problem of an upper incisor with a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Methods Patient with a severe discolored upper incisor came to our attention; at the X-ray exam there was an evidence of a past not good root canal treatment and also old and incongruent composite obturation. After removing all the material inside the root canal was performed a new correct endodontic filling, then Authors tried to bleach the tooth trough “walking-bleach” technique with a hydrogen peroxide (30 volumes) and sodium perborate solution without excellent results. So it was decided to insert a glass-fiber post and than to perform a direct composite veneer with Componeer System (Coltene). Componeer System is a system of prefabricated composite veneers that are abled to be applied directly in the first appointment: after a conservative preparation of the tooth, it must be used an adhesive agent (for example a “three steps”) and then with composite stratification it’s possible to apply the componeer veneer (choosing the right measure, modified as necessary) as the last covering aesthetic layer. Result The evaluation of result of this multidisciplinary treatment was essentially clinical and radiological; in fact it’s possible to observe, from a clinical point of view, the good aesthetic aspect of the direct composite restoration with componeer veneer that offers also some advantages: conservative preparation with

  12. The Immediate Aesthetic and Functional Restoration of Maxillary Incisors Compromised by Periodontitis Using Short Implants with Single Crown Restorations: A Minimally Invasive Approach and Five-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Marincola, Mauro; Lombardo, Giorgio; Pighi, Jacopo; Corrocher, Giovanni; Mascellaro, Anna; Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The functional and aesthetic restoration of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis presents numerous challenges for the clinician. Horizontal bone loss and soft tissue destruction resulting from periodontitis can impede implant placement and the regeneration of an aesthetically pleasing gingival smile line, often requiring bone augmentation and mucogingival surgery, respectively. Conservative approaches to the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (i.e., treatments that use minimally invasive tools and techniques) have been purported to yield positive outcomes. Here, we report on the treatment and five-year follow-up of patient suffering from aggressive periodontitis using a minimally invasive surgical technique and implant system. By using the methods described herein, we were able to achieve the immediate aesthetic and functional restoration of the maxillary incisors in a case that would otherwise require bone augmentation and extensive mucogingival surgery. This technique represents a conservative and efficacious alternative to the aesthetic and functional replacement of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:26649207

  13. Amalgamation of allogenic bone graft, platelet-rich fibrin gel, and PRF membrane in auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Zainab; Kumar, Yuvika Raj; Mohanty, Sujata; Khetrapal, Ambica

    2015-01-01

    "Social six" teeth refers to the maxillary incisors and canines that play a vital role in the appearance of an individual and absence of any one of them has a significant psycho-social impact. Hence, early treatment and rehabilitation of the same are extremely important. A multitude of treatment options ranging from orthodontic extrusion, extraction followed by implant placement, fixed partial denture, and auto-transplantation have been advocated. This case report discusses the unique amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), demineralized freeze-dried bone graft with use of PRF membrane during auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor. The authors have focused on maximum usage of autogenous materials in the most economic and least invasive manner. Furthermore, this amalgamation has been used to provide rehabilitation in the least span of time.

  14. Amalgamation of allogenic bone graft, platelet-rich fibrin gel, and PRF membrane in auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Zainab; Kumar, Yuvika Raj; Mohanty, Sujata; Khetrapal, Ambica

    2015-01-01

    “Social six” teeth refers to the maxillary incisors and canines that play a vital role in the appearance of an individual and absence of any one of them has a significant psycho-social impact. Hence, early treatment and rehabilitation of the same are extremely important. A multitude of treatment options ranging from orthodontic extrusion, extraction followed by implant placement, fixed partial denture, and auto-transplantation have been advocated. This case report discusses the unique amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), demineralized freeze-dried bone graft with use of PRF membrane during auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor. The authors have focused on maximum usage of autogenous materials in the most economic and least invasive manner. Furthermore, this amalgamation has been used to provide rehabilitation in the least span of time. PMID:26097366

  15. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in lateral and central incisors by peri-apical X-ray.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Cunha, E; Wasterlain, S N; De Luca, S; Sassaroli, E; Pagliara, F; Nuzzolese, E; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, several papers on the analysis of the apposition of secondary dentine have been published. The aim of this paper was to study a sample of peri-apical X-ray images of upper and lower incisors, both lateral and medial, to examine the application of pulp/tooth area ratio as an indicator of age. A sample of 116 individuals, 62 men and 54 women, aged between 18 and 74 years, was studied. Data were fitted with age as a linear function of the pulp/tooth ratio of incisors. The total variance explained by the regression equation ranged from 51.3% of age, when lower lateral incisors were used as explanatory variable, to 81.6% when upper lateral incisors were used. The accuracy of the corresponding regression model yielded ME = 8.44 and 5.34 years, respectively. These results show that, although incisors are less reliable than canines or lower premolars, they can be used to estimate age-at-death when the latter are absent.

  16. Neonatal line width in deciduous incisors from Neolithic, mediaeval and modern skeletal samples from north-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Marta; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Sitek, Aneta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Rosset, Iwona; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal line is usually the first accentuated incremental line visible on the enamel. The prenatal environment significantly contributes to the width of the neonatal line, influencing the pace of reaching post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. Studies of the enamel of the earliest developing deciduous teeth can provide an insight into the prenatal development and the perinatal conditions of children of past human populations, thus being an additional source contributing to consideration of the influence of prenatal and perinatal factors modifying growth processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether the neonatal line, reflecting the conditions of the prenatal and perinatal environment, differed between the Neolithic, the mediaeval and the modern populations from the Kujawy region in north-central Poland. The material consisted of longitudinally ground sections of 57 human deciduous incisors obtained from children aged 1.0-7.5 years representing three archaeological series from Brześć Kujawski site. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-linqual plane using a diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed with the microscope Delta Optical Evolution 300 at 10× and 40× magnifications. For each tooth, linear measurements of the neonatal line width were performed on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. No significant difference was found in the mean neonatal line width depending on the tooth type and archaeological site, although the thickest neonatal line characterised children from the Neolithic series. In all analysed series, the neonatal line width was diversified depending on the child's age at death. The value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the child's age at death and the neonatal line width was statistically significant. A clear increase in the width of the neonatal line was thus observed along with a decrease in the child

  17. A comparative study to evaluate the vertical position of maxillary central incisor and canine in relation to incisive papilla line

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mayank; Verma, Ashok Kumar; Chaturvedi, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the vertical distance of maxillary central incisor (CI) and maxillary canine (CA) from the incisive papilla (IP) line and their variation with age and sex. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentulous subjects following the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly selected from the local population. On the basis of gender and age, subjects were divided into four groups: Ma, Mb, Fa and Fb . Maxillary impressions of selected subjects were made and corresponding casts were retrieved. The cast was positioned on the surveyor and the center of IP was transferred to the labial side of maxillary right CI and CA regions with the help of analyzing rod of the surveyor and a line was drawn in this region which was referred to as “IP line”. The measurements were made from the IP line to the mesio-incisal line angle of right maxillary CI-IP and cusp tip of right maxillary CA with the help of digital vernier caliper (CA to IP). Result: The mean vertical distance of maxillary CI-IP ranged from 6.31 ± 0.74 mm to 7.04 ± 0.87 mm and the mean vertical distance of maxillary CA-IP ranged from 5.83 ± 0.80 mm to 6.30 ± 0.82 mm. Conclusion: The CA position in relation to the IP line is more stable to its position than the CI position irrespective of age and sex. PMID:25125915

  18. Effect of labiolingual inclination of a maxillary central incisor and surrounding alveolar bone loss on periodontal stress: A finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether labial tooth inclination and alveolar bone loss affect the moment per unit of force (Mt/F) in controlled tipping and consequent stresses on the periodontal ligament (PDL). Methods Three-dimensional models (n = 20) of maxillary central incisors were created with different labial inclinations (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) and different amounts of alveolar bone loss (0, 2, 4, and 6 mm). The Mt/F necessary for controlled tipping (Mt/Fcont) and the principal stresses on the PDL were calculated for each model separately in a finite element analysis. Results As labial inclination increased, Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm decreased. In contrast, increased alveolar bone loss caused increases in Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm. When Mt/F was near Mt/Fcont, increases in Mt/F caused compressive stresses to move from a predominantly labial apical region to a palatal apical position, and tensile stresses in the labial area moved from a cervical position to a mid-root position. Although controlled tipping was applied to the incisors, increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in maximum compressive and tensile stresses at the root apices. Conclusions Increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in stresses that might cause root resorption at the root apex, despite the application of controlled tipping to the incisors. PMID:27226961

  19. Root resorption of upper permanent incisor caused by impacted canine. An analysis of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, H; Yoshida, T; Murayama, S; Hanada, K; Nakajima, T

    1984-08-01

    Unusual root resorption of 12 central and 11 lateral upper permanent incisors in 11 patients is described. The degree of resorption ranged from loss of the apical 1/4 to almost complete loss of root structure. Excepting 1 case, permanent canines were partially or completely impacted and their crowns were in close apposition to the resorbed surfaces of the incisors. The roots of the canines were either in the process of formation or completely formed. The findings suggest that the pressure from the canine which persists in moving downward despite the lack of space to permit normal eruption could cause root resorption of adjacent incisors even in the absence of systemic factors. Of 14 extracted incisors, 10 were replaced orthodontically by the impacted canines, whereas the spaces of the extracted incisors were restored by prosthetic means in the 4 other cases. 6 incisors were preserved without any treatment and 2 with the aid of a sapphire dento-osseous anchor pin. Since the resorbed incisors were mostly free of pain, early detection by radiographic examination is essential to establish a proper diagnosis.

  20. The effect of maxillary first premolar extraction and incisor retraction on mandibular position: testing the central dogma of "functional orthodontics".

    PubMed

    Luecke, P E; Johnston, L E

    1992-01-01

    It has been argued by a vocal coterie of disaffected dentists that premolar extraction, incisor retraction, and "backward-pulling" mechanics conspire to "distalize" the condyles and, pari passu, to produce craniomandibular dysfunction. Given the gravity of this conjecture, it seemed appropriate to test the predictions it generates in a sample of patients of the type most often said to be at risk: 42 "edgewise" patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions, treated in conjunction with the extraction of two maxillary first premolars. Regional and anterior cranial-base cephalometric superimpositions were used to quantify the individual components of the molar and overjet corrections, to measure both at the chin and condyles the mandibular displacement seen during treatment, and to examine the extent to which this displacement is related to the correction of maxillary incisor protrusion. Although the present patients underwent marked upper incisor retraction (on average, about 5 mm), lip retraction was much less pronounced, and 70% of the sample showed a net forward displacement of mandibular basal bone. Significantly, changes in condylar position were not correlated with incisor retraction, as the "functional orthodontists" would have it, but rather with the changes in the buccal occlusion and the growth of the maxilla. Thus, 30% of the patients who showed evidence of distal displacement were generally nongrowing patients who underwent more than average anchorage loss in the mandible and less than average loss in the maxilla.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The effect of central incisor's root proximity to the cortical plate and apical root resorption in extraction and non-extraction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Akhil; Sharma, Vijay P; Singh, Gulshan K; Tikku, Tripti; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mengi, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the relevance of cortical plate proximity of maxillary central incisor root, maxillary alveolar bone width, and the apical root resorption in extraction and non-extraction orthodontically treated cases. Further, the correlation between the apical root resorption and the various parameters was investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 lateral head cephalographs, 40 pre-treatment and 40 post-treatment, of orthodontic subjects with a mean age of 15 years treated with fixed standard edgewise appliance were obtained. All subjects were divided into two groups as extraction and non-extraction cases. Twelve linear and three angular parameters were measured and evaluated. The paired “t”-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the stepwise regression analysis were done to test the relationship between the apical root resorption and the various parameters. Results and Conclusions: The study revealed slightly greater amount of apical root resorption in extraction subjects as compared to non-extraction subjects. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the two treatment modalities. In extraction subjects, the apical root resorption was directly proportional to the pre-treatment length of maxillary central incisor and inversely proportional to the root width in apical one-third region, though there was a weak correlation. In non-extraction subjects, the pre-treatment anteroposterior position of the root apex of maxillary central incisor in the alveolar bone, in combination with its root width in the apical one-third region formed the predictive factors for the variance in the amount of the apical root resorption, though there was a weak correlation. Furthermore, the changes in the alveolar widths at the root apex and mid-root region were considered as predictive factors for the amount of apical root resorption during extraction and non-extraction treatment, respectively. PMID

  2. Adhesive placement of a zirconia fixed partial denture to replace a maxillary central incisor: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Marietta; Trushkowsky, Richard; Andrade, Jorje; David, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of a single maxillary incisor is an esthetic challenge. Many options provide various degrees of longevity and ease of fabrication. The introduction of zirconia-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) has seen increased use in the last several years. However, abutment preparation guidelines and laboratory fabrication have to adhere to the guidelines established by the manufacturers and clinical researchers. Zirconia FPDs can provide long-term strength and esthetics if they are designed and fabricated appropriately. PMID:21462621

  3. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

    2003-06-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  4. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Rao, Murali H; Aluru, Srikanth C; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Bandlapalli, Anila; Patel, Nikunj

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect affecting teeth. High prevalence rates of MIH and its clinical implications are significant for both the patients and clinicians. A wide variation in defect prevalence (2.4-40.2%) is reported. It seems to differ with regions and various birth cohorts. Some of the recent prevalence studies are tabulated. Patient implications include hypersensitive teeth, rapid progression of caries, mastication impairment due to rapid attrition, and esthetic repercussions. Implications for clinicians include complexity in treatment planning and treatment implementation, poor prognosis of the restorations, difficulty in achieving pain control during treatment, and behavior management problems. Intention of this paper is to review the etio-pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical features, diagnostic features, and eventually present a sequential treatment approach, i.e., in accordance with current clinical practice guidelines. PMID:27595731

  5. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up.

    PubMed

    Dua, Deepti; Dua, Ankur

    2015-09-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits.

  6. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  7. Relationship of central incisor implant placement to the ridge configuration anterior to the nasopalatine canal in dentate and partially edentulous individuals: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the ridge contour anterior to the nasopalatine canal, and the difference between the incidences of the nasopalatine canal perforation in dentate and partially edentulous patients by cone-beam computed tomography. Methods. Cone-beam computed tomography scan images from 72 patients were selected from database and divided into dentate and partially edentulous groups. The configuration of the ridge anterior to the canal including palatal concavity depth, palatal concavity height, palatal concavity angle, bone height coronal to the incisive foramen, and bone width anterior to the canal was measured. A virtual implant placement procedure was used, and the incidences of perforation were evaluated after implant placement in the cingulum position with the long axis along with the designed crown. Results. Comparing with variable values from dentate patients, the palatal concavity depth and angle were greater by 0.9 mm and 4°, and bone height was shorter by 1.1 mm in partially edentulous patients, respectively. Bone width in edentulous patients was narrower than in dentate patients by 1.2 mm at incisive foramen level and 0.9 mm at 8 mm subcrestal level, respectively. After 72 virtual cylindrical implants (4.1 × 12 mm) were placed, a total of 12 sites (16.7%) showed a perforation and three-fourths occurred in partially edentulous patients. After replacing with 72 tapered implants (4.3 × 13 mm), only 6 implants (8.3%) broke into the canal in the partially edentulous patient group. Conclusions. The nasopalatine canal may get close to the implant site and the bone width anterior to the canal decreases after the central incisor extraction. The incidence of nasopalatine canal perforation may occur more commonly during delayed implant placement in central incisor missing patients. PMID:26557434

  8. [Incisors with a mind of their own].

    PubMed

    van Heumen, C M; Termeer, D; Oosterkamp, B C M; Meijer, G J

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old man, known to have hypodontia, was bothered by his over-erupted central incisors. After the placement of implants and the accompanying crown- and bridgework, the central incisors appear to be increasingly over-erupted. The history shows that this phenomenon has already been seen in the past. Three mechanisms can be responsible for the over-eruption, specifically: continuous facial growth, over-eruption of both central incisors in the maxilla as a consequence of agenesis of opposing dentition and relapse of the orthodontic treatment as a result of the fact that orthodontic retention is not readily possible. After the central incisors were first cut in such a way that an acceptable incisal line has again been formed, the single-unit fixed dental prostheses on the front elements were replaced with porcelain ones. PMID:25174187

  9. Macrodontic maxillary incisor in alagille syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the surgical-orthodontic guided-eruption of a deeply impacted macrodontic maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old patient with Alagille syndrome (ALGS). In the first stage, orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance on deciduous teeth allowed to create enough space for the eruption of the maxillary right central incisor. The second stage included closed surgical exposure and vertical traction. After impacted tooth erupted in the proper position, accessory periodontal treatment and dental reshaping procedures may be indicated to camouflage macrodontic incisor with the adjacent teeth. This is the first report that presents a patient with ALGS undergoing orthodontic and surgical treatment. PMID:23814595

  10. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Ozel, Emre; Arukaslan, Goze; Tekce, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention. PMID:26962321

  11. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Seda; Ozel, Emre; Arukaslan, Goze; Tekce, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention. PMID:26962321

  12. A comparison of intracanal stresses in a post-restored tooth utilizing the finite element method.

    PubMed

    Cailleteau, J G; Rieger, M R; Akin, J E

    1992-11-01

    The finite element method was used to compare stresses along the inner canal wall in four two-dimensional models of an average maxillary central incisor. The four models evaluated were an intact incisor, an endodontically treated incisor, an endodontically treated crown-restored incisor, and a cylindrical post and crown-restored incisor. A horizontal static force, 1 Newton in magnitude, was applied to the lingual surface of each model and the maximum tensile, compressive, and shear stresses were calculated using the general purpose finite element program PAFEC 75. Results indicate that the stress patterns within the root are altered as a result of post insertion. Specifically, the maximum bending stresses are associated with the apical termination of the post, and post placement does not result in a uniform distribution of stress along the canal wall.

  13. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8. PMID:26939157

  14. 78 FR 2685 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft environmental assessment for the East Hobble Creek Restoration... effects of a proposed restoration effort on a portion of Lower Hobble Creek, near Springville, Utah....

  15. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Savitha, K. C.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  16. Reattachment of fractured teeth fragments in mandibular incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Mohammed K

    2015-01-01

    The majority of dental trauma involves anterior teeth, especially the maxillary central incisors. A mandibular incisor fracture with or without pulp tissue involvement is considerably less common. Different approaches for treating these fractured teeth have been reported in the literature. The type of treatment rendered depends mainly on the extent of fracture, pulp involvement, radicular fracture, biologic width infringement or violation, and presence of the fractured piece. This case report illustrates reattachment of fractured fragments on two mandibular incisors without pulp exposure using a new proposed reattachment method using a combination of two different types of composite materials together with an orthodontic lingual retention wire. An 8-year-old female patient presented with fractured mandibular left incisors (Ellis class II fracture). Broken pieces were saved and brought in a closed container in water. Periapical radiographs revealed no evidence of pulpal involvement in either tooth and no periapical radiolucency was noticed. Fractured fragments and the broken teeth were prepared with circumferential bevels. Reattachment of the fractured fragments were done using two types of composite resin materials and a lingual orthodontic retention wire was also used. The patient was recalled after 8 months to follow up both teeth. Clinical examination revealed excellent composite restorations covering the fracture lines. PMID:25897267

  17. Reattachment of fractured teeth fragments in mandibular incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mohammed K

    2015-01-01

    The majority of dental trauma involves anterior teeth, especially the maxillary central incisors. A mandibular incisor fracture with or without pulp tissue involvement is considerably less common. Different approaches for treating these fractured teeth have been reported in the literature. The type of treatment rendered depends mainly on the extent of fracture, pulp involvement, radicular fracture, biologic width infringement or violation, and presence of the fractured piece. This case report illustrates reattachment of fractured fragments on two mandibular incisors without pulp exposure using a new proposed reattachment method using a combination of two different types of composite materials together with an orthodontic lingual retention wire. An 8-year-old female patient presented with fractured mandibular left incisors (Ellis class II fracture). Broken pieces were saved and brought in a closed container in water. Periapical radiographs revealed no evidence of pulpal involvement in either tooth and no periapical radiolucency was noticed. Fractured fragments and the broken teeth were prepared with circumferential bevels. Reattachment of the fractured fragments were done using two types of composite resin materials and a lingual orthodontic retention wire was also used. The patient was recalled after 8 months to follow up both teeth. Clinical examination revealed excellent composite restorations covering the fracture lines.

  18. Dental management of a talon cusp on a primary incisor.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Richard K; Chussid, Steven

    2007-01-01

    There are many treatment options for the pediatric patient with a talon cusp (TC). The purpose of this paper was to report the case of a TC involving a primary maxillary right central incisor in a 14-month-old male causing displacement of the affected tooth. The etiology of a TC is thought to be a disturbance during the morphodifferentiation stage of tooth development. Clinical problems include: (1) occlusal interferences; (2) esthetic disturbances; (3) accidental cusp fracture; (4) tongue irritation; (5) nursing difficulty; (6) caries; and (7) displacement of the affected tooth. The TC affecting the central incisor was reduced over a period of 4 visits, followed by immediate placement of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish at the conclusion of each reduction visit. Restoration of esthetics and function was evident within 1 month following complete cusp reduction. There were no clinical signs of any problems related to the reduction, and the prognosis was considered to be guarded. The pediatric patient was placed on a 6-month oral hygiene maintenance follow-up.

  19. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  20. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  1. The effect of incomplete crown ferrules on fracture resistance and failure modes of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with quartz fiber post, composite core, and crowns

    PubMed Central

    Muangamphan, Panorjit; Sattapan, Boonrat; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Thammasitboon, Kewalin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the fracture resistance of restored endodontically treated teeth (RETT) with fiber posts, cores, and crowns with limited ferrules. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically treated and decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, and then divided into 6 groups of 10 teeth each; Group circumferential ferrule (2FR), Group ferrule in the labial, mesial, and palatal region (2FR-LaMPa), Group ferrule in the labial, and palatal region (2FR-LaPa), Group 2FR-Pa and 2FR-La respectively, and Group 0FR (no ferrule). All 60 prepared teeth were then restored with quartz fiber posts, resin composite cores, and metal crowns. The specimens were subjected to load until failure occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The mode of failure was determined under a stereoscope. Results: A statistical significant difference was found among groups 2FR-LaMPa, 2FR-Pa, 2FR-LaPa, and 2FR from the group 2FR-La, and from the group 0FR (P < 0.01). The predominant mode of failure was an oblique palatal to labial root fracture for the groups with remaining ferrules. Conclusion: For RETT that have incomplete crown ferrules, the location of the ferrules may affect their fracture resistance. PMID:26069401

  2. Minimally invasive dentistry combining orthodontic therapy and single-unit restoration.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Edward; Rego, Juan; Rego, Nelson

    2008-06-01

    Today's restorative materials enable dental professionals to deliver predictable aesthetic enhancement, particularly for compromised teeth in the anterior region. Treating a single compromised tooth, however, requires a thorough understanding of the restorative material's optical properties, experience in its clinical performance, and awareness of therapeutic modalities that conserve sound tooth structure. In this presentation, the authors demonstrate the use of orthodontic therapy and careful treatment planning to restore a single central incisor using a minimally invasive approach.

  3. The Single-tooth Implant Treatment of Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors Using Angled Abutments: A Clinical Report

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Suleyman Hakan; Keyf, Filiz; Pekkan, Gurel

    2009-01-01

    The maxillary lateral incisor is the second most common congenitally absent tooth. There are several treatment options for replacing the missing maxillary lateral incisor, including canine substitution, tooth-supported restoration, or single-tooth implant. Dental implants are an appropriate treatment option for replacing missing maxillary lateral incisor teeth in adolescents when their dental and skeletal development is complete. This case report presents the treatment of a patient with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using dental implants with angled abutments. PMID:21528038

  4. Esthetic rehabilitation with tooth bleaching, enamel microabrasion, and direct adhesive restorations.

    PubMed

    Bezerra-Júnior, Douglas Machado; Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Martins, Leandro de Moura; Cohen-Carneiro, Flávia; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to report esthetic rehabilitation with combined tooth bleaching, enamel microabrasion, and anterior restoration replacement in a 26-year-old man. Clinical examination showed deficient restorations in the maxillary anterior teeth, significant discoloration of the maxillary left central incisor, and hypoplastic stains affecting the maxillary right lateral incisor. A radiograph of the left central incisor showed satisfactory endodontic treatment, allowing preparation for the walking bleach technique. For 3 weeks, 37% carbamide peroxide in the pulp chamber was renewed every week. In-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was also performed on the maxillary teeth. After 21 days, all teeth had been bleached to shade A1. After bleaching was completed, enamel microabrasion of the maxillary right lateral incisor was conducted with 6% hydrochloric acid. In later sessions, microhybrid composite resin restorations were placed in all 4 maxillary incisors. A combination of dental bleaching techniques, enamel microabrasion, and resin restorations was a successful and conservative choice for reestablishing the natural appearance of discolored teeth, improving the self-esteem of the patient.

  5. Esthetic rehabilitation with tooth bleaching, enamel microabrasion, and direct adhesive restorations.

    PubMed

    Bezerra-Júnior, Douglas Machado; Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Martins, Leandro de Moura; Cohen-Carneiro, Flávia; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to report esthetic rehabilitation with combined tooth bleaching, enamel microabrasion, and anterior restoration replacement in a 26-year-old man. Clinical examination showed deficient restorations in the maxillary anterior teeth, significant discoloration of the maxillary left central incisor, and hypoplastic stains affecting the maxillary right lateral incisor. A radiograph of the left central incisor showed satisfactory endodontic treatment, allowing preparation for the walking bleach technique. For 3 weeks, 37% carbamide peroxide in the pulp chamber was renewed every week. In-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was also performed on the maxillary teeth. After 21 days, all teeth had been bleached to shade A1. After bleaching was completed, enamel microabrasion of the maxillary right lateral incisor was conducted with 6% hydrochloric acid. In later sessions, microhybrid composite resin restorations were placed in all 4 maxillary incisors. A combination of dental bleaching techniques, enamel microabrasion, and resin restorations was a successful and conservative choice for reestablishing the natural appearance of discolored teeth, improving the self-esteem of the patient. PMID:26943091

  6. Restored agricultural wetlands in Central Iowa: habitat quality and amphibian response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Clay; Rebecca A. Reeves,; Smalling, Kelly; Klaver, Robert W.; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are declining throughout the United States and worldwide due, partly, to habitat loss. Conservation practices on the landscape restore wetlands to denitrify tile drainage effluent and restore ecosystem services. Understanding how water quality, hydroperiod, predation, and disease affect amphibians in restored wetlands is central to maintaining healthy amphibian populations in the region. We examined the quality of amphibian habitat in restored wetlands relative to reference wetlands by comparing species richness, developmental stress, and adult leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) survival probabilities to a suite of environmental metrics. Although measured habitat variables differed between restored and reference wetlands, differences appeared to have sub-lethal rather than lethal effects on resident amphibian populations. There were few differences in amphibian species richness and no difference in estimated survival probabilities between wetland types. Restored wetlands had more nitrate and alkaline pH, longer hydroperiods, and were deeper, whereas reference wetlands had more amphibian chytrid fungus zoospores in water samples and resident amphibians exhibited increased developmental stress. Restored and reference wetlands are both important components of the landscape in central Iowa and maintaining a complex of fish-free wetlands with a variety of hydroperiods will likely contribute to the persistence of amphibians in this landscape.

  7. Use of a Resin-Bonded Bridge to Replace a Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor: Treatment of "Intrusion" of Teeth.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Bahat, Oded; Froum, Stuart J; Daftary, Fereidoun; Rosenthal, Howard; Feldman, Sylvan

    2016-07-01

    Craniofacial growth is an important factor to consider when providing dental implant treatment for adolescents to replace missing teeth. Ongoing longitudinal observation has demonstrated that such tooth replacements may appear intruded over time, because there may be ongoing downward and anterior movement of both the alveolus and the teeth at a rate exceeding that of the dental implant, which acts like an ankylosed unit. This case reports on a 23.5-year-old female patient who, at age 16, had orthodontics completed and was left with a space where the maxillary right lateral incisor was congenitally missing with the hope of future restoration with a dental implant. A resin-bonded bridge had been placed to fill the space in the interim. After approximately 7.5 years, the bridge loosened and the patient sought an implant option as its replacement. Clinical images revealed that the bridge, which contained two bonded wings, may have limited physiologic growth, causing both the maxillary right central incisor and canine to appear intruded compared with the left central incisor and canine. This case illustrates, at the very least, that growth and development may not be complete in females aged 16 years and that the way in which a missing tooth is replaced must be carefully considered given the impact that ongoing growth and development may have on restorative care. Moreover, further growth and development may also impact adults.

  8. Use of a Resin-Bonded Bridge to Replace a Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor: Treatment of "Intrusion" of Teeth.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Bahat, Oded; Froum, Stuart J; Daftary, Fereidoun; Rosenthal, Howard; Feldman, Sylvan

    2016-07-01

    Craniofacial growth is an important factor to consider when providing dental implant treatment for adolescents to replace missing teeth. Ongoing longitudinal observation has demonstrated that such tooth replacements may appear intruded over time, because there may be ongoing downward and anterior movement of both the alveolus and the teeth at a rate exceeding that of the dental implant, which acts like an ankylosed unit. This case reports on a 23.5-year-old female patient who, at age 16, had orthodontics completed and was left with a space where the maxillary right lateral incisor was congenitally missing with the hope of future restoration with a dental implant. A resin-bonded bridge had been placed to fill the space in the interim. After approximately 7.5 years, the bridge loosened and the patient sought an implant option as its replacement. Clinical images revealed that the bridge, which contained two bonded wings, may have limited physiologic growth, causing both the maxillary right central incisor and canine to appear intruded compared with the left central incisor and canine. This case illustrates, at the very least, that growth and development may not be complete in females aged 16 years and that the way in which a missing tooth is replaced must be carefully considered given the impact that ongoing growth and development may have on restorative care. Moreover, further growth and development may also impact adults. PMID:27548400

  9. Replantation after extended dry storage of avulsed permanent incisors: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Cobankara, Funda Kont; Ungor, Mete

    2007-08-01

    A 15-year-old boy lost his maxillary right and left central incisor teeth in a bicycle accident. He was referred to our clinic 1 week after the injury. The crown-root integrities of both the teeth were not damaged. Although the teeth were stored under dry conditions for 1 week, reimplantation of the teeth was planned to retain the teeth in the mouth for as long a period as possible because of the patient's age. Following the debridement and sterilization of root surfaces in 2.5% NaOCl, root canals were prepared and filled with calcium hydroxide. Then, about 2 mm of the apexes were resected to ensure that the roots easily seated in the alveolar socket and the prepared cavities in root ends were obturated with the amalgam. The teeth were placed into their respective sockets and splinted temporarily. The root canal therapy was completed 5 weeks later. Ankylosis was observed radiographically after 10 months. The patient is now 23 years old and he is still able to use both the central incisors functionally. However, there is a pink appearance on the cervical buccal surface of left central incisor because of progressive replacement resorption. In this case, the new treatment plan is to perform a permanent restoration with dental implants following the extraction of both teeth. Even though the long-term prognosis is uncertain, this treatment technique has provided an advantage for the patient in his adolescent period by maintaining the height of alveolar bone and making the provision of an aesthetically acceptable permanent restoration at a later age possible.

  10. Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

  11. Restoration of Degraded/Eroded Soil under Different Management Practices in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmlands in the Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have lost topsoil through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. These soils are now degraded with low soil quality and productivity. Productivity and quality of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using manure and i...

  12. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure". PMID:27083223

  13. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure".

  14. Assessing the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Nahuelhual, Laura; Vásquez, Felipe; Echeverría, Cristian

    2012-04-30

    Investment in natural capital restoration is increasing as a response to the widespread ecological degradation of dryland forests. However, finding efficient mechanisms to promote restoration among private landowners is a significant challenge for policy makers with limited financial resources. Furthermore, few attempts have been made to evaluate the costs and benefits of restoration interventions even though this information is relevant to orient decision making. Hence, our goal was to estimate the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration by means of reforestation with native trees in a study area in central Chile. To determine benefits we applied a Contingent Valuation questionnaire that allowed for the calculation of willingness to pay measures. Restoration costs were calculated based on market prices following existing technical recommendations developed for the study area. The results showed that the restoration project had a negative NPV irrespective of the discount rate applied in the analysis. Thus, the NPV varied between -US$71,000 and -US$258,000. The NPV attained positive results only for negative discount rates (US$15,039 for -2%) and only when the national subsidy available for forest restoration was taken into account. This shows that landowners in Colliguay do not have incentives for carrying out restoration interventions due to a classic market failure: that in which ecosystems are mismanaged because many of their benefits are externalities from the perspective of landowners. Overall, these results stress the need for developing new compensation mechanisms and enhancing those in existence, with the aim of making restoration competitive with other land uses.

  15. Molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Karine; Correia, Adriana de Sales Cunha; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2009-01-01

    Enamel defects are common alterations that can occur in both the primary or permanent dentition. A range of etiological factors related to this pathology can be found in the literature. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a kind of enamel defect alteration that requires complex treatment solutions, and for this reason, it is of great clinical interest for dental practice. This article describes the management of a clinical case of MIH in a 7-year-old child. The different treatment options depending on the extension of the defect, the degree of tooth eruption and the hygiene and diet habits of the patient are also discussed.

  16. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, H.

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  17. Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

  18. Commentary on 'Interventions for restoring patency of central venous catheter lumens'.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Mary Elisabeth; Massicotte, Mary Patricia

    2013-03-01

    This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as: van Miert C, Hill R, Jones L. Interventions for restoring patency of occluded central venous catheter lumens. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD007119. DoI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007119.pub2. Further information for this Cochrane review is available in this issue of EBCH in the accompanying Summary article.

  19. Proper restorative material selection, digital processes allow highly esthetic shade match combined with layered porcelain.

    PubMed

    Kahng, Luke S

    2014-03-01

    Today's digital technologies are affording dentists and laboratory technicians more control over material choices for creating restorations and fabricating dental prostheses. Digital processes can potentially enable technicians to create ideal marginal areas and account for the thickness and support of layering porcelain over substructures in the design process. In this case report of a restoration of a single central incisor, a number of issues are addressed that are central to using the newest digital technology. As demonstrated, shade selection is a crucial early step in any restorative case preparation.

  20. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  1. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen. PMID:12412967

  2. Orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors: a 3D finite element method study

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Armando Yukio; Maruo, Hiroshi; Argenta, Marco André; Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In orthodontic treatment, intrusion movement of maxillary incisors is often necessary. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to evaluate the initial distribution patterns and magnitude of compressive stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) in a simulation of orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors, considering the points of force application. Methods: Anatomic 3D models reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to simulate maxillary incisors intrusion loading. The points of force application selected were: centered between central incisors brackets (LOAD 1); bilaterally between the brackets of central and lateral incisors (LOAD 2); bilaterally distal to the brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 3); bilaterally 7 mm distal to the center of brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 4). Results and Conclusions: Stress concentrated at the PDL apex region, irrespective of the point of orthodontic force application. The four load models showed distinct contour plots and compressive stress values over the midsagittal reference line. The contour plots of central and lateral incisors were not similar in the same load model. LOAD 3 resulted in more balanced compressive stress distribution. PMID:27007765

  3. Incisor-molar relationships in chimpanzees and other hominoids: implications for diet and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Pickford, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In chimpanzees, the cutting edge of the incisor battery is longer in relation to the length of the molar row than in any other hominoid, extant or fossil, the only other lineage approaching it being the orangutan. Apart from their increased mesio-distal dimensions, the upper and lower incisors of chimpanzees differ in additional ways from those of almost all other hominoids. The I2/ is enlarged, so that the difference in size between it and the central upper incisor is less than it is in the heteromorphic upper incisors of other hominoids. The lower incisors are expanded mesio-distally, so much so that isolated I/2 crowns can resemble upper central incisors. In chimpanzees the lingual surface of the lower incisors is generally more procumbent than it is in other hominoids, which have more vertically oriented incisor crowns and there is a greater difference in enamel thickness between labial and lingual sides. The re-orientation of the lower incisor crown is reflected in the root, which in lateral view is anteriorly concave in chimpanzees whereas it is more orthogonal or convex in other hominoids. The molars of chimpanzees, especially the lowers, have extensive and relatively deep occlusal basins, and the main cusps are peripheralised and labio-lingually compressed, making them more trenchant than those of other hominoids. This paper examines the incisor-lower molar proportions in extinct and living hominoids and develops a new hypothesis about the evolution of the dentition of chimpanzees and links it to their diet. It also examines the incisor-molar proportions of hominids and African apes in order to throw light on the phylogenetic relationships between them. It is shown that chimpanzees are highly derived in this respect and that several recent ideas concerning the chimp-like appearance of the last common ancestor of hominids and African apes are likely to be incorrect. PMID:15503253

  4. Restoration of Anterior Dental Erosion with a Combination of Veneers and Crowns: A 3-Year Case Report.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Amara; Rucker, M Bryan; Loza, María A; Brackett, William W

    2015-12-01

    This report describes the conservative management of a 40-year-old female patient with smooth, eroded facial enamel affecting her maxillary anterior and some posterior teeth. Using conventional enamel bonding, pressed leucite-reinforced laminate veneers were used to restore the length, contour, and esthetics of the maxillary right canine, as well as of the right lateral and both central incisors; at the same time, it was necessary to restore the maxillary left lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar of the same quadrant with all-ceramic crowns of the same material. The patient has been followed for 3 years and demonstrates a good esthetic outcome with no shade discrepancy between the two types of restoration. Apparently, the tooth structure, though eroded, was able to provide an adequate bonding substrate for these adhesive restorations.

  5. Restoration of Anterior Dental Erosion with a Combination of Veneers and Crowns: A 3-Year Case Report.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Amara; Rucker, M Bryan; Loza, María A; Brackett, William W

    2015-12-01

    This report describes the conservative management of a 40-year-old female patient with smooth, eroded facial enamel affecting her maxillary anterior and some posterior teeth. Using conventional enamel bonding, pressed leucite-reinforced laminate veneers were used to restore the length, contour, and esthetics of the maxillary right canine, as well as of the right lateral and both central incisors; at the same time, it was necessary to restore the maxillary left lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar of the same quadrant with all-ceramic crowns of the same material. The patient has been followed for 3 years and demonstrates a good esthetic outcome with no shade discrepancy between the two types of restoration. Apparently, the tooth structure, though eroded, was able to provide an adequate bonding substrate for these adhesive restorations. PMID:26602583

  6. Familial aggregation of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Choudhary, Kartik; Saxena, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular second premolars is the most frequent form of hypodontia. Its prevalence varies across population from 0.8% to 4.5%. Genetic aberrations and environmental factors may cause agenesis of one or more teeth. The management of child having such a problem is very important since diastema in teeth especially in upper anteriors not only affects child's physical appearance but also its psychological development as the child wants to look like other children. In this article is presented a case of non-syndromic agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors (MLIA) and mandibular central incisors in a 10-year-old boy (patient) in permanent dentition with its management along with the radiographic investigations and photographic presentations of the other members of his family affected with this condition. PMID:23536620

  7. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Parisa; Gerami, Alayar; Najafi, Amirhosein; Torkan, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth. PMID:26636119

  8. Clinical evaluation of direct composite restoration done for midline diastema closure – long-term study

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, R.; Bhaskaran, S.; Geetha Prabhu, K. R.; Eswaran, M. A.; Phanikrishna, G.; Deepthi, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically the performance of composite resin used to restore midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Methodology: Direct composite restorations were done for 45 patients with midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Standard protocols were followed for the placement of composite resin for the diastema closure, and recall visits were made for every 6 months for a period of 60 months for evaluation of the success of these restorations made. Qualified dental personnel examined the restorations made. Results: Clinical evaluations were done after the restorations had been in place for an average of 6 months. Results indicate that none of the restorations were totally lost, and resulting in a 91% overall retention rate for the period of 60 months. About 62% of the restorations made had no noticeable color difference with that of the adjacent tooth, and gingival health indicated 73% of the sample was without any signs of inflammation. Conclusions: Composites restored for diastemas exhibit satisfactory survival rates placed with recommended placement protocols and without occlusal loading. PMID:26538917

  9. Management of bilateral invasive cervical resorption lesions in maxillary incisors using a novel calcium silicate-based cement: A case report.

    PubMed

    Karypidou, Athanasia; Chatzinikolaou, Ino-Dimitra; Kouros, Pantelis; Koulaouzidou, Elisabeth; Economides, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a pathologic process leading to progressive and usually destructive loss of tooth structure. The pathogenic mechanism is not completely understood and the diagnosis may be challenging. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case of bilateral presence of invasive cervical resorption lesions in maxillary central incisors and to discuss the treatment procedures using a novel repair material. The management of the present case was carried out in three phases. The first stage of the treatment aimed at curetting the active tissue from the resorption cavity and restoring the defect with the novel calcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine, Septodont). In the maxillary left central incisor it was not possible to remove the resorptive tissue without exposing the pulp, and therefore root canal treatment was performed. At the second phase, a full-thickness flap was raised in order to expose and repair the defect that was extending subgingivally. At the third phase teeth were restored with composite resin. The patient was kept under review and after a follow-up period of 2 years neither signs of periradicular lesion nor recurrence of resorption were observed. The teeth were asymptomatic, and restorations appeared to be in excellent condition. In conclusion, Biodentine seems to be a promising material for the treatment of invasive cervical resorption lesions. PMID:27341468

  10. Biological Restoration of a Fractured Anterior Tooth with the Use of Dentine Pin (Biopins)

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lilian Capanema; Tavano, Karine Taís Aguiar; Ferraz, Nayara Kelly Lyrio; Glória, José Cristiano Ramos; Botelho, Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    This case study describes the esthetic and functional reconstruction of a fractured maxillary central incisor. Due to the requirement for additional retention, treatment was performed using the homogenous technique of biological restoration associated with cementation of posts made from human dentin (biopins). This type of treatment is a new alternative to conventional techniques and favors the dental esthetic and function, as well as biocompatibility, and is an inexpensive procedure. PMID:26779352

  11. Mandibular incisor extraction treatment in Angle's Class I malocclusion with peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ankit H; Shah, Darshit H

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning are essential for obtaining ideal treatment result in cases involving mandibular incisor extraction. This case report describes a 15-year-old female with balanced soft-tissue profile, peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors, and moderate mandibular anterior crowding treated with a mandibular incisor extraction. Ideal overbite and overjet were achieved. “Black triangle” formation was avoided due to the bodily movement of mandibular incisors and the use of uprighting springs for ideal axial inclination of mandibular incisors. A mandibular incisor extraction can be an effective treatment option in carefully selected clinical situations. PMID:27556022

  12. Impacted permanent incisors associated with compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cintia de Vasconcellos; Knop, Luégya Amorin Henriques; da Rocha, Maria Celina Barreiros Siquara; Telles, Paloma Dias da Silva

    2015-01-12

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours of the maxillary bones, characterised by a slow growth and benign behaviour. They are usually small, asymptomatic and diagnosed after routine radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to report a case of a compound odontoma in the anterior maxilla of a 7-year-old girl, which was causing the impaction of the maxillary right central and lateral incisors, as well as the prolonged retention of the corresponding primary teeth. We also aimed to review the literature about these tumours, since they are not part of the dentist's day-to-day clinical practice. The clinical and radiographic features, the diagnosis and treatment of the case were discussed in this work.

  13. Autotransplantation of a Supernumerary Tooth to Replace a Misaligned Incisor with Abnormal Dimensions and Morphology: 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Tirali, R. Ebru; Sar, Cagla; Ates, Ufuk; Kizilkaya, Metin; Cehreli, S. Burcak

    2013-01-01

    Autotransplantation is a viable treatment option to restore esthetics and function impaired by abnormally shaped teeth when a suitable donors tooth is available. This paper describes the autotransplantation and 2-year follow-up of a supernumerary maxillary incisor as a replacement to a misaligned maxillary incisor with abnormal crown morphology and size. The supernumerary incisor was immediately autotransplanted into the extraction site of the large incisor and was stabilized with a bonded semirigid splint for 2 weeks. Fixed orthodontic therapy was initiated 3 months after autotransplantation. Ideal alignment of the incisors was accomplished after 6 months along with radiographic evidence of apical closure and osseous/periodontal regeneration. In autogenous tooth transplantation, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved if the cases are selected and treated properly. PMID:23476813

  14. Euglycemia restoration by central leptin in type 1 diabetes requires STAT3 signaling but not fast-acting neurotransmitter release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central leptin action is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. To examine the role of intracellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways, we used LepRs/s mice with disrupted...

  15. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  16. Lower molar and incisor displacement associated with mandibular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Bravo, L A; Ben-Bassat, Y; Curry, S; Korn, E L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of alveolar modeling at the apices of the mandibular incisor and first molar specifically associated with appositional and resorptive changes on the lower border of the mandible during growth and treatment. Cephalometric data from superimpositions on anterior cranial base, mandibular implants of the Björk type, and anatomical "best fit" of mandibular border structures were integrated using a recently developed strategy, which is described. Data were available at annual intervals between 8.5 and 15.5 years for a previously described sample of approximately 30 children with implants. The average magnitudes of the changes at the root apices of the mandibular first molar and central incisor associated with modeling/remodeling of the mandibular border and symphysis were unexpectedly small. At the molar apex, mean values approximated zero in both anteroposterior and vertical directions. At the incisor apex, mean values approximated zero in the anteroposterior direction and averaged less than 0.15 mm/year in the vertical direction. Standard deviations were roughly equal for the molar and the incisor in both the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Dental displacement associated with surface modeling plays a smaller role in final tooth position in the mandible than in the maxilla. It may also be reasonably inferred that anatomical best-fit superimpositions made in the absence of implants give a more complete picture of hard tissue turnover in the mandible than they do in the maxilla.

  17. [Incisor repositioning: a new approach in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Dallel, Ines; Khemiri, Mourad; Fathallah, Safa; Ben Rejeb, Salwa; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-12-01

    Lower incisors axis has a "key" position in different cephalometric analysis. However, several critics are directed towards the cephalometric profile and cephalometric landmarks (point, line and angle). The published norms and the cephalometric standards recommended for the optimal positioning of incisors could only be used as general clinical guidelines. Incisor repositioning to achieve optimal facial aesthetics requires taking into consideration the hard and soft tissues of the face, the profile, the muscular dynamics as well as the facial growth. In this work, we propose a new approach of incisor repositioning taking into account the variability of periodontal, functional and aesthetic factors.

  18. A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

    2010-07-01

    The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood.

  19. A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

    2010-07-01

    The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood. PMID:20544874

  20. [Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Gotler, M; Ratson, T

    2010-04-01

    MIH was defined by Weerheijm (2001) as "hypomineralisation of systemic origin of 1-4 permanent first molars, frequently associated with affected incisors". The prevalence of MIH varies between 2.8% and 25%, dependent upon the study. At their sixth congress in 2003, The European Association of pediatric dentistry defined criteria for diagnosis of the phenomena. It included the presence of demarcated opacity, posteruptive enamel breakdown, atypical restoration, extracted molar due to MIH and unerupted teeth. According to the teeth involved and to the time of the crown formation, researches focused on environmental and systemic conditions as possible reasons for MIH.The etiologies were divided into five groups: Exposure to environmental contaminants, pre/peri and neonatal problems, exposure to fluoride, common childhood illnesses and medically compromised children. The clinical implications include highly sensitive teeth, difficulty to achieve adequate anesthesia, behavioral problems and anxiety, rapid progression of caries and the esthetic implications. A six step approach to management was described suggested: risk identification, early diagnosis, remineralization and desensitization, prevention of caries and posteruption breakdown, restorations and extractions and finally maintenance. Restoring an affected molar can vary from adhesive intra coronal restorations (resin composite is the material of choice) to extra coronal restorations (e.g. preformed metal crown). Esthetic solutions to affected incisors may include microabrasion (that shows little improvement) and resin composite or porcelain veneer. The key for a successful treatment is early diagnosis, intense follow up and usage of remineralizating agents as soon as the teeth erupt. There is still need for further research to clarify the etiological factors and improve the durability of restoration in affected teeth.

  1. Enamel hypoplasia: challenges of esthetic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Araújo, Élito; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2016-01-01

    Enamel defects, such as white or yellow-brown spots, usually cause problems that are more esthetic than functional. Enamel hypoplasia may be the result of hereditary, systemic, or local factors. Dental trauma is a local etiologic factor. It is relatively common in the primary dentition and can cause defects on the surface of permanent successors. Treatment for such defects can differ, depending on the depth of the spots. For deeper white-spot lesions, a composite resin restoration may be necessary. This is an excellent mode of treatment, due to both its low cost and its conservation of healthy tooth structure. The objective of this case report is to describe composite resin restoration of a maxillary central incisor affected by enamel hypoplasia.

  2. Enamel hypoplasia: challenges of esthetic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Araújo, Élito; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2016-01-01

    Enamel defects, such as white or yellow-brown spots, usually cause problems that are more esthetic than functional. Enamel hypoplasia may be the result of hereditary, systemic, or local factors. Dental trauma is a local etiologic factor. It is relatively common in the primary dentition and can cause defects on the surface of permanent successors. Treatment for such defects can differ, depending on the depth of the spots. For deeper white-spot lesions, a composite resin restoration may be necessary. This is an excellent mode of treatment, due to both its low cost and its conservation of healthy tooth structure. The objective of this case report is to describe composite resin restoration of a maxillary central incisor affected by enamel hypoplasia. PMID:27599287

  3. Comparison of the Physiological Properties of Human Periodontal-Masseteric Reflex Evoked by Incisor and Canine Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, Hiroko; Kirimoto, Hiroaki; Ono, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR) differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in seven healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL) and the correlation coefficient (CC) between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality. PMID:22754541

  4. Multidisciplinary treatment of a subgingivally fractured tooth with indirect composite restoration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ayca T; Tunc, Emine Sen; Cil, Feride; Isci, Devrim; Lutfioglu, Muge

    2012-01-01

    In pediatric patients, anterior teeth with fractures that extend subgingivally require a complex treatment plan that addresses biologic, esthetic, and functional factors, such as mastication and speech. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe a technique using indirect composite restoration to restore a subgingivally fractured permanent maxillary right central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. Due to the complex nature of the treatment, a multidisciplinary approach was used to restore the tooth. The crown fragment was removed, and endodontic treatment was performed. The tooth was then extruded orthodontically. A glass fiber post was placed to improve retention, and an indirect composite restoration was placed. A clinical and radiographic evaluation at a follow-up appointment 1 year later confirmed that the technique used in this case can be a good option for restoring anterior teeth with subgingival fractures.

  5. Changes in microbial activity of soils during the natural restoration of abandoned lands in central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, Lilit; Mostovaya, Anna; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Most changes in land use affect significantly the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) and alter the nutrition status of soil microbial community. The arable lands withdrawal induced usually the carbon sequestration in soil, the significant shifts in quality of soil organic matter and structure of microbial community. This study was aimed to determine the microbial activity of the abandoned lands in Central Russia due to the process of natural self-restoration. For the study, two representative chronosequences were selected in Central Russia: (1) deciduous forest area, DFA (Moscow region, 54o49N'; 37o34'E; Haplic Luvisols) and (2) forest steppe area, FSA (Belgorod region 50o36'N, 36o01'E Luvic Phaeozems). Each chronosequence included current arable, abandoned lands of different age, and forest plots. The total soil organic carbon (Corg, automatic CHNS analyzer), carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic, SIR method), and respiratory activity (RA) were determined in the topsoil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers) for each plots. Relationships between Corg, Cmic, and RA were determined by liner regression method. Our results showed that the conversion of croplands to the permanent forest induced the progressive accumulation Corg, Cmic and acceleration of RA in the top 10-cm layer for both chronosequences. Carbon stock increased from 24.1 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 45.3 Mg C ha-1 in forest soil (Luvic Phaeozems, Belgorod region). In Haplic Luvisols (Moscow region), SOC build up was 2 time less: from 13.5 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 27.9 Mg C ha-1 in secondary forest. During post-agrogenic evolution, Cmic also increased significantly: from 0.34 to 1.43 g C kg-1 soil in Belgorod region and from 0.34 to 0.64 g C kg-1 soil in Moscow region. RA values varied widely in soils studied: from 0.54-0.63 mg C kg-1h-1 in arable plots to 2.02-3.4 mg C kg-1h-1 in forest ones. The close correlations between Cmic, RA and Corg in the top 0-5cm layer (R2 = 0.81-0.90; P<0.01-0.05) were

  6. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939

  7. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor.

    PubMed

    Achary, Ravindranath C; Ravi, G R

    2016-01-01

    Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155.

  8. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ∼0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  9. Spectrophotometric color evaluation of permanent incisors, canines and molars. A cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    POP-CIUTRILA, IOANA-SOFIA; COLOSI, HORATIU ALEXANDRU; DUDEA, DIANA; BADEA, MANDRA EUGENIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims An accurate color reproduction represents the final validation level of an esthetic anterior or posterior restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color of permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars, using a clinical spectrophotometer. Methods The Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0® intraoral spectrophotometer was used by one clinician to determine the color of 369 permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars. The best matches to Vitapan Classical® and 3D-Master® shade guides were recorded. A one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare L*, a*, b*, c* and h* color coordinates among the 3 types of teeth. Differences between the mean values of all color coordinates were evaluated by use of Bonferroni corrections. Color difference (ΔE*) between incisors, canines and molars was calculated from ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* data and the results were compared to ΔE*=3.3 acceptability threshold. Results Except for Δa* and Δh* between canines and molars, statistically significant differences among the mean differences of all color coordinates were found when the 3 types of teeth were compared by pairs. The most frequently measured shades were A1 (48.4%), respectively 1M1 (31.5%) for incisors, B3 (36.6%), respectively 2M3 (39.8%) for canines and B3 (44.7%), respectively 2M3 (52%) for molars. Incisors had the highest lightness values, followed by canines and molars. Molars were the most chromatic with the highest a* and b* values. Conclusions Despite the limitations of this study, color differences among incisors, canines and molars were found to be statistically significant, above the clinical acceptability threshold established. In conclusion, successful esthetic restorations of permanent teeth of the same patient need an individual color assessment and reproduction of every type of tooth. PMID:26733753

  10. Responses to riparian restoration in the Spring Creek watershed, Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, R.F.; Walsh, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Riparian treatments, consisting of 3- to 4-m buffer strips, stream bank stabilization, and rock-lined stream crossings, were installed in two streams with livestock grazing to reduce sediment loading and stream bank erosion. Cedar Run and Slab Cabin Run, the treatment streams, and Spring Creek, an adjacent reference stream without riparian grazing, were monitored prior to (1991-1992) and 3-5 years after (2001-2003) riparian buffer installation to assess channel morphology, stream substrate composition, suspended sediments, and macroinvertebrate communities. Few changes were found in channel widths and depths, but channel-structuring flow events were rare in the drought period after restoration. Stream bank vegetation increased from 50% or less to 100% in nearly all formerly grazed riparian buffers. The proportion of fine sediments in stream substrates decreased in Cedar Run but not in Slab Cabin Run. After riparian treatments, suspended sediments during base flow and storm flow decreased 47-87% in both streams. Macroinvertebrate diversity did not improve after restoration in either treated stream. Relative to Spring Creek, macroinvertebrate densities increased in both treated streams by the end of the posttreatment sampling period. Despite drought conditions that may have altered physical and biological effects of riparian treatments, goals of the riparian restoration to minimize erosion and sedimentation were met. A relatively narrow grass buffer along 2.4 km of each stream was effective in improving water quality, stream substrates, and some biological metrics. ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  11. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  12. A multidisciplinary treatment of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: a 14-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; MORANDINI, Ana Carolina Faria; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; CASTRO, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; INSABRALDE, Natalia Martins

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and the teeth, including the presentation of malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion must be considered. The objective of this study was to describe the etiology, prevalence and alternative treatment modalities for dental agenesis and to present a clinical case of agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors treated by the closure of excessive spaces and canine re-anatomization. A clinical case is presented to illustrate the interdisciplinary approach between orthodontics and restorative dentistry for improved esthetic results. In this report, the treatment of a girl with a Class II malocclusion of molars and canines with missing maxillary lateral incisors and convex facial profile is shown. Treatment was successfully achieved and included the space closure of the areas corresponding to the missing upper lateral incisors, through movement of the canines and the posterior teeth to mesial by fixed appliances as well as the canines transformation in the maxillary lateral incisors. This is a 14-year follow-up case report involving orthodontics and restorative dentistry in which pretreatment, post-treatment, and long-term follow-up records for the patient are presented. PMID:25466480

  13. Removable orthodontic appliance with nickel-titanium spring to reposition the upper incisors in an autistic patient.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kan; Jang, Insan; Kubota, Kazumi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Taku

    2013-01-01

    A newly designed removable appliance with a shape-memory wire was used for the orthodontic treatment of the anterior teeth in an 11-year-old child who had autism and intellectual disability. The device was designed to reduce the lateral incisor crossbite and the central incisors' labial rotation. The child was treated for 1 year with this removable appliance. Tooth movement was analyzed using cephalograms and surface data were derived from study models. This device proved to be very durable. The lateral incisor crossbite was corrected, and the inclination of the upper central incisors and the interincisal angle were improved. This appliance exerts light and continuous orthodontic force, without requiring any adjustments of the spring wire. The appliance also facilitated orthodontic treatment in a child with intellectual disability in whom treatment with a standard orthodontic device would be unsuitable.

  14. Assessing the value of the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) in Everglades restoration: an ecosystem service approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Keefe, Kelly; Huber, Christopher C.; Racevskis, Laila; Gregg, Reynolds; Thourot, Scott; Miller, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a full range of ecosystem services that could be affected by a restoration project in the central Everglades and monetizes the economic value of a subset of these services using existing data. Findings suggest that the project will potentially increase many ecosystem services that have considerable economic value to society. The ecosystem services monetized within the scope of this study are a subset of the difference between the future-with the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) and the future-without CEPP, and they totaled ~ $1.8 billion USD at a 2.5% discount rate. Findings suggest that the use of ecosystem services in project planning and communications may require acknowledgment of the difficulty of monetizing important services and the limitations associated with using only existing data and models. Results of this study highlight the need for additional valuation efforts in this region, focused on those services that are likely to be impacted by restoration activities but were notably challenging to value in this assessment due to shortages of data.

  15. Age estimation from pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary incisors among Egyptians using dental radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Jaklin Fekri; Fawzy, Irene Atef; Habib, Sahar Refaat; Ali, Magdy Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Age estimation from dental radiographs is a non-destructive, simple method to obtain information. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of age estimation from Egyptians' incisors radiographs. 144 periapical radiographs of maxillary (central & lateral) incisors (both sexes) aged 12-60 were used. Digital camera was used to image the radiographs. Images were computed and pulp/tooth area ratios were determined by AutoCAD Program. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis which showed statistically significant correlation (r = 0.23 &P = 0.006 for maxillary central incisors and r = -0.2 &P = 0.05 for maxillary lateral incisors) between age and pulp tooth area ratio. Linear regression equations were determined separately for both central and lateral incisors along with the corresponding Standard Error of Estimate, which ranged from 1.2 to 5.08 years. Consequently, it was concluded that pulp/tooth area ratios of incisors are reliable for estimation of age among Egyptians in forensic work. PMID:21315299

  16. Interdisciplinary Management of Maxillary Canine Buccal Ectopia Associated with Peg Shaped Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Sawhny, Asheesh

    2016-01-01

    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. The purpose of this report is to illustrate an interdisciplinary approach involving both orthodontic management and conservative tooth restoration. The case was treated through an orthodontic nonextraction fixed appliance mechanotherapy for successful alignment of buccally ectopic upper left canine followed by a conservative direct composite tooth buildup of peg lateral incisor associated with the upper left ectopic canine in a 16-year-old adolescent North Indian female. Posttreatment records demonstrated good alignment of the displaced tooth and restoration of normal anatomy of the peg shaped lateral incisor. PMID:27725890

  17. Central Gain Restores Auditory Processing following Near-Complete Cochlear Denervation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Anna R; Resnik, Jennifer; Yuan, Yasheng; Whitton, Jonathon P; Edge, Albert S; Liberman, M Charles; Polley, Daniel B

    2016-02-17

    Sensory organ damage induces a host of cellular and physiological changes in the periphery and the brain. Here, we show that some aspects of auditory processing recover after profound cochlear denervation due to a progressive, compensatory plasticity at higher stages of the central auditory pathway. Lesioning >95% of cochlear nerve afferent synapses, while sparing hair cells, in adult mice virtually eliminated the auditory brainstem response and acoustic startle reflex, yet tone detection behavior was nearly normal. As sound-evoked responses from the auditory nerve grew progressively weaker following denervation, sound-evoked activity in the cortex-and, to a lesser extent, the midbrain-rebounded or surpassed control levels. Increased central gain supported the recovery of rudimentary sound features encoded by firing rate, but not features encoded by precise spike timing such as modulated noise or speech. These findings underscore the importance of central plasticity in the perceptual sequelae of cochlear hearing impairment. PMID:26833137

  18. Margin designs and fracture resistance of incisal resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Tan, D E; Tjan, A H

    1992-02-01

    This study measured the resistance to fracture of Class IV resin composite restorations prepared with either butt joints, bevels, or chamfer margins. Seventy extracted intact, non-carious maxillary central incisors, of approximately the same size, were collected and randomly divided into the following seven groups: 90 degrees butt joint (control)), 1 and 2 mm 45 degrees bevels, 1 and 2 mm 60 degrees bevels, and 1 and 2 mm chamfer margins. The teeth were restored with a hybrid resin composite and tested in an Instron Universal testing machine in a compressive mode at 45 degrees to the long axis. Statistical analysis indicated that there were no significant differences between the control group and any of the 1 mm bevel or chamfer margins and that the 2 mm bevel and chamfer margins yielded the highest fracture resistance. PMID:1524737

  19. Class I malocclusion treatment: influence of a missing mandibular incisor on anterior guidance.

    PubMed

    Barros, Sérgio Estelita C; Janson, Guilherme; Torres, Fernando César; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with a deep-overbite Angle Class I malocclusion, agenesis of a mandibular central incisor, and 2 supernumerary teeth, which caused impaction of the mandibular first premolars. The 15-year-old patient also had a convex profile, maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion, and deficiency of space for the correct alignment of teeth. Therefore, treatment consisted of fixed appliance therapy, cervical headgear, extraction of the supernumeraries and the mandibular and maxillary first premolars, and mesiodistal reduction of the maxillary incisors to solve the arch perimeter discrepancy as much as possible with interproximal stripping. This method of treatment significantly improved the patient's facial and dental esthetics and provided a good functional occlusion, despite the absence of a mandibular incisor, which generally impairs achieving adequate incisal guidance.

  20. Immediate post-traumatic upper incisor reconstruction using composite resin materials.

    PubMed

    Panduric, Vlatko; Gabric, Dragana; Negovetic-Mandic, Visnja

    2008-02-01

    Single visit reconstruction of the fractured crown can be completed with composite resins if there is no bleeding due to the soft tissue injury. Clinical inspection revealed a complex crown fracture of the central incisor as well as a simple horizontal fracture of the lateral incisor crown of the enamel-dentin type. Vertical fracture separated the palatal enamel wall from the rest of the lateral incisor crown. After the completion of the endodontic sanitation, root canals were prepared for prefabricated composite posts and crown reconstructions were performed with the Finger Tip Technique by using composite resin materials. The advantage of this kind of reconstruction is preservation of the hard dental crown tissue removed in case of prosthetic therapy, especially in younger patients. Reconstruction can be finished in one visit, without the need for a dental technician and laboratory.

  1. Intrusion of incisors in adult patients with marginal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Melsen, B; Agerbaek, N; Markenstam, G

    1989-09-01

    Elongated and spaced incisors are common problems in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease. Thirty patients characterized by marginal bone loss and deep overbite were treated by intrusion of incisors. Three different methods for intrusion were applied: (1) J hooks and extraoral high-pull headgear, (2) utility arches, (3) intrusion bent into a loop in a 0.17 x 0.25-inch wire, and (4) base arch as described by Burstone. The intrusion was evaluated from the displacement of the apex, incision, and the center of resistance of the most prominent or elongated central incisor. Change in the marginal bone level and the amount of root resorption were evaluated on standardized intraoral radiographs. The pockets were assessed by standardized probing and the clinical crown length was measured on study casts. The results showed that the true intrusion of the center of resistance varied from 0 to 3.5 mm and was most pronounced when intrusion was performed with a base arch. The clinical crown length was generally reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 mm. The marginal bone level approached the cementoenamel junction in all but six cases. All cases demonstrated root resorption varying from 1 to 3 mm. The total amount of alveolar support--that is, the calculated area of the alveolar wall--was unaltered or increased in 19 of the 30 cases. The dependency of the results on the oral hygiene, the force distribution, and the perioral function was evaluated in relation to the individual cases. It was obvious that intrusion was best performed when (1) forces were low (5 to 15 gm per tooth) with the line of action of the force passing through or close to the center of resistance, (2) the gingiva status was healthy, and (3) no interference with perioral function was present.

  2. Postendodontic restoration of severely decayed primary tooth using modified omega loop as a post.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ruchi; Raiyani, Chirag M; Singh, Vikram; Katageri, Abhinandan Anand

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic concern of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease of the preschool child. The case report presented here is of a three year old boy with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central incisors were reinforced using modified omega post and followed by using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes shape, function, and esthetics. PMID:27003983

  3. Restoring biological width in crown-root fracture: a periodontal concern.

    PubMed

    Nandlal, B; Daneswari, V

    2007-01-01

    A 10-year-old male child reported to J.S.S. Dental College and Hospital presenting with a vertical crown-root fracture of maxillary central incisor with a history of fall 10 days back. A new treatment protocol was attempted in contrary to various schools of thoughts of coronal fragment removal wherein fractured fragments were approximated and internally reinforced with latest technologies in adhesive dentistry, the goal was to save the tooth, restore its function and esthetics. This case presents the above mentioned philosophy. PMID:17921636

  4. Postendodontic restoration of severely decayed primary tooth using modified omega loop as a post

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ruchi; Raiyani, Chirag M.; Singh, Vikram; Katageri, Abhinandan Anand

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic concern of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease of the preschool child. The case report presented here is of a three year old boy with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central incisors were reinforced using modified omega post and followed by using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes shape, function, and esthetics. PMID:27003983

  5. CENTRAL RHO KINASE INHIBITION RESTORES BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY AND AT1R PROTEIN IMBALANCE IN CONSCIOUS RABBITS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Karla K.V.; Gao, Lie; Schiller, Alicia M.; Curry, Pamela L.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Zucker, Irving H.

    2013-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its associated kinase ROCKII are involved in vascular smooth muscle cell contraction and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA destabilization. Overactivation of the RhoA/ROCKII pathway is implicated in a number of pathologies including chronic heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic outflow seen in CHF due to decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability. Thus, we hypothesized that central ROCKII blockade would improve the sympatho-vagal imbalance in a pacing rabbit model of CHF in an NO-dependent manner. CHF was induced by rapid ventricular pacing and characterized by an ejection fraction of ≤45%. Animals were implanted with an ICV cannula and osmotic minipump (rate: 1 µL/h) containing sterile saline, 1.5 µg/kg/day fasudil (Fas, a ROCKII inhibitor) for 4 days or Fas + 100 µg/kg/day L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. Arterial baroreflex control was assessed by IV infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Fas infusion significantly lowered resting HR by decreasing sympathetic and increasing vagal tone. Furthermore, Fas improved baroreflex gain in CHF in an NO-dependent manner. In CHF Fas animals, the decrease in HR in response to IV metoprolol was similar to sham and was reversed by L-NAME. Fas decreased AT1R and phospho-RhoA protein expression and increased eNOS expression in the brainstem of CHF animals. These data strongly suggest that central ROCKII activation contributes to cardiac sympatho-excitation in the setting of CHF and that central Fas restores vagal and sympathetic tone in an NO-dependent manner. ROCKII may be a new central therapeutic target in the setting of CHF. PMID:23283363

  6. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  7. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  8. Photoelastic stress analysis of endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: normal and alveolar bone resorption cases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinbao; Miura, Hiroyuki; Okada, Daizo; Yusa, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of different post materials and their lengths on the mechanical stress of endodontically treated incisor roots in two alveolar bone conditions. Two-dimensional photoelastic models were fabricated to simulate the endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with three kinds of posts materials (low Young's modulus glass fiber post, high Young's modulus glass fiber post, and prefabricated stainless steel post) and two post lengths (8 and 4 mm). Completed models were placed in a transmission polariscope and loaded with a static force of 150 N at 45° to the tooth axis. Photoelastic photographs and the magnitudes of fringe order revealed stress distribution in the root, and suggest that the glass fiber post with a low Young's modulus and long length can reduce the stress concentration both in normal and alveolar bone resorption conditions.

  9. The distribution of magnesium in developing rat incisor dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfort, J.; Driessens, F.C.; Heijligers, H.J.; Beertsen, W. )

    1991-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that rat incisor dentin contains a considerable amount of magnesium that is distributed heterogeneously. The cementum-related dentin, especially its incisal portion, is richest in magnesium. It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the changes that occur in the magnesium content during dentin maturation. Cross-sections were prepared from rat incisors at the apical, middle, and incisal levels. By means of an electron microprobe, tracings were made of the Ca-, Mg-, and P- signal frequencies. Comparison of corresponding dentin layers within and between the cross-sections showed that the Mg/P molar ratio was always higher in the cementum-related dentin (CRD) than in the enamel-related dentin (ERD) and increased from the apex toward the incisal edge. Especially in the incisal cross-section, an increase in Mg/P was found from the older (peripheral) toward the younger (central) dentin layers. As the Mg/P ratio varied from 0.07 to 0.33, the Ca/P ratio was found to fluctuate from 1.48 to 1.15. The two ratios appeared to be highly correlated (r = -0.97; p less than 0.001), suggesting that Mg replaces Ca and is bound to phosphate.

  10. The Multidisciplinary Management of Fused Maxillary Lateral Incisor with a Supernumerary Tooth in Cleft Lip Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yagci, Ahmet; Cantekin, Kenan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Pala, Kansad

    2014-01-01

    Fusion, an uncommon anomaly of the hard dental tissues, is potentially the cause of clinical problems related to esthetics, tooth spacing, and other periodontal complications. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgical, endodontic, restorative, and orthodontic attention for the successful, functional, and esthetic rehabilitation of a maxillary left lateral incisor fused with a supernumerary tooth in unilateral cleft lip adolescence in contralateral side. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a fusion between the left maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth was diagnosed in the patient, and a small connection was detected between the pulp systems of the two root canals. The case reported in this paper presents the successful resolution of a fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth, using endodontic, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic management. The decision made in extracting or retaining the fused tooth depends on the arch discrepancy and esthetic needs. Future studies, with long-term followup, will be helpful in evaluating the long-term efficacy of the different treatment options. PMID:24516763

  11. Contour ripping is more beneficial than composted manure for restoring degraded rangelands in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bradford P; Fox, William E; Prcin, Lisa J; McAlister, Jason; Wolfe, June; Thomas, Diana M; Knight, Robert W; Hoffman, Dennis W; Smeins, Fred E

    2012-11-30

    Rangelands in the United States that have been the site of military training exercises have suffered extensive ecological damage, largely because of soil compaction, creation of ruts, and damage to or destruction of vegetation--all of which lead to higher runoff and accelerated erosion. In this paper we report on a study carried out within the Fort Hood Military Reservation in Central Texas, where we evaluated the extent to which application of composted dairy manure and contour ripping affect soil infiltrability, amount of runoff, and nutrient concentrations in runoff. We conducted experiments at two locations, using rainfall simulation at one and monitoring discharge from small (0.3-ha) watersheds at the other. At the rainfall simulation site, we used six levels of compost application: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 Mg/ha. We found that compost application had little effect on runoff, soil infiltration, sediment production, or nutrient concentrations in the runoff--except at the micro-watershed scale (12 and 24 Mg/ha); in this case, nutrient concentrations in runoff were initially high (for the rainfall simulations done immediately after compost application). In contrast, contour ripping--carried out 22 months after compost application on two of the micro-watersheds--was highly effective: runoff on the treated micro-watershed was reduced by half compared with the untreated micro-watershed. Our results suggest that (1) one-time applications of composted dairy manure do little to enhance infiltration of degraded rangelands over the short term (at the same time, these experiments demonstrated that compost application poses very little risk to water quality); and (2) for degraded rangelands with limited infiltration capacity, contour ripping is an effective strategy for increasing infiltration rates. PMID:22831794

  12. Contour ripping is more beneficial than composted manure for restoring degraded rangelands in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bradford P; Fox, William E; Prcin, Lisa J; McAlister, Jason; Wolfe, June; Thomas, Diana M; Knight, Robert W; Hoffman, Dennis W; Smeins, Fred E

    2012-11-30

    Rangelands in the United States that have been the site of military training exercises have suffered extensive ecological damage, largely because of soil compaction, creation of ruts, and damage to or destruction of vegetation--all of which lead to higher runoff and accelerated erosion. In this paper we report on a study carried out within the Fort Hood Military Reservation in Central Texas, where we evaluated the extent to which application of composted dairy manure and contour ripping affect soil infiltrability, amount of runoff, and nutrient concentrations in runoff. We conducted experiments at two locations, using rainfall simulation at one and monitoring discharge from small (0.3-ha) watersheds at the other. At the rainfall simulation site, we used six levels of compost application: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 Mg/ha. We found that compost application had little effect on runoff, soil infiltration, sediment production, or nutrient concentrations in the runoff--except at the micro-watershed scale (12 and 24 Mg/ha); in this case, nutrient concentrations in runoff were initially high (for the rainfall simulations done immediately after compost application). In contrast, contour ripping--carried out 22 months after compost application on two of the micro-watersheds--was highly effective: runoff on the treated micro-watershed was reduced by half compared with the untreated micro-watershed. Our results suggest that (1) one-time applications of composted dairy manure do little to enhance infiltration of degraded rangelands over the short term (at the same time, these experiments demonstrated that compost application poses very little risk to water quality); and (2) for degraded rangelands with limited infiltration capacity, contour ripping is an effective strategy for increasing infiltration rates.

  13. Zirconia crowns for rehabilitation of decayed primary incisors: an esthetic alternative.

    PubMed

    Ashima, G; Sarabjot, K Bhatia; Gauba, K; Mittal, H C

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic management of extensively decayed primary maxillary anterior teeth requiring full coronal coverage restoration is usually challenging to the pediatric dentists especially in very young children. Many esthetic options have been tried over the years each having its own advantages, disadvantages and associated technical, functional or esthetic limitations. Zirconia crowns have provided a treatment alternative to address the esthetic concerns and ease of placement of extra-coronal restorations on primary anterior teeth. The present article presents a case where grossly decayed maxillary primary incisors were restored esthetically and functionally with ready made zirconia crowns (ZIRKIZ, HASS Corp; Korea). After endodontic treatment the decayed teeth were restored with zirconia crowns. Over a 30 months period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. Dealing with esthetic needs in children with extensive loss of tooth structure, using Zirconia crowns would be practical and successful. The treatment described is simple and effective and represents a promising alternative for rehabilitation of decayed primary teeth.

  14. Restoring primary anterior teeth: updated for 2014.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature associated with the techniques and materials for the restoration of primary anterior teeth and make clinical recommendations based upon the available literature. A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available to utilize for restoring primary incisors. Awareness of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material can enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are either some type of stainless steel or zirconia crown. There is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, the amount of tooth structure remaining, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables that affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative solution is chosen. PMID:25905657

  15. Quantitative restoration of 1 million years of crustal extension in the Gulf of Corinth rift, central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth (GOC) rifted zone of central Greece is accessible for both marine seismic data acquisition and onland field studies and has been the focus of many types of active rift research for the past 50 years. The purpose of this study is to: 1) compile all existing marine seismic reflection data from the GOC and geologic map data from adjacent onland rifts exposed south of the GOC; 2) create four digitized dip direction cross sections crossing the western (1) and central (3) GOC that included major faults and sedimentary sequences extracted from compiled onland and offshore data; 3) use 2D-MOVE software to restore these present-day cross sections to their undeformed state, adhering to line length and area balancing structural geology principles; 4) compare calculated extension amounts to previous structural studies that proposed extensional amounts using other methods. Previous work in the GOC region has led to controversies in the following topics which all impact how we construct present-day cross sections: 1) whether normal faults in the GOC sole onto a low-angle detachment or are thick-skinned faults extending deep into the crust; previous microearthquake surveys of seismogenic normal faults of the western GOC support the existence of a low-angle detachment whose fault dip and depth to detachment were used for our cross sections; 2) the listric versus planar shapes of normal faults; deep-penetration marine seismic data supports the presence of listric fault shapes with dips extending to depths of 10 km; and 3) the age of pre- and syn-rift sediments in the GOC and onland rifts to the south; we followed the age estimates of Taylor et al. (2011) for a two-stage rift history with Stage 1 from 1 Ma-700 ka and Stage 2 from 700 ka to present. Results from the four restored cross sections include: 1) the narrow, 1.35-km-wide marine strait of the western GOC exhibits the least amount of extension (1.8 km) with the oldest normal faults initiating south of GOC

  16. The subepithelial connective tissue pedicle graft combined with the coronally advanced flap for restoring missing papilla: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    De Castro Pinto, Rodrigo Carlos Nahas; Colombini, Bella Luna; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Chambrone, Leandro; Pustiglioni, Francisco Emílio; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2010-03-01

    This case report describes the clinical application of the coronally advanced flap procedure associated with the subepithelial connective tissue pedicle graft in the reconstruction of interdental papilla. This procedure was used in two distinct situations: to reconstruct missing papilla and cover two Miller Class IV gingival recessions between the maxillary right lateral incisor and canine (case 1) and to improve esthetics and restore missing papilla between the maxillary left central and lateral incisors (case 2). In case 1, there was a clinical attachment level gain, complete root coverage (canine), and an increase in papillary height. Case 2 showed similar improvements for the interdental papilla, ie, significant reduction of the black triangle. Subepithelial connective tissue pedicle graft associated with a coronally advanced flap yielded satisfactory esthetics and may be considered a viable approach for the treatment of missing papilla associated or not with recession-type defects. However, further investigation is required.

  17. Current controversies in late incisor crowding.

    PubMed

    Samspon, W J

    1995-01-01

    Although the terminology is mildly controversial, late incisor crowding (tertiary crowding, late secondary crowding, post-adolescent crowding) is widely regarded as a normal maturation event which is likely to affect most individuals to some extent. Disagreement arises when attempts are made to quantify the change and to predict the timing of the crowding. Most young adults experience some degree of loss of incisor alignment, usually near the anticipated emergence time for the third molars, and almost characteristically it is the lower anterior teeth which best demonstrate the phenomenon. Unfortunately, the physiological crowding changes are frequently confused with orthodontic treatment relapse. Greater controversy surrounds the aetiology of the undesirable crowding changes and despite many attempts we are still not in the enlightened position of explaining, predicting or preventing the problem (except by permanent retention). It is illogical to assume a single cause as the beguilingly simple observation of crowding belies the complexity of possible interacting factors. Perhaps it is a capricious combination of: tooth size and arch form; facial growth pattern (differential soft tissue and skeletal maturation); continuing late growth rotations; cumulative effects of resting, functional and parafunctional soft tissue pressures; lack of compensating attrition; and an ill-defined, mesially acting force emanating from the back of the dental arch. Many theories have attempted to resolve the mystery of the mesially acting force, including: pressure from erupting third molars; an inherent mesial migration; continuing mesial and occlusal dental drifting; maturation and contraction of periodontal soft tissues (particularly the transseptal fibres); the anterior component of occlusal forces; and the lower anterior arch contracting influence of the incisor overbite.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, S; Krishnan, I S

    2012-01-01

    Odontomas are considered to be the most common odontogenic tumors of the oral cavity. Some authors consider it as malformations rather than true neoplasms. The exact etiology of odontomes is still not known. Most odontomes are asymptomatic and are discovered during routine radiographic investigations. Odontomes generally cause disturbances in the eruption of the teeth, most commonly delayed eruption or deflection. The present report describes the surgical management of a case of compound odontoma in a 10-year-old boy who presented with a complaint of swelling in the maxillary right anterior region and retained deciduous incisors. The related literature is also being reviewed in this article.

  19. How much incisor decompensation is achieved prior to orthognathic surgery?

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Calum; Laverick, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify incisor decompensation in preparation for orthognathic surgery. Study design: Pre-treatment and pre-surgery lateral cephalograms for 86 patients who had combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment were digitised using OPAL 2.1 [http://www.opalimage.co.uk]. To assess intra-observer reproducibility, 25 images were re-digitised one month later. Random and systematic error were assessed using the Dahlberg formula and a two-sample t-test, respectively. Differences in the proportions of cases where the maxillary (1100 +/- 60) or mandibular (900 +/- 60) incisors were fully decomensated were assessed using a Chi-square test (p<0.05). Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify if there were any differences in the amount of net decompensation for maxillary and mandibular incisors between the Class II combined and Class III groups (p<0.05). Results: Random and systematic error were less than 0.5 degrees and p<0.05, respectively. A greater proportion of cases had decompensated mandibular incisors (80%) than maxillary incisors (62%) and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.029). The amount of maxillary incisor decompensation in the Class II and Class III groups did not statistically differ (p=0.45) whereas the mandibular incisors in the Class III group underwent statistically significantly greater decompensation (p=0.02). Conclusions: Mandibular incisors were decompensated for a greater proportion of cases than maxillary incisors in preparation for orthognathic surgery. There was no difference in the amount of maxillary incisor decompensation between Class II and Class III cases. There was a greater net decompensation for mandibular incisors in Class III cases when compared to Class II cases. Key words:Decompensation, orthognathic, pre-surgical orthodontics, surgical-orthodontic. PMID:25136421

  20. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor presenting dens invaginatus and transposition to the region of the canine--case report.

    PubMed

    Pécora, J D; Saquy, P C; de Souza, J E; Sousa Neto, M D

    1991-01-01

    Endodontic treatment was performed in a maxillary lateral incisor presenting two different types of anomalies: dens invaginatus and transposition to the region of the canine. The two transposed teeth were subsequently restored with light-cured composite, bringing dental esthetics to normal in a single session.

  1. Using Composite Resin Inclined Plane for the Repositioning of a Laterally Luxated Primary Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary central incisor with occlusal interference, using a composite inclined plane. The patient was a 4-year-old girl who applied to our clinic three days after the injury. Because of the time delay between injury and presentation, it was not possible to reposition the tooth with pressure. Following a root-canal treatment, an inclined plane was prepared on the lower primary incisors, using composite resin. The tooth was repositioned in two weeks, and the inclined plane was then removed. After 1 year of follow-up, the treatment was found to be successful, both clinically and radiographically. The use of a composite inclined plane, accompanied by careful follow-up, is an effective alternative to extraction for laterally luxated primary incisors with occlusal interference. PMID:21228962

  2. Using composite resin inclined plane for the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary central incisor with occlusal interference, using a composite inclined plane. The patient was a 4-year-old girl who applied to our clinic three days after the injury. Because of the time delay between injury and presentation, it was not possible to reposition the tooth with pressure. Following a root-canal treatment, an inclined plane was prepared on the lower primary incisors, using composite resin. The tooth was repositioned in two weeks, and the inclined plane was then removed. After 1 year of follow-up, the treatment was found to be successful, both clinically and radiographically. The use of a composite inclined plane, accompanied by careful follow-up, is an effective alternative to extraction for laterally luxated primary incisors with occlusal interference.

  3. High-risk esthetically driven restoration: begin with the end in mind.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Michael T; Pizzi, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A high-risk esthetically driven restorative case requires the dental team, along with the patient, to have a clear vision of the final outcome. In this case of a 33-year-old woman who wanted to improve her smile, esthetic problems stemmed from a retained deciduous maxillary left canine along with an impacted tooth No. 11. Among a number of concerns was the shape and color of the deciduous canine and the uneven length of the maxillary central incisors. A treatment plan that included orthodontics with removable aligners, occlusal adjustment, composite restorations, extraction and implant placement, indirect porcelain veneers, and a custom abutment and PFM crown was successfully executed in four phases over the course of more than 4 years.

  4. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  5. Facial talon cusp on mandibular incisor: a rare case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Pradhuman; Dutta, Sanjay; Verma, Kanika Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Talon cusp is a relatively rare developmental dental anomaly thought to arise as a result of evagination on the surface of a tooth crown before calcification has occurred. It is characterized by cusp-like projections from the cingulum area, or cemento-enamel junction of maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth, in both the primary and permanent dentition, usually observed on the lingual surface of the affected tooth. The cusp may or may not contain an extension of the pulp. The etiology remains unknown. The incidence is 0.04-8%. Any tooth may have a talon cusp but most of the cases involve maxillary lateral incisors. The anomaly has been reported to be rare especially when it occurs on mandibular teeth. This article reports a case of talon cusp on permanent mandibular central incisor that too on facial aspect which makes it a rare entity. PMID:25099002

  6. Fracture resistance of microhybrid composite, nano composite and fibre-reinforced composite used for incisal edge restoration.

    PubMed

    Badakar, Chandrashekhar M; Shashibhushan, Kukkalli Kamalaksharappa; Naik, N Sathyajith; Reddy, Vulavala Venkata Subba

    2011-06-01

    Traumatized anterior teeth need quick, aesthetic and functional repair. Along with aesthetics, the physical properties of restorative material should also be considered for long-lasting restoration. Fibre reinforcement has been tried as a newer technique to improve the physical properties of composite materials. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the fracture resistance of microhybrid composite, nano composite and fibre-reinforced composite used for restoration of incisal edge of fractured maxillary central incisors. Extracted permanent maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into four groups of 10 samples each: control group with intact teeth (Group A), microhybrid composite (Esthet X; Dentsply/Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) (group B), nano composite (Ceram X; Dentsply/Caulk) (group C) and microhybrid composite reinforced with polyethylene fibre - flowable composite unit [(Ribbond THM; Ribbond Inc., Seattle, WA, USA; Esthet X flow; Dentsply/Caulk)] (group D). The fracture resistance was measured under universal testing machine at a speed of 1mmmin(-1) with the loading tip of 2mm diameter. The samples were further evaluated for mode of fracture under stereomicroscope at 3.5× magnification. The data were analysed using one-way anova and Tukey's test for fracture resistance. Group A and group D exhibited significantly higher fracture resistance than group B and group C. No significant difference was found between group B and group C as well as between group A and group D. Fisher's exact test for the mode of fracture revealed no statistical significance. It was concluded that fibre reinforcement of composite could be an alternative technique for restoration of fractured anterior teeth for better aesthetics and longevity of the restoration.

  7. Unerupted incisors--characteristic features and associated anomalies.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Adriana; Camilleri, Audrey; Camilleri, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the association of unerupted incisors with other dental anomalies and to indicate the aetiological and clinical relevance of such associations. Forty-one patients with unerupted incisors were examined. The group comprised 30 males and 11 females, ranging in age from 7 to 39 years. The patients were assessed for nine dental anomalies: hyperdontia, hypodontia, microdontia, enamel hypoplasia, infraocclusion of the primary molars and ectopia of the canines, premolars, first permanent molars, and second permanent molars. The patients were matched with respect to age and gender to 41 consecutively selected control subjects with similar selection criteria but no history of problems with incisor eruption. The prevalence rates of the dental anomalies in association with failure of eruption of incisors were compared to the reference rates in the control group by means of Pearson chi-square tests. The results of this study revealed that unerupted incisors were more frequent in males than in females. A statistically significant association (P = 0.006) was found between unerupted incisors and other inherited dental anomalies, namely ectopic teeth, hyperdontia, and enamel hypoplasia. Unerupted incisors may be considered part of a spectrum of inheritable dental anomalies. PMID:19745002

  8. The adaptive significance of enamel loss in the mandibular incisors of cercopithecine primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): a finite element modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  9. The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  10. The adaptive significance of enamel loss in the mandibular incisors of cercopithecine primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): a finite element modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits.

  11. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gharavifard, Mohamad; Razavi, Majid; Ghandehari Motlagh, Mehdi; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS) following general anesthesia (GA) is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  12. Endodontic configuration of the lower incisors in a Romanian population: a radiological study.

    PubMed

    Perlea, Paula; Nistor, Cristina Coralia; Toma, C; Dimitriu, B

    2013-01-01

    The significant rate of failure of endodontic treatment to lower incisors was attributed to poor knowledge of their endodontic morphology. As emphasized by Tinelli ME et al. (2011), the morphology of the endodontic system is strongly related to ethnicity, making possible the existence of important anatomical variations at different population groups. The present study analyzes, using radiological means, the endodontic anatomy of lower incisors extracted from a Romanian population. Five hundred seventy-five lower central and lateral incisors were radiographed and Weine's classification was used to evaluate their endodontic morphology. After processing the data, it was concluded that 81% of the studied teeth have one canal and the remaining 19% have two canals. In terms of endodontic configuration, 81% of 575 studied teeth are Weine Type I, 17% Type II, 1% Type III and 1% Type IV. Results obtained in this study are within existing international endodontic literature. Type II and IV configurations have a high degree of treatment difficulty. This requires thorough clinical and radiological examination of several incidents, possibly cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and individualized therapeutic means to ensure treatment success. This study is the first of this magnitude in the Romanian specialty literature.

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest. PMID:24228237

  14. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas.

  15. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas. PMID:26666116

  16. Selecting nanotechnology-based composites using colorimetric and visual analysis for the restoration of anterior dentition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Milnar, Frank J

    2004-01-01

    Currently it is possible to use direct composites and layering techniques to replicate the complex internal structures, visible shape, color, and surface anatomy of natural teeth. To do so, however, requires dentists to understand the principles of nature and the science of dental materials to determine the most suitable restorative material for a specific indication. By incorporating relatively new technologies--colorimetric analysis, which provides computerized shade guide definitions of a tooth and essential information to verify shade mapping, and a new nanotechnology-based direct composite--into composite layering techniques, dentists can more predictably replicate the esthetics of natural teeth. This article presents a case in which both technologies, used in combination with a composite layering technique, contributed to the esthetic and functional restoration of the maxillary central incisors.

  17. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  18. Establishment of crown-root domain borders in mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Juuri, Emma; Saito, Kan; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Michon, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    Teeth are composed of two domains, the enamel-covered crown and the enamel-free root. The understanding of the initiation and regulation of crown and root domain formation is important for the development of bioengineered teeth. In most teeth the crown develops before the root, and erupts to the oral cavity whereas the root anchors the tooth to the jawbone. However, in the continuously growing mouse incisor the crown and root domains form simultaneously, the crown domain forming the labial and the root domain the lingual part of the tooth. While the crown-root border on the incisor distal side supports the distal enamel extent, reflecting an evolutionary diet adaptation, on the incisor mesial side the root-like surface is necessary for the attachment of the interdental ligament between the two incisors. Therefore, the mouse incisor exhibits a functional distal-mesial asymmetry. Here, we used the mouse incisor as a model to understand the mechanisms involved in the crown-root border formation. We analyzed the cellular origins and gene expression patterns leading to the development of the mesial and distal crown-root borders. We discovered that Barx2, En1, Wnt11, and Runx3 were exclusively expressed on the mesial crown-root border. In addition, the distal border of the crown-root domain might be established by cells from a different origin and by an early Follistatin expression, factor known to be involved in the root domain formation. The use of different mechanisms to establish domain borders gives indications of the incisor functional asymmetry.

  19. Re-eruption of an intruded immature permanent incisor with necrotic pulp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ceyhan; Güven, Günseli; Cehreli, Zafer C; Gurbuz, Taskin; Aydin, Cumhur

    2008-01-01

    Intrusive luxation is a serious dental injury that causes damage to the pulp and supporting structures of a tooth because of its dislocation into the alveolar process. This paper presents the case of the re-eruption of a severely intruded immature permanent incisor with a crown-root fracture. A 9-year-old boy was referred to the clinic 1 day after a fall. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed intrusive luxation of the immature left permanent incisor and a crown-root fracture without pulp exposure. Palatal gingivectomy was done 2 weeks later to facilitate re-eruption. Root canal therapy with intracanal calcium hydroxide paste was initiated during the first month owing to severe spontaneous pain. Six months later, the tooth re-erupted to a normal position, after which root canal obturation and a final esthetic restoration were done. The present case demonstrates the possibility of obtaining re-eruption of intruded immature permanent teeth with interim medication (calcium hydroxide) in the root canal.

  20. Influence of cavity design on the biomechanics of direct composite resin restorations in Class IV preparations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiping; Jiang, Zhe; Xiao, Ximei; Fu, Jing; Su, Qin

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cavity design on stress distribution and fracture resistance of direct composite resin restorations in Class IV preparations. A finite element analysis (FEA) model of the maxillary central incisor with a Class IV cavity was established. Five model variations were studied: (i) a 1-mm bevel (ii) a 2-mm bevel, (iii) a plain chamfer, (iv) a stair-step chamfer, and (v) butt joints (a control configuration). All FEA variations modeled a tooth restored with composite resin loaded under 100 N at an angle of 45° to the longitudinal axis. The interfacial von Mises stress was evaluated. The FEA was complemented with an in vitro assessment. Fracture resistance of direct composite resin restorations was tested with a universal testing machine and fracture patterns were observed. Finite element analysis showed that stress in chamfer and stair-step chamfer models was more homogenously distributed, while stress in bevel models was relatively concentrated at lingual regions. Fracture resistance of a 1-mm bevel preparation was lower than for the 2-mm bevel, plain chamfer, and stair-step chamfer preparations, but was higher than for butt joints. The stair-step chamfer group presented the most favorable failure pattern. Considering biomechanics and esthetics, the present study indicates that the stair-step chamfer and 2-mm bevel should be recommended for clinical restoration. PMID:22409223

  1. Restoration of Central Programmed Movement Pattern by Temporal Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Training in Patients with Spinal Cerebellar Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Chang, Yao-Shun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted triphasic electromyography (EMG) patterns of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs during fast goal-directed movements have been found in patients with hypermetria. Since peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) and motor training may modulate motor cortical excitability through plasticity mechanisms, we aimed to investigate whether temporal ES-assisted movement training could influence premovement cortical excitability and alleviate hypermetria in patients with spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA). The EMG of the agonist extensor carpi radialis muscle and antagonist flexor carpi radialis muscle, premovement motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, and the constant and variable errors of movements were assessed before and after 4 weeks of ES-assisted fast goal-directed wrist extension training in the training group and of general health education in the control group. After training, the premovement MEPs of the antagonist muscle were facilitated at 50 ms before the onset of movement. In addition, the EMG onset latency of the antagonist muscle shifted earlier and the constant error decreased significantly. In summary, temporal ES-assisted training alleviated hypermetria by restoring antagonist premovement and temporal triphasic EMG patterns in SCA patients. This technique may be applied to treat hypermetria in cerebellar disorders. (This trial is registered with NCT01983670.). PMID:26417459

  2. Restoration of Central Programmed Movement Pattern by Temporal Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Training in Patients with Spinal Cerebellar Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Chang, Yao-Shun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted triphasic electromyography (EMG) patterns of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs during fast goal-directed movements have been found in patients with hypermetria. Since peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) and motor training may modulate motor cortical excitability through plasticity mechanisms, we aimed to investigate whether temporal ES-assisted movement training could influence premovement cortical excitability and alleviate hypermetria in patients with spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA). The EMG of the agonist extensor carpi radialis muscle and antagonist flexor carpi radialis muscle, premovement motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, and the constant and variable errors of movements were assessed before and after 4 weeks of ES-assisted fast goal-directed wrist extension training in the training group and of general health education in the control group. After training, the premovement MEPs of the antagonist muscle were facilitated at 50 ms before the onset of movement. In addition, the EMG onset latency of the antagonist muscle shifted earlier and the constant error decreased significantly. In summary, temporal ES-assisted training alleviated hypermetria by restoring antagonist premovement and temporal triphasic EMG patterns in SCA patients. This technique may be applied to treat hypermetria in cerebellar disorders. (This trial is registered with NCT01983670.).

  3. [Disproportionate eruption of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the long-tailed ground squirrel].

    PubMed

    Klevezal', G A; Potapova, E G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract-The surface of the maxillary and mandibular incisors of Spermophilus undulatus long-tailed ground squirrels, including those born in the current year and those that have hibernated (trapped one month or later after hibernation) is studied. The presence of daily growth on the incisors' surface allows the evaluation of their eruption rate; a specific change in the character of the incisors' eruption corresponds to winter hibernation (hibernation zone), which serves as the time mark. Correlation between the eruption rates of the maxillary and mandibular incisors typical for rodents is found in yearlings and some animals after hibernation. The eruption rate of the mandibular incisors is higher than the eruption rate of the maxillary incisors and can be taken as proportional to their length. In individuals that have hibernated and show proportional eruption of the incisors, the proportion of the total length of the incisor formed before and after hibernation is equal for the maxillary and mandibular incisors. In the individuals that have hibernated and show the correlation of the total length of the maxillary and mandibular incisors typical for rodents, the eruption rate of the mandibular incisor is equal to or less than the eruption rate of the maxillary incisor and the proportion of the incisor formed before hibernation is greater in the mandibular incisor than in the maxillary. This disproportionate pattern of incisor eruption is not typical for rodents and is a result of inequal grinding of the maxillary and mandibular incisors, which ultimately results in the normal ratio of the total length of the maxillary and mandibular incisors.

  4. Temporary replacement of missing maxillary lateral incisors with orthodontic miniscrew implants in growing patients: rationale, clinical technique, and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jason B; McFadden, David

    2014-09-01

    The missing maxillary lateral incisor in adolescent patients presents an orthodontic challenge. Historically, there have been three treatment options to address this clinical problem: (1) canine substitution, (2) tooth auto-transplantation, and (3) dental restoration. Unfortunately, these methods are not without limitation. A novel treatment concept, originating in 2003 and utilizing orthodontic miniscrew implants, is presented along with the rationale, clinical technique and 8 years of follow-up. PMID:25138368

  5. Recovering the function and esthetics of fractured teeth using several restorative cosmetic approaches. Three clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Rocha, Eduardo P; Watanabe, Maurício U; de Almeida, Erika O; Freitas-Junior, Amilcar C; Martini, Ana P; Barioni, Sônia R P

    2012-04-01

    The teeth most commonly affected by trauma are the maxillary central incisors. The most frequent types of traumatic dental injuries to permanent teeth are enamel fractures, enamel and dentine fractures, and enamel and dentine fractures with pulp involvement. This article describes three clinical cases with different levels of traumatized maxillary incisors and several cosmetic approaches for recovery of the esthetics and the masticatory function, as well as the social/psychological aspects of treatment. All cases involved young adult men. The three clinical cases involve dentin and enamel fractures, dentin and enamel fractures with pulp exposure, and dentin and enamel fractures with pulp exposure associated with root fracture. The cosmetic treatments used to resolve fractures were direct composite resin by layering technique, indirect all-ceramic restorations (laminate veneer and ceramic crowns over the teeth), and immediate implant after extraction followed by immediate loading (ceramic abutments with ceramic crown over implant). In all three cases, excellent functional and esthetic results were achieved by use of these treatment modalities. The patients were very satisfied with the results.

  6. Characteristics of incisor-premolar hypodontia in families.

    PubMed

    Arte, S; Nieminen, P; Apajalahti, S; Haavikko, K; Thesleff, I; Pirinen, S

    2001-05-01

    Nonsyndromic tooth agenesis is a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous condition. It is generally assumed that different phenotypic forms are caused by different mutated genes. We analyzed inheritance and phenotype of hypodontia and dental anomalies in 214 family members in three generations of 11 probands collected for genetic linkage study on incisor-premolar hypodontia (IPH). Our analysis confirms the autosomal-dominant transmission with reduced penetrance of IPH. The prevalence of hypodontia and/or peg-shaped teeth was over 40% in first- and second-degree relatives and 18% in first cousins of the probands. Four of nine noted obligate carriers of hypodontia gene had dental anomalies, including small upper lateral incisors, ectopic canines, taurodontism, and rotated premolars. These anomalies were also observed at higher than normal frequency in relatives affected with hypodontia. We conclude that incisor-premolar hypodontia is a genetic condition with autosomal-dominant transmission and that it is associated with several other dental abnormalities.

  7. Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor extraction case with invisalign.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding.

  8. Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

  9. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus type II: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686

  10. Palatogingival Groove: Recognizing and Managing the Hidden Tract in a Maxillary Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Deepak, Passi; Vivek, Sharma; Ranjan Dutta, Shubha

    2015-01-01

    Palatogingival grooves are developmental malformations quite notorious for precipitating endodontic - periodontal lesions. Owing to their inconspicuous occurrence, funnel-shaped morphology and variable extent on tooth root, they promote adherence of plaque and bacteria to levels significant for the development of pathology. Several treatment approaches have been recognized in literature for the management of this anomaly. Here in this report, a 25-year-old patient reported with the complaint of pain and swelling in maxillary right lateral incisor. Clinical examination confirmed an endodontic - periodontal lesion in relation to palatogingival groove. Endodontic treatment was instituted, followed by odontoplasty of the groove and restoration with newer calcium silicate cement, Biodentine. Combined endodontic - periodontal approach was successful in resolving the pathology with complete healing seen both clinically and radiographically. Timely diagnosis, prevention and management are highly recommended to prevent tooth loss due to complications arising secondary to their presence. PMID:26124612

  11. Palatogingival Groove: Recognizing and Managing the Hidden Tract in a Maxillary Incisor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarang; Deepak, Passi; Vivek, Sharma; Ranjan Dutta, Shubha

    2015-06-01

    Palatogingival grooves are developmental malformations quite notorious for precipitating endodontic - periodontal lesions. Owing to their inconspicuous occurrence, funnel-shaped morphology and variable extent on tooth root, they promote adherence of plaque and bacteria to levels significant for the development of pathology. Several treatment approaches have been recognized in literature for the management of this anomaly. Here in this report, a 25-year-old patient reported with the complaint of pain and swelling in maxillary right lateral incisor. Clinical examination confirmed an endodontic - periodontal lesion in relation to palatogingival groove. Endodontic treatment was instituted, followed by odontoplasty of the groove and restoration with newer calcium silicate cement, Biodentine. Combined endodontic - periodontal approach was successful in resolving the pathology with complete healing seen both clinically and radiographically. Timely diagnosis, prevention and management are highly recommended to prevent tooth loss due to complications arising secondary to their presence.

  12. Palatogingival Groove: Recognizing and Managing the Hidden Tract in a Maxillary Incisor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarang; Deepak, Passi; Vivek, Sharma; Ranjan Dutta, Shubha

    2015-06-01

    Palatogingival grooves are developmental malformations quite notorious for precipitating endodontic - periodontal lesions. Owing to their inconspicuous occurrence, funnel-shaped morphology and variable extent on tooth root, they promote adherence of plaque and bacteria to levels significant for the development of pathology. Several treatment approaches have been recognized in literature for the management of this anomaly. Here in this report, a 25-year-old patient reported with the complaint of pain and swelling in maxillary right lateral incisor. Clinical examination confirmed an endodontic - periodontal lesion in relation to palatogingival groove. Endodontic treatment was instituted, followed by odontoplasty of the groove and restoration with newer calcium silicate cement, Biodentine. Combined endodontic - periodontal approach was successful in resolving the pathology with complete healing seen both clinically and radiographically. Timely diagnosis, prevention and management are highly recommended to prevent tooth loss due to complications arising secondary to their presence. PMID:26124612

  13. A study on evaluation of center of resistance of maxillary four incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction: A finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the center of resistance of maxillary incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction. Subjects and Methods: In this study, the following steps were employed namely, (1) Preprocessing - the creation of geometric model, mesh generation and boundary conditions. (2) Postprocessing - the tooth movement and determination of center of resistance. Results: The center of the mid-sagittal plane approximately 6 mm apical and 4 mm posterior to a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane from the labial alveolar crest of the central incisor resistance for the maxillary four incisors was located within the. Conclusion: Finite element is a sound mechanical method of analysis as it was sufficient enough to provide insight into interactions between orthodontic forces, and dental tissues and reliability of this study. Further by using this study clinically, the center of resistance can be precisely located in single rooted tooth during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25210384

  14. Localized periodontal defect associated with unusual furcation involvement on a mandibular incisor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeHyun; Intini, Giuseppe; Kim, David M; Levin, Liran

    2013-10-01

    A localized periodontal defect associated with an unusual furcation on a mandibular central incisor and its treatment sequences are presented. A 54-year-old woman presented with a persistent localized periodontal defect, which was not responsive to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. An exploratory surgery revealed complete through and through furcation involvement on the right mandibular central incisor, resulting in a three-walled infrabony defect. Following thorough mechanical debridement and root planing, the infrabony aspect of the defect was grafted with freeze-dried bone allograft combined with the recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB. The flaps were positioned to enable patient's home care and professional dental cleaning. Follow-up examination revealed uneventful healing and resolution of the infrabony periodontal defect. Clinicians should be aware of this unusual condition and consider it as a potential etiology when dealing with a persistent localized periodontal defect in the mandibular anterior sextant, which may not respond to the conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Eliminating the active disease as well as enabling careful maintenance and oral hygiene may prevent further deterioration and result in a stable long-term outcome preserving the compromised tooth. PMID:23878844

  15. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, H L; Nagarathna, J; Kumar, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  16. A rare occurrence of geminated-taloned maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, R; Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-05-01

    The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138.

  17. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, HL; Nagarathna, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  18. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. Materials and Methods The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. Results The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. Conclusion These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration. PMID:23071964

  19. Intentional replantation for a periodontally involved hopeless incisor by using autologous platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Keçeli, Hüseyin Gencay; Serper, Ahmet; Tuncel, Behram

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present case is to describe the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in an intentional replantation procedure for a periodontally involved lower right central incisor with 18 months follow-up. Brief information is also given on the preoperative preparation of PRP in the dental office. PRP preparation is a new biotechnology, and the prepared material contains thrombocyte concentrates and high levels of growth factors. This material promotes healing time in a range of various sites. In this case, a tooth with severe periodontal breakdown was treated with PRP with intentional replantation procedure. This tooth was previously treated with root canal treatment and root planing. The tooth was extracted, and was replanted with autologous PRP. Clinical and radiographic follow-up for 18 months demonstrated new bone formation around the apical portion of the root and all clinical parameters indicated a trend of healing. The mobility of this previously grade III mobile incisor returned to normal limits. We speculate that intentional replantation with PRP application may induce wound healing and may induce bone formation.

  20. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Sidiq, Mohsin; Yousuf, Asif; Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhargava, Neha; Ganta, Shravani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case study was to report a potentially convenient approach instead of a conventional orthodontic procedure for correcting severe rotation of anterior tooth of an 11-year-old Indian boy, with a mixed dentition class I malocclusion. The child reported seeking treatment for severely rotated upper right central incisor with mesiodens and a single tooth crossbite. The supernumerary tooth was first extracted and bondable buttons were placed on the rotated tooth, an appliance composed of a removable plate with Adam's clasp with distal extension and a loop for engagement of elastics was delivered. Circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy was performed on the corrected derotated tooth. Then, Hawley's appliance with a z-spring and posterior bite plane was fabricated and placed for correction of crossbite. Thus, this removable appliance can be a simplified and a cost-effective treatment alternative for derotation of anterior tooth, especially during the mixed dentition period. How to cite this article: Sidiq M, Yousuf A, Bhat M, Sharma R, Bhargava N, Ganta S. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):234-238.

  1. The Dance of Tusks: Rediscovery of Lower Incisors in the Pan-American Proboscidean Cuvieronius hyodon Revises Incisor Evolution in Elephantimorpha.

    PubMed

    Mothé, Dimila; Ferretti, Marco P; Avilla, Leonardo S

    2016-01-01

    The incisors of proboscideans (tusks and tushes) are one of the most important feature in conservation, ecology and evolutionary history of these mammals. Although the absence of upper incisors is rare in proboscideans (occurring only in deinotheres), the independent losses of lower incisors are recognized for most of its lineages (dibelodont condition). The presence of lower incisors in the Pan-American gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon was reported a few times in literature, but it was neglected in systematic studies. We analyzed several specimens of Cuvieronius hyodon from the Americas and recognized that immature individuals had lower incisors during very early post-natal developmental stages. Subsequently, these are lost and lower incisors alveoli close during later developmental stages, before maturity. Moreover, for the first time in a formal cladistic analysis of non-amebelodontine trilophodont gomphotheres, Rhynchotherium and Cuvieronius were recovered as sister-taxa. Among several non-ambiguous synapomorphies, the presence of lower incisors diagnoses this clade. We recognize that the presence of lower incisors in Cuvieronius and Rhynchotherium is an unique case of taxic atavism among the Elephantimorpha, since these structures are lost at the origin of the ingroup. The rediscovery of the lower incisors in Cuvieronius hyodon, their ontogenetic interpretation and the inclusion of this feature in a revised phylogenetic analysis of trilophodont gomphotheres brought a better understanding for the evolutionary history of these proboscideans.

  2. The Dance of Tusks: Rediscovery of Lower Incisors in the Pan-American Proboscidean Cuvieronius hyodon Revises Incisor Evolution in Elephantimorpha

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incisors of proboscideans (tusks and tushes) are one of the most important feature in conservation, ecology and evolutionary history of these mammals. Although the absence of upper incisors is rare in proboscideans (occurring only in deinotheres), the independent losses of lower incisors are recognized for most of its lineages (dibelodont condition). The presence of lower incisors in the Pan-American gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon was reported a few times in literature, but it was neglected in systematic studies. We analyzed several specimens of Cuvieronius hyodon from the Americas and recognized that immature individuals had lower incisors during very early post-natal developmental stages. Subsequently, these are lost and lower incisors alveoli close during later developmental stages, before maturity. Moreover, for the first time in a formal cladistic analysis of non-amebelodontine trilophodont gomphotheres, Rhynchotherium and Cuvieronius were recovered as sister-taxa. Among several non-ambiguous synapomorphies, the presence of lower incisors diagnoses this clade. We recognize that the presence of lower incisors in Cuvieronius and Rhynchotherium is an unique case of taxic atavism among the Elephantimorpha, since these structures are lost at the origin of the ingroup. The rediscovery of the lower incisors in Cuvieronius hyodon, their ontogenetic interpretation and the inclusion of this feature in a revised phylogenetic analysis of trilophodont gomphotheres brought a better understanding for the evolutionary history of these proboscideans. PMID:26756209

  3. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of the Pulpal Peroxide Levels in Intact and Restored Teeth - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Gourismita; Agrawal, Pratik; Panda, Vijeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hydrogen peroxide (30%) is a commonly used "in office" bleaching agent. Deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide on the pulp have been observed. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber through intact teeth and through the surface of teeth, restored with either hybrid composite or Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC). Materials and Methods Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into six groups. Two groups were restored with hybrid composite resin and two with RMGIC, while two groups were left intact. The teeth with acetate buffer solution in their pulp cavity were then immersed in either 30% hydrogen peroxide or distilled water depending upon the group, for 60 minutes at 37°C. Then horseradish peroxidase and leucocrystal violet were added to the acetate buffer solution present in the pulp chamber after it was transferred to a test tube and the optical density of the resultant blue solution obtained was measured spectrophotometrically. Statistical Analysis The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Results The data obtained established that hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp from the bleaching agent used. Hydrogen peroxide (30%) showed the highest pulpal peroxide level in teeth restored with RMGIC followed by teeth restored with hybrid composite resin and the least amount of penetration was observed in intact teeth. Conclusion The amount of peroxide penetration into the tooth is more through restored tooth than intact tooth and is also dependant on the type of restorative materials used. PMID:27656562

  4. Resin composite restoration in primary anterior teeth using short-post technique and strip crowns: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; del Conte Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Correa, Maria Salete Nahás Pires

    2004-10-01

    A case report describing a technique for the restoration of endodontically treated primary maxillary incisors with resin composite short posts and celluloid strip crowns in a 3-year-old boy is presented. The technique offers the advantages of using one restorative material, improving esthetics, and reducing chairtime and costs. PMID:15470991

  5. A new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and possible tectonic overpressure in the Penninic Adula Nappe (Central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, J.; Podladchikov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Adula Nappe in the eastern Central Alps is one of the four units in the Alps from which ultrahigh-pressure rocks have been reported. Several very different models for its tectonic history have been published but none of these models is fully satisfactory. In the models of Schmid et al. (1996) and Engi et al. (2001), the main mechanism of exhumation is assumed to be extrusion. The extrusion models require top-to-the-hinterland, i.e. top-to-the-south faulting in the hanging wall of the exhuming nappe for which there is no evidence. Froitzheim et al. (2003) proposed a scenario with two different subduction zones, an internal one in which the South Penninic and Briançonnais domains were subducted, and an external one in which the North Penninc domain and the European margin, including the Adula nappe, were subducted. In this model, the exhumation of the Adula nappe results from the subduction of the overlying sub-Briançonnais and sub-South-Penninic mantle in the internal subduction zone. The Adula nappe would then have been exhumed from below into a top-to-the-north shear zone also affecting the overriding Briançonnais units. The main shortcoming of this model is that otherwise there is little evidence for two Alpine subduction zones. All the models cited above are based on the conversion of peak pressures obtained from geobarometry to depth by assuming lithostatic pressures. This results in a much greater burial depth of the Adula Nappe with respect to the surrounding units which poses major problems when trying to reconcile maximum burial depths of the Penninic nappes with their structural record. We performed a new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section (Schmid et al. 1996) without applying a lithostatic pressure-to-depth conversion but a purely geometrical restoration of deformation events in the Penninic nappe stack. The major constraints on these reconstructions are given by strain estimates for the major deformation phases in the units overlying the

  6. Relationship between cell proliferation and eruption rate in the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J R; Omar, N F; Do Carmo, E R; Neves, J S; Soares, M A M; Narvaes, E A; Novaes, P D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to further define the relationship between cell proliferation and the rate of tooth eruption in the rat incisor. Vinblastine is a drug that blocks cellular mitosis and was used to inhibit cell proliferation in the odontogenic region of rat incisors that were submitted to a shortening treatment or to higher masticatory forces. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: normofunctional (control group for incisor eruption), hypofunctional (incisor submitted to eruption acceleration), hyperfunctional (incisors under higher masticatory forces), hypofunctional with vinblastine and hyperfunctional with vinblastine. In incisors submitted to shortening procedures, a significant decrease in the eruption rate and cell proliferation was observed two days after vinblastine injection, suggesting that incisor eruption is dependent on cell proliferation.

  7. A purely structural restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and potential tectonic overpressure in the Adula nappe (central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, Jan; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2014-05-01

    Common extrusion-type models for the high- to ultrahigh-pressure Adula nappe require a major normal fault along the top of this unit which is not conveyed in the structural record. This implies that such a normal fault existed but was completely erased during later deformational stages. However, there is evidence that decompression occurred during top-to-the-foreland thrusting. We performed a new, purely structural kinematic restoration of the central part of the NFP20-East cross section in order to estimate the burial depths of individual units without converting petrological pressure data into depth under the assumption that pressures were lithostatic. The results show that pressures within most of the units were close to but somewhat higher than lithostatic for several stages of the tectono-metamorphic history. Only for the maximum burial stage of the Adula nappe, we estimate local tectonic overpressures of 40 to 80% of the lithostatic pressures. Accepting such an amount of overpressure, which is moderate compared to values theoretically possible, the Adula nappe was probably not subducted to subcrustal depth. We propose that the structural record of the Penninic nappe stack is quite complete and suggest that the decay of tectonic overpressure is a feasible explanation for decompression from eclogite- to amphibolite-facies conditions during thrusting. Consequently, exhumation and convergence rates of the Eocene to Oligocene Alps may be smaller than previously assumed.

  8. Sex determination using the mesio-distal dimension of permanent maxillary incisors and canines in a modern Chilean population.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Logar, Ciara; Garrido-Varas, Claudia E; Meek, Susan; Pinto, Ximena Toledo

    2016-03-01

    The pelvis and skull have been shown to be the most accurate skeletal elements for the determination of sex. Incomplete or fragmentary bones are frequently found at forensic sites however teeth are often recovered in forensic cases due to their postmortem longevity. The goal of the present research was to investigate sexual dimorphism between the mesio-distal dimension of the permanent maxillary incisors and canines for the determination of sex in a contemporary Chilean population. Three hundred and three dental models (126 males and 177 females) from individuals ranging in age from 13 years to 37 years old were used from the School of Dentistry, University of Chile. The statistical analyses showed that only the central incisors and canines were sexually dimorphic. Discriminant function score equations were generated for use in sex determination. The average accuracy of sex classification ranged from 59.7% to 65.0% for the univariate analysis and 60.1% to 66.7% for the multivariate analysis. Comparisons to other populations were made. Overall, the accuracies ranged from 54.4% to 63.3% with males most often identified correctly and females most often misidentified. The determination of sex from the mesio-distal width of incisors and canines in Chilean populations does not adhere to the Mohan and Daubert criteria and therefore would not be presented as evidence in court.

  9. Restore the natural - A review and case series report on reattachment

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Munniswamy

    2014-01-01

    Reattachment of the original tooth fragment to the fractured tooth helps in maintaining the tooth’s color, wear resistance, morphology and translucency in the restoration. This article describes the reattachment of fractured fragment using a fiber post and dual cure resin cement with a self-etching adhesive. Two young male patients reported with a complicated crown fracture of the right maxillary central incisor due a road traffic accident. The fractured fragments were loosely attached to the palatal gingival tissue, which was then surgically removed and preserved for the reattachment procedure. The fractured tooth segments were successfully reattached following fiber post cementation. Tooth fragment reattachment procedure offers ultraconservative, safe, fast and esthetically pleasing results when the fractured fragment is available due to the improvement of adhesive techniques and restorative materials. Fiber reinforced resins not only allows creation of esthetic restoration but also the preservation and reinforcement of tooth structure. At the 18months follow-up, the resultant appearance was acceptable to the patient. Key words:Reattachment, bonding, complicated crown fracture, fibre post, resin cement. PMID:25674333

  10. Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Casting Post and Core and Glass-Fiber with Composite Core

    PubMed Central

    Saatian, Sedigheh

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prefabricated metal and ceramic posts can be used with different kinds of core materials as an alternative to the conventional casting post and cores. It is unclear how these post and core systems can withstand different kind of forces in the mouth. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture strength of endodontically treated, crowned maxillary incisors restored with casting post and cores and glass- fiber post with composite core and to evaluate their mode of fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty caries free, human maxillary central incisors with incisoapical length of 23 ± 1 mm were divided into two groups. After root canal treatment procedures and decronation of teeth 2mm above cementoenamel junction, Grope 1 was restored with glass- fiber posts and composite cores and group 2 received casting post and cores. Teeth were prepared with a circumferential shoulder including a 1-2 mm ferrule and 0.5 mm bevel; all posts were cemented with an adhesive resin and teeth were restored with complete coverage crowns. Loads were applied at an angle of 135 degrees using a universal testing machine. Compression force was applied until the specimens fractured. RESULTS: The median fracture strengths of groups 1 and 2 were 459 and 686 respectively (p<0.5). In group I, all fractures occurred in incisal third of roots. In groups II, 40% of fractures were in apical third and middle of roots. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this study, the results suggested that glass fiber with composite cores can be used as an alternative to cast posts and cores in anterior teeth when creating 2mm ferrule effect was possible in normal occlusion. Clinical trial is required to verify these in vitro results. PMID:24470803

  11. Restorative Case Report: Flexibility of Fibre-Posts.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Paula E

    2015-06-01

    Restoration of an anterior root-filled tooth with little remaining coronal tooth-tissue can utilise a post to retain a core, enabling definitive restoration. Post material was, until recently, primarily metal--be it cast or prefabricated. Currently, fibre-posts are promoted as being advantageous due to a favourable failure mechanism which may protect the root from fracture. This Case Report demonstrates failure of the structural integrity of a fibre-post in a maxillary lateral incisor, with a proposed explanation. Retreatment employed a diamond-coated ultrasonic tip for removal of the residual fibre-post and restoration with a cast-post and metal ceramic crown.

  12. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  13. A rare occurrence of geminated-taloned maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, R; Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-05-01

    The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  14. Is bodily advancement of the lower incisors possible?

    PubMed

    Strahm, Catherine; De Sousa, Ana Paula; Grobéty, Dominique; Mavropoulos, Anestis; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2009-08-01

    Some Class II malocclusions are due, at least in part, to a retruded lower dental arch relative to the mandibular body. The purpose of this study was to determine if a direct anterior force on the lower incisors could lead to bodily movement of these teeth. Twenty-seven patients (9 males, 18 females; mean age: 9.8 years) were treated with a reverse headgear (RHG) in the lower dental arch combined with labial root torque of the lower incisors. An activator was added to disclude the arches. This group was compared with 26 patients (10 males, 16 females; mean age: 9.7 years) treated with an activator combined with conventional posterior extraoral traction on the upper molars. All patients had a second stage of treatment with fixed appliances and Class II elastic wear. At the end of treatment, all patients had a Class I relationship and a normal overjet. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T1), after the first stage (T2), and at the end of active (T3) treatment. Independent sample t-tests were used to assess the differences between the two groups of patients. In the RHG group, despite the applied root torque, the lower incisors showed anterior crown tipping. Labial root displacement was not observed. At T2, this labial tipping partially relapsed. Furthermore, the use of RHG appeared to decrease bone apposition in the anterior part of the symphysis, leading to a reduction in width. Bodily advancement of the lower incisors was not achieved with the application of labial root torque and anteriorly directed force on the mandibular arch. The width limit of the lower anterior apical base should be respected during orthodontic treatment planning.

  15. Dual embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors: clinical implications in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Rosar, Julia Petruccelli; Sathler, Renata; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are craniofacial anomalies highly prevalent in the overall population. In oral clefts involving the alveolar ridge, variations of number, shape, size and position are observed in maxillary lateral incisors. The objective of this manuscript is to elucidate the embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors in order to understand the etiology of these variations. Contextualization: The hypothesis that orofacial clefts would split maxillary lateral incisor buds has been previously reported. However, recent studies showed that maxillary lateral incisors have dual embryonic origin, being partially formed by both the medial nasal process and the maxillary process. In other words, the mesial half of the lateral incisor seems to come from the medial nasal process while the distal half of the lateral incisor originates from the maxillary process. In cleft patients, these processes do not fuse, which results in different numerical and positional patterns for lateral incisors relating to the alveolar cleft. In addition to these considerations, this study proposes a nomenclature for maxillary lateral incisors in patients with cleft lip and palate, based on embryology and lateral incisors position in relation to the alveolar cleft. Conclusion: Embryological knowledge on the dual origin of maxillary lateral incisors and the use of a proper nomenclature for their numerical and positional variations renders appropriate communication among professionals and treatment planning easier, in addition to standardizing research analysis. PMID:26560830

  16. Management of a complicated crown-root fracture in a young permanent incisor using intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyan; Heffernan, Michelle; Vann, William F

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this case presentation is to review the rationale for and illustrate the clinical procedures involved in intentional replantation of a maxillary central incisor following a complicated crown-root fracture. The treatment of complicated crown-root fractures in children often is compromised by a fracture below the gingival margin and/or bone. This makes isolation difficult and comprises the hermetic seal that is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. Orthodontic or surgical extrusion with gingivectomy has been suggested; however, these approaches can be expensive, time-consuming, esthetically compromising, and unsatisfactory when the fracture line is deep below the gingiva. Our presentation will discuss the treatment options for such cases and introduce the concept of intentional replantation as an option to manage complicated crown-root fractures in young permanent anterior teeth.

  17. Gene expression and dental enamel structure in developing mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Sehic, Amer; Risnes, Steinar; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Khuu, Cuong; Osmundsen, Harald

    2010-04-01

    At the mouse incisor tip the initially differentiated ameloblasts produce a thin, prism-free enamel, while further apically, in the immediate adjacent segment, the enamel thickness increases and the four-layered enamel of mouse incisor is formed. Comparative gene-expression profiling was carried out on RNA isolated from these two segments of incisor tooth germs at embryonic day (E)17.5 and at postnatal days (P)0, 1, 2, and 10 using microarrays to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) species present in the segments. Validation of expression data was achieved using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Bioinformatic data suggested enhanced cellular apoptosis in the incisal tip segment, which, together with diminished expression of the Amelx and Enam genes, may contribute to the production of the thin enamel seen in this tooth segment. For genes exhibiting higher levels of expression in the adjacent segment where complex enamel is being formed, bioinformatic analysis suggested significant associations with cellular functions involving the actin cytoskeleton, cellular development, morphology, and movement. This is suggested to reflect that ameloblasts with Tomes' process are being organized in transverse rows, facilitating the transverse movement that results in prism decussation in the inner enamel of the adjacent segment. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA expression data lends support to these suggestions.

  18. In vitro effects of retinoic acid on mouse incisor development.

    PubMed

    Bloch-Zupan, A; Mark, M P; Weber, B; Ruch, J V

    1994-10-01

    The developing dentition is known to express the complete set of retinoic acid (RA) nuclear receptors and cytoplasmic RA-binding proteins (CRABPI and II), and RA is required for in vitro mouse molar morphogenesis, so the role of RA during in vitro mouse incisor development was investigated. Histological procedures, immunocytochemical detection of proliferating cells, immunofluorescence detection of laminin, and in situ hybridization with RNA probes for CRABPI and II were done on the tooth-germ cultures either in the presence or in the absence of RA. RA appeared to control initial morphogenesis, particularly the asymmetrical growth of the cervical loop, and to regulate required differential mitotic activity. RA seemed also to be involved in asymmetrical laminin deposition. The distribution of the CRABP gene transcripts was similar during in vivo and in vitro incisor development. However, CRABPI gene transcript distribution in the labial part of the epithelial loop was detected in vitro only in the presence of RA. A direct role of the CRABPs during tooth development is, however, unlikely because Ch55, a synthetic RA analogue that does not bind to CRABP, had the same effects as RA on in vitro incisor development. PMID:7741659

  19. Periodontal response to two intracanal medicaments in replanted monkey incisors.

    PubMed

    Thong, Y L; Messer, H H; Siar, C H; Saw, L H

    2001-12-01

    Intracanal medicaments are recommended for use in replanted teeth to inhibit inflammatory root resorption. This study compared the effect of calcium hydroxide (Pulpdent) and a corticosteroid-antibiotic paste (Ledermix) on periodontal healing and root resorption following replantation. Incisors of eight Macaca fascicularis monkeys were extracted, stored dry for 15 min and replanted. After 11 days, root canals in two adjacent maxillary incisors were treated with one medicament and contralateral incisors with the other medicament, or left as untreated controls. Animals were sacrificed 8 weeks later and the teeth prepared for histomorphometric evaluation of periodontal ligament inflammation and root resorption. Periodontal ligament inflammation and inflammatory root resorption were markedly inhibited by both calcium hydroxide and corticosteroid-antibiotic relative to untreated controls. Replacement resorption was lowest in the corticosteroid-antibiotic group, and significantly (P<0.05) more normal periodontal ligament was present in this group (79.6%) than in calcium hydroxide and control groups (64.6% and 62.7%, respectively). Treatment with the corticosteroid-antibiotic inhibited inflammatory resorption and was slightly more effective than calcium hydroxide in producing a periodontal healing response. PMID:11766092

  20. Restorative and Invisalign: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Norris, Robert A; Brandt, Douglas J; Crawford, Craig H; Fallah, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    This case report describes an interdisciplinary treatment approach using the Invisalign System (Align Technology, Inc., Santa Clara, California) for orthodontics in combination with restorative dentistry. This combined approach was selected for an optimum esthetic and functional result. This case report demonstrates how a restorative case can be improved with prerestorative orthodontic alignment. The Invisalign System was used for opening the bite anteriorly, space distribution, and midline correction. The restorative dentistry procedures involved veneering to enhance the maxillary incisor length-to-width ratio and provide anterior guidance. The cosmetic alternative treatment modality to conventional fixed orthodontics allowed the clinician to accomplish the prerestorative orthodontic goals to help meet the desires of an esthetically conscientious patient.

  1. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  2. Splitting placodes: effects of bone morphogenetic protein and Activin on the patterning and identity of mouse incisors.

    PubMed

    Munne, Pauliina M; Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Jussila, Maria; Suomalainen, Marika; Thesleff, Irma; Jernvall, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The single large rodent incisor in each jaw quadrant is evolutionarily derived from a mammalian ancestor with many small incisors. The embryonic placode giving rise to the mouse incisor is considerably larger than the molar placode, and the question remains whether this large incisor placode is a developmental requisite to make a thick incisor. Here we used in vitro culture system to experiment with the molecular mechanism regulating tooth placode development and how mice have thick incisors. We found that large placodes are prone to disintegration and formation of two to three small incisor placodes. The balance between one large or multiple small placodes was altered through the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Activin signaling. Exogenous Noggin, which inhibits BMP signaling, or exogenous Activin cause the development of two to three incisors. These incisors were more slender than normal incisors. Additionally, two inhibitor molecules, Sostdc1 and Follistatin, which regulate the effects of BMPs and Activin and have opposite expression patterns, are likely to be involved in the incisor placode regulation in vivo. Furthermore, inhibition of BMPs by recombinant Noggin has been previously suggested to cause a change in the tooth identity from the incisor to the molar. This evidence has been used to support a homeobox code in determining tooth identity. Our work provides an alternative interpretation, where the inhibition of BMP signaling can lead to splitting of the large incisor placode and the formation of partly separate incisors, thereby acquiring molar-like morphology without a change in tooth identity.

  3. Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)

    PubMed Central

    ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

    2001-01-01

    Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

  4. Endodontic and periodontal management of a severely affected maxillary lateral incisor having combined mucosal fenestration and palatogingival groove

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sood, Vishal; Yadav, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal fenestrations, wherein the tooth root apices are clinically discernible in the oral cavity subsequent to loss of overlying alveolar bone and mucosa, are rare pathologic entities. Palato gingival grooves- anatomic aberrations are also infrequent occurrences that notoriously predispose to periodontal pathologies of varying extent. Both conditions independently are known to popularly affect maxillary lateral incisors. Coexistent fenestration defect and palato gingival groove in the same tooth is extremely rare and undoubtedly is a perfect combination to precipitate severe endodontic-periodontal consequences. In this report, a 34-year-old patient presented to the dental department with complaint of esthetics in relation to exposed root of right maxillary lateral incisor. On closer inspection, a palato gingival groove in addition to fenestration defect was evident on the root surface along with a periodontal pocket of >5 mm. An interdisciplinary treatment was instituted which included endodontic treatment followed by root end resection, osseous bone graft placement and guided tissue regeneration procedures for repair of mucosal fenestration defect. Debridement of the palatal pocket, with saucerization of the groove and restoration with glass ionomer cement were simultaneously employed to correct the palatal defect. PMID:26229283

  5. Zirconia crowns--an esthetic and resistant restorative alternative for ECC affected primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Planells del Pozo, P; Fuks, A B

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses briefly the problem of ECC in very young children and the recommended approaches for prevention and treatment. The esthetic restoration of the maxillary incisors with Zirconia Nu Smile crowns is described. It is also stressed that the luxation injury two months after placement did not damage the appearance nor the stability of the crowns.

  6. Evaluation of Retention of two Different Cast Post-Core Systems and Fracture Resistance of the Restored Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khaledi, Amir Ali Reza; Sheykhian, Shekufe; Khodaei, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The survival of pulpless teeth restored with different post and core systems is still a controversial issue. Purpose This study compared the retention of two different post and core systems and also the fracture resistance of teeth restored with these systems. Material and Method Eighty endodontically treated maxillary central incisors were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at a point 2mm incisal to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and then the root canals were obturated. The restored teeth were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40. One group was restored with Nickel-Chromium (Ni-Cr) post and core system and the other group with Non-Precious Gold alloy (NPG) system. For evaluation of fracture resistance of the restored teeth, the specimens (n=20 per each group) were mounted in acrylic resin blocks and a layer of polyvinyl siloxane was applied to cover the roots. Loads were applied at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the teeth and measured with a universal testing machine. The axial retention values of the studied groups (no=20) were measured on an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.00 and student’s t-test (α=0.05). Results Although retention failure load for Ni-Cr system was lower than NPG system, there was no significant difference between the two systems (p= 0.7). However, fracture resistance of the teeth restored with Ni-Cr post and core system was significantly higher than NPG group (p= 0.000). Conclusion There was no significant difference between the retention of the studied post and core systems. Although significantly higher fracture thresholds were recorded for Ni-Cr post and core group, the failure loads of both systems may rarely occur clinically. PMID:26046108

  7. Ship Shoal as a prospective borrow site for barrier island restoration, coastal south-central Louisiana, Usa: Numerical wave modeling and field measurements of hydrodynamics and sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, G.W.; Pepper, D.A.; Xu, Jie; Zhang, X.

    2004-01-01

    Ship Shoal, a transgressive sand body located at the 10 m isobath off south-central Louisiana, is deemed a potential sand source for restoration along the rapidly eroding Isles Dernieres barrier chain and possibly other sites in Louisiana. Through numerical wave modeling we evaluate the potential response of mining Ship Shoal on the wave field. During severe and strong storms, waves break seaward of the western flank of Ship Shoal. Therefore, removal of Ship Shoal (approximately 1.1 billion m3) causes a maximum increase of the significant wave height by 90%-100% and 40%-50% over the shoal and directly adjacent to the lee of the complex for two strong storm scenarios. During weak storms and fair weather conditions, waves do not break over Ship Shoal. The degree of increase in significant wave height due to shoal removal is considerably smaller, only 10%-20% on the west part of the shoal. Within the context of increasing nearshore wave energy levels, removal of the shoal is not significant enough to cause increased erosion along the Isles Dernieres. Wave approach direction exerts significant control on the wave climate leeward of Ship Shoal for stronger storms, but not weak storms or fairweather. Instrumentation deployed at the shoal allowed comparison of measured wave heights with numerically derived wave heights using STWAVE. Correlation coefficients are high in virtually all comparisons indicating the capability of the model to simulate wave behavior satisfactorily at the shoal. Directional waves, currents and sediment transport were measured during winter storms associated with frontal passages using three bottom-mounted arrays deployed on the seaward and landward sides of Ship Shoal (November, 1998-January, 1999). Episodic increases in wave height, mean and oscillatory current speed, shear velocity, and sediment transport rates, associated with recurrent cold front passages, were measured. Dissipation mechanisms included both breaking and bottom friction due to

  8. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  9. Esthetic restoration of maxillary incisors using CAD/CAM chairside technology--a case report.

    PubMed

    Seydler, Bodo; Schmitter, Marc

    2011-01-01

    High-quality esthetic veneers can be produced in a single treatment session only by means of chairside CAD/CAM technology. With efficient therapy, the duration of the relatively long treatment cycle can be optimized: planning casts and a diagnostic wax-up are steps that simplify therapy decisions, the same as with veneers produced by laboratories. After production of a mock-up and preparation of the teeth, removable composite veneers can be prepared and gradually replaced by ceramic veneers. Modern, three-dimensional presentation by use of the Cerec 3D system facilitates construction of veneers seen in relation to the other teeth. A very helpful aspect is that the mock-ups can be adjusted to patients' needs during the complete production process. After individualization by a dental ceramic technician, there is no recognizable esthetic difference from veneers produced by a laboratory.

  10. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  11. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

  12. Finite element analysis of weakened roots restored with composite resin and posts.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carla Santina de Miranda; Biffi, João Carlos Gabrielli; Silva, Gisele Rodrigues da; Abrahão, Anthony; Campos, Roberto Elias; Soares, Carlos José

    2009-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the influence of different post systems on the stress distribution of weakened teeth under oblique-load application. A maxillary central incisor root obtained from a sound tooth was weakened by partial removal of dentin inside the root canal. Seven two-dimensional numerical models, one from the sound tooth and six from the weakened root restored with composite resin and post systems were created as follows - ST: sound tooth; CPC: cast CuAl post and core; SSP: stainless steel post + composite core; GP: fiberglass + composite core; CP: carbon fiber + composite core; ZP: zirconium dioxide post + composite core; TP: titanium post + composite core. The numerical models were considered to be restored with a leucite-reinforced all-ceramic crown and received a 45 masculine occlusal load (10 N) on the lingual surface.All the materials and structures were considered linear elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic, with the exception of fiberglass and carbon fiber posts which assumed orthotropic behavior. The numerical models were plotted and meshed with isoparametric elements, and the results were analyzed using von Mises and Sy stress criteria. When compared with the sound tooth, FEA revealed differences in stress distribution when post systems were used. Among the restored teeth, the use of CPC, SSP, ZP, and TP resulted in higher stress concentration in the post itself when compared to GP and CP. Therefore, results from the FEA images suggested that the use of non-metallic post systems could result in improved mechanical behavior for the weakened restored teeth. PMID:20019417

  13. Effect of dentin surface roughness on the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations

    PubMed Central

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Poursoltan, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate whether dentin surface preparation with diamond rotary instruments of different grit sizes affects the shear bond strength of resin-bonded restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS The buccal enamel of 60 maxillary central incisors was removed with a low speed diamond saw and wet ground with silicon carbide papers. The polished surfaces of the teeth were prepared with four groups of rotary diamond burs with super-coarse (SC), coarse (C), medium (M), and fine (F) grit sizes. Following surface preparation, 60 restorations were casted with nickel-chromium alloy and bonded with Panavia cement. To assess the shear bond strength, the samples were mounted on a universal testing machine and an axial load was applied along the cement-restoration interface at the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The acquired data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS The mean ± SD shear bond strengths (in MPa) of the study groups were 17.75 ± 1.41 for SC, 13.82 ± 1.13 for C, 10.40 ± 1.45 for M, and 7.13 ± 1.18 for F. Statistical analysis revealed the significant difference among the study groups such that the value for group SC was significantly higher than that for group F (P<.001). CONCLUSION Dentin surface roughness created by diamond burs of different grit sizes considerably influences the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations. PMID:27350858

  14. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  15. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-08-25

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH.

  16. Identification of genetic risk factors for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

    PubMed

    Alves-Ferreira, M; Pinho, T; Sousa, A; Sequeiros, J; Lemos, C; Alonso, I

    2014-05-01

    Tooth agenesis affects 20% of the world population, and maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most frequent subtypes, characterized by the absence of formation of deciduous or permanent lateral incisors. Odontogenesis is a complex mechanism regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, controlled by activators and inhibitors involved in several pathways. Disturbances in these signaling cascades can lead to abnormalities in odontogenesis, resulting in alterations in the formation of the normal teeth number. Our aim was to study a large number of genes encoding either transcription factors or key components in signaling pathways shown to be involved in tooth odontogenesis. We selected 8 genes-MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, SPRY2, TGFA, SPRY4, and WNT10A-and performed one of the largest case-control studies taking into account the number of genes and variants assessed, aiming at the identification of MLIA susceptibility factors. We show the involvement of PAX9, EDA, SPRY2, SPRY4, and WNT10A as risk factors for MLIA. Additionally, we uncovered 3 strong synergistic interactions between MLIA liability and MSX1-TGFA, AXIN2-TGFA, and SPRY2-SPRY4 gene pairs. We report the first evidence of the involvement of sprouty genes in MLIA susceptibility. This large study results in a better understanding of the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this trait.

  17. Variations in the shape of permanent maxillary lateral incisors in Sundanese.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, D; Satravaha, S

    1984-01-01

    During a survey in Java we found unusual shaped upper lateral incisors. A total of 110 school children shows 3 cases with pegging, approximately 20% with canine-like shape. In all cases the lateral incisor was present. Compared with other publication the incidence of pegging is low, the canine-like variation never described as far as we know.

  18. Orthodontic Management of Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rongo, Roberto; Cupo, Antonello; Valletta, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a woman, aged 15 years, with permanent dentition, brachyfacial typology, with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. Multibracket straightwire fixed appliance was used to open the space for dental implant placement, and treat the impaired occlusion. The missing lateral incisors were substituted with oral implants. PMID:24711929

  19. Lower incisor extraction treatment with the Invisalign® technique: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Giancotti, Aldo; Garino, Francesco; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of a lower incisor can lead to satisfactory orthodontic results for patients with moderate to severe lower incisor crowding. Invisalign(®) is a treatment modality for such treatments, moving teeth with precision and reducing inconvenience for the patient. Three case reports are presented in this article supporting the above statements.

  20. Increasing the resilience of water and soil resources through successful restoration of eroded landscapes - the case of the Enabered Catchment in Central Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deribe Zenebe, Haftamu; Finger, David

    2016-04-01

    Integrated land restoration management is part of a rehabilitation approach widely implemented since 2004 in the Tigray region in northern Ethiopia. In this study we assess the effect of physical and biological soil and water conservation practices on erosion and subsequent land degradation in the Enabered watershed, a typical case study in the Tigray region. For this purpose the land uses, the gully dimension and the runoff yields before (2003) and after (2014) land rehabilitation efforts were analyzed. By means of statistical analysis the effects of various restoration measures on runoff and soil loss due to sheet, rill and gully erosion were quantified. The results reveal that large parts of the watershed could be restored and gully formation reversed. The biggest change occurred through the reorganization of homestead areas to cultivated land, accounting for 124.5 ha (18.5% of the entire watershed). The most important changes were achieved by converting bush land to area closures, forest area and plantations. In total these changes accounted for almost 50% of the total area. Furthermore, the entire grazing land and bare land were converted to plantations and area closures. Finally, the observed changes in gully dimensions reveal that restoration activities of the watershed have reduced the soil loss by 86%. Similar effects were determined in the change of the runoff coefficient, which resulted in a decreased by 32.6% of runoff yield. Based on these results the study concludes that the physical and biological soil and water conservation practices led to a successful ecological restoration, increasing the resilience of soil and water resources and finally enhancing the livelihood for the local population.

  1. Dens invaginatus in a geminated maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Pallivathukal, Renjith George; Misra, Alok; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Donald, Preethy Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) and gemination are two developmental abnormalities that are well reported in the dental literature, but their coexistence in a single tooth is rare. Such situations worsen the risk factors associated with these anomalies, and the treatment plan should be customised as they possess altered morphology and anatomy. A 19-year-old girl came for evaluation of a cracked tooth in the front region of the upper jaw. The tooth showed clinical features of gemination and radiographic features of DI, and was diagnosed as DI in geminated maxillary lateral incisor. The differential diagnoses based on clinical appearance without radiographic investigation may warrant the treatment approach if these two abnormalities coexist in a single tooth. The report also highlights the importance of three-dimensional imaging in diagnosis and treatment planning of teeth with altered pulp canal anatomy. There are few reported cases in the literature detailing the treatment options for these two anomalies occurring in the same tooth.

  2. Correction of palatally displaced maxillary lateral incisors without brackets

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yoonjung; Kim, Minji

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 25-year-old Korean female patient with anterior crowding, including palatally displaced lateral incisors. Her facial profile was satisfactory, but 3.5 mm of maxillary anterior crowding was observed. To correct this crowding, we decided to minimize the use of the conventional fixed orthodontic appliances and employed a less bulky and more aesthetic appliance for applying light continuous force. We determined the final positions of the maxillary teeth via a working model for diagnostic set up and achieved space gaining and alignment with simple Ni-Ti spring and stainless steel round tubes. Tooth alignment was achieved efficiently and aesthetically without the conventional brackets. PMID:24015390

  3. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Negre-Barber, A.; Montiel-Company, J. M.; Boronat-Catalá, M.; Catalá-Pizarro, M.; Almerich-Silla, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9–86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6–88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9–17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47–0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39–35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  4. Developmental disturbances associated with agenesis of the permanent maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Pinho, T; Maciel, P; Pollmann, C

    2009-12-19

    The aim of this study was to characterise the intra and extra-oral phenotype associated with agenesis of the permanent maxillary lateral incisor. We compared three groups: (1) subjects with agenesis of one or both permanent maxillary lateral incisors (n=80); (2) first and second degree relatives of group 1 with no agenesis of the permanent maxillary lateral incisor and (3) subjects with no agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisor or family history of it (n=49). For each of the 201 subjects detailed clinical information was reviewed and panoramic radiographs were analysed. Considering only the sample with unilateral agenesis, microdontia of the contralateral permanent maxillary lateral incisor was significantly more frequent in group 1 (82.4%) than in group 2 (25%) and the control group (2%). This supports the theory that microdontia is a variable expression of the same developmental disturbance that causes tooth agenesis. The absence of third molars occurred more often in group 1 (36.2%) than in groups 2 and 3 (18.6% and 18.9% respectively), confirming that agenesis of third molars was markedly associated with the agenesis of the permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Agenesis of teeth other than third molars was not significantly different among subjects with agenesis of the permanent maxillary lateral incisor and their relatives. The frequencies of supernumerary teeth, permanent maxillary canine impaction, general health condition and minor anomalies were not significantly different between the three groups. PMID:19876043

  5. Lower incisor position in different malocclusions and facial patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Sayago, Estrella; Barrera-Mora, Jose M.; Ruiz-Navarro, Maria B.; Llamas-Carreras, Jose M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The position of lower incisor has been of considerable concern when planning an orthodontic treatment, having been recognized as one of diagnostic keys, Very important in the development of malocclusion and facial pattern. Objectives: In this study we claim to determine the importance of the position and inclination of lower incisor in the different malocclusions and facial patterns, and to base which of the cephalometric measurement parameters are the mostreliable. Material and Methods: Ninety lateral radiographies were taken, and they were classified by skeletal malocclusion and facial pattern.These teleradiographies have been performed cephalometric analysis, which includelower incisor position belong the following analysis: Ricketts, Riolo, Tweed, McHorris, Jarabak-MSE and Holdaway. Study Design: Cross-sectional study where we perform statistical analysis Anova test, Pearson correlations and Bonferroni analysis. Results: The analyzed measurements present a statistically significant differentiation in lower incisor inclination respect to the anterior cranial base, McHorris angle, angulation of lower incisor respect to occlusal plane and mandibular plane. Conclusions: There are statistically significant differentiation in lower incisor position and inclination respect the malocclusion and individual facial pattern. Key words:Lower incisor, cephalometric analysis, facial patterns, facial biotype, skeletal malocclusions. PMID:23229262

  6. The Ability of Dental Specialists to Distinguish Lateral Incisor Metal-Free From Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Implant Supported Crowns.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Eduardo V; Kauling, Ana Elisa C; Freitas, Sérgio Fernando T; Cardoso, Antônio C; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of dental specialists to distinguish lateral incisor metal-free from porcelain-fused-to-metal implant supported crowns in the anterior region. Five single-tooth implants in the maxillary lateral incisor region were restored with two types of implant-supported crowns (porcelain-fused-to-metal and metal-free). Photographs were presented to 20 evaluators. The evaluators had to answer whether the crown was: metal-free, porcelain-fused-to-metal or they could not tell the difference. The results showed that groups 1 (all participants), 3 (Restorative & Prosthodontic specialists), 4 (graduated 10 years) and 5 (graduated > 10 years) failed to respond correctly (P > 0.05) to which type of crown was presented to them. Group 2 (Periodontology & Implantology specialists) showed an accuracy rate of 35.6% (P = 0.009), in relation to metal-free crowns, 5.6 which is below the random index. The authors concluded that the evaluators from the 5 groups studied were unable to significantly distinguish which type of crown was used in the 10 presented situations.

  7. The Ability of Dental Specialists to Distinguish Lateral Incisor Metal-Free From Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Implant Supported Crowns.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Eduardo V; Kauling, Ana Elisa C; Freitas, Sérgio Fernando T; Cardoso, Antônio C; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of dental specialists to distinguish lateral incisor metal-free from porcelain-fused-to-metal implant supported crowns in the anterior region. Five single-tooth implants in the maxillary lateral incisor region were restored with two types of implant-supported crowns (porcelain-fused-to-metal and metal-free). Photographs were presented to 20 evaluators. The evaluators had to answer whether the crown was: metal-free, porcelain-fused-to-metal or they could not tell the difference. The results showed that groups 1 (all participants), 3 (Restorative & Prosthodontic specialists), 4 (graduated 10 years) and 5 (graduated > 10 years) failed to respond correctly (P > 0.05) to which type of crown was presented to them. Group 2 (Periodontology & Implantology specialists) showed an accuracy rate of 35.6% (P = 0.009), in relation to metal-free crowns, 5.6 which is below the random index. The authors concluded that the evaluators from the 5 groups studied were unable to significantly distinguish which type of crown was used in the 10 presented situations. PMID:26466439

  8. [Incisors crossbite correction with spring inclined plane appliance: principles and procedures].

    PubMed

    Suphanthavanich, K; Raungpaka, S

    1990-01-01

    The spring inclined plane is one of the removable appliances that can be used to correct incisors crossbite which is designed for the early treatment period. In order to prevent skeletal malocclusion and reestablish proper muscle balance. The appliance is very simple which composes of clasps on the first molar both sides and spring 0.9 millimetre diameter. This spring was bended as an inclined plane above the lower incisors. The force from this spring will push upper incisors anteriorly. The spring inclined plane is very effective in mixed dentition. Nevertheless this spring is appropriate to use in the patient who can not wear the removeable orthodontic appliance in the upper jaw.

  9. Notching and anterior beveling on fossil horse incisors: Indicators of domestication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Richard A.; Rogers, Laurine A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the lines of evidence cited for possible late Pleistocene human control of horses has been the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth recovered from upper and middle Paleolithic sites in Europe. Similar forms of wear have been found on the incisor teeth of wild horses from early and middle Pleistocene deposits in North America. Notching appears partly due to malocclusion and chipping. The causes of beveling are less certain but may involve the eating of bark. Therefore, the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth may not be a reliable indicator of human control.

  10. HYDROGEOMORPHIC SETTING, CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESPONSE TO STREAM INCISION OF MONTANA RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN--IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian wet meadow complexes in the mountains of the central Great Basin are scarce, ecologically important systems that are threatened by stream incision. An interdisciplinary group has investigated 1) the origin, characteristics, and controls on the evolution of these riparian...

  11. Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in central Italy: Potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ottonetti, L.; Tucci, L.; Santini, G.

    2006-03-15

    Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages were sampled with pitfall traps in three different habitats associated with a rehabilitated mine district and in undisturbed forests in Tuscany, Italy. The four habitats were (1) open fields (3-4 years old); (2) a middle-age mixed plantation (10 years); (3) an old-age mixed plantation (20 years); and (4) an oak woodland (40 years) not directly affected by mining activities. The aim of the study was to analyze ant recolonization patterns in order to provide insights on the use of Mediterranean ant fauna as indicators of restoration processes. Species richness and diversity were not significantly different among the four habitats. However, multivariate analyses showed that the assemblages in the different habitats were clearly differentiated, with similarity relationships reflecting a successional gradient among rehabilitated sites. The observed patterns of functional group changes along the gradient broadly accord with those of previous studies in other biogeographic regions. These were (1) a decrease of dominant Dolichoderinae and opportunists; (2) an increase in the proportion of cold-climate specialists; and (3) the appearance of the Cryptic species in the oldest plantations, with a maximum of abundance in the woodland. In conclusion, the results of our study supported the use of Mediterranean ants as a suitable tool for biomonitoring of restoration processes, and in particular, the functional group approach proved a valuable framework to better interpret local trends in terms of global ecological patterns. Further research is, however, needed in order to obtain a reliable classification of Mediterranean ant functional groups.

  12. Extraction of an incisor embedded within the nasal cavity in two guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; ONO, Kaori; OMIYA, Tomoko; OGUCHI, Yukio; SETOGAWA, Moemi; MACHIDA, Yuuki

    2015-01-01

    Oral examination of two guinea pigs revealed that the unilateral incisor was absent. On radiographic examination, the incisor was identified within the nasal cavity in both patients. Under anesthesia in both patients, the skin was incised from the nostril to 1.5 cm proximal, and the premaxilla and part of the maxilla were exposed. The bone was removed using a surgical drill, and the incisor was exposed in the nasal cavity. The root was grasped with forceps and carefully extracted as it was degraded and very fragile. Diagnosis was easy using oral and radiographic examination. In guinea pig patients where an incisor is absent on oral examination, this condition should be considered. PMID:26118492

  13. Excess NF-κB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-κB signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-κB signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKKβ, an essential component of the NF-κB pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikkβ). K5-Ikkβ mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikkβ mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikkβ mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-κB activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions.

  14. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  15. Class II, Division 1 Angle malocclusion with severe proclination of maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Montanha, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    Protrusion of maxillary incisors is a common complaint among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. This report addresses the correction of Class II Angle malocclusion with excessively bucally proclined maxillary incisors, in an adolescent female patient, through the use of extraoral and fixed appliances. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:27007768

  16. [Treatment of complete traumatic avulsion of an incisor tooth in adults].

    PubMed

    Benmansour, A

    2013-05-01

    It is possible to replant an incisor tooth completely avulsed after trauma in adults. These cases are relatively frequent among athletes. It is essential to conserve the tooth in saline solution. The time before replantation must be as short as possible. The simple technique described here, which requires a minimum of material and no dental chair, makes it possible to replant an avulsed incisor with a good success rate. PMID:23803559

  17. Aesthetic Rehabilitation of a Complicated Crown-Root Fracture of the Maxillary Incisor: Combination of Orthodontic and Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Campos Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a complex rehabilitation, of fractured tooth, with implants in anterior region considering the orthodontics extrusion to clinical success. At 7 years old, the patient fractured the maxillary left central incisor and the dentist did a crown with the fragment. Twenty years later, the patient was referred to a dental clinic for orthodontic treatment, with the chief complaint related to an accentuated deep bite, and a professional started an orthodontic treatment. After sixteen months of orthodontic treatment, tooth 21 fractured. The treatment plan included an orthodontic extrusion of tooth 21 and implant placement. This case has been followed up and the clinical and radiographic examinations show excellence esthetic results and satisfaction of patient. The forced extrusion can be a viable treatment option in the management of crown root fracture of an anterior tooth to gain bone in a vertical direction. This case emphasizes that to achieve the esthetic result a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. PMID:24872900

  18. Surgical Treatment of an Immature Short-Rooted Traumatized Incisor with an Extensive Apical Lesion Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Severe traumatic injuries to immature teeth often cause damage to periodontal ligament as well as dental pulp; pulp necrosis, root resorption and subsequent apical lesion are common consequences. This article reports the surgical management of an infected immature maxillary central incisor associated with a gigantic periradicular lesion and severe root resorption. The tooth had a history of trauma and the patient suffered from purulent sinus tract and tooth mobility. After unsuccessful multi-session disinfection with calcium hydroxide, root end surgery was planned. During flap surgery and lesion enucleation, the root end was cleaned and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After one year, the radiographic examination revealed that the lesion was almost completely replaced with newly formed bone. In addition, clinical examination showed favorable outcomes; the tooth was symptom-free and in function. Due to chemical, physical and biological properties of CEM cement, this biomaterial might be considered as the root-end filling material of choice. PMID:25834603

  19. Mineralized deposits in pulps of incompletely developed permanent monkey incisors after pulpotomy with tungsten carbide fissure burs.

    PubMed

    Heide, S; Koppang, H S

    1994-06-01

    The exposed pulp of incompletely developed permanent incisors of nine monkeys were treated with partial pulpotomy with tungsten carbide fissure burs on an air turbine equipment. The pulps were capped with calcium hydroxide (Dycal) followed by insertion of conventional amalgam. The results were studied by conventional light microscopy after 1 and 6 months. Rod-like mineralized pulpal deposits were seen in five of the nine animals, in 9 out of 67 teeth, evenly distributed at the two observation times. Also the lengths of the deposits appeared similar, while the thickness had increased markedly after 6 months. After 1 month the presence of a central vessel lumen was observed in the deposits. The results seemed to indicate that the mechanism of formation was an initial pathologic mineralization of the vessel wall, and a growth of the deposits by the elaboration of fibrous, atubular dentin on to the outside of this wall.

  20. Management of Delayed Eruption of Permanent Maxillary Incisor associated with the Presence of Supernumerary Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Rajni; Singh, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema

    2011-01-01

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is additional to the normal series and can be found in almost any region of the dental arch. Clinically, supernumerary teeth are able to cause different local disorders. It is important for the dentist to be aware of the clinical complications of supernumerary teeth, the most common being the delayed eruption of permanent teeth. Early diagnosis and management of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent the need for more complex surgical and orthodontic treatment. This case report highlights the problem of delayed eruption of permanent maxillary left central incisor in a 9-year-old boy due to two supernumerary teeth, one tuberculate type and other impacted inverted mesiodens.

  1. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p < 0.0001), gait endurance from 196 meters in 6 minutes to 401 meters in 6 minutes (p < 0.0001), and activation time from 20.5 seconds to 10.6 seconds on average (p < 0.0001). In 2 patients with nerve injury, surgical repositioning of the electrode cuff became necessary. One patient showed a delayed wound healing, and in another patient the system had to be removed because of a wound infection. Marked improvement in mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device.

  2. Analysis of fused maxillary incisor dentition in p53-deficient exencephalic mice

    PubMed Central

    KAUFMAN, M. H.; KAUFMAN, D. B.; BRUNE, R. M.; STARK, M.; ARMSTRONG, J. F.; CLARKE, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Out of a total of 21 exencephalic p53-deficient embryonic and newborn mice, 6 (28.6%) possessed fused maxillary incisor teeth. On histological analysis of the 5 examples seen on day 19.5 of gestation and newborn mice, 3 varieties were observed: an example of ‘simple’ fusion, 3 examples of simple fusion each of which contained a ‘dens in dente’ (‘tooth within a tooth’), and a single example in which the fused teeth were associated with a median supernumerary incisor tooth which, while deeply indenting the labial surface of the fused teeth, was in all locations a completely separate unit. 3-D reconstructions of the fused teeth demonstrated that they were all of the fusio subtotalis variety. No gross abnormalities were observed in the other dentition in these mice. It is noted that in mice fused maxillary incisor teeth are relatively commonly associated with both hypervitaminosis A-induced and trypan blue-induced exencephaly. It is believed that the presence of dens in dente within fused maxillary incisor teeth has only once been reported in mice, and the association between fused maxillary incisor teeth and a median supernumerary incisor tooth has not previously been reported in this species. PMID:9279659

  3. Extraction of the lateral incisors to treat maxillary protrusion: quantitative evaluation of the stomatognathic functions.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sumiyoshi, Kumi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    To treat morphological abnormalities, impaction, and severe malposition of the teeth, the lateral incisors are sometimes extracted, followed by orthodontic space closure. This procedure often requires special consideration, not only with regard to esthetics but also for functional issues. However, thus far, few reports that have performed a functional evaluation in such cases. The purpose of this article is to report the successful treatment of an adult patient with a Class II division 1 malocclusion who was treated with extraction of the upper lateral incisors. The female patient, aged 23 years and 6 months, had a chief complaint of maxillary incisal protrusion and crooked teeth. In this patient, the upper lateral incisors were extracted to fulfill the patient's strong request, followed by orthodontic treatment using edgewise appliances. A high-pull J-hook headgear on the lower dental arch was used to prevent further labial inclination of the lower incisors. The total active treatment period was 37 months. The resulting occlusion and a satisfactory facial profile were maintained during a 4-year retention period. Additionally, this treatment did not affect the stomatognathic functions as assessed by the following criteria: range of the incisal path or condylar motion during maximal open-close movement, protrusive excursion, lateral excursion, and the chewing test. In conclusion, extraction of the upper lateral incisors can be an effective treatment choice when the upper lateral incisors are dwarfed, are nonvital, or demonstrate severe malposition.

  4. Two cases with supernumerary teeth in lower incisor region.

    PubMed

    Yokose, Taishi; Sakamoto, Teruo; Sueishi, Kenji; Yatabe, Kenichi; Tsujino, Keiichirou; Kubo, Shuhei; Yakushiji, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Hideharu

    2006-02-01

    Abnormalities in number of teeth are occasionally noted in clinical cases. Many theories have been proposed as regards the causes of the occurrence of supernumerary teeth, including atavism theory, mechanical tooth germ separation theory, tissue induction theory, and dental laminar morphological disturbance theory. However, none of these theories alone offers a sufficient explanation for this phenomenon. The incidence of supernumerary permanent teeth is approximately 1-3%. These are the maxillary anterior teeth, the maxillary molars, and the maxillo-mandibular premolars in terms of descending order of site of occurrence. On the other hand, incidence in the mandibular anterior tooth area, of which there have been few detailed reports, is about 0.01%, a markedly low value. In this paper, we report two rare cases of supernumerary teeth in the mandibular incisor area. We discuss their etiology and orthodontic treatment, and detail a differential diagnosis between the normal and supernumerary teeth. We found that it was difficult to establish a clear etiology and differentiation between the normal and supernumerary teeth. PMID:16924155

  5. Restoring Ancestral Language, Restoring Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Kay T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Cherokee Language Renewal Program that was designed to help Cherokee elementary school children learn to function in the dominant culture without sacrificing their own cultural heritage. Explains how the program got started, and reports on how it helps restore a cultural identify to a people who are at risk of losing their identity.…

  6. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  7. Treatment of wastewater and restoration of aquatic systems through an eco-technology based constructed treatment wetlands - a successful experience in Central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Sharma, J K; Singh, N; Ram, H

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of decades constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn considerable interest in Central India. CWs offer an effective means of integrating wastewater treatment and resource enhancement, often at competitive cost in comparison to conventional wastewater treatments, with additional benefits of Green Urban Landscaping and wildlife habitat. This paper describes treatment performances and the design of some Sub Surface Flow CWs (SSFCW) and Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) in Central India. Central Indian CWs show significant pollution reduction load for total suspended solids (TSS) (62-82%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (40-75%), NH(4)-N (67-78%) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (59-78%). Field scale SSFCWs installed so far in Central India are rectangular, earthen, single/multiple celled having similar depths of 0.60-0.90 m, hydraulic retention capacity 18-221 m(3) with effective size 41.8-1,050 m(2). The major components of CWs incorporate puddled bottom/side walls, sealed with impermeable low-density polyethylene, a bed of locally available river gravel planted with Phragmites karka, and an inlet distribution and outlet collection system. A new variant on CWs are AFIs working under hydroponics. The field scale experimental AFIs installed in-situ in a slowly flowing local river were composed of hollow bamboo, a bed of coconut coir, floating arrangements and Phragmites karka as nutrient stripping plant species. The AFIs polish the aquatic system by reducing 46.6% of TSS, 45-55% of NH(4)-N, 33-45% of NO(3)-N, 45-50% of TKN and 40-50% of BOD. The study established that there is a need for further research and sufficient data to assist the development of CWs by instilling confidence in policymakers, planners and in the public.

  8. Treatment of wastewater and restoration of aquatic systems through an eco-technology based constructed treatment wetlands - a successful experience in Central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Sharma, J K; Singh, N; Ram, H

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of decades constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn considerable interest in Central India. CWs offer an effective means of integrating wastewater treatment and resource enhancement, often at competitive cost in comparison to conventional wastewater treatments, with additional benefits of Green Urban Landscaping and wildlife habitat. This paper describes treatment performances and the design of some Sub Surface Flow CWs (SSFCW) and Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) in Central India. Central Indian CWs show significant pollution reduction load for total suspended solids (TSS) (62-82%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (40-75%), NH(4)-N (67-78%) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (59-78%). Field scale SSFCWs installed so far in Central India are rectangular, earthen, single/multiple celled having similar depths of 0.60-0.90 m, hydraulic retention capacity 18-221 m(3) with effective size 41.8-1,050 m(2). The major components of CWs incorporate puddled bottom/side walls, sealed with impermeable low-density polyethylene, a bed of locally available river gravel planted with Phragmites karka, and an inlet distribution and outlet collection system. A new variant on CWs are AFIs working under hydroponics. The field scale experimental AFIs installed in-situ in a slowly flowing local river were composed of hollow bamboo, a bed of coconut coir, floating arrangements and Phragmites karka as nutrient stripping plant species. The AFIs polish the aquatic system by reducing 46.6% of TSS, 45-55% of NH(4)-N, 33-45% of NO(3)-N, 45-50% of TKN and 40-50% of BOD. The study established that there is a need for further research and sufficient data to assist the development of CWs by instilling confidence in policymakers, planners and in the public. PMID:24135106

  9. Acute inhibition of central c-Jun N-terminal kinase restores hypothalamic insulin signalling and alleviates glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Benzler, J; Ganjam, G K; Legler, K; Stöhr, S; Krüger, M; Steger, J; Tups, A

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus has been identified as a main insulin target tissue for regulating normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Recent observations suggest that c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signalling plays a crucial role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance because neuronal JNK-1 ablation in the mouse prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and increased energy expenditure, as well as insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we investigated whether central JNK inhibition is associated with sensitisation of hypothalamic insulin signalling in mice fed a high-fat diet for 3 weeks and in leptin-deficient mice. We determined whether i.c.v. injection of a pharmacological JNK-inhibitor (SP600125) improved impaired glucose homeostasis. By immunohistochemistry, we first observed that JNK activity was increased in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in both mouse models, relative to normoglycaemic controls. This suggests that up-regulation of JNK in these regions is associated with glucose intolerance and obesity, independent of leptin levels. Acute i.c.v. injection of SP600125 ameliorated glucose tolerance within 30 min in both leptin-deficient and DIO mice. Given the acute nature of i.c.v. injections, these effects cannot be attributed to changes in food intake or energy balance. In a hypothalamic cell line, and in the ARC and VMH of leptin-deficient mice, JNK inhibition by SP600125 consistently improved impaired insulin signalling. This was determined by a reduction of phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 [IRS-1(Ser612)] protein in a hypothalamic cell line and a decline in the number of pIRS-1(Ser612) immunoreactive cells in the ARC and VMH. Serine 612 phosphorylation of IRS-1 is assumed to negatively regulate insulin signalling. In leptin-deficient mice, in both nuclei, central inhibition of JNK increased the number of cells immunoreactive for phospho-Akt (Ser473) and phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9), which are important

  10. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population

    PubMed Central

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. Materials and Methods: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Armed Forces of Greece during the period 1997-2011 were initially analyzed for lateral incisor agenesis by two observers. After exclusion of the known orthodontic cases, a subgroup of 1636 examinees (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.44 years) was evaluated for canine impaction and supernumerary teeth. Results: Twenty-eight missing lateral incisors were observed in 22 military students, indicating an incidence of 1.3% in the investigated population. No lateral incisor agenesis was detected in the mandibular arch. A prevalence rate of 0.8% was determined for canine impaction in the sample of young adults. The majority of impacted teeth (86.7%) were diagnosed in the maxillary arch. Thirty-five supernumerary teeth were observed in 24 examinees (prevalence rate: 1.5%). The ratio of supernumerary teeth located in the maxilla versus the mandible was 2.2:1. The most common type of supernumerary tooth was the upper distomolar. Conclusion: The prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction, and supernumerary teeth ranged from 0.8 to 1.5% in the sample of male Greek military students. PMID:24926206

  11. Forces that fracture teeth during extraction with mandibular premolar and maxillary incisor forceps.

    PubMed

    Ahel, V; Ćabov, T; Špalj, S; Perić, B; Jelušić, D; Dmitrašinović, M

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to measure the forces that fracture teeth during extraction based on the effectiveness of the extraction forceps, and to compare them with data collected about forces applied to extracted teeth that did not fracture. We studied 208 patients whose teeth fractured during both the standard and our new method of extraction: maxillary incisors (n=79) extracted with forceps 1 (maxillary incisor forceps), and both maxillary (n=95) and mandibular incisors (n=34) extracted with forceps 13 (mandibular premolar forceps). Forces needed to fracture were assessed with a specially-designed instrument for measuring pressure and rotation. Mean (SD) pressure at the fracture site was significantly higher in maxillary incisors extracted with forceps 1 (1.26 (0.26) bar) then in both maxillary and mandibular incisors extracted with forceps 13 (0.96 (0.19) and 0.98 (0.16), p<0.001). Pressure at dislocation and both left and right rotation showed similar patterns. Pressure correlated to root surfaces of teeth ranging from r=0.35-0.54 but the correlation coefficients did not differ significantly between the teeth-forceps groups. Pressure was higher in fractured than in extracted teeth, and this varied from 3%-48%. In conclusion, forces that break teeth during extractions are sometimes only slightly higher than the extraction forces, so caution is needed during extraction.

  12. Comparison of rates of enamel synthesis in impeded and unimpeded rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Skobe, Z; Heeley, J D; Dobeck, J M; Prostak, K S; Maravelis, L; Stern, D N

    1993-01-01

    Periodic intubations of rats with solutions of fluoride (F) lead to the appearance of bands of disrupted pigmentation in continuously erupting incisors. Distances between fluorotic bands reflect time intervals between intubations. In this experiment, the periodicity of fluorotic banding was used for estimation of the rate of enamel synthesis in impeded and unimpeded rat incisors. Rats kept on a low-F diet and distilled water were intubated two or four times per week with 2 mg NaF/150 g body weight. In a group of rats, one of the mandibular incisors was cut at the gingival margin after two weeks, and intubations were continued for an additional two weeks. In another group of F-intubated rats, incisors were cut or notched at the gingival margin twice, six days apart. Control rats either received the same periodic F intubations or were maintained on the low-F diet without intubation. Measurements of spacing between fluorotic bands were identical in impeded and unimpeded teeth, even though the latter erupted at a faster rate. In an unimpeded mandibular incisors, there was a significant elongation of the secretory zone and a shortening of the pigmentation zone, resulting in reduced pigmentation intensity of the erupted portions of the teeth. The results show that the rate of enamel synthesis is independent of the eruption rate.

  13. Gastrin-releasing peptide expression and its effect on the calcification of developing mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Joon; Jin, Chengri; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is considered to be one of the cancer growth factors. This peptide's receptor (GRPR) is known as a G protein-coupled receptor, regulating intracellular calcium storage and releasing signals. This study is the first to investigate the function of GRP during mouse incisor development. We hypothesized that GRP is one of the factors that affects the regulation of calcification during tooth development. To verify the expression pattern of GRP, in situ hybridization was processed during incisor development. GRP was expressed at the late bell stage and hard tissue formation stage in the epithelial tissue. To identify the genuine function of GRP during incisor development, a gain-of-function analysis was performed. After GRP overexpression in culture, the phenotype of ameloblasts, odontoblasts and predentin was altered compared to control group. Moreover, enamel and dentin thickness was increased after renal capsule transplantation of GRP-overexpressed incisors. With these results, we suggest that GRP plays a significant role in the formation of enamel and dentin by regulating ameloblasts and predentin formation, respectively. Thus, GRP signaling is strongly related to calcium acquisition and secretion during mouse incisor development.

  14. The Effect of Changes in Lower Incisor Inclination on Gingival Recession

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Gulen; Kamak, Hasan; Keklik, Hakan; Gurel, Hakan Gurcan

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Orthodontic treatment may promote development of recessions. The mechanism by which orthodontic treatment influences occurrence of recessions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a change of mandibular incisor inclination promotes development of labial gingival recessions. Materials and Methods. The study sample comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms obtained from 109 subjects before orthodontic treatment (Tb) and after orthodontic treatment (Ta). Depending on the change of lower incisor inclination during treatment, the subjects were divided into three groups: Retroclination (R), Stable Position (S), and Proclination (P). The presence of gingival recessions of mandibular incisors and clinical crown heights were assessed on plaster models. Results and Conclusions. From Tb to Ta, Inc_Incl showed a statistically significant change in the R, P, and S groups (p < 0.05). Increase of clinical crown heights of the lower incisors (42, 4, and 31) was not statistically significant in any group. The only statistically significant intergroup difference was the greater increase of the clinical crown height of tooth number 32 in the P group in comparison with the R group (p = 0.049). The change of lower incisor inclination during treatment did not lead to development of labial gingival recessions in the study sample. PMID:25961071

  15. Restoration of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and gustatory cortex following reinnervation or cross-reinnervation of the lingual taste nerves in rats.

    PubMed

    King, Camille Tessitore; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2014-08-01

    Remarkably, when lingual gustatory nerves are surgically rerouted to inappropriate taste fields in the tongue, some taste functions recover. We previously demonstrated that quinine-stimulated oromotor rejection reflexes and neural activity (assessed by Fos immunoreactivity) in subregions of hindbrain gustatory nuclei were restored if the posterior tongue, which contains receptor cells that respond strongly to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the chorda tympani nerve. Such functional recovery was not seen if instead, the anterior tongue, where receptor cells are less responsive to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, even though this nerve typically responds robustly to bitter substances. Thus, recovery depended more on the taste field being reinnervated than on the nerve itself. Here, the distribution of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in two taste-associated forebrain areas was examined in these same rats. In the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a rostrocaudal gradient characterized the normal quinine-stimulated Fos response, with the greatest number of labeled cells situated rostrally. Quinine-stimulated neurons were found throughout the gustatory cortex, but a "hot spot" was observed in its anterior-posterior center in subregions approximating the dysgranular/agranular layers. Fos neurons here and in the rostral CeA were highly correlated with quinine-elicited gapes. Denervation of the posterior tongue eliminated, and its reinnervation by either nerve restored, numbers of quinine-stimulated labeled cells in the rostralmost CeA and in the subregion approximating the dysgranular gustatory cortex. These results underscore the remarkable plasticity of the gustatory system and also help clarify the functional anatomy of neural circuits activated by bitter taste stimulation.

  16. Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor fenestration resulting from a broken retainer.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B; da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; Assaf, Jamal Hassan; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. PMID:26232842

  17. Premature loss of the maxillary primary incisors: effect on speech production.

    PubMed

    Gable, T O; Kummer, A W; Lee, L; Creaghead, N A; Moore, L J

    1995-01-01

    The residual effect of premature loss due to extraction of the four maxillary primary incisors on speech production was studied. The articulation of twenty-six subjects who had their teeth extracted before the age of five years was evaluated at eight, nine, or ten years old and compared with the articulation of an age-matched comparison group with normal exfoliation of their incisors. T-tests for related measures revealed no statistically significant differences between the group with premature loss and the comparison group. These results suggest that loss of maxillary incisors in children younger than five years is not likely to result in defective articulation while the teeth are missing or when the permanent dentition is acquired.

  18. Demographics and density estimates of two three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis) populations within forest and restored prairie sites in central Missouri

    PubMed Central

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Box turtles (Terrapene carolina) are widely distributed but vulnerable to population decline across their range. Using distance sampling, morphometric data, and an index of carapace damage, we surveyed three-toed box turtles (Terrapene carolina triunguis) at 2 sites in central Missouri, and compared differences in detection probabilities when transects were walked by one or two observers. Our estimated turtle densities within forested cover was less at the Thomas S. Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Center, a site dominated by eastern hardwood forest (d = 1.85 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.13, 3.03]) than at the Prairie Fork Conservation Area, a site containing a mix of open field and hardwood forest (d = 4.14 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.99, 8.62]). Turtles at Baskett were significantly older and larger than turtles at Prairie Fork. Damage to the carapace did not differ significantly between the 2 populations despite the more prevalent habitat management including mowing and prescribed fire at Prairie Fork. We achieved improved estimates of density using two rather than one observer at Prairie Fork, but negligible differences in density estimates between the two methods at Baskett. Error associated with probability of detection decreased at both sites with the addition of a second observer. We provide demographic data on three-toed box turtles that suggest the use of a range of habitat conditions by three-toed box turtles. This case study suggests that habitat management practices and their impacts on habitat composition may be a cause of the differences observed in our focal populations of turtles. PMID:26417539

  19. Combined technique with glass-fibre-reinforced composite post and original fragment in restoration of traumatized anterior teeth--a case report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ceyhan; Guven, Gunseli

    2008-12-01

    Dentoalveolar trauma is frequently encountered by dental practitioners. In some instances, saving a child's traumatized permanent teeth can create difficulties for the child, the parents and the dentist. Reattachment of a crown fragment is a conservative treatment that should be considered for crown fractures of anterior teeth. This case describes the clinical reattachment of an original tooth fragment. A 10-year-old male presented at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry with a complex crown fracture of the left maxillary central incisor 1 day after the trauma occurred. Following endodontic treatment, a glass-fibre-reinforced composite root canal post (FRC Postec; Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) was inserted to increase retention and distribute stress along the root. The dental restoration was completed using the original fragment and a dual-cured resin composite (Variolink II; Ivoclar Vivadent AG). Clinical and radiographic examinations at 1-year recall showed the glass-fibre-reinforced composite root canal post and restoration to be in place, indicating the success of the treatment in maintaining the fractured tooth. Thus, we conclude that reattachment of a tooth fragment using a dual-cured resin composite and a glass-fibre-reinforced composite root canal post is an alternative method for the rehabilitation of fractured teeth that offers satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes.

  20. Endodontic management of an unusual foreign body in a maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Keerthi; Joesph, Sam; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Nair, Mali G; Prasanth, Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of foreign bodies in the teeth is often diagnosed accidentally. It is commonly seen in children. These foreign objects may act as a potential source of infection and may later lead to a painful condition. Detailed case history, clinical and radiographic examinations are necessary to come to a conclusion about the nature, size, and location of the foreign body, and the difficulty involved in its retrieval. This paper discusses the types of foreign objects found in and around the teeth and reports an unusual case of a stapler pin in the root canal of a tooth, its retrieval, and associated management of the involved teeth. PMID:24082582

  1. Repair of central incisors on a child with diastema using a novel matrix.

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce W

    2007-01-01

    Using the wax-up and putty matrix simplifies the clinical operations and speeds up the process as well. In addition, the matrix can be saved and used again when repairs become necessary. PMID:17899712

  2. Maxillary lateral incisors with two canals and two separate curved roots

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ajit George; Rajesh, Ebenezar A. V.; George, Liza; Sujathan; Josy, Susan Ann

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the roots and root canal anatomy seems to be the norm rather than an exception. For a successful endodontic treatment, a clinician should have a thorough knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy and its variations. Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit single canal with a single root. In this case, clinical examination and radiographs clearly demonstrates the presence of two root canals with two separate curved roots. This case report emphasizes the need for attention during endodontic management of maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:23633825

  3. Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Treatment Involves Much More Than Just Canine Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Giordani Santos; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed highlight some clinical features present in patients whose maxillary lateral incisors are missing, and proposed more logical, rational and predictable solutions to inform decision making in rehabilitation procedures. Methods: Literature review and discussion. Conclusion: Choosing the best possible treatment for congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors depends on the multidisciplinary diagnosis of facial, occlusal, functional and periodontal features. It also depends on the individual long-term stability, and it does not only rely on canine-guided disocclusion. PMID:27006720

  4. Simulating certain aspects of hypogravity: Effects on the mandibular incisors of suspended rats (PULEH model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Winter, F.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a hypogravity simulating model on the rate of mandibular incisor formation, dentinogenesis and, amelogenesis in laboratory rats was studied. The model is the partial unloading by elevating the hindquarters. In this system, rat hindquarters are elevated 30 to 40 deg from the cage floors to completely unload the hindlimbs, but the animals are free to move about using their forelimbs. This model replicates the fluid sift changes which occur during the weightlessness of spaceflight and produces an osteopenia in the weight bearing skeletons. The histogenesis and/or mineralization rates of the mandibular incisor during the first 19d of PULEH in young growing rats are recorded.

  5. The distribution of proliferating cells during odontogenesis in the incisor teeth of Plecoglossus altivelis.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kin-ya; Yamada, Kumiko; Komada, Noritomo

    2007-08-01

    To examine the distribution of enameloid and proliferating cells during odontogenesis in the incisor teeth of Plecoglossus altivelis, we investigated the distribution of enameloid using alizarin red S and the distribution of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-immunoreactive cells during odontogenesis of the teeth of the fish. Enameloid was present over the entire surface layer of the incisor teeth. BrdU-immunoreactive cells were observed in the inner and outer enamel epithelium, the odontoblasts, and dental papilla cells around the regions currently being formed. These findings suggest that ameloblasts and odontoblasts actively divide around the region currently being formed, suggesting that enameloid and dentin are made in cooperation by ameloblasts and odontoblasts.

  6. Management of a Previously Treated, Calcified, and Dilacerated Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Combined Nonsurgical/Surgical Approach Assisted by Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Garg, Arvind; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani

    2016-06-01

    Teeth with calcified canals, dilacerated roots, and associated large periradicular lesions involving both cortical plates pose a challenge to dentists. In addition to the nonsurgical endodontic treatment, such teeth may require surgical intervention with concomitant use of bone grafting materials and barrier techniques. These techniques, when combined with the use of a host modulating agent such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), may improve the chances of success. A 26-year-old woman was referred for dental treatment with a recurrence of an intraoral sinus tract 2 months after periradicular surgery in the upper anterior region. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed a calcified and perforated maxillary left lateral incisor with a severely dilacerated root as well as an associated large radiolucent lesion surrounding the roots of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors. A cone-beam computed tomographic scan of the anterior maxilla showed erosion of the labial and palatal cortical plates in the same region. A calcified canal in the lateral incisor was negotiated up to the straight line portion of the canal. Periradicular surgery with root-end resection was performed, and root-end filling was performed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The perforation present on the middle third of the labial surface of the root was repaired with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the canal was cleaned, shaped, and obturated. A PRF scaffold was prepared and used with a collagen membrane and a freeze-dried bone allograft. Follow-up visits after 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year revealed satisfactory clinical and radiographic healing. The combined use of nonsurgical and surgical modes of treatment cannot be overemphasized in this case. The use of PRF along with a bone graft and a barrier membrane may have enhanced the speed of healing and the resolution of periradicular radiolucency by enhancing bone regeneration. PMID:27140443

  7. [Behavior of the periodontium during leveling of the mandibular incisors: what precautions are needed?].

    PubMed

    Castelli, Alicia; Le Gall, Michel; Monnet-Corti, Virginie

    2016-03-01

    Since the position of the mandibular incisors is one of the keys to successful treatment, most orthodontic treatments focus on control but take no special precautions regarding the periodontal environment. Can we trust the lateral headfilm alone when evaluating such slender quantities of bone surrounding the mandibular incisors? What is the true bone situation prior to treatment and above all, following alignment, leveling and uprighting of the incisors? We performed a prospective 3-year study on 50 patients to assess the periodontal behavior of the mandibular incisors following a leveling phase by means of a clinical approach using periodontal and radiologic probing based on measurements of bone thickness obtained by cone beam. The bone loss observed was not inconsiderable given the thinness of the initial bone. In the face of this clinical situation, we need to adapt our treatment by performing a pre-orthodontic periodontal check-up and by supplementing the diagnosis with 3D examinations for at-risk patients and by checking the incisal axes during the leveling phase. The advent of cone beam has provided us with a valuable tool making it possible to individualize orthodontic treatment and view the posttreatment bone environment and root positions. PMID:27083231

  8. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: An Epidemiological Study with Prevalence and Etiological Factors in Indian Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Indian children and to analyze the possible etiological factors. Materials and methods: First permanent molars and all permanent incisors were examined in 1,369 children aged 8 to 12 years. Examinations were performed by two calibrated observers. The subjects were evaluated using judgment criteria proposed by Weerheijm et al in 2003. The parents accompanying children were given a questionnaire regarding pre- and postnatal history of the children. Results: A total of 191 children were diagnosed with MIH with a prevalence of 13.9%. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to compare the dichotomous variables. The relative risk with its 95% confidence interval was calculated to find the risk of clinical infections, such as chicken pox, jaundice, renal disorders, cardiac disorders, and affected molars with sex and type of delivery. Pre- and postnatal history of infection in a child was significantly correlated with the prevalence of MIH. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH was 13.9% in the age group of 8 to 12 years. Prenatal and postnatal infections play an important role in hypomineralization of molars and incisors. How to cite this article: Mishra A, Pandey RK. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: An Epidemiological Study with Prevalence and Etiological Factors in Indian Pediatric Population. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):167-171. PMID:27365942

  9. An Evolutionarily Conserved Enhancer Regulates Bmp4 Expression in Developing Incisor and Limb Bud

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Daniel J.; Aboukhalil, Anton; Li, Xiao; Choe, Sung E.; Ho, Joshua W. K.; Turbe-Doan, Annick; Robertson, Erin A.; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Amendt, Brad A.; Maas, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of Bmp4 expression during organogenesis, we used phylogenetic footprinting and transgenic reporter analyses to identify Bmp4 cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). These analyses identified a regulatory region located ∼46 kb upstream of the mouse Bmp4 transcription start site that had previously been shown to direct expression in lateral plate mesoderm. We refined this regulatory region to a 396-bp minimal enhancer, and show that it recapitulates features of endogenous Bmp4 expression in developing mandibular arch ectoderm and incisor epithelium during the initiation-stage of tooth development. In addition, this enhancer directs expression in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the developing limb and in anterior and posterior limb mesenchyme. Transcript profiling of E11.5 mouse incisor dental lamina, together with protein binding microarray (PBM) analyses, allowed identification of a conserved DNA binding motif in the Bmp4 enhancer for Pitx homeoproteins, which are also expressed in the developing mandibular and incisor epithelium. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and in vivo transgenic reporter mutational analyses revealed that this site supports Pitx binding and that the site is necessary to recapitulate aspects of endogenous Bmp4 expression in developing craniofacial and limb tissues. Finally, Pitx2 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated direct binding of Pitx2 to this Bmp4 enhancer site in a dental epithelial cell line. These results establish a direct molecular regulatory link between Pitx family members and Bmp4 gene expression in developing incisor epithelium. PMID:22701669

  10. Resin-based composite coronal augmentation of diminutive lateral incisors: an update.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Bond, James

    2006-10-01

    The 2 cases presented here document methods of enlarging diminutive lateral incisors using bonded resin-based composite materials. Former methods are reviewed, and descriptions of a matrix strip stabilization technique and the use of a self-etching adhesive agent are included. PMID:17120388

  11. In vivo administration of dental epithelial stem cells at the apical end of the mouse incisor

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Giovanna; Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia; Natsiou, Despoina; Putignano, Angelo; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based tissue regeneration is an attractive approach that complements traditional surgical techniques for replacement of injured and lost tissues. The continuously growing rodent incisor provides an excellent model system for investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth renewal and regeneration. An active population of dental epithelial progenitor/stem cells located at the posterior part of the incisor, commonly called cervical loop area, ensures the continuous supply of cells that are responsible for the secretion of enamel matrix. To explore the potential of these epithelial cells in therapeutic approaches dealing with enamel defects, we have developed a new method for their in vivo administration in the posterior part of the incisor. Here, we provide the step-by-step protocol for the isolation of dental epithelial stem cells and their delivery at targeted areas of the jaw. This simple and yet powerful protocol, consisting in drilling a hole in the mandibular bone, in close proximity to the cervical loop area of the incisor, followed up by injection of stem cells, is feasible, reliable, and effective. This in vivo approach opens new horizons and possibilities for cellular therapies involving pathological and injured dental tissues. PMID:25914649

  12. Growth and the modeling/remodeling of the alveolar bone of the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Merzel, José; Salmon, Cristiane R

    2008-07-01

    The modeling and remodeling of the rat incisor alveolar bone was followed as the animals grew. The weight of the hemimandible, the length of the socket, and the width of the lower incisor were measured. Osteoclasts and resorption areas were identified by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Fluorochrome markers were used to detect and measure osteogenic activities. In the socket related to the periodontal ligament, osteoclasts appeared in scattered sites as well as isolated sites of osteogenic activity, apparently without any variation related to the age of the animals. At the socket facing the dental follicle of young rats, the inner surface was lined with osteoclasts. The number of osteoclasts decreased steadily as the rats grew. In 1-year-old rats, in addition to a few scattered osteoclasts, the internal aspect of the labial wall showed some sites lined with osteoblasts and cement lines indicative of prior bone formation. In young rats, there was a continuous osteogenic activity at the external surface of this wall. The thickness of the labial wall of the socket remained apparently constant; therefore, bone resorption must have occurred at the internal side of the wall. Such osteogenic activity was not observed in old rats. The main forces acting on rat incisors, biting and eruption, are continuous through the life of the animals. Thus, these results indicate that the modeling of the alveolar bone related to the dental follicle, in young rats, can only be associated with another force, specifically, the growth of the incisor. PMID:18461598

  13. A new methodology for fluorescence analysis of composite resins used in anterior direct restorations.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Liliane Motta; Abreu, Jessica Dantas; Cohen-Carneiro, Flavia; Regalado, Diego Ferreira; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a new methodology to evaluate the fluorescence of composite resins for direct restorations. Microhybrid (group 1, Amelogen; group 2, Opallis; group 3, Filtek Z250) and nanohybrid (group 4, Filtek Z350 XT; group 5, Brilliant NG; group 6, Evolu-X) composite resins were analyzed in this study. A prefabricated matrix was used to prepare 60 specimens of 7.0 × 3.0 mm (n = 10 per group); the composite resin discs were prepared in 2 increments (1.5 mm each) and photocured for 20 seconds. To establish a control group of natural teeth, 10 maxillary central incisor crowns were horizontally sectioned to create 10 discs of dentin and enamel tissues with the same dimensions as the composite resin specimens. The specimens were placed in a box with ultraviolet light, and photographs were taken. Aperture 3.0 software was used to quantify the central portion of the image of each specimen in shades of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) of the RGB color space. The brighter the B shade in the evaluated area of the image, the greater the fluorescence shown by the specimen. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the groups. The fluorescence achieved in group 1 was statistically similar to that of the control group and significantly different from those of the other groups (Bonferroni test). Groups 3 and 4 had the lowest fluorescence values, which were significantly different from those of the other groups. According to the results of this study, neither the size nor the amount of inorganic particles in the evaluated composite resin materials predicts if the material will exhibit good fluorescence.

  14. Is electrical stimulation of the rat incisor an appropriate experimental nociceptive stimulus?

    PubMed

    Rajaona, J; Dallel, R; Woda, A

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not tooth pulp stimulation in the rat can selectively activate the pulp nerve fibers without excitation of the periodontium and to decide if the nerve fibers situated in the pulp of the rat's incisor are involved in the nociceptive reactions caused by an intrapulpal stimulation. The experiments were carried out on 20 awake and freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats. Bipolar stimulating electrodes were inserted into the pulp of the left lower incisor and in the right incisor after removal of the pulp. Special cares were taken to avoid, on the right side, direct stimulation of the stump of the apical nerve. The jaw opening reflexes were recorded from the digastric muscles ipsilaterally to the stimulated teeth and the thresholds were compared. Using the same animals, four typical and reproducible nociceptive behavioral reactions caused by a long tooth pulp stimulation were also observed (shock of 0.5 ms at 50 Hz during 1 s). The stimulus intensity was progressively increased, and the threshold of each reaction was recorded. For each of the 20 rats tested, the jaw opening reflex and the nociceptive reactions did not disappear after removal of the pulp, but the threshold of the responses to the stimulation of the nonvital tooth were significantly above the threshold of the responses to the stimulation of the vital incisor. The conclusion was tooth pulp stimulation activates the periodontal nerve fibers in the rat, and stimulation of the incisor pulp is significant in pain study in the rat because the thresholds of the jaw opening reflex and the nociceptive reactions were increased after the tooth pulp tissue was removed. PMID:3732470

  15. Chemical and structural composition of Atlantic Canadian moose (Alces alces) incisors with patterns of high breakage.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Cynthia S Kendall; Clough, Michael J; Broders, Hugh G; Tubrett, Mike

    2011-11-15

    Analysis of mammalian teeth can provide information regarding local environmental conditions. For example, a high incidence of breakage and wear within a population may indicate poor food quality. Individuals consuming a diet causing high mechanical stress on their teeth, and/or lacking the appropriate minerals for proper development, could experience degradation of tooth condition. Previously, we documented a high rate of incisor tooth breakage, with age, in two genetically distinct moose populations in Atlantic Canada. In this study, multi-element (11B, 63Cu, 64Zn, 75As, 85Rb, 88Sr, 111Cd, 118Sn, 137Ba, 208Pb, 232Th, and 238U) analyses using laser ablation ICP-MS were performed on moose incisors from multiple North American regions. The purpose was to determine whether the elemental composition of moose incisors varies among regions, and whether that variation is related to tooth degradation among Atlantic Canadian populations. A principal components analysis revealed that nearly 50% of the elemental variation in the inner enamel matrix of moose teeth was explained by three groupings of elements. The element groupings revealed differences among geographic regions, but did not explain the variation between incisors that were broken and those that were not. Regression models indicate that the elemental group which includes Cu, Pb, and Zn is related to decreases in incisal integrity. It is likely that other environmental factors contribute to the occurrence of increased incisor breakage in affected populations. The relationship between food resource quantity and quality, as a function of moose density, is hypothesized to explain loss of tooth integrity.

  16. Organic and inorganic content of fluorotic rat incisors measured by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, Isabel Maria; Saiani, Regina Aparecida; Chan, K. L. Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Bachmann, Luciano

    2010-09-01

    Details on how fluoride interferes in enamel mineralization are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the organic contents of fluorosis-affected teeth using Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy. To this end, 10 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one received 45 ppm fluoride in distilled water for 60 days; the other received distilled water only. Then, the lower incisors were removed and prepared for analysis by two FTIR techniques namely, transmission and micro-ATR. For the first technique, the enamel was powdered, whereas in the second case one fluorotic incisor was cut longitudinally for micro-ATR. Using transmission and powdered samples, FTIR showed a higher C-H content in the fluorotic enamel compared with control enamel ( p < 0.05, n = 4 in the flurotic, and n = 5 in the control group). Results from the micro-ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis on one longitudinally cut incisor carried out at six points reveal a higher C-H bond content at the surface of the enamel, with values decreasing toward the dentine-enamel junction, and reaching the lowest values at the subsuperficial enamel. These results agree with the morphological data, which indicate that in the rat incisor the fluorotic lesion is superficial, rather than subsuperficial, as in the case of human enamel. The results also suggest that the increased C-H bond content may extend toward the more basal enamel (intraosseous), indicating that fluorotic enamel may intrinsically contain more protein. Finally, particularly when coupled to ATR, FTIR is a suitable tool to study the rat incisor enamel, which is a largely used model of normal and abnormal amelogenesis. Further studies along this line may definitely answer some questions regarding protein content in fluorotic enamel as well as their origin.

  17. Organic and inorganic content of fluorotic rat incisors measured by FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Porto, Isabel Maria; Saiani, Regina Aparecida; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Bachmann, Luciano

    2010-09-15

    Details on how fluoride interferes in enamel mineralization are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the organic contents of fluorosis-affected teeth using Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy. To this end, 10 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one received 45 ppm fluoride in distilled water for 60 days; the other received distilled water only. Then, the lower incisors were removed and prepared for analysis by two FTIR techniques namely, transmission and micro-ATR. For the first technique, the enamel was powdered, whereas in the second case one fluorotic incisor was cut longitudinally for micro-ATR. Using transmission and powdered samples, FTIR showed a higher C-H content in the fluorotic enamel compared with control enamel (p<0.05, n=4 in the flurotic, and n=5 in the control group). Results from the micro-ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis on one longitudinally cut incisor carried out at six points reveal a higher C-H bond content at the surface of the enamel, with values decreasing toward the dentine-enamel junction, and reaching the lowest values at the subsuperficial enamel. These results agree with the morphological data, which indicate that in the rat incisor the fluorotic lesion is superficial, rather than subsuperficial, as in the case of human enamel. The results also suggest that the increased C-H bond content may extend toward the more basal enamel (intraosseous), indicating that fluorotic enamel may intrinsically contain more protein. Finally, particularly when coupled to ATR, FTIR is a suitable tool to study the rat incisor enamel, which is a largely used model of normal and abnormal amelogenesis. Further studies along this line may definitely answer some questions regarding protein content in fluorotic enamel as well as their origin.

  18. Influence of photoactivation method and mold for restoration on the Knoop hardness of resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Brandt, William Cunha; Silva-Concilio, Lais Regiane; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; de Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose Carvalho; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the Knoop hardness in the top and bottom of composite photo activated by different methods when different mold materials were used. Z250 (3M ESPE) and XL2500 halogen unit (3M ESPE) were used. For hardness test, conical restorations were made in extracted bovine incisors (tooth mold) and also metal mold (approximately 2 mm top diameter × 1.5 mm bottom diameter × 2 mm in height). Different photoactivation methods were tested: high-intensity continuous (HIC), low-intensity continuous (LIC), soft-start, or pulse-delay (PD), with constant radiant exposure. Knoop readings were performed on top and bottom restoration surfaces. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p = 0.05). On the top, regardless of the mold used, no significant difference in the Knoop hardness (Knoop hardness number, in kilograms-force per square millimeter) was observed between the photoactivation methods. On the bottom surface, the photoactivation method HIC shows higher means of hardness than LIC when tooth and metal were used. Significant differences of hardness on the top and in the bottom were detected between tooth and metal. The photoactivation method LIC and the material mold can interfere in the hardness values of composite restorations.

  19. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a ``entral Environmental Restoration Division`` to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization`s objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  20. Amputation of an Extra-root with an Endodontic Lesion in an Invaginated Vital Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Rare Case with Seven-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Mehmet Kemal; Asgary, Saeed; Tekin, Uğur; Güneri, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    The developmental abnormality of tooth resulting from the infolding of enamel/dentin into the root is called dens invaginatus. Management of such cases is usually challenging due to the morphological complexity of root canal system. This report presents a rare treatment protocol of a clinical case of Oehler's type III dens invaginatus combined with an endodontic lesion in a vital maxillary lateral incisor. Access to the endodontic lesion located between the central and lateral incisors was achieved by reflection of a full mucoperiosteal flap. Granulomatous tissue as well as aberrant root was removed and the surface of the root and adjacent coronal region were reshaped. Three years later, the patient was orthodontically treated. Seven years after completion of surgical/orthodontic management, the tooth remained asymptomatic and functional with normal periodontium/vital pulp. Radiographically, the healing of the lesion was observed. Actually, vitality of the invaginated tooth and communication between the invagination and the root canal were the most important factors in determining such minimally invasive treatment protocol. Depending on the anatomy of the root canal system, surgical amputation of an invaginated root can be performed to achieve a successful outcome in Oehler's type III dens invaginatus cases, even though it is associated with apical periodontitis. PMID:27141224

  1. Amputation of an Extra-root with an Endodontic Lesion in an Invaginated Vital Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Rare Case with Seven-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Mehmet Kemal; Asgary, Saeed; Tekin, Uğur; Güneri, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    The developmental abnormality of tooth resulting from the infolding of enamel/dentin into the root is called dens invaginatus. Management of such cases is usually challenging due to the morphological complexity of root canal system. This report presents a rare treatment protocol of a clinical case of Oehler’s type III dens invaginatus combined with an endodontic lesion in a vital maxillary lateral incisor. Access to the endodontic lesion located between the central and lateral incisors was achieved by reflection of a full mucoperiosteal flap. Granulomatous tissue as well as aberrant root was removed and the surface of the root and adjacent coronal region were reshaped. Three years later, the patient was orthodontically treated. Seven years after completion of surgical/orthodontic management, the tooth remained asymptomatic and functional with normal periodontium/vital pulp. Radiographically, the healing of the lesion was observed. Actually, vitality of the invaginated tooth and communication between the invagination and the root canal were the most important factors in determining such minimally invasive treatment protocol. Depending on the anatomy of the root canal system, surgical amputation of an invaginated root can be performed to achieve a successful outcome in Oehler’s type III dens invaginatus cases, even though it is associated with apical periodontitis. PMID:27141224

  2. One Odontogenic Cell-Population Contributes to the Development of the Mouse Incisors and of the Oral Vestibule.

    PubMed

    Hovorakova, Maria; Lochovska, Katerina; Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Domonkosova Tibenska, Kristina; Dornhoferova, Michaela; Horakova-Smrckova, Lucie; Bodorikova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of human historical tooth-like structures found in the vestibular area of jaws confirmed their relation to teeth and thus the capability of the vestibular tissue to form teeth. The location of labelled cells descendant of the early appearing Shh expression domain related to the rudimentary incisor anlage not only in the rudimentary and functional incisor germs but also in the externally located anlage of the oral vestibule documented the odontogenic potential of the vestibular epithelium. This potential can be awakened under pathological conditions and become a source of pathologies in the vestibular area. PMID:27611193

  3. One Odontogenic Cell-Population Contributes to the Development of the Mouse Incisors and of the Oral Vestibule

    PubMed Central

    Hovorakova, Maria; Lochovska, Katerina; Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Domonkosova Tibenska, Kristina; Dornhoferova, Michaela; Horakova-Smrckova, Lucie; Bodorikova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of human historical tooth-like structures found in the vestibular area of jaws confirmed their relation to teeth and thus the capability of the vestibular tissue to form teeth. The location of labelled cells descendant of the early appearing Shh expression domain related to the rudimentary incisor anlage not only in the rudimentary and functional incisor germs but also in the externally located anlage of the oral vestibule documented the odontogenic potential of the vestibular epithelium. This potential can be awakened under pathological conditions and become a source of pathologies in the vestibular area. PMID:27611193

  4. Bacterial penetration of the root canal of intact incisor teeth after a simulated traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1996-12-01

    One of the aims in treating traumatised teeth is to maintain the vitality of the pulp or allow conditions favourable for pulp revascularisation. However, infection of the pulp and root canal system may prevent this. A number of pathways have been proposed that allow bacteria to invade the root canal system, however most of these pathways cannot account for pulp infection in teeth that did not sustain injury to the periodontal attachment. Enamel/dentine cracks have been proposed as a portal for bacterial invasion of seemingly intact teeth and the aim of this study was to determine if bacteria could invade the root canal system after a simulated traumatic episode. Twenty intact and sound upper central incisors were chosen and prepared. One tooth was selected as a sterility control and the external crown surface of the remaining 19 teeth was subjected to infection with Streptococcus gordonii in a bacterial microleakage model. Over 7 days samples of growth media from the root canal system were taken and tested for bacteria. Sixteen of the teeth did not demonstrate bacterial invasion over the time frame. These teeth were then prepared for testing in a pendulum impact device and were subjected to a blow which did not fracture the crowns or dislodge the tooth from its simulated alveolus. The teeth were then prepared and tested in the bacterial microleakage model. After impact seven of the teeth demonstrated bacterial invasion of the root canal system (P = 0.002). These teeth were then reprepared for testing in the bacterial microleakage model. The crowns of five teeth, selected at random, were coated with two layers of light cured unfilled resin, the remaining two were used as positive controls. All the teeth coated with resin did not demonstrate bacterial invasion (P = 0.00), while the positive controls demonstrated invasion. The results suggested that enamel/dentine infractions were pathways for bacterial invasion of the root canal system of traumatised teeth. The

  5. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  6. The variation in the size and shape of the human speech pattern with incisor-tooth relation.

    PubMed

    Howell, P G

    1987-01-01

    A mandibular kinesiograph was used to monitor the movement of the lower incisors of young dentate adults reading a standard text. An interface to a microcomputer which recorded and analysed these movements. As the tracings accumulated on the computer monitor, a characteristic pattern was produced. The dimensions of this speech pattern, or envelope of movement, were measured and correlated with the subject's sex and incisor classification. Four distinct patterns were found and these correlated well with incisor classification. Small differences were noted in the dimensions of the speech envelope between men and women, but these were not significant. PMID:3479100

  7. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Soundappan, Saravanapriyan; Sundaramurthy, Jothi Latha; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I – MTA, Group II – Biodentine, Group III – IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis. Results: The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine. Conclusion: In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material. PMID:24910689

  8. Unilateral Fusion of Maxillary Lateral Incisor: Diagnosis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Iury Oliveira; Estrela, Carlos; Souza, Vinícius Rezende; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; de Souza, João Batista

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to report a dental fusion case focusing on clinical and radiographic features for the diagnosis. Method. To report a case of right maxillary lateral incisor fusion and a supernumerary tooth, the anatomy of the root canal and dental united portion were assessed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results. The clinical examination showed dental juxtaposition with the absence of interdental papilla and esthetic impairment in the right maxillary lateral incisor region. The periapical radiography did not provide enough information for the differential diagnosis due to the inherent limitations of this technique. CBCT confirmed the presence of tooth fusion. Conclusion. CBCT examination supports the diagnosis and provides both the identification of changes in tooth development and the visualization of their extent and limits. PMID:25587463

  9. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age. PMID:8730689

  10. Electron microprobe analyses of Ca, S, Mg and P distribution in incisors of Spacelab-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, G. D.; Simmons, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of Ca, S, Mg and P was mapped within the incisors of Spacelab-3 rats using an electron microprobe. The data indicate that Flight rats maintained in orbit for 7 days have significantly higher Ca/Mg ratios in dentin due to both higher Ca and lower Mg content than in dentin of ground-based Controls. There is no statistical difference in distribution of either P or S within Fligth animals and Controls, but there is clear indication that, for P at least, the reason is the greater variability of the Control data. These results are consistent with those obtained on a previous NASA/COSMOS flight of 18.5 days duration, although they are not pronounced. The results further suggest that continuously growing rat incisors provide useful records of the effects of weightlessness on Ca metabolism.

  11. C-fos expression in rat brain nuclei following incisor tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Magdalena, C M; Navarro, V P; Park, D M; Stuani, M B S; Rocha, M J A

    2004-01-01

    In the rat experimental model, molar tooth movement induced by Waldo's method is known to cause a temporally and spatially defined pattern of brain neuronal activation. Since orthodontic correction usually involves the entire dental arch, we used a spring-activated appliance to extend the investigation to incisors, and we included brain regions related to antinociception. Adjustment of the non-activated appliance on incisors resulted in c-fos expression in the dorsal raphe, peri-aqueductal gray matter, and the locus coeruleus, in addition to trigeminal sensory subnuclei and the parabrachial nucleus, where neuronal activation has already been detected in previous studies on molar tooth movement. Appliance activation with a 70-g force resulted in a further increase in Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the trigeminal sensory subnucleus caudalis and in the dorsal raphe. This result suggests that there is a recruitment of neurons related to nociception and to antinociception when tooth movement is increased.

  12. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age.

  13. All the Mandibular Incisors with Double Canals in a Single Patient: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Daokar, Sadashiv G; Kalekar (Yadao), Anita S; Ghunawat, Dhananjay B; Kakde, Deepak D

    2015-01-01

    Single rooted tooth are considered to be the easiest for root canal treatment. The literature has documented cases with single rooted tooth showing more than single canal. Understanding of root canal morphology thus is an important aspect to be considered for successful endodontic treatment. The case presented here shows a rare entity of having double canals in all the mandibular incisors in a single patient. PMID:25859107

  14. Scaling and adaptations of incisors and cheek teeth in caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).

    PubMed

    Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo I; Echeverría, Alejandra I; Casinos, Adrià

    2012-10-01

    The South American hystricognath rodents are one of the most diverse mammalian clades considering their occupied habitats, locomotor modes and body sizes. This might have been partly evolved by diversification of their masticatory apparatus' structure and its ecological commitment, for example, chisel-tooth digging. In this phylogeny-based comparative study, we test the relationship between ecological behavior and mechanical features of their incisors and molariforms. In 33 species of nine families of caviomorph rodents, we analyze incisor attributes related to structural stress resistance and molar features related with grinding capacity, for example, second moment of inertia and enamel index (EI) (enamel band length/occlusal surface area), respectively. Most of these variables scaled isometrically to body mass, with a strong phylogenetic effect. A principal component analysis discrimination on the EI clustered the species according to their geographic distribution. We presume that selective pressures in Andean-Patagonian regions, on particular feeding habits and chisel-tooth digging behaviors, have modeled the morphological characteristics of the teeth. Subterranean/burrower ctenomyids, coruros, and plains viscachas showed the highest bending/torsion strength and anchorage values for incisors; a simplified enamel pattern in molariforms would be associated with a better grinding of the more abrasive vegetation present in more open and drier biomes.

  15. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein required for eruption of incisors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kii, Isao; Amizuka, Norio; Minqi, Li; Kitajima, Satoshi; Saga, Yumiko; Kudo, Akira . E-mail: akudo@bio.titech.ac.jp

    2006-04-14

    A characteristic tooth of rodents, the incisor continuously grows throughout life by the constant formation of dentin and enamel. Continuous eruption of the incisor is accompanied with formation of shear zone, in which the periodontal ligament is remodeled. Although the shear zone plays a role in the remodeling, its molecular biological aspect is barely understood. Here, we show that periostin is essential for formation of the shear zone. Periostin {sup -/-} mice showed an eruption disturbance of incisors. Histological observation revealed that deletion of periostin led to disappearance of the shear zone. Electron microscopy revealed that the disappearance of the shear zone resulted from a failure in digestion of collagen fibers in the periostin {sup -/-} mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis using anti-periostin antibodies demonstrated the restricted localization of periostin protein in the shear zone. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein, and immunoelectron microscopy showed a close association of periostin with collagen fibrils in vivo. These results suggest that periostin functions in the remodeling of collagen matrix in the shear zone.

  16. Upper lip changes correlated to maxillary incisor retraction--a metallic implant study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Sakima, Maurício Tatsuei; Pinto, Ary dos Santos; Bowman, S Jay

    2005-07-01

    The soft tissue changes after the extraction of maxillary first premolars and subsequent anterior tooth retraction were evaluated for 16 Class II, division 1 patients. Pre- and posttreatment lateral head cephalograms were evaluated using superimpositions on Björk-type metallic implants in the maxilla. The patient sample was divided into group I patients, those who did exhibit lip seal at rest in the pretreatment cephalogram and group II patients, those who did not exhibit lip seal at rest in the pretreatment cephalogram. Upper incisor retraction was followed by a similar ratio of upper lip retraction in both the lip seal and nonsealed groups (1:0.75 and 1:0.70 mean ratios, respectively). However, those without lip seal did demonstrate more retraction at stomion (USt). The final upper lip position (Ls) was reasonably correlated with retraction of the cervical maxillary incisor point (cU1) with determination coefficients of 63.6% in the lip sealed and 68.5% in the lip incompetent groups. Although labial and nasolabial angles tended to open after incisor retraction, there was little predictability for this response.

  17. Interproximal wear versus incisors extraction to solve anterior lower crowding: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Natália Valli; Silveira, Giordani Santos; Pereira, Daniele Masterson Tavares; Mattos, Claudia Trindade; Mucha, José Nelson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine by means of a systematic review the best treatment, whether interproximal wear or incisor extraction, to correct anterior lower crowding in Class I patients in permanent dentition. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science to retrieve studies published between January 1950 and October 2013. In selecting the sample, the following inclusion criteria were applied: studies involving interproximal wear and/or extraction of mandibular incisors, as well as Class I cases with anterior lower crowding in permanent dentition. RESULTS: Out of a total of 943 articles found after excluding duplicates, 925 were excluded after abstract analysis. After full articles were read, 13 were excluded by the eligibility criteria and one due to methodological quality; therefore, only fours articles remained: two retrospective and two randomized prospective studies. Data were collected, analyzed and organized in tables. CONCLUSION: Both interproximal wear and mandibular incisor extraction are effective in treating Class I malocclusion in permanent dentition with moderate anterior lower crowding and pleasant facial profile. There is scant evidence to determine the best treatment option for each case. Clinical decision should be made on an individual basis by taking into account dental characteristics, crowding, dental and oral health, patient's expectations and the use of set-up models. PMID:25741827

  18. Scaling and adaptations of incisors and cheek teeth in caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).

    PubMed

    Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo I; Echeverría, Alejandra I; Casinos, Adrià

    2012-10-01

    The South American hystricognath rodents are one of the most diverse mammalian clades considering their occupied habitats, locomotor modes and body sizes. This might have been partly evolved by diversification of their masticatory apparatus' structure and its ecological commitment, for example, chisel-tooth digging. In this phylogeny-based comparative study, we test the relationship between ecological behavior and mechanical features of their incisors and molariforms. In 33 species of nine families of caviomorph rodents, we analyze incisor attributes related to structural stress resistance and molar features related with grinding capacity, for example, second moment of inertia and enamel index (EI) (enamel band length/occlusal surface area), respectively. Most of these variables scaled isometrically to body mass, with a strong phylogenetic effect. A principal component analysis discrimination on the EI clustered the species according to their geographic distribution. We presume that selective pressures in Andean-Patagonian regions, on particular feeding habits and chisel-tooth digging behaviors, have modeled the morphological characteristics of the teeth. Subterranean/burrower ctenomyids, coruros, and plains viscachas showed the highest bending/torsion strength and anchorage values for incisors; a simplified enamel pattern in molariforms would be associated with a better grinding of the more abrasive vegetation present in more open and drier biomes. PMID:22730038

  19. Soft Tissue Stability around Single Implants Inserted to Replace Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A 3D Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, F. G.; Picciocchi, G.; Park, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the soft tissue stability around single implants inserted to replace maxillary lateral incisors, using an innovative 3D method. Methods. We have used reverse-engineering software for the superimposition of 3D surface models of the dentogingival structures, obtained from intraoral scans of the same patients taken at the delivery of the final crown (S1) and 2 years later (S2). The assessment of soft tissues changes was performed via calculation of the Euclidean surface distances between the 3D models, after the superimposition of S2 on S1; colour maps were used for quantification of changes. Results. Twenty patients (8 males, 12 females) were selected, 10 with a failing/nonrestorable lateral incisor (test group: immediate placement in postextraction socket) and 10 with a missing lateral incisor (control group: conventional placement in healed ridge). Each patient received one immediately loaded implant (Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea). The superimposition of the 3D surface models taken at different times (S2 over S1) revealed a mean (±SD) reduction of 0.057 mm (±0.025) and 0.037 mm (±0.020) for test and control patients, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.069). Conclusions. The superimposition of the 3D surface models revealed an excellent peri-implant soft tissue stability in both groups of patients, with minimal changes registered along time. PMID:27298621

  20. Effectiveness of three methods for evaluating root canal anatomy of mandibular incisors.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marina C; Gusman, Heloisa; Belladonna, Felipe G; Prado, Maíra; Ormiga, Fabíola

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of clinical observation, clinical microscopic observation, and tooth-clearing technique in determining the number of canals in mandibular incisors. Root canal ramifications were also analyzed. Using clinical and microscopic analyses, we determined the number of canal entrances in 277 mandibular incisors. In addition, tooth-clearing technique was used to determine the number of canals and frequency of ramifications in the samples. The kappa coefficient was used to compare the different methods with regard to frequency of canals. Most teeth had one canal entrance. The proportion of teeth with two canals was 23.5% by tooth-clearing analysis, 5.8% by clinical microscopy, and 1.1% by clinical analysis. A large number of samples had some type of ramification (40.1%), and most ramifications were present in teeth with two canals. The most frequent ramification was lateral canals (8.3%). Clinical microscopy improved identification of a second canal in mandibular incisors. However, it did not identify second canals in all teeth with two canals. (J Oral Sci 58, 347-351, 2016). PMID:27665973

  1. On the cutting edge of organ renewal: identification, regulation and evolution of incisor stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien; Mushegyan, Vagan; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    The rodent incisor is one of a number of organs that grow continuously throughout the life of an animal. Continuous growth of the incisor arose as an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for abrasion at the distal end of the tooth. The sustained turnover of cells that deposit the mineralized dental tissues is made possible by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells residing at the proximal end of the incisor. A complex network of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulates the formation, maintenance, and differentiation of these stem cells during development and throughout adulthood. Research over the past 15 years has led to significant progress in our understanding of this network, which includes FGF, BMP, Notch, and Hh signaling, as well as cell adhesion molecules and microRNAs. This review surveys key historical experiments that laid the foundation of the field and discusses more recent findings that definitively identified the stem cell population, elucidated the regulatory network, and demonstrated possible genetic mechanisms for the evolution of continuously growing teeth. PMID:24307456

  2. Soft Tissue Stability around Single Implants Inserted to Replace Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A 3D Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mangano, F G; Luongo, F; Picciocchi, G; Mortellaro, C; Park, K B; Mangano, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the soft tissue stability around single implants inserted to replace maxillary lateral incisors, using an innovative 3D method. Methods. We have used reverse-engineering software for the superimposition of 3D surface models of the dentogingival structures, obtained from intraoral scans of the same patients taken at the delivery of the final crown (S1) and 2 years later (S2). The assessment of soft tissues changes was performed via calculation of the Euclidean surface distances between the 3D models, after the superimposition of S2 on S1; colour maps were used for quantification of changes. Results. Twenty patients (8 males, 12 females) were selected, 10 with a failing/nonrestorable lateral incisor (test group: immediate placement in postextraction socket) and 10 with a missing lateral incisor (control group: conventional placement in healed ridge). Each patient received one immediately loaded implant (Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea). The superimposition of the 3D surface models taken at different times (S2 over S1) revealed a mean (±SD) reduction of 0.057 mm (±0.025) and 0.037 mm (±0.020) for test and control patients, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.069). Conclusions. The superimposition of the 3D surface models revealed an excellent peri-implant soft tissue stability in both groups of patients, with minimal changes registered along time. PMID:27298621

  3. Effect of single-dose amoxicillin on rat incisor odontogenesis: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kaido; Sawada, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Shintani, Seikou

    2012-06-01

    The effect of exposure to amoxicillin on tooth development remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of amoxicillin on rat incisor odontogenesis. Male Wistar rats weighing approximately 100 g were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 3.0 g/kg body weight amoxicillin. One week after injection, the rats were fixed, and the lower incisors were demineralized and prepared into paraffin sections for light microscopy (LM) and immunohistochemistry. Undemineralized samples were embedded in resin and ground for processing for contact microradiography (CMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Serum calcium, phosphate, and magnesium concentrations were measured. At 1 week after amoxicillin administration, LM, CMR, and SEM revealed a clear increase in the area of interglobular dentin, representing disruption of mineralization by odontoblasts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated moderate levels of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein family dentin matrix protein 1 in large areas of interglobular dentin. On the other hand, no morphological alteration or hypomineralization was observed in the enamel. Serum calcium values showed no significant differences between the control and experimental rats during the experimental period although both serum phosphate and magnesium levels increased at day 1 after amoxicillin injection. The results suggest that a single dose of amoxicillin specifically affects normal tooth dentin mineralization, but not enamel mineralization in rat incisor odontogenesis. The present results further our understanding of the clinical association between dentin abnormality and amoxicillin exposure during tooth development.

  4. A Digital Stereomicroscopic Study of the Radicular Wall Thickness of Two-Canal Mandibular Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Khedmat, Sedigheh; Mohamadian, Sohayla; Kharrazifard, Mohamad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the radicular wall thickness in mandibular incisors with two canals and find the maximum and minimum thickness to prevent root canal treatment (RCT) procedural errors. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 extracted mandibular incisors were selected and radiographed; out of which, 55 had two canals. Three parallel transverse sections were made in each tooth at 1mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), mid-root and 1 millimeter to the apex. Specimens were evaluated under a stereomicroscope and the thickness of radicular walls in each section was determined for the buccal, lingual and proximal surfaces. Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: The thickness of radicular wall decreased from the cervical towards the apex. In all three sections (cervical, mid-root and apical), the thickness of lingual wall was significantly greater than the buccal wall. Also, the thickness of buccal and lingual walls was significantly higher than that of the proximal walls. Conclusion: The lingual radicular wall had the highest thickness in two-canal mandibular incisors. Therefore, in these teeth, the lingual canal is a better choice for post placement. PMID:26877738

  5. Marginal fit of anterior 3-unit fixed partial zirconia restorations using different CAD/CAM systems

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Few studies have investigated the marginal accuracy of 3-unit zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconia FPDs made using two CAD/CAM systems with that of metal-ceramic FPDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Artificial resin maxillary central and lateral incisors were prepared for 3-unit FPDs and fixed in yellow stone. This model was duplicated to epoxy resin die. On the resin die, 15 three-unit FPDs were fabricated per group (45 in total): Group A, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Everest system; Group B, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Lava system; and Group C, metal-ceramic 3-unit FPDs. They were cemented to resin dies with resin cement. After removal of pontic, each retainer was separated and observed under a microscope (Presize 440C). Marginal gaps of experimental groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. RESULTS Mean marginal gaps of 3-unit FPDs were 60.46 µm for the Everest group, 78.71 µm for the Lava group, and 81.32 µm for the metal-ceramic group. The Everest group demonstrated significantly smaller marginal gap than the Lava and the metal-ceramic groups (P<.05). The marginal gap did not significantly differ between the Lava and the metal-ceramic groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION The marginal gaps of anterior 3-unit zirconia FPD differed according to CAD/CAM systems, but still fell within clinically acceptable ranges compared with conventional metal-ceramic restoration. PMID:24049561

  6. Esthetic and functional treatment of a fused permanent tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Velasco, L F; de Araujo, F B; Ferreira, E S; Velasco, L E

    1997-10-01

    This report describes a young patient with fusion of a maxillary central incisor to a supernumerary tooth. Treatment involved extraction of the fused tooth and orthodontic movement of the lateral incisor to occupy the position of the extracted tooth. A resin composite laminate veneer was placed on the lateral incisor to simulate the appearance of a central incisor. Five years of follow-up revealed that treatment had successfully restored esthetics and function. PMID:9477888

  7. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation.

  8. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function

    PubMed Central

    Øilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-01-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation. PMID:24698173

  9. Restoration technology branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The mission of Leetown Science Center (LSC), Restoration Technology Branch (RTB) is to conduct research needed to restore or protect the chemical, physical and biological integrity of desirable aquatic systems.

  10. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  11. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  12. Effect of increased post length due to the presence of the remaining coronal structure on the fracture strength of post-retained restorations.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J L; Seraidarian, P I; Oliveira, D D; Jansen, W C; Alves, K P S; Faria-e-Silva, A L

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the remaining coronal tissue and post type on the fracture strength of incisors. Sixty human maxillary central incisors were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction or at 2 mm above this junction. The roots received cast cores and posts, fibre posts, or relined fibre posts (n = 10 each). A compressive load was applied over the cores untilfracture. In the absence of coronal structure, the fracture strength did not differ among the post types evaluated. In the presence of remaining coronal structure, the fracture strength was higher in specimens with cast cores and posts. PMID:25831715

  13. Restoration of Long Standing Traumatized Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kadkol, Prasanna Kumar; Reddy, K. Veera Kishore Kumar; Ainapur, Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Children are uniquely susceptible to craniofacial trauma. Injuries to the teeth occur often as a result of falls and sport activities. The pulp often gets infected after dental trauma resulting in to numerous complications. The authors present a case report of successful restoration of traumatized teeth with open apex which were weakened due to long standing infection and internal resorption. Initially antibiotic combination of 3- mix was used to disinfect the root canals. One tooth is treated with conventional endodontic treatment and the other tooth with open apex and perforation is managed by MTA apexification followed by canal reinforcement using glass ionomer cement and fiber reinforced composite post. Core build up is done using light cure composite resin followed by aesthetic crowns. The patient also presented with the peg shaped lateral incisors, which were built to an aesthetic appearance using light cure composite resins. PMID:26436062

  14. Upper incisor to Soft Tissue Plane (UI-STP): a new reference for diagnosis and planning in dentofacial deformities.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Alfaro, Federico

    2010-09-01

    Planning in orthognathic surgery has been and still is an open issue. We have evolved from 2D classical cephalometric hard-tissue planning to 2D soft tissue planning, and finally to 3D and hard and soft tissue evaluation. This, to our knowledge, is the first description of a new Soft Tissue Plane (STP) and its relationship with the anterior position of the upper incisor (UI). Profile photographs of 110 "attractive individuals" with lips at rest or smiling and with upper incisor shown were used. The photographs used were of 65 professional models from two international agencies and 45 individuals considered most attractive in the internet forums, which included catwalk models and actors. In 86 cases (78.18 %), the incisor was located in front of the STP (A). In 15 cases (13.63%), it was on the plane (N); and in the remaining 9 cases (8.18%), it was behind (P). Despite the limitations of this study and based on our series, we can conclude that the upper incisor is located at or in front of the Soft Tissue Plane (STP) in 91.81% of the attractive facial profiles studied. On the other hand, the relative position of the upper incisor to the soft tissue plane (UI-STP) could be a useful diagnostic and planning tool in orthodontic and surgical management of dentofacial deformities.

  15. Upper incisor to Soft Tissue Plane (UI-STP): a new reference for diagnosis and planning in dentofacial deformities.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Alfaro, Federico

    2010-09-01

    Planning in orthognathic surgery has been and still is an open issue. We have evolved from 2D classical cephalometric hard-tissue planning to 2D soft tissue planning, and finally to 3D and hard and soft tissue evaluation. This, to our knowledge, is the first description of a new Soft Tissue Plane (STP) and its relationship with the anterior position of the upper incisor (UI). Profile photographs of 110 "attractive individuals" with lips at rest or smiling and with upper incisor shown were used. The photographs used were of 65 professional models from two international agencies and 45 individuals considered most attractive in the internet forums, which included catwalk models and actors. In 86 cases (78.18 %), the incisor was located in front of the STP (A). In 15 cases (13.63%), it was on the plane (N); and in the remaining 9 cases (8.18%), it was behind (P). Despite the limitations of this study and based on our series, we can conclude that the upper incisor is located at or in front of the Soft Tissue Plane (STP) in 91.81% of the attractive facial profiles studied. On the other hand, the relative position of the upper incisor to the soft tissue plane (UI-STP) could be a useful diagnostic and planning tool in orthodontic and surgical management of dentofacial deformities. PMID:20383095

  16. Structural and Morphometric Comparison of Lower Incisors in PACAP-Deficient and Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Sandor, B; Fintor, K; Reglodi, D; Fulop, D B; Helyes, Z; Szanto, I; Nagy, P; Hashimoto, H; Tamas, A

    2016-06-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread distribution. PACAP plays an important role in the development of the nervous system, it has a trophic and protective effect, and it is also implicated in the regulation of various physiological functions. Teeth are originated from the mesenchyme of the neural crest and the ectoderm of the first branchial arch, suggesting similarities with the development of the nervous system. Earlier PACAP-immunoreactive fibers have been found in the odontoblastic and subodontoblastic layers of the dental pulp. Our previous examinations have shown that PACAP deficiency causes alterations in the morphology and structure of the developing molars of 7-day-old mice. In our present study, morphometric and structural comparison was performed on the incisors of 1-year-old wild-type and PACAP-deficient mice. Hard tissue density measurements and morphometric comparison were carried out on the mandibles and the lower incisors with micro-CT. For structural examination, Raman microscopy was applied on frontal thin sections of the mandible. With micro-CT morphometrical measurements, the size of the incisors and the relative volume of the pulp to dentin were significantly smaller in the PACAP-deficient group compared to the wild-type animals. The density of calcium hydroxyapatite in the dentin was reduced in the PACAP-deficient mice. No structural differences could be observed in the enamel with Raman microscopy. Significant differences were found in the dentin of PACAP-deficient mice with Raman microscopy, where increased carbonate/phosphate ratio indicates higher intracrystalline disordering. The evaluation of amide III bands in the dentin revealed higher structural diversity in wild-type mice. Based upon our present and previous results, it is obvious that PACAP plays an important role in tooth development with the regulation of morphogenesis, dentin, and enamel mineralization. Further studies are

  17. Non-Surgical Root Canal Treatment of Dens Invaginatus 3 in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Donyavi, Zakyeh; Esmaealzade, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to describe the clinical management of an unusual dens invaginatus type 3. A case of dens invaginatus in a maxillary lateral incisor with a periapical lesion is reported. The patient presented with pain and localized swelling. Despite the complex anatomy and diagnosis of dens invaginatus, non-surgical root canal treatment was performed successfully. Key Learning Points: - Dens invaginatus may be presented in different forms, and the etiology of this phenomenon is not fully understood. - Due to abnormal anatomical configuration, dens invaginatus presents technical difficulties in its clinical management. - Non-surgical root canal treatment can be performed successfully. PMID:24171017

  18. Mandibular lateral incisor with Vertucci Type IV root canal morphological system: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Kanika

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the root canal anatomy are commonly occurring phenomenon. A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of endodontic treatment. Mandibular anteriors are known for having extra canals. The role of genetics and racial variations may result in difference of incidence of root number and canal number. This paper attempts at explaining a rare case of successful endodontic management of two-rooted lateral incisor with awareness of data pertaining to number of canals, knowledge of canal morphology, correct radiographic interpretation, and tactile examination of canal wall which are important in detecting the presence of multiple canals. PMID:27003981

  19. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient. PMID:26734563

  20. Orthodontic-associated localized gingival recession of lower incisors: who should treat it?

    PubMed

    Chaushu, Stella; Stabholz, Ayala

    2013-07-01

    Gingival recession of lower incisors in the young population has become more prevalent in association with the increased uptake of orthodontic treatment. The two main predisposing factors are thin gingival biotype and bone dehiscence caused by labially displaced roots. Management is sometimes challenging, and the achievement of a successful result requires close cooperation between the orthodontist and periodontist. This article proposes a decision tree, which includes both orthodontic and periodontal considerations, to help the clinician in making the correct diagnosis and choosing the most suitable treatment in post-orthodontic gingival recessions. PMID:24568245

  1. Eruptive malpositioning of the mandibular permanent lateral incisors: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Bradley, E J; Bell, R A

    1990-01-01

    Ectopic eruption of the mandibular permanent lateral incisors involving the loss of the adjacent primary canines is not uncommon, yet the extreme distalization and transposition of such teeth (partial or true) has been reported infrequently. Three cases that illustrate various anomalous eruption-exfoliation patterns are presented. Theories that attempt to explain the etiology of anomalous eruption positions are discussed. However, the multifactorial process of growth and development makes it difficult to identify specific primary etiological factors. Treatment options also are discussed and illustrated, with emphasis on early orthodontic intervention for optimal results.

  2. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  3. Restoring the worn dentition.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, R L; Ouellet, D F

    1992-01-01

    Strong dental materials and dental porcelains are providing dentists with restorative opportunities that are more conservative because they require less destruction of healthy tooth structure and yield a more esthetic result. In cases of severe wear due to attrition, abrasion, and erosion, this process can be stopped, restoring the esthetics and function by using proper techniques and materials. The case report described in this article demonstrates the conservative restoration of severe wear due to attrition and erosion. Teeth were lengthened, wear was restored, and further wear was ceased by using a combination of bonded porcelain, a heat, light, and self-cure resin system, and a new glass-ionomer restorative material. The result was a strong, durable restoration (that required no anesthesia) with high esthetics.

  4. Comparison of temperature rise in pulp chamber during polymerization of materials used for direct fabrication of provisional restorations: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Rajat R.; Madan, Ravi; Agarwal, Swatantra; Gupta, Reecha; Vadavadgi, Sunil V.; Sharma, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose is to compare temperature rise in the pulp chamber during fabrication of provisional crowns using different materials and on different types of teeth using direct technique. Materials and Methods: An extracted, sound, caries free maxillary central incisor and a mandibular molar were selected for the study and crown preparations of all ceramic and all metal were done on central incisor and mandibular molar, respectively. Materials tested were DPI tooth molding self-curing material and protemp-4. Addition silicone putty was used as a matrix and 80 provisional crowns were fabricated, of which 40 were on central incisor and 40 on mandibular molar. Depending on the type of material used, they were further divided into two subgroups: Each comprising 20 provisional crowns. Temperature readings were recorded using K type of thermocouple with 0.1°C precision digital thermometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance, Tukey honest significant difference and Kruskall–Wallis H-test. Results: Statistically significant difference exists between two materials tested on the basis of peak temperature achieved and time taken by a particular material to reach peak temperature. Peak temperature achieved was highest for provisional crowns with DPI tooth molding self-curing material on maxillary central incisor (40.39 + 0.46), followed by DPI tooth molding self-curing material on mandibular molar (40.03 + 0.32), protemp-4 on maxillary central incisor (39.46 + 0.26) and least with protemp-4 on mandibular molar (39.09 + 0.33). The time taken to reach peak temperature was almost double in DPI tooth molding self-curing material (5 min) than in protemp-4. Conclusion: Polymethyl methacrylate resin produced higher intra-pulpal rise when compared to newer generation bis-acrylic composite. PMID:26038649

  5. Skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral congenitally missing maxillary incisor treated by maxillary protractor and edgewise appliances.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Masako; Fukuoka, Hayato; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi

    2010-03-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 10-year-old female patient with a combination of Angle Class III malocclusion, a missing maxillary right lateral incisor, a supernumerary tooth with a short root on the lingual side of the maxillary incisor, a skeletal Class III jaw base relationship caused by a diminutive maxilla, and retroposition of the maxilla. We chose to close the space of the missing tooth, as well as the space created by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor, by forward movement of the canine and premolars using a maxillary protractor with edgewise appliances. As a result, both the maxillary premolars and the molars were moved mesially, and a Class II molar relationship with tight interdigitation was achieved. Our results suggest that the combination of maxillary protractor and nontorque brackets was effective not only for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion, but also for forward movement of the maxillary posterior teeth.

  6. Inclusion of the periodontal ligament in studies on the biomechanical behavior of fiber post-retained restorations: An in vitro study and three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Lluch, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús; Forner, Leopoldo; Barjau, Amaya

    2016-03-01

    Endodontically treated teeth are known to have reduced structural strength. Periodontal ligament may influence fracture resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of including the periodontal ligament in biomechanical studies about endodontically treated and restored teeth. Forty human maxillary central incisors were treated endodontically and randomly divided into four groups: non-crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) and crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) with glass-ceramic crowns. All groups received prefabricated glass-fiber posts and a composite resin core. Specimens were tested, under a flexural-compressive load, until failure occurred. The failure mode was registered for all specimens. The failure loads were recorded and analyzed using an analysis of variance test (p < 0.05). These results were compared with those predicted by a finite element model. The analysis of variance did not show significant differences between the use of crown on the failure load (p = 0.331) and the use of periodontal ligament (p = 0.185). A cohesive mode in crown appeared in crowned teeth and in core in non-crowned groups. For non-crowned teeth, adhesive failure occurred along the cement-enamel junction with a slight tendency in specimens without periodontal ligament. Furthermore, an unfavorable failure mode affects partially the root with no differences regarding non-crown specimens. In crowned teeth, the tendency was an adhesive failure along the cement-enamel junction. The model predicted a distribution of the safety factor consistent with these results. This study showed that inclusion of periodontal ligament is not particularly important on biomechanical behavior of post-retained restorations. However, we recommend its inclusion in fatigue studies. PMID:26893228

  7. Inclusion of the periodontal ligament in studies on the biomechanical behavior of fiber post-retained restorations: An in vitro study and three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Lluch, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús; Forner, Leopoldo; Barjau, Amaya

    2016-03-01

    Endodontically treated teeth are known to have reduced structural strength. Periodontal ligament may influence fracture resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of including the periodontal ligament in biomechanical studies about endodontically treated and restored teeth. Forty human maxillary central incisors were treated endodontically and randomly divided into four groups: non-crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) and crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) with glass-ceramic crowns. All groups received prefabricated glass-fiber posts and a composite resin core. Specimens were tested, under a flexural-compressive load, until failure occurred. The failure mode was registered for all specimens. The failure loads were recorded and analyzed using an analysis of variance test (p < 0.05). These results were compared with those predicted by a finite element model. The analysis of variance did not show significant differences between the use of crown on the failure load (p = 0.331) and the use of periodontal ligament (p = 0.185). A cohesive mode in crown appeared in crowned teeth and in core in non-crowned groups. For non-crowned teeth, adhesive failure occurred along the cement-enamel junction with a slight tendency in specimens without periodontal ligament. Furthermore, an unfavorable failure mode affects partially the root with no differences regarding non-crown specimens. In crowned teeth, the tendency was an adhesive failure along the cement-enamel junction. The model predicted a distribution of the safety factor consistent with these results. This study showed that inclusion of periodontal ligament is not particularly important on biomechanical behavior of post-retained restorations. However, we recommend its inclusion in fatigue studies.

  8. Tooth-type specific expression of dHAND/Hand2: possible involvement in murine lower incisor morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Makoto; Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takashi; Kato, Joji; Tabata, Makoto J; Srivastava, Deepak; Wakisaka, Satoshi; Kurisu, Kojiro

    2002-11-01

    dHAND/Hand2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor required for the development of the heart, pharyngeal arches, and vasculature and is expressed during embryogenesis. However, there are no reports on the involvement of the dHAND gene in tooth development. In the present study, the expression of dHAND was examined in developing tooth germs of mice. The dHAND gene was expressed in the mesenchyme of the presumptive incisor region of the lower jaw at an early stage and in the mesenchyme of the lower incisor tooth germ at a later stage. However, the dHAND gene was not expressed in the upper incisor region or the upper and lower molar regions during jaw development. Treatment of tooth germ explants of lower incisors with antisense oligodeoxinucleotide (ODN) against dHAND prevented the differentiation of tooth germ cells, including ameloblasts and odontoblasts, the formation of dentin and enamel, and the proliferation of tooth germ cells and increased the apoptosis of tooth germ cells, suggesting that dHAND is essential for these cells during development. On the other hand, the treatment of tooth germ explants of upper incisor and upper or lower molars did not induce severe effects on their development. Treatment of the explants with basic fibroblast growth factor in association with antisense ODN partially rescued them from the effects of antisense ODN. The present results suggest that the dHAND gene plays important roles in type-specific development of lower incisors, and that basic fibroblast growth factor is involved downstream of the dHAND pathway in tooth germ cells. PMID:12397375

  9. Restoring the smile: Inexpensive biologic restorations

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Neeti P.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive breakdown of primary teeth to the cervical level and their loss in very young children is not uncommon. Owing to increasing concerns over self-appearance, due considerations to esthetic aspects in addition to restoring function are necessary aspects of rehabilitation of mutilated teeth to help children grow into a psychologically balanced personality. The present article describes rehabilitation of grossly decayed teeth with biologic restorations such as dentine posts, dentine post and core and biologic shell crown. This treatment modality provided a cost-effective esthetic solution. PMID:25097656

  10. Adaptive diversity of incisor enamel microstructure in South American burrowing rodents (family Ctenomyidae, Caviomorpha).

    PubMed

    Vieytes, Emma C; Morgan, Cecilia C; Verzi, Diego H

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the morphofunctional and adaptive significance of variation in the upper incisor enamel microstructure of South American burrowing ctenomyids and other octodontoid taxa. We studied the specialized subterranean tooth-digger daggerEucelophorus chapalmalensis (Pliocene - Middle Pleistocene), and compared it with other fossil and living ctenomyids with disparate digging adaptations, two fossorial octodontids and one arboreal echimyid. Morphofunctionally significant enamel traits were quite similar among the species studied despite their marked differences in habits, digging behaviour and substrates occupied, suggesting a possible phylogenetic constraint for the Octodontoidea. In this context of relative similarity, the inclination of Hunter-Schreger bands, relative thickness of external index (EI) and prismless enamel zone were highest in daggerEucelophorus, in agreement with its outstanding craniomandibular tooth-digging specialization. Higher inclination of Hunter-Schreger bands reinforces enamel to withstand high tension forces, while high external index provides greater resistance to wear. Results suggest increased frequency of incisor use for digging in daggerEucelophorus, which could be related to a more extreme tooth-digging strategy and/or occupancy of hard soils. Higher external index values as recurring patterns in distant clades of tooth-digging rodents support an adaptive significance of this enamel trait.

  11. Prevalence of lesions in incisors of mule deer from Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Borrero, L.M.; Scanlon, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Lesions in teeth may be influenced by exposure to fluorides, malnutrition and trauma. Incisors of 228 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) taken from the USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, CO during the 1993 hunting season were examined for lesions. A classification scheme (scale = 0--5) for lesions was derived from the method of Shupe et al. 1963. Lesions were present in at least one incisor of 84.6% of deer. Of the deer with lesions, 86% had at least one tooth with very slight effect (one to few white spots), 9.8% had a slight effect (generalized mottling), 2.6% had a moderate effect (generalized mottling and wear), 10.04% had a marked effect (mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel) , and 0.5 % ad severe effects (hypoplasia of the enamel and abnormal wear). Lesions that affect the enamel are produced during the period of formation of the tooth. The severity of lesions depends on the cause and the length of exposure to the causative agent. Generally mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel are associated with fluorosis. The relationship of lesions to bone and tooth fluoride concentrations was examined.

  12. Investigation of the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated dental anomalies in an orthodontic patient population

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Hasan; Yildirim, Hanifi; Ceylan, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor (MLI) agenesis and associated dental anomalies as well as skeletal patterns in an orthodontic population, and then to compare it with the prevalence of these anomalies in the general population. Study Design: The material of the present study included the records of the 3872 orthodontic patients. The followings were recorded for each subject with the agenesis of MLI: Age, sex, unilateral or bilateral absence, anterior-posterior skeletal relationship of the maxilla and mandible, and presence of associated dental anomalies. The occurrence of these anomalies was compared with data previously reported for the general populations. Results: Of the 3872 patients examined, 94 were found to have agenesis of the MLI, representing a prevalence of 2.4 per cent, with females being more frequently observed. The most commonly found associated anomalies were ectopic eruption of maxillary canines and reduced or peg- shaped contralateral incisor with the frequencies of 21.3 per cent and 20.2 per cent respectively. Conclusions: Patients with agenesis of MLI showed a significantly higher prevalence of skeletal Class III malocclusion compared with the general population. The prevalence of ectopic eruption, transposition, and transmigration of the maxillary canine and reduced or peg- shaped MLIs were significantly increased. Key words:Hypodontia, missing laterals, associated dental anomalies. PMID:22549676

  13. Impact of gamma radiation on the eruption rate of rat incisors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Faramawy, Nabil; El-Haddad, Khaled; Ali, Mohamed; Talaat, Mona

    2015-09-01

    The present work aims to test the effect of gamma radiation on the rate of eruption of rat incisors. One hundred and five adult male albino rats were used and irradiated at different gamma doses. The effects of irradiation were investigated by numerical measurements of eruption rate, histological investigation using light microscope and spectral analysis using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR). No detectable changes were observed in the groups with smaller radiation doses. There was a significant decrease in the eruption rate starting from the 4 Gy radiation dose. The observation of histological sections revealed disturbance in cellular elements responsible for eruption as well as periodontal disturbance in the samples irradiated with 4 and 6 Gy. FTIR Spectroscopy of control group and the group irradiated by 0.5 Gy showed similar absorption bands with minor differences. However, samples irradiated by 1 Gy showed significant changes in both molecular structure and conformation related to carbonates and hydroxyl groups. From the previous results, it could be concluded that gamma irradiation negatively affects the eruption rate of the rat incisors especially with higher doses.

  14. Adaptive diversity of incisor enamel microstructure in South American burrowing rodents (family Ctenomyidae, Caviomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Vieytes, Emma C; Morgan, Cecilia C; Verzi, Diego H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the morphofunctional and adaptive significance of variation in the upper incisor enamel microstructure of South American burrowing ctenomyids and other octodontoid taxa. We studied the specialized subterranean tooth-digger †Eucelophorus chapalmalensis (Pliocene – Middle Pleistocene), and compared it with other fossil and living ctenomyids with disparate digging adaptations, two fossorial octodontids and one arboreal echimyid. Morphofunctionally significant enamel traits were quite similar among the species studied despite their marked differences in habits, digging behaviour and substrates occupied, suggesting a possible phylogenetic constraint for the Octodontoidea. In this context of relative similarity, the inclination of Hunter–Schreger bands, relative thickness of external index (EI) and prismless enamel zone were highest in †Eucelophorus, in agreement with its outstanding craniomandibular tooth-digging specialization. Higher inclination of Hunter–Schreger bands reinforces enamel to withstand high tension forces, while high external index provides greater resistance to wear. Results suggest increased frequency of incisor use for digging in †Eucelophorus, which could be related to a more extreme tooth-digging strategy and/or occupancy of hard soils. Higher external index values as recurring patterns in distant clades of tooth-digging rodents support an adaptive significance of this enamel trait. PMID:17584181

  15. Theoretical Study of the Effect of Enamel Parameters on Laser-Induced Surface Acoustic Waves in Human Incisor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ling; Sun, Kaihua; Shen, Zhonghua; Ni, Xiaowu; Lu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    The laser ultrasound technique has great potential for clinical diagnosis of teeth because of its many advantages. To study laser surface acoustic wave (LSAW) propagation in human teeth, two theoretical methods, the finite element method (FEM) and Laguerre polynomial extension method (LPEM), are presented. The full field temperature values and SAW displacements in an incisor can be obtained by the FEM. The SAW phase velocity in a healthy incisor and dental caries is obtained by the LPEM. The methods and results of this work can provide a theoretical basis for nondestructive evaluation of human teeth with LSAWs.

  16. Retreatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor With Two Separate Root Canals Confirmed With Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  17. Utah Paiute Tribal Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Allen C.

    The Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah Restoration Act (1980) restored federal recognition of the tribe after a quarter century of ambiguous political status, and resulted in significant improvements of educational status of tribal members and intensification of the political presence of Southern Paiutes. Following the Paiute Indian Termination Act…

  18. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  19. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  20. Orthodontic Treatment of Maxillary Incisors with Severe Root Resorption Caused by Bilateral Canine Impaction in a Class II Division 1 Patient.

    PubMed

    Chang, Na-Young; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; An, Ki-Yong; Chae, Jong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    This case report shows the successful alignment of bilateral impacted maxillary canines. A 12-year-old male with the chief complaint of the protrusion of his maxillary anterior teeth happened to have bilateral maxillary canine impaction on the labial side of his maxillary incisors. Four maxillary incisors showed severe root resorption because of the impacted canines. The patient was diagnosed as skeletal Class II malocclusion with proclined maxillary incisors. The impacted canine was carefully retracted using sectional buccal arch wires to avoid further root resorption of the maxillary incisors. To distalize the maxillary dentition, two palatal miniscrews were used. After 25 months of treatment, the maxillary canines were well aligned without any additional root resorption of the maxillary incisors.

  1. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  2. Restoration of Endodontically Treated Molars Using All Ceramic Endocrowns

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Roopak Bose; Thomas Nainan, Mohan; Pradhan, Shamina; Roshni Sharma; Benjamin, Shiny; Rose, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Clinical success of endodontically treated posterior teeth is determined by the postendodontic restoration. Several options have been proposed to restore endodontically treated teeth. Endocrowns represent a conservative and esthetic restorative alternative to full coverage crowns. The preparation consists of a circular equigingival butt-joint margin and central retention cavity into the entire pulp chamber constructing both the crown and the core as a single unit. The case reports discussed here are moderately damaged endodontically treated molars restored using all ceramic endocrowns fabricated using two different systems, namely, CAD/CAM and pressed ceramic. PMID:24455318

  3. [How does sleeping restore our brain?].

    PubMed

    Wigren, Henna-Kaisa; Stenberg, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The central function of sleep is to keep our brain functional, but what is the restoration that sleep provides? Sleep after learning improves learning outcomes. According to the theory of synaptic homeostasis the total strength of synapses, having increased during the day, is restored during sleep, making room for the next day's experiences. According to the theory of active synaptic consolidation, repetition during sleep strengthens the synapses, and these strengthened synapses form a permanent engram. According to a recent study, removal of waste products from the brain may also be one of the functions of sleep. PMID:26237917

  4. Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals

    PubMed Central

    Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

  5. The effects of day length, hibernation, and ambient temperature on incisor dentin in the Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti).

    PubMed

    Batavia, Mariska; Nguyen, George; Zucker, Irving

    2013-05-01

    Dentin is deposited on a circadian basis, and daily layers manifest as bands on the medial surfaces of rodent incisors. Hibernation alters dentin deposition, and a distinct hibernation mark has been described on incisor surfaces of several rodent species; the factors that influence the morphology of this mark are poorly understood. We tested the effects of day length, torpor expression, and ambient temperature on incisor surface morphology in Turkish hamsters housed in one of four conditions: long days (LDs) at 22 °C, short days (SDs) at 22 °C, SDs at 5 °C, and SDs at 13 °C. Body temperature was monitored continuously with implanted radio transmitters, and teeth examined postmortem. Teeth of SD hamsters had narrower, less distinct circadian increments than those of LD hamsters, but the width of ultradian increments was similar in both photoperiods. Hibernation at both 5 and 13 °C was associated in most specimens with very narrow, sharply defined dentin increments and increased tooth heterogeneity. Hamsters in SDs at 5 °C that did not hibernate lacked characteristic hibernation increments. At 5 °C, but not 13 °C, the number and cumulative width of hibernation increments were related to number and cumulative duration of periodic arousals. Our results suggest that incremental deposition of dentin in rodent incisors may be a useful trait for characterizing hibernation behavior in both evolutionary and historical contexts.

  6. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  7. Hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Pishan

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemia has become a serious health problem in children and adolescents worldwide for its high prevalence. Since hard tissues of permanent teeth form mainly during this period and lipids are actively involved in tooth development, the effects of hyperlipidemia on dental tissue formation and mineralization need to be illustrated. In this study, hyperlipidemia model was established in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Micro-CT and histomorphological analyses were performed on the mandibular bones to assess the morphological changes of the mandibular incisor and first molar. After 4 weeks of HFD feeding, mice had significantly elevated serum lipid levels compared with mice fed with control diet. After 8 weeks, the mandibular incisor presented significantly increased dentin thickness and decreased diameter of pulp cavity in HFD-fed mice compared with control diet-fed mice, while its gross morphology and enamel thickness were not altered. In the mandibular first molar, dentin thickness of root did not show difference between the two groups. Histological section showed that mandibular incisor of HFD-fed mice manifested a wider predentin region and a lower mineral apposition rate compared with that of the control mice. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia induced by HFD feeding enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in the developing mouse incisor. PMID:27558143

  8. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K.; Anthony, James

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  9. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  10. Hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Pishan

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemia has become a serious health problem in children and adolescents worldwide for its high prevalence. Since hard tissues of permanent teeth form mainly during this period and lipids are actively involved in tooth development, the effects of hyperlipidemia on dental tissue formation and mineralization need to be illustrated. In this study, hyperlipidemia model was established in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Micro-CT and histomorphological analyses were performed on the mandibular bones to assess the morphological changes of the mandibular incisor and first molar. After 4 weeks of HFD feeding, mice had significantly elevated serum lipid levels compared with mice fed with control diet. After 8 weeks, the mandibular incisor presented significantly increased dentin thickness and decreased diameter of pulp cavity in HFD-fed mice compared with control diet-fed mice, while its gross morphology and enamel thickness were not altered. In the mandibular first molar, dentin thickness of root did not show difference between the two groups. Histological section showed that mandibular incisor of HFD-fed mice manifested a wider predentin region and a lower mineral apposition rate compared with that of the control mice. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia induced by HFD feeding enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in the developing mouse incisor.

  11. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  12. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with Admira had the highest fracture resistance followed by those restored with InTen-S and tetric ceram HB. Prepared, unrestored teeth were the weakest group. There was a significant difference between the fracture resistance of intact teeth and the prepared, unrestored teeth. There was also a significant difference among the tested restorative materials. Teeth restored with Admira showed no significant difference when compared with the unprepared teeth. It was concluded that the teeth restored with Admira exhibited the highest fracture resistance. PMID:23554719

  13. Bilateral supplemental permanent maxillary lateral incisors in a non-syndromic patient

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Mandeep Kaur; Uppal, Amandeep Singh; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Singh, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    A supernumerary tooth is an additional entity to the normal series and can be seen in all quadrants of the jaw. Occurrence may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, erupted or impacted in one or in both jaws. Multiple supernumeraries are rare in individuals with no other associated disease or syndromes. The conditions commonly associated with an increased prevalence of supernumerary teeth include cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner syndrome. The supplemental supernumerary refers to a duplication of teeth in normal series and is found at the end of a tooth series. A supplemental tooth may closely resemble the teeth of the group to which it belongs or it may bear little resemblance in size or shape to the teeth with which it is associated. This report presents a case with bilateral supplemental upper permanent lateral incisors without any symptoms of associated disorders. PMID:25168674

  14. A Case of Successful Retreatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with a Supernumerary Root

    PubMed Central

    Aminsobhani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the morphology of the root canal system is a pre-requisite for achieving a successful outcome in root canal treatment. In this report, a patient with a maxillary lateral incisor which had previously undergone orthograde endodontic retreatment for two times is discussed. The tooth had been misdiagnosed with a palatal groove or a root fracture, its prognosis had been determined to be poor and extraction was advised by a practitioner. During our evaluation, an unrecognized supernumerary root and root canal were detected and the tooth was maintained successfully with orthograde endodontic retreatment. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnification were of significance in the treatment process of this case. PMID:27252762

  15. Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor in an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patient

    PubMed Central

    Thiesen, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with agenesis of maxillary left lateral incisor and Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The patient also presented with maxillary midline deviation and inclination of the occlusal plane in the anterior region. Treatment objectives were: correction of sagittal relationship between the maxilla and the mandible; correction of midline deviation, so as to cause maxillary and mandibular midlines to coincide; correction of overbite and leveling of the occlusal plane, so as to create ideal conditions for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26560829

  16. Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Bilateral Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors with a Mini Split Crest.

    PubMed

    Figliuzzi, M M; Giudice, A; Pileggi, S; Pacifico, D; Marrelli, M; Tatullo, M; Fortunato, L

    2016-01-01

    The reported clinical case describes the surgical procedure of ridge augmentation by using a "split crest" technique with a partial thickness flap and a subsequent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation aimed at treating a bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. In such cases with vestibule-palatal and mesial-distal scarce bone thicknesses associated with the need of a proper functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, the split crest technique is particularly suitable. In the case we reported, because of the poor bone thicknesses, we performed a minimally invasive split crest which allowed a correct insertion of the fixtures. This technique allowed us to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic rehabilitation; moreover, we obtained a good emergency profile, ensuring the vitality of the close teeth and ensuring a good primary stability and the following osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27190658

  17. [Prevention of the eruption of an upper later incisor by a compound odontoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Vlcek, Daniel; Reichart, Peter A; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Sleiter, Roberto; Bornstein, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours. They are considered as hamartomas - a local tissue malformation without autonomous growth potential - and are non-neoplastic. Clinically and histopathologically, compound and complex odontomas can be differentiated. Compound odontomas consist of a varying number of tooth-like structures and histology show dental tissues in an orderly pattern. Most often compound odontomas are diagnosed in young patients in the anterior maxilla. Patients are rarely complaining of symptoms and they are usually diagnosed during routine radiographic examinations or due to late eruption of permanent or persistence of deciduous teeth. The following case report presents a disturbed eruption of a lateral right incisor of the maxilla in a 8-year old female patient. Clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of this lesion will be discussed as well as therapy and follow-up.

  18. Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Bilateral Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors with a Mini Split Crest

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, M. M.; Giudice, A.; Pileggi, S.; Pacifico, D.; Marrelli, M.; Tatullo, M.; Fortunato, L.

    2016-01-01

    The reported clinical case describes the surgical procedure of ridge augmentation by using a “split crest” technique with a partial thickness flap and a subsequent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation aimed at treating a bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. In such cases with vestibule-palatal and mesial-distal scarce bone thicknesses associated with the need of a proper functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, the split crest technique is particularly suitable. In the case we reported, because of the poor bone thicknesses, we performed a minimally invasive split crest which allowed a correct insertion of the fixtures. This technique allowed us to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic rehabilitation; moreover, we obtained a good emergency profile, ensuring the vitality of the close teeth and ensuring a good primary stability and the following osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27190658

  19. Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S.; Hegde, Sundeep K.; Adhikari, Fardin; Bhat, Vidya S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future. PMID:25191081

  20. The effects of spaceflight on the mineralization of rat incisor dentin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Rosenberg, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Specific effects of space flight on dentin formation on the lower incisors of male rats were determined. Data were Fourier analyzed to determine the spectra of chemical growth rhythms. It was found that Calcium and P were more concentrated in the newly forming dentin of the Flight rats than in comparable regions of control tissues. There was no significant difference in the mean S-concentration between the two groups, but the pattern of S-distribution in the recently formed dentin from the Flight rats was different from that in the control group. Sulfur fluctuations in flight animals periodically peak above the irregular background fluctuations, but there are no comparable sulfur peaks across the dentin in the control. It is indicated that spaceflight has measurable effects on dentinogenesis, and may also bear on the problem of the regulatory role of proteoglycans in mineralization and the maturation of mineral and matrix moieties in skeletal tissue.

  1. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  2. Ecosystem restoration: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Skrabis, K. E.; Gascoigne, William

    2012-01-01

    The Department of the Interior extensively supports―through its mission, policy, programs, and funding― the study, planning, implementation, and monitoring of ecosystem restoration. This commitment is reflected in the Department's FY2011-2016 Strategic Plan.

  3. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  4. ESTUARINE HABITAT RESTORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    Restoring estuarine habitats generally means repairing damages caused by humans and natural forces. Because of the extensive human occupation, development, and use of coastal areas for centuries, the extensive estuarine habitats have been either destroyed or significantly impaired.

  5. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Oswald J

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  6. Does bonding to dentin reduce microleakage of composite restorations?

    PubMed

    Faria-e-silva, André L; Soares, Paulo V; Baroni, Daniela B; Menezes, Murilo S; Santos-Filho, Paulo C F; Soares, Carlos J; Aguiar, Flávio H B; Martins, Luís R M

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adhesive application only to enamel on the marginal microleakage of composite resin restorations performed with different adhesive systems. Standardized cylinder-shaped cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of eighty bovine incisors. Two etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multi-purpose [3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN USA] and Adper Single Bond 2 [3M ESPE]) and two self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond [Kuraray, Osaka, Japan] and Adper Prompt [3M ESPE]) adhesive systems were evaluated. The adhesives were applied only to enamel or to both dentin and enamel. After adhesive light-activation, the cavities were restored with composite resin. The samples were coated with two layers of nail polish, except an area of 1-mm wide around of the restoration, and immersed in a methylene blue solution. Afterwards, the specimens were ground in order to obtain powder which was immersed in absolute alcohol. The solutions were centrifuged and the supernatant was analyzed using an absorbance spectrophotometer. Linear regression was used to estimate the dye concentration. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha = 0.05). The etch-and-rinse adhesives showed lower microleakage means compared to those of the self-etching adhesives. Adper Prompt presented higher microleakage means. There was no difference between the modes of application of the adhesive on the cavity for all adhesive systems, except for Clearfil SE Bond. This showed lower microleakage when applied to the whole cavity. Bonding to dentin may not reduce microleakage of composite restorations. PMID:22928376

  7. Assessment of association between molar incisor hypomineralization and hypomineralized second primary molar

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rakesh; Chandak, Shweta; Chandwani, Manisha; Singh, Prabhat; Pimpale, Jitesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) has been described as a clinical entity of systemic origin affecting the enamel of one or all first permanent molars and also the incisors; less frequently the second primary molars have also been reported to develop hypomineralization of the enamel, along with MIH. Aim: To scrutinize the association between hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPMs) and MIH and their prevalence in schoolgoing pupils in Nagpur, Maharashtra, India and the associated severity of dental caries. Design: A sample of 1,109 pupils belonging to 3–12-year-old age group was included. The entire sample was then divided into Group I (3–5 years) and Group II (6–12 years). The scoring criteria proposed by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry for hypomineralization was used to score HSPM and MIH. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) was used for appraising caries status in the hypomineralized molars. The examination was conducted by a single calibrated dentist in schools in daylight. The results, thus obtained, were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and odds ratio. Result: Of the children examined, 10 in Group I (4.88%) had HSPM and 63 in Group II (7.11%) had MIH in at least one molar. In Group II, out of 63 subjects diagnosed with MIH, 30 subjects (48%) also had HSPM. Carious lesions with high severity were appreciated in hypomineralized molars. Conclusion: The prevalence of HSPM was 4.88% and of MIH was 7.11%. Approximately half of the affected first permanent molars were associated with HSPM. The likelihood of development of caries increased with the severity of hypomineralization defect. PMID:27011930

  8. Retrieval of Iatrogenically Pushed Pulp Stone From Middle Third of Root Canal in Permanent Maxillary Central Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Suruchi; Randhawa, Sohajpreet; Dhebar, Tejal Malay; Raheja, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The pulp stones are the discrete nodular calcified masses commonly existing in coronal and occasionally in radicular pulp, placed freely, attached or embedded into the dentine. The present case report revealed the iatrogenic pushing of pulp stone and blockage of root canal that caused endodontic failure. The case enlightens the proper use of ultrasonic instruments with irrigating solutions to manage the calcifications in root canal for successful endodontic therapy. PMID:26266224

  9. Autotransplantation combined with orthodontic treatment: a case involving the maxillary central incisors with root resorption after traumatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Hugo M.; Botelho, Filomena; Carrilho, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dental injury can result in avulsion of anterior teeth. In young patients, it is a challenge to the dental professional because after replantation, late complications such as ankylosis require tooth extraction. Although prosthetic and orthodontic treatment, and implant placement have been described as the options for intervention, autogenous tooth transplantation could be an effective procedure in growing patients if there is a suitable donor tooth available. This case presents the treatment of a patient who suffered a traumatic injury at 9 years old with avulsion of tooth 21, which had been replanted, and intrusion of tooth 11. Both teeth ankylosed; thus they were removed and autotransplantation of premolars was carried out. After transplantation, the tooth underwent root canal treatment because of pulpal necrosis. Orthodontic treatment began 3 months after transplantation and during 7 years' follow-up the aesthetics and function were maintained without signs of resorption. PMID:26295028

  10. A Rare Case of Bilateral Agenesis of Central Lower Incisors Associated With Upper Impacted Canine- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    PORUMB, Anca; IGNAT ROMANUL, Ioana; DALAI, Camelia; CIAVOI, Gabiela; TIG, Ioan Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This case of a female patient, 14 yr old with association of the two anomalies, which we came across with in 2014, is rarely met in the specialty practice. The impacted canines are part of the group of dental anomalies of position, while the agenesis is part of the group of dental number anomalies. The orthodontic treatment in the two arches has to be differentiated, the therapeutic objectives being, also different in the two arches. PMID:27141502

  11. Double talon cusps on supernumerary tooth fused to maxillary central incisor: Review of literature and report of case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human tooth development is a continuous process begin at the sixth weeks in utero and extends to about sixth months after birth for the primary dentition and from sixteenth week in utero to late adolescence for permanent dentition. There is no other organ of the human body which takes so long to attain its ultimate morphology as dentition. Several physiologic growth processes participate in the progressive development of the teeth including: initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, apposition, calcification, and eruption. Aberrations in different stages of tooth development can result in unique manifestations both in primary and permanent dentitions. The fact that premaxilla is the predilection site for the occurrence of supernumerary teeth, talon cusp, dens invaginatus, and geminated teeth may suggest that the embryological development of premaxilla differ from other sites of the jaws. The dental abnormalities presented in this review are of great concern to dentist and parents because they create clinical, pathological and esthetic problems. Dental practitioner should be aware of the clinical sign, associated problems and treatment options for a given case. Key words:Double talon cusps, fusion, supernumerary, case report. PMID:25593664

  12. Creating esthetic composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Grin, D

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a fabrication technique to assist dental technicians creating esthetic indirect composite restorations. After the teeth have been prepared and the models completed, the technician can begin the fabrication process. Translucent dentin is selected to reduce opacity and enhance the blend with the remaining dentition. High chroma modifiers can then be placed into the fossa area to replicate dentin seen in natural dentition. Different incisal materials can then be layered into the build-up to regulate the value of the restoration. Special effects such as hypocalcification are placed internally to mimic naturally occurring esthetics. Realistic anatomy is created using a small-tipped instrument directly into the final layer of uncured enamel material. Fissure characterization is placed in the restoration to match existing dentition. Fit and margins are verified on separate dies to minimize discrepancies. Path of insertion and proximal contacts are established on a solid model to minimize chairside adjustments.

  13. Restoring the prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1990-12-01

    The US DOE at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, prairie restoration is taking place in order to conserve the rich topsoil. This is the largest of many prairie restoration experiments. Big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) are the main initial grasses grown. After their growth reaches enough biomass to sustain a fire, other prairie plants such as purple prairie clover and dropseed grass appear. The goal of this is to provide a generous refuge for disappearing native plants and animals, a site for scientific research, and a storehouse of genes adapted to a region that produces much of the worlds food. Plans for restoring the marsh and oak savanna, also native to the Fermilab site are also in the works.

  14. An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

  15. Restoration of Shoulder Function.

    PubMed

    Boe, Chelsea C; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury can be challenging. Initial reported efforts were focused on stabilizing the shoulder, improving inferior subluxation and restoring abduction and flexion of the joint. Recent advancements and improved understanding of coordinated shoulder motion and the biomechanical properties of the muscles around the shoulder applicable to tendon transfer have expanded available surgical options to improve shoulder function, specifically external rotation. Despite the advances in reconstructive options, brachial plexus injury remains a serious problem that requires complex surgical solutions, prolonged recovery, and acceptance of functional loss. PMID:27387074

  16. Secretion of Shh by a neurovascular bundle niche supports mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis in the adult mouse incisor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Seidel, Kerstin; Shi, Songtao; Klein, Ophir; Sharpe, Paul; Chai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are typically defined by their in vitro characteristics, and as a consequence the in vivo identity of MSCs and their niches are poorly understood. To address this issue, we used lineage tracing in a mouse incisor model and identified the neurovascular bundle (NVB) as an MSC niche. We found that NVB sensory nerves secrete Shh protein, which activates Gli1 expression in periarterial cells that contribute to all mesenchymal derivatives. These periarterial cells do not express classical MSC markers used to define MSCs in vitro. In contrast, NG2+ pericytes represent an MSC subpopulation derived from Gli1+ cells; they express classical MSC markers and contribute little to homeostasis but are actively involved in injury repair. Likewise, incisor Gli1+ cells but not NG2+ cells exhibit typical MSC characteristics in vitro. Collectively, we demonstrate that MSCs originate from periarterial cells and are regulated by Shh secretion from a NVB. PMID:24506883

  17. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  18. Conservative Treatment of an Invaginated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with a C-shaped Canal Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Maryam; Moghim Farooji, Elaheh; Abuchenari, Javad; Bidar, Maryam; Eslami, Neda

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the non-surgical treatment of an invaginated maxillary lateral incisor with two fused roots. The mesial root had a C-shaped canal, while the distal one had a type III dens invagination. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to help with the diagnosis and treatment decision making. Clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed satisfactory periapical repair and absence of symptoms after 15 months. PMID:26576164

  19. Replacement of missing lateral incisors with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses: a clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Bissasu, Sami M; Al-houri, Nabil A

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message This report describes the use of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses in replacing congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. This kind of prosthesis has an advantage over a lingual-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis in its capability of changing the color and shape of the abutment teeth. The prostheses provided an acceptable esthetics and comfort for the patient. PMID:25356269

  20. Treatment outcome and efficacy of an aligner technique – regarding incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of orthodontic treatment using the Invisalign® system. Particularly, we analyzed the influence of auxiliaries (Attachment/Power Ridge) as well as the staging (movement per aligner) on treatment efficacy. Methods We reviewed the tooth movements of 30 consecutive patients who required orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®. In all patients, one of the following tooth movements was performed: (1) Incisor Torque >10°, (2) Premolar derotation >10° (3) Molar distalization >1.5 mm. The groups (1)-(3) were subdivided: in the first subgroup (a) the movements were supported with the use of an attachment, while in the subgroup (b) no auxiliaries were used (except incisor torque, in which Power Ridges were used). All tooth movements were performed in a split-mouth design. To analyze the clinical efficacy, pre-treatment and final plaster cast models were laser-scanned and the achieved tooth movement was determined by way of a surface/surface matching algorithm. The results were compared with the amount of tooth movement predicted by ClinCheck®. Results The overall mean efficacy was 59% (SD = 0.2). The mean accuracy for upper incisor torque was 42% (SD = 0.2). Premolar derotation showed the lowest accuracy with approximately 40% (SD = 0.3). Distalization of an upper molar was the most effective movement, with efficacy approximately 87% (SD = 0.2). Conclusion Incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization can be performed using Invisalign® aligners. The staging (movement/aligner) and the total amount of planned movement have an significant impact on treatment efficacy. PMID:24923279

  1. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  2. The Relationship between Palatal Displacement of Upper Canines and Incisors Widths in a Syrian Sample of Patients with Uncrowded Arches.

    PubMed

    Mahaini, Luai

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study investigates mesiodistal crown size of the maxillary and mandibular incisors of patients with palatally impacted canines (PDC). Pretreatment dental casts of orthodontic patients with PDC of one or both maxillary canines (N: 33) were collected. This PDC sample was matched according to age and sex with pretreatment dental casts from unaffected orthodontic patients. For the PDC and matched control samples, maximum mesiodistal crown diameters were recorded for the four incisors on the right side only. The results showed that, on average, the mesiodistal crown diameters for the maxillary and mandibular incisors measured smaller in the PDC sample than in the control sample. These findings of statistically significant tooth-size reductions associated with PDC occurrence indicate a generalized pattern of reduced tooth size as a characteristic associated with the PDC anomaly. Further, the presence of generalized tooth-size reduction in cases with palatally displaced canines help explain why most orthodontic treatment plans for PDC patients are of the nonextraction type.

  3. Finite element analysis of maxillary incisor displacement during en-masse retraction according to orthodontic mini-implant position

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Won; Lim, Joong-Ki; Lee, Kee-Joon; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic

    2016-01-01

    Objective Orthodontic mini-implants (OMI) generate various horizontal and vertical force vectors and moments according to their insertion positions. This study aimed to help select ideal biomechanics during maxillary incisor retraction by varying the length in the anterior retraction hook (ARH) and OMI position. Methods Two extraction models were constructed to analyze the three-dimentional finite element: a first premolar extraction model (Model 1, M1) and a residual 1-mm space post-extraction model (Model 2, M2). The OMI position was set at a height of 8 mm from the arch wire between the second maxillary premolar and the first molar (low OMI traction) or at a 12-mm height in the mesial second maxillary premolar (high OMI traction). Retraction force vectors of 200 g from the ARH (-1, +1, +3, and +6 mm) at low or high OMI traction were resolved into X-, Y-, and Z-axis components. Results In M1 (low and high OMI traction) and M2 (low OMI traction), the maxillary incisor tip was extruded, but the apex was intruded, and the occlusal plane was rotated clockwise. Significant intrusion and counter-clockwise rotation in the occlusal plane were observed under high OMI traction and -1 mm ARH in M2. Conclusions This study observed orthodontic tooth movement according to the OMI position and ARH height, and M2 under high OMI traction with short ARH showed retraction with maxillary incisor intrusion. PMID:27478801

  4. α11β1 Integrin-Dependent Regulation of Periodontal Ligament Function in the Erupting Mouse Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana N.; Barczyk, Malgorzata; Tiger, Carl-Fredrik; Beertsen, Wouter; Zigrino, Paola; Aszodi, Attila; Miosge, Nicolai; Forsberg, Erik; Gullberg, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The fibroblast integrin α11β1 is a key receptor for fibrillar collagens. To study the potential function of α11 in vivo, we generated a null allele of the α11 gene. Integrin α11−/− mice are viable and fertile but display dwarfism with increased mortality, most probably due to severely defective incisors. Mutant incisors are characterized by disorganized periodontal ligaments, whereas molar ligaments appear normal. The primary defect in the incisor ligament leads to halted tooth eruption. α11β1-defective embryonic fibroblasts displayed severe defects in vitro, characterized by (i) greatly reduced cell adhesion and spreading on collagen I, (ii) reduced ability to retract collagen lattices, and (iii) reduced cell proliferation. Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase in vitro and in vivo revealed disturbed MMP13 and MMP14 synthesis in α11−/− cells. We show that α11β1 is the major receptor for collagen I on mouse embryonic fibroblasts and suggest that α11β1 integrin is specifically required on periodontal ligament fibroblasts for cell migration and collagen reorganization to help generate the forces needed for axial tooth movement. Our data show a unique role for α11β1 integrin during tooth eruption. PMID:17420280

  5. 14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. EUCALYPTUS TREE PLANTED BY GERTRUDE KEIL PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  6. [Influence of implant restoration on traditional restoration idea].

    PubMed

    Liu, H C

    2016-01-01

    Implant restoration affected the traditional restoration idea. Artificial implant restoration has a profound influence on the design of dental restoration. Implant supported prostheses have not only changed the method of oral rehabilitation, but also integrated revolutionary concept with the traditional treatment protocol. By using implants, posterior missing molars can be effectively restored and thus eliminating the disadvantages of traditional removable partial denture for Kennedy classification Ⅰ, Ⅱ partically edentulous dentition. Full edentulous arch can also be restored with implant fixed denture which provide much better oral health related quality of life compared with the traditional complete denture. It is useful to master the theory and skills of artificial implant restoration, and to provide a reference for the restoration of oral physiological function.

  7. Genes expressed in dental enamel development are associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Jeremias, Fabiano; Koruyucu, Mine; Küchler, Erika C; Bayram, Merve; Tuna, Elif B; Deeley, Kathleen; Pierri, Ricardo A; Souza, Juliana F; Fragelli, Camila M B; Paschoal, Marco A B; Gencay, Koray; Seymen, Figen; Caminaga, Raquel M S; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2013-10-01

    Genetic disturbances during dental development influence variation of number and shape of the dentition. In this study, we tested if genetic variation in enamel formation genes is associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), also taking into consideration caries experience. DNA samples from 163 cases with MIH and 82 unaffected controls from Turkey, and 71 cases with MIH and 89 unaffected controls from Brazil were studied. Eleven markers in five genes [ameloblastin (AMBN), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), tuftelin (TUFT1), and tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11)] were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between cases with MIH and controls. In the Brazilian data, distinct caries experience within the MIH group was also tested for association with genetic variation in enamel formation genes. The ENAM rs3796704 marker was associated with MIH in both populations (Brazil: p=0.03; OR=0.28; 95% C.I.=0.06-1.0; Turkey: p=1.22e-012; OR=17.36; 95% C.I.=5.98-56.78). Associations between TFIP11 (p=0.02), ENAM (p=0.00001), and AMELX (p=0.01) could be seen with caries independent of having MIH or genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans detected by real time PCR in the Brazilian sample. Several genes involved in enamel formation appear to contribute to MIH.

  8. Computer-assisted intraosseous anaesthesia for molar and incisor hypomineralisation teeth. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cabasse, C; Marie-Cousin, A; Huet, A; Sixou, J L

    2015-03-01

    Anesthetizing MIH (Molar and Incisor Hypomineralisation) teeth is one of the major challenges in paediatric dentistry. Computer-assisted IO injection (CAIO) of 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Alphacaine, Septodont) has been shown to be an efficient way to anesthetize teeth in children. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this method with MIH teeth. This preliminary study was performed using the Quick Sleeper system (Dental Hi Tec, Cholet, France) that allows computer-controlled rotation of the needle to penetrate the bone and computer-controlled injection of the anaesthetic solution. Patients (39) of the department of Paediatric Dentistry were included allowing 46 sessions (including 32 mandibular first permanent molars) to be assessed. CAIO showed efficacy in 93.5% (43/46) of cases. Failures (3) were due to impossibility to reach the spongy bone (1) and to achieve anaesthesia (2). This prospective study confirms that CAIO anaesthesia is a promising method to anesthetize teeth with MIH that could therefore be routinely used by trained practitioners.

  9. A compilation of partial sequences of randomly selected cDNA clones from the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Nakashima, M; Amizuka, N; Warshawsky, H; Goltzman, D; Yamada, K M; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    The formation of tooth organs is regulated by a series of developmental programs. We have initiated a genome project with the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes important for tooth development. As an initial approach, we constructed a unidirectional cDNA library from the non-calcified portion of incisors of 3- to 4-week-old rats, sequenced cDNA clones, and classified their sequences by homology search through the GenBank data base and the PIR protein data base. Here, we report partial DNA sequences obtained by automated DNA sequencing on 400 cDNA clones randomly selected from the library. Of the sequences determined, 51% represented sequences of new genes that were not related to any previously reported gene. Twenty-six percent of the clones strongly matched genes and proteins in the data bases, including amelogenin, alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains, osteonectin, and decorin. Nine percent of clones revealed partial sequence homology to known genes such as transcription factors and cell surface receptors. A significant number of the previously identified genes were expressed redundantly and were found to encode extracellular matrix proteins. Identification and cataloging of cDNA clones in these tissues are the first step toward identification of markers expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner, as well as the genetic linkage study of tooth anomalies. Further characterization of the clones described in this paper should lead to the discovery of novel genes important for tooth development. PMID:7876422

  10. Relapse of incisor crowding: A visit to the prince of salina

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    The management of the retention period after comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of great importance, as a primary goal of clinician. Considerable controversy still surrounds the problem of stability after the retention period. Many studies analyze factors associated to the presence of crowding or incisor irregularity and find predictive features on its relapse. Most studies have reported little o no correlation between the treatment changes in the biological parameters - clinical, biometric (irregularity index, intermolar width, intercanine width, arch length, overjet, overbite), or cephalometric variables- that ocurred and the posttretament and postretention changes that may predict their future development. This article provides a bibliographical overview on the relapse of dental alignment in treated cases. In a brief historical introduction, the first studies on the long-term stability of orthodontic results are analysed. The article then goes on to assess studies that focus attention on anteroinferior alignment before finally studying relapse of upper crowding. It concludes by making some final comments in the light of the bibliography provided and the differents schools regarding retention needs and methods. Key words:Retention, stability, irregularity, dental alignment. PMID:23229267

  11. Modified subfossil aye-aye incisors from southwestern Madagascar: species allocation and paleoecological significance.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, R D; Raholimavo, E M

    1988-01-01

    Two of the three drilled aye-aye incisors collected in 1901 by Grandidier at the subfossil site of Lamboharana were recently rediscovered in uncatalogued collections of the Institut de Paléontologie in Paris. These teeth are not much wider or thicker than those of the extant aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), but their arc of curvature is noticeably greater. These facts indicate that the teeth probably belong to D. robusta, a large extinct aye-aye whose dentition is otherwise unknown. No other remains referable to Daubentonia have been reported from Lamboharana, although D. robusta is known from other localities in the southwest. The presence of Daubentonia in southern Madagascar does not demonstrate that this region was markedly more humid or densely forested in the recent past. It remains to be established whether the extinction of D. robusta throughout its range in southern Madagascar, and local disappearance of D. madagascariensis everywhere but in the eastern forest biotope, is due to late Holocene climatic change, to anthropogenic effects, or both factors combined. PMID:3254846

  12. Genes Expressed in Dental Enamel Development Are Associated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Jeremias, Fabiano; Koruyucu, Mine; Küchler, Erika C.; Bayram, Merve; Tuna, Elif B.; Deeley, Kathleen; Pierri, Ricardo A.; Souza, Juliana F.; Fragelli, Camila M.B.; Paschoal, Marco A.B.; Gencay, Koray; Seymen, Figen; Caminaga, Raquel M.S.; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic disturbances during dental development influence variation of number and shape of the dentition. In this study, we tested if genetic variation in enamel formation genes is associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), also taking into consideration caries experience. DNA samples from 163 cases with MIH and 82 unaffected controls from Turkey, and 71 cases with MIH and 89 unaffected controls from Brazil were studied. Eleven markers in five genes [ameloblastin (AMBN), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), tuftelin (TUFT1), and tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11)] were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between cases with MIH and controls. In the Brazilian data, distinct caries experience within the MIH group was also tested for association with genetic variation in enamel formation genes. The ENAM rs3796704 marker was associated with MIH in both populations (Brazil: p=0.03; OR=0.28; 95% C.I.=0.06–1.0; Turkey: p=1.22e–012; OR=17.36; 95% C.I.=5.98–56.78). Associations between TFIP11 (p=0.02), ENAM (p=0.00001), and AMELX (p=0.01) could be seen with caries independent of having MIH or genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans detected by real time PCR in the Brazilian sample. Several genes involved in enamel formation appear to contribute to MIH. PMID:23790503

  13. Sequelae of trauma to primary maxillary incisors. I. Complications in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Borum, M K; Andreasen, J O

    1998-02-01

    Two hundred and eighty-seven children with a total of 545 traumatized primary upper incisors were followed using standardized procedures until the age of 10. Extraction was the only treatment offered when intervention was necessary. The immediate as well as the long-term consequences of trauma were studied on the basis of this material. Consequences in the primary dentition comprised: color changes (53%), pulp necrosis (25%), pulp canal obliteration (36%), gingival retraction (6%), permanent displacement after luxation (5-22%), pathological root resorption (1-10%) as well as disturbances in physiological root resorption (4%) and, lastly, premature tooth loss (46%). In a multivariate analysis of the development of pulp necross in primary teeth after trauma, the following decisive factors were found: age of the patient at the time of injury, degree of displacement of the tooth as well as the degree of loosening and presence of crown fracture. The factors found to influence development of pulp canal obliteration were: displacement of the tooth at time of injury as well as detectable physiologic root resorption at time of trauma. The presence of crown fracture seemed to decrease the risk of obliteration. The need for scientifically based treatment strategies for managing and reducting complications after trauma in the primary dentition is stressed.

  14. A retrospective evaluation of 204 diagonal incisor malocclusion corrections in the horse.

    PubMed

    DeLorey, Mary S

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to record the direction of the diagonal incisor malocclusion (DIM) and excursion to molar contact (EMC) distances both before and after corrective procedures to determine if any general trends were apparent which may aid in predicting the outcome of DIM corrections. Pre-correction and post-correction data were compared to confirm a benefit to the patient from the corrective procedure. The results of this preliminary study reveal a few general trends to serve as basic guidelines for the practitioner Lateral EMC distances to the left and right in cases of DIM are commonly asymmetric. When prudently performed, corrective measures usually result in increased symmetry of EMCs. In cases of DIM, the side with the shorter EMC is more likely to remain the same rather than change after DIM correction. Decreases of EMC in one or both directions are much more common than increases in EMC after correction. In 100-300 quadrant DIMs, the EMC to the right will most likely decrease and in 200-400 quadrant DIMs, the EMC to the left will most likely decrease. Despite these helpful findings, the data obtained from this study strongly suggest the existence of multiple etiologies and progressive compensatory mechanisms complicating precise prediction of correction outcome.

  15. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  16. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

  17. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on fracture resistance after endodontic treatment, bleaching and restoration.

    PubMed

    Jordão-Basso, Keren Cristina Fagundes; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Dantas, Andrea Abi Rached; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Lima, Suellen Nogueira Linhares; Bandéca, Matheus Coêlho

    2016-05-20

    This study evaluated the effects of 10% alphatocopherol on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth subjected to tooth bleaching with hydrogen peroxide and immediately restored with composite resin. Fifty bovine incisors were selected, including 10 sound teeth that constituted the control group (G1 (C)). The remaining 40 teeth, which were endodontically treated, were divided into four groups (n = 10): G2 (CR), consisting of teeth immediately restored with composite resin; G3 (HP + CR), consisting of teeth subjected to tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide and immediately restored with composite resin; G4 (HP + SA + CR), which received treatment similar to that used for G3, but with 10% sodium ascorbate gel applied after the bleaching protocol; and G5 (HP + AT + CR), which was similar to G4 but included 10% alphatocopherol gel as an antioxidant. After 24 h, composite restorations were performed, and teeth were subjected to a fracture resistance test at a speed of 0.5 mm/min in an electromechanical testing machine. The axial force was applied with an angle of incidence of 135° relative to the long axis of the root. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05). G1 exhibited the highest fracture resistance (p < 0.05). No significant differences among the other experimental groups were observed. The 10% sodium ascorbate and 10% alphatocopherol gels did not improve the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth subjected to bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide. PMID:27223140

  18. Ecosystem Restoration Research at GWERD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...

  19. Comparison of aesthetic posterior restorations.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, R D

    1991-09-01

    In the past decade there has been an increased desire by the profession and the public for an aesthetic restoration that will restore a posterior tooth to its original form and function. The currently available aesthetic posterior restoration materials and techniques are porcelain, cast ceramic, direct composite, direct-indirect composite, indirect composite, and CAD-CAM fabrications. The indications and contraindications of these restorative materials and proper diagnosis and case selection are described.

  20. Combined amalgam and composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hanna, Amer A; Mjör, Ivar A

    2004-01-01

    All indirect restorative techniques involving cast metals, ceramics or resin-based materials are expensive compared to directly placed restorations. A restorative technique is presented that combines the esthetic properties of directly bonded resin-based composite material and the wide range of indications for dental amalgam in stress-bearing areas.

  1. Volume restoration and facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Glasgold, Mark J; Glasgold, Robert A; Lam, Samuel M

    2008-11-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the use of volume restoration to restore natural, youthful contours to an aging face. Topics discussed include the discrepancy that can exist between patients' stated wishes and optimal results and the concepts of framing the eye, creating highlights, and restoring facial shape and volume.

  2. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  3. Prairie Restoration for Wisconsin Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield; Greenler, Robin McC.

    This packet is composed of several resources for teachers interested in prairie ecology and restoration. "A Guide to Restoration from Site Analysis to Management" focuses on the Prairie/Oak Savanna communities of Wisconsin and takes teachers through the planning and design process for a restoration project on school grounds including site…

  4. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  5. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  6. Restoration of Elbow Flexion.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Bryan J; Lewis, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    Active elbow flexion is required to position the hand in space, and loss of this function is debilitating. Nerve transfers or nerve grafts to restore elbow flexion may be options when the target muscle is viable, but in delayed reconstruction when the biceps and brachialis are atrophied or damaged, muscle transfer options should be considered. Muscle transfer options are discussed with attention to the advantages and disadvantages of each transfer option. PMID:27387075

  7. Timed restricted feeding restores the rhythms of expression of the clock protein, Period2, in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala in adrenalectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Segall, L A; Verwey, M; Amir, S

    2008-11-11

    Feeding schedules that limit food availability to a set time of day are powerful synchronizers of the rhythms of expression of the circadian clock protein Period 2 (PER2) in the limbic forebrain in rats. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms that mediate the effect of such timed restricted feeding (TRF) schedules on the expression of PER2. Adrenal glucocorticoids have been implicated in the circadian regulation of clock genes expression in peripheral tissues as well as in the control of the rhythms of expression of PER2 in certain limbic forebrain regions, such as the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in rats. To study the possible involvement of glucocorticoids in the regulation of PER2 expression by TRF, we assessed the effect of adrenalectomy on TRF-entrained PER2 rhythms in the limbic forebrain in rats. Adrenalectomy selectively abolished the rhythms of PER2 in the BNSTov and CEA in normally fed rats, as previously shown, but had no effect on TRF-entrained PER2 rhythms in the same structures. These findings show that the effect of TRF on PER2 rhythms in the limbic forebrain is independent of adrenal glucocorticoids and demonstrate that the involvement of glucocorticoids in the regulation PER2 rhythms in the limbic forebrain is not only region specific, as previously shown, but also state dependent.

  8. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  9. Prenatal factors associated with the neonatal line thickness in human deciduous incisors.

    PubMed

    Kurek, M; Żądzińska, E; Sitek, A; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Lorkiewicz, W

    2015-06-01

    The neonatal line (NNL) is used to distinguish developmental events observed in enamel which occurred before and after birth. However, there are few studies reporting relationship between the characteristics of the NNL and factors affecting prenatal conditions. The aim of the study was to determine prenatal factors that may influence the NNL thickness in human deciduous teeth. The material consisted of longitudinal ground sections of 60 modern human deciduous incisors obtained from full-term healthy children with reported birth histories and prenatal factors. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-lingual plane using diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy at magnifications 320×. For each tooth, linear measurements of the NNL thickness were taken on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. The difference in the neonatal line thickness between tooth types and between males and females was statistically significant. A multiple regression analyses confirmed influence of two variables on the NNL thickness standardised on tooth type and the children's sex (z-score values). These variables are the taking of an antispasmodic medicine by the mother during pregnancy and the season of the child's birth. These two variables together explain nearly 17% of the variability of the NNL. Children of mothers taking a spasmolytic medicine during pregnancy were characterised by a thinner NNL compared with children whose mothers did not take such medication. Children born in summer and spring had a thinner NNL than children born in winter. These results indicate that the prenatal environment significantly contributes to the thickness of the NNL influencing the pace of reaching the post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. PMID:25618810

  10. Relationship between dental anomalies and orthodontic root resorption of upper incisors.

    PubMed

    Van Parys, Katrien; Aartman, Irene H A; Kuitert, Reinder; Zentner, Andrej

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption and presence of dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis and pipette-shaped roots. Dental anomalies and root resorption were assessed on dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 88 subjects, 27 males and 61 females, mean age 28.4 (SD = 11.3 years), selected from orthodontic patients on the basis of the following exclusion criteria: previous fixed appliance treatment, bad quality of the DPTs and no visibility of the periodontal ligament of every tooth, and younger than 15 years of age at the onset of treatment with fixed edgewise appliance lasting at least 18 months. A pipette-shaped root was identified as defined by a drawing. Tooth agenesis was assessed on DPTs and from subjects' dental history. Root resorption was calculated as the difference between the root length before and after treatment, with and without a correction factor (crown length post-treatment/crown length pre-treatment). If one of the four upper incisors showed root resorption of ≥2.3 mm with both formulas, the patient was scored as having root resorption. Chi-square tests indicated that there was no relationship between orthodontic root resorption and agenesis (P = 0.885) nor between orthodontic root resorption and pipette-shaped roots (P = 0.800). There was no relationship between having one of the anomalies and root resorption either (P = 0.750). In the present study, it was not possible to confirm on DPTs a relationship between orthodontic root resorption and dental anomalies, such as agenesis and pipette-shaped roots.

  11. Intracanal bisphosphonate does not inhibit replacement resorption associated with delayed replantation of monkey incisors.

    PubMed

    Thong, Yo Len; Messer, Harold H; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Saw, Lip Hean; Yoong, Lai Thong

    2009-08-01

    Progressive replacement resorption following delayed replantation of avulsed teeth has proved to be an intractable clinical problem. A wide variety of therapeutic approaches have failed to result in the predictable arrest of resorption, with a good long-term prognosis for tooth survival. Bisphosphonates are used in the medical management of a range of bone disorders and topically applied bisphosphonate has been reported to inhibit root resorption in dogs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a bisphosphonate (etidronate disodium) as an intracanal medicament in the root canals of avulsed monkey teeth, placed before replantation after 1 h of extraoral dry storage. Incisors of six Macaca fascicularis monkeys were extracted and stored dry for 1 h. Teeth were then replanted after canal contamination with dental plaque (negative control) or after root canal debridement and placement of etidronate sealed in the canal space. A positive control of calcium hydroxide placed 8-9 days after replantation was also included. All monkeys were sacrificed 8 weeks later and block sections were prepared for histomorphometric assessment of root resorption and periodontal ligament status. Untreated teeth showed the greatest extent of root resorption (46% of the root surface), which was predominantly inflammatory in nature. Calcium hydroxide treated teeth showed the lowest overall level of resorption (<30% of the root surface), while the bisphosphonate-treated group was intermediate (39%). Ankylosis, defined as the extent of the root surface demonstrating direct bony union to both intact and resorbed root surface, was the lowest in the untreated control group (15% of the root surface), intermediate in the calcium hydroxide group (27%) and the highest in the bisphosphonate group (41%). Bony attachment to the tooth root was divided approximately equally between attachment to intact cementum and to previously resorbed dentin. Overall, bisphosphonate resulted in a worse outcome than

  12. [Appositional rate of incisor dentin and hematic calcium level in rats. Application of time marking method using lead acetate].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, S

    1990-12-01

    Matsumoto et al. have reported that the remineralization of rat incisor dentin following administration of various drugs depends upon the hematic calcium (hCa) level in parathyroidectomized (PTX) rats. It is known that injected lead according to a time marking method deposits at the mineralizing front in hard tissues. In the present study, we observed the alteration of the mineralizing front of the incisor dentin and examined the dependency of the dentin remineralization on the hCa level in PTX rats given 1,25 (OH)2D3. Male Wistar rats (7-8 weeks old) were used. They were fed a synthetic diet containing 0.3% Ca or 0.02% Ca (Ca-deficient) from 3 days before PTX. In order to mark the time in the incisor dentin, lead acetate was injected at 3 day intervals. Exp. I: A group of rats fed a diet containing 0.3% Ca was given a single injection (400 ng/kg) of 1,25 (OH)2D3 on the 9th day after PTX. Exp. II: four groups of rats were given daily injections of various doses (vehicle, 25, 50 and 100 ng/kg) of 1,25 (OH)2D3 from the 11th day after PTX for 13 days. The distance between the two lead-lines observed in the histological sections of the incisor was measured as an indicator of the appositional rate of dentin. In rats given a diet containing Ca below 0.3%, the hCa level was about 5 mg/dl after PTX. Mineralization of the incisor dentin was suppressed markedly, and a hematoxylin unstained zone was observed in the histological sections, indicating that the mineralizing front had been stagnant. In Exp I, a high dosage of 1,25 (OH)2D3 raised the hCa level to over 8 mg/dl within 12 hours; formation of a new mineralizing front and remineralization of the dentin were observed. In Exp. II, daily injections of 1.25 (OH)2D3 raised the hCa levels gradually and dose dependently. The hCa levels in groups of rats given 50 and 100 ng/kg of 1,25 (OH)2D3 were over 8 and 10 mg/dl respectively after the 6th day from the beginning of the drug administrations. The distance between the two lead

  13. Finite element analysis of equine incisor teeth. Part 2: investigation of stresses and strain energy densities in the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone during tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Schrock, P; Lüpke, M; Seifert, H; Staszyk, C

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the hypothetical contribution of biomechanical loading to the onset of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) and to elucidate the physiological age-related positional changes of the equine incisors. Based on high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) datasets, 3-dimensional models of entire incisor arcades and the canine teeth were constructed representing a young and an old incisor dentition. Special attention was paid to constructing an anatomically correct model of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Using previously determined Young's moduli for the equine incisor PDL, finite element (FE) analysis was performed. Resulting strains, stresses and strain energy densities (SEDs), as well as the resulting regions of tension and compression within the PDL and the surrounding bone were investigated during occlusion. The results showed a distinct distribution pattern of high stresses and corresponding SEDs in the PDL and bone. Due to the tooth movement, peaks of SEDs were obtained in the PDL as well as in the bone on the labial and palatal/lingual sides of the alveolar crest. At the root, highest SEDs were detected in the PDL on the palatal/lingual side slightly occlusal of the root tip. This distribution pattern of high SEDs within the PDL coincides with the position of initial resorptive lesions in EOTRH affected teeth. The position of high SEDs in the bone can explain the typical age-related alteration of shape and angulation of equine incisors.

  14. Percutaneous left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Ige, Mobolaji; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Attizzani, Guilherme; Costa, Marco; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2015-04-01

    The ventricular partitioning device known as Parachute is the first and only percutaneously implantable device aimed at restoration of normal left ventricular geometry in humans. Since its conception, this technology has undergone extensive animal and human testing, with proved feasibility and safety, and is currently being studied in a pivotal randomized clinical trial. This article discusses ventricular remodeling and therapies attempted in the past, details the components of the ventricular partitioning device, describes the implanting technique, and reviews the most current experience of this device in humans.

  15. Percutaneous left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Ige, Mobolaji; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Attizzani, Guilherme; Costa, Marco; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2015-04-01

    The ventricular partitioning device known as Parachute is the first and only percutaneously implantable device aimed at restoration of normal left ventricular geometry in humans. Since its conception, this technology has undergone extensive animal and human testing, with proved feasibility and safety, and is currently being studied in a pivotal randomized clinical trial. This article discusses ventricular remodeling and therapies attempted in the past, details the components of the ventricular partitioning device, describes the implanting technique, and reviews the most current experience of this device in humans. PMID:25834974

  16. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  17. Growth and wear of incisor and cheek teeth in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl; Schulz, Ellen; Hummel, Jürgen; Fortelius, Mikael; Kircher, Patrick; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Although patterns of tooth wear are crucial in palaeo-reconstructions, and dental wear abnormalities are important in veterinary medicine, experimental investigations on the relationship between diet abrasiveness and tooth wear are rare. Here, we investigated the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness (due to both internal [phytoliths] and external abrasives [sand]) or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on incisor and premolar growth and wear, and incisor and cheek tooth length. Wear and tooth length differed between diets, with significant effects of both internal and external abrasives. While diet abrasiveness was linked to tooth length for all tooth positions, whole forage had an additional effect on upper incisor length only. Tooth growth was strongly related to tooth wear and differed correspondingly between diets and tooth positions. At 1.4-3.2 mm/week, the growth of cheek teeth measured in this study was higher than previously reported for rabbits. Dental abnormalities were most distinct on the diet with sand. This study demonstrates that concepts of constant tooth growth in rabbits requiring consistent wear are inappropriate, and that diet form (whole vs. pelleted) does not necessarily affect cheek teeth. Irrespective of the strong effect of external abrasives, internal abrasives have the potential to induce wear and hence exert selective pressure in evolution. Detailed differences in wear effects between tooth positions allow inferences about the mastication process. Elucidating feedback mechanisms that link growth to tooth-specific wear represents a promising area of future research.

  18. Effects of chronic fluoride exposure on morphometric parameters defining the stages of amelogenesis and ameloblast modulation in rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Nanci, A; Denbesten, P K

    1993-10-01

    The response of ameloblasts to long-term (6 weeks) exposure to 100 ppm fluoride was examined in continuously erupting mandibular incisors of female Sprague-Dawley rats as compared to control rats receiving a similar diet (Teklad L-356) but no sodium fluoride in their drinking water. After treatment, animals from both groups were perfused intravascularly with glutaraldehyde, and the incisors were removed and processed for light microscope morphometric analyses directly from 1 microns thick Epon sections. Other animals were injected intravenously with calcein (green fluorescence) followed 4 hours later by xylenol orange (red fluorescence) in order to reveal smooth-ended ameloblast modulation bands and thereby allow quantification of parameters related to the creation and movement of modulation waves within the maturation zone of these teeth. The results indicated that rat incisors expressed four major changes in normal amelogenesis which could be attributed to the chronic fluoride treatment. First, ameloblasts produced a thinner than normal enamel layer by the time they completed the secretory stage and entered the maturation stage of amelogenesis. Second, enamel organ cells within the maturation zone, especially those from the papillary layer, were shorter in height than normal. Third, ameloblasts related to maturing enamel in areas where it was partially soluble and/or fully soluble in EDTA modulated at a rate that was much slower than normal. In some locations ameloblasts remained ruffle-ended for as much as 30% longer than normal per cycle. This upset the usual pattern such that fewer total modulation cycles were completed per unit time by these ameloblasts. Fourth, enamel proteins were lost from the maturing enamel layer at a rate that was about 40% slower than normal. The data suggested that ameloblasts detected the delay in the extracellular breakdown and/or loss of enamel proteins and they responded by remaining ruffle-ended for longer intervals than usual

  19. The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Stefen, C.; Mors, T.

    2008-09-15

    New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

  20. Bilateral dens evaginatus (talon cusp) in permanent maxillary lateral incisors: a rare developmental dental anomaly with great clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Manuja, Naveen; Chaudhary, Seema; Nagpal, Rajni; Rallan, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Talon cusp is an accessory cusp-like structure which projects from the cingulum area or cementoenamel junction. It is important for dentists to be aware of the potential complications that may occur with talon cusp. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, especially to prevent pulpal complications in permanent teeth which may be in developing stage in paediatric patients. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of bilateral talon cusp in permanent maxillary lateral incisors. Associated dental anomalies and clinical problems are discussed along with successful management of the case with conservative therapy. PMID:23813995

  1. Partial replacement of the dentin-pulp complex by periodontal supporting tissues in a traumatically intruded primary maxillary incisor.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a case of a 9-year-old patient who presented a completely intruded primary maxillary incisor because of a traumatic injury sustained at the age of 3 years. After tooth extraction, histological analysis revealed that the dentin-pulp complex was partially replaced by cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. No signs of ankylosis were noticed. It is suggested that the lack of spontaneous re-eruption of the traumatized primary tooth after 6 years could be due to the development of functional periodontal supporting tissues in the pulp chamber secondary to the traumatism.

  2. Spontaneous eruption of an occult incisor fragment from the lip after eight months: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dinesh; Hegde, Sapna

    2006-01-01

    Large majorities of dental traumas are associated with soft-tissue injury and tooth fragments. They are often found embedded in the oral soft tissues, most commonly the lip. Early detection and complete removal of such fragments is critical in order to prevent infection and scarring. Adequate communication between medical and dental professionals involved is of considerable value in the management of such cases. This report presents a case of spontaneous extrusion of an occult incisor fragment from the lower lip, eight months after trauma. PMID:16683665

  3. Management of an Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Palatal Radicular Groove: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sooratgar, Aidin; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Nourelahi, Maryam; Asadi, Yasin; Sooratgar, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    The radicular groove is a developmental anomaly that predisposes the tooth to periodontal break-down. Sometimes the situation becomes more complicated by pulp necrosis and development of a combined endodontic-periodontal lesion which is a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. This report presents the successful management of an endodontic-periodontal lesion in a maxillary lateral incisor that has a developmental palatal radicular groove using a combination of nonsurgical endodontic therapy and periodontal regenerative techniques. Conclusion: The combination of nonsurgical endodontic and periodontal regenerative treatment is a predictable method in treating combined endodontic-periodontal lesions caused by palato-gingival groove. PMID:27141225

  4. Orthodontic management of bilateral maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Elena Di; Giuseppe, Biagio Di; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition (Mx.C.P1) is an uncommon dental positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems from both esthetic and functional points of view. OBJECTIVE: In this report we show the orthodontic management of a case of Mx.C.P1 associated with bilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and unilateral mandibular second premolar agenesis METHODS: The patient was treated with a multibracket appliance and the extraction of the lower premolar. RESULTS: treatment was completed without the need for any prosthetic replacement. PMID:25992994

  5. Overlapping left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshiro

    2009-06-01

    Cardiac transplantation, a final option of treatment for refractory heart failure, has not been a standard procedure in Japan especially, mainly because of the shortage of donors. However, surgical methods to restore native heart function, such as surgical ventricular restoration (SVR), are often effective for these cases. The Dor procedure has been used for ischemic cardiomyopathy cases presenting with broad akinetic segments. This is a fine method to exclude the scarred septum and to reduce the intraventricular cavity by encircling purse-string suture, but it may produce a postoperative spherical ventricular shape as a result of endoventricular patch repair. Also, partial left ventriculectomy is not recommended for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy cases for now. A modification of these SVR and surgical approaches to functional mitral regurgitation has been named "overlapping ventriculoplasty" without endoventricular patch and resection of viable cardiac muscle, and "mitral complex reconstruction", which consists of mitral annuloplasty, papillary muscle approximation, and suspension. Although the long-term prognosis of these procedures is undetermined, they could be an important option, at least as an alternative bridge to transplantation. This review will describe the concepts and some technical aspects of these procedures for the end-stage heart. PMID:19474505

  6. Reparative dentistry or restorative dentistry?

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce W

    2008-01-01

    The real definition of restorative dentistry is found in the heart and hands of each individual restorative dentist. His or her training, continuing dental education, mentors, needs (financial and emotional), and style of practice all help to develop a philosophy of dental practice that affects daily restorative decisions. Depending on the factors described above, the decision to repair a tooth or change the environment and restore the tooth to a different shape, size, or color also may change. In recent years, patients' esthetic desires have become more of a factor than they were in previous decades. There are no exact written-tn-stone definitions of restorative dentistry, since the answers are operator-dependent and can vary. This column is meant to be food for thought and perhaps inspire discussion when dentists assemble for meetings or study clubs with the goal of delivering longer-lasting dentistry through a restorative dental practice. PMID:18348367

  7. Reinforced composite restoration following trauma to a mandibular tooth: technique and follow-up treatment.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Ami; Sharon, Eldad; Adler, Mordekhai Lipovetsky

    2012-10-01

    The loss of an entire tooth in the anterior region is accompanied by impairment of esthetics, function, phonetics, and self-esteem. It is common knowledge that treatment with implants during childhood or early adolescence is not an option. Splinting of adjacent teeth during growth and development may interfere with the independent process of teeth realignment and repositioning during that phase of life. Other creative solutions must be offered, such as free-standing composite buildup restorations on compromised broken teeth or single wing/cantilevered restorations adhered to one neighboring tooth during the growth period. The positive effects of reinforced composite materials were researched and presented in the literature. Their use is clearly indicated for interim and economical restorations. Long-term follow-up on a mandibular incisor that experienced trauma, losing its clinical crown and vitality when the patient was 12 years of age, is discussed with all the various aspects of material selection, future considerations, and long-term follow-up to adulthood, when a conventional crown was prepared and delivered.

  8. Restoration of rivers and streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    All of the major topics which must be addressed when considering reclamation of a river ecosystem are detailed. Specific chapters deal with hydrologic considerations, including the estimation of meander patterns as well as geomorphic considerations of runoff patterns. Also covered are the preservation and restoration of water quality, as well as biological techniques for restoration of riparian vegetation, habitat enhancement for benthic invertebrates and fisheries, and methods for determining successful biotic restoration.

  9. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  10. Advanced Protection & Service Restoration for FREEDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Urvir

    A smart electric power distribution system (FREEDM system) that incorporates DERs (Distributed Energy Resources), SSTs (Solid State Transformers - that can limit the fault current to two times of the rated current) & RSC (Reliable & Secure Communication) capabilities has been studied in this work in order to develop its appropriate protection & service restoration techniques. First, a solution is proposed that can make conventional protective devices be able to provide effective protection for FREEDM systems. Results show that although this scheme can provide required protection but it can be quite slow. Using the FREEDM system's communication capabilities, a communication assisted Overcurrent (O/C) protection scheme is proposed & results show that by using communication (blocking signals) very fast operating times are achieved thereby, mitigating the problem of conventional O/C scheme. Using the FREEDM System's DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence) capability, an automated FLISR (Fault Location, Isolation & Service Restoration) scheme is proposed that is based on the concept of 'software agents' & uses lesser data (than conventional centralized approaches). Test results illustrated that this scheme is able to provide a global optimal system reconfiguration for service restoration.

  11. Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

  12. An Immature Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Lateral Incisor with Talon's Cusp: A Clinical Dilemma to Confront

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Deepa; Giri, K. Y.; Keerthi, S. Sruthi

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a malformation of teeth probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. DI is classified as type I, II, and III by Oehlers depending on the severity of malformation. The maxillary lateral incisor is the most commonly affected tooth. Structural defects do exist in the depth of the invagination pits, and as a consequence, the early development of caries and the subsequent necrosis of the dental pulp, as well as abscess and cyst formation are clinical implications associated with DI. Occasionally, we can see more than one developmental anomaly occurring in a single tooth. In such cases it becomes important to identify the anomalies and initiate a proper treatment plan for good prognosis. In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. PMID:24660071

  13. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the chronology of healing process after immediate tooth replantation in incisor rat teeth.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Okamoto, Roberta; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise; da Silva, Paula Ervolino; Saito, Celia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Marão, Heloísa Fonseca; Sedlacek, Paulo

    2013-02-01

    Dental tissues have special characteristics, and its regenerative capacity is noteworthy. However, understanding the circumstances that lead to regeneration is challenging. In this study, the chronology of the healing process after immediate replantation of rat incisor teeth was examined by histological and immunohistochemical analyses within a 60-day period. Thirty-six male Wistar rats had their maxillary right incisors extracted and replanted after 15 min in saline storage. The rats were sacrificed immediately 3, 7, 15, 28, and 60 days after replantation. The histological analysis showed rupture of the periodontal ligament and formation of a blood clot, which started being replaced by a connective tissue after 3 days. At 7 days, the gingival mucosa epithelium was reinserted and areas of root resorption could be seen. At 15 days, the periodontal ligament was repaired. At 3 days, the pulp presented an absence of the odontoblast layer, which started being replaced by a connective tissue. This tissue suffered gradual calcification, filling the root canal at 28 and 60 days. The root ends were closed. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed greater expression of OP, OPG, and RANK proteins in the initial periods (0 and 3 days), while TRAP expression predominated at 28 and 60 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in delayed tooth replantation, there is great new bone formation activity in the earlier periods of the repair process, while a predominance of bone resorption and remodeling is observed in the more advanced periods.

  14. Temperature changes on the root surfaces of mandibular incisors after an 810-nm high-intensity intracanal diode laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca Alvarez, Andrea; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Daliberto Frugoli, Alexandre; Fernando, Casemiro; Correa Aranha, Ana Cecilia; Davidowicz, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Temperature changes caused by laser irradiation can promote damage to the surrounding dental tissues. In this study, we evaluated the temperature changes of recently extracted human mandibular incisors during intracanal irradiation with an 810-nm diode laser at different settings. Fifty mandibular incisors were enlarged up to an apical size of ISO No. 40 file. After the final rinse with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 0.2% lauryl sodium sulfate biologic detergent, and sterile water, samples were irradiated with circular movements from apex to crown through five different settings of output power (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 W) in continuous mode. The temperature changes were measured on both sides of the apical and middle root thirds using two thermopar devices. A temperature increase of 7 °C was considered acceptable as a safe threshold when applying the diode laser. Results: The results showed that only 3.5-W output power increased the outer surface temperature above the critical value. Conclusion: The recommended output power can be stipulated as equal to or less than 3 W to avoid overheating during diode laser irradiation on thin dentin walls.

  15. [Effects of strontium on incisor and femurs in rats under drinking condition at constant concentrations of fluoride].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Y

    1990-09-01

    Thirty 28-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups of 6 animals, and fed low-fluoride diet (0.07 ppm F) and drinking water containing fluoride at constant concentration (20 ppm F) ad libitum for 49 days in combination with strontium chloride added to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 ppm Sr. Enamel mottling was observed through over-all experimental period, and at an end of the experiment, all animals were sacrificed. There was no significant difference in weight gain among groups. Enamel mottling of mandibular incisors in Sr groups appeared at 7th day (cumulated fluoride ingested: under 3.0mg), while mottling in control group (0 ppm Sr and 20 ppm F) appeared at 14th day (cumulated fluoride ingested: ca. 6.6 mg). However, severity of mottling was higher in low-strontium group (5 and 10 ppm Sr) than in high-strontium groups (20 and 40 ppm Sr). Data of contents of Sr, F, Ca and P in incisors and femurs obtained through chemical analysis suggested that an exchange of Sr and Ca would take place in apatite and that the exchange reaction of F- and OH- could be urged by Sr. Further, data of serum F level demonstrated that the fluoride retention in serum could be urged by lower level of strontium rather than higher one.

  16. Fracture resistance of cementum-extended composite fillings in severely damaged deciduous incisors: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, Bahman; Ehsani, Sara; Taravati, Shirin; Ghadimi, Sara; Fatemi, Mostafa; Safa, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the fracture resistance of the cementum-extended and conventional composite fillings with or without intracanal composite posts in severely damaged deciduous incisors. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was performed on 60 extracted deciduous maxillary incisors that were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: Composite filling (CF); Group 2: Composite filling with composite posts (CF + CP); Group 3: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum (ceCF); Group 4: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum with composite posts (ceCF + CP). The fracture resistance was assessed by exerting a progressively increasing load with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a Universal Testing Machine. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by SPSS-18 using one-way analysis of variance at α < 0.05. Results: The mean fracture resistance (MFR) values of the experimental groups were 410.57 ± 139.44 N, 564.44 ± 92.63 N, 507.5 ± 76.37 N and 601.08 ± 96.04 N. A significant difference was found between the MFR of Groups 1 and 2, Groups 1 and 4 and Groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A superior outcome was achieved by intracanal composite posts in both conventional and cementum-extended composite fillings. PMID:25512722

  17. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes de Rezende; Pimenta, Luiz André; Almeida, Solange Maria de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a microcomputed tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a microcomputed tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues. PMID:26981750

  18. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  19. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  20. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...